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Sample records for alcohols mannitol sorbitol

  1. Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.; Hohmann, S.; Jensen, R.G.; Bohnert, H.J.

    1999-09-01

    For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apply sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol-sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyois than glycerol. The authors suggest that the loss of {gt} 98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety value that dissipates reducing power, which a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyois would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K{sup +}] accumulating during stress. The authors compare these results to the osmotic adjustment concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyois may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control.

  2. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate.

  3. The Replacement of Monosaccharide by Mannitol or Sorbitol in the Freezing Extender Enhances Cryosurvival of Ram Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo Quan; Lv, Chun Rong; Jiang, Yan Ting; Wang, Si Yu; Shao, Qing Yong; Hong, Qiong Hua; Quan, Guo Bo

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the protective effects of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol) on frozen ram spermatozoa were evaluated and compared. The motility, moving velocity, and hypoosmotic swelling capability of spermatozoa frozen with monosaccharide or sugar alcohol were measured using a computer-assisted spermatozoa analyzer system. The acrosome status, membrane integrity, distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed using fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. The results indicated that similar to glucose or fructose, the presence of sugar alcohol in the freezing extender cannot significantly improve the motility and moving velocity of ram spermatozoa equilibrated at 5°C. In terms of motility, pathway velocity, curve velocity, hypoosmotic swelling capability, acrosome and membrane integrity, and MMP, the inclusion of mannitol or sorbitol in the extender can significantly improve the quality of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa compared to glucose or fructose. However, the effects of mannitol or sorbitol on linear velocity and PS distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were similar to those of the monosaccharides (p > 0.05). In addition, the ability of xylitol to protect acrosome and maintain MMP in frozen-thawed spermatozoa was significantly higher compared with glucose or fructose (p < 0.05), although it could not improve the other evaluated parameters. Finally, there is no significant difference existing between mannitol and sorbitol with respect to the above evaluated parameters. In conclusion, the replacement of glucose or fructose by mannitol or sorbitol in a freezing extender can improve the postthaw quality of ram spermatozoa under specific freezing conditions. Moreover, the protective effects of mannitol and sorbitol on frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa are superior to that of xylitol. However, in the presence of sugar alcohols, the cryoinjury on

  4. Aldose reductase induced by hyperosmotic stress mediates cardiomyocyte apoptosis: differential effects of sorbitol and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Anita S; Ulloa, Juan Alberto; Chiong, Mario; Criollo, Alfredo; Eisner, Verónica; Barros, Luis Felipe; Lavandero, Sergio

    2003-10-03

    Cells adapt to hyperosmotic conditions by several mechanisms, including accumulation of sorbitol via induction of the polyol pathway. Failure to adapt to osmotic stress can result in apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we assessed the role of aldose reductase, the key enzyme of the polyol pathway, in cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Hyperosmotic stress, elicited by exposure of cultured rat cardiac myocytes to the nonpermeant solutes sorbitol and mannitol, caused identical cell shrinkage and adaptive hexose uptake stimulation. In contrast, only sorbitol induced the polyol pathway and triggered stress pathways as well as apoptosis-related signaling events. Sorbitol resulted in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p54 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and protein kinase B. Furthermore, sorbitol treatment resulting in induction and activation of aldose reductase, decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, increased DNA fragmentation, and glutathione depletion. Apoptosis was attenuated by aldose reductase inhibition with zopolrestat and also by glutathione replenishment with N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, our data show that hypertonic shrinkage of cardiac myocytes alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Hyperosmolarity-induced cell death is sensitive to the nature of the osmolyte and requires induction of aldose reductase as well as a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels.

  5. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  6. Control of drug release by incorporation of sorbitol or mannitol in microcrystalline-cellulose-based pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization.

    PubMed

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Souto, Consuelo; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón

    2010-12-01

    Mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with sorbitol (up to 50%) or mannitol (up to 80%) were investigated as major excipients for controlled accelerated release of the model poorly water-soluble drug hydrochlorothiazide from pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Optimal wetting volume decreased with increasing polyol content and was always less than the volume required for maximum wet mass consistency. All pellet formulations had satisfactory morphological, mechanical and flow properties, although sorbitol/MCC pellets were rougher than mannitol/MCC pellets. Together they presented a wide range of drug release profiles in 0.1 M HCl, allowing the rate of drug release into aqueous media to be controlled by manipulation of sorbitol or mannitol content. Pellets with a 50% sorbitol content released hydrochlorothiazide faster than pellets with a 50% mannitol content because of their greater porosity and the greater solubility of sorbitol in water. Fastest release was from pellets with an 80% mannitol content, which rapidly underwent complete disintegration.

  7. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions.

  8. Encapsulation of alcohol dehydrogenase in mannitol by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2014-03-24

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders.

  9. Determination of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil by gas chromatography and effect of severe drought conditions on their profiles.

    PubMed

    Mechri, Beligh; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a method for the analysis of mannitol, sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil with gas chromatography. The analytical method consists of extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane:methanol (2:1, v/v) for soil samples and a mixture of ethanol:water (80:20) for root samples, silylation using pyridine, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The recovery of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol (for extraction and analysis in dichloromethane:methanol and ethanol:water) was acceptable and ranged from 100.3 to 114.7%. The time of analysis was <24 min. Among identified polyols extracted from rhizosphere and roots of olive plants, mannitol was the major compound. A marked increase in mannitol content occurred in rhizosphere and roots of water-stressed plants, suggesting a much broader role of mannitol in stress response based on its ability to act as a compatible solute.

  10. Radiolysis of carbohydrates as studied by ESR and spin-trapping—II. Glycerol- d8 xylitol, dulcitol, d-sorbitol and d-mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Inanami, O.; Yoshii, G.

    Studies concerning the radicals produced in glycerol by reactions with OH radicals have been carried out by investigating deuterated glycerol (glycerol-d 8) by spin-trapping with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane. Free radicals produced in linear carbohydrates such as xylitol, dulcitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by reactions with OH radicals as well as by direct γ-radiolysis have been also investigated by spin-trapping. The ESR spectra of the spin-trapped radicals were analysed on the basis of the results from ESR and spin-trapping experiments on glycerol and deuterated glycerol, and the formation of three radical species, CHO-CH-, CH 2-CO- and HO-CH-, due to both OH reactions and direct γ-radiolysis was confirmed for all compounds. The presence of a radical, -CO-CH-, was detected for xylitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. General reactions processes induced by OH reactions or γ-radiolysis in the solid state are discussed.

  11. Energetics of the molecular interactions of L-alanine and L-serine with xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2013-04-01

    Integral enthalpies of dissolution Δsol H m of L-alanine and L-serine are measured via the calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol. Standard enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H ○) and the transfer (Δtr H ○) of amino acids from water to binary solvent are calculated from the experimental data. Using the McMillan-Mayer theory, enthalpy coefficients of pairwise interactions h xy of amino acids with molecules of polyols are calculated that are negative. The obtained results are discussed within the theory of the prevalence of different types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of the structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of dissolution of amino acids.

  12. Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the...

  13. Analytical protocol for the sensitive determination of mannitol, sorbitol and glucose containing powders in pharmaceutical workplaces by ion chromatography using a pulsed amperometric detector.

    PubMed

    Butler, Owen; Forder, James; Saunders, John

    2015-03-15

    Workers in the pharmaceutical industry can potentially be exposed to airborne dusts and powders that can contain potent active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Occupational hygienists and health and safety professionals need to assess and ultimately minimise such inhalation and dermal exposure risks. Containment of dusts at source is the first line of defence but the performance of such technologies needs to be verified, for which purpose the good practice guide: assessing the particulate containment performance of pharmaceutical equipment, produced by the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), is a widely used reference document. This guide recommends the use of surrogate powders that can be used to challenge the performance of such containment systems. Materials such as lactose and mannitol are recommended as their physical properties (adhesion, compactability, dustiness, flow characteristics and particle sizes) mimic those of API-containing materials typically handled. Furthermore they are safe materials to use, are available in high purity and can be procured at a reasonable cost. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a sensitive ion-chromatography based analytical procedure for the determination of surrogate powders collected on filter samples so as to meet analytical requirements set out in this ISPE guide.

  14. Theoretical investigation of interaction of sorbitol molecules with alcohol dehydrogenase in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Homayoon; Zahedi, Mansour; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Azizian, Homa; Amanlou, Massoud

    2011-03-01

    The nature of protein-sorbitol-water interaction in solution at the molecular level, has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. In order to do this task, two molecular dynamics simulations of the protein ADH in solution at room temperature have been carried out, one in the presence (about 0.9 M) and another in the absence of sorbitol. The results show that the sorbitol molecules cluster and move toward the protein, and form hydrogen bonds with protein. Also, coating by sorbitol reduces the conformational fluctuations of the protein compared to the sorbitol-free system. Thus, it is concluded that at moderate concentration of sorbitol solution, sorbitol molecules interact with ADH via many H-bonds that prevent the protein folding. In fact, at more concentrated sorbitol solution, water and sorbitol molecules accumulate around the protein surface and form a continuous space-filling network to reduce the protein flexibility. Namely, in such solution, sorbitol molecules can stabilize a misfolded state of ADH, and prevent the protein from folding to its native structure.

  15. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sugar alcohols by dichloroisocyanuric acid—A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2016-02-01

    Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.

  16. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.

    PubMed

    Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2008-04-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem.

  17. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens

    PubMed Central

    Nadwodnik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem. PMID:18188589

  18. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1835 Sorbitol. (a) Sorbitol is the chemical 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol (C6H14O6), a hexahydric alcohol... electrolytic reduction, or the transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose..., commercial, as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter, 30 percent in baked goods and baking mixes...

  19. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  20. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... electrolytic reduction or transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as...

  1. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electrolytic reduction or transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as...

  2. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electrolytic reduction or transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as...

  3. Nitrophenide (Megasul) blocks Eimeria tenella development by inhibiting the mannitol cycle enzyme mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Allocco, J J; Nare, B; Myers, R W; Feiglin, M; Schmatz, D M; Profous-Juchelka, H

    2001-12-01

    Unsporulated oocysts of the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella contain high levels of mannitol, which is thought to be the principal energy source for the process of sporulation. Biosynthesis and utilization of this sugar alcohol occurs via a metabolic pathway known as the mannitol cycle. Here, results are presented that suggest that 3-nitrophenyl disulfide (nitrophenide, Megasul), an anticoccidial drug commercially used in the 1950s, inhibits mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (M1PDH), which catalyzes the committed enzymatic step in the mannitol cycle. Treatment of E. tenella-infected chickens with nitrophenide resulted in a 90% reduction in oocyst shedding. The remaining oocysts displayed significant morphological abnormalities and were largely incapable of further development. Nitrophenide treatment did not affect parasite asexual reproduction, suggesting specificity for the sexual stage of the life cycle. Isolated oocysts from chickens treated with nitrophenide exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in mannitol, suggesting in vivo inhibition of parasite mannitol biosynthesis. Nitrophenide-mediated inhibition of MIPDH was observed in vitro using purified native enzyme. Moreover, MIPDH activity immunoprecipitated from E. tenella-infected cecal tissues was significantly lower in nitrophenide-treated compared with untreated chickens. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that parasites from nitrophenide-treated and untreated chickens contained similar enzyme levels. These data suggest that nitrophenide blocks parasite development at the sexual stages by targeting M1PDH. Thus, targeting of the mannitol cycle with drugs could provide an avenue for controlling the spread of E. tenella in commercial production facilities by preventing oocyst shedding.

  4. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol from D-sorbitol and Cinnamic Acid Esters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Yoo, Dongwon; Seo, Hyung Min; Yi, Da-Hye; Kim, Hyun Joong; Lee, Ju Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Kwang Jin; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the poor properties of solubility and stability of cinnamic acid, cinnamate derivatives with sugar alcohols were produced using the immobilized Candida antarctica lipase with vinyl cinnamate and D-sorbitol as substrate at 45 °C. Immobilized C. antarctica lipase was found to synthesize 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol and confirmed by HPLC and (1)H-NMR and had a preference for vinyl cinnamate over other esters such as allyl-, ethyl-, and isobutyl cinnamate as co-substrate with D-sorbitol. Contrary to D-sorbitol, vinyl cinnamate, and cinnamic acid, the final product 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol was found to have radical scavenging activity. This would be the first report on the biosynthesis of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol with immobilized enzyme from C. antarctica.

  5. Sugar alcohols: what is the evidence for caries-preventive and caries-therapeutic effects?

    PubMed

    Van Loveren, C

    2004-01-01

    The most widely used sugar alcohols are: xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol and the products Lycasin and Palatinit. It is often claimed that xylitol is superior to the other sugar alcohols for caries control. This paper examines clinical studies on the caries-preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar alcohols with emphasis on sorbitol and xylitol. It is concluded that chewing sugar-free gum 3 or more times daily for prolonged periods of time may reduce caries incidence irrespective of the type of sugar alcohol used. It may be sufficient to do this only on school days. Sucking xylitol-containing candies or tablets may have a similar effect as chewing xylitol chewing gum. Clinical trials suggest greater caries reductions from chewing gums sweetened with xylitol than from gums sweetened with sorbitol. However, the superiority of xylitol was not confirmed in 2 out of 4 clinical trials comparing the caries-preventive effect of xylitol- with sorbitol-sweetened gums. The caries-preventive effects of polyol-containing gums and candies seem to be based on stimulation of the salivary flow, although an antimicrobial effect cannot be excluded. There is no evidence for a caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. These conclusions are in line with those of recent reviews and with the conclusions of the Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of the EU Commission.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (C6H14O6), a hexahydric alcohol, differing from mannitol principally by having a different optical rotation... sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food... nonstandardized jams and jellies, commercial, as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter, 30 percent in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (C6H14O6), a hexahydric alcohol, differing from mannitol principally by having a different optical rotation... sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food... nonstandardized jams and jellies, commercial, as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter, 30 percent in...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (C6H14O6), a hexahydric alcohol, differing from mannitol principally by having a different optical rotation... sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food... nonstandardized jams and jellies, commercial, as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter, 30 percent in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (C6H14O6), a hexahydric alcohol, differing from mannitol principally by having a different optical rotation... sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food... nonstandardized jams and jellies, commercial, as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter, 30 percent in...

  10. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  11. Phloem Loading Strategies in Three Plant Species That Transport Sugar Alcohols1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Reidel, Edwin J.; Rennie, Emilie A.; Amiard, Véronique; Cheng, Lailiang; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many plants translocate sugar alcohols in the phloem. However, the mechanism(s) of sugar alcohol loading in the minor veins of leaves are debated. We characterized the loading strategies of two species that transport sorbitol (Plantago major and apple [Malus domestica]), and one that transports mannitol (Asarina scandens). Plasmodesmata are abundant at all interfaces in the minor vein phloem of apple, and in one of two types of phloem in the minor veins of A. scandens. Few plasmodesmata are present in the minor veins of P. major. Apple differs from the other two species in that sugar alcohol and sucrose (Suc) are present in much higher concentrations in leaves. Apple leaf tissue exposed to exogenous [14C]sorbitol, [14C]Suc, or 14CO2 did not accumulate radiolabel in the minor veins, as determined by macroautoradiography. P. major minor veins accumulated radiolabel from [14C]Suc, [14C]sorbitol, and 14CO2. A. scandens minor veins accumulated 14C from [14C]Suc and 14CO2, but not from [14C]mannitol. We conclude that the movement of sugar alcohol from the mesophyll into the phloem in apple and A. scandens is symplastic and passive, but in P. major it involves an apoplastic step and is energized. We also suggest that apple leaves transport sorbitol in high concentrations to avoid the feedback limitation of photosynthesis that would result from driving passive movement of solute into the phloem with high levels of Suc alone. The loading pathways and the mechanisms by which hydrostatic pressure is maintained in the minor vein phloem of these species are discussed. PMID:19129415

  12. Stress protection of transgenic tobacco by production of the osmolyte mannitol

    SciTech Connect

    Tarczynski, M.C.; Jensen, R.G.; Bohnert, H.J. )

    1993-01-22

    The accumulation of sugar alcohols and other low molecular weight metabolites such as proline and glycine-betaine is a widespread response that may protect against environmental stress that occurs in a diverse range of organisms. Transgenic tobacco plants that synthesize and accumulate the sugar alcohol mannitol were engineered by introduction of a bacterial gene that encodes mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase. Growth of plants from control and mannitol-containing lines in the absence and presence of added sodium chloride was analyzed. Plants containing mannitol had an increased ability to tolerate high salinity.

  13. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a cytosolic protein required for sorbitol metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, María Francisca; Ampuero, Diego; Mandujano, Patricio; Parada, Roberto; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Gallart, Marta; Altabella, Teresa; Cabrera, Ricardo; Stange, Claudia; Handford, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Sorbitol is converted to fructose in Rosaceae species by SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), especially in sink organs. SDH has also been found in non-Rosaceae species and here we show that the protein encoded by At5g51970 in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses the molecular characteristics of an SDH. Using a green fluorescent protein-tagged version and anti-SDH antisera, we determined that SDH is cytosolically localized, consistent with bioinformatic predictions. We also show that SDH is widely expressed, and that SDH protein accumulates in both source and sink organs. In the presence of NAD+, recombinant SDH exhibited greatest oxidative activity with sorbitol, ribitol and xylitol as substrates; other sugar alcohols were oxidized to a lesser extent. Under standard growth conditions, three independent sdh- mutants developed as wild-type. Nevertheless, all three exhibited reduced dry weight and primary root length compared to wild-type when grown in the presence of sorbitol. Additionally, under short-day conditions, the mutants were more resistant to dehydration stress, as shown by a reduced loss of leaf water content when watering was withheld, and a greater survival rate on re-watering. This evidence suggests that limitations in the metabolism of sugar alcohols alter the growth of Arabidopsis and its response to drought.

  14. Sorbitol dehydrogenase: structure, function and ligand design.

    PubMed

    El-Kabbani, O; Darmanin, C; Chung, R P-T

    2004-02-01

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), a member of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family and the second enzyme of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, converts sorbitol to fructose strictly using NAD(+) as coenzyme. SDH is expressed almost ubiquitously in all mammalian tissues. The enzyme has attracted considerable interest due to its implication in the development of diabetic complications and thus its tertiary structure may facilitate the development of drugs for the treatment of diabetes sufferers. Modelling studies suggest that SDH is structurally homologous to mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase with respect to conserved zinc binding motif and a hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket. Recently, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a mammalian SDH was solved, and it was found that while the overall 3-D structures of SDH and alcohol dehydrogenase are similar, the zinc coordination in the active sites of the two enzymes is different. The available structural and biochemical information of SDH are currently being utilized in a structure-based approach to develop drugs for the treatment or prevention of the complications of diabetes. This review provides an overview of the recent advances in the structure, function and drug development fields of sorbitol dehydrogenase.

  15. Fermentation of Glucose, Lactose, Galactose, Mannitol, and Xylose by Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.

    1968-01-01

    For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3. PMID:5674058

  16. Salicylic acid stimulates secretion of the normally symplastic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase: a possible defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-yi; Zamski, Eli; Guo, Wei-wen; Pharr, D Mason; Williamson, John D

    2009-11-01

    The sugar alcohol mannitol is an important carbohydrate with well-documented roles in both metabolism and osmoprotection in many plants and fungi. In addition to these traditionally recognized roles, mannitol is reported to be an antioxidant and as such may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. Current research suggests that pathogenic fungi can secrete mannitol into the apoplast to suppress reactive oxygen-mediated host defenses. Immunoelectron microscopy, immunoblot, and biochemical data reported here show that the normally symplastic plant enzyme, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD), is secreted into the apoplast after treatment with the endogenous inducer of plant defense responses salicylic acid (SA). In contrast, a cytoplasmic marker protein, hexokinase, remained cytoplasmic after SA-treatment. Secreted MTD retained activity after export to the apoplast. Given that MTD converts mannitol to the sugar mannose, MTD secretion may be an important component of plant defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens such as Alternaria. After SA treatment, MTD was not detected in the Golgi apparatus, and its SA-induced secretion was resistant to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of Golgi-mediated protein transport. Together with the absence of a known extracellular targeting sequence on the MTD protein, these data suggest that a plant's response to pathogen challenge may include secretion of selected defensive proteins by as yet uncharacterized, non-Golgi mechanisms.

  17. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine molecules and that the binding occurred by the interaction of the aliphatic hydrophobic protons of the sugar with the caffeine face. This intermolecular association via face-to-face stacking, as suggested by simulation studies, is similar to that found for sucrose and for D-glucose, which overwhelmingly exists in the pyranose ring chair form in aqueous solution, as well as for caffeine-caffeine association. The sorbitol molecules, however, exist as relatively extended chains and are, therefore, topologically quite different from the sugars sucrose and glucose. The comparison of the average conformation of sorbitol molecules bound to caffeine with that of molecules in the free state shows a substantial similarity.

  18. Why is mannitol becoming more and more popular as a pharmaceutical excipient in solid dosage forms?

    PubMed

    Ohrem, H Leonhard; Schornick, Eva; Kalivoda, Adela; Ognibene, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Various fillers/binders which are applied for the formulation of solid oral dosage forms are assessed for their benefits and drawbacks, including lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate. A focus of this work was to evaluate the application of mannitol in comparison to other common fillers/binders as it was observed that this excipient is gaining more and more attention in pharmaceutical formulation development and production. While one of the main advantages of conventional fillers/binders such as lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate is their low price level, mannitol excels regarding its physicochemical characteristics such as a low hygroscopicity, a strong inertness towards both the API and the patient's body, its good compactibility and the ability to produce extremely robust tablets. Additionally, the suitability of mannitol for the emerging formulation technology of orally disintegrating tablets is pointed out. In summary, it is emphasized that the selection of the filler/binder is highly individual, depending, for example, on the preferred characteristics of the final solid dosage form, the applied API and the available budget. However, mannitol exhibits many strong advantages which can be expected to result in a more widespread application in the near future.

  19. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mannitol. 180.25 Section 180.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES... for Certain Food Additives § 180.25 Mannitol. (a) Mannitol is the chemical...

  20. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD OR IN CONTACT WITH FOOD ON AN INTERIM BASIS PENDING ADDITIONAL STUDY Specific Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.25 Mannitol. (a) Mannitol is the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mannitol. 180.25 Section 180.25 Food and...

  1. Polymorphism of sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezzal, Amale; Aerts, Luc; Verspaille, Marleen; Henderickx, Geert; Redl, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    The polymorphism of sorbitol was investigated, confirming the existence of four anhydrous crystalline phases plus the hydrate. The crystallised melt (CM), the alpha form, and the gamma form were obtained via a dry route. The CM was confirmed to be a crystalline state with a spherulite morphology. The alpha form was obtained via direct conversion from the CM, in contrast to more complicated routes previously reported, and was found to have a very high crystallinity. Gamma crystals were obtained by seeding the melt at high temperature; however, crystallinity was clearly less than for alpha crystals. Despite its lower crystallinity, the gamma polymorph was found to be the most stable of the anhydrous crystalline forms; this was confirmed by its high melting point and low hygroscopicity. In contrast, the alpha polymorph has a relatively high melting point but lacks moisture stability at high relative humidity. The hydrate form has the same resistance to moisture as the gamma form, but melts at a lower temperature. The combination of both a high melting point and high stability in the presence of water makes the gamma polymorph best suited for confectionary applications.

  2. Preferential hydration of bovine serum albumin in polyhydric alcohol-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gekko, K; Morikawa, T

    1981-07-01

    The preferential solvent interaction with bovine serum albumin in aqueous solution of polyhydric alcohols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and inositol) was investigated by a densimetric method with the application of multicomponent theory. This proteins was preferentially hydrated in all solvent systems examined: the extent depended on the number and the steric configuration of the hydroxyl groups of alcohols. The absolute interactions of these alcohols with the protein were estimated by assuming that the amount of hydration of protein at every solvent composition used is identical with that in pure water. The preferential hydration of the protein in 30% aqueous solutions of glycerol and sorbitol was found to decrease as the temperature was increased, indicating that the increase in chemical potential of protein on transferring it from water to both aqueous solvents is generated by a large positive enthalpy change, sufficient to compensate for the positive entropy change in the transfer process. On the basis of these results, and mechanism of stabilization of protein structure by these alcohols was discussed from the viewpoint of the solvation of protein.

  3. Twisted mannitol crystals establish homologous growth mechanisms for high-polymer and small-molecule ring-banded spherulites.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Cui, Xiaoyan; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica; Camp, Eric; Kahr, Bart

    2012-04-11

    D-Mannitol belongs to a large and growing family of crystals with helical morphologies (Yu, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2003, 125, 6380). Two polymorphs of D-mannitol, α and δ, when grown in the presence of additives such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or D-sorbitol, form ring-banded spherulites composed of handed helical fibrils, where the helix axes correspond to the radial growth directions. The two polymorphs form helices with opposite senses in the presence of PVP but the same sense in the presence of D-sorbitol. The characteristic dimensions of the fibrils, including thickness, aspect ratio, and pitch, were determined by scanning probe and electron microscopies. These values must form the basis of any theory that presupposes what forces give rise to crystal twisting, a problem that has been broached but unsettled in the literature of polymer crystallization. The interdependence of the rhythmic variations of both linear and circular birefringence, as determined by Mueller matrix microscopy, informs the cooperative organization of mannitol fibers. The microstructure of mannitol ring-banded spherulites compares favorably to that of high polymers and is evaluated within the context of current theories of crystal twisting.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. A modified LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify glycerol and mannitol concentrations in human urine for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Yan, Kuan; Ma, Yanhua; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jun; Ding, Jinglin

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol and mannitol have the potential to act as plasma volume expanders and have been prohibited as masking agents by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accordingly. In this study, an improved strategy was developed and validated for the determination of urinary glycerol and mannitol levels simultaneously using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique within 7min in an initial testing procedure. For confirmation, mannitol and all possible hexitols (allitol, altritol, galactitol, iditol and sorbitol) that can occur in human urine were baseline separated. This method made use of the derivatization of glycerol and mannitol by benzoyl chloride followed by analysis via LC-ESI-MS/MS with limited sample preparation. The limit of detection (LOD) for glycerol and mannitol was lower than 50ng/mL. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for both substances was below 150ng/mL. The assay was linear from 0.15 to 1000μg/mL for glycerol and mannitol in human urine. The coefficients of variation of all inter- and intra-assay determinations at three concentration levels (0.5, 500, 900μg/mL) were better than 13% for glycerol and under 15% for mannitol. The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, derivatization yield, extraction recovery, matrix effect and specificity for both substances.

  10. Fructose, trehalose and sorbitol malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Montalto, M; Gallo, A; Ojetti, V; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent clinical condition, often associated with abdominal symptoms. Although lactose represents the most commonly malabsorbed sugar, also other carbohydrates, such as fructose, trehalose and sorbitol may be incorrectly absorbed in the small intestine. Fructose malabsorption seems more common in patients with functional bowel disease, even if randomized and controlled studies on these topic were few and on small samples. Interpretation of breath hydrogen testing is difficult. In particular, neither studies comparing this test with a gold standard, nor validated doses and concentrations to be used, are available. Trehalose malabsorption due to trehalase deficiency represents a very rare condition and available studies do not support its relevance in clinical practice. Sorbitol absorption is dose and concentration related, and depends on the entity of intestinal absorption surface. Nevertheless, the finding of its malabsorption is not expression of a specific cause of intestinal bowel damage. From available data, it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about clinical relevance of fructose, trehalose and sorbitol malabsorption, as well as, about diagnostic accuracy of commonly used tests to detect all these conditions. On the other hand, in patients who refer abdominal discomfort after ingestion of different carbohydrate-containing foods, a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, should be promptly considered. This is because the large amount of intestinal bacteria may unspecifically ferment sugars, causing an abnormal H2 production and consequently a misleading diagnosis of sugar malabsorption.

  11. Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenases/phosphatases: a family of novel bifunctional enzymes for bacterial adaptation to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sand, Miriam; Rodrigues, Marta; González, José M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Santos, Helena; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2015-03-01

    The nutritionally versatile soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 copes with salt stress by the accumulation of compatible solutes, a strategy that is widespread in nature. This bacterium synthesizes the sugar alcohol mannitol de novo in response to osmotic stress. In a previous study, we identified MtlD, a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is essential for mannitol biosynthesis and which catalyses the first step in mannitol biosynthesis, the reduction of fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) to the intermediate mannitol-1-phosphate (Mtl-1-P). Until now, the identity of the second enzyme, the phosphatase that catalyses the dephosphorylation of Mtl-1-P to mannitol, was elusive. Here we show that MtlD has a unique sequence among known mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenases with a haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like phosphatase domain at the N-terminus. This domain is indeed shown to have a phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity is strictly Mg(2+) dependent. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that purified MtlD catalyses not only reduction of F-6-P but also dephosphorylation of Mtl-1-P. MtlD of A. baylyi is the first bifunctional enzyme of mannitol biosynthesis that combines Mtl-1-P dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in a single polypeptide chain. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the bifunctional enzyme is widespread among Acinetobacter strains but only rarely present in other phylogenetic tribes.

  12. Analysis of celery (Apium graveolens) mannitol dehydrogenase (Mtd) promoter regulation in Arabidopsis suggests roles for MTD in key environmental and metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Zamski, E; Guo, W W; Yamamoto, Y T; Pharr, D M; Williamson, J D

    2001-11-01

    Of the growing list of promising genes for plant improvement, some of the most versatile appear to be those involved in sugar alcohol metabolism. Mannitol, one of the best characterized sugar alcohols, is a significant photosynthetic product in many higher plants. The roles of mannitol as both a metabolite and an osmoprotectant in celery (Apium graveolens) are well documented. However, there is growing evidence that 'metabolites' can also have key roles in other environmental and developmental responses in plants. For instance, in addition to its other properties, mannitol is an antioxidant and may have significant roles in plant-pathogen interactions. The mannitol catabolic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) is a prime modulator of mannitol accumulation in plants. Because the complex regulation of MTD is central to the balanced integration of mannitol metabolism in celery, its study is crucial in clarifying the physiological role(s) of mannitol metabolism in environmental and metabolic responses. In this study we used transformed Arabidopsis to analyze the multiple environmental and metabolic responses of the Mtd promoter. Our data show that all previously described changes in Mtd RNA accumulation in celery cells mirrored changes in Mtd transcription in Arabidopsis. These include up-regulation by salicylic acid, hexokinase-mediated sugar down-regulation, and down-regulation by salt, osmotic stress and ABA. In contrast, the massive up-regulation of Mtd expression in the vascular tissues of salt-stressed Arabidopsis roots suggests a possible role for MTD in mannitol translocation and unloading and its interrelation with sugar metabolism.

  13. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  14. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved.

  15. Possible existence of two amorphous phases of d-mannitol related by a first-order transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Men; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John H.; Yu, Lian

    2015-06-01

    We report that the common polyalcohol d-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above its glass transition temperature Tg (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of d-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase with stronger hydrogen bonds. The enthalpy of this so-called Phase X is approximately halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases, a position low for glass aging and high for crystal polymorphs. Similar to the SCL, Phase X is transparent with broad X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering; upon temperature cycling, it exhibits a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to the SCL near Tg + 50 K, enabling a determination of their equilibrium temperature. The presence of d-sorbitol as a plasticizer enables observation of a first-order transition from the SCL to Phase X entirely in the liquid state (liquid-liquid transition). The transition from d-mannitol's SCL to Phase X has intriguing similarities with the formation of the glacial phase of triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and the conversion from high-density to low-density amorphous ice, both studied intensely in the context of polyamorphism. All three processes occur near Tg with substantial enthalpy decrease toward the crystalline phases; the processes in water and d-mannitol both strengthen the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to TPP, d-mannitol's Phase X forms more rapidly and can transform back to the SCL. These features make d-mannitol a valuable new model for understanding polyamorphism.

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  19. Continuous manufacturing of delta mannitol by cospray drying with PVP.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Van Bockstal, P-J; Van Snick, B; Peeters, E; Monteyne, T; Gomes, P; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-03-30

    Mannitol is a frequently used diluent in the production of tablets due to its non-hygroscopic character and low drug interaction potential. Although the δ-polymorph of mannitol has superior tabletability in comparison to α- and β-mannitol, the latter are most commonly used because large-scale production of δ-mannitol is difficult. Therefore, a continuous method for production of δ-mannitol was developed in the current study. Spray drying an aqueous solution of mannitol and PVP in a ratio of 4:1 resulted in formation of δ-mannitol. The tabletability of a physical mixture of spray dried δ-mannitol with PVP (5%) and paracetamol (75%) was clearly superior to the tabletability of physical mixtures consisting of spray dried α- and β-mannitol with PVP (5%) and paracetamol (75%) which confirmed the excellent tableting properties of the δ-polymorph. In addition, a coprocessing method was applied to coat paracetamol crystals with δ-mannitol and PVP. The tabletability of the resulting coprocessed particles consisting of 5% PVP, 20% δ-mannitol and 75% paracetamol reached a maximal tensile strength of 2.1 MPa at a main compression pressure of 260 MPa. Moreover the friability of tablets compressed at 184 MPa was only 0.5%. This was attributed to the excellent compression properties of δ-mannitol and the coating of paracetamol crystals with δ-mannitol and PVP during coprocessing.

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  1. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  2. Detection and identification of sugar alcohol sweeteners by ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Browne, Christopher A; Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward

    2016-07-28

    The rapid and sensitive detection of sugar alcohol sweeteners was demonstrated using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). IMS provides a valuable alternative in sensitivity, cost, and analysis speed between the lengthy gold-standard liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique and rapid point-of-measurement disposable colorimetric sensors, for the Food and Nutrition industry's quality control and other "foodomics" area needs. The IMS response, characteristic signatures, and limits of detection for erythritol, pentaerythritol, xylitol, inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, and maltitol were evaluated using precise inkjet printed samples. IMS system parameters including desorption temperature, scan time, and swipe substrate material were examined and optimized, demonstrating a strong dependence on the physicochemical properties of the respective sugar alcohol. The desorption characteristics of each compound were found to dominate the system response and overall sensitivity. Sugar alcohol components of commercial products - chewing gum and a sweetener packet - were detected and identified using IMS. IMS is demonstrated to be an advantageous field deployable instrument, easily operated by non-technical personnel, and enabling sensitive point-of-measurement quality assurance for sugar alcohols.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  8. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei Sorbitol Utilization Genes Requires DNA-Binding Transcriptional Activator GutR and the Conserved Protein GutM▿

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTSGut). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIBGat domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIAMtl domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBCGut negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

  9. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei sorbitol utilization genes requires DNA-binding transcriptional activator GutR and the conserved protein GutM.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2008-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIB(Gat) domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIA(Mtl) domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBC(Gut) negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM.

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  11. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  12. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  13. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W. )

    1989-03-15

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations.

  14. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity.

  15. Co-ordinated synthesis of gentiobiitol and sorbitol, evidence of sorbitol glycosylation in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Chong, Barrie Fong; Abeydeera, W P P; Glassop, Donna; Bonnett, Graham D; O'Shea, Michael G; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2010-05-01

    Sugarcane (a Saccharum spp. interspecific hybrid) was previously engineered to synthesize sorbitol (designated as sorbitolcane). Motivated by the atypical development of the leaves in some sorbitolcane, the polar metabolite profiles in the leaves of those plants were compared against a group of control sugarcane plants. Eighty-six polar metabolites were detected in leaf extracts by GC-MS. Principal component analysis of the metabolites indicated that three compounds were strongly associated with sorbitolcane. Two were identified as sorbitol and gentiobiose and the third was unknown. Gentiobiose and the unknown compound were positively correlated with sorbitol accumulation. The unknown compound was only abundant in sorbitolcane. This compound was structurally characterized and found to be a sorbitol-glucose conjugate. (13)C NMR analysis indicated that the glucopyranose and glucitol moieties were 1,6-linked. Ligand exchange chromatography confirmed that the compound was a beta-anomer, thus identifying the compound as 6-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol, or gentiobiitol.

  16. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United States International Trade Commission (Commission) determines, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19...

  17. Possible existence of two amorphous phases of D-mannitol related by a first-order transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Men; Yu, Lian; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John H.

    2015-06-28

    We report that the common polyalcohol D-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of D-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase with stronger hydrogen bonds. The enthalpy of this so-called Phase X is approximately halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases, a position low for glass aging and high for crystal polymorphs. Similar to the SCL, Phase X is transparent with broad X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering; upon temperature cycling, it exhibits a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to the SCL near T{sub g} + 50 K, enabling a determination of their equilibrium temperature. The presence of D-sorbitol as a plasticizer enables observation of a first-order transition from the SCL to Phase X entirely in the liquid state (liquid-liquid transition). The transition from D-mannitol’s SCL to Phase X has intriguing similarities with the formation of the glacial phase of triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and the conversion from high-density to low-density amorphous ice, both studied intensely in the context of polyamorphism. All three processes occur near T{sub g} with substantial enthalpy decrease toward the crystalline phases; the processes in water and D-mannitol both strengthen the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to TPP, D-mannitol’s Phase X forms more rapidly and can transform back to the SCL. These features make D-mannitol a valuable new model for understanding polyamorphism.

  18. Mannitol metabolism during pathogenic fungal–host interactions under stressed conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mukesh; Prasad, Vishal; Zehra, Andleeb; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous plants and fungi produce mannitol, which may serve as an osmolyte or metabolic store; furthermore, mannitol also acts as a powerful quencher of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some phytopathogenic fungi use mannitol to stifle ROS-mediated plant resistance. Mannitol is essential in pathogenesis to balance cell reinforcements produced by both plants and animals. Mannitol likewise serves as a source of reducing power, managing coenzymes, and controlling cytoplasmic pH by going about as a sink or hotspot for protons. The metabolic pathways for mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism have been characterized in filamentous fungi by direct diminishment of fructose-6-phosphate into mannitol-1-phosphate including a mannitol-1-phosphate phosphatase catalyst. In plants mannitol is integrated from mannose-6-phosphate to mannitol-1-phosphate, which then dephosphorylates to mannitol. The enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase plays a key role in host–pathogen interactions and must be co-localized with pathogen-secreted mannitol to resist the infection. PMID:26441941

  19. Production of Mannitol by Fungi from Cotton Dust

    PubMed Central

    Domelsmith, Linda N.; Klich, Maren A.; Goynes, Wilton R.

    1988-01-01

    Cotton dust associated with high pulmonary function decrements contains relatively high levels of mannitol. In this study, cotton leaf and bract tissue and dust isolated from cotton leaf tissue were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and capillary gas chromatography. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Fusarium pallidoroseum were isolated from cotton leaf dust. The fungal samples, cotton dust, and cotton leaf contained mannitol. This study demonstrates that fungi from a late-fall harvest of cotton leaf material produce mannitol and are a probable source of the mannitol found in cotton dust. Images PMID:16347688

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  1. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  2. The metabolic fate of exogenous sorbitol in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ertel, N.H.; Akgun, S.; Kemp, F.W.; Mittler, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Dietary sorbitol is rapidly converted to fructose and other carbohydrates in the liver, but its metabolic fate has not been studied rigorously. Twenty-four rats were given 20.4 muCi (/sup 14/C)sorbitol with 100 mg of sorbitol, and groups of six were killed at 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours after sorbitol administration. Rats were also fed 6.9 muCi (/sup 14/C)sorbitol for 7 or 14 days. Serum, liver, and lens were analyzed for /sup 14/C-labeled sorbitol, fructose, and glucose by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Negligible radioactivity (1.1%) was found in the gastrointestinal content at 24 hours indicating virtually complete absorption. Most of the radioactivity was recovered in the glucose fraction in serum, liver and lens. Glucose and fructose concentrations showed some decline by day 14 compared with day 7 in serum and liver. However, in the lens, sorbitol showed a peak value at the end of the 14th day (37.5 +/- 9.9 micrograms/pair). These findings suggest that: 1) after oral administration, sorbitol is completely absorbed, and 2) that there is a finite accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in the lens in 14 days. Although the radioactive label indicated the exogenous origin of these carbohydrates, it is not certain whether the sorbitol is converted to glucose before entering and accumulating in the lens.

  3. Electron impact ionization of the gas-phase sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Irina; Markush, Pavlo; Zavilopulo, Anatoly; Shpenik, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociative ionization of the sorbitol molecule by electron impact have been studied using two different experimental methods. In the mass range of m/ z = 10-190, the mass spectra of sorbitol were recorded at the ionizing electron energies of 70 and 30 eV. The ion yield curves for the fragment ions have been analyzed and the appearance energies of these ions have been determined. The relative total ionization cross section of the sorbitol molecule was measured using monoenergetic electron beam. Possible fragmentation pathways for the sorbitol molecule were proposed.

  4. Sorbitol accumulation in heart: Implication for diabetic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakada, Tustomu; Kwee, I.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Sorbitol levels in heart were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Significantly higher levels were found in hearts of diabetic rats compared to normal rats. The findings are compatible with either significantly higher de novo synthesis of sorbitol in heart than is generally believed or uptake of circulating sorbitol by heart as previously indicated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in vivo metabolic imaging. Sorbitol accumulation in heart tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy as has been implicated in cataract formation.

  5. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F; Mane, Rajaram S; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-02-09

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  6. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  7. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  8. Possible Existence of Two Amorphous Phases of D-Mannitol Related by a First-Order Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Men; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John; Yu, Lian

    We report that the common polyalcohol D-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above Tg (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of D-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase (Phase X). The enthalpy of Phase X is roughly halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous nature of Phase X is suggested by its absence of birefringence, transparency, broad X-ray diffraction, and broad Raman and NIR spectra. Phase X has greater molecular spacing, higher molecular order, fewer intra- and more inter-molecular hydrogen bonds than the normal liquid. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to SCL near 330 K. Upon temperature cycling, it shows a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. The presence of D-sorbitol enables a first-order liquid-liquid transition (LLT) from SCL to Phase X. This is the first report of polyamorphism at 1 atm for a pharmaceutical relevant substance. As amorphous solids are explored for many applications, polyamorphism could offer a tool to engineer the properties of materials. (Ref: M. Zhu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 244504)

  9. Structural organization of the human sorbitol dehydrogenase gene (SORD)

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, T.; Carper, D.; Popescu, N.C.

    1995-03-01

    The primary structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) was determined by cDNA and genomic cloning. The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA covers 2471 bp including an open reading frame that yields a protein of 356 amino acid residues. The gene structure of SORD spans approximatley 30 kb divided into 9 exons and 8 introns. The gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.1 by in situ hybridization. Two transcription initiation sites were detected. Three Sp1 sites and a repetitive sequence (CAAA){sub 5} were observed in the 5{prime} noncoding region; no classical TATAA or CCAAT elements were found. The related alcohol dehydrogenases and {zeta}-crystallin have the same gene organization split by 8 introns, but no splice points coincide between SORD and these gene types. The deduced amino acid sequence of the SORD structure differs at a few positions from the directly determined protein sequence, suggesting allelic forms of the enzyme. High levels of SORD transcripts were observed in lens and kidney, as judged from Northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Green and selective polycondensation methods toward linear sorbitol-based polyesters: enzymatic versus organic and metal-based catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; Janssen, William W T J; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-08-23

    Renewable polyesters derived from a sugar alcohol (i.e., sorbitol) were synthesized by solvent-free polycondensation. The aim was to prepare linear polyesters with pendant hydroxyl groups along the polymer backbone. The performance of the sustainable biocatalyst SPRIN liposorb CALB [an immobilized form of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB); SPRIN technologies] and the organo-base catalyst 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4,4,0]dec-5-ene (TBD) were compared with two metal-based catalysts: dibutyl tin oxide (DBTO) and scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate [also known as scandium triflate, Sc(OTf)3 ]. For the four catalytic systems, the efficiency and selectivity for the incorporation of sorbitol were studied, mainly using (13) C and (31) P NMR spectroscopies, whereas side reactions, such as ether formation and dehydration of sorbitol, were evaluated using MALDI-TOF-MS. Especially the biocatalyst SPRIN liposorb CALB succeeded in incorporating sorbitol in a selective way without side reactions, leading to close-to-linear polyesters. By using a renewable hydroxyl-reactive curing agent based on l-lysine, transparent and glossy poly(ester urethane) networks were successfully synthesized offering a tangible example of bio-based coatings.

  11. Inhaled mannitol as a test for bronchial hyper-responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Brannan, John D; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Anderson, Sandra D

    2009-10-01

    Bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) are useful for identifying one of the key features of asthma: bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR). The symptoms of asthma are not always reflective of the underlying pathophysiology of asthma and there is a need for objective tests to identify the presence and severity of BHR. A new BPT, involving the inhalation of dry powder mannitol, has recently been approved to identify BHR and is now in use as a diagnostic tool for currently active asthma. Airway sensitivity to mannitol identifies BHR that is dependent upon the presence of airway inflammation and would probably benefit from treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. The mannitol BPT is available commercially as a (single-use) test kit (Aridol/Osmohale), with the only additional requirement to perform the test being a spirometer. Accordingly, the mannitol BPT provides a point-of-need tool to identify BHR to assist in the diagnosis of asthma.

  12. Role of Calcium Alginate and Mannitol in Protecting Bifidobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to ascertain the mechanism of Ca-alginate and mannitol protection of cell envelope components and secondary proteins of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C) at low water activities (aw) of 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2. Preparation of Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol as microencapsulants was carried out by dropping an alginate or alginate-mannitol emulsion containing bacteria using a burette into CaCl2 solution to obtain Ca-alginate beads and Ca-alginate-mannitol beads, respectively. The wet beads were then freeze-dried. The aw of freeze-dried beads was then adjusted to 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 using saturated salt solutions; controls were prepared by keeping Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol in aluminum foil without aw adjustment. Mannitol in the Ca-alginate system interacted with cell envelopes during freeze-drying and during storage at low aws. In contrast, Ca-alginate protected cell envelopes after freeze-drying but not during 10-week storage. Unlike Ca-alginate, Ca-alginate-mannitol was effective in retarding the changes in secondary proteins during freeze-drying and during 10 weeks of storage at low aws. It appears that Ca-alginate-mannitol is more effective than Ca-alginate in preserving cell envelopes and proteins after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C). PMID:22843535

  13. Application of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection for measuring carbohydrates in routine daily filter samples collected by a national network: 2. Examination of sugar alcohols/polyols, sugars, and anhydrosugars in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, A. P.; Frank, N.; Kenski, D. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Carbohydrate measurements of ambient samples can provide insights into the biogenic fraction of the organic carbon (OC) aerosol. However, lack of measurement on a routine basis limits data analysis. In a companion paper, 1 year of archived 1-in-6 day FRM (Federal Reference Monitor) filter samples from the PM2.5 NAAQS compliance monitoring network collected at 10 sites in the upper Midwest were analyzed using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection to determine the regional impact of biomass burning. Along with levoglucosan, 13 other carbohydrates were simultaneously measured, including two more anhydrosugars (mannosan and galactosan), five sugars (arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose), and six sugar alcohols/polyols (glycerol, methyltetrols, threitol/erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol). This paper focuses on the results from these carbohydrates in order to investigate their sources and trends both spatially and temporally. Mannosan, galactosan, arabinose, xylose, and threitol/erythritol all correlated with levoglucosan (R2 from 0.43 to 0.97), suggesting biomass burning as their main source. Glucose and mannitol exhibited higher concentrations in summer and at more southern sites, likely due to vegetation differences at the sites. Using mannitol, the contribution of spores to OC was found to be <1%. Methyltetrols were highly correlated with water-soluble OC (R2 from 0.63 to 0.95) and in higher concentrations at more eastern sites. This spatial pattern is possibly due to these sites being downwind of the high isoprene emission zones that occur in the western part of the Midwest from oak forests in the Ozarks and spruce forests in the northern lake states.

  14. A Comparative Study of Lidocaine and Lidocaine­ Mannitol in Anesthetizing Human Teeth with Inflamed Pulps

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Ali; Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghi, Ghazal; Nezami, Hossein

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Failure to achieve adequate and profound anesthesia in teeth with acute pulp inflammation is a common condition during emergency visits in root canal therapy. Many different anesthetic solutions such as morphine and capsaicin have accordingly been examined. Mannitol­ an alcoholic sugar with high osmotic pressure level- is applicated for reducing intracranial and post retinal pressure in medicine. It has also been used for its diuretic effect. In combination with local anesthetic solution, it increases permeability of the nerve fiber sheath and leads to influx of the local anesthetic through cytoplasmic membrane .The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacy of routine local anesthesia with or without using mannitol in teeth with inflamed pulps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: one hundred patients with acute dental pain in posterior teeth were selected. Vials with 3 ml anesthetic solution containing 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine or 2.5% lidocaine with 1/80000 epinephrine and 0.5 mol mannitol were used for anesthesia. For each patient, the routine injection technique was applied, during the removal of decay and dentine. Depth of anesthesia was evaluated and the supplementary injection was done in case of pain feeling and then pulpotomy was done. The analysis of data was done using chi-square statistical test. RESULTS: The results showed that complete anesthesia after the first injection was obtained with lidocaine mannitol in 46% and with lidocaine alone in 38% of cases. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION: These finding suggest that the addition of mannitol to the standard anesthetic solution could insignificantly increase the level of anesthesia in teeth with inflamed pulps. PMID:24494021

  15. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms.

  16. Effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on objective measures of diarrhea: impact of stool viscosity on common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    McRorie, J; Zorich, N; Riccardi, K; Bishop, L; Filloon, T; Wason, S; Giannella, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on three accepted objective measures of diarrhea (stool output >250 g/day, liquid/watery stools, bowel movement frequency >3/day), and how stool composition influences reports of common gastrointestinal symptoms. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of sorbitol (40 g/day in candy), a poorly absorbed sugar-alcohol with known osmotic effects, with those of olestra (20 or 40 g/day in potato chips), a nonabsorbed fat, on objective measures of stool composition and GI symptoms. Sixty-six subjects resided on a metabolic ward for 12 days: 2 days lead-in, 4 days baseline, 6 days treatment. Sorbitol 40 g/day resulted in loose/liquid stools within 1-3 h of consumption. In contrast, olestra resulted in a dose-responsive stool softening effect after 2-4 days of consumption. Subjects reported "diarrhea" when mean stool apparent viscosity (peak force (PF), g) decreased from a perceived "normal" (mean +/- SE, 1355 +/- 224 g PF; firm stool) to loose (260 +/- 68 g PF) stool. Mean apparent viscosity of stool during treatment: placebo, 1363 +/- 280 g (firm); olestra 20 g/day 743 +/- 65 g (soft); olestra 40 g/day, 563 +/- 105 g (soft); and sorbitol 40 g/day, 249 +/- 53 g (loose). Of the 1098 stool samples collected, 38% (419/1098) were rated by subjects as "diarrhea," yet only 2% of treatment days (all in the sorbitol treatment group) met commonly accepted criteria for a clinical diarrhea. Sorbitol, but not olestra, increased the severity of abdominal cramping, urgency and nausea compared to placebo. Olestra consumption, at levels far in excess of normal snacking conditions, resulted in a gradual stool softening effect after several days of consumption, did not meet any of the three objective measures of diarrhea, and did not increase GI symptoms. Sorbitol consumption, at only 80% of the dose requiring a "laxative effect" information label, resulted in rapid onset loose

  17. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo

    2011-02-01

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  18. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  19. Direct catalytic production of sorbitol from waste cellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lucília Sousa; Órfão, José J de Melo; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro

    2017-02-08

    Cotton wool, cotton textile, tissue paper and printing paper, all potential waste cellulosic materials, were directly converted to sorbitol using a Ru/CNT catalyst in the presence of H2 and using only water as solvent, without any acids. Conversions up to 38% were attained for the raw substrates, with sorbitol yields below 10%. Ball-milling of the materials disrupted their crystallinity, allowing reaching 100% conversion of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper after 4h, with sorbitol yields around 50%. Mix-milling these materials with the catalyst greatly enhanced their conversion rate, and the materials were efficiently converted to sorbitol with a yield around 50% in 2h. However, ball- and mix-milled printing paper presented a conversion of only 50% after 5h, with sorbitol yields of 7%. Amounts of sorbitol of 0.525, 0.511 and 0.559g could be obtained from 1g of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper, respectively.

  20. Biosynthesis and catabolism of mannitol is developmentally regulated in the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Allocco, J J; Profous-Juchelka, H; Myers, R W; Nare, B; Schmatz, D M

    1999-04-01

    The mannitol cycle is a metabolic branch of the glycolytic pathway found in Eimeria tenella. In this paper, we describe the biosynthesis and consumption of mannitol during parasite development. Low micromolar levels of mannitol were detected in all of the asexual stages and mannitol production increased sharply during the sexual phase of the life cycle. Unsporulated oocysts had high mannitol content (300 mM or 25% of the oocyst mass). Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (M1PDH), the first committed step of the mannitol cycle, was also elevated in sexual stages and this coincides with mannitol levels. Approximately 90% of the mannitol present in unsporulated oocysts was consumed in the first 15 hr of sporulation, and levels continued to drop until the sporulation process was complete at approximately 35 hr. Thus, mannitol appears to be the "fuel" for sporulation during the vegetative stage of the parasite life cycle. Evaluation of oocyst extracts from 6 additional Eimeria species for mannitol content and the presence of M1PDH indicated that the mannitol cycle was broadly present in this genus. This finding combined with the lack of mannitol metabolism in higher eukaryotes makes this pathway an attractive chemotherapeutic target.

  1. Hydrogen production from glucose and sorbitol by sorption-enhanced steam reforming: challenges and promises.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Chen, De

    2012-03-12

    Concerning energy and environmental sustainability, it is appealing to produce hydrogen from sugars or sugar alcohols that are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Nevertheless, the conversion of such compounds for hydrogen production poses great technical challenges. In this paper, we report that hydrogen purity and yield can be significantly improved by integrating in situ CO(2) capture into the steam reforming reaction of the model compounds-glucose and sorbitol. The experimental assessment was conducted at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.8 for sorbitol and 6 for glucose from 450-625 °C. As predicted by thermodynamic analysis, combining CO(2) capture and reforming reactions at favorable operating conditions yielded very high purity hydrogen, for instance, 98.8 mol % from sorbitol and 99.9 mol % from glucose. However, there are trade-offs between hydrogen purity and yield in practice. The lower operating temperatures in the examined range helped to increase the hydrogen purity and reduce the CO content in the gas product, whereas a high hydrogen yield was more likely to be obtained at higher temperatures. Coupling CO(2) capture lowered the risk of coke formation during the steam reforming of glucose. Coke accumulated in the reactor for the sorption-enhanced steam reforming of glucose was mostly from the slow pyrolysis of glucose before it came into contact with the catalyst-acceptor bed. This problem may be solved by improving heat transfer or reconstructing the reactor, for instance, by using a fluidized-bed reactor.

  2. Global Analysis of Mannitol 2-Dehydrogenase in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 during Mannitol Production through Enzymatic, Genetic and Proteomic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Fadda, Silvina; Picariello, Gianluca; Hebert, Elvira M; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Several plants, fungi, algae, and certain bacteria produce mannitol, a polyol derived from fructose. Mannitol has multiple industrial applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries, being mainly used as a non-metabolizable sweetener in foods. Many heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria synthesize mannitol when an alternative electron acceptor such as fructose is present in the medium. In previous work, we reported the ability of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 to efficiently produce mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source at constant pH of 5.0; the activity of the enzyme mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) responsible for the fructose conversion into mannitol being highest during the log cell growth phase. Here, a detailed assessment of the MDH activity and relative expression of the mdh gene during the growth of L. reuteri CRL 1101 in the presence of fructose is presented. It was observed that MDH was markedly induced by the presence of fructose. A direct correlation between the maximum MDH enzyme activity and a high level of mdh transcript expression during the log-phase of cells grown in a fructose-containing chemically defined medium was detected. Furthermore, two proteomic approaches (2DE and shotgun proteomics) applied in this study confirmed the inducible expression of MDH in L. reuteri. A global study of the effect of fructose on activity, mdh gene, and protein expressions of MDH in L. reuteri is thus for the first time presented. This work represents a deep insight into the polyol formation by a Lactobacillus strain with biotechnological potential in the nutraceutics and pharmaceutical areas.

  3. Global Analysis of Mannitol 2-Dehydrogenase in Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 during Mannitol Production through Enzymatic, Genetic and Proteomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Fadda, Silvina; Picariello, Gianluca; Hebert, Elvira M.; Raya, Raúl R.

    2017-01-01

    Several plants, fungi, algae, and certain bacteria produce mannitol, a polyol derived from fructose. Mannitol has multiple industrial applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries, being mainly used as a non-metabolizable sweetener in foods. Many heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria synthesize mannitol when an alternative electron acceptor such as fructose is present in the medium. In previous work, we reported the ability of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 to efficiently produce mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source at constant pH of 5.0; the activity of the enzyme mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) responsible for the fructose conversion into mannitol being highest during the log cell growth phase. Here, a detailed assessment of the MDH activity and relative expression of the mdh gene during the growth of L. reuteri CRL 1101 in the presence of fructose is presented. It was observed that MDH was markedly induced by the presence of fructose. A direct correlation between the maximum MDH enzyme activity and a high level of mdh transcript expression during the log-phase of cells grown in a fructose-containing chemically defined medium was detected. Furthermore, two proteomic approaches (2DE and shotgun proteomics) applied in this study confirmed the inducible expression of MDH in L. reuteri. A global study of the effect of fructose on activity, mdh gene, and protein expressions of MDH in L. reuteri is thus for the first time presented. This work represents a deep insight into the polyol formation by a Lactobacillus strain with biotechnological potential in the nutraceutics and pharmaceutical areas. PMID:28060932

  4. Mannitol utilisation is required for protection of Staphylococcus aureus from human skin antimicrobial fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kenny, John G; Moran, Josephine; Kolar, Stacey L; Ulanov, Alexander; Li, Zhong; Shaw, Lindsey N; Josefsson, Elisabet; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    Mannitol (Mtl) fermentation, with the subsequent production of acid, is a species signature of Staphylococcus aureus, and discriminates it from most other members of the genus. Inactivation of the gene mtlD, encoding Mtl-1-P dehydrogenase was found to markedly reduce survival in the presence of the antimicrobial fatty acid, linoleic acid. We demonstrate that the sugar alcohol has a potentiating action for this membrane-acting antimicrobial. Analysis of cellular metabolites revealed that, during exponential growth, the mtlD mutant accumulated high levels of Mtl and Mtl-P. The latter metabolite was not detected in its isogenic parent strain or a deletion mutant of the entire mtlABFD operon. In addition, the mtlD mutant strain exhibited a decreased MIC for H2O2, however virulence was unaffected in a model of septic arthritis.

  5. Mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swab specimens in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Danielle Caldeira Martins; da Costa, Thaina Miranda; Rabello, Renata Fernandes; Alves, Fábio Aguiar; de Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of mannitol-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs is reported. Among the 59 isolates, 9 (15%) isolates were mannitol-negative; all of these isolates were categorized as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa. This report emphasizes that mannitol fermentation on mannitol salt agar should not be used as the sole criterion when screening nasal swab specimens for S. aureus. PMID:26273270

  6. Modulating β-lactoglobulin nanofibril self-assembly at pH 2 using glycerol and sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Dave, Anant C; Loveday, Simon M; Anema, Skelte G; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-01-13

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) forms fibrils when heated at 80 °C, pH 2, and low ionic strength (<0.015 mM). When formed at protein concentrations <3%, these fibrils are made up of peptides produced from the acid hydrolysis of the β-lg monomer. The present study investigated the effects of the polyhydroxy alcohols (polyols) glycerol and sorbitol (0-50% w/v) on β-lg self-assembly at pH 2. Glycerol and sorbitol stabilize native protein structure and modulate protein functionality by preferential exclusion. In our study, both polyols decreased the rate of β-lg self-assembly but had no effect on the morphology of fibrils. The mechanism of these effects was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. Sorbitol inhibited self-assembly by stabilizing β-lg against unfolding and hydrolysis, resulting in fewer fibrillogenic species, whereas glycerol inhibited nucleation without inhibiting hydrolysis. Both polyols increased the viscosity of the solutions, but viscosity appeared to have little effect on fibril assembly, and we believe that self-assembly was not diffusion-limited under these conditions. This is in agreement with previous reports for other proteins assembling under different conditions. The phenomenon of peptide self-assembly can be decoupled from protein hydrolysis using glycerol.

  7. A novel sorbitol transport mechanism in cultured renal papillary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Siebens, A.W.; Spring, K.R. )

    1989-12-01

    The renal papillary epithelial cell line, GRB-PAP1, accumulates sorbitol when grown in a hypertonic (500 mosmol/kgH2O) bathing medium. When the cells are returned to a 300 mosmol/kgH2O medium, they lose their sorbitol rapidly to the bath. Sorbitol movement across the membranes of these cells was investigated by studying the uptake of radioactive sorbitol and related compounds. Sorbitol uptake increased 71-fold when cells grown in 500 mosmol/kgH2O medium were exposed to a 300 mosmol/kgH2O test solution. The magnitude of the permeability increase was proportional to the size of the change in the osmolality of the bathing medium and not the absolute osmolality. Sorbitol uptake was a linear function of medium sorbitol concentration with no sign of saturation at sorbitol concentrations up to 315 mM. Although the permeability of other polyols was increased when the osmolality was reduced, competition between sorbitol and related sugars and polyols could not be demonstrated. Both the increased sorbitol uptake after a decrease in medium osmolality and the decrease to control permeability after return to the original osmolality were complete within 30 s. A wide variety of transport inhibitors and ion substitutions failed to alter the magnitude of the sorbitol permeability increase. The most effective inhibitor was quinidine, 1 mM reducing sorbitol uptake by 73%. The sorbitol permeability increase could also be blocked by reducing the temperature to 0 degrees C. Nonspecific uptake of sorbitol, such as endocytosis, was shown to be of only minor significance. The large increase in sorbitol permeability and subsequent sorbitol efflux enables these cells to withstand large decreases in osmolality without excessive swelling and consequent damage. A similar compensatory mechanism may operate in vivo in the renal papilla during the onset of diuresis.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  13. Production of hydrogen, ethanol and volatile fatty acids from the seaweed carbohydrate mannitol.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Herrmann, Christiane; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Murphy, Jerry D

    2015-10-01

    Fermentative hydrogen from seaweed is a potential biofuel of the future. Mannitol, which is a typical carbohydrate component of seaweed, was used as a substrate for hydrogen fermentation. The theoretical specific hydrogen yield (SHY) of mannitol was calculated as 5 mol H2/mol mannitol (615.4 mL H2/g mannitol) for acetic acid pathway, 3 mol H2/mol mannitol (369.2 mL H2/g mannitol) for butyric acid pathway and 1 mol H2/mol mannitol (123.1 mL H2/g mannitol) for lactic acid and ethanol pathways. An optimal SHY of 1.82 mol H2/mol mannitol (224.2 mL H2/g mannitol) was obtained by heat pre-treated anaerobic digestion sludge under an initial pH of 8.0, NH4Cl concentration of 25 mM, NaCl concentration of 50mM and mannitol concentration of 10 g/L. The overall energy conversion efficiency achieved was 96.1%. The energy was contained in the end products, hydrogen (17.2%), butyric acid (38.3%) and ethanol (34.2%).

  14. Production of ethanol from mannitol by the yeast strain Saccharomyces paradoxus NBRC 0259.

    PubMed

    Ota, Anri; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Oda, Hiroshi; Iohara, Keishi; Murata, Kousaku

    2013-09-01

    Mannitol is a promising marine macroalgal carbon source. However, organisms that produce ethanol from mannitol are limited; to date, only the yeast Pichia angophorae and the bacterium Escherichia coli KO11 have been reported to possess this capacity. In this study, we searched a yeast strain with a high capacity to produce ethanol from mannitol and selected Saccharomyces paradoxus NBRC 0259 for its ability to produce ethanol from mannitol. This ability was enhanced after a 3-day cultivation of this strain in medium containing mannitol; the enhanced strain was renamed S. paradoxus NBRC 0259-3. We compared the ability of strain NBRC 0259-3 to produce ethanol from mannitol and glucose, under several conditions, with those of P. angophorae and E. coli KO11. As a result, we concluded that S. paradoxus NBRC 0259-3 strain is the most suitable yeast strain for the production of ethanol from mannitol.

  15. Glucose and mannitol diffusion in human dura mater.

    PubMed

    Bashkatov, Alexey N; Genina, Elina A; Sinichkin, Yuri P; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I; Lakodina, Nina A; Tuchin, Valery V

    2003-11-01

    An in vitro experimental study of the control of the human dura mater optical properties at administration of aqueous solutions of glucose and mannitol has been presented. The significant increase of the dura mater optical transmittance under action of immersion liquids has been demonstrated. Diffusion coefficients of glucose and mannitol in the human dura mater tissue at 20 degrees C have been estimated as (1.63 +/- 0.29) x 10(-6)cm(2)/s and as (1.31 +/- 0.41) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively. Experiments show that administration of immersion liquids allows for the effective control of tissue optical characteristics that make dura mater more transparent, thereby increasing the ability of light penetration through the tissue.

  16. Sorbitol dehydrogenase of Aspergillus niger, SdhA, is part of the oxido-reductive D-galactose pathway and essential for D-sorbitol catabolism.

    PubMed

    Koivistoinen, Outi M; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura; Mojzita, Dominik

    2012-02-17

    In filamentous fungi D-galactose can be catabolised through the oxido-reductive and/or the Leloir pathway. In the oxido-reductive pathway D-galactose is converted to d-fructose in a series of steps where the last step is the oxidation of d-sorbitol by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase. We identified a sorbitol dehydrogenase gene, sdhA (JGI53356), in Aspergillus niger encoding a medium chain dehydrogenase which is involved in D-galactose and D-sorbitol catabolism. The gene is upregulated in the presence of D-galactose, galactitol and D-sorbitol. An sdhA deletion strain showed reduced growth on galactitol and growth on D-sorbitol was completely abolished. The purified enzyme converted D-sorbitol to D-fructose with K(m) of 50±5 mM and v(max) of 80±10 U/mg.

  17. Selective electrocatalytic oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngkook; de Jong, Ed; van der Waal, Jan Kees; Koper, Marc T M

    2015-03-01

    A new electrocatalytic method for the selective electrochemical oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose is demonstrated by using a platinum electrode promoted by p-block metal atoms. By the studying a range of C4, C5 and C6 polyols, it is found that the promoter interferes with the stereochemistry of the polyol and thereby modifies its reactivity.

  18. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  20. Gastrointestinal Disturbances Associated with the Consumption of Sugar Alcohols with Special Consideration of Xylitol: Scientific Review and Instructions for Dentists and Other Health-Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sugar alcohols (polyols) are used in food manufacturing and in medical tests and examinations. d-Glucitol (sorbitol) and d-mannitol were previously the most common alditols used for these purposes. After the 1960s, xylitol became a common ingredient in noncariogenic confectioneries, oral hygiene products, and diabetic food. Erythritol, a polyol of the tetritol type, can be regarded as the sweetener of the “next generation.” The disaccharide polyols maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt have also been used in food manufacturing and in medical tests. Consumption of pentitol- and hexitol-type polyols and disaccharide polyols may cause gastrointestinal disturbances at least in unaccustomed subjects. The occurrence of disturbances depends on consumer properties and on the molecular size and configuration of the polyol molecule. Adaptation may take place as a result of enzyme induction in the intestinal flora. Some of the literature on xylitol has been difficult to access by health-care professionals and will be reviewed here. Research and clinical field experience have found no pathology in polyol-associated osmotic diarrhea—the intestinal mucosa having normal basic structure, except in extreme instances. Xylitol is better tolerated than hexitols or the disaccharide polyols. Erythritol, owing to its smaller molecular weight and configuration that differ from other alditols, normally avoids the gastrointestinal reactions encountered with other polyols. This review will also touch upon the FODMAPs diet concept. PMID:27840639

  1. Down-regulation of sorbitol dehydrogenase and up-regulation of sucrose synthase in shoot tips of the transgenic apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Cheng, Lailiang; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2006-01-01

    Both sorbitol and sucrose are translocated to, and utilized in, sink tissues of apple (Malus domestica). Considering that antisense suppression of aldose 6-phosphate reductase resulted in lower concentrations of sorbitol and higher concentrations of sucrose in source leaves without altering the vegetative growth of apple trees, it was hypothesized that sorbitol metabolism is down-regulated and sucrose metabolism is up-regulated in shoot tips of the transgenic plants. Carbohydrate measurements indicated that sorbitol concentration was lower whereas sucrose concentration was higher in the shoot tips of transgenic apple plants with decreased sorbitol synthesis compared with the untransformed control. However, the shoot relative growth rate was not altered in the transgenic plants. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was decreased; acid invertase activity and neutral invertase activity remained the same, whereas sucrose synthase (SUSY) activity was increased in shoot tips of the transgenic plants. The SDH transcript level was lower whereas the SUSY transcript level was higher in shoot tips of the transgenic plants. SDH activity and SDH transcript level were specifically stimulated by exogenous sorbitol fed to the shoot tips via the transpiration stream but were specifically inhibited by sucrose. SUSY activity and SUSY transcript level were dramatically enhanced by sucrose, but decreased by glucose and fructose. Neither acid invertase nor neutral invertase activity responded to sucrose, glucose, fructose, or any other sugars tested. It is concluded that sorbitol dehydrogenase is down-regulated, whereas sucrose synthase is up-regulated in shoot tips of the transgenic apple trees with decreased sorbitol synthesis, leading to homeostasis of vegetative growth. Sorbitol and sucrose act as signal molecules to modulate the expression and activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase and sucrose synthase, both of which play an important role in determining the sink strength of apple

  2. Design, characterization, and aerosol dispersion performance modeling of advanced co-spray dried antibiotics with mannitol as respirable microparticles/nanoparticles for targeted pulmonary delivery as dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2014-09-01

    Dry powder inhalation aerosols of antibiotic drugs (a first-line aminoglycoside, tobramycin, and a first-line macrolide, azithromycin) and a sugar alcohol mucolytic agent (mannitol) as co-spray dried (co-SD) particles at various molar ratios of drug:mannitol were successfully produced by organic solution advanced co-spray drying from dilute solute concentration. These microparticulate/nanoparticulate aerosols consisting of various antibiotic drug:mannitol molar ratios were rationally designed with a narrow and unimodal primary particle size distribution, spherical particle shape, relatively smooth particle surface, and very low residual water content to minimize the interparticulate interactions and enhance in vitro aerosolization. These microparticulate/nanoparticulate inhalation powders were high-performing aerosols as reflected in the aerosol dispersion performance parameters of emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), respirable fraction (RF), and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD). The glass transition temperature (Tg) values were significantly above room temperature, which indicated that the co-SD powders were all in the amorphous glassy state. The Tg values for co-SD tobramycin:mannitol powders were significantly lower than those for co-SD azithromycin:mannitol powders. The interplay between aerosol dispersion performance parameters and Tg was modeled where higher Tg values (i.e., more ordered glass) were correlated with higher values in FPF and RF and lower values in MMAD.

  3. Mannitol-guided delivery of Ciprofloxacin in artificial cystic fibrosis mucus model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Tsifansky, Michael D; Shin, Sooyoung; Lin, Qingnuo; Yeo, Yoon

    2011-06-01

    Abnormal airway mucus presents a significant challenge for inhalational drug delivery. Recognizing the thick and tenacious airway mucus seen in the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients as a critical barrier to effective drug delivery, both into the mucus layer itself as well as across that layer to the underlying airway epithelium, we hypothesize that mannitol or NaCl can form inhalable drug carriers, improve drug penetration into the mucus, and ultimately enhance the drug's therapeutic effect. The objective of this study is to test whether mannitol and NaCl particles, as inhalable drug carriers, improve drug delivery into and enhance a drug's activity within a mucus-like material. Microparticles containing Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), an active ingredient, and either mannitol or NaCl were produced by spray-drying. Cipro encapsulated in mannitol particles (Cipro-mannitol) was significantly more effective at killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) grown in artificial mucus (AM) than Cipro encapsulated in either NaCl particles (Cipro-NaCl) or in hydrophobic particles consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), albumin, and lactose (Cipro-DAL). The relatively high antibacterial effectiveness of Cipro-mannitol was not due to the effect of mannitol on bacteria or on Cipro. Rather, the unique performance of the mannitol-based particles in AM is attributable to its ability to increase local water content in the AM and enhance drug penetration into it. Mannitol is a promising excipient for inhalable microparticles that facilitate the drug delivery into the CF mucus.

  4. Biosynthesis of sucrose and mannitol as a function of leaf age in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Fellman, J.K.; Loescher, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately.

  5. [Case of hyperkalemia after the administration of hypertonic mannitol during craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Tobita, Kazuki; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2010-05-01

    We report a case of severe hyperkalemia which developed following administration of mannitol during craniotomy. The blood potassium levels rose from 4.8 mEq x l(-1) to 6.7 mEq x l(-1) 30 minutes after the infusion of mannitol 300 ml during the operation for brain tumor. Since the patient did not develop metabolic acidosis, the hyperkalemia was probably caused by a rise in plasma osmotic pressure resulting from mannitol infusion. The risk factors for hyperkalemia have not yet been determined, and it is necessary to monitor carefully the electrocardiogram and electrolyte levels during the infusion of mannitol.

  6. Diurnal Regulation of Leaf Water Status in High- and Low-Mannitol Olive Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Lo Bianco, Riccardo; Avellone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of mannitol and malic acid in the regulation of diurnal leaf water relations was investigated in ‘Biancolilla’ (high-mannitol) and ‘Cerasuola’ (low-mannitol) olive trees. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (T), relative water content (RWC), mannitol and malic acid were measured in ‘Biancolilla’ and ‘Cerasuola’ leaves during a dry and hot day of summer in Sicily. In general, leaves of ‘Biancolilla’ trees exhibited greater mannitol content, higher gs and T, but lower RWC than leaves of ‘Cerasuola’ trees. Differences in gs and T between the two cultivars were evident mainly in mid to late morning. ‘Biancolilla’ leaves accumulated mannitol at midday and again late in the evening. Stomatal responses to VPD were RWC dependent, and limited somewhat T, only in ‘Biancolilla’. Mannitol was directly related to RWC, and may play an osmotic role, in ‘Biancolilla’ leaves, whereas ‘Cerasuola’ leaves remained well hydrated by just transpiring less and regardless of mannitol. A day-time accumulation and night-time utilization of mannitol in ‘Biancolilla’ leaves is proposed as an efficient mechanism to regulate water status and growth. PMID:27135500

  7. Glassy dynamics of sorbitol solutions at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sibik, Juraj; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Zeitler, J Axel

    2013-07-28

    The absorption spectra of D-sorbitol and a range of its concentrated aqueous solutions were studied by terahertz spectroscopy over the temperature interval of 80 K < T < 310 K. It is shown that the slow-down of molecules at around the glass transition temperature, Tg, dramatically influences the thermal dependence of the absorption at terahertz frequencies. Furthermore, two different absorption regimes are revealed below Tg: at temperatures well below Tg, the absorption resembles the coupling of terahertz radiation to the vibrational density of states (VDOS); above these temperatures, between 160 K and Tg, in the sample of pure sorbitol and the sample of a solution of 70 wt% sorbitol in water, another type of absorption is observed at terahertz frequencies. Several possibilities of the physical origin of this absorption are discussed and based on the experimental data this process is tentatively assigned to the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation processes shifting to lower frequencies at temperatures below Tg leaving behind a spectrum largely dominated by losses into the VDOS.

  8. Molecular dynamics studies of the conformation of sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    Lerbret, A.; Mason, P.E.; Venable, R.M.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Pastor, R.W.; Brady, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a 3 m aqueous solution of D-sorbitol (also called D-glucitol) have been performed at 300 K, as well as at two elevated temperatures to promote conformational transitions. In principle, sorbitol is more flexible than glucose since it does not contain a constraining ring. However, a conformational analysis revealed that the sorbitol chain remains extended in solution, in contrast to the bent conformation found experimentally in the crystalline form. While there are 243 staggered conformations of the backbone possible for this open-chain polyol, only a very limited number were found to be stable in the simulations. Although many conformers were briefly sampled, only eight were significantly populated in the simulation. The carbon backbones of all but two of these eight conformers were completely extended, unlike the bent crystal conformation. These extended conformers were stabilized by a quite persistent intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl groups of carbon C-2 and C-4. The conformational populations were found to be in good agreement with the limited available NMR data except for the C-2–C-3 torsion (spanned by the O-2–O-4 hydrogen bond), where the NMR data supports a more bent structure. PMID:19744646

  9. Sorbitol counteracts high hydrostatic pressure-induced denaturation of inulin fructotransferase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungao; Miao, Ming; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiangyin

    2014-09-01

    Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase), a novel hydrolase for inulin, was exposed to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min in the presence or absence of sorbitol. Sorbitol protected the enzyme against HHP-induced activity loss. The relative residual activity increased nearly 3.1- and 3.8-fold in the presence of 3 mol/L sorbitol under 400 MPa and 600 MPa for 15 min, respectively. Circular dichroism results indicated that the original chaotic unfolding conformation of the enzyme under HHP shifted toward more ordered and impact with 3 mol/L sorbitol. Fluorescence and UV spectra results suggested that sorbitol prevented partially the unfolding of the enzyme and stabilized the conformation under high pressure. These results might be attributed to the binding of sorbitol on the surface of IFTase to rearrange and strengthen intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  10. Assessment of the lactulose-mannitol test in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Andre, F; Andre, C; Emery, Y; Forichon, J; Descos, L; Minaire, Y

    1988-01-01

    The mannitol-lactulose intestinal permeability test was evaluated in 100 healthy controls and 47 patients with Crohn's disease. These patients were further separated into three subgroups of increased activity (Harvey-Bradshaw index) and in two subgroups, with elective colonic lesions and associated ileal and colonic lesions. Results were given as percentages of urinary recoveries for mannitol (M), lactulose (L), and L/M ratio. As a whole, patients with Crohn's disease have lower mean M and higher mean L and mean L/M ratios than controls. The magnitude of alterations in M, L, and L/M increased with activity. The sensitivity of the test, however, reached interesting figures (67%:L and 86%:L/M) only in subgroup III which was composed of relapsing patients. Mean M was lower in patients with associated ileal lesion but, whatever the criterion (M, L, or L/M), the test does not provide any clue for the detection of a possible infraclinical associated ileal localisation. PMID:3131194

  11. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Yen, Jenny Wu Tiu; Alexander, Clay; Gober, Jessica

    2012-07-01

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial metabolism of sucrose and fructose from both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (K(eff)) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory crystallizer and a batch pilot plant-scale vacuum pan. Laboratory crystallization was operated at 65.5°C (150°F), 60.0°C (140°F), and 51.7°C (125°F) with a 78.0 Brix (% refractometric dissolved solids) pure sucrose syrup containing 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 10% (at 65.5°C only) mannitol on a Brix basis. Produced mother liquor and crystals were separated by centrifugation and their mannitol contents measured by ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD). The extent of mannitol partitioning into the crystals depended strongly on the mannitol concentration in the feed syrup and, to a lesser extent, the crystallization temperature. At 65.5 and 60.0°C, the K(eff) varied from ~0.4% to 3.0% with 0.2% to 3.0% mannitol in the feed syrup, respectively. The mannitol K(eff) was lower than that reported for dextran (~9-10% K(eff)), another product of Leuconstoc deterioration, under similar sucrose crystal growth conditions. At 10% mannitol concentration in the syrup at 65.5°C, co-crystallization of mannitol with sucrose occurred and the crystal growth rate was greatly impeded. In both laboratory and pilot plant crystallizations (95.7% purity; 78.0 Brix; 65.5°C), mannitol tended to cause conglomerates to form, which became progressively worse with increased mannitol syrup concentration. At the 3% mannitol concentration, crystallization at both the laboratory and pilot plant scales was more difficult. Mannitol incorporation into the sucrose crystal results mostly from liquid syrup inclusions but adsorption onto the crystal surface may play a minor role at lower mannitol concentrations.

  12. Conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sorbitol catalyzed by ruthenium supported on a polyoxometalate/metal-organic framework hybrid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinzhu; Wang, Shengpei; Huang, Jing; Chen, Limin; Ma, Longlong; Huang, Xing

    2013-08-01

    Cellulose and cellobiose were selectively converted into sorbitol over water-tolerant phosphotungstic acid (PTA)/metal- organic-framework-hybrid-supported ruthenium catalysts, Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr), under aqueous hydrogenation conditions. The goal was to investigate the relationship between the acid/metal balance of bifunctional catalysts Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) and their performance in the catalytic conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sugar alcohols. The control of the amount and strength of acid sites in the supported PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was achieved through the effective control of encapsulated-PTA loading in MIL-100(Cr). This design and preparation method led to an appropriately balanced Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) in terms of Ru dispersion and hydrogenation capacity on the one hand, and acid site density of PTA/MIL-100(Cr) (responsible for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis) on the other hand. The ratio of acid site density to the number of Ru surface atoms (nA /nRu ) of Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was used to monitor the balance between hydrogenation and hydrolysis functions; the optimum balance between the two catalytic functions, that is, 8.84sorbitol of 57.9% at complete conversion of cellulose, and 97.1% yield in hexitols with a selectivity for sorbitol of 95.1% at complete conversion of cellobiose) were obtained using a Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) catalyst with loadings of 3.2 wt % for Ru and 16.7 wt % for PTA. This research thus opens new perspectives for the rational design of acid/metal bifunctional catalysts for biomass conversion.

  13. Exposure to sorbitol during lactation causes metabolic alterations and genotoxic effects in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Felipe S; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2016-10-17

    Sorbitol is a polyol used by the food industry as a sweetener. Women are consuming diet and light products containing sorbitol during pregnancy and in the postnatal period to prevent themselves from excessive weight gain and maintain a slim body. Although there is no evidence for the genotoxicity of sorbitol in the perinatal period, this study focused on evaluating the effects of the maternal intake of sorbitol on the biochemical and toxicological parameters of lactating Wistar rat offspring after 14days of mother-to-offspring exposure. A dose-dependent reduction of offspring length was observed. An increase in sorbitol levels determined in the milk was also observed. However, we detected an inverse relationship between the exposition dose in milk fructose and triacylglycerols concentrations. There was an increase in the plasmatic levels of ALT, AST and LDLc and a decrease in proteins, cholesterol and glucose levels in the offspring. Sorbitol exposure caused hepatocyte genotoxicity, including micronuclei induction. Maternal sorbitol intake induced myelotoxicity and myelosuppression in their offspring. The Comet assay of the blood cells detected a dose-dependent genotoxic response within the sorbitol-exposed offspring. According to our results, sorbitol is able to induce important metabolic alterations and genotoxic responses in the exposed offspring.

  14. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  15. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Guo, Yanping; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-02-15

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  16. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial deterioration of both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (Keff) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory c...

  17. Viability of an enzymatic mannitol method to predict sugarcane deterioration at factories.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Karr, Jacob; Parris, Anthony; Legendre, Benjamin

    2008-11-15

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the US, in press (consignment) and crusher juices collected across the 2004 processing season at a Louisiana factory. Weather conditions varied markedly across the season causing periods of the delivery of deteriorated sugarcane to the factory. A strong polynomial relationship existed between mannitol and haze dextran (R(2)=0.912) in press and crusher juices. Mannitol concentrations were usually higher than haze and monoclonal antibody dextran concentrations, which indicates: (i) the usefulness and higher sensitivity of mannitol to better predict sugarcane deterioration from Leuconostoc and other bacteria than dextran, and (ii) the underestimation by sugar industry personnel of the relatively large amounts of mannitol present in deteriorated sugarcane that can affect processing. Greater than ∼2500ppm/%Brix mannitol in juice predicts downstream processing problems. The enzymatic method is quantitative and could be used in a sugarcane payment formula. Approximately >300ppm/%Brix haze dextran in raw sugar indicated that the majority of the crystals were elongated. Approximately >600ppm/%Brix antibody dextran indicated when elongated crystals were predominant in the raw sugar. The enzymatic mannitol method underestimates mannitol in raw sugars.

  18. Localization of the Substrate-binding Site in the Homodimeric Mannitol Transporter, EIImtl, of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Opačić, Milena; Vos, Erwin P. P.; Hesp, Ben H.; Broos, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EIImtl, belongs to a class of membrane proteins coupling the transport of substrates with their chemical modification. EIImtl is functional as a homodimer, and it harbors one high affinity mannitol-binding site in the membrane-embedded C domain (IICmtl). To localize this binding site, 19 single Trp-containing mutants of EIImtl were biosynthetically labeled with 5-fluorotryptophan (5-FTrp) and mixed with azi-mannitol, a substrate analog acting as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor. Typically, for mutants showing FRET, only one 5-FTrp was involved, whereas the 5-FTrp from the other monomer was too distant. This proves that the mannitol-binding site is asymmetrically positioned in dimeric IICmtl. Combined with the available two-dimensional projection maps of IICmtl, it is concluded that a second resting binding site is present in this transporter. Active transport of mannitol only takes place when EIImtl becomes phosphorylated at Cys384 in the cytoplasmic B domain. Stably phosphorylated EIImtl mutants were constructed, and FRET experiments showed that the position of mannitol in IICmtl remains the same. We conclude that during the transport cycle, the phosphorylated B domain has to move to the mannitol-binding site, located in the middle of the membrane, to phosphorylate mannitol. PMID:20522557

  19. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation.

  20. [Hyperkalemia caused by intravenous administration of mannitol in a patient with arteriovenous malformation: case report].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shigeyoshi; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Katayama, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    We experienced a case in which hyperkalemia was induced by mannitol administration. The medication with mannitol was given to a 15-year-old male patient who underwent a removal operation for arteriovenous malformation under general anesthesia. Following the mannitol infusion, his arterial blood gas and electrolyte analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and an increase in serum potassium. Furthermore, a change in his electrocardiogram was observed. The hyperkalemia was quickly normalized by medication with calcium gluconate and sodium bicarbonate. We stopped the removal operation with the aim of giving priority to the patient's safety. It is speculated that the hyperkalemia was caused by the administration of mannitol. Checks of electrolyte levels, arterial blood gas analysis and electrocardiogram monitoring should therefore be carried out when using mannitol, especially in an emergency situation such as intracranial hemorrhage.

  1. Treatment of a mild chronic case of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol, a case study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article describes a recent case of ciguatera poisoning treated with intravenous mannitol. Mannitol has been used with good effect in non-controlled studies in acutely severely poisoned patients, but is not described in the treatment of chronic or milder poisoning. Our patient was a 35-year-old Niuean man who had eaten a ciguatoxic fish two weeks previously. His symptoms were not severe but were very unpleasant and restricted his ability to work. He was given a single dose of mannitol (0.66g/kg) as an intravenous infusion over two hours. His symptoms dramatically improved within 24 hours, and within a few days he felt virtually back to his former self. He experienced no side effects to the mannitol. It is suggested that intravenous mannitol may prove to be a useful treatment for mild to moderate ciguatera poisoning, and for patients who present late for treatment.

  2. The general PTS component HPr determines the preference for glucose over mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Mangyu; Park, Young-Ha; Lee, Chang-Ro; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Seok, Yeong-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Preferential sugar utilization is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Glucose is usually the most preferred carbon source in various organisms, especially in bacteria where it is taken up via the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The currently proposed model for glucose preference over non-PTS sugars in enteric bacteria including E. coli is strictly dependent on the phosphorylation state of the glucose-specific PTS component, enzyme IIAGlc (EIIAGlc). However, the mechanism of the preference among PTS sugars is largely unknown in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show that glucose preference over another PTS sugar, mannitol, is absolutely dependent on the general PTS component HPr, but not on EIIAGlc, in E. coli. Dephosphorylated HPr accumulates during the transport of glucose and interacts with the mannitol operon regulator, MtlR, to augment its repressor activity. This interaction blocks the inductive effect of mannitol on the mannitol operon expression and results in the inhibition of mannitol utilization. PMID:28225088

  3. Data-independent liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS(E)) detection and quantification of the secreted Apium graveolens pathogen defense protein mannitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Kevin; Cheng, Fang-Yi; Williamson, John D; Goshe, Michael B

    2010-04-15

    Plant cells secrete a wide variety of defense-related proteins into the extracellular space or apoplast in response to pathogen attack. One of these, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD), is normally a cytoplasmic enzyme whose primary role is the regulation of intracellular levels of the sugar alcohol mannitol in plants. Recent immunological and biochemical evidence, however, suggests that MTD is also secreted into the apoplast in response to pathogen attack, despite lacking a known peptide signal sequence for Golgi-mediated secretion. Because many plant pathogenic fungi secrete mannitol to overcome pathogen-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the plant, extracellular localization of MTD is hypothesized to have a defensive role of catabolizing pathogen-secreted mannitol. In the current study, LC/MS(E) was used to analyze proteins in the secretome of Apium graveolens (celery) following treatment with salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous elicitor of defense responses in plants. Levels of MTD in the secretome of SA-treated celery cell cultures were found to be induced at least 18-fold over secretome samples from cell cultures not exposed to SA. This value is in close agreement with published immunological and biochemical observations. Overall, this report provides the first mass spectrometry identification and quantification measurements supporting the hypothesis that MTD is secreted in response to simulated pathogen attack via a non-classical secretion mechanism. As demonstrated with MTD secretion, LC/MS(E) can be implemented as a discovery-driven MRM-based quantitative approach which can be used to reveal potential post-translational modifications, thus providing a new method in the area of gel-free and label-free proteomic analysis.

  4. Determination of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, and glycols in cell cultures and fermentation broths using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Hanko, V P; Rohrer, J S

    2000-08-01

    Cell cultures and fermentation broths are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds. Many of these compounds are synthesized or metabolized by microorganisms, and their concentrations can impact the yields of desired products. Carbohydrates serve as carbon sources for many microorganisms, while sugar alcohols (alditols), glycols (glycerol), and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) are metabolic products. We used high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) to simultaneously analyze for carbohydrates, alditols, and glycerol in growing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultures and their final fermentation broths. Both cultures were grown on complex undefined media, aliquots centrifuged to remove particulates, and the supernatants diluted and directly injected for analysis. Pulsed amperometry allowed a direct detection of the carbohydrates, alditols, and glycols present in the cultures and fermentation broths with very little interference from other matrix components. The broad linear range of three to four orders of magnitude allowed samples to be analyzed without multiple dilutions. Peak area RSDs were 2-7% for 2, 3-butanediol, ethanol, glycerol, erythritol, rhamnose, arabitol, sorbitol, galactitol, mannitol, arabinose, glucose, galactose, lactose, ribose, raffinose, and maltose spiked into a heat-inactivated yeast culture broth supernatant that was analyzed repetitively for 48 h. This method is useful for directly monitoring culture changes during fermentation. The carbohydrates in yeast cultures were monitored over 1 day. A yeast culture with medium consisting primarily of glucose and trace levels of trehalose and arabinose showed a drop in sugar concentration over time and an increase in glycerol. Yeast growing on a modified culture medium consisting of multiple carbohydrates and alditols showed preference for specific carbon sources and showed the ability to regulate pathways leading to catalysis of

  5. Intercalation-controlled cyclodehydration of sorbitol in water over layered-niobium-molybdate solid acid.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuya; Furusato, Shogo; Takagaki, Atsushi; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Kikuchi, Ryuji; Oyama, S Ted

    2014-03-01

    Layered niobium molybdate (HNbMoO6 ) was used in the aqueous-phase dehydration of sorbitol and was found to exhibit remarkable selectivity toward its monomolecular-dehydrated intermediate 1,4-sorbitan. This was attributed to the selective intercalation of sorbitol within the interlayers with strong Brønsted acid sites.

  6. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Cejas, María Dolores; de-Torres-Ramírez, Inés; Alonso-Cotoner, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.

  7. New Continuous Isosorbide Production from Sorbitol: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Isosorbide is a new polymer additive derived from corn (via sorbitol) that when copolymerized with polyethylene terephthalate (PET), increases the strength and rigidity of the plastic. This project will develop an economically-viable, continuous catalytic process to convert sorbitol to isosorbide.

  8. Silencing leaf sorbitol synthesis alters long-distance partitioning and apple fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Teo, Gianni; Suzuki, Yasuo; Uratsu, Sandie L; Lampinen, Bruce; Ormonde, Nichole; Hu, William K; DeJong, Ted M; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2006-12-05

    Sorbitol and sucrose are major products of photosynthesis distributed in apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. "Greensleeves") that affect quality in fruit. Transgenic apple plants were silenced or up-regulated for sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by using the CaMV35S promoter to define the role of sorbitol distribution in fruit development. Transgenic plants with suppressed sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compensated by accumulating sucrose and starch in leaves, and morning and midday net carbon assimilation rates were significantly lower. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio in leaves was reduced by approximately 90% and in phloem exudates by approximately 75%. The fruit accumulated more glucose and less fructose, starch, and malic acid, with no overall differences in weight and firmness. Sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was reduced in silenced fruit, but activities of neutral invertase, vacuolar invertase, cell wall-bound invertase, fructose kinase, and hexokinase were unaffected. Analyses of transcript levels and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism throughout fruit development revealed significant differences in pathways related to sorbitol transport and breakdown. Together, these results suggest that sorbitol distribution plays a key role in fruit carbon metabolism and affects quality attributes such as sugar-acid balance and starch accumulation.

  9. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    PubMed Central

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd). Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behavior were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle. PMID:23717316

  10. The effect of mannitol administration to kidney donor on short-term outcomes of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Hellieh Sadat; Nooraei, Navid; Asgary, Majeed; Hashemian, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    As the cases of kidney transplant are increasing, the need to apply the factors to increase the success of transplant seems necessary. Mannitol increases the osmotic pressure and urine volume as a protective agent on renal tubules. We aimed to evaluate the effect of mannitol on short-term outcome of kidney transplantation by comparing two groups based on prescribing mannitol to donors. In a randomized clinical trial, 60 kidney recipients were assigned in two groups (30 in each), except that in one group donors received mannitol. They were studied with respect to age, gender, weight, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and arterial blood gas (ABG) before and after surgery, and their pulse rate (PR) and blood pressure (BP) before, during and after surgery. Their urine volume was assessed in the operation room and the first 24 h after surgery. The short-term outcome, including BUN and Cr in the first 10 days after transplant, have been charted. Both the case (mannitol-positive donor patient) and the control (mannitol negative) groups were the same regarding the results gained for pre- and post-operative parameters. Follow-up assessments showed no significant differences in renal function. Based on this, we conclude that mannitol administration to donors does not have a beneficial effect on the prognosis and short-term outcome of transplantation on recipients; therefore, we feel that it should not be advised for kidney donors.

  11. Sorbitol as the Primary Carbon Source for the Growth of Embryogenic Callus of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Swedlund, B.; Locy, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of various carbon sources on initiation and maintenance of embryogenic callus of maize (Zea mays L.) and on the regeneration of plants from embryogenic callus were studied. Growth of embryogenic callus tissue on media containing sucrose was typified by the subsequent growth of both embryogenic (regenerable) and nonembryogenic (nonregenerable) callus. Growth of embryogenic callus on sorbitol was unique among the carbon sources tested in that sorbitol supported the subsequent growth of only embryogenic callus. Further experiments demonstrated that embryogenic callus grown on sorbitol had a greater regenerative capacity (more plants produced per gram fresh weight of callus) than callus grown on sucrose. Sorbitol dehydrogenase was detected in embryogenic callus of maize at a specific activity roughly equivalent to that found in zygotic embryos of developing seeds. Nonembryogenic callus did not contain significant levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase activity. PMID:12232027

  12. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  13. Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2012-08-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7 ± 26.6 and 184.5 ± 22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8 ± 39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6 ± 2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3 ± 15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate.

  14. Intestinal Necrosis due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Kayexalate) in Sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, C. E.; Saha, S.; Chu, G.; Resnick, M. B.; Moss, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis. Sorbitol, added as a cathartic agent, may be primarily responsible. Previous studies have documented bowel necrosis primarily in postoperative, dialysis, and transplant patients. We sought to identify additional clinical characteristics among patients with probable SPS-induced intestinal necrosis. Methods Rhode Island Hospital surgical pathology records were reviewed to identify all gastrointestinal specimens reported as containing SPS crystals from December 1998 to June 2007. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and hospital courses of histologically verified cases of intestinal necrosis were extracted from the medical records. Results Twenty-nine patients with reports of SPS crystals were identified. Nine cases were excluded as incidental findings with normal mucosa. Nine patients were excluded as their symptoms began before SPS administration or because an alternate etiology for bowel ischemia was identified. Eleven patients had confirmed intestinal necrosis and a temporal relationship with SPS administration suggestive of SPS-induced necrosis. Only 2 patients were postoperative, and only 4 had end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All patients had documented hyperkalemia, received oral SPS, and developed symptoms of intestinal injury between 3 hours and 11 days after SPS administration. Four patients died. Conclusion Intestinal ischemia is a recognized risk of SPS in sorbitol. Our series highlights that patients may be susceptible even in the absence of ESRD, surgical intervention, or significant comorbidity. PMID:19373153

  15. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  16. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  17. Characterization of mannitol in Curvularia protuberata hyphae by FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Isenor, Merrill; Kaminsky, Susan G.W.; Redman, S.; Gough, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy were used to characterize the composition of Curvularia protuberata hyphae, and to compare a strain isolated from plants inhabiting geothermal soils with a non-geothermal isolate. Thermal IR source images of hyphae have been acquired with a 64 × 64 element focal plane array detector; single point IR spectra have been obtained with synchrotron source light. In some C. protuberata hyphae, we have discovered the spectral signature of crystalline mannitol, a fungal polyol with complex protective roles. With FTIR-FPA imaging, we have determined that the protein content in cells remains fairly constant throughout the length of a hypha, whereas the mannitol is found at discrete, irregular locations. This is the first direct observation of mannitol in intact fungal hyphae. Since the concentration of mannitol in cells varies with respect to position and is not present in all hyphae, this discovery may be related to habitat adaptation, fungal structure and growth stages.

  18. Characterization of mannitol in Curvularia protuberata hyphae by FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isenor, M.; Kaminskyj, S.G.W.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Redman, R.S.; Gough, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy were used to characterize the composition of Curvularia protuberata hyphae, and to compare a strain isolated from plants inhabiting geothermal soils with a non-geothermal isolate. Thermal IR source images of hyphae have been acquired with a 64 ?? 64 element focal plane array detector; single point IR spectra have been obtained with synchrotron source light. In some C. protuberata hyphae, we have discovered the spectral signature of crystalline mannitol, a fungal polyol with complex protective roles. With FTIR-FPA imaging, we have determined that the protein content in cells remains fairly constant throughout the length of a hypha, whereas the mannitol is found at discrete, irregular locations. This is the first direct observation of mannitol in intact fungal hyphae. Since the concentration of mannitol in cells varies with respect to position and is not present in all hyphae, this discovery may be related to habitat adaptation, fungal structure and growth stages. ?? 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Kinetic study of mannitol production using cashew apple juice as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Cláudia P M L; Honorato, Talita L; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2009-06-01

    The use of agriculture excess as substrate in industrial fermentations became an interesting alternative to reduce production costs and to reduce negative environmental impact caused by the disposal of these products. In this work, a kinetic study of mannitol production using cashew apple juice as substrate was studied. The carbohydrates of cashew apple juice are glucose and fructose. Sucrose addition favored the yield of mannitol (85%) at the expense of lower productivity. The best results were obtained applying only cashew apple juice as substrate, containing 50 g L(-1) of total reducing sugar (28 g L(-1) of fructose), yielding 18 g L(-1) of mannitol with 67% of fructose conversion into mannitol and productivity of 1.8 g L(-1) h(-1).

  20. Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation in frozen mAb formulations.

    PubMed

    Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Hair, Alison; Baker, Priti; Brych, Lejla; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hong; Cao, Wenjin; Hershenson, Susan; Ratnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-02-01

    Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations.

  1. Remineralizing potential, antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of xylitol and sorbitol sweetened chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, L M; Odusola, F; Mandel, I D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of xylitol and sorbitol sweetened chewing gums on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and remineralizing potential of plaque following six weeks of use. Twenty-eight consenting individuals were randomly assigned to each of three phases (six weeks in duration) consisting of chewing xylitol gum, chewing sorbitol gum and a non-chewing phase. Subjects chewed one stick after every meal and at two other times for a total of five sticks per day. At the completion of each treatment phase, plaque and gingival indexes were performed and plaque was later collected. Calcium concentration in plaque was determined by atomic absorption spectophotometry. Reductions in plaque indexes were significant for both xylitol gum (p < 0.001) and sorbitol gum (p < 0.05) when compared to the no chewing period. The gingival indexes reflected a decrement in gingival inflammation with both xylitol and sorbitol, though only sorbitol values were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Chewing xylitol and sorbitol gums reduced plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. In addition, both gums enhanced the remineralization potential of plaque. Xylitol gum showed a superior effect with respect to remineralization potential and plaque reduction. Sorbitol gum had a superior effect on gingival health but not significantly so.

  2. Renewable feedstocks in green solvents: thermodynamic study on phase diagrams of D-sorbitol and xylitol with dicyanamide based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Okuniewski, Marcin; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-06-13

    Experimental and theoretical studies on thermodynamic properties of three ionic liquids based on dicyanamide anion (namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium dicyanamide) and their binary mixtures with sugar alcohols (D-sorbitol and xylitol) were conducted in order to assess the applicability of the salts ionic liquids for dissolution of those biomass-related materials. Density and dynamic viscosity (at ambient pressure) of pure ionic liquids are reported in the temperature range from T = 293.15 to 363.15 K. Solid-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams in binary systems {sugar alcohol + ionic liquid} were measured with dynamic method up to the fusion temperature of sugar alcohol. The impact of the chemical structure of both the ionic liquid and sugar alcohol were established and discussed. For the very first time, the experimental solubility data were reproduced and analyzed in terms of equation of state rooted in statistical mechanics. For this purpose, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was employed. In particular, new molecular schemes for the ionic liquids, D-sorbitol, and xylitol were proposed, and then the pure chemicals were parametrized by using available density and vapor pressure data. The model allowed accurate correlation of pure fluid properties for both ionic liquids and sugar alcohols, when the association term is taken into account. The results of solid-liquid equilibria modeling were also satisfactory. However, one or two adjustable binary corrections to the adopted combining rules were required to be adjusted in order to accurately capture the phase behavior. It was shown that a consistent thermodynamic description of extremely complex systems can be achieved by using relatively simple (but physically grounded) theoretical tools and molecular schemes.

  3. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to mannitol, airway inflammation and Asthma Control Test in atopic asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Consilvio, Nicola P.; Rapino, Daniele; Nicola, Marta Di; Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Cingolani, Anna; Petrosino, Marianna I.; Filippo, Paola Di; Pillo, Sabrina Di; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol and bronchial inflammation measured as exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to assess whether asthma control correlates with AHR to mannitol and FeNO in atopic asthmatic children. Material and methods Allergy evaluation, the mannitol challenge test, FeNO levels and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) questionnaire were assessed in 40 children with intermittent and mild persistent allergic asthma. Results All the subjects showed positive AHR to mannitol. Pearson's correlation test revealed a significant inverse correlation between AHR (mannitol PD15) and FeNO (p = 0.020). There was also a significant positive correlation between ACT and PD15 (p = 0.020) and a significant negative correlation between ACT and FeNO levels (p = 0.003). The study population was divided into two groups according to FeNO levels (group A ≥ 16 ppb vs. group B < 16 ppb). In group A mannitol PD15 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and ACT score values were significantly lower (p = 0.001) compared to group B. In group A, the ACT showed that 13.3% of subjects had well-controlled asthma, 80% had partially controlled asthma and 6.7% had uncontrolled asthma. In group B, the ACT showed that 72% of subjects had well-controlled asthma and 28% had partially controlled asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the degree of AHR to mannitol correlates with the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatic atopic children; moreover, better control of asthma correlates with a lower degree of AHR to both mannitol and FeNO. PMID:26925129

  4. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration.

  5. Free water clearance curves during saline, mannitol, glucose and urea diuresis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maldonado, Manuel; Opava-Stitzer, Susan

    1978-01-01

    1. Free water clearances were measured during infusion of hypotonic saline, glucose, urea, and mannitol in Brattleboro rats. For each solute the free water clearances were plotted using either V or (CH2O + CNa) as the distal tubular delivery term. 2. In all cases the use of (CH2O + CNa) as distal delivery term yielded a steeper relationship than when V was used. There were no significant differences in the CH2O to V relationship when saline, glucose and mannitol was the solute infused. Urea, however, resulted in a curve with a slope significantly less than that for the other solutes. 3. When CH2O was plotted against (CH2O + CNa) there was still no significant difference between the slopes of the curves during saline or mannitol infusion. Use of this delivery term, however, resulted in a slope during glucose infusion which was significantly greater than that during saline or mannitol infusion. The slope for urea infusion remained lower than that for any other solute. 4. Regardless of the delivery term used, there was no significant difference in the slopes of the curves for awake Wistar and awake Brattleboro rats during mannitol infusion. This indicates that the awake rat is a suitable model for free water clearance studies. 5. The results indicate that NaCl and mannitol are both adequate for free water clearance and that (CH2O + CNa) is a better index of distal delivery than V. PMID:690907

  6. Mannitol, a novel bacterial compatible solute in Pseudomonas putida S12.

    PubMed Central

    Kets, E P; Galinski, E A; de Wit, M; de Bont, J A; Heipieper, H J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the compatible solutes accumulated by Pseudomonas putida S12 subjected to osmotic stress. In response to reduced water activity, P. putida S12 accumulated Nalpha-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide (NAGGN) simultaneously with a novel compatible solute identified as mannitol (using 13C- and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography methods) to maximum concentrations of 74 and 258 micromol g (dry weight) of cells(-1), respectively. The intracellular amounts of each solute varied with both the type and amount of osmolyte applied to induce osmotic stress in the medium. Both solutes were synthesized de novo. Addition of betaine to the medium resulted in accumulation of this compound and depletion of both NAGGN and mannitol. Mannitol and NAGGN were accumulated when sucrose instead of salts was used to reduce the medium water activity. Furthermore, both compatible solutes were accumulated when glucose was substituted by other carbon sources. However, the intracellular quantities of mannitol decreased when fructose, succinate, or lactate were applied as a carbon source. Mannitol was also raised to high intracellular concentrations by other salt-stressed Pseudomonas putida strains. This is the first study demonstrating a principal role for the de novo-synthesized polyol mannitol in osmoadaptation of a heterotrophic eubacterium. PMID:8955280

  7. Mannitol influence on the separation of DNA fragments by capillary electrophoresis in entangled polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Han, F; Xue, J; Lin, B

    1998-08-01

    A new kind of sieving matrix is presented in this paper to allow satisfactory separation of DNA fragments in a relatively low viscous solution. When a certain amount of mannitol was added to cellulose solution not concentrated enough to separate PGEM-3Zf(+)/HaeIII standards well, a polymer solution with low viscosity but with very good separation effects was obtained. The separation result of this sieving buffer was comparable with those using highly concentrated cellulose solutions. The sieving ability of solutions with different cellulose concentrations and different amounts of mannitol has been investigated. It was proved that 0.5% was the minimum hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) concentration that could be used to separate DNA fragments satisfactorily. HPMC solutions with a concentration of less than 0.5% could not separate the standard DNA fragments even in the presence of mannitol. It was found that 6% was the optimized mannitol concentration because either more or less mannitol will lead a decrease of resolution. The principle of the positive influence of mannitol has also been discussed.

  8. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  9. Methylglyoxal and the polyol pathway. Three-carbon compounds are substrates for sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lindstad, R I; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1993-09-06

    Methylglyoxal, 1,2-propanediol and glycerol are shown to be substrates for sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase. With 1,2-propanediol the enzyme-catalyzed reaction occurs specifically with the R(-)-enantiomer. The maximum velocities and the specificity constants obtained for the three-carbon substrates are considerably lower than those reported previously for sorbitol, and suggest that rate-determination is imposed by catalytic steps other than the enzyme-coenzyme product dissociation. The present findings are discussed in terms of substrate specificity and stereospecificity, and may indicate novel aspects of sorbitol dehydrogenase function in relation to glucose metabolism and diabetic pathogenesis.

  10. [Sorbitol-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Polymorhism in Malus Mill. (Rosaceae)].

    PubMed

    Boris, K V; Kudryavtsev, A M; Kochieva, E Z

    2015-11-01

    The sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (S6PDH) sequences of six representatives of the genus Malus, which belong to five different taxonomic sections, were examined for the first time. The exon-intron structure and polymorphism of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these genes was characterized. The intraspecific polymorphism of the S6PDH gene was assessed for the first time in 40 Russian and foreign apple (Malus domestica) cultivars. It was demonstrated that the interspecific polymorphism level of the S6PDH coding sequences in the studied. representatives of the genus Malus was 4%, and the intraspecific polymorphism level of M. domestica cultivars was very low, constituting 0.96%.

  11. Physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with and without sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chen; Cao, Shengnan

    2014-09-01

    The effect of sorbitol on the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with different degrees of deacetylation (DD; i.e., DD85% and DD95%) was investigated. The thickness, moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS) and water-vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were evaluated. Sorbitol addition reduced MC, increased WS and significantly (p<0.01) reduced WVP of both film types. DD95% films had lower MC and WVP, and higher WS than DD85% films. Static (thermomechanical analysis) and dynamic (dynamic mechanical analysis) tests indicated that sorbitol increased the strain and decreased stress for both DD films, but DD95% could sustain higher strain and DD85% could sustain higher stress. Thermogravimetrics analysis and differential scanning calorimetry showed that sorbitol elicited a lower degradation temperature for both films, and that DD95% films exhibited higher thermal stability than DD85% films.

  12. Acquisition of the ability to assimilate mannitol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dysfunction of the general corepressor Tup1-Cyc8.

    PubMed

    Chujo, Moeko; Yoshida, Shiori; Ota, Anri; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally cannot assimilate mannitol, a promising brown macroalgal carbon source for bioethanol production. The molecular basis of this inability remains unknown. We found that cells capable of assimilating mannitol arose spontaneously from wild-type S. cerevisiae during prolonged culture in mannitol-containing medium. Based on microarray data, complementation analysis, and cell growth data, we demonstrated that acquisition of mannitol-assimilating ability was due to spontaneous mutations in the genes encoding Tup1 or Cyc8, which constitute a general corepressor complex that regulates many kinds of genes. We also showed that an S. cerevisiae strain carrying a mutant allele of CYC8 exhibited superior salt tolerance relative to other ethanologenic microorganisms; this characteristic would be highly beneficial for the production of bioethanol from marine biomass. Thus, we succeeded in conferring the ability to assimilate mannitol on S. cerevisiae through dysfunction of Tup1-Cyc8, facilitating production of ethanol from mannitol.

  13. Reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on D-sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Etienne, Mathieu; Urbanova, Veronika; Kohring, Gert-Wieland; Walcarius, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on NAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite has been developed. It was prepared by durably immobilizing the NAD(+) cofactor with DSDH in a sol-gel thin film on the surface of carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly(methylene green). This device enables selective determination of D-sorbitol at 0.2 V with a sensitivity of 8.7 μA mmol(-1) L cm(-2) and a detection limit of 0.11 mmol L(-1). Moreover, this biosensor has excellent operational stability upon continuous use in hydrodynamic conditions.

  14. Improved cryopreservability of stallion sperm using a sorbitol-based freezing extender.

    PubMed

    Pojprasath, T; Lohachit, C; Techakumphu, M; Stout, T; Tharasanit, T

    2011-06-01

    Cryopreservation of stallion semen is often associated with poor post-thaw sperm quality. Sugars are among the important components of a freezing extender and act as non-permeating cryoprotectants. This study aimed to compare the quality of stallion sperm frozen with glucose, fructose or sorbitol-containing freezing extenders. Semen was collected from six stallions of proven fertility and cryopreserved using a freezing extender containing different types of monosaccharide sugars (glucose, fructose or sorbitol). After thawing, the semen was examined for sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane functionality and sperm longevity. The fertility of semen frozen in the presence of sorbitol was also tested by artificial insemination. Sperm quality was significantly decreased following freezing and thawing (P < 0.05). Fructose was inferior for protecting sperm during cryopreservation when compared to sorbitol and glucose (P < 0.05). Although the viability, motility and acrosome integrity of sperm cryopreserved with a glucose-containing extender did not significantly differ from sperm frozen in the sorbitol-based extender when examined at 2 and 4 h post-thaw, all of these parameters plus plasma membrane functionality were improved for sperm frozen in the sorbitol extender than in the glucose extender when examined 10 min post-thaw. Two of four mares (50%) inseminated with semen frozen with a sorbitol-containing freezing extender became pregnant. It is concluded that different sugars have different abilities to protect against cryoinjury during freezing and thawing of stallion sperm. This study demonstrated that an extender containing sorbitol as primary sugar can be used to successfully cryopreserve equine sperm; moreover, the quality of frozen-thawed sperm appeared to be better than when glucose or fructose was the principle sugar in the freezing extender.

  15. Early neural and vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats are largely sequelae of increased sorbitol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ido, Yasuo; Nyengaard, Jens R; Chang, Kathy; Tilton, Ronald G; Kilo, Charles; Mylari, Banavara L; Oates, Peter J; Williamson, Joseph R

    2010-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to assess the importance of cytoplasmic (c) sorbitol oxidation versus mitochondrial (m) pyruvate oxidation in mediating neural and vascular dysfunction attributable to hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. Increased oxidation of sorbitol is coupled to enzymatic reduction of free oxidized NAD(+)c to reduced NADHc, manifested by an increased ratio of NADH to NAD(+)c. Likewise, increased oxidation of pyruvate is coupled to reduction of NAD(+)m to NADHm, which increases the NADH/NAD(+)m ratio. Specific inhibitors of sorbitol production or sorbitol oxidation normalized: increased diabetic nerve NADH/NAD(+)c, impaired nerve-conduction velocity, and vascular dysfunction in sciatic nerve, retina, and aorta; however, they had little or no impact on increased NADH/NAD(+)m. These observations provide, for the first time, strong in vivo evidence for the primacy of sorbitol oxidation versus. pyruvate oxidation in mediating the metabolic imbalances, impaired nerve conduction, and vascular dysfunction evoked by diabetes. These findings are consistent with (a) the fact that oxidation of sorbitol produces "prooxidant" NADHc uncoupled from subsequent production of "antioxidant" pyruvate required for reoxidation of NADHc to NAD(+)c by lactate dehydrogenase, and (b) the hypothesis that neural and vascular dysfunction in early diabetes are caused primarily by increased NADHc, which fuels superoxide production by NADH-driven oxidases.

  16. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  17. A study of the effect of sorbitol on osmotic tolerance during partial desiccation of bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Sitaula, Ranjan; Fowler, Alex; Toner, Mehmet; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was to improve the partial desiccation survival of bovine sperm by decreasing the dehydration induced osmotic injury. The protective role of sorbitol, a polyol, was investigated by (i) studying the osmotic behavior of sperm in hypertonic Tyrode's buffer in the presence of sorbitol and trehalose, (ii) studying the effect of sorbitol and trehalose on sperm motility following partial dehydration. The osmotic behavior studies included the assessment of motility and volumetric responses in the presence of the additives. For the drying experiments, motility was assayed after drying the samples to different end water content followed by immediate rehydration. Compared to the effect of "intracellular+extracellular" trehalose alone, results showed a much improved motility in the presence of sorbitol and trehalose. While the drying results suggest an enhanced osmotolerance in the presence of sorbitol, the study of motility under hypertonic conditions combined with the sperm volume excursion experiments suggest that sorbitol imparts the enhancement by permeating into the cell cytoplasm.

  18. Variation in sorbitol accumulation and polyol-pathway activity in cultured human proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Flath, M C; Bylander, J E; Sens, D A

    1992-09-01

    The polyol pathway is present in tissues of several organs where its activation may participate in the development of diabetic complications. We measured the accumulation of polyol-pathway intermediates in HPT cells isolated from 21 different human kidneys from nondiabetic individuals. When exposed to 27.5 mM glucose in the growth media, cells isolated from approximately 75% of individuals (accumulators) accumulated sorbitol within 1-4 days, whereas 25% (nonaccumulators) accumulated only negligible amounts, even when the period of exposure was extended to 2 wk. Surprisingly, measurement of the activities of the polyol-pathway enzymes showed no difference in the levels of either AR or SDH between accumulators and nonaccumulators, even when the conversion of galactose to galactitol was used to measure AR activity in intact cells independently of SDH. Measurement of sorbitol in the growth media indicated that nonaccumulators were not releasing sorbitol into the growth media. Fructose levels in the conditioned growth media were 4 times higher in the sorbitol-accumulating cells. Together, these results indicate that the tendency of cells from an individual to accumulate significant amounts of sorbitol may reflect the cells' ability to metabolize sorbitol in steps subsequent to the polyol pathway.

  19. Agar media that indicate acid production from sorbitol by oral microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kalfas, S; Edwardsson, S

    1985-01-01

    Two varieties of agar medium (Trypticase [BBL Microbiology Systems]-serum-sorbitol-bromcresol purple agar [TSSB] and Trypticase-blood-sorbitol-CaCO3 agar [TBSCa]) indicating microbial acid production from sorbitol were tested. The media were devised for use in studies on the prevalence of sorbitol-fermenting human oral microorganisms incubated in an anaerobic or microaerophilic atmosphere containing 5 to 6% CO2. TSSB contains bromcresol purple as the pH indicator and NaHCO3 as the main buffering salt. TBSCa contains CaCO3 as both the buffering salt and the indicator of acid production. The growth yield of pure cultures of oral microorganisms on TBSCa was shown to equal that on blood agar incubated under similar conditions. TSSB inhibited the growth of several bacteria to various extents. The recovery of sorbitol-fermenting microorganisms from oral specimens was the greatest when the specimens were assayed with TBSCa. The poorer results obtained with TSSB were mainly due to the decoloration of the pH indicator in this medium and the presence of greater numbers of sorbitol false-positive colonies. Images PMID:2933424

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays an altered phenotype in vitro when grown in the presence of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Moore, J E; Rendall, J C; Downey, D G

    2015-01-01

    D-mannitol has been approved in dry powder formulation as an effective antimucolytic agent in patients with cystic fibrosis. What is not known is the effect of adding a metabolisable sugar on the biology of chronic bacterial pathogens in the CF lung. Therefore, a series of simple in vitro experiments were performed to examine the effect of adding D-mannitol on the phenotype of the CF respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Clinical isolates (n = 86) consisting of P. aeruginosa (n = 51), B. cenocepacia (n = 26), P. putida (n = 4), Stenotrophomonas maltophila (n = 3) and Pseudomonas spp. (n = 2) were examined by supplementing basal nutrient agar with varying concentrations of D-mannitol (0-20% [w/v]) and subsequently examining for any change in microbial phenotype. The effect of supplementation with mannitol was four-fold, namely i) To increase the proliferation and increase in cell density of all CF organisms examined, with an optimal concentration of 2-4% (w/v) D-mannitol. No such increase in cell proliferation was observed when mannitol was substituted with sodium chloride. ii) Enhanced pigment production was observed in 2/51 (3.9%) of the P. aeruginosa isolates examined, in one of the P. putida isolates, and in 3/26 (11.5%) of the B. cenocepacia isolates examined. iii). When examined at 4.0% (w/v) supplementation with mannitol, 11/51 (21.6%) P. aeruginosa isolates and 3/26 (11.5%) B. cenocepacia isolates were seen to exhibit the altered adhesion phenotype. iv). With respect to the altered mucoid phenotype, 5/51 (9.8%) P. aeruginosa produced this phenotype when grown at 4% mannitol. Mucoid production was greatest at 4%, was poor at 10% and absent at 20% (w/v) mannitol. The altered mucoid phenotype was not observed in the B. cenocepacia isolates or any of the other clinical taxa examined. Due consideration therefore needs to be given, where there is altered physiology within the small airways, leading to a potentially altered

  1. Overexpression of Bacterial mtlD Gene in Peanut Improves Drought Tolerance through Accumulation of Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated. PMID:25436223

  2. Overexpression of bacterial mtlD gene in peanut improves drought tolerance through accumulation of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated.

  3. Roll compaction of mannitol: compactability study of crystalline and spray-dried grades.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carl Moritz; Pein, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-10

    Purpose of this project was to investigate the roll compaction behavior of various mannitol grades. Therefore, five spray-dried grades as well as unprocessed β-d-mannitol were roll compacted with different compaction forces. The resulting granules were characterized with regard to their particle size distribution, flow properties, and BET surface area and compressed to tablets. Granules of unprocessed mannitol, even when applying high compaction forces during dry granulation, were characterized by a high amount of fines (about 21%), a small surface area (0.83 m(2)/g), and solely fair flowability (ffc=7.2). Tablets revealed either high friability or insufficient disintegration behavior. However, the use of spray-dried mannitol led to better results. Granules showed improved flow properties and a reduced amount of fines. Robust tablets with low friability were produced. Within the various spray-dried grades huge differences concerning the compactability were observed. Large BET surface areas of the granules resulted in advanced tensile strengths of the tablets, but acceptable disintegration behavior was maintained. These findings are relevant for the development of mannitol based drug formulations, in particular (oro)dispersible tablets containing a low dose or poor flowing active pharmaceutical ingredient, where direct compression is inappropriate and a granulation process prior to tableting is mandatory.

  4. Improvement in Myocardial Function and Coronary Blood Flow in Ischemic Myocardium after Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, James T.; Powell, Wm. John; Guiney, Timothy E.; Stark, James J.; Sanders, Charles A.; Leaf, Alexander

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperosmolality on the performance of, and the collateral blood flow to, ischemic myocardium. The myocardial response to mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent which remains extracellular, was evaluated in anesthetized dogs. Mannitol was infused into the aortic roots of 31 isovolumic hearts and of 15 dogs on right heart bypass, before and during ischemia. Myocardial ischemia was produced by temporary ligation of either the proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery. Mannitol significantly improved the depressed ventricular function curves which occurred with left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Mannitol also significantly lessened the S-T segment elevation (epicardial electrocardiogram) occurring during myocardial ischemia in the isovolumic hearts and this reduction was associated with significant increases in total coronary blood flow (P < 0.005) and with increased collateral coronary blood flow to the ischemia area (P < 0.005). Thus, increases in serum osmolality produced by mannitol result in the following beneficial changes during myocardial ischemia: (a) improved myocardial function, (b) reduced S-T segment elevation, (c) increased total coronary blood flow, and (d) increased collateral coronary blood flow. PMID:4640943

  5. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties.

  6. Effect of cyclophosphamide on the solid form of mannitol during lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krupaliben; Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2017-04-01

    Mannitol is a commonly used bulking agent in lyophilized formulations. It can crystallize into multiple solid forms during lyophilization thereby exhibiting phase heterogeneity and variability in product performance. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug, on the solid form of mannitol during lyophilization from aqueous solutions. Freeze-concentration studies were performed in the DSC while lyophilization was performed in a lab scale freeze dryer. DSC experiments revealed two-stage crystallization of mannitol (1.5% w/v) during freeze-concentration, evident as two distinct exothermic events (at -18.2°C and -30°C) in the cooling curve. This was complemented by two eutectic melting endotherms in the subsequent heating curve. Addition of CPA (4.0% w/v) completely inhibited the exotherm at -18.2°C, but enhanced the enthalpy of exotherm at -30°C by five folds. Likewise, only one eutectic melting endotherm was observed in the subsequent heating curve. Lyophilization of the solution containing only mannitol, yielded a mixture of β- (major) and δ- (minor) polymorphs of mannitol. However, in the presence of CPA, only δ-polymorph was observed in the lyophilized sample. This selective favoring of the metastable δ-polymorph over the stable β-polymorph, was explained by altered freezing kinetics of the solution in presence of CPA. The study provides mechanistic insights into solute crystallization behaviour during lyophilization of multi-component systems.

  7. Stoichiometry and Substrate Affinity of the Mannitol Transporter, EnzymeIImtl, from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Gertjan; Broos, Jaap; Poolman, Bert; Scheek, Ruud M.

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and consecutive phosphorylation of mannitol in Escherichia coli is catalyzed by the mannitol permease EnzymeIImtl. The substrate is bound at an extracellular-oriented binding site, translocated to an inward-facing site, from where it is phosphorylated, and subsequently released into the cell. Previous studies have shown the presence of both a high- and a low-affinity binding site with KD-values in the nano- and micromolar range, respectively. However, reported KD-values in literature are highly variable, which casts doubts about the reliability of the measurements and data analysis. Using an optimized binding measurement system, we investigated the discrepancies reported in literature, regarding both the variability in KD-values and the binding stoichiometry. By comparing the binding capacity obtained with flow dialysis with different methods to determine the protein concentration (UV-protein absorption, Bradford protein detection, and a LDH-linked protein assay to quantify the number of phosphorylation sites), we proved the existence of only one mannitol binding site per dimeric species of unphosphorylated EnzymeIImtl. Furthermore, the affinity of EnzymeIImtl for mannitol appeared to be dependent on the protein concentration and seemed to reflect the presence of an endogenous ligand. The dependency could be simulated assuming that >50% of the binding sites were occupied with a ligand that shows an affinity for EnzymeIImtl in the same range as mannitol. PMID:15879478

  8. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph; however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties. PMID:26553127

  9. Mannitol has no impact on renal function after open partial nephrectomy in solitary kidneys.

    PubMed

    Omae, Kenji; Kondo, Tsunenori; Takagi, Toshio; Iizuka, Junpei; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2014-02-01

    Mannitol has been administered during partial nephrectomy as a renal protective agent for ischemic damage. However, we do not have any high-level clinical evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol during open partial nephrectomy by comparing the postoperative renal function of patients who received it and those who did not. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 55 patients who underwent open partial nephrectomy for renal cancer in a solitary kidney from January 1990 to December 2012, and who were followed up postoperatively for at least 6 months. Of the 55 patients, mannitol was given to 20 patients (group M+) and not to the other 35 patients (group M-). We compared not only the postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, but also its decrease rate and the incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative patient characteristics between the two groups. Mannitol made no significant difference in both the postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate and its decrease rate at any point within 6 months of the postoperative period. The incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis was one (5.0%) in group M+ and two (5.7%) in group M-. These findings suggest that there might be no advantage from the administration of mannitol during open partial nephrectomy.

  10. Effect of salt nutrients on mannitol production by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C

    2006-10-01

    The effects of four salt nutrients (ammonium citrate, sodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, and manganese sulfate) on the production of mannitol by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 in a simplified medium containing 300 g fructose, 5 g soy peptone, and 50 g corn steep liquor per liter in pH-controlled fermentation at 5.0 at 37 degrees C were evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Only manganese sulfate was found to be essential for mannitol production. Added manganese sulfate concentration of 0.033 g/l was found to support maximum production. The bacterium produced 200.6 +/- 0.2 g mannitol, 61.9 +/- 0.1 g lactic acid, and 40.4 +/- 0.3 g acetic acid from 300 g fructose per liter in 67 h.

  11. A fiber-optic sorbitol biosensor based on NADH fluorescence detection toward rapid diagnosis of diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Gessei, Tomoko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-09-21

    Accumulation of sorbitol in the tissue is known to cause microvascular diabetic complications. In this paper, a fiber-optic biosensor for sorbitol which is used as a biomarker of diabetic complications was developed and tested. The biosensor used a sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas with high substrate specificity and detected the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the enzymatic reaction. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) was used as the excitation light source of NADH. The fluorescence of NADH was detected using a spectrometer or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The UV-LED and the photodetector were coupled using a Y-shaped optical fiber. In the experiment, an optical fiber probe with a sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized membrane was placed in a cuvette filled with a phosphate buffer containing the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The changes in NADH fluorescence intensity were measured after adding a standard sorbitol solution. According to the experimental assessment, the calibration range of the sorbitol biosensor systems using a spectrometer and a PMT was 5.0-1000 μmol L(-1) and 1.0-1000 μmol L(-1), respectively. The sorbitol biosensor system using the sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas has high selectivity and sensitivity compared with that from sheep liver. The sorbitol biosensor allows for point-of-care testing applications or daily health care tests for diabetes patients.

  12. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  13. Molecular basis for competitive solvation of the Burkholderia cepacia lipase by sorbitol and urea.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivan P; Martínez, Leandro

    2016-08-21

    Increasing the stability of proteins is important for their application in industrial processes. In the intracellular environment many small molecules, called osmolytes, contribute to protein stabilization under physical or chemical stress. Understanding the nature of the interactions of these osmolytes with proteins can help the design of solvents and mutations to increase protein stability in extracellular media. One of the most common stabilizing osmolyes is sorbitol and one of the most common chemical denaturants is urea. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a detailed picture of the solvation of the Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL) in the presence of the protecting osmolyte sorbitol and of the urea denaturant. We show that both sorbitol and urea compete with water for interactions with the protein surface. Overall, sorbitol promotes the organization of water in the first solvation shell and displaces water from the second solvation shell, while urea causes opposite effects. These effects are, however, highly heterogeneous among residue types. For instance, the depletion of water from the first protein solvation shell by urea can be traced down essentially to the side chain of negatively charged residues. The organization of water in the first solvation shell promoted by sorbitol occurs at polar (but not charged) residues, where the urea effect is minor. By contrast, sorbitol depletes water from the second solvation shell of polar residues, while urea promotes water organization at the same distances. The interactions of urea with negatively charged residues are insensitive to the presence of sorbitol. This osmolyte removes water and urea particularly from the second solvation shell of polar and non-polar residues. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the diversity of protein-solvent interactions, which can guide further investigations on the stability of proteins in non-conventional media, and assist solvent and

  14. [The interrelation of the antimutagenic action of mannitol to its effect on cellular metabolic processes].

    PubMed

    Aliev, A A; Ragimova, G K; Gadzhiev, R R; Alekperov, U K

    1992-01-01

    The mannitol influence on mutagenesis of ionizing radiation and cyclophosphate has been studied in albino mongrel rats using the methods of genetic and biochemical analysis. N correlation is determined between antimutagenic action of this preparation and a decrease of malondialdehyde content in cells and free fractions of matrix lysosomes (beta-galactosidase; N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase) and firmly membrane-structurized microsomal (glucose-6-phosphatase) enzymes, whose level increases under the influence of mutagens. It is shown that, one of the way of antimutagenic actions of mannitol is connected with mutagenesis correction at the stage of origin of mutagenic products and their transport to chromosome DNA.

  15. Improved tabletability after a polymorphic transition of delta-mannitol during twin screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, B; Peeters, E; De Beer, T; Remon, J-P; Vervaet, C

    2016-06-15

    In most formulations processed via continuous twin screw granulation microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and/or lactose are used as excipients, but mannitol is also a preferred excipient for wet granulation and tableting due to its non-hygroscopicity and inertness. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of process parameters on critical quality attributes of granules (moisture content, solid state, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area, friability, flowability and hygroscopicity) and tablets (tensile strength and friability) after twin screw granulation of δ-mannitol. The δ-polymorph was selected since a moisture-induced transformation to β-mannitol was observed during batch wet granulation, which exhibited a unique morphology with a large surface area and improved tabletability. A full factorial experimental design was performed, varying screw speed (400-900rpm), granulation temperature (25-40°C), number of kneading elements (6 or 12) and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, on the granulation unit of a ConsiGma™-25 line (a continuous powder-to-tablet manufacturing system). After tray drying the granules were milled and tableted. The results showed that the polymorphic transition from δ- to β-mannitol also occurred during twin screw granulation, although the residence time and L/S ratios were much lower in continuous twin screw granulation compared to batch processing. However, the polymorphic transition was not complete in all experiments and depended on the L/S ratio, screw speed and number of kneading elements. Nevertheless all granules exhibited the unique morphology linked to the polymorphic transition and had a superior tabletability compared to granules produced with β-mannitol as starting material. This was attributed to enhanced plastic deformation of the granules manufactured using δ-mannitol as starting material. In addition, it was concluded that mannitol was granulated via a different mechanism than

  16. Partitioning and transport of the translocates mannitol and sucrose in the light and dark in celery (Apium Graveolens L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Loescher, W.H.

    1987-04-01

    Sucrose and mannitol are major photosynthetic products and translocates in celery. Assimilate partitioning and transport were studied by pulse-labeling leaves with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ followed by different length chases in ambient air. After a 2 h chase in the light there was more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol in source leaves and their petioles. In contrast after a 2 h dark chase leaves contained more /sup 14/C in mannitol than sucrose but petioles had more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol. After a 15 h chase (6 h light; 9 h dark) labeled sucrose was higher in source petiole vascular bundles than in adjacent parenchyma tissue but label in glucose and fructose was higher in the parenchyma tissue. After the 15 h chase most of the /sup 14/C remaining in developing sink leaves and their petioles was in mannitol. Although in the light mannitol:sucrose ratios are the same in leaf and petiole tissues, in the dark sucrose is initially the major translocate with mannitol becoming more important as leaf sucrose pools are depleted. When synthesized, sucrose is rapidly transported and then metabolized to hexose sugars whereas mannitol is used both for transport and storage.

  17. Effect of Mannitol on Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Amorphous Flavonoids: Implications on the Formation of Nanocrystalline Solid Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Shete, Ganesh; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we studied crystallization kinetics of amorphous hesperetin (HRN) and naringenin (NRN) alone, and in 1:1 proportion with mannitol at Tg + 15 K. Crystallization rate of NRN was found to be significantly higher than HRN. Mannitol accelerated crystallization of HRN as well as NRN. NRN exhibited higher crystallization rate than HRN, in presence of mannitol, as well. Finke-Watzky model was used to deconvolute the crystallization kinetics data into nucleation and crystal growth rate constant. HRN alone had 9.56 × 10(9) times faster nucleation rate and 1.88 times slower crystal growth than NRN alone. Mannitol increased nucleation and crystal growth rate of HRN as well as NRN. In presence of mannitol, HRN possessed 1.34 × 10(10) times faster nucleation rate and 1.70 times slower crystal growth rate than NRN. Differences in crystallization behavior of HRN and NRN were explained by their thermodynamic properties.

  18. Differential response of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells to high salt, sorbitol, and urea.

    PubMed

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2012-03-01

    Nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells are routinely confronted with high osmolality in their microenvironment and respond to this stress in vitro by regulating cell cycle progression and by activating a DNA repair machinery in order to counteract its genotoxic effect. In the present study, we attempted to identify the origin of this osmo-regulatory response, by using an ionic NaCl/KCl solution, the compatible osmolyte sorbitol, and the readily permeant urea. High salt and sorbitol were found to activate similar molecular pathways, including the p38 MAPK and the p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb axis, that were not stimulated by high urea. On the other hand, only high urea led to the phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs. Furthermore, salt- and sorbitol-treated cells were able to phosphorylate histone H2A.X on Ser139, in contrast to cells exposed to urea, indicating a common mechanism for DNA repair, which was achieved by a p53-dependent activation of the G1 checkpoint by both solutes. DNA repair, as directly measured by a host cell reactivation assay, occurred under conditions of hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol, although to a lesser extent in sorbitol-treated cells than in cells exposed to high salinity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the hyperosmolality-provoked DNA damage and the responses of nucleus pulposus cells induced by this genotoxic stress most probably originate from cell volume alterations mediated by hypertonicity and not from increased intracellular ionic concentration.

  19. Molecular evidence of sorbitol dehydrogenase in tomato, a non-Rosaceae plant.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazuhiro; Moriguchi, Ryo; Kanahama, Koki; Yamaki, Shohei; Kanayama, Yoshinori

    2005-12-01

    The enzyme NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) is well characterized in the Rosaceae family of fruit trees, which synthesizes sorbitol as a translocatable photosynthate. Expressed sequence tags of SDH-like sequences have also been generated from various non-Rosaceae species that do not synthesize sorbitol as a primary photosynthetic product, but the physiological roles of the encoded proteins in non-Rosaceae plants are unknown. Therefore, we isolated an SDH-like cDNA (SDL) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested that SDL exists in the tomato genome as a single-copy gene. Northern blot analysis showed that SDL is ubiquitously expressed in tomato plants. Recombinant SDL protein was produced and purified for enzymatic characterization. SDL catalyzed the interconversion of sorbitol and fructose with NAD (H). SDL showed highest activity for sorbitol among the several substrates tested. SDL showed no activity with NADP+. Thus, SDL was identified as a SDH, although the Km values and substrate specificity of SDL were significantly different from those of SDH purified from the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), a Rosaceae fruit tree. In addition, tomato was transformed with antisense SDL to evaluate the contribution of SDL to SDH activity in tomato. The transformation decreased SDH activity to approximately 50% on average. Taken together, these results provide molecular evidence of SDH in tomato, and SDL was renamed LeSDH.

  20. Effect of seasonal and geographical differences on skin and effect of treatment with an osmoprotectant: Sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Muizzuddin, Neelam; Ingrassia, Michael; Marenus, Kenneth D; Maes, Daniel H; Mammone, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human skin maintains an optimal permeability barrier function in a terrestrial environment that varies considerably in humidity. Cells cultured under hyperosmotic stress accumulate osmolytes including sorbitol. Epidermal keratinocytes experience similar high osmolality under dry environmental conditions because of increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and concomitant drying of the skin. This study was designed to determine if epidermal keratinocytes, in vitro, could be protected from high osmotic stress, with the exogenous addition of sorbitol. In addition, we evaluated the effect of a formulation containing topical sorbitol on skin barrier and moisturization of subjects living in arid and humid regions in summer as well as in winter. Results from in vitro experiments showed that 50 mM sorbitol protected epidermal keratinocytes from osmotic toxicity induced by sodium chloride. Clinical studies indicated that skin chronically exposed to hot, dry environment appeared to exhibit stronger skin barrier and a lower baseline TEWL. In addition, skin barrier was stronger in summer than in winter. Sorbitol exhibited significant improvement in both barrier repair and moisturization, especially in individuals subjected to arid environmental conditions.

  1. Tissue sorbitol concentration can be altered by changing the type of dietary carbohydrate or copper status

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M. )

    1989-02-09

    This study was designed to determine whether rehabilitation of tissue sorbitol concentration occurs when rats consuming a high-fructose, low-copper diet are changed to diets containing starch or copper. Weanling male rats were provided with a diet which contained 62.7% fructose and 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g (F-Cu) for 4 weeks and then changed to either a fructose diet which contained 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g or a starch diet which contained either 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g for 2 weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of rats eating copper-deficient diets was about 30% of copper adequate rats regardless of the type of dietary carbohydrate. Pancreatic fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. Kidney fructose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. For all dietary groups, pancreatic and kidney sorbitol concentrations returned to normal after removal of rats from the F-Cu diet. In general, changing rats from a high-fructose, low-copper diet to a fructose diet with copper or a starch diet with or without copper improved the copper deficiency symptoms which changed in concert with tissue sorbitol levels.

  2. Compliance with Xylitol and Sorbitol Chewing Gum Regimens in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    BRETZ, WALTER A.; ROSA, ODILA P. S.; SILVA, SALETE M. B.; CORBY, PATRICIA M. A.; MILANDA, MARCELO; LOESCHE, WALTER J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance of long-term xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens in adult women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Design The participants included 122 mothers (age range: 16–35 years) residing in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Compliance with the xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens was assessed by weighing, with a precision balance, all used gums returned in zip-lock bags during the study period of 33 months. The total number of returned bags in both chewing gum groups was computed and the differences between groups were determined by one-way ANOVA. Compliance was further categorized into excellent, good, fair or poor based on the distribution of the combined data for both groups by quartiles. These distributions for the xylitol and sorbitol groups were subjected to chi-square analysis. Results Compliance was always superior for the xylitol group in all categories. These distributions were, however, not significantly different in statistical terms. Average compliance in the xylitol chewing gum group was significantly higher when compared to the sorbitol chewing gum group (p=0.0481). Conclusions The results suggest that compliance, and possibly acceptance in this population, was superior for xylitol chewing gum than for sorbitol chewing gum. PMID:22241940

  3. Continuous Isosorbide Production From Sorbitol Using Solid Acid Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.; Holladay,J.; Jaffe, M.; Brunelle, D.

    2006-09-29

    This is a final report for a project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board was the principal contracting entity for the grant. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with General Electric, Pacific Northwest National Lab and New Jersey Institute of Technology to conduct research in this project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and General Electric provided cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate both the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project has led to additional collaborations among other polymer companies. The goals of the project were to develop a renewable route to isosorbide for commercialization that is economically competitive with all existing production technologies and to develop new applications for isosorbide in various products such as polymers and materials. Under this program a novel process for the production of isosorbide was developed and evaluated. The novel process converts corn based sorbitol into isosorbide using a solid catalyst with integrated water removal and product recovery. In addition the work under this program has identified several novel products based on isosorbide chemistries. These market applications include: epoxy resins, UV stabilizers, plasticizers and polyesters. These market applications have commercial interest within the current polymer industry. This report contains an overview summary of the accomplishments. Six inventions and four patent applications have been written as a result of this project. Additional data will be published in the patent applications. The data developed at New Jersey Institute of Technology was presented at two technical conferences held in June of 2006. Several companies have made inquiries about using this material in their products.

  4. Unusual carbon partitioning during phosphate deficiency in celery, a mannitol-synthesizing species

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, R.H.; Loescher, W.H. )

    1989-04-01

    Mannitol and sucrose are the main photosynthetic products and translocated carbon compounds in celery (Apium graveolens L.). Carbon partitioning was studied in greenhouse-grown celery plants supplied with a nutrient solution containing or lacking phosphate (P). P-deficient plants developed new leaves at about the same rate as control plants, but showed greatly reduced growth of leaves and petioles; root growth was apparently unaffected. P-deficient leaves contained less mannitol and more sucrose than control leaves. Starch content increased with P-deficiency only in mature (the most photosynthetically-active) leaves, and then amounted to less than 10 mg/g fresh weight. Similarly, when {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was supplied to intact plants, P-deficient leaves contained less label in mannitol and more in sucrose than did control leaves; labeling of starch changed little. The P-status of celery leaves apparently affects the partitioning of carbon between mannitol and sucrose more than it affects starch accumulation. This is in marked contrast to the large increase in starch content commonly observed during P-deficiency in species that produce and translocate predominantly sucrose.

  5. A comparison of trehalose dihydrate and mannitol as stabilizing agents for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate based tablets.

    PubMed

    Landín, M; Fontao, M J; Martínez-Pacheco, R

    2005-03-01

    This study investigated the possible utility of trehalose dihydrate (TD) as a tablet stabilizing agent. Acetylsalicylic acid was used as the model hydrolyzable drug and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) as the base excipient, because it is well documented that ASA/DCPD tablets are unstable during storage at low temperature and high relative humidity; DCPD is usually combined with mannitol in order to improve tablet stability. Tablets comprising DCPD, 10% ASA, and 0%, 10%, or 20% w/w of TD were prepared by direct compression and stored at 35 degrees C and 82.9% relative humidity for 6 months. Additionally, control tablets with DCPD and ASA, only, or with DCPD, ASA and 20% mannitol, were also evaluated. At predetermined time intervals, formulations were tested for drug content, mechanical, microstructural, and drug dissolution properties. Additionally, thermal analyses and ASA solution stability studies were carried out. Results reveal that both TD and mannitol significantly reduce degradation of ASA included in DCPD-based tablets, but neither effectively protects against the marked decline in tablet mechanical properties on aging. The ASA stabilization effects of TD and mannitol were also observed in solution, indicating an interaction between these sugars and ASA.

  6. Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  7. Production of Mannitol from a High Concentration of Glucose by Candida parapsilosis SK26.001.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Wenting; Mu, Wanmeng; Miao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    A novel strain, SK26.001, which can produce mannitol from a high concentration of glucose without the addition of fructose, was isolated from sugarcane juice. This strain was identified as Candida parapsilosis based on 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis and the morphological and physiological-biochemical characteristics of the strain. Under optimized fermentation conditions, the mannitol concentration in shake flasks reached 68.5 g/L. When batch fermentation was performed, the fed glucose was completely consumed after 72 h, resulting in a final mannitol concentration of 80.3 g/L. Fed-batch fermentation was then performed with glucose feed. During the fed-batch process, ammonia water was added to maintain the pH at 4.0. The mannitol concentration in the fermenter reached 97.1 g/L after 120 h, with a total glucose consumption of 284 g/L.

  8. Quantum chemical density functional theory studies on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Swaminathan, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-02-25

    A collective experimental and theoretical study was conducted on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of mannitol were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, thermodynamic functions and atomic charges of mannitol in the ground state have been calculated by using the ab initio HF (Hartree-Fock) and density functional methods (B3LYP) invoking cc-pVDZ basis set. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of Total Energy Distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes. The UV absorption spectra of the title compound dissolved in water. Natural bond orbital analysis has been carried out to explain the charge transfer or delocalization of charge due to the intra-molecular interactions. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO methods. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) of this novel molecular system and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of mannitol are calculated using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ and HF/cc-pVDZ methods on the finite-field approach. By using TD-DFT calculation, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with experimental one is established. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) have been investigated using theoretical calculations, the calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that the charge transfer within the molecule.

  9. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, δ and β crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the β-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment.

  10. Comparison of the effects of glycerol, mannitol, and urea on ischemic hippocampal damage in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, K; Katayama, Y; Kashiwagi, F; Muramatsu, H; Terashi, A

    1994-01-01

    The effects of glycerol and mannitol, as well as urea, on delayed neuronal death (DND) in the gerbil hippocampus were investigated. 20% solution of glycerol, mannitol and urea were prepared, and 6.5 ml/kg of each agent, or saline, was administered to male Mongolian gerbils intraperitoneally 30 min before ischemia. The animals were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min. Seven days after the ischemic insult, the brains were fixed and stained for histopathological analysis. The number of normal neurons (neuronal density, ND) in a 1 mm linear length of hippocampal CA1 region was counted. ND of sham-operated group (n = 6) was 275.3 +/- 16.7 (mean +/- SD). ND in the saline-treated group (n = 6) was 14.8 +/- 5.0. ND of groups treated with glycerol (n = 6), mannitol (n = 6) and urea (n = 4) was 68.2 +/- 56.7 (p < 0.01), 52.8 +/- 54.4 (p < 0.01) and 12.0 +/- 2.5 (NS), respectively. The present study demonstrates that glycerol and mannitol have some protective effects against DND in the gerbil hippocampus, whereas urea has no effect.

  11. Isolation, Solubility, and Characterization of D-Mannitol Esters of 4-Methoxybenzeneboronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Antonio; Marinaro, William A; Day, Victor W; Stella, Valentino J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aqueous solubility of a model phenyl boronic acid, 4-methoxybenzeneboronic acid, as a function of pH both in the absence and in the presence of varying D-mannitol concentration. Solid isolated D-mannitol esters were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray studies, and the boronic acid-to-D-mannitol ratio was quantified by HPLC. Hydrolysis of the monoester was studied using UV spectral differences between the monoester and the parent boronic acid. Two D-mannitol esters of 4-methoxybenzeneboronic acid were isolated. The triboronate ester was very insoluble whereas a symmetrical monoboronate monohydrate was also less soluble than the parent. Both esters were crystalline. The monoboronate monohydrate was, however, more soluble than the parent at alkaline pH values due to its lower pKa value (6.53) compared to the parent acid (9.41). Hydrolysis of the monoboronate was extremely fast when even small amount of water was added to dry acetonitrile solutions of the ester. The hydrolysis was buffer concentration dependent and apparent pH sensitive with hydrolysis accelerated by acid. Implications affecting the formulation of future boronic acid drugs are discussed.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573

    PubMed Central

    Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

  13. Mannitol and other osmotic diuretics as adjuncts for treating cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okoromah, Christy AN; Afolabi, Bosede B; Wall, Emma CB

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral oedema occurs with cerebral malaria, and some clinicians think osmotic diuretics, such as mannitol or urea, may improve outcomes. Objectives To compare mannitol or urea to placebo or no diuretic for treating children or adults with cerebral malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (Issue 4, 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 12, 2010), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2010), EMBASE (1974 to November 2010), LILACS (1982 to November 2010), and the reference lists of articles. We contacted relevant organizations and researchers. Selection criteria Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mannitol or urea to placebo or no treatment in children and adults with cerebral malaria. Primary outcomes were death, life-threatenining sequelae and major neurological sequelae at six months. Data collection and analysis Two authors applied the inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data independently. Main results One trial met the inclusion criteria, comparing mannitol 20% to saline placebo in 156 Ugandan children. Allocation was concealed. No difference in mortality, time to regain consciousness, or neurological sequelae were detected. Authors’ conclusions There are insufficient data to know what the effects of osmotic diuretics are in children with cerebral malaria. Larger, multicentre trials are needed. PMID:21491391

  14. Phase change of nickel phosphide catalysts in the conversion of cellulose into sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengfei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    Nickel phosphide catalysts supported on activated carbon were tested for the conversion of cellulose in water. High sorbitol yields of over 60% were obtained with high cellulose conversions at 503 K and 5 MPa of H(2) . It is interesting that an amorphous nickel phosphide phase is generated from a crystalline phase during the increase in temperature and that the amorphous phase is responsible for the high yield of sorbitol. The optimization of the reaction parameters indicates that the increase of the amorphous part in the cellulose is the key to obtaining high yields of sorbitol. A phase change of the nickel phosphide is observed, which can be correlated to the change in catalytic activity.

  15. Development of a promoter shutoff system in Aspergillus oryzae using a sorbitol-sensitive promoter.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ken; Terado, Shiho; Toyoura, Rieko; Fukuda, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Promoter shutoff is a general method for analyzing essential genes, but in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, no tightly repressed promoters have been reported. To overcome the current limitations of conditional promoters, we examined sorbitol- and galactose-responsive genes using microarrays to identify regulatable genes with only minor physiological and genetic effects. We identified two sorbitol-induced genes (designated as sorA and sorB), cloned their promoters, and built a regulated egfp and brlA expression system. Growth medium-dependent enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fluorescence and conidiation were confirmed for egfp and brlA under the control of their respective promoters. We also used this shutoff system to regulate the essential rhoA, which demonstrated the expected growth inhibition under repressed growth conditions. Our new sorbitol promoter shutoff system developed can serve as a valuable new tool for essential gene analyses of filamentous fungi.

  16. An isocratic HPLC method for the determination of sorbitol and glycerol in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Simonzadeh, Ninus; Ronsen, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    Sorbitol and glycerol, along with other inactive ingredients such as preservatives and dyes, are commonly used in various pharmaceutical and personal care products. To accurately assess the effectiveness of various formulations containing sorbitol and/or glycerol, their quantitative determination is essential. In the current study, two types of detectors (a Varian evaporative light scattering detector and an Agilent ultraviolet-visible detector) are evaluated for the assay of working sample solutions. The two detection techniques are complimentary, and a comparison of the results obtained using the two detectors is presented here. The current method is shown to be stability-indicating and free from interference from any of the formulation excipients and potential degradation products. The method is reproducible, accurate, sensitive and selective. It provides enhanced detection sensitivity for sorbitol and comparable sensitivity for glycerol versus similar methods reported in the literature that utilize a refractive index detector for the analysis of either of the two polyols.

  17. Stress-induced changes in accumulation of sorbitol and in activities of concomitant enzymes in digestive gland of freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, I L; Konichev, A S

    2009-11-01

    Sorbitol content was determined in the digestive gland of freshwater snail (Viviparus viviparus L.) in different seasons and in a short-term experiment on the water temperature decrease and on intoxication with cadmium chloride. In the model experiments, changes in activities of enzymes involved in sorbitol metabolism (acid phosphatases, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and aldose reductase) were also studied. Sorbitol was accumulated by the snail in response to the temperature decrease (as a cryoprotectant) and under conditions of acute intoxication (as a probable metabolic regulator or a nonspecific protective factor). However, the mechanisms of this accumulation are different: on cold adaptation sorbitol is produced as a result of reduction of glucose under the influence of aldose reductase, and on intoxication sorbitol is mainly produced from fructose under the influence of sorbitol dehydrogenase. Pathways of the sorbitol accumulation and its re-involvement into metabolism are not always the same, and this might be a mechanism for regulation of carbohydrate metabolism (at the initial stage of glycolysis) on adaptation to unfavorable factors of the environment.

  18. Effect of sorbitol and glycerol on the stability of trypsin and difference between their stabilization effects in the various solvents.

    PubMed

    Pazhang, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, Faramarz; Pazhang, Yaghub; Falahati, Hanieh; Chaparzadeh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glycerol and sorbitol on the stability of porcine pancreas trypsin was investigated in this work. Molecular dynamics simulation and thermostability results showed that trypsin has two flexible regions, and polyols (sorbitol and glycerol) stabilize the enzyme by decreasing the flexibility of these regions. Radial distribution function results exhibited that sorbitol and glycerol were excluded from the first water layer of the enzyme, therefore decrease the flexibility of the regions by preferential exclusion. Also, results showed that the stabilization effect of sorbitol is more than glycerol. This observation could be because of the larger decrease in the fluctuations of trypsin in the presence of sorbitol. We also examined the role of solvent's hydrophobicity in enzyme stabilization by sorbitol and glycerol. To do so, the thermostability of trypsin was evaluated in the presence of solvents with different hydrophobicity (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol) in addition to the polyols. Our results depicted that glycerol is a better stabilizer than sorbitol in the presence of hydrophobic solvents (n-propanol), whereas sorbitol is a better stabilizer than glycerol in the presence of hydrophilic solvents (methanol).

  19. Three-generation reproduction study of rats ingesting up to 10% sorbitol in the diet--and a brief review of the toxicological status of sorbitol.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, K M; Hauck, W N; Wheeler, A G; Roe, F J

    1986-03-01

    Groups of 12 male and 24 female 5-wk-old Charles River CD (SD) BR rats (F0) were fed a sucrose-containing ground cereal-based diet in which 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w) sorbitol was included at the expense of sucrose. The rats were first mated after 14 wk on the diet. F1a litters were born 19 wk after the start of the study and F1b litters at wk 30. Groups of 12 male and 24 female F1b rats were first mated when 18 wk old. They gave rise to F2a litters after 3 wk and to F2b litters 10 wk later. Likewise, groups of 12 male and 24 female F2b rats were first mated when 18 wk old, producing F3a and F3b litters 3 wk and 10 wk later, respectively. F0 rats were killed 33 wk after the start of the study, F1a in wk 22, F1b in wk 68, F2a in wk 57, F2b in wk 92 and F3a in wk 96. Apart from slight reductions in food consumption in sorbitol-fed F1b males and in body-weight gain in sorbitol-fed F0, F1b and F2b rats of both sexes, treatment was associated with no clinically observed effects. There were no deaths attributable to treatment and no adverse effects on mating performance or pregnancy rates in the parent animals of any generation. Treatment was associated with no consistent adverse effect on any measure of reproductive performance or behaviour during gestation or lactation. No abnormal pups were observed in any generation. Not unexpectedly, caecal enlargement was consistently observed at necropsy of sorbitol-treated rats of all generations and significant rises in serum calcium were observed in F0 males and females exposed to 10% sorbitol and in F1b males exposed to either 5 or 10% sorbitol. Differences between treated and control F3a rats in respect of T3 and TSH levels were probably spurious as they followed no consistent pattern. Similarly, between-group variations in gonadal weight were considered to have no toxicological significance because they lacked consistency and were not accompanied by any histologically-evident changes. Microscopic examination of lesions from

  20. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  1. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  2. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  3. Purification and properties of membrane-bound D-sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3255.

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, Teruhide; Hoshino, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    D-Sorbitol dehydrogenase was solubilized from the membrane fraction of Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3255 with Triton X-100 in the presence of D-sorbitol. Purification of the enzyme was done by fractionation with column chromatographies of DEAE-Cellulose, DEAE-Sepharose, hydroxylapatite, and Sephacryl HR300 in the presence of Triton X-100. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 800 kDa, consisting of homologous subunits of 80 kDa. The optimum pH of the enzyme activity was 6.0, and the optimum temperature was 30 degrees C. Western blot analysis suggested the occurrence of the enzyme in all the Gluconobacter strains tested.

  4. Structure-property relation in HPMC polymer films plasticized with Sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Y.; Somashekarappa, H.; Mahadevaiah, Somashekar, R.

    2013-06-01

    A correlation study on physical and mechanical properties of Hydroxy propyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films plasticized with different weight ratio of Sorbitol, prepared using solution casting method, was carried out using wide angle X-ray technique and universal testing machine. It is found that the crystallanity decreases as the concentration of Sorbitol increases up to a certain concentration and there afterwards increases. Measured Physical Properties like tensile strength decreases and elongation (%) increases indicating increase in the flexibility of the films. These observations confirm the correlation between microstructal parameters and mechanical properties of films. These films are suitable for packaging food products.

  5. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  6. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  7. Mannitol-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytosis in storage parenchyma cells of celery (Apium graveolens; Apiaceae) petioles.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the occurrence of a sucrose-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytic (FPE) mechanism of nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells. In the present work, the possible enhancement/induction of FPE by photoassimilates other than sucrose was investigated by measuring the incorporation of the fluorescent endocytosis marker d-TR (dextran-Texas red, 3000 mw) into celery (Apium graveolens) petiole storage parenchyma (CSP), a tissue that transports and accumulates mannitol. Mannitol uptake in these cells is biphasic, with a hyperbolic phase at concentrations below 20 mM and a linear phase above 20 mM external solute concentration. In the absence of mannitol, or in its presence at concentrations within the hyperbolic phase, CSP cells accumulated low levels of d-TR. Conversely, d-TR accumulation by CSP cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of mannitol at concentrations within the linear phase. At high external mannitol concentration, d-TR accumulation was prevented by the endocytic inhibitors LY294002 and latrunculin B. In addition, d-TR uptake was temperature dependent under high mannitol concentration. Microscopic observations revealed that d-TR accumulated in the vacuole. These data support the occurrence of an FPE mechanism in CSP cells that participates in trapping and transport of photoassimilates to the vacuole. The FPE mechanism is enhanced by high mannitol concentrations.

  8. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  9. Polymethyl-methacrylate-sorbitol-based capsules as local drug delivery vehicles: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dorottya; Cseh, Gellért; Nagy, Tamás; Pótó, László; Kocsis, Béla; Miseta, Attila

    2011-05-01

    Local delivery of antibiotics via PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis for over 40 years. Unfortunately, PMMA is water insoluble, which seriously limits antibiotic delivery. In addition, the polymerization temperature of PMMA is high, and consequently, only heat-stable antibiotics can be used. Therefore our aim has been to develop an effective antibiotic delivery system, which can be loaded with a wide variety of drugs and deliver the molecules in a predictable manner. Capsules with wall thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm from PMMA mixtures containing 40-70 w/w% (weight percent) of sorbitol were prepared and their permeability tested with BPB (Bromophenol Blue). Sorbitol content and wall thickness correlated with the BPB release. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) showed that the canalization of capsules also was well correlated with both sorbitol content and wall thickness. The PMMA-sorbitol-based capsule can potentially be a versatile tool in assuring effective delivery of antibiotics and other substances.

  10. Characterization of genes involved in D-sorbitol oxidation in thermotolerant Gluconobacter frateurii.

    PubMed

    Soemphol, Wichai; Saichana, Natsaran; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Adachi, Osao; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Toyama, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    Further upstream of sldSLC, genes for FAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter frateurii, three additional genes (sldR, xdhA, and perA) are found: for a transcriptional regulator, NAD(P)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase, and a transporter protein, a member of major facilitator superfamily, respectively. xdhA and perA but not sldR were found to be in the same transcriptional unit. Disruption of sldR resulted in a dramatic decrease in sldSLC promoter activity, indicating that it is an activator for sldSLC expression. The recombinant protein of XdhA expressed in Escherichia coli showed NAD-dependent dehydrogenase activities with xylitol and D-sorbitol, but a mutant strain defective in this gene showed similar activities with both substrates as compared to the wild-type strain. Nonetheless, the growth of the xdhA mutant strain on D-sorbitol and xylitol was retarded, and so was that of a mutant strain defective in perA. These results indicate that xdhA and perA are involved in assimilation of D-sorbitol and xylitol.

  11. Sorbitol as an efficient reducing agent for laser-induced copper deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Safonov, S. V.; Tumkin, I. I.; Tver'yanovich, Yu. S.; Menchikov, L. G.

    2012-10-01

    We have pioneered in revealing the fact that sorbitol may be used as an efficient reducing agent in the process of laser-induced copper deposition from solutions; in this case, it is possible to obtain copper lines much higher quality than by using conventional formalin.

  12. Rapid conversion of sorbitol to isosorbide in hydrophobic ionic liquids under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Murata, Kengo; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Okagawa, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kaiso, Kouji; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol was effectively converted to isosorbide by treatment with [TMPA][NTf2 ] in the presence of catalytic amounts of TsOH under microwave heating at 180 °C. The reaction completed within 10 min and isosorbide was isolated to about 60%. Ionic liquids were readily recovered by an extraction treatment and reused several times.

  13. Ubiquitous distribution and different subcellular localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase in fruit and leaf of apple.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Xu, Yan-Hong; Peng, Chang-Cao; Fan, Ren-Chun; Gao, Xin-Qi

    2009-01-01

    NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), a key enzyme in sorbitol metabolism, plays an important role in regulating sink strength and determining the quality of apple fruit. Understanding the tissue and subcellular localization of NAD-SDH is helpful for understanding sorbitol metabolism in the apple. In this study, two NAD-SDH cDNA sequences were isolated from apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) and named MdSDH5 and MdSDH6. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NAD-SDH is distributed in both the flesh and the vascular tissue of the fruit, and the vascular tissue and mesophyll tissue in the young and old leaves, indicating that it is a ubiquitous protein expressed in both sink and source organs. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that NAD-SDH is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and chloroplast of the fruit and leaves. The chloroplast localization of NAD-SDH was confirmed by the transient expression of MdSDH5-GFP and MdSDH6-GFP in the mesophyll protoplast of Arabidopsis. NAD-SDH was also found in electron opaque deposits of vacuoles in young and mature leaves. These data show that NAD-SDH has different subcellular localizations in fruit and leaves, indicating that it might play a different role in sorbitol metabolism in different tissues of apple.

  14. Genetic approaches to improvement of alcohol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    A single spontaneous mutant of Z. mobilis was isolated which was capable of feeble growth on mannitol as the sole carbohydrate source. Several months of continuous culture, including addition of a mutagen to a chemostat, led to the isolation of a sequential series of mutants, each with improved growth rates on mannitol. Metabolism of mannitol is oxygen-dependent, resulting in limited production of ethanol and increased production of lactic acid. The conversion of mannitol to fructose is apparently via an altered alcohol dehydrogenase. Analogously, for development of another mutant series, very limited growth of Z. mobilis has been obtained on raffinose after extended incubation in shake flasks. Z. mobilis containing the lactose operon fails to grow on lactose. A single plasmid carrying both the lactose and galactose operons was constructed and introduced into Z. mobilis CP4.45, followed by mutation to yield a culture with slow growth on lactose. Z. mobilis SB6 is capable of producing 0.25% ethanol from 5% lactose in 15 days.

  15. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burshtein, N.; Yona, N. Lang; Rudich, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol, which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a). Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m-3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m-3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m-3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposition.

  16. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burshtein, N.; Lang-Yona, N.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a). Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m-3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m-3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m-3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposing.

  17. Transport Properties of Aqueous Glycerol and Aqueous Mannitol through the Zirconium Oxide Membrane

    PubMed

    Blokhra; Sharma; Blokhra

    1997-08-15

    The transport properties of aqueous glycerol and aqueous mannitol across a zirconium oxide membrane are, investigated from the point of view of irreversible thermodynamics. The data on hydrodynamic permeability are analyzed in terms of frictional coefficients and entropy of activation. The phenomenological coefficient characterizing the electroosmotic flow and the membrane characteristics are also estimated for the various solutions with the object of determining the efficiencies of electrokinetic energy conversion and zeta potential. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  18. Mannitol in Amanita muscaria--an osmotic blood-brain barrier disruptor enhancing its hallucinogenic action?

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, E; Kafarski, P

    2013-11-01

    Hypothesis have been made that relatively high level of mannitol present in the tissues of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) enables more efficient transportation of these active substances into the brain and thus enhance their total activity. It may have been supported by the fact that hallucinogenic effect after A. muscaria consumption is greater than after ingestion of an active substance quantity which the eaten fungi dose contain.

  19. Effect of Secondary Doping Using Sorbitol on Structure and Transport Properties of PEDOT-PSS Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasim, Syed; Pasha, Apsar; Roy, Aashish S.; Parveen, Ameena; Badi, Nacer

    2017-03-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT-PSS) in the recent past has emerged as one of the most fascinating conducting polymers for many device applications. The unique feature of PEDOT-PSS is its transparency in the entire visible spectrum with excellent thermal stability. The PEDOT-PSS as prepared as an aqueous dispersion has very low conductivity, and it hinders the performance of a device. In this work we report the conductivity enhancement of PEDOT-PSS thin films through secondary doping using a polar organic solvent such as sorbitol. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement was studied through various physical and chemical characterizations. The effect of sorbitol concentration on structure and transport properties of PEDOT-PSS thin films was investigated in detail. The structural and morphological modifications in PEDOT-PSS due to the addition of sorbitol was studied through Fourier transform spectroscopy, Ultra Violet-visible spectroscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The interactions resulting from conformational changes of PEDOT chains that changes from coiled to linear structure due to the sorbitol treatment significantly improves the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS films. The secondary doping of sorbitol reduces the energy barrier that facilitates the charge carrier hopping leading to enhanced conductivity. We have observed that the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS thin films was increased by two fold due to sorbitol treatment when compared to conductivity of pure PEDOT-PSS. We have carried out detailed analysis of dielectric parameters of sorbitol-treated PEDOT-PSS films and found that sorbitol treatment has a significant effect on various dielectric attributes of PEDOT-PSS films. Hence, secondary doping using sorbitol could be a useful way to effectively tailor the conductivity and dielectric properties of PEDOT-PSS thin films that can be used as flexible electrodes in

  20. Increased risk of cataract development in WNIN-obese rats due to accumulation of intralenticular sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Giridharan, Nappan Veettil; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Validandi, Vakdevi; Pullakhandam, Raghu; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between obesity and increased incidence of ocular complications including cataract, yet the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms remained unclear. Previously we had demonstrated accumulation of sorbitol in the lens of obese rats (WNIN/Ob) and more so in a related strain with impaired glucose tolerance (WNIN/GR-Ob). However, only a few (15-20%) WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob rats develop cataracts spontaneously with age. To gain further insights, we investigated the susceptibility of eye lens proteins of these obese rat strains to heat- and UV-induced aggregation in vitro, lens opacification upon glucose-mediated sorbitol accumulation ex vivo, and onset and progression of cataract was followed by galactose feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The results indicated increased susceptibility toward heat- or UV-induced aggregation of lens proteins in obese animals compared to their littermate lean controls. Further, in organ culture studies glucose-induced sorbitol accumulation was found to be higher and thus the lens opacification was faster in obese animals compared to their lean littermates. Also, the onset and progression of galactose- or STZ-induced cataractogenesis was faster in obese animals compared to lean control. These results together with our previous observations suggest that obesity status could lead to hyperaccumulation of sorbitol in eye lens, predisposing them to cataract, primarily by increasing their susceptibility to environmental and/or physiological factors. Further, intralenticular sorbitol accumulation beyond a threshold level could lead to cataract in WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob rats.

  1. Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Penicillium echinulatum in Submerged Media Containing Cellulose Amended with Sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    Todero Ritter, Carla Eliana; Camassola, Marli; Zampieri, Denise; Silveira, Mauricio Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of sorbitol as a soluble carbon source, in association with cellulose, to produce cellulases and xylanases in submerged cultures of Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1. Because cellulose is an insoluble carbon source, in cellulase production, there are some problems with rheology and oxygen transfer. The submerged fermentations containing media composed of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% (w/v) sorbitol and cellulose that were added at different times during the cultivation; 0.2% (w/v) soy bran; 0.1% (w/v) wheat bran; and a solution of salts. The highest filter paper activity (FPA) (1.95  ±  0.04 IU·mL−1) was obtained on the seventh day in the medium containing 0.5% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.5% (w/v) cellulose added 24 h after the start of cultivation. However, the CMCases showed an activity peak on the sixth day (9.99 ± 0.75 IU·mL−1) in the medium containing 0.75% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.75% (w/v) cellulose added after 12 h of cultivation. The xylanases showed the highest activity in the medium with 0.75% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.25% (w/v) cellulose added 36 h after the start of cultivation. This strategy enables the reduction of the cellulose concentration, which in high concentrations can cause rheological and oxygen transfer problems. PMID:24058733

  2. Molecular cloning and functional expression of mannitol-1-phosphatase from the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Liberator, P; Anderson, J; Feiglin, M; Sardana, M; Griffin, P; Schmatz, D; Myers, R W

    1998-02-13

    A metabolic pathway responsible for the biosynthesis and utilization of mannitol is present in the seven species of Eimeria that infect chickens, but is not in the avian host. Mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase), a key enzyme for mannitol biosynthesis, is a highly substrate-specific phosphatase and, accordingly, represents an attractive chemotherapeutic target. Amino acid sequence of tryptic peptides obtained from biochemically purified Eimeria tenella M1Pase was used to synthesize degenerate oligonucleotide hybridization probes. Using these reagents, a partial genomic clone and full-length cDNA clones have been isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of E. tenella M1Pase shows limited overall homology to members of the phosphohistidine family of phosphatases. This limited homology to other histidine phosphatases does, however, include several conserved residues that have been shown to be essential for their catalytic activity. Kinetic parameters of recombinant M1Pase expressed in bacteria are essentially identical to those of the biochemically purified preparation from E. tenella. Moreover, recombinant M1Pase is subject to active site-directed, hydroxylamine-reversible inhibition by the histidine-selective acylating reagent diethyl pyrocarbonate. These results indicate the presence of an essential histidine residue(s) at the M1Pase active site, as predicted for a histidine phosphatase.

  3. Two-stage fermentation process for enhanced mannitol production using Candida magnoliae mutant R9.

    PubMed

    Savergave, Laxman S; Gadre, Ramchandra V; Vaidya, Bhalchandra K; Jogdand, Vitthal V

    2013-02-01

    Mutants of Candida magnoliae NCIM 3470 were generated by treatment of ultra-violet radiations, ethyl methyl sulphonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutants with higher reductase activity were screened by means of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride agar plate assay. Among the screened mutants, the mutant R9 produced maximum mannitol (i.e. 46 g l(-1)) in liquid fermentation medium containing 250 g l(-1) glucose and hence was selected for further experiments. Preliminary optimization studies were carried out on shake-flask level which increased the mannitol production to 60 g l(-1) in liquid fermentation medium containing 300 g l(-1) glucose. A two-stage fermentation process comprising of growth phase and production phase was employed. During the growth phase, glucose was supplemented and aerobic conditions were maintained. Thereafter, the production phase was initiated by supplementing fructose and switching to anaerobic conditions by discontinuing aeration and decreasing the speed of agitation. The strategy of two-stage fermentation significantly enhanced the production of mannitol up to 240 g l(-1), which is the highest among all fermentative production processes and corresponds to 81 % yield and 4 g l(-1 )h(-1) productivity without formation of any by-product.

  4. Co-Processed Chitin-Mannitol as a New Excipient for Oro-Dispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Daraghmeh, Nidal; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT). The excipient (Cop–CM) consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w) and produced by roll compaction (RC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were used to characterize Cop–CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop–CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a) for Cop–CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661) than that of mannitol (0.576) due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818). Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop–CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop–CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets. PMID:25830680

  5. Effects of L-Lactate and D-Mannitol on γ-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Overdoses of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug of abuse, result in coma, respiratory arrest, and death. The objective of this study was to evaluate a potential GHB detoxification strategy by inhibiting the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated renal reabsorption of GHB in rats, using the MCT substrate L-Lactate. The use of the osmotic diuretic D-mannitol alone or combined with L-Lactate was also explored. GHB (208 mg/h/kg) was infused i.v. for 3 h in the absence or presence of L-Lactate (60.5, 121, and 302.5 mg h−1 kg−1), D-mannitol (0.5 g/kg), or L-Lactate (60.5 mg h−1 kg−1) combined with D-mannitol (0.5 g/kg). GHB in plasma and urine samples was determined along with blood pH, electrolytes, glucose, and L-Lactate. Administration of L-Lactate, or the combination of L-Lactate and D-mannitol, but not D-mannitol alone, significantly increased the renal and total clearances of GHB in rats. Blood pH and electrolyte concentrations exhibited small changes with GHB, GHB/lactate, and GHB/mannitol treatments, although most values remained within their normal range. The concomitant administration of lactated Ringer's solution (28 mM L-Lactate) at 300 µl/min with mannitol (0.5 g/kg) resulted in a significant increase in GHB clearance and a decrease in sleep time after an i.v. dose of 1 g/kg. Overall, our results indicated the following: 1) the use of the MCT inhibitor L-Lactate can increase the renal and total clearances of GHB, and 2) the combination of lactated Ringer's solution and D-mannitol significantly alters GHB toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and represents a potential clinical detoxification strategy for the treatment of GHB overdoses. PMID:18719239

  6. Determination of surface heterogeneity of D-mannitol by sessile drop contact angle and finite concentration inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ho, Raimundo; Hinder, Steven J; Watts, John F; Dilworth, Sarah E; Williams, Daryl R; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2010-03-15

    The sensitivity of two techniques in tracking changes in surface energetics was investigated for a crystalline excipient, D-mannitol. Macroscopic crystals of D-mannitol were grown from saturated water solution by slow cooling, and sessile drop contact angle was employed to measure the anisotropic surface energy. The facet-specific surface energy was consistent with localised hydroxyl group concentrations determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was also in excellent agreement with the surface energy distribution of the powder form of mannitol measured via a new methodology using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at finite concentrations. The gamma(SV)(d) was found to vary between 39.5 mJ/m(2) and 44.1 mJ/m(2) for contact angle and between 40 mJ/m(2) and 49 mJ/m(2) for IGC measurements. We report here, a high level of surface heterogeneity on the native mannitol crystal surfaces. When the surfaces of both D-mannitol samples (powder and large single crystals) were modified by dichlorodimethylsilane to induce surface hydrophobicity, both IGC and contact angle revealed a homogeneous surface due to functionalisation of mannitol crystal surface with methyl groups resulting in gamma(SV)(d) of approximately 34 mJ/m(2). It was shown that both IGC and contact angle techniques are able to detect surface chemical variations and detailed surface energetic distribution.

  7. Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

    2014-07-03

    We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol < 2-propanol for the monohydric alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ≈ xylitol ≈ meso-erythritol < glycerol < ethylene glycol < methanol for the polyhydric alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration.

  8. Mechanistic studies of glass vial breakage for frozen formulations. I. Vial breakage caused by crystallizable excipient mannitol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ge; Akers, Mike; Jain, Manish; Guo, Jeremy; Distler, Adrian; Swift, Rob; Wadhwa, Manpreet-Vick S; Jameel, Feroz; Patro, Sugu; Freund, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    The process of freeze-thaw not only subjects bioproducts to potentially destabilizing stress, but also imposes challenges to retain container integrity. Shipment and storage of frozen products in glass vials and thawing of the vials prior to use at clinics is a common situation. Vial integrity failure during freeze-thaw results in product loss and safety issues. Formulations of biomolecules often include crystallizable excipients, which can cause glass vial breakage during freeze-thaw operations. In this study, mannitol formulations served as models for mechanistic investigation of root causes for vial breakage. Several parameters and their impacts on vial breakage were investigated, including mannitol concentration (5% and 15%), different freeze-thaw conditions (fast, slow, and staging), fill configurations (varying fill volume/vial size ratio), and vial tray materials (plastic, stainless steel, corrugated cardboard, aluminum, and polyurethane foam). The results in this study were subjected to a statistical proportion test. The data showed that large fill volumes strongly correlated with higher percentage of vial cracks. Furthermore, the 15% mannitol was found to cause more breakage than 5% mannitol, especially with fast temperature gradient. Significantly more thawing vial breakage occurred in the fast compared to slow freeze-thaw with all types of vial trays. The freezing breakage was substantially lower than the thawing breakage using the fast temperature gradient, and the trend was reversed with the slow temperature gradient. An intermediate hold at -30 degrees C prior to further decrease in temperature proved to be a practical approach to minimize mannitol-induced vial breakage. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) and strain gage techniques were employed to gain mechanistic insights, and it was found that the primary causes for mannitol-induced vial breakage were partial crystallization during freezing and "secondary" crystallization of non

  9. Simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch using commercial glucoamylase and the subsequent bioconversion to high titer sorbitol and gluconic acid.

    PubMed

    An, Kehong; Hu, Fengxian; Bao, Jie

    2013-12-01

    A new bioprocess for production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from two low-cost feedstocks, inulin and cassava starch, using a commercially available enzyme was proposed in this study. The commercial glucoamylase GA-L NEW from Genencor was found to demonstrate a high inulinase activity for hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose. The glucoamylase was used to replace the expensive and not commercially available inulinase enzyme for simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch into high titer glucose and fructose hydrolysate. The glucose and fructose in the hydrolysate were converted into sorbitol and gluconic acid using immobilized whole cells of the recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain. The high gluconic acid concentration of 193 g/L and sorbitol concentration of 180 g/L with the overall yield of 97.3 % were obtained in the batch operations. The present study provided a practical production method of sorbitol and gluconic acid from low cost feedstocks and enzymes.

  10. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2012-03-01

    The present study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality. Twenty-two ejaculates from 6 fertility-proven Yorkshire boars were cryopreserved by liquid nitrogen vapor method. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and intact functional plasma membrane were determined at 0, 2 and 4 hr after thawing. It was found that the lactose-based extender resulted in a higher percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome and functional plasma membrane than sorbitol-based extender (P<0.05) and fructose-based extender yielded a higher post-thawed sperm motility and viability than sorbitol-based extender (P<0.05). It could be concluded that sorbitol was not an effective sugar for the cryopreservation in boar semen.

  11. A highly efficient sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans G624 and improvement of its stability through immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Su; Patel, Sanjay K. S.; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Jung, Woo-Suk; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-01-01

    A sorbitol dehydrogenase (GoSLDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans G624 (G. oxydans G624) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-CodonPlus RIL. The complete 1455-bp codon-optimized gene was amplified, expressed, and thoroughly characterized for the first time. GoSLDH exhibited Km and kcat values of 38.9 mM and 3820 s−1 toward L-sorbitol, respectively. The enzyme exhibited high preference for NADP+ (vs. only 2.5% relative activity with NAD+). GoSLDH sequencing, structure analyses, and biochemical studies, suggested that it belongs to the NADP+-dependent polyol-specific long-chain sorbitol dehydrogenase family. GoSLDH is the first fully characterized SLDH to date, and it is distinguished from other L-sorbose-producing enzymes by its high activity and substrate specificity. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the protein binds more strongly to D-sorbitol than other L-sorbose-producing enzymes, and substrate docking analysis confirmed a higher turnover rate. The high oxidation potential of GoSLDH for D-sorbitol was confirmed by cyclovoltametric analysis. Further, stability of GoSLDH significantly improved (up to 13.6-fold) after cross-linking of immobilized enzyme on silica nanoparticles and retained 62.8% residual activity after 10 cycles of reuse. Therefore, immobilized GoSLDH may be useful for L-sorbose production from D-sorbitol. PMID:27633501

  12. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  13. Reversible lactic acidosis associated with repeated intravenous infusions of sorbitol and ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Batstone, G. F.; Alberti, K. G.; Dewar, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Infusions of fructose or sorbitol are used commonly in parenteral nutrition and may cause lactic acidosis. A case is reported in whom blood lactate concentration was monitored frequently over a 5-day period during intravenous feeding with a sorbitol-ethanol-amino acid mixture. During the first five infusions blood lactate rose only moderately, but with the final infusion lactate rose to 11-1 mmol/l and the patient had a severe metabolic acidosis. In retrospect the patient had shown deterioration in renal and hepatic function tests during the preceding 24 hr. On terminating the infusions the blood lactate concentration fell rapidly. It is suggested that great care should be exercised when using such infusions in ill patients and acid base status and renal and hepatic function should be monitored frequently. PMID:22069

  14. Brix degree and sorbitol/xylitol level of authentic pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice.

    PubMed

    Türkmen, Ilkay; Ekşi, Aziz

    2011-08-01

    With regard to 45 pomegranate fruits from different regions and several domestic varieties, fruit weight was found to be 137.1-738.2g, peel share 34.4-73.1%, aril share 26.9-65.6% and fruit juice yield 19.2-48.0%. Brix degree of pomegranate juice samples obtained from the aforementioned fruits changed from 12.2 to 17.8 and was lower than 14.0 in approximately 18% of the samples. Titratable acidity of pomegranate juice samples varied between 2.4 and 30g/L and the formol number varied between 4.0 and 20.0. The sorbitol/xylitol content ranged between 16 and 423mg/L, mostly lying between 51 and 200mg/L with a frequency of 64%. The share of samples containing sorbitol/xylitol higher than 250g/L is 7%.

  15. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the tetrameric form of SorC sorbitol operon regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sanctis, Daniele de; Rêgo, Ana T.; Marçal, David; McVey, Colin E.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Enguita, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    The sorbitol operon regulator from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å. The sorbitol operon regulator (SorC) regulates the metabolism of l-sorbose in Klebsiella pneumonia. SorC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and crystals were obtained of a tetrameric form. A single crystal showed X-ray diffraction to 3.20 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 113.3, c = 184.1 Å. Analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates the presence of four SorC molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  16. Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko; Honkala, Eino; Saag, Mare; Kennepohl, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm), dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S. mutans, decreased expression of bacterial genes involved in sucrose metabolism, reduced the overall number of dental caries, and served as a suitable matrix for subgingival air-polishing to replace traditional root scaling. Conclusions. Important differences were reported in the effect of individual polyols on oral health. The current review provides evidence demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health. PMID:27635141

  17. Use of fructose, xylitol, or sorbitol as a sweetener in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brunzell, J D

    1978-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been utilized in the diet of diabetic patients an an agent to replace glucose and sucrose. Since saccharin might be removed from the marketplace, the nutritive sweeteners fructose, xylitol, and sorbitol are being considered as possible alternatives for glucose and sucrose. This review considers the effects of these nutritive sweeteners on the main dietary concerns in the diabetic diet--control of blood glucose levels, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The potential side effects of these agents are also reviewed.

  18. [Evaluation of the efficacy of mannitol in the treatment of ciguatera in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Bagnis, R; Spiegel, A; Boutin, J P; Burucoa, C; Nguyen, L; Cartel, J L; Capdevielle, P; Imbert, P; Prigent, D; Gras, C

    1992-01-01

    Up till now, in the French Polynesia and in New Caledonia, people showing ciguatera intoxication receive a standard treatment: calcium + vitamins B6 and C by intravenous way and in addition, some drugs arriving to cure some symptomatic manifestations. In 1988, an investigation carried out in Majuro, Marshall Islands concluded that intravenous mannitol is efficient in the treatment of serious intoxications with suspecting cerebral oedema. Since, such a treatment has been utilized with success in several endemic areas. Our therapeutic evaluation was arrived to determine whether mannitol's efficiency is higher than the standard treatment in the ciguatera intoxications of mean seriousness. This investigation was carried out on two randomized groups: The first one receiving mannitol (250 cc intravenous at 20% injected in 1 h) the second one receiving the standard treatment (intravenous perfusion glucose serum 250 cc with 1 g of vitamins C, 250 mg of vitamin B6 and 1 g of calcium gluconate injected in 1 h). Seriousness of clinical status was evaluated according to a scale of score from 0 to 50, based on the importance of the clinical manifestations paresthesia, aches, asthenia, cardiovascular and digestive signs. Only patients getting a score at least 20 were included in this investigation. Clinical status of each patient was evaluated before any treatment (initial score) at the end of perfusion and at the 24th hour. Efficiency of each treatment respectively was evaluated according to the differences between these three different scores. CHI 2 and U Mann's and Whitney's tests were utilized for the statistical analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Cloning, expression, and isolation of the mannitol transport protein from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Henstra, S A; Tolner, B; ten Hoeve Duurkens, R H; Konings, W N; Robillard, G T

    1996-01-01

    A mannitol phosphotransferase system (PTS) was identified in Bacillus stearothermophilus by in vitro complementation with Escherichia coli EI, HPr, and IIA(Mtl). Degenerate primers based on regions of high amino acid similarity in the E. coli and Staphylococcus carnosus EII(Mt1) were used to develop a digoxigenin-labeled probe by PCR. Using this probe, we isolated three overlapping DNA fragments totaling 7.2 kb which contain the genes mtlA, mtlR, mtlF, and mtlD, encoding the mannitol IICB,a regulator, IIA, and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively. The mtl4 gene consists of 1,413 bp coding for a 471-amino-acid protein with a calculated mass of 50.1 kDa. The amino acid sequence shows high similarity with the sequence of IICB(Mtl) of S. carnosus and the IICB part of the IICBA(Mtl)s of E. coli and B. subtilis. The enzyme could be functionally expressed in E. coli by placing it behind the strong tac promoter. The rate of thermal inactivation at 60 degrees C of B. stearothermophilus HCB(Mt1) expressed in E. coli was two times lower than that of E. coli IICB(Mtl). IICB(Mtl) in B. stearothermophilus is maximally active at 85 degrees C and thus very thermostable. The enzyme was purified on Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid resin to greater than 95% purity after six histidines were fused to the C-terminal part of the transporter. PMID:8824601

  20. Subcellular localization and vacuolar targeting of sorbitol dehydrogenase in apple seed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Zi-Ying; You, Chun-Xiang; Kong, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Pu

    2013-09-01

    Sorbitol is the primary photosynthate and translocated carbohydrate in fruit trees of the Rosaceae family. NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), which mainly catalyzes the oxidation of sorbitol to fructose, plays a key role in regulating sink strength in apple. In this study, we found that apple NAD-SDH was ubiquitously distributed in epidermis, parenchyma, and vascular bundle in developing cotyledon. NAD-SDH was localized in the cytosol, the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles, and the vacuolar lumen in the cotyledon at the middle stage of seed development. In contrast, NAD-SDH was mainly distributed in the protein storage vacuoles in cotyledon at the late stage of seed development. Sequence analysis revealed there is a putative signal peptide (SP), also being predicated to be a transmembrane domain, in the middle of proteins of apple NAD-SDH isoforms. To investigate whether the putative internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of NAD-SDH, we analyzed the localization of the SP-deletion mutants of MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 (two NAD-SDH isoforms in apple) by the transient expression system in Arabidopsis protoplasts. MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 were not localized in the vacuoles after their SPs were deleted, suggesting the internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of apple NAD-SDH.

  1. Sorbitol accumulation in male and female rats consuming starch or fructose diets with or without copper

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M.; Beal, T. )

    1989-02-09

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the sex of the rats, tissue sorbitol accumulation and copper deficiency in rats consuming dietary fructose. Rats were provided with a diet containing either 62.7% fructose or starch, and either 6.0 or 0.6 {mu}g copper/g for three weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of all rats consuming the copper-deficient diets was about 40% of copper sufficient rats. Hepatic, renal and thymic sorbitol concentrations were significantly elevated in males consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups regardless of the sex of the rat. Hepatic, renal the thymic fructose concentrations were significantly higher in rats eating fructose as compared to female rats. Hepatic glucose concentration was higher in males and females consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups. Renal glucose concentration was elevated in males as compared to females. These results demonstrate that the pathology and complications of copper deficiency in the male rat consuming fructose closely parallel aberration in tissue sorbitol accumulation.

  2. The influence of sorbitol on the production of cellulases and xylanases in an airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Carla Eliana Todero; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Camassola, Marli; da Silveira, Maurício Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-11-01

    The production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum in an airlift bioreactor was evaluated. In batch production, we tested media with isolated or associated cellulose and sorbitol. In fed-batch production, we tested cellulose addition at two different times, 30 h and 48 h. Higher liquid circulation velocities in the downcomer were observed in sorbitol 10 g L(-1) medium. In batch production, higher FPA (filter paper activity) and endoglucanase activities were obtained with cellulose (7.5 g L(-1)) and sorbitol (2.5 g L(-1)), 1.0 U mL(-1) (120 h) and 6.4 U m L(-1) (100 h), respectively. For xylanases, the best production condition was cellulose 10 g L(-1), which achieved 5.5 U mL(-1) in 64 h. The fed-batch process was favorable for obtaining xylanases, but not for FPA and endoglucanases, suggesting that in the case of cellulases, the inducer must be added early in the process.

  3. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    PubMed Central

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene. PMID:28322320

  4. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  5. Pt nanocatalysts supported on reduced graphene oxide for selective conversion of cellulose or cellobiose to sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Niu, Wenqi; Tan, Minghui; Wu, Mingbo; Zheng, Xuejun; Li, Yanpeng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2014-05-01

    Pt nanocatalysts loaded on reduced graphene oxide (Pt/RGO) were prepared by means of a convenient microwave-assisted reduction approach with ethylene glycol as reductant. The conversion of cellulose or cellobiose into sorbitol was used as an application reaction to investigate their catalytic performance. Various metal nanocatalysts loaded on RGO were compared and RGO-supported Pt exhibited the highest catalytic activity with 91.5 % of sorbitol yield from cellobiose. The catalytic performances of Pt nanocatalysts supported on different carbon materials or on silica support were also compared. The results showed that RGO was the best catalyst support, and the yield of sorbitol was as high as 91.5 % from cellobiose and 58.9 % from cellulose, respectively. The improvement of catalytic activity was attributed to the appropriate Pt particle size and hydrogen spillover effect of Pt/RGO catalyst. Interestingly, the size and dispersion of supported Pt particles could be easily regulated by convenient adjustment of the microwave heating temperature. The catalytic performance was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing particle size. The optimum Pt particle size was 3.6 nm. These findings may offer useful guidelines for designing novel catalysts with beneficial catalytic performance for biomass conversion.

  6. Efficient mannitol production by wild-type Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 is attained at constant pH using a simplified culture medium.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol with multiple industrial applications. In this work, mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 was studied at free- and controlled-pH (6.0-4.8) fermentations using a simplified culture medium containing yeast and beef extracts and sugarcane molasses. The activity of mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH), the enzyme responsible for mannitol synthesis, was determined. The effect of the initial biomass concentration was further studied. Mannitol production (41.5 ± 1.1 g/l), volumetric productivity (Q Mtl 1.73 ± 0.05 g/l h), and yield (Y Mtl 105 ± 11 %) were maximum at pH 5.0 after 24 h while the highest MDH activity (1.66 ± 0.09 U/mg protein) was obtained at pH 6.0. No correlation between mannitol production and MDH activity was observed when varying the culture pH. The increase (up to 2000-fold) in the initial biomass concentration did not improve mannitol formation after 24 h although a 2-fold higher amount was produced at 8 h using 1 or 2 g cell dry weight/l comparing to the control (0.001 g cell dry weight/l). Finally, mannitol isolation under optimum fermentation conditions was achieved. The mannitol production obtained in this study is the highest reported so far by a wild-type L. reuteri strain and, more interestingly, using a simplified culture medium.

  7. Effects of Replacing Sucrose with Various Sugar Alcohols on Quality Properties of Semi-dried Jerky

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of replacing sucrose with sugar alcohols (sorbitol, glycerol and xylitol) on the quality properties of semi-dried jerky. Total 7 treatments of jerkies were prepared as follows: control with sucrose, and treatments with 2.5 and 5.0% of sucrose replaced by each sugar alcohol, respectively. Drying yield, pH, water activity, moisture content, shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, sugar content, and sensory evaluation were evaluated. Xylitol slightly decreased the pH when compared to the other sugar alcohols (p>0.05). The water activity of the semi-dried jerky was significantly reduced by treatment with glycerol and xylitol (p<0.05). The moisture content of semi-dried jerky containing various sugar alcohols was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05), while replacing sucrose with glycerol yielded the highest moisture content. The shear force of semi-dried jerky containing sugar alcohols was not significantly different for the sorbitol and glycerol treatments, but that replacing sucrose with 5.0% xylitol demonstrated the lowest shear force (p<0.05). The TBARS values of semi-dried jerkies with sugar alcohols were lower than the control (p<0.05). The sugar content of the semi-dried jerkies containing sorbitol and glycerol were lower than the control and xylitol treatment (p<0.05). In comparison with the control, the 5.0% xylitol treatment was found to be significantly different in the sensory evaluation (p<0.05). In conclusion, semi-dried jerky made by replacement with sugar alcohols improved the quality characteristics, while xylitol has applicability in manufacturing meat products. PMID:26761890

  8. Pronounced microheterogeneity in a sorbitol-water mixture observed through variable temperature neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shin G; Soper, Alan K; Khodadadi, Sheila; Curtis, Joseph E; Krueger, Susan; Cicerone, Marcus T; Fitch, Andrew N; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2012-04-19

    In this study, the structure of concentrated d-sorbitol-water mixtures is studied by wide- and small-angle neutron scattering (WANS and SANS) as a function of temperature. The mixtures are prepared using both deuterated and regular sorbitol and water at a molar fraction of sorbitol of 0.19 (equivalent to 70% by weight of regular sorbitol in water). Retention of an amorphous structure (i.e., absence of crystallinity) is confirmed for this system over the entire temperature range, 100-298 K. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is found from differential scanning calorimetry to be approximately 200 K. WANS data are analyzed using empirical potential structure refinement, to obtain the site-site radial distribution functions (RDFs) and coordination numbers. This analysis reveals the presence of nanoscaled water clusters surrounded by (and interacting with) sorbitol molecules. The water clusters appear more structured compared to bulk water and, especially at the lowest temperatures, resemble the structure of low-density amorphous ice (LDA). Upon cooling to 100 K the peaks in the water RDFs become markedly sharper, with increased coordination number, indicating enhanced local (nanometer-scale) ordering, with changes taking place both above and well below the Tg. On the mesoscopic (submicrometer) scale, although there are no changes between 298 and 213 K, cooling the sample to 100 K results in a significant increase in the SANS signal, which is indicative of pronounced inhomogeneities. This increase in the scattering is partly reversed during heating, although some hysteresis is observed. Furthermore, a power law analysis of the SANS data indicates the existence of domains with well-defined interfaces on the submicrometer length scale, probably as a result of the appearance and growth of microscopic voids in the glassy matrix. Because of the unusual combination of small and wide scattering data used here, the present results provide new physical insight into the

  9. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  10. Origins of the Relative Stabilities of Anhydrous and Hydrated d-Mannitol Crystals.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Teresa M; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-08-25

    d-Mannitol, a common bulking agent used in the pharmaceutical and food industries, is known to crystallize in three anhydrous polymorphs (α, β, and δ) and a hemihydrate form. In this work, solid-state density functional theory simulations and experimental terahertz spectroscopy were used to evaluate the stabilities, thermodynamic relationships, and spectral signatures of these various solids. The thermodynamic analyses of the anhydrous polymorphs identified enantiotropic transitions for β-δ at approximately room temperature and α-δ near the α melting point, but showed α and β to be monotropically related. Computational refinement of the d-mannitol hemihydrate crystal structure and comparison of its Gibbs free energy to the anhydrous forms showed the hemihydrate to be stable only at low temperatures (<253 K), in agreement with experiment, and reveals its conversion to the δ polymorph upon dehydration. Quantification of the intramolecular and intermolecular energies within these solids highlights the competition that exists between molecular conformation and cohesion energies and how a balance of these forces dictates the observed behaviors.

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on the response of the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum grown in mannitol-induced water stress.

    PubMed

    Slama, Inès; Ghnaya, Tahar; Messedi, Dorsaf; Hessini, Kamel; Labidi, Nahla; Savoure, Arnould; Abdelly, Chedly

    2007-03-01

    Sesuvium portulacastrum is a halophytic species well adapted to salinity and drought. In order to evaluate the physiological impact of salt on water deficit-induced stress response, we cultivated seedlings for 12 days, in the presence or absence of 100 mmol l(-1) NaCl, on a nutrient solution containing either 0 mmol l(-1) or 25 mmol l(-1) mannitol. Mannitol-induced water stress reduced growth, increased the root/shoot ratio, and led to a significant decrease in water potential and leaf relative water content, whereas leaf Na(+) and K(+) concentrations remained unchanged. The addition of 100 mmol l(-1) NaCl to 25 mmol l(-1) mannitol-containing medium mitigated the deleterious impact of water stress on growth of S. portulacastrum, improved the relative water content, induced a significant decrease in leaf water potential and, concomitantly, resulted in enhancement of overall plant photosynthetic activity (i.e. CO(2) net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance). Presence of NaCl in the culture medium, together with mannitol, significantly increased the level of Na(+) and proline in the leaves, but it had no effect on leaf soluble sugar content. These findings suggest that the ability of NaCl to improve plant performance under mannitol-induced water stress may be due to its effect on osmotic adjustment through Na(+) and proline accumulation, which is coupled with an improvement in photosynthetic activity. A striking recovery in relative water content and growth of the seedlings was also recorded in the presence of NaCl on release of the water stress induced by mannitol.

  12. Mannitol clearance for the determination of glomerular filtration rate-a validation against clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Katalin; Molnár, Miklós; Söndergaard, Sören; Molnár, Gyula; Ricksten, Sven-Erik

    2016-06-03

    We studied the agreement between plasma clearance of mannitol and the reference method, plasma clearance of (51) Cr-EDTA in outpatients with normal to moderately impaired renal function. Forty-one patients with a serum creatinine <200 μmol l(-1) entered the study. (51) Cr-EDTA clearance was measured with the standard bolus injection technique and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by the single-sample method described by Jacobsson. Mannitol, 0·25 g kg(-1) body weight (150 mg ml(-1) ), was infused for 4-14 min and blood samples taken at 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-h (n = 24) or 2-, 3-, 3·5- and 4-h after infusion (n = 17). Mannitol in serum was measured by an enzymatic method. Plasma clearance for mannitol and its apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated according to Brøchner-Mortensen. Mean plasma clearance (±SD) for (51) Cr-EDTA was 59·7 ± 18·8 ml min(-1) . The mean plasma clearance for mannitol ranged between 57·0 ± 20·1 and 61·1 ± 16·7 ml min(-1) and Vd was 21·3 ± 6·2% per kg b.w. The between-method bias ranged between -0·23 and 2·73 ml min(-1) , the percentage error between 26·7 and 39·5% and the limits of agreement between -14·3/17·2 and -25·3/19·9 ml min(-1) . The best agreement was seen when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained and when sampling started 60 min after injection. Furthermore, accuracy of plasma clearance determinations was 88-96% (P30) and 41-63% (P10) and was highest when three- or four-sample measurements of plasma mannitol were obtained, including the first hour after the bolus dose. We conclude that there is a good agreement between plasma clearances of mannitol and (51) Cr-EDTA for the assessment of GFR.

  13. Membrane-bound sugar alcohol dehydrogenase in acetic acid bacteria catalyzes L-ribulose formation and NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase is independent of the oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Fujii, Y; Ano, Y; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Shinagawa, E; Theeragool, G; Lotong, N; Matsushita, K

    2001-01-01

    To identify the enzyme responsible for pentitol oxidation by acetic acid bacteria, two different ribitol oxidizing enzymes, one in the cytosolic fraction of NAD(P)-dependent and the other in the membrane fraction of NAD(P)-independent enzymes, were examined with respect to oxidative fermentation. The cytoplasmic NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.56) was crystallized from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 12528 and found to be an enzyme having 100 kDa of molecular mass and 5 s as the sedimentation constant, composed of four identical subunits of 25 kDa. The enzyme catalyzed a shuttle reversible oxidoreduction between ribitol and D-ribulose in the presence of NAD and NADH, respectively. Xylitol and L-arabitol were well oxidized by the enzyme with reaction rates comparable to ribitol oxidation. D-Ribulose, L-ribulose, and L-xylulose were well reduced by the enzyme in the presence of NADH as cosubstrates. The optimum pH of pentitol oxidation was found at alkaline pH such as 9.5-10.5 and ketopentose reduction was found at pH 6.0. NAD-Dependent ribitol dehydrogenase seemed to be specific to oxidoreduction between pentitols and ketopentoses and D-sorbitol and D-mannitol were not oxidized by this enzyme. However, no D-ribulose accumulation was observed outside the cells during the growth of the organism on ribitol. L-Ribulose was accumulated in the culture medium instead, as the direct oxidation product catalyzed by a membrane-bound NAD(P)-independent ribitol dehydrogenase. Thus, the physiological role of NAD-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase was accounted to catalyze ribitol oxidation to D-ribulose in cytoplasm, taking D-ribulose to the pentose phosphate pathway after being phosphorylated. L-Ribulose outside the cells would be incorporated into the cytoplasm in several ways when need for carbon and energy sources made it necessary to use L-ribulose for their survival. From a series of simple experiments, membrane-bound sugar alcohol dehydrogenase was concluded to be

  14. Polymethyl-methacrylate-sorbitol-based capsules as local drug delivery vehicles: an in vitro antibiotic elution study.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dorottya; Cseh, Gellért; Kocsis, Béla; Nagy, Tamás; Borsiczky, Balázs; Tokés-Füzesi, Margit; Miseta, Attila

    2011-03-01

    A PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate)-sorbitol-based capsule system was recently developed, and the permeability of 16 types of capsules with different wall thicknesses and sorbitol contents tested. By optimizing these two parameters, we showed that capsule permeability could be controlled. Promising preliminary data obtained using BPB (Bromophenol Blue) as diffusion marker prompted us to further investigate the antibiotic release of capsules showing the most appropriate release characteristics. PMMA-sorbitol capsules were prepared with wall thickness of 0.5 or 0.6 mm and 60 or 70 w/w% (weight percent) of sorbitol content. In vitro gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin releases were determined by using a microbiological agar plate diffusion assay. Capsules released 70-100% of their gentamicin load, substantially superior to Septopal, and showed preferable, extended release profiles when compared with the beads. The release kinetics of amikacin and tobramycin closely resembled those of gentamicin. PMMA-sorbitol capsules have been developed and tested, which make them promising devices for local antibiotic delivery.

  15. Zymomonas mobilis CP4 fed-batch fermentations of glucose-fructose mixtures to ethanol and sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Shene, C; Bravo, S

    2001-10-01

    Zymomonas mobilis CP4 fed-batch fermentations of glucose-fructose mixtures were carried out at different operational conditions (aeration, feed rate and substrate concentration) to test their effects on the system productivity. In these fermentations, the main products were ethanol and sorbitol. Kinetic parameters were calculated using the experimental data. However, parameters in the sorbitol synthesis rate were estimated from data recorded in different experiments in order to avoid the effect of the simultaneous cell growth and ethanol synthesis. In this case, the crude cell extract was used as source of the enzyme responsible for the sorbitol synthesis. The highest degree of conversion of fructose into sorbitol obtained with the extract was equal to 71% in a sugar mixture with an initial concentration of 200 g/l. Results obtained in the fed-batch fermentations showed that aeration of the culture has a positive effect on the final biomass concentration. However, final ethanol concentration is lower under aerated conditions. The best sugar yields to biomass and ethanol were 0.032 and 0.411 g/g, respectively. On the other hand, the highest sorbitol yield in the fed-batch fermentations was 0.148 g/g.

  16. Identification and quantitation of sorbitol-based nuclear clarifying agents extracted from common laboratory and consumer plasticware made of polypropylene.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeffrey G; Cummins, Carolyn L; Barkley, Robert M; Thompson, Bonne M; Lincoln, Holly A

    2008-07-15

    Reported here is the mass spectral identification of sorbitol-based nuclear clarifying agents (NCAs) and the quantitative description of their extractability from common laboratory and household plasticware made of polypropylene. NCAs are frequently added to polypropylene to improve optical clarity, increase performance properties, and aid in the manufacturing process of this plastic. NCA addition makes polypropylene plasticware more aesthetically pleasing to the user and makes the product competitive with other plastic formulations. We show here that several NCAs are readily extracted with either ethanol or water from plastic labware during typical laboratory procedures. Observed levels ranged from a nanogram to micrograms of NCA. NCAs were also detected in extracts from plastic food storage containers; levels ranged from 1 to 10 microg in two of the three brands tested. The electron ionization mass spectra for three sorbitol-based nuclear clarifying agents (1,3:2,4-bis-O-(benzylidene)sorbitol, 1,3:2,4-bis-O-(p-methylbenzylidene)sorbitol, 1,3:2,4-bis-O-(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene)sorbitol) are presented for the native and trimethylsilyl-derivatized compounds together with the collision-induced dissociation mass spectra; gas and liquid chromatographic data are also reported. These NCAs now join other well-known plasticizers such as phthalate esters and bisphenol A as common laboratory contaminants. While the potential toxicity of NCAs in mammalian systems is unknown, the current data provide scientists and consumers the opportunity to make more informed decisions regarding the use of polypropylene plastics.

  17. Preparation of theophylline inhalable microcomposite particles by wet milling and spray drying: The influence of mannitol as a co-milling agent.

    PubMed

    Malamatari, Maria; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Bloxham, Mark; Taylor, Kevin M G; Buckton, Graham

    2016-11-30

    Inhalable theophylline particles with various amounts of mannitol were prepared by combining wet milling in isopropanol followed by spray drying. The effect of mannitol as a co-milling agent on the micromeritic properties, solid state and aerosol performance of the engineered particles was investigated. Crystal morphology modelling and geometric lattice matching calculations were employed to gain insight into the intermolecular interactions that may influence the mechanical properties of theophylline and mannitol. The addition of mannitol facilitated the size reduction of the needle-like crystals of theophylline and also their assembly in microcomposites by forming a porous structure of mannitol nanocrystals wherein theophylline particles are embedded. The microcomposites were found to be in the same crystalline state as the starting material(s) ensuring their long-term physical stability upon storage. Incorporation of mannitol resulted in microcomposite particles with smaller size, more spherical shape and increased porosity. The aerosol performance of the microcomposites was markedly enhanced compared to the spray-dried suspension of theophylline wet milled without mannitol. Overall, wet co-milling with mannitol in an organic solvent followed by spray drying may be used as a formulation approach for producing respirable particles of water-soluble drugs or drugs that are prone to crystal transformation in an aqueous environment (i.e. formation of hydrates).

  18. Improvement of mannitol production by Lactobacillus brevis mutant 3-A5 based on dual-stage pH control and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Yue, Min; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Jianping; Li, Shuguang; Meng, Yanyu; Chen, Wei; Huang, Lishuxin; Du, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 was isolated and expected to produce mannitol efficiently by regulating pH in batch and fed-batch fermentations. In 48 h batch fermentations with free and constant pH, the optimal pH for cell growth and mannitol production in the first 24 h of incubation was 5.5, whereas that for mannitol production in the second 24 h of incubation was 4.5. To achieve high cell density and mannitol yield simultaneously, a dual-stage pH control strategy was proposed based on the kinetic analysis of mannitol production. The pH value was controlled at 5.5 for the first 12 h of fermentation and subsequently shifted to 4.5 until the fermentation was completed. Under dual-stage pH control fermentation, a 103 g/L yield of mannitol with a volumetric production rate of 3.7 g/L/h was achieved after 28 h. The dual-stage pH control fed-batch fermentation strategy was further developed to improve mannitol yield, wherein the yield increased by 109 % to 215 g/L after 98 h of fermentation. This value is the highest yield of mannitol ever reported using L. brevis.

  19. Detection of sorbitol-negative and sorbitol-positive Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and Salmonella spp. in dairy farm environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Murinda, S E; Nguyen, L T; Nam, H M; Almeida, R A; Headrick, S J; Oliver, S P

    2004-01-01

    Six visits were conducted to four dairy farms to collect swab, liquid, and solid dairy farm environmental samples (165 to 180/farm; 15 sample types). The objective of the study was to determine on-farm sources of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which might serve as reservoirs for transmission of pathogens. Samples were analyzed using mostly U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual protocols; however, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and STEC were co-enriched in universal pre-enrichment broth. Campylobacter jejuni were enriched in Bolton broth containing Bolton broth supplement. Pathogens were isolated on agar media, typed biochemically, and confirmed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction protocols. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Sorbitol-negative (SN)-STEC O157:H7, and sorbitol-positive (SP)-STEC, respectively, were isolated from 5.06%, 3.76%, 6.51%, 0.72%, and 17.3% of samples evaluated. Whereas other pathogens were isolated from all four farms, SN-STEC O157:H7 were isolated from only two farms. Diverse serotypes of SP-STEC including O157:H7, O26:H11, O111, and O103 were isolated. None of the five pathogen groups studied were isolated from bulk tank milk (BTM). Most pathogens (44.2%) were isolated directly from fecal samples. Bovine fecal samples, lagoon water, bedding, bird droppings, and rat intestinal contents constituted areas of major concern on dairy farms. Although in-line milk filters from two farms tested positive for Salmonella or L. monocytogenes, none of the pathogens were detected in the corresponding BTM samples. Good manure management practices, including control of feral animals, are critical in assuring dairy farm hygiene. Identification of on-farm pathogen reservoirs could aid with implementation of farm-specific pathogen reduction programs.

  20. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  1. The Microbial Degradation of TCE (Trichloroethylene).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Production Voges-Proskaver Test Gelatin Hydrolysis Utilization of: Citratea Glucose + Mannitol + Sorbitol + Rhamnose + Amygdalin + Arabinose + a. Strain was...Methanol Glucose + Citrate + 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Mannitol + Inositol Sorbitol + Rhamnose + Sucrose Melibiose + Amygdalin + Arabinose

  2. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  3. Simultaneous separation and determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits by HPLC-ELSD.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunmei; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Changbao; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Shuhua

    2014-02-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was optimised for simultaneous determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenex Luna 5u NH₂ 100A column (250 mm × 4.60mm, 5 micron) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile:water (82.5:17.5, v/v). Drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 82 °C and nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 L min⁻¹. The regression equation revealed good linear relationship (R = 0.9967-0.9989) within test ranges. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for four analytes (peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits) were in the range of 0.07-0.27 and 0.22-0.91 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed HPLC-ELSD method was validated for quantification of sugars in peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits, and the results were satisfactory. The results showed that the contents of the four sugars varied among fruits. While fructose (5.79-104.01 mg g⁻¹) and glucose (9.25-99.62 mg g⁻¹) emerged as common sugars in the four fruits, sorbitol (8.70-19.13 mg g⁻¹) were only found in peach, apple and cherry fruits, and sucrose (15.82-106.39 mg g⁻¹) were in peach, apple and watermelon. There was not detectable sorbitol in watermelon and sucrose in cherry fruits, respectively.

  4. Best combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for the rapid conversion of sorbitol to glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Sar, Pintu; Malik, Susanta; Saha, Bidyut

    2014-03-01

    Kinetic data for oxidation of D-sorbitol to glucose by hexavalent chromium in aqueous medium and aqueous surfactant medium (SDS, TX-100) have been reported. Effect of promoter such as PA, bipy and phenanthroline on the reaction has been investigated. The reaction is performed under pseudo first order condition with an excess of substrate over the oxidant. The reaction is first order with respect to substrate and oxidant. The micelles have a catalytic effect on the reaction. Combination of phen and TX-100 produces almost twelve times increase in rate of oxidation.

  5. Best combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for the rapid conversion of sorbitol to glucose.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Sar, Pintu; Malik, Susanta; Saha, Bidyut

    2014-03-25

    Kinetic data for oxidation of D-sorbitol to glucose by hexavalent chromium in aqueous medium and aqueous surfactant medium (SDS, TX-100) have been reported. Effect of promoter such as PA, bipy and phenanthroline on the reaction has been investigated. The reaction is performed under pseudo first order condition with an excess of substrate over the oxidant. The reaction is first order with respect to substrate and oxidant. The micelles have a catalytic effect on the reaction. Combination of phen and TX-100 produces almost twelve times increase in rate of oxidation.

  6. Role of polyols (erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol) on the structural stabilization of collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usha, R.; Raman, S. Sundar; Subramanian, V.; Ramasami, T.

    2006-10-01

    The effect of erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol on monomeric collagen solution was evaluated with melting temperature, fluorescence studies, conformational stability and binding energy. The emission intensity and the melting temperature increase as the chain length of polyols increases. Circular dichroism (CD) results indicate the possibility of aggregation of collagen in the presence of polyols. The interaction between collagen and polyols were calculated using binding energy, RMS deviation with collagen like models. Molecular mechanics calculations suggest that polyols bind well with collagen models, that have serine in the X position. The stability of collagen decreases as the number of carbon atoms present in the polyols increases.

  7. One-Pot Preparation of Dimethyl Isosorbide from d-Sorbitol via Dimethyl Carbonate Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Aricò, F; Aldoshin, A S; Tundo, P

    2017-01-10

    Direct synthesis of dimethyl isosorbide (DMI) from d-sorbitol via dimethyl carbonate (DMC) chemistry is herein first reported. High yield of DMI was achieved using the nitrogen superbase 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as catalyst and performing the reaction in a stainless steel autoclave by increasing the temperature from 90 to 200 °C. In this procedure, DMC features its full capacity acting in the different steps of the process as carboxymethylating, leaving-group (cyclization), and methylating agent; DMC is also employed as the reaction media.

  8. Interaction between osmotic and oxidative stress in diabetic precataractous lens: studies with a sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Obrosova, I G; Fathallah, L; Lang, H J

    1999-12-15

    Both sorbitol accumulation-linked osmotic stress and "pseudohypoxia" [increase in NADH/NAD+, similar to that in hypoxic tissues, and attributed to increased sorbitol dehydrogenase (1-iditol:NAD+ 5-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.14; SDH) activity] have been invoked among the mechanisms underlying oxidative injury in target tissues for diabetic complications. We used the specific SDH inhibitor SDI-157 [2-methyl-4(4-N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl-1-piperazino)pyrimid ine] to evaluate the role of osmotic stress versus "pseudohypoxia" in oxidative stress occurring in diabetic precataractous lens. Control and diabetic rats were treated with or without SDI-157 (100 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks). Lens malondialdehyde (MDA) plus 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HA), MDA, GSH, and ascorbate levels, as well as the GSSG/GSH ratios, were similar in SDI-treated and untreated control rats, thus indicating that SDI-157 was not a prooxidant. Intralenticular osmotic stress, manifested by sorbitol levels, was more severe in SDI-treated diabetic rats (38.2+/-6.8 vs 21.2+/-3.5 micromol/g in untreated diabetic and 0.758+/-0.222 micromol/g in control rats, P<0.01 for both), while the decrease in the free cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratio was partially prevented (120+/-16 vs 88+/-11 in untreated diabetic rats and 143+/-13 in controls, P<0.01 for both). GSH and ascorbate levels were decreased, while MDA plus 4-HA and MDA levels were increased in diabetic rats versus controls; both antioxidant depletion and lipid aldehyde accumulation were exacerbated by SDI treatment. Superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase; EC 1.15.1.1), GSSG reductase (NAD[P]H:oxidized-glutathione oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.4.2), GSH transferase (glutathione S-transferase; EC 2.5.1.18), GSH peroxidase (glutathione:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase; EC 1.11.1.9), and cytoplasmic NADH oxidase activities were increased in diabetic rats versus controls, and all the enzymes but GSH peroxidase were up-regulated further by SDI. In conclusion, sorbitol

  9. Enhancement of cell viability and alkaline polygalacturonate lyase production by sorbitol co-feeding with methanol in Pichia pastoris fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Jianghua; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-02-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL) production by Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as a model to study the mechanism and strategy for enhancing heterologous protein production. In order to enhance cell viability and volumetric recombinant protein productivity, sorbitol, which had been confirmed to be a non-repressive carbon source, was added together with methanol during the induction phase. The resultant PGL activity was up to 1593 U mL(-1), which was enhanced 1.85-fold compared to the control (863 U mL(-1)) cultured with sorbitol added at a constant rate of 3.6 g h(-1)L(-1) after an induction period of 100 h. Further results revealed that an appropriate sorbitol co-feeding strategy not only decreased the cell mortality to 8.8% (the control is about 23.1%) in the end of fermentation, but also reduced the proteolytic degradation of PGL.

  10. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  11. Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of <2.5%. Prosolv® only ODTs showed the highest tablet hardness of ∼ 73 N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was <1% although friability of Prosolv®:Mannitol ODTs was higher than for pure Prosolv®. DT of all ODTs was <30 s. Method 2 showed the fastest DT. Method 3 was non-discriminatory giving a DT of 13-15 s for all formulations. Atorvastatin dissolution from all ODTs was >60% within 5 min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution.

  12. Heat transfer characteristics of d-mannitol as a phase change material for a medium thermal energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, Makoto; Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya

    2016-09-01

    Melting process and heat transfer characteristics of d-mannitol were investigated experimentally and numerically to construct a fundamental database of the waste heat recovery systems for ships. d-Mannitol which has relatively high latent heat was selected in this study as a phase-change material for medium thermal energy storage. Experimental results indicate that the melting temperature and latent heat of d-mannitol were affected by the heating rate. The weight of d-mannitol did not decrease with the increase in temperature between 436 and 455 K. Moreover, numerical simulation was conducted using the commercial CFD code, ANSYS FLUENT. On the basis of the numerical simulation, melting process was affected by natural convection at the inner wall. As the heat flux of the cartridge heater input came from the inner wall, the liquid fraction increased from the inner wall to the outer wall through natural convection. The numerical result was compared with the experimental data. The temperature of the numerical simulation was approximately consistent with the experimental data. Moreover, the local heat transfer coefficients at the heater surface were calculated by the result of the numerical simulation. The heat transfer coefficients decreased during the phase change. It was considered that the heat transfer process changed from conductive heat transfer of solid state to natural convection heat transfer of liquid state as the liquid fraction increased with time.

  13. Mannitol an Adjuvant in Local Anaesthetic Solution: Recent Concept & Changing Trends (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ruchika; Srivastava, Ram K; Ali, Iqbal; Wadhwani, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Various adjuncts have been utilized with lignocaine to decrement tourniquet pain and prolong postoperative analgesia and its efficacy during dental extraction and various other restorative procedures in dentistry. An obligatory part of the dental process is to sanction a patient to feel comfortable and pain-free during operational and remedial dental procedures. The most popular local anaesthetic injection for lower teeth is the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block. Instead of this the percentage of ineffectiveness is higher is inferior alveolar nerve block as compared to other local anaesthetic nerve block. The goal of cumulating different drugs is to engender the best therapeutic effects with the fewest or no unpropitious effects. There are fewer researches and evidence present which recommend and promote the application and effectiveness of mannitol other than in the administration in decreasing raised intracranial pressure. It is paramount to know how the drug interacts with each other to minimize the unexpected or perilous effects. PMID:25584240

  14. Characterization of mannitol-fermenting methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from pigs in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwu, Clifford C.; Gomez-Sanz, Elena; Agbo, Ifeoma C.; Torres, Carmen; Chah, Kennedy F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the species distribution, antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes and virulence traits of mannitol-positive methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) isolated from pigs in Nsukka agricultural zone, Nigeria. Twenty mannitol-positive methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal (MRCoNS) strains harboring the mecA gene were detected among the 64 Staphylococcus isolates from 291 pigs. A total of 4 species were identified among the MRCoNS isolates, namely, Staphylococcus sciuri (10 strains), Staphylococcus lentus (6 strains), Staphylococcus cohnii (3 strains) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one strain). All MRCoNS isolates were multidrug-resistant. In addition to β-lactams, the strains were resistant to fusidic acid (85%), tetracycline (75%), streptomycin (65%), ciprofloxacin (65%), and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (60%). In addition to the mecA and blaZ genes, other antimicrobial resistance genes detected were tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), erm(C), aacA-aphD, aphA3, str, dfrK, dfrG, cat pC221, and cat pC223. Thirteen isolates were found to be ciprofloxacin-resistant, and all harbored a Ser84Leu mutation within the QRDR of the GyrA protein, with 3 isolates showing 2 extra substitutions, Ser98Ile and Arg100Lys (one strain) and Glu88Asp and Asp96Thr (2 strains). A phylogenetic tree of the QRDR nucleotide sequences in the gyrA gene revealed a high nucleotide diversity, with several major clusters not associated with the bacterial species. Our study highlights the possibility of transfer of mecA and other antimicrobial resistance genes from MRCoNS to pathogenic bacteria, which is a serious public health and veterinary concern. PMID:26413075

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  16. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to enhance shikimic acid production from sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglei; Lin, Jun; Hu, Haifeng; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Baoquan

    2014-09-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is the key synthetic material of Oseltamivir, which is an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of influenza. In this study, to block the downstream metabolic pathway of SA, the shikimate kinase isoenzyme genes aroK and aroL were deleted by Red recombination. Moreover, the key enzyme genes aroG, aroB, tktA and aroE of SA pathway were co-expressed by constructing the recombinant vector pETDuet-GBAE. As a result, SA production of E. coli BW25113 (∆aroL/aroK, DE3)/pETDuet-GBAE reached 1,077.6 mg/l when low amounts of sorbitol (5 g/l) were fed in shake flasks. The yield was 3.7 times that when glucose was used (P < 0.05). The results showed that sorbitol was an optimized carbon source for the high efficient accumulation of SA for the first time, which was applicable to use in the industry for high yields and low consumption.

  17. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  18. Aging of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in the glass-forming liquids sorbitol and xylitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Employing frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibility of both liquids possesses a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench through the glass transition, the susceptibility slowly approaches the equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, the magnitude of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation displays a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is quantitatively very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak frequency. The Johari-Goldstein relaxation time remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it decreases slightly with age for xylitol. Hence, one cannot sensibly assign a fictive temperature to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation. This behavior contrasts with that of liquids lacking distinct Johari-Goldstein peaks for which the excess wing of the alpha peak tracks the main part of the peak during aging, enabling the assignment of a single fictive temperature to the entire spectrum. The aging behavior of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation time further calls into question the possibility that the relaxation time possesses stronger temperature dependence in equilibrium than is observed in the out-of-equilibrium state below the glass transition.

  19. [Repeated perioperative administration of fructose and sorbitol in a female patient with hereditary fructose intolerance [HFI)].

    PubMed

    Sachs, M; Asskali, F; Förster, H; Encke, A

    1993-03-01

    The present paper reports on an adult female patient whose hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) was at first not diagnosed and who, within the space of 2 years after repeated elective surgery and the perioperative administration of fructose and sorbitol, developed "hepatic and renal failure of unclear origin." At a later stage we were able to establish the diagnosis of HFI by means of a fructose tolerance test in both she and her brother, for whom intolerance to fruit and desserts had been known since early childhood. In addition, literature references to fatalities following the parenteral application of fructose and sorbitol were analyzed. During the course of fructose infusion in both the patient and her brother with HFI, the following metabolic changes were noted: hypoglycemia, elevated rise in the blood fructose concentration, hyperlactacidemia, elevated rise in the blood fructose concentration, hyperlactacidemia, and hyperammonemia. These metabolic changes proved to be reversible after discontinuing the fructose infusion. Analysis of the literature on the fatalities following parenteral fructose administration established that fruit and dessert intolerance was known for all collated patients with HFI, and that, clearly, no regular metabolic tests had been conducted.

  20. Competitive inhibition of phosphoglucose isomerase of apple leaves by sorbitol 6-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Cheng, Lailiang

    2008-06-16

    Apple leaf cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, EC 5.3.1.9) was purified to an apparent homogeneity with a specific activity of 2456 units/mg protein, and chloroplastic PGI was partially purified to a specific activity of 72 units/mg protein to characterize their biochemical properties. These two isoforms showed differential responses to heat treatment; incubation at 50 degrees C for 10 min resulted in a complete loss of the chloroplastic PGI activity, whereas the cytosolic PGI only lost 50% of its activity. Apple cytosolic PGI is a dimeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 66 kDa for each monomer. The activity of both isoforms was strongly inhibited by erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P) with a K(i) of 1.2 and 3.0 microM for the cytosolic PGI and chloroplastic PGI, respectively. Sorbitol 6-phosphate (Sor6P), an intermediate in sorbitol biosynthesis, was found to be a competitive inhibitor for both cytosolic and chloroplastic PGIs with a K(i) of 61 and 40 microM, respectively. PGIs from both spinach and tomato leaves were also inhibited by Sor6P in a similar manner. The possible physiological significance of this finding is discussed.

  1. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process.

    PubMed

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and further, results were verified with X-ray powder diffraction. It was seen that the prevalence of the mannitol polymorphic form shifted from β-mannitol to δ-mannitol with increasing protein concentration in freeze-dried formulations. In spray-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from β-mannitol to α-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying process in itself, rather than the temperature, that leads to the observed solid state changes.

  2. Mannitol production by heterofermentative Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 and Lactobacillus fermentum CRL 573 in free and controlled pH batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cecilia; Rimaux, Tom; Fornaguera, María José; Vrancken, Gino; de Valdez, Graciela Font; De Vuyst, Luc; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2012-03-01

    Certain lactic acid bacteria, especially heterofermentative strains, are capable to produce mannitol under adequate culture conditions. In this study, mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 and Lactobacillus fermentum CRL 573 in modified MRS medium containing a mixture of fructose and glucose in a 6.5:1.0 ratio was investigated during batch fermentations with free pH and constant pH 6.0 and 5.0. Mannitol production and yields were higher under constant pH conditions compared with fermentations with free pH, the increase being more pronounced in the case of the L. fermentum strain. Maximum mannitol production and yields from fructose for L. reuteri CRL 1101 (122 mM and 75.7 mol%, respectively) and L. fermentum CRL 573 (312 mM and 93.5 mol%, respectively) were found at pH 5.0. Interestingly, depending on the pH conditions, fructose was used only as an alternative external electron acceptor or as both electron acceptor and energy source in the case of the L. reuteri strain. In contrast, L. fermentum CRL 573 used fructose both as electron acceptor and carbon source simultaneously, independently of the pH value, which strongly affected mannitol production by this strain. Studies on the metabolism of these relevant mannitol-producing lactobacilli provide important knowledge to either produce mannitol to be used as food additive or to produce it in situ during fermented food production.

  3. The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow during acute and chronic myocardial ischemia in anesthetized and awake intact dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, J T; Watson, J T; Hutton, I; Fixler, D E; Curry, G C; Templeton, G H

    1975-01-01

    The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow and ventricular performance was studied during acute myocardial ischemia in awake, unsedated and in anesthesized dogs and after myocardial infarction in awake unsedated dogs. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Generalized increases in regional myocardial blood flow occurred after mannitol in all of the different animal models studied. The increases in coronary blood flow after mannitol were just as impressive in the nonischemic regions as in the ischemic portion of the left ventricle in all of the different models that were examined in this study. Improvement in regional myocardial blood flow to the ischemic area of the left ventricle after mannitol was associated with a reduction in ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. The increases in regional myocardial flow after mannitol were also associated with increases in contractility, but the increases in flow appeared to be more impressive than the changes in contractility. The data obtained demonstrate that mannitol increases regional coronary blood flow to both ischemic and nonischemic myocardium in both anesthetized and awake, unsedated, intact dogs with acute and chronic myocardial ischemia and that mannitol reduces ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. Thus the results suggest that under these circumstances the increases in regional myocardial blood flow after mannitol are of physiological importance in reducing the extent of myocardial injury. Since coronary blood flow increased to nonischemic regions the increases in regional myocardial flow demonstrated in this study after mannitol cannot be entirely explained by the mechanism of reduction in ischemic cell swelling. PMID:1123427

  4. Trehalose and sorbitol alter the kinetic pattern of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase during drying in levitated microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    A single-droplet acoustic levitator was used to determine the drying rate and the kinetics of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of added trehalose or sorbitol. The solution was also spray dried under the same process condition of drying gas temperature on a bench-top machine. Both trehalose and sorbitol delay the point of onset of enzyme inactivation which lies after the critical point of drying. Both carbohydrates also reduce the apparent rate constant of inactivation calculated during the subsequent inactivation phase. The carbohydrates stabilise, therefore, the enzyme during droplet drying and particle formation mainly during the falling rate drying period. There is no difference between the stabilising effects of the two carbohydrates when examined as levitated single droplets. This suggests the importance of water replacement as a stabilising mechanism in the levitated droplets/particles. On spray drying, the trehalose stabilises the enzyme better than does the sorbitol at a drying gas (outlet) temperature of 60°C. This suggests glass formation with the trehalose but not the sorbitol during the very rapid drying process of small-atomised droplets in the spray dryer.

  5. Self-assembled sorbitol-derived supramolecular hydrogels for the controlled encapsulation and release of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Howe, Edward J; Okesola, Babatunde O; Smith, David K

    2015-05-01

    A simple supramolecular hydrogel based on 1,3:2,4-di(4-acylhydrazide)benzylidene sorbitol (DBS-CONHNH2), is able to extract acid-functionalised anti-inflammatory drugs via directed interactions with the self-assembled gel nanofibres. Two-component hydrogel-drug hybrid materials can be easily formed by mixing and exhibit pH-controlled drug release.

  6. Evaluation of Honey and Rice Syrup as Replacements for Sorbitol in the Production of Restructured Duck Jerky

    PubMed Central

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of natural humectants such as honey and rice syrup to replace sorbitol in the production of restructured duck jerky. Each humectant was mixed at 3%, 6%, and 10% (wt/wt) concentrations with the marinating solution. The values of water activity and the moisture-to-protein ratio of all of the samples were maintained below 0.75. Jerky samples treated with honey retained more moisture than those exposed to other treatments. Among all samples, those treated with 10% sorbitol produced the highest processing yield and the lowest shear force values. The highest L* value and the lowest b* value were observed for the sorbitol-treated sample, followed by the rice syrup- and honey-treated samples. Duck jerky samples treated with 10% honey showed the highest scores for the sensory parameters evaluated. The overall acceptability scores of samples treated with rice syrup were comparable with those of samples treated with sorbitol. Microscopic observation of restructured duck jerky samples treated with honey showed stable forms and smaller pores when compared with other treatments. PMID:26732452

  7. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA.

  8. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  9. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  10. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  11. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  12. Sorbitol promotes growth of Zymomonas mobilis in environments with high concentrations of sugar: evidence for a physiological function of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in osmoprotection.

    PubMed Central

    Loos, H; Krämer, R; Sahm, H; Sprenger, G A

    1994-01-01

    The gram-negative ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is able to grow in media containing high concentrations of glucose or other sugars. A novel compatible solute for bacteria, sorbitol, which enhances growth of Z. mobilis at glucose concentrations exceeding 0.83 M (15%), is described. Added sorbitol was accumulated intracellularly up to 1 M to counteract high external glucose concentrations (up to 1.66 M or 30%). Accumulation of sorbitol was triggered by a glucose upshift (e.g., from 0.33 to 1.27 M or 6 to 23%) and was prevented by the uncoupler CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; 100 microM). The sorbitol transport system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with an apparent Km of 34 mM and a Vmax of 11.2 nmol.min-1.mg-1 (dry mass). Sorbitol was produced by the cells themselves and was accumulated when growing on sucrose (1 M or 36%) by the action of the periplasmic enzyme glucose-fructose oxidoreductase, which converts glucose and fructose to gluconolactone and sorbitol. Thus, Z. mobilis can form and accumulate the compatible solute sorbitol from a natural carbon source, sucrose, in order to overcome osmotic stress in high-sugar media. No other major compatible solute (betaine, proline, glutamate, or trehalose) was detected. PMID:8002594

  13. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol.

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, P T; Wernette-Hammond, M E; Kneer, N M; Lardy, H A

    1983-01-01

    In hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats, 2,5-anhydromannitol inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate and from substrates that enter the gluconeogenic pathway as triose phosphate. This fructose analog has no effect, however, on gluconeogenesis from xylitol, a substrate that enters the pathway primarily as fructose 6-phosphate. The sensitivity of gluconeogenesis to 2,5-anhydromannitol depends on the substrate metabolized; concentrations of 2,5-anhydromannitol required for 50% inhibition increase in the order lactate plus pyruvate less than dihydroxyacetone less than glycerol less than sorbitol less than fructose. The inhibition by 2,5-anhydromannitol of gluconeogenesis from dihydroxyacetone is accompanied by an increase in lactate formation and by two distinct crossovers in gluconeogenic-glycolytic metabolite patterns-i.e., increases in pyruvate concentrations with decreases in phosphoenolpyruvate and increases in fructose-1,6-bisphosphate concentrations with little change in fructose 6-phosphate. In addition, 2,5-anhydromannitol blocks the ability of glucagon to stimulate gluconeogenesis and inhibit lactate production from dihydroxyacetone. 2,5-Anhydromannitol decreases cellular fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content in hepatocytes; therefore the effects of the fructose analog are not mediated by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, a naturally occurring allosteric regulator. 2,5-Anhydromannitol also inhibits gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from fasted diabetic rats, but higher concentrations of the analog are required. PMID:6410389

  14. Mannitol-Enhanced Delivery of Stem Cells and Their Growth Factors Across the Blood–Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Franzblau, Max; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Staples, Meaghan; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury in adults and neonates is a significant clinical problem with limited therapeutic interventions. Currently, clinicians have only tPA available for stroke treatment and hypothermia for cerebral palsy. Owing to the lack of treatment options, there is a need for novel treatments such as stem cell therapy. Various stem cells including cells from embryo, fetus, perinatal, and adult tissues have proved effective in preclinical and small clinical trials. However, a limiting factor in the success of these treatments is the delivery of the cells and their by-products (neurotrophic factors) into the injured brain. We have demonstrated that mannitol, a drug with the potential to transiently open the blood–brain barrier and facilitate the entry of stem cells and trophic factors, as a solution to the delivery problem. The combination of stem cell therapy and mannitol may improve therapeutic outcomes in adult stroke and neonatal cerebral palsy. PMID:24480552

  15. Flow, packing and compaction properties of novel coprocessed multifunctional directly compressible excipients prepared from tapioca starch and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-12-01

    Novel multifunctional excipients were prepared by coprocessing tapioca starch with mannitol using two methods viz; co-grinding and co-fusion. The flow, packing and compaction properties of the native and novel excipients were evaluated by using density, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose, the maximum volume reduction, consolidation index, the rate of consolidation, angle of internal friction, morphological properties, Heckel analysis, tensile strength and dilution potential as evaluation parameters. The study revealed that the method of coprocessing, particle size and particle shape influenced the properties of the resulting novel excipients. Co-grinding was less effective than co-fusion in the preparation of excipients with enhanced properties. The study concluded that coprocessing tapioca starch and mannitol will enhance the flow, packing and compaction properties of the novel excipient and that the co-fusion method of coprocessing would produce novel excipients with enhanced direct compression potential compared to the co-grinding method.

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  17. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  18. D-mannitol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer on electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Beluomini, Maísa Azevedo; da Silva, José L; Sedenho, Graziela Cristina; Stradiotto, Nelson Ramos

    2017-04-01

    An electrochemical sensor for D-mannitol based on molecularly imprinted polymer on electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles was developed in this present work. The sensor was constructed for the first time via the electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) over a surface containing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in the presence of D-mannitol molecules. The surface modification with AuNP/RGO-GCE facilitated the charge transfer processes of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-), which was used as an electrochemical probe. It also contributed meaningfully towards the increase in the surface/volume ratio, creating more locations for imprinting, and providing greater sensitivity to the sensor. The MIP/AuNP/RGO-GCE sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Important parameters that exert control over the performance of the molecularly imprinted sensor (such as number of cycles, pH, monomer and template concentration and extraction and rebinding conditions) were investigated and optimized. The imprinting factor was 4.9, showing greater response to the D-mannitol molecule compared to the interfering molecules. The limit of detection, limit of quantification and amperometric sensitivity were 7.7×10(-13)molL(-1), 2.6×10(-12)molL(-1) and 3.9×10(10)µALmol(-1) (n=3) respectively. The MIP/AuNP/RGO-GCE sensor was successfully applied towards the selective determination of D-mannitol in sugarcane vinasse, thus making it, in essence, a valuable tool for the accurate and reliable determination of this molecule.

  19. Solution behaviour and sweetness response of D-Mannitol at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Muhammad Asghar; Rashad, Muhammad; Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem; Bhatti, Ijaz A; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2014-06-15

    The solution properties of d-Mannitol (DM) were studied to explore sweetness response and molecular interactions in aqueous solutions at different temperatures. The density (ρ) and ultrasonic velocity (μ) were measured at 20-45°C using density sound velocity metre (DSA 5000M). The results obtained were used to compute apparent and partial molar volume, apparent specific volumes, partial molar expansibility, apparent molar isentropic compressibility and compressibility hydration number. The partial molar volume (ΦV°) indicates hydrophilic interactions dominating in aqueous solution of DM. The quality of taste has been determined from apparent specific volumes (ASV) data at 20-45°C and 0.04-0.89 mol kg(-1).The apparent molar isentropic compressibility (ΦK(s)) and hydration number (nH) conferred pre-dominance of solute-solvent interactions, whereas partial molar expansibility (ΦE°) and related standards predicted structure making behaviour of DM. This study may provide new insights in elucidation of mechanistic differences between sweeteners and their mode of interactions.

  20. Mannitol-induced drought stress on calli of Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. Var. RMt-303.

    PubMed

    Pant, Naveen C; Agarrwal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-11-01

    Different explants of fenugreek, T. foenum-graecum L. (Var. RMt-303), were compared for their callus induction and subsequent shoot regeneration capabilities on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with different phytohormones in varying concentration. The highest percentage of callus induction frequency was observed in 1 ppm benzylaminopurine (BAP). Maximum shoots were induced on media supplemented with 0.5 ppm BAP using leaf and stem tissues as explants. However, root tissues showed only callusing with no subsequent shooting. Cotyledonary node responded better than hypocotyls in terms of shoot induction on media supplemented with thidiazuron (0.1 ppm). The callus was subjected to drought stress as simulated by reduced water potential of growth media due to addition of mannitol. Calli could withstand -2 MPa water potential till 30 days indicating that the drought stress tolerance mechanisms are functional in this variety. Chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll, proline and total phenolic contents, total peroxidase and catalase activities increased under stress conditions suggesting the tolerance of callus to drought stress. However, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase activities were found to decrease slightly. Malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents were found to decrease while only a slight disturbance was found in membrane stability index. These results underline the mechanisms that are crucial for drought stress tolerance in fenugreek.

  1. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-01

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  2. Synergistic Inhibition of Protein Fibrillation by Proline and Sorbitol: Biophysical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Save, Shreyada N.; Kishore, Nand; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2016-01-01

    We report here interesting synergistic effects of proline and sorbitol, two well-known chemical chaperones, in the inhibition of fibrillation of two proteins, insulin and lysozyme. A combination of many biophysical techniques has been used to understand the structural morphology and modes of interaction of the chaperones with the proteins during fibrillation. Both the chaperones establish stronger polar interactions in the elongation and saturation stages of fibrillation compared to that in the native stage. However, when presented as a mixture, we also see contribution of hydrophobic interactions. Thus, a co-operative adjustment of polar and hydrophobic interactions between the chaperones and the protein surface seems to drive the synergistic effects in the fibrillation process. In insulin, this synergy is quantitatively similar in all the stages of the fibrillation process. These observations would have significant implications for understanding protein folding concepts, in general, and for designing combination therapies against protein fibrillation, in particular. PMID:27870861

  3. Organogel Formation Due to the Self-Assembly of Dibenzylidene Sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Elizabeth; Hall, Carol; Khan, Saad; Spontak, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) is a small organic molecule that is capable of inducing gelation in a variety of organic solvents and polymers at low concentrations. In this study, a combination of rheological studies, electron microscopy, and computational methods were employed to probe the mechanisms involved in DBS-induced gelation. Rheological tests on DBS/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gels reveal that as DBS concentration is increased, the gels exhibit greater elastic moduli, shorter gelation times, and maintain their connectivity at higher temperatures. Comparison of methoxy-capped PEG gels with hydroxy-capped PEG gels reveals that polar end groups interfere with network formation resulting in slower gelation times. Electron microscopy and tomography on DBS networks in poly(ethyl methacrylate) show that at low concentrations, DBS associates into small aggregates, while at higher concentrations fibrillar growth is evident. Molecular mechanical energy calculations suggest that DBS networks may form through a combination of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and pi-interactions.

  4. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika Sterzyński, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-17

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide produced by NADPH oxidases increases proline accumulation during salt or mannitol stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Lefebvre-De Vos, Delphine; Le Disquet, Isabel; Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Bordenave, Marianne; Maldiney, Régis; Jdey, Asma; Abdelly, Chedly; Savouré, Arnould

    2015-12-01

    Many plants accumulate proline, a compatible osmolyte, in response to various environmental stresses such as water deficit and salinity. In some stress responses, plants generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) that mediates numerous physiological and biochemical processes. The aim was to study the relationship between stress-induced proline accumulation and H2 O2 production. Using pharmacological and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidases, Respiratory burst oxidase homologues (Rboh), in the induction of proline accumulation was investigated in response to stress induced by either 200 mM NaCl or 400 mM mannitol. Stress from NaCl or mannitol resulted in a transient increase in H2 O2 content accompanied by accumulation of proline. Dimethylthiourea, a scavenger of H2 O2 , and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2 O2 production by NADPH oxidase, were found to significantly inhibit proline accumulation in these stress conditions. DPI also reduced the expression level of Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline. Similarly, less proline accumulated in knockout mutants lacking either AtRbohD or AtRbohF than in wild-type plants in response to the same stresses. Our data demonstrate that AtRbohs (A. thaliana Rbohs) contribute to H2 O2 production in response to NaCl or mannitol stress to increase proline accumulation in this plant.

  6. Regulated high-level expression of the mannitol permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    van Weeghel, R P; Keck, W; Robillard, G T

    1990-01-01

    The structural gene (mtlA) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol-transport protein (EIImtl) and its upstream promoter region (Pmtl) were subcloned approximately 150 base pairs downstream of a lambda PR promoter on a multicopy mutagenesis/expression vector and used to transform a mutant (MtlA-) E. coli strain. Induction at 42 degrees C led to 50 to 100-fold overproduction of EIImtl (5-10 mg/g of cell wet weight) relative to mannitol-induced levels in a wild-type (Mtl+) strain. Most of the overproduced protein was sequestered as an inactive form in inclusion bodies and cytoplasmic membranous structures. The protein could be extracted in an active form by rupturing the cells with lysozyme and sonication or with a passage through a French pressure cell and incubating the inclusion bodies and membranous structures with detergent (Lubrol PX or deoxycholate) in the presence of Q or S Sepharose ion-exchange resin for several hours. This procedure resulted in a 20- to 25-fold overproduction of active EIImtl compared with mannitol-induced wild-type levels. Images PMID:2181442

  7. The oligomeric state and stability of the mannitol transporter, EnzymeIImtl, from Escherichia coli: A fluorescence correlation spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Gertjan; Hink, Mark; Krasnikov, Victor; van den Bogaart, Geert; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Broos, Jaap; Poolman, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Numerous membrane proteins function as oligomers both at the structural and functional levels. The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EnzymeIImtl, is a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. During the transport cycle, mannitol is phosphorylated and released into the cytoplasm as mannitol-1-phosphate. Several studies have shown that EIImtl functions as an oligomeric species. However, the oligomerization number and stability of the oligomeric complex during different steps of the catalytic cycle, e.g., substrate binding and/or phosphorylation of the carrier, is still under discussion. In this paper, we have addressed the oligomeric state and stability of EIImtl using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. A functional double-cysteine mutant was site-specifically labeled with either Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 633. The subunit exchange of these two batches of proteins was followed in time during different steps of the catalytic cycle. The most important conclusions are that (1) in a detergent-solubilized state, EIImtl is functional as a very stable dimer; (2) the stability of the complex can be manipulated by changing the intermicellar attractive forces between PEG-based detergent micelles; (3) substrate binding destabilizes the complex whereas phosphorylation increases the stability; and (4) substrate binding to the phosphorylated species partly antagonizes the stabilizing effect. PMID:16823033

  8. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  9. Mannitol facilitates neurotrophic factor up-regulation and behavioural recovery in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic rats with human umbilical cord blood grafts

    PubMed Central

    Yasuhara, T; Hara, K; Maki, M; Xu, L; Yu, G; Ali, M M; Masuda, T; Yu, S J; Bae, E K; Hayashi, T; Matsukawa, N; Kaneko, Y; Kuzmin-Nichols, N; Ellovitch, S; Cruz, E L; Klasko, S K; Sanberg, C D; Sanberg, P R; Borlongan, C V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We recently demonstrated that blood–brain barrier permeabilization using mannitol enhances the therapeutic efficacy of systemically administered human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) by facilitating the entry of neurotrophic factors from the periphery into the adult stroke brain. Here, we examined whether the same blood–brain barrier manipulation approach increases the therapeutic effects of intravenously delivered HUCB in a neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury model. Seven-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral HI injury and then at day 7 after the insult, animals intravenously received vehicle alone, mannitol alone, HUCB cells (15k mononuclear fraction) alone or a combination of mannitol and HUCB cells. Behavioural tests at post-transplantation days 7 and 14 showed that HI animals that received HUCB cells alone or when combined with mannitol were significantly less impaired in motor asymmetry and motor coordination compared with those that received vehicle alone or mannitol alone. Brain tissues from a separate animal cohort from the four treatment conditions were processed for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at day 3 post-transplantation, and revealed elevated levels of GDNF, NGF and BDNF in those that received HUCB cells alone or when combined with mannitol compared with those that received vehicle or mannitol alone, with the combined HUCB cells and mannitol exhibiting the most robust neurotropic factor up-regulation. Histological assays revealed only sporadic detection of HUCB cells, suggesting that the trophic factor–mediated mechanism, rather than cell replacement per se, principally contributed to the behavioural improvement. These findings extend the utility of blood–brain barrier permeabilization in facilitating cell therapy for treating neonatal HI injury. PMID:20569276

  10. Characterization of AgMaT2, a plasma membrane mannitol transporter from celery, expressed in phloem cells, including phloem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles.

  11. Characterization of AgMaT2, a Plasma Membrane Mannitol Transporter from Celery, Expressed in Phloem Cells, Including Phloem Parenchyma Cells[OA

    PubMed Central

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523

  12. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  13. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  14. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  15. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  16. Sorbitol required for cell growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During ethanol fermentation, the ethanologenic bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis may encounter several environmental stresses such as heat, ethanol and osmotic stresses due to high sugar concentration. Although supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol into culture medium enhances cell growth of Z. mobilis under osmotic stress, the protective function of this compound on cell growth and ethanol production by this organism under other stresses such as heat and ethanol has not been described yet. The formation of sorbitol in Z. mobilis was carried out by the action of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) enzyme which is regulated by the gfo gene. Therefore, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted by the fusion-PCR-based construction technique in the present study, and the protective function of sorbitol on cell growth, protein synthesis and ethanol production by Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses was investigated. Results Based on the fusion-PCR-based construction technique, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted. Disruption of the Z. mobilis gfo gene resulted in the reduction of cell growth and ethanol production not only under osmotic stress but also under heat and ethanol stresses. Under these stress conditions, the transcription level of pdc, adhA, and adhB genes involved in the pyruvate-to-ethanol (PE) pathway as well as the synthesis of proteins particularly in Z. mobilis disruptant strain were decreased compared to those of the parent. These findings suggest that sorbitol plays a crucial role not only on cell growth and ethanol production but also on the protection of cellular proteins from stress responses. Conclusion We showed for the first time that supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol not only promoted cell growth but also increased the ethanol fermentation capability of Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance to stress conditions

  17. A pyrroloquinoline quinine-dependent membrane-bound d-sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans exhibits an ordered Bi Bi reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Peng; Wei, Liu-Jing; Ye, Jian-Bin; Yin, Bo; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2008-09-15

    A membrane-bound pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ)-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (mSLDH) in Gluconobacter oxydans participates in the oxidation of D-sorbitol to L-sorbose by transferring electrons to ubiquinone which links to the respiratory chain. To elucidate the kinetic mechanism, the enzyme purified was subjected to two-substrate steady-state kinetic analysis, product and substrate inhibition studies. These kinetic data indicate that the catalytic reaction follows an ordered Bi Bi mechanism, where the substrates bind to the enzyme in a defined order (first ubiquinone followed by D-sorbitol), while products are released in sequence (first L-sorbose followed by ubiquinol). From these findings, we proposed that the native mSLDH bears two different substrate-binding sites, one for ubiquinone and the other for D-sorbitol, in addition to PQQ-binding and Mg(2+)-binding sites in the catalytic center.

  18. Comparison of transcriptional responses to osmotic stresses induced by NaCl and sorbitol additions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Ashitani, Kengo; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Furusawa, Chikara; Katakura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2006-12-01

    Transcriptional responses of laboratory and brewing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic stresses induced by adding either NaCl or sorbitol to their cultures were compared by clustering DNA microarray data. Our results suggest that the difference in the transcriptional responses of the two strains between NaCl and sorbitol additions is small when the dynamics of the total change in gene expression are similar.

  19. The Effect of Polymorphism on Surface Energetics of D-Mannitol Polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert R; Shah, Umang V; Parambil, Jose V; Burnett, Daniel J; Thielmann, Frank; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different crystalline polymorphism on surface energetics of D-mannitol using finite dilution inverse gas chromatography (FD-IGC). Pure α, β and δ polymorphs were prepared via solution crystallisation and characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD). The dispersive surface energies were found to range from 43 to 34 mJ/m(2), 50 to 41 mJ/m(2), and 48 to 38 mJ/m(2), for α, β, and δ, respectively, for surface coverage ranging from 0.006 to 0.095. A deconvolution modelling approach was employed to establish their energy sites. The primary sites corresponded to maxima in the dispersive surface energy of 37.1 and 33.5; 43.3 and 39.5; and 38.6, 38.4 and 33.0; for α, β, and δ, respectively. This methodology was also extended to an α-β polymorph mixture to estimate the amount of the constituent α and β components present in the sample. The dispersive surface energies of the α-β mixture were found to be in the range of 48 to 37 mJ/m(2) with 40.0, 42.4, 38.4 and 33.1 mJ/m(2) sites. The deconvolution modelling method extracted the energy contribution of each of the polymorphs from data for the polymorphic mixture. The mixture was found to have a β-polymorph surface content of ∼19%. This work shows the influence of polymorphism on surface energetics and demonstrates that FD-IGC coupled with a simple modelling approach to be a powerful tool for assessing the specific nature of this energetic distribution including the quantification of polymorphic content on the surface.

  20. Inhibitory effect of sorbitol on sugar metabolism of Streptococcus mutans in vitro and on acid production in dental plaque in vivo.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Abbe, S; Abbe, K; Takahashi, N; Tamazawa, Y; Yamada, T

    2001-04-01

    This study was conducted to find out whether sorbitol inhibits the sugar metabolism of Streptococcus mutans in vitro and the acid production in dental plaque in vivo. S. mutans NCIB 11723 was anaerobically grown in sorbitol-containing medium. The rate of acid production from sugars was estimated with a pH stat. The rate of acid production from glucose or sucrose was not changed at various concentrations of oxygen. By the addition of sorbitol to sugar, however, the acid production was decreased with increasing levels of oxygen. Intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio and (dihydroxyacetone-phosphate+glyceraldehyde-phosphate)/3-phosphoglycerate ratio were high whenever the acid production was inhibited by sorbitol. Sorbitol also inhibited the acid production in dental plaque in vivo. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD+ ratio during sorbitol metabolism through the inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase by oxygen inhibited glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase and then the acid production of S. mutans and the one in dental plaque.

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  2. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times. PMID:26578426

  3. [Characterization of first sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H- strain isolated in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jakubczak, Aleksandra; Szych, Jolanta; Januszkiewicz, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H- strains have emerged as a cause of human disease in many European and non-European countries. The role of SF VTEC O157:H- in the etiology of pediatric HUS and diarrhea is significant. We characterized the first SF VTEC O157:H- strain isolated from 9 year old patient in Poland. Strain possessed many traits characteristics for SF VTEC O157:H-. It fermented sorbitol after overnight incubation and produced beta-glucuronidase. It possessed the stx2, eae-gamma, EhlyA and sfpA genes and did not harbour plasmid-encoded katP and espP genes. Motility was not expressed but the strain possessed the chromosomal fliC locus for H7 antigen. The spread of SF VTEC O157:H- strains demonstrates the need for appropriate procedures for their microbiological diagnosis in Poland.

  4. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  5. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation.

  6. NMR studies in chemistry. I. Organometallic tin and geramanium compounds. II. The sorbitol pathway in intact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been utilized in the study of two very different chemical problems. The bonding and structure of various cyclopropyl derivatives of tin and germanium has been investigated by means of Sn-119, Ge-73, C-13, and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. Intact rabbit lenses have also been studied using NMR spectroscopy with regard to diabetic cataract formation. C-13 and P-31 NMR spectroscopies have been utilized in the study of the sorbitol pathway and aldose reductase inhibition.

  7. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence.

  8. Sorbitol counteracts temperature- and chemical-induced denaturation of a recombinant α-amylase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. TS-23.

    PubMed

    Chi, Meng-Chun; Wu, Tai-Jung; Chen, Hsing-Ling; Lo, Huei-Fen; Lin, Long-Liu

    2012-12-01

    Enzymes are highly complex systems with a substantial degree of structural variability in their folded state. In the presence of cosolvents, fluctuations among vast numbers of folded and unfolded conformations occur via many different pathways; alternatively, certain conformations can be stabilized or destabilized. To understand the contribution of osmolytes to the stabilization of structural changes and enzymatic activity of a truncated Bacillus sp. TS-23 α-amylase (BACΔNC), we monitored amylolytic activity, circular dichroism, and fluorescence as a function of osmolytes. In the presence of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and sorbitol, BACΔNC activity was retained significantly at elevated temperatures. As compared to the control, the secondary structures of this enzyme were essentially conserved upon the addition of these two kinds of osmolytes. Fluorescence results revealed that the temperature-induced conformational change of BACΔNC was prevented by TMAO and sorbitol. However, glycerol did not provide profound protection against thermal denaturation of the enzyme. Sorbitol was further found to counteract guanidine hydrochloride- and SDS-induced denaturation of BACΔNC. Thus, some well-known naturally occurring osmolytes make a dominant contribution to the stabilization of BACΔNC.

  9. Molecular detection of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 in patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gunzer, F; Böhm, H; Rüssmann, H; Bitzan, M; Aleksic, S; Karch, H

    1992-01-01

    Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O157 were identified in 26 of 104 patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome and in 18 of 668 patients with diarrhea. All strains were identified by colony hybridization with DNA probes complementary to Shiga-like toxin I and Shiga-like toxin II gene sequences and characterized by biochemical tests and serotyping. Seventeen of these 44 patients had E. coli O157 strains which were unusual because they fermented sorbitol within 24 h of incubation and were positive for beta-glucuronidase activity. Culture filtrates of these sorbitol-fermenting strains were highly toxic to Vero cells in culture. Serological tests and DNA analysis performed by restriction endonuclease digestion of B-subunit toxin genes revealed that all 17 isolates produced Shiga-like toxin II. Although by using molecular probes we established a high frequency of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157 strains in the patients we examined, further studies on the prevalence of such isolates in other areas of endemic disease are clearly warranted. Images PMID:1629338

  10. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Yennawar, Hemant; Møller, Magda; Gillilan, Richard; Yennawar, Neela

    2011-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure and a small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase have been determined. The details of the interactions that enable the tetramer scaffold to be the functional biological unit have been analyzed. The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was also used to identify the quaternary structure of the tetramer of slSDH in solution.

  11. Gene expression profiles and intracellular contents of stress protectants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ethanol and sorbitol stresses.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    In response to osmotic stress, proline is accumulated in many bacterial and plant cells. During various stresses, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces glycerol or trehalose synthesis, but the fluctuations in gene expression and intracellular levels of proline in yeast are not yet well understood. We previously found that proline protects yeast cells from damage by freezing, oxidative, or ethanol stress. In this study, we examined the relationships between the gene expression profiles and intracellular contents of glycerol, trehalose, and proline under stress conditions. When yeast cells were exposed to 1 M sorbitol stress, the expression of GPD1 encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is induced, leading to glycerol accumulation. In contrast, in the presence of 9% ethanol, the rapid induction of TPS2 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase resulted in trehalose accumulation. We found that intracellular proline levels did not increase immediately after addition of sorbitol or ethanol. However, the expressions of genes involved in proline synthesis and degradation did not change during exposure to these stresses. It appears that the elevated proline levels are due primarily to an increase in proline uptake from a nutrient medium caused by the induction of PUT4. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae cells do not accumulate proline in response to sorbitol or ethanol stress different from other organisms.

  12. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  14. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  15. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  16. The effect of device resistance and inhalation flow rate on the lung deposition of orally inhaled mannitol dry powder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Michael Y; Verschuer, Jordan; Shi, Yuyu; Song, Yang; Katsifis, Andrew; Eberl, Stefan; Wong, Keith; Brannan, John D; Cai, Weidong; Finlay, Warren H; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-11-20

    The present study investigates the effect of DPI resistance and inhalation flow rates on the lung deposition of orally inhaled mannitol dry powder. Mannitol powder radiolabeled with (99m)Tc-DTPA was inhaled from an Osmohaler™ by healthy human volunteers at 50-70L/min peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) using both a low and high resistance Osmohaler™, and 110-130L/min PIFR using the low resistance Osmohaler™ (n=9). At 50-70L/min PIFR, the resistance of the Osmohaler™ did not significantly affect the total and peripheral lung deposition of inhaled mannitol [for low resistance Osmohaler™, 20% total lung deposition (TLD), 0.3 penetration index (PI); for high resistance Osmohaler™, 17% TLD, 0.23 PI]. Increasing the PIFR 50-70L/min to 110-130L/min (low resistance Osmohaler™) significantly reduced the total lung deposition (10% TLD) and the peripheral lung deposition (PI 0.21). The total lung deposition showed dependency on the in vitro FPF (R(2)=1.0). On the other hand, the PI had a stronger association with the MMAD (R(2)=1.0) than the FPF (R(2)=0.7). In conclusion the resistance of Osmohaler™ did not significantly affect the total and regional lung deposition at 50-70L/min PIFR. Instead, the total and regional lung depositions are dependent on the particle size of the aerosol and inhalation flow rate, the latter itself affecting the particle size distribution.

  17. Impairment of blood brain barrier is related with the neuroinflammation induced peripheral immune status in intracerebroventricular colchicine injected rats: An experimental study with mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sil, Susmita; Ghosh, Arijit; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-09-01

    The neurodegeneration in AD patients may be associated with changes of peripheral immune responses. Some peripheral immune responses are altered due to neuroinflammation in colchicine induced AD (cAD) rats. The leaky blood brain barrier (BBB) in cAD-rats may be involved in inducing peripheral inflammation, though there is no report in this regard. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of BBB in cADrats by altering the BBB in a time dependent manner with injection (i.v.) of mannitol (BBB opener). The inflammatory markers in the brain and serum along with the peripheral immune responses were measured after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection in cAD rats. The results showed higher inflammatory markers in the hippocampus and serum along with alterations in peripheral immune parameters in cAD rats. Although the hippocampal inflammatory markers did not further change after mannitol injection in cAD rats, the serum inflammatory markers and peripheral immune responses were altered and these changes were greater after 60min than that of 30min of mannitol injection. The present study shows that the peripheral immune responses in cAD rats after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection are related to magnitude of impairment of BBB in these conditions. It can be concluded from this study that impairment of BBB in cAD rats is related to the changes of peripheral immune responses observed in that condition.

  18. Analysis of ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica points out the importance of mannitol metabolism in fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Thierry; Lazar, Zbigniew; Dulermo, Rémi; Rakicka, Magdalena; Haddouche, Ramedane; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    The role of the two key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis, ATP-citrate lyase (Acl) and malic enzyme (Mae), was analyzed in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. In most oleaginous yeasts, Acl and Mae are proposed to provide, respectively, acetyl-CoA and NADPH for FA synthesis. Acl was mainly studied at the biochemical level but no strain depleted for this enzyme was analyzed in oleaginous microorganisms. On the other hand the role of Mae in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica remains unclear since it was proposed to be a mitochondrial NAD(H)-dependent enzyme and not a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent enzyme. In this study, we analyzed for the first time strains inactivated for corresponding genes. Inactivation of ACL1 decreases FA synthesis by 60 to 80%, confirming its essential role in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. Conversely, inactivation of MAE1 has no effects on FA synthesis, except in a FA overaccumulating strain where it improves FA synthesis by 35%. This result definitively excludes Mae as a major key enzyme for FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. During the analysis of both mutants, we observed a negative correlation between FA and mannitol level. As mannitol and FA pathways may compete for carbon storage, we inactivated YlSDR, encoding a mannitol dehydrogenase converting fructose and NADPH into mannitol and NADP+. The FA content of the resulting mutant was improved by 60% during growth on fructose, demonstrating that mannitol metabolism may modulate FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica.

  19. Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for Urinary Lactulose and Mannitol Quantification: Results in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gervasoni, Jacopo; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Giorgio, Valentina; Primiano, Aniello; Russo, Consuelo; Tesori, Valentina; Urbani, Andrea; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Lactulose/mannitol ratio is used to assess intestinal barrier function. Aim of this work was to develop a robust and rapid method for the analysis of lactulose and mannitol in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Lactulose/mannitol ratio has been measured in pediatric patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Methods. Calibration curves and raffinose, used as internal standard, were prepared in water : acetonitrile 20 : 80. Fifty μL of urine sample was added to 450 μL of internal standard solution. The chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna NH2 column operating at a flow rate of 200 μL/min and eluted with a linear gradient from 20% to 80% water in acetonitrile. Total run time is 9 minutes. The mass spectrometry operates in electrospray negative mode. Method was fully validated according to European Medicine Agency guidelines. Results and Conclusions. Linearity ranged from 10 to 1000 mg/L for mannitol and 2.5 to 1000 mg/L for lactulose. Imprecision in intra- and interassay was lower than 15% for both analytes. Accuracy was higher than 85%. Lactulose/mannitol ratio in pediatric patients is significantly higher than that measured in controls. The presented method, rapid and sensitive, is suitable in a clinical laboratory. PMID:28070137

  20. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  1. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. Sorbitol non-fermenting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle on smallholdings.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Z; Christensen, J P; Biswas, P K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated faecal samples collected from the rectum of 518 cattle on 371 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh for the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SN-F) shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The SN-F isolates were tested for the presence of rfb O157, stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven SN-F isolates lacking these genes were profiled by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to verify their clonality. SN-F E. coli was identified in 44 [8·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6·4-11·2] samples; of these, 28 (5·4%, 95% CI 3·8-7·7) had shiga toxin-producing strains, although only two carried the rfb O157 gene. Thirteen isolates carried the hlyA gene while 18 harboured the eae gene. Based on PFGE, six pulsotypes were observed among the seven isolates that had no virulence genes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on shiga toxin-producing E. coli from direct rectal faecal samples of cattle on smallholdings.

  5. Direct immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme from natural mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on D-sorbitol cinnamic ester.

    PubMed

    Marín-Zamora, María Elisa; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio

    2006-11-10

    Mushroom tyrosinase was immobilized from an extract onto the totally cinnamoylated derivative of D-sorbitol by direct adsorption as a result of the intense hydrophobic interactions that took place. The immobilization pH value and mass of lyophilized mushrooms were important parameters that affected the immobilization efficiency, while the immobilization time and immobilization support concentration were not important in this respect. The extracted/immobilized enzyme could best be measured above pH 3.5 and the optimum measuring temperature was 55 degrees C. The apparent Michaelis constant using 4-tert-butylcatechol as substrate was 0.38+/-0.02 mM, which was lower than for the soluble enzyme from Sigma (1.41+/-0.20 mM). Immobilization stabilized the extracted enzyme against thermal inactivation and made it less susceptible to activity loss during storage. The operational stability was higher than in the case of the tyrosinase supplied by Sigma and immobilized on the same support. The results show that the use of p-nitrophenol as enzyme-inhibiting substrate during enzyme extraction and immobilization made the use of ascorbic acid unnecessary and is a suitable method for extracting and immobilizing the tyrosinase enzyme, providing good enzymatic activity and stability.

  6. Effects of salt on the gelation mechanism of a D-sorbitol-based hydrogelator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Fan, Kaiqi; Niu, Libo; Li, Yuanchao; Song, Jian

    2013-05-16

    The effect of salt on the gelatinization of 2,4-(3,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-D-sorbitol (DCBS), a novel low-molecular-weight gelator, was studied. DCBS showed pronounced hydrogelation and the electron micrographs indicated that the hydrogels consists of globular aggregates. Addition of NaCl to the aqueous medium accelerated the gelation process and also caused the gel's morphology to change from globular to long fibers. In addition, the thermal properties of the hydrogels were improved with the addition of NaCl. UV-vis and fluorescence emission spectra showed that extensive aggregation of the phenyl rings was responsible for the gelation. The presence of NaCl induced a red shift in the emission peaks of DCBS and a decrease of the pyrene polarity index I1/I3 in the gels, which indicated that there was more π-π stacking in the hydrogels with NaCl than in the gels without NaCl. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR spectra further demonstrated that the π-π interactions were enhanced by NaCl. FTIR studies showed that hydrogen bonding was also a contributing factor in the gelation process. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) showed that the hydrogels had a layered structure which did not change with the addition of NaCl. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated the possible molecular packing of the gelator in the nanofibers.

  7. Colitis induced by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol: A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sheba S K; Parameswaran, Ashok; Parameswaran, Sarojini Ashok; Dhus, Ubal

    2016-03-01

    Drug-related injury has been noted in virtually all organ systems, and recognition of the patterns of injury associated with medication enables modification of treatment and reduces the morbidity associated with the side effects of drugs. With the large number of new drugs being developed, documentation of the morphology of the changes seen as an adverse effect becomes important to characterize the pattern of injury. The pathologist is often the first to identify these abnormalities and correlate them with a particular drug. Kayexalate or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a linear polymer derived from polystyrene containing sulfonic acid and sulfonate functional groups is used to treat hyperkalemia. It is usually administered with an osmotic laxative sorbitol orally or as retention enema. This combination has been implicated in causing damage to different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract especially the colon and causes an established pattern of injury, recognizable by the presence of characteristic crystals, is presented to create a greater awareness of the Kayexalate colitis. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower GI mucosal injury in a setting of uremia and hyperkalemia.

  8. Mesomorphic properties of multi-arm liquid crystals containing glucose and sorbitol as cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Mei; Zhang, Bao-Yan; Cong, Yue-Hua; Zhang, Na; Yao, Dan-Shu

    2009-04-01

    Six thermotropic cholesteric multi-arm liquid crystals (MALCs) were synthesized with glucose and sorbitol as chiral cores. b0, b1 and b2 were introduced into hydroxy groups of the chiral cores as the mesogenic units in the arm scaffold. The roles played by the chiral cores and the terminal chain length of the mesogenic units to the mesomorphic behavior of the MALCs were studied. b0, b1 and b2 displayed nematic phase. c0, c1, c2, d0, d1 and d2 exhibited cholesteric phases and wide mesogenic regions. The results indicated that the chiral cores played an important effect on inducing the cholesteric phase and an obvious effect on the melting temperature, clear point and mesophase region of the MALCs. The corresponding melting temperature and the clear point of d0, d1 and d2, were lower than those of the c0, c1 and c2. The mesophase regions of the formers were narrower than those of the latters. The terminal chain length of the mesogenic units played an important effect on mesogenic region, too. The mesogenic region increased as the terminal chain length increasing for the MALCs containing the same chiral core.

  9. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  10. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  11. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  12. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Sugar Alcohols Over Stuctured Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chunshe; White, James F.; Wang, Yong; Frye, John G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel gas-liquid-solid reactor based on monolith catalyst structure was developed for converting sugar alcohols to value-added chemicals such as propylene glycol. The structured catalyst was used intending to improve product selectivity. Testing at the pressure of 1200psig and 210°C with H2 to sorbitol molar ratio of 8.9 and a space velocity range from 0.15 to 5 hr-1 demonstrated that as high as 41 wt% of propylene glycol selectivity and 13 wt% ethylene glycol selectivity can be obtained. In addition, monolith catalysts gave higher C3/C2 ratio than that in the conventional trickle bed reactor with similar liquid hourly space velocities.

  13. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOEpatents

    Chopade, Shubham P [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  14. The anti-necrosis role of hypoxic preconditioning after acute anoxia is mediated by aldose reductase and sorbitol pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ying; Ma, Zi-Min; Fan, Xue-Lai; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Li, Ming-Ming; Xiong, Lei; Zhang, Kuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Fan, Ming

    2010-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HP) enhances the survival ability of the organism against the subsequent acute anoxia (AA). However, it is not yet clear whether necrosis induced by AA can be prevented by HP, and what are the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effect of HP (10% O(2), 48 h) on necrosis induced by AA (0% O(2), 24 h) in PC12 cells. We found that HP delayed the regulatory volume decrease and reduced cell swelling after 24 h of exposure to AA. Since aldose reductase (AR) is involved in cell volume regulation, we detected AR mRNA expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. The AR mRNA level was dramatically elevated by HP. Furthermore, an HP-induced decrease in cell injury was reversed by berberine chloride (BB), the inhibitor of AR. In addition, sorbitol synthesized from glucose catalyzed by AR is directly related to cell volume regulation. Subsequently, we tested sorbitol content in the cytoplasm. HP clearly elevated sorbitol content, while BB inhibited the elevation induced by HP. Further study showed that a strong inhibitor of sorbitol permease, quinidine, completely reversed the protection induced by HP after AA. These data provide evidence that HP prevents necrosis induced by AA and is mediated by AR and sorbitol pathway.

  15. Biochemical, microbiologic, and clinical comparisons between two dentifrices that contain different mixtures of sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Makinen, K K; Soderling, E; Hurttia, H; Lehtonen, O P; Luukkala, E

    1985-11-01

    It has been customary to think that in a dentifrice only a few of its ingredients would be active and have clinically significant effects on dental caries, oral hygiene, and the levels of caries-inducive microorganisms or harmful plaque metabolic products. Therefore, most of the emphasis has been placed on the type of fluorine compounds, abrasives, or similar dentifrice ingredients. This study shows that such common dentifrice components as the humectants, which contribute to the texture, rheologic characteristics, and shelf life of the product, also may affect the type of dental plaque grown on the tooth surfaces between toothbrushings or during long-term neglect of toothbrushing or of oral hygiene. Commonly used humectants include sorbitol, a sugar alcohol of the hexitol type, which is used often in sugarless candies. This study showed that when sorbitol in a dentifrice was replaced by xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, the dental plaque of human subjects contained more ammonia and significantly less bacterial polysaccharides. It is accepted generally that ammonia neutralizes plaque acids and that bacterial polysaccharides are involved in promoting caries. Xylitol-containing dentifrice also reduced the saliva levels of S mutans. The results further indicated that if sorbitol and xylitol could be compared in a short-term dentifrice study that relied on subjective and coarse plaque determinations only, no differences between those dentifrices would be found necessarily. To demonstrate the differences between the experimental dentifrices used in this study, it was necessary to analyze specific plaque components and the salivary levels of S mutans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Solubility of sugars and sugar alcohols in ionic liquids: measurement and PC-SAFT modeling.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Aristides P; Held, Christoph; Rodríguez, Oscar; Sadowski, Gabriele; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2013-08-29

    Biorefining processes using ionic liquids (ILs) require proper solubility data of biomass-based compounds in ILs, as well as an appropriate thermodynamic approach for the modeling of such data. Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as sugar alcohols represent a class of compounds that could play an important role in biorefining. Thus, in this work, the pure IL density and solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in five different ILs were measured between 288 and 339 K. The ILs under consideration were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]), Aliquat dicyanamide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. Comparison with the literature data was performed, showing good agreement. With the exception of [bmim][DCA], the solubility of these sugar alcohols in the other ILs is presented for the first time. The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszyński; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 7034-7046). For this purpose, three pure IL parameters were fitted to pure IL densities, activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs, and/or xylitol solubility in ILs. This approach allows accurate modeling of the pure IL data and the mixture data with only one binary interaction parameter k(ij) between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL. In cases where only the pure IL density and activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs were used for the IL parameter estimation, the solubility of the sugars and sugar alcohols in the ILs could be predicted (k(ij) = 0 between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL) with reasonable accuracy.

  17. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  18. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU.

  19. Utilization starch of jackfruit seed (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as raw material for bioplastics manufacturing using sorbitol as plasticizer and chitosan as filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, M.; Harahap, M. B.; Manullang, A.; Alfarodo; Ginting, M. H. S.; Sartika, M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch is a natural polymer that can be used for the production of bioplastics because its source is abundant, renewable and easily degraded. Jackfruit seeds can be used as raw material for bioplastics because its contains starch. The aim of this study to determine the characteristics of jackfruit seeds and determine the effect of chitosan and sorbitol on the physicochemical properties of bioplastics from jackfruit seeds. Starch is extracted from jackfruit seeds were then characterized to determine its chemical composition. In the manufacture of bioplastics starch composition jackfruit seeds - chitosan used was 7: 3, 8: 2 and 9: 1 (g/g), while the concentration of sorbitol used was 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% by weight dry ingredients. From the analysis of jackfruit seed starch obtained water content of 6.04%, ash content of 1.08%, the starch content of 70.22%, 16.39% amylose content, amylopectin content of 53.83%, 4.68% protein content, fat content 0.54%. The best conditions of starch bioplastics jackfruit seeds obtained at a ratio of starch: chitosan (w/w) = 8: 2 and the concentration of plasticizer sorbitol 25% with tensile strength 13.524 MPa. From the results of FT-IR analysis indicated an increase for the OH group and the group NH on bioplastics due to the addition of chitosan and sorbitol. The results of mechanical tests is further supported by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing jackfruit seed starch has a small granule size with the size of 7.6 μm and in bioplastics with chitosan filler and plasticizer sorbitol their fracture surface is smooth and slightly hollow compared bioplastics without fillers chitosan and plasticizer sorbitol.

  20. Blending of soluble corn fiber with pullulan, sorbitol, or fructose attenuates glycemic and insulinemic responses in the dog and affects hydrolytic digestion in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Bauer, L L; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of these experiments was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion and glycemic and insulinemic responses of select carbohydrate blends, all containing the novel carbohydrate soluble corn fiber (SCF). Two SCF that varied in their method of production were used to formulate the carbohydrate blends. One set of blends contained a SCF that was spray dried (SCFsd) and then blended with different amounts of either pullulan, sorbitol, or fructose. The other set of blends contained a SCF produced using longer evaporation time (SCF) and then blended with different ratios of pullulan, sorbitol, and fructose. Free sugar concentrations found in the individual SCFsd and SCF substrates were low but varied. Spray-dried soluble corn fiber had a reduced free sugar concentration compared with SCF (2.8 vs. 14.2%). Glucose was the main free sugar found in both SCFsd and SCF but at different concentrations (2.7 vs. 12.7%, respectively). The majority of the SCFsd blends were completely hydrolyzed to their monosaccharide components. Glucose accounted for most of the hydrolyzed monosaccharides for SCFsd and all the SCFsd blends. Hydrolyzed monosaccharide concentrations for the SCF:pullulan:sorbitol:fructose blends followed similar trends to the SCFsd blends where greater percentages of fructose and sorbitol resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) hydrolyzed monosaccharide concentrations. The SCFsd blends had intermediate to high amounts of monosaccharides released as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion. The SCFsd:pullulan blends were more digestible in vitro (approximately 91%; P < 0.05) than SCFsd:fructose or SCFsd:sorbitol. Total released monosaccharides were high in SCFsd blends containing either 50% fructose or sorbitol, but the combination resulted in reduced concentrations of glucose released (P < 0.05). The SCF:pullulan:sorbitol:fructose blends also had intermediate to high released monosaccharides as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion. All SCF blends resulted in

  1. Functional assignment of gene AAC16202.1 from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003: new insights into the bacterial SDR sorbitol dehydrogenases family.

    PubMed

    Sola-Carvajal, Agustín; García-García, María Inmaculada; Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with over 60,000 non-redundant sequences in the database, many of which need a correct functional assignment. Among them, the gene AAC16202.1 (NCBI) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 has been assigned in Uniprot both as a sorbitol dehydrogenase (#D5AUY1) and, as an N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (#O66112), both enzymes being of biotechnological interest. When the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)pLys, the purified enzyme was not active toward N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, whereas it was active toward d-sorbitol and d-fructose. However, the relative activities toward xylitol and l-iditol (0.45 and 6.9%, respectively) were low compared with that toward d-sorbitol. Thus, the enzyme could be considered sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) with very low activity toward xylitol, which could increase its biotechnological interest for determining sorbitol without the unspecific cross-determination of added xylitol in food and pharma compositions. The tetrameric enzyme (120 kDa) showed similar catalytic efficiency (2.2 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) to other sorbitol dehydrogenases for d-sorbitol, with an optimum pH of 9.0 and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. The enzyme was also more thermostable than other reported SDH, ammonium sulfate being the best stabilizer in this respect, increasing the melting temperature (T(m)) up to 52.9 °C. The enzyme can also be considered as a new member of the Zn(2+) independent SDH family since no effect on activity was detected in the presence of divalent cations or chelating agents. Finally, its in silico analysis enabled the specific conserved sequence blocks that are the fingerprints of bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases and mainly located at C-terminal of the protein, to be determined for the first time. This knowledge will facilitate future data curation of present databases and a better functional assignment of newly described

  2. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  5. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  6. Physicochemical characterization of D-mannitol polymorphs: the challenging surface energy determination by inverse gas chromatography in the infinite dilution region.

    PubMed

    Cares-Pacheco, M G; Vaca-Medina, G; Calvet, R; Espitalier, F; Letourneau, J-J; Rouilly, A; Rodier, E

    2014-11-20

    Nowadays, it is well known that surface interactions play a preponderant role in mechanical operations, which are fundamental in pharmaceutical processing and formulation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to correlate surface behaviour in processes to physical properties measurement. Indeed, most pharmaceutical solids have multiple surface energies because of varying forms, crystal faces and impurities contents or physical defects, among others. In this paper, D-mannitol polymorphs (α, β and δ) were studied through different characterization techniques highlighting bulk and surface behaviour differences. Due to the low adsorption behaviour of β and δ polymorphs, special emphasis has been paid to surface energy analysis by inverse gas chromatography, IGC. Surface energy behaviour has been studied in Henry's domain showing that, for some organic solids, the classical IGC infinite dilution zone is never reached. IGC studies highlighted, without precedent in literature, dispersive surface energy differences between α and β mannitol, with a most energetically active α form with a γ(s)(d) of 74.9 mJ·m⁻². Surface heterogeneity studies showed a highly heterogeneous α mannitol with a more homogeneous β (40.0 mJ·m⁻²) and δ mannitol (40.3 mJ·m⁻²). Moreover, these last two forms behaved similarly considering surface energy at different probe concentrations.

  7. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.; Zhang, Xinjie

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  8. MCC-mannitol mixtures after roll compaction/dry granulation: percolation thresholds for ribbon microhardness and granule size distribution.

    PubMed

    Pérez Gago, Ana; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-04-07

    In roll compaction, the specific compaction force, the gap width and the roll speed are the most important settings as they have a high impact in the products obtained. However the mechanical properties of the mixture being compacted are also critical. For this reason, a multilevel full factorial design including these parameters as factors plus three repetitions of the center point was performed for microcrystalline cellulose, mannitol and five binary mixtures (15, 30, 50, 70 and 85% MCC). These two reference excipients were chosen in order to investigate the plastic/brittle behavior of mixtures for the roll compaction process. These materials were roll compacted in a 3-W-Polygran(®) 250/50/3 (Gerteis) and the ribbons obtained were collected and milled into granules which were characterized regarding granule size distribution. After statistical evaluation, it was found that the most critical factors affecting the D10, D50, D90 and the fines fraction from the granules were the gap width and the specific compaction force, as well as the proportion of MCC together with its quadratic effect and the interaction between force and proportion of MCC. The microhardness of the ribbons from the center point as well as the D10, D50, D90 and the fines fraction from the granules produced at these same conditions were characterized. In all the cases, the proportion of MCC, i.e. the composition of the mixture, showed also an important effect on these properties measured. In this sense, the percolation theory was applied in order to study further the importance of the plastic/brittle ratio by calculating the percolation threshold or the limit over which the behavior of the system changes. This resulted in values of 34% for the HU (expression of microhardness), 27% and 28% for the D10 and fines, respectively (percolation of MCC) and 84% and 85% for the D50 and D90, respectively (percolation of mannitol).

  9. Parallel activation of Ca(2+)-induced survival and death pathways in cardiomyocytes by sorbitol-induced hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Chiong, M; Parra, V; Eisner, V; Ibarra, C; Maldonado, C; Criollo, A; Bravo, R; Quiroga, C; Contreras, A; Vicencio, J M; Cea, P; Bucarey, J L; Molgó, J; Jaimovich, E; Hidalgo, C; Kroemer, G; Lavandero, S

    2010-08-01

    Hyperosmotic stress promotes rapid and pronounced apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated if Ca(2+) signals contribute to this response. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to sorbitol [600 mosmol (kg water)(-1)] elicited large and oscillatory intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increases. These Ca(2+) signals were inhibited by nifedipine, Cd(2+), U73122, xestospongin C and ryanodine, suggesting contributions from both Ca(2+) influx through voltage dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels plus Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores mediated by IP(3) receptors and ryanodine receptors. Hyperosmotic stress also increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels, promoted mitochondrial depolarization, reduced intracellular ATP content, and activated the transcriptional factor cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), determined by increased CREB phosphorylation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Incubation with 1 mM EGTA to decrease extracellular [Ca(2+)] prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hyperosmotic stress, while overexpression of an adenoviral dominant negative form of CREB abolished the cardioprotection provided by 1 mM EGTA. These results suggest that hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol, by increasing Ca(2+) influx and raising intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, activates Ca(2+) release from stores and causes cell death through mitochondrial function collapse. In addition, the present results suggest that the Ca(2+) increase induced by hyperosmotic stress promotes cell survival by recruiting CREB-mediated signaling. Thus, the fate of cardiomyocytes under hyperosmotic stress will depend on the balance between Ca(2+)-induced survival and death pathways.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-06-09

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, "Cuiguan" and "Cuiyu". Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in "Cuiguan" than in "Cuiyu", accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  12. Leakage of potassium from red blood cells following gamma ray irradiation in the presence of dipyridamole, trolox, human plasma or mannitol.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Junichi; Abe, Hideki; Azuma, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hisami

    2005-07-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a fatal complication of blood transfusion resulting from the contamination of blood products by leukocytes. In order to prevent this disease, gamma or X-ray irradiation of blood components,which can inactivate leukocytes, is currently used. However, the minimal doses needed to destroy lymphocytes promote the leakage of potassium from red blood cells (RBCs), which can induce other side effects, such as hyperpotassemia and cardiac arrest. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the irradiation of aqueous solutions may accelerate the leakage through oxidation of the RBC membrane. Here we studied the effect of dipyridamole, Trolox, human plasma or mannitol on the leakage of potassium from RBCs following irradiation. RBC preparations (hematocrit; 30%) containing antioxidants were irradiated at 30 Gy and stored at 4 degrees C for 7 d. The leakage of potassium from the RBCs caused by the irradiation was significantly suppressed by dipyridamole (more than 50 microM), Trolox (more than 5 mM) or human plasma (50%). Mannitol (80 mM) is used to inhibit hemolysis as a constituent of MAP solution, which is a solution used for the storage of RBC products in Japan. Here it was clarified that the leakage of potassium from not only irradiated but also non-irradiated RBCs was unexpectedly promoted by mannitol. The amount of mannitol in MAP solution may have to be reconsidered. The osmotic pressure of the RBC preparation increased in a manner dependent on the concentration of mannitol. The elevated osmotic pressure may promote the leakage. In conclusion, although antioxidants have the potential to suppress the leakage of potassium ascribed to the irradiation, the extent of the suppression (10-20%) by dipyridamole (DPM), Trolox or human plasma seems insufficient for the clinical use of these agents as an additive for MAP solution.

  13. Functional reconstitution of the purified phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol-specific transport system of Escherichia coli in phospholipid vesicles: coupling between transport and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Elferink, M G; Driessen, A J; Robillard, G T

    1990-01-01

    Purified mannitol-specific enzyme II (EII) from Escherichia coli was reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles with the aid of a detergent-dialysis procedure followed by a freeze-thaw sonication step. The orientation of EII in the proteoliposomes was random. The cytoplasmic moiety of the inverted EII could be removed with trypsin without effecting the integrity of the liposomal membrane. This enabled us to study the two different EII orientations independently. The population of inverted EII molecules was monitored by measuring active extrusion of mannitol after the addition of phosphoenolpyruvate, EI, and histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) at the outside of the vesicles. The population of correctly oriented EII molecules was monitored by measuring active uptake of mannitol with internal phosphoenolpyruvate, EI, and HPr. A low rate of facilitated diffusion of mannitol via the unphosphorylated carrier could be measured. On the other hand, a high phosphorylation activity without translocation was observed at the outside of the liposomes. The kinetics of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent transport reaction and the nonvectorial phosphorylation reaction were compared. Transport of mannitol into the liposomes via the correctly oriented EII molecules occurred with a high affinity (Km, lower than 10 microM) and with a relatively low Vmax. Phosphorylation at the outside of the liposomes catalyzed by the inverted EII molecules occurred with a low affinity (Km of about 66 microM), while the maximal velocity was about 10 times faster than the transport reaction. The latter observation is kinetic proof for the lack of strict coupling between transport and phosphorylation in these enzymes. Images PMID:2123863

  14. An equiosmolar study on early intracranial physiology and long term outcome in severe traumatic brain injury comparing mannitol and hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Jagannatha, Aniruddha Tekkatte; Sriganesh, Kamath; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Rao, Ganne Sesha Umamaheswara

    2016-05-01

    The impact of hypertonic saline (HTS) on long term control of intracranial hypertension (ICH) is yet to be established. The current prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in 38 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over 450 episodes of refractory ICH were treated with equiosmolar boluses of 20% mannitol in 20 patients and 3.0% HTS in 18 subjects. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored for 6days. ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were comparable between the groups. The mannitol group had a progressive increase in the ICP over the study period (p=0.01). A similar increase was not seen in the HTS group (p=0.1). The percentage time for which the ICP remained below a threshold of 20 mmHg on day6 was higher in the HTS group (63% versus 49%; p=0.3). The duration of inotrope requirement in the HTS group was less compared to the mannitol group (p=0.06). The slope of fall in ICP in response to a bolus dose at a given baseline value of ICP was higher with HTS compared to mannitol (p=0.0001). In-hospital mortality tended to be lower in the HTS group (3 versus 10; p=0.07) while mortality at 6 months was not different between the groups (6 versus 10; p=0.41). Dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale scores at 6months were comparable between the groups (p=0.21). To conclude, immediate physiological advantages seen with HTS over mannitol did not translate into long term benefit on ICP/CPP control or mortality of patients with TBI.

  15. Plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Brown, Alan R; Mewburn, Ben R; Clarke, David J; Fry, Stephen C; Campopiano, Dominic J; Govan, John R W

    2008-08-01

    The species that presently constitute the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. Since the first description of pathogenicity in the Bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the Bcc. Many Bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when onion tissue was provided as the sole nutrient. EPS production was not species-specific, was observed in isolates from both clinical and environmental sources, and did not correlate with the ability to cause maceration of onion tissue. Chemical analysis suggested that the onion components responsible for EPS induction were primarily the carbohydrates sucrose, fructose and fructans. Additional sugars were investigated, and all alcohol sugars tested were able to induce EPS production, in particular mannitol and glucitol. To investigate the molecular basis for EPS biosynthesis, we focused on the highly conserved bce gene cluster thought to be involved in cepacian biosynthesis. We demonstrated induction of the bce gene cluster by mannitol, and found a clear correlation between the inability of representatives of the Burkholderia cenocepacia ET12 lineage to produce EPS and the presence of an 11 bp deletion within the bceB gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase. Insertional inactivation of bceB in Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD results in loss of EPS production on sugar alcohol media. These novel and surprising insights into EPS biosynthesis highlight the metabolic potential of the Bcc and show that a potential virulence factor may not be detected by routine laboratory culture. Our results also highlight a potential hazard in the use of inhaled mannitol as an osmolyte to improve mucociliary clearance in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

  16. A blood-brain barrier (BBB) disrupter is also a potent α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation inhibitor: a novel dual mechanism of mannitol for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD).

    PubMed

    Shaltiel-Karyo, Ronit; Frenkel-Pinter, Moran; Rockenstein, Edward; Patrick, Christina; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Schiller, Abigail; Egoz-Matia, Nirit; Masliah, Eliezer; Segal, Daniel; Gazit, Ehud

    2013-06-14

    The development of disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson disease has been a main drug development challenge, including the need to deliver the therapeutic agents to the brain. Here, we examined the ability of mannitol to interfere with the aggregation process of α-synuclein in vitro and in vivo in addition to its blood-brain barrier-disrupting properties. Using in vitro studies, we demonstrated the effect of mannitol on α-synuclein aggregation. Although low concentration of mannitol inhibited the formation of fibrils, high concentration significantly decreased the formation of tetramers and high molecular weight oligomers and shifted the secondary structure of α-synuclein from α-helical to a different structure, suggesting alternative potential pathways for aggregation. When administered to a Parkinson Drosophila model, mannitol dramatically corrected its behavioral defects and reduced the amount of α-synuclein aggregates in the brains of treated flies. In the mThy1-human α-synuclein transgenic mouse model, a decrease in α-synuclein accumulation was detected in several brain regions following treatment, suggesting that mannitol promotes α-synuclein clearance in the cell bodies. It appears that mannitol has a general neuroprotective effect in the transgenic treated mice, which includes the dopaminergic system. We therefore suggest mannitol as a basis for a dual mechanism therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson disease.

  17. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  18. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    PubMed

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  19. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  20. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  2. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  3. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  4. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  5. Noninvasive functional liver blood flow measurement: comparison between bolus dose and steady-state clearance of sorbitol in a small-rodent model.

    PubMed

    van der Hoven, Ben; van Pelt, Hans; Swart, Eleonore L; Bonthuis, Fred; Tilanus, Huug W; Bakker, Jan; Gommers, Diederik

    2010-02-01

    Plasma clearance of D-sorbitol, a nontoxic polyol, occurs predominantly in the liver and has been used to measure functional liver blood flow after bolus and steady- state intravenous administration. However, it is not known which of these two administration methods is superior. Therefore, plasma D-sorbitol clearance was studied in an animal model both after a bolus dose and under steady-state (SS) conditions and compared directly with liver blood flow, under normal conditions, and after the induction of endotoxin (LPS) sepsis. Adult male Wistar rats (526 +/- 38 g body wt; n = 27) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Hemodynamics, hepatic arterial flow, and portal venous flow were measured. Two groups were studied, namely healthy animals that served as controls and a sepsis group that received 5 mg/kg LPS intravenously (Escherichia coli O127:B8). Each animal received either a SS infusion (0.1 mg/100 g body wt per min) or a bolus (3 mg/100 g body wt) of a 5% D-sorbitol solution intravenously in a randomized order. After the initial measurements and a 60-min pause time in between (T(1/2,sorbitol) = 9 min), a crossover was done. The hepatic clearance of D-sorbitol in the control group showed a good correlation between bolus and SS (Spearman's r = 0.7681, P = 0.0004), and both techniques correlated well with total liver blood flow (TLBF) (r = 0.7239, P = 0.0023 and r = 0.7226, P = 0.0023, respectively). Also in the sepsis group there was a good correlation between bolus and SS sorbitol clearance (r = 0.6655, P = 0.0182). In the sepsis group, only the SS clearance correlated with TLBF (r = 0.6434, P = 0.024). In conclusion, in normal and under septic conditions, hepatic clearance of D-sorbitol either by bolus or a SS infusion is comparable. In healthy animals, this also correlated well with TLBF but not in septic conditions. However, this is expected because of the changes in the liver microcirculation, shunting, and decreased hepatocyte function in sepsis.

  6. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  7. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  8. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  9. Partial solubility parameters of lactose, mannitol and saccharose using the modified extended Hansen method and evaporation light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Peña, M A; Daali, Y; Barra, J; Bustamante, P

    2000-02-01

    The modified extended Hansen method was tested for the first time to determine partial solubility parameters of non-polymeric pharmaceutical excipients. The method was formerly tested with drug molecules, and is based upon a regression analysis of the logarithm of the mole fraction solubility of the solute against the partial solubility parameters of a series of solvents of different chemical classes. Two monosaccharides and one disaccharide (lactose monohydrate, saccharose and mannitol) were chosen. The solubility of these compounds was determined in a series of solvents ranging from nonpolar to polar and covering a wide range of the solubility parameter scale. Sugars do not absorb at the UV-vis region, and the saturated solutions were assayed with a recent chromatographic technique coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector. This technique was suitable to determine the concentration dissolved in most solvents. The modified extended Hansen method provided better results than the original approach. The best model was the four parameter equation, which includes the dispersion delta d, dipolar delta p, acidic delta a and basic delta b partial solubility parameters. The partial solubility parameters obtained, expressed as MPa1/2, were delta d = 17.6, delta p = 28.7, delta h = 19, delta a = 14.5, delta b = 12.4, delta T = 32.8 for lactose, delta d = 16.2, delta p = 24.5, delta h = 14.6, delta a = 8.7, delta b = 12.2, delta T = 32.8 for mannitol and delta d = 17.1, delta p = 18.5, delta h = 13, delta a = 11.3, delta b = 7.6, delta T = 28.4 for saccharose. The high total solubility parameters delta T obtained agree with the polar nature of the sugars. The dispersion parameters delta d are quite similar for the three sugars indicating that the polar delta p and hydrogen bonding parameters (delta h, delta a, delta b) are responsible for the variation in the total solubility parameters delta T obtained, as also found for drugs. The results suggest that the method

  10. The effect of taste masking agents on in situ gelling pectin formulations for oral sustained delivery of paracetamol and ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shozo; Kubo, Wataru; Itoh, Kunihiko; Konno, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Mariko; Dairaku, Masatake; Togashi, Mitsuo; Mikami, Ryozo; Attwood, David

    2005-06-13

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polyhydric alcohols (taste masking agents) on the rheological properties of in situ gelling pectin formulations and on the in vitro and in vivo release of paracetamol and ambroxol from these formulations. Gelation of orally administered pectin solutions containing calcium in complexed form occurred on release of calcium in the acidic environment of the stomach. Inclusion of 10% (w/v) sorbitol in 2% (w/v) pectin sols reduced the viscosity and ensured Newtonian flow properties. Xylitol and mannitol in similar concentrations were less effective in reducing viscosity; sucrose increased viscosity and caused non-Newtonian flow. The in vitro release of paracetamol from 2% (w/v) pectin gels formulated with 10% (w/v) of sorbitol, erythritol, xylitol or mannitol, and of ambroxol from 2% (w/v) pectin gels containing 10% (w/v) sorbitol, followed diffusion-controlled kinetics. Pectin gels (2%, w/v) containing sorbitol (10%, w/v) sustained the release of paracetamol in the rat stomach and bioavailabilities of approximately 90% of those from an orally administered paracetamol syrup were achieved. Sustained release of ambroxol from in situ gelling formulations was achieved with pectin concentrations of 1.5 and 1% (w/v) and a sorbitol concentration of 10% (w/v).

  11. The impact of hot-melt extrusion on the tableting behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Grymonpré, W; De Jaeghere, W; Peeters, E; Adriaensens, P; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-02-10

    There is evidence that processing techniques like hot-melt extrusion (HME) could alter the mechanical properties of pharmaceuticals, which may impede further processability (e.g. tableting). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if HME has an impact on the tableting behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-formulations. Mixtures of partially hydrolysed PVA grades (with a hydroxylation degree of 75 and 88%) and sorbitol (0, 10 and 40%) were extruded, (cryo-) milled and compressed into compacts of 350 ± 10 mg. Before compression all intermediate products were characterized for their solid-state (Tg, Tm, crystallinity) and material properties (particle size, moisture content, moisture sorption). Because both PVA-grades required higher extrusion temperatures (i.e. 180 °C), sorbitol was added to PVA as plasticizing agent to allow extrusion at 140 °C. Compaction experiments were performed on both physical mixtures and cryo-milled extrudates of PVA-sorbitol. By measuring tablet tensile strength and porosity in function of compaction pressure, tableting behaviour was compared before and after HME by means of the CTC-profiles (compressibility, tabletability, compactibility). A higher amorphous content in the formulation (as a result of HME) negatively influenced the tableting behaviour (i.e. lower tablet tensile strength). HME altered the mechanical properties towards more elastically deforming materials, thereby increasing tablet elastic recovery during decompression. The lower tensile strengths resulted from a combined effect of less interparticulate bonding areas (because of higher elastic recovery) and weaker bonding strengths per unit bonding area (between glassy particles).

  12. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Copper-zinc electrodeposition in alkaline-sorbitol medium: Electrochemical studies and structural, morphological and chemical composition characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. R. H.; Barbano, E. P.; de Carvalho, M. F.; Tulio, P. C.; Carlos, I. A.

    2015-04-01

    The galvanostatic technique was used to analyze the electrodeposition of Cu-Zn on to AISI 1010 steel electrode from an alkaline-sorbitol bath with various proportions of the metal ions in the bath: Cu70/Zn30, Cu50/Zn50 and Cu30/Zn70. Coloration of Cu-Zn films were whitish golden, light golden, golden/gray depending on the Cu2+/Zn2+ ratios in the electrodeposition bath, deposition current density (jdep) and charge density (qdep). The highest current efficiency was ∼54.0%, at jdep -1.0 mA cm-2 and qdep 0.40 C cm-2 in the Cu70/Zn30 bath. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that electrodeposits produced from the bath Cu70/Zn30 showed higher Cu content at lower jdep. Also, for same jdep the Cu content increased with qdep. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Cu-Zn electrodeposits of high quality were obtained from the Cu70/Zn30 bath, since the films were fine-grained, except the obtained at jdep -20.0 mA cm-2 and qdep 10.0 C cm-2. Also, these electrodeposits did not present cracks. X-ray analysis of the Cu-Zn electrodeposits obtained at jdep -8.0, -20.0 and -40.0 mA cm-2, in each case, with qdep 2.0 and 10.0 C cm-2, in the Cu70/Zn30 bath, suggested the occurrence of a mixture of the following phases, CuZn, CuZn5 and Cu5Zn8. Galvanostatic electrodeposits of Cu-Zn obtained from sorbitol-alkaline baths exhibited whitish golden color, with good prospects for industrial applications, especially for decorative purposes.

  14. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  15. Preventing gut leakiness by oats supplementation ameliorates alcohol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzian, A; Choudhary, S; Holmes, E W; Yong, S; Banan, A; Jakate, S; Fields, J Z

    2001-11-01

    Only 30% of alcoholics develop liver disease (ALD) suggesting that additional factors are needed. Endotoxin is one such factor, but its etiology is unclear. Since the gut is the main source of endotoxin, we sought to determine whether an increase in intestinal permeability (leaky gut) is required for alcohol-induced endotoxemia and liver injury and whether the gut leakiness is preventable. For 10 weeks, rats received by gavage increasing alcohol doses (to 8 g/kg/day) and either oats (10 g/kg) or chow b.i.d. Intestinal permeability was then assessed by urinary excretion of lactulose and mannitol. Liver injury was evaluated histologically, biochemically (liver fat content), and by serum aminotransferase. Alcohol caused gut leakiness that was associated with both endotoxemia and liver injury. Oats prevented these changes. We conclude that chronic gavage of alcohol in rats is a simple experimental model that mimics key aspects of ALD, including endotoxemia and liver injury, and can be useful to study possible mechanisms of endotoxemia in ALD. Since preventing the gut leakiness by oats also prevented the endotoxemia and ameliorated liver damage in rat, our results suggest that alcohol-induced gut leakiness 1) may cause alcohol-induced endotoxemia and liver injury and 2) may be the critical cofactor in the 30% of alcoholics who develop ALD. Further studies are needed to determine whether ALD in humans can be prevented by preventing alcohol-induced gut leakiness, studies that should lead to the development of useful therapeutic agents for the prevention of ALD.

  16. Characterization, in Vivo and in Vitro Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of Curcumin Containing d-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate and Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Song, Im-Sook; Cha, Jin-Sun; Choi, Min-Koo

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to prepare a solid dispersion formulation of curcumin to enhance its solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability. The formulation was prepared with d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and mannitol using solvent evaporation and freeze-drying methods, which yielded a solid dispersion composed of curcumin, TPGS, and mannitol at a ratio of 1:10:15 (w/w/w). The solubility and dissolution rate of the curcumin solid dispersion markedly improved compared with those of curcumin powder and a physical mixture of curcumin, TPGS, and mannitol. About 90% of the curcumin was released from the solid dispersion formulation within 10 min. After administering the formulation orally to rats, higher plasma concentrations of curcumin were observed, with increases in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of 86- and 65-fold, respectively, compared with those of curcumin powder. The solid dispersion formulation effectively increased intestinal permeability and inhibited P-gp function. These effects increased the anti-proliferative effect of curcumin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Moreover, 2 h incubation with curcumin powder, solid dispersion formulation, and its physical mixture resulted in differential cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in P-gp overexpressed LLC-PK1-P-gp and MDA-MB-231 cells through the inhibition of P-gp-mediated paclitaxel efflux. In conclusion, compared with curcumin, a solid dispersion formulation of curcumin with TPGS and mannitol could be a promising option for enhancing the oral bioavailability and efficacy of curcumin through increased solubility, dissolution rate, cell permeability, and P-gp modulation.

  17. Chirality of the hydrogen transfer to the coenzyme catalyzed by ribitol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae and D-mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alizade, M A; Gaede, K; Brendel, K

    1976-08-01

    The stereochemistry of the hydrogen transfer to NAD catalyzed by ribitol dehydrogenase (ribitol:NAD 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.56) from Klebsiella pneumoniae and D-mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-mannitol-1-phosphate:NAD 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.17) from Escherichia coli was investigated. [4-3H]NAD was enzymatically reduced with nonlabelled ribitol in the presence of ribitol dehydrogenase and with nonlabelled D-mannitol 1-phosphate and D-mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively. In both cases the [4-3H]-NADH produced was isolated and the chirality at the C-4 position determined. It was found that after the transfer of hydride, the label was in both reactions exclusively confined to the (4R) position of the newly formed [4-3H]NADH. In order to explain these results, the hydrogen transferred from the nonlabelled substrates to [4-3H]NAD must have entered the (4S) position of the nicotinamide ring. These data indicate for both investigated inducible dehydrogenases a classification as B or (S) type enzymes. Ribitol also can be dehydrogenated by the constitutive A-type L-iditol dehydrogenase (L-iditol:NAD 5-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.14) from sheep liver. When L-iditol dehydrogenase utilizes ribitol as hydrogen donor, the same A-type classification for this oxidoreductase, as expected, holds true. For the first time, opposite chirality of hydrogen transfer to NAD in one organic reaction--ribitol + NAD = D-ribu + NADH + H--is observed when two different dehydrogenases, the inducible ribitol dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae and the constitutive L-iditol dehydrogenase from sheep liver, are used as enzymes. This result contradicts the previous generalization that the chirality of hydrogen transfer to the coenzyme for the same reaction is independent of the source of the catalyzing enzyme.

  18. Modern approach for determination of lactulose, mannitol and sucrose in human urine using HPLC-MS/MS for the studies of intestinal and upper digestive tract permeability.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namieśnik, Jacek; Landowski, Piotr

    2012-10-15

    A new analytical procedure was described for the simultaneous determination of lactulose, mannitol and sucrose in urine, in which HILIC chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection are used. Sugars are orally administered for the estimation of intestinal permeability in children digestive tract. Samples were purified by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) using Amberlite MB150 resin. Raffinose was selected as an internal standard. The chosen chromatographic separation was carried out on ZIC(®)-HILIC column in 10 min at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min, using mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and ammonium acetate (NH(4)Ac) in water (H(2)O) as the mobile phase. Within-run precision (CV) measured at three concentrations was 1.08%, 0.32% and 0.49% for lactulose; 1.88%, 0.47% and 0.75% for mannitol, 2.95%, 1.31% and 0.6% for sucrose. Between-run CVs were 0.75%, 1.1% and 1.2% for lactulose; 1.1%, 1.02% and 1.01% for mannitol; 1.17%, 1.4% and 1.05% for sucrose. Analytical recovery of all three sugar probes was 95.06-99.92%. The detection limits were: 15.94 ng/mL for lactulose, 17.10 ng/mL for sucrose and 11.48 ng/mL for mannitol. The proposed method is rapid, simple, sensitive and suitable for the determination of intestinal permeability of the sugar derivatives in children.

  19. Characterization of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase in Saccharina japonica: evidence for a new polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhanru; Zhang, Pengyan; Li, Qiuying; Wang, Xiuliang; Duan, Delin

    2014-01-01

    Mannitol plays a crucial role in brown algae, acting as carbon storage, organic osmolytes and antioxidant. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharina japonica revealed that the relative genes involved in the mannitol cycle are existent. Full-length sequence of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (M2DH) gene was obtained, with one open reading frame of 2,007 bp which encodes 668 amino acids. Cis-regulatory elements for response to methyl jasmonic acid, light and drought existed in the 5'-upstream region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SjM2DH has an ancient prokaryotic origin, and is probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer event. Multiple alignment and spatial structure prediction displayed a series of conserved functional residues, motifs and domains, which favored that SjM2DH belongs to the polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase (PSLDR) family. Expressional profiles of SjM2DH in the juvenile sporophytes showed that it was influenced by saline, oxidative and desiccative factors. SjM2DH was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the cell-free extracts with recombinant SjM2DH displayed high activity on D-fructose reduction reaction. The analysis on SjM2DH gene structure and biochemical parameters reached a consensus that activity of SjM2DH is NADH-dependent and metal ion-independent. The characterization of SjM2DH showed that M2DH is a new member of PSLDR family and play an important role in mannitol metabolism in S. japonica.

  20. Clinical effects of joint application of β-sodium aescinate and mannitol in treating early swelling after upper limb trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yang, Ruixiang; Ju, Qing; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhang, Yongchun; Ma, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical merits of joint application of β-sodium aescinate and mannitol for the treatment of early swelling of upper limb trauma after surgery. We verified whether the expression of serum aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) was involved in swelling mechanism. A total of 102 patients with swelling after upper limb trauma surgery were enrolled into the study and divided randomly into 3 groups (n=34 cases per group). Group A was treated with β-sodium aescinate; group B was treated with with mannitol and group C was treated with both β-sodium aescinate and mannitol. The expression level of AQP-1, and clinical effects and complications before and after treatment were compared§. The time of swelling subsidence in group C was significantly shorter than that of the other two groups and differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The recovery ratio and total efficiency in group C were significantly higher than those in other two groups and differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Three and seven days after treatment, the AQP-1 levels in group A and group C were decreased and AQP-1 level decreased further with time. Differences of comparison within groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), although the differences of comparison between the groups showed no statistical significance (P>0.05). We also compared the AQP-1 level in group B before and after treatment, and the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). When the complication incidence in the 3 groups was compared, no statistical significance was detected (P>0.05). We concluded that the joint use of β-sodium aescinate and mannitol in treating early swelling after upper limb trauma surgery produced satisfactory outcomes. This might be related to reduction of the AQP-1 level. PMID:27882156

  1. Use of trehalose-mannitol-phosphatase agar to differentiate Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus from other coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D L; Jones, C

    1984-01-01

    Using a plate medium containing trehalose, mannitol, and phenolphthalein diphosphate (TMPA), we differentiated significant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis by their lack of acid production in 18 h from other coagulase-negative staphylococci, with our results having a sensitivity (R. S. Galen and S. R. Gambino, Beyond Normality: The Predictive Value and Efficiency of Medical Diagnoses) of 100%, a specificity of 89.9%, and a positive predictive value of 94.8%. With a Taxo A bacitracin disk, which differentiates Staphylococcus species from Micrococcus species, no zone of inhibition was seen for 96% of all staphylococcal strains, with 5 of 26 strains of Staphylococcus saprophyticus exhibiting zone diameters up to 10 mm. By using resistance to a 5-microgram novobiocin disk, we differentiated S. saprophyticus, with our results having a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 97.1%, and a positive predictive value of 83.9% on TMPA. These two species represented 77.8% of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated. Reference strains fo Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species were differentiated by TMPA. The cost of TMPA was compared with that of another method. TMPA was found to offer an inexpensive, sensitive method for rapidly differentiating coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates. PMID:6096398

  2. Improvement of mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar for the selective isolation of H2S-positive Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, H; Mizuochi, S; Honda, T; Yamaguchi, K

    2000-12-01

    Mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar (MLCB) is widely used in Japan for Salmonella isolation because the medium has been commercially available. Colonies of Salmonella on MLCB appear colorless with black centers due to H2S gas production; however, most Citrobacter freundii also produce H2S gas. In order to distinguish H2S-positive Salmonella from C. freundii we have improved MLCB. To MLCB was added 1% lactose (L-MLCB). The relation for pH and black center colony formation was examined. The pH of MLCB and L-MLCB inoculated with Salmonella species was slightly acid after 7 h, but the pH of L-MLCB inoculated with C. freundii did not become acid for 24 h. The colony of C. freundii did not have a black center because the production of acid from lactose lowers the pH below 10 where it is needed for H2S to react with iron to produce black pigments. Of 99 Salmonella strains including 13 serotypes tested, all strains had the same colony morphologies on MLCB and L-MLCB. When MLCB and L-MLCB were evaluated with 36 C. freundii strains isolated from foods, only colonies on MLCB had black centers. We conclude that L-MLCB is useful for detection of nonlactose-fermenting, H2S-positive Salmonella in food samples.

  3. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  4. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  5. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  6. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  11. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  13. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  14. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  15. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  17. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  18. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  19. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  20. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  1. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  2. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  3. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  4. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  5. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  6. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  7. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  8. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  9. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  10. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies.

  11. Structure and equilibria of Ca 2+-complexes of glucose and sorbitol from multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 43Ca) NMR measurements supplemented with molecular modelling calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallagi, A.; Dudás, Cs.; Csendes, Z.; Forgó, P.; Pálinkó, I.; Sipos, P.

    2011-05-01

    Ca 2+-complexation of D-glucose and D-sorbitol have been investigated with the aid of multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 43Ca) NMR spectroscopy and ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Formation constants of the forming 1:1 complexes have been estimated from one-dimensional 13C NMR spectra obtained at constant ionic strength (1 M NaCl). Binding sites were identified from 2D 1H- 43Ca NMR spectra. 2D NMR measurements and ab initio calculations indicated that Ca 2+ ions were bound in a tridentate manner via the glycosidic OH, the ethereal oxygen in the ring and the OH on the terminal carbon for the α- and β-anomers of glucose and for sorbitol simultaneous binding of four hydroxide moieties (C1, C2, C4 and C6) was suggested.

  12. Effects of water on the primary and secondary relaxation of xylitol and sorbitol: Implication on the origin of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psurek, T.; Maslanka, S.; Paluch, M.; Nozaki, R.; Ngai, K. L.

    2004-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was employed to study the effects of water on the primary α -relaxation and the secondary β -relaxation of xylitol. The measurements were made on anhydrous xylitol and mixtures of xylitol with water with three different water concentrations over a temperature range from 173K to 293K . The α -relaxation speeds up with increasing concentration of water in xylitol, whereas the rate of the β -relaxation is essentially unchanged. Some systematic differences in the behavior of α -relaxation for anhydrous xylitol and the mixtures were observed. Our findings confirm all the observations of Nozaki [R. Nozaki, H. Zenitani, A. Minoguchi, and K. Kitai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 307, 349 (2002)] in sorbitol/water mixtures. Effects of water on both the α - and β -relaxation dynamics in xylitol and sorbitol are explained by using the coupling model.

  13. Sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDIs): a new potent, enantiomeric SDI, 4-[2-1R-hydroxy-ethyl)-pyrimidin-4-yl]piperazine-1-sulfonic acid dimethylamide.

    PubMed

    Mylari, B L; Oates, P J; Beebe, D A; Brackett, N S; Coutcher, J B; Dina, M S; Zembrowski, W J

    2001-08-16

    We report here on our medicinal chemistry and pharmacology efforts to provide a potent sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDI) as a tool to probe a recently disclosed hypothesis centered on the role of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in the second step of the polyol pathway, under conditions of high glucose flux. Starting from a weak literature lead, 2, and through newly developed structure-activity relationships, we have designed and executed an unambiguous synthesis of enantiomeric SDI, 6, which is at least 10x more potent than 2. Also, 6 potently inhibits SDH in streptozotocin-diabetic rat sciatic nerve. We have described an expedient synthesis of a key building template, 33, for future research in the SDI area that may facilitate the discovery of even more potent SDIs with longer duration of action in vivo.

  14. A quality by design approach to investigate the effect of mannitol and dicalcium phosphate qualities on roll compaction.

    PubMed

    Souihi, Nabil; Dumarey, Melanie; Wikström, Håkan; Tajarobi, Pirjo; Fransson, Magnus; Svensson, Olof; Josefson, Mats; Trygg, Johan

    2013-04-15

    Roll compaction is a continuous process for solid dosage form manufacturing increasingly popular within pharmaceutical industry. Although roll compaction has become an established technique for dry granulation, the influence of material properties is still not fully understood. In this study, a quality by design (QbD) approach was utilized, not only to understand the influence of different qualities of mannitol and dicalcium phosphate (DCP), but also to predict critical quality attributes of the drug product based solely on the material properties of that filler. By describing each filler quality in terms of several representative physical properties, orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) was used to understand and predict how those properties affected drug product intermediates as well as critical quality attributes of the final drug product. These models were then validated by predicting product attributes for filler qualities not used in the model construction. The results of this study confirmed that the tensile strength reduction, known to affect plastic materials when roll compacted, is not prominent when using brittle materials. Some qualities of these fillers actually demonstrated improved compactability following roll compaction. While direct compression qualities are frequently used for roll compacted drug products because of their excellent flowability and good compaction properties, this study revealed that granules from these qualities were more poor flowing than the corresponding powder blends, which was not seen for granules from traditional qualities. The QbD approach used in this study could be extended beyond fillers. Thus any new compound/ingredient would first be characterized and then suitable formulation characteristics could be determined in silico, without running any additional experiments.

  15. Quantification of myo-inositol, 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol, and D-chiro-inositol using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in very small volume clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Karen J.; Meek, Claudia C.; Leff, Richard D.; Phelps, Dale L.; Schmitz, Daniel J.; Cordle, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol is a six-carbon sugar alcohol and is one of nine biologically significant isomers of hexahydroxycyclohexane. Myo-inositol is the primary biologically active form and is present in higher concentrations in the fetus and newborn than in adults. It is currently being examined for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity in newborn preterm infants. A robust method for quantifying myo-inositol (MI), D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol (ADS) in very small-volume (25 μL) urine, blood serum and/or plasma samples was developed. Using a multiple-column, multiple mobile phase liquid chromatographic system with electrochemical detection, the method was validated with respect to (a) selectivity, (b) accuracy/recovery, (c) precision/reproducibility, (d) sensitivity, (e) stability and (f) ruggedness. The standard curve was linear and ranged from 0.5 to 30 mg/L for each of the three analytes. Above-mentioned performance measures were within acceptable limits described in the Food and Drug Administration’s Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation. The method was validated using blood serum and plasma collected using four common anticoagulants, and also by quantifying the accuracy and sensitivity of MI measured in simulated urine samples recovered from preterm infant diaper systems. The method performs satisfactorily measuring the three most common inositol isomers on 25 μL clinical samples of serum, plasma milk, and/or urine. Similar performance is seen testing larger volume samples of infant formulas and infant formula ingredients. MI, ADS and DCI may be accurately tested in urine samples collected from five different preterm infant diapers if the urine volume is greater than 2–5 mL. PMID:26010453

  16. Sorbitol-fermenting, β-glucuronidase-positive, Shiga toxin-negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 in free-ranging red deer in South-Central Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sandra; Vidal, Dolors; Herrera-León, Silvia; Sánchez, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in free-ranging red deer in south-central Spain, to assess their potential as reservoir hosts of sorbitol-fermenting (SF) E. coli O157:H7 strains, which are emerging causes of hemolytic uremic syndrome in Europe. Fecal samples from 264 hunter-harvested Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 25 different game estates and examined for E. coli O157:H7 by culture and PCR. E. coli O157:H7 was detected and isolated in 4 of the 25 game estates sampled (16%) and the isolates obtained (four in total) were further phenogenotypically characterized. One of them was biochemically typical of E. coli O157:H7, that is, neither fermented sorbitol nor exhibited β-glucuronidase (GUD) activity, and carried genes encoding Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2, the intimin subtype γ1, the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)-hemolysin, and the ter gene cluster. The rest of the isolates (three of four) fermented sorbitol, exhibited GUD activity after 18-24 h incubation, and carried genes encoding the intimin subtype γ1 and the EHEC-hemolysin, although no Stx-encoding genes were detected. All these atypical isolates carried the sfp gene cluster, lacked the ter gene cluster, and were unable to grow on cefixime tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar, which are typical features of SF E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients. In total, SF, GUD-positive, Stx-negative E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated in 3 of the 25 game estates sampled (12%), with an overall sample-level prevalence of 1.1% (3/264). Our findings indicate that free-ranging red deer may be one of the possible reservoir hosts of Stx-negative derivatives of SF E. coli O157:H7.

  17. Molar concentrations of sorbitol and polyethylene glycol inhibit the Plasmodium aquaglyceroporin but not that of E. coli: involvement of the channel vestibules.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Almasalmeh, Abdulnasser; Krenc, Dawid; Beitz, Eric

    2012-05-01

    The aquaglyceroporins of Escherichia coli, EcGlpF, and of Plasmodium falciparum, PfAQP, are probably the best characterized members of the solute-conducting aquaporin (AQP) subfamily. Their crystal structures have been elucidated and numerous experimental and theoretical analyses have been conducted. However, opposing reports on their rates of water permeability require clarification. Hence, we expressed EcGlpF and PfAQP in yeast, prepared protoplasts, and compared water and glycerol permeability of both aquaglyceroporins in the presence of different osmolytes, i.e. sucrose, sorbitol, PEG300, and glycerol. We found that water permeability of PfAQP strongly depends on the external osmolyte, with full inhibition by sorbitol, and increasing water permeability when glycerol, PEG300, and sucrose were used. EcGlpF expression did not enhance water permeability over that of non-expressing control protoplasts regardless of the osmolyte. Glycerol permeability of PfAQP was also inhibited by sorbitol, but to a smaller extent, whereas EcGlpF conducted glycerol independently of the osmolyte. Mixtures of glycerol and urea passed PfAQP equally well under isosmotic conditions, whereas under hypertonic conditions in a countercurrent with water, glycerol was clearly preferred over urea. We conclude that PfAQP has high and EcGlpF low water permeability, and explain the inhibiting effect of sorbitol on PfAQP by its binding to the extracellular vestibule. The preference for glycerol under hypertonic conditions implies that in a physiological setting, PfAQP mainly acts as a water/glycerol channel rather than a urea facilitator.

  18. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar O157 versus Sorbitol-MacConkey Medium for Routine Detection of Escherichia coli O157 in a Centralized Regional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory▿

    PubMed Central

    Church, D. L.; Emshey, D.; Semeniuk, H.; Lloyd, T.; Pitout, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of BBL CHROMagar O157 (CHROM) versus that of sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) media for detection of Escherichia coli O157 was determined for a 3-month period. Results for 27/3,116 (0.9%) stool cultures were positive. CHROM had a higher sensitivity (96.30%) and negative predictive value (100%) and a better diagnostic efficiency than SMAC. Labor and material costs decreased when CHROM was used. PMID:17634298

  19. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  20. Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction enhanced porcine interferon-α production by P. pastoris associated with energy metabolism shift.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Li, Zhen; Yu, Rui-Song; Wu, Jian-Rong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2012-09-01

    The production of porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) by Pichia pastoris was largely enhanced when adopting sorbitol/methanol co-feeding induction strategy at 30 °C in a 10-L fermentor. Analysis of energy regeneration pattern and carbon metabolism revealed that major energy metabolism energizing pIFN-α synthesis shifted from formaldehyde dissimilatory energy metabolism pathway to TCA cycle under the methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy. The sorbitol/methanol co-feeding induction strategy weakened formaldehyde dissimilatory pathway and repressed the accumulation of toxic metabolite-formaldehyde, reduced theoretical oxygen consumption rate and oxygen supply requirement, and increased energy/methanol utilization efficiency so that more methanol could be effectively used for pIFN-α synthesis. As a result, pIFN-α antiviral activity reached a highest level of 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mL which was about 10- to 200-folds of those obtained under pure methanol induction at 20 and 30 °C, respectively.

  1. The effect of the addition of sorbitol and glycerol towards the edible film characteristics of the belitung taro starch and the lime leaves as antimicrobial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asria, Merry; Elizarni, Samah, dan Selfa Dewati

    2015-12-01

    Plastics have been generally used for food packaging, but plastics using causing environmental problem for as non biodegradable. Resolving the problem need another alternative packaging that environmental friendly such as the edible film as biodegradable packing material. This research intend to determination the effects of sorbitol and glycerol (concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) as addition to the edible film characteristics from the belitung taro starch (Xanthosoma sagitifolium). Lime leaves (Citrus aurantifolia) extract used as an antimicrobial film (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% respectively). From the research obtained that using sorbitol has given more rigid and hard film texture, while glycerol provides more elastic and flexible texture. Sorbitol give best performance at 2% where thickness 0.17 mm; tensile strength 41.60 MPa; yield strength 34.28 MPa; modulus of elasticity 7983.71 MPa; and maximum strain 29,8%. While, glycerol (2%) provides thickness 0.18 mm; tensile strength 35.72 MPa; yield strength 30.78 MPa; modulus of elasticity 9065.90 MPa; and maximum strain 14.4% for best performance. SEM and FTIR analysis applied to determine film surface morphology's characterization and determine the functional groups of the film materials. The addition of lime leaves extract as antimicrobial gives the growth inhibition activity against the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  2. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  3. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  4. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    PubMed

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50 mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0 g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results

  5. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  6. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  7. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  8. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol ≥ xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  9. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Clark, D P

    1989-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed in terms of redox balance. PMID:2661531

  10. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Clark, D P

    1989-07-01

    Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed in terms of redox balance.

  11. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Escherichia coli mutants lacking alcohol dehydrogenase (adh mutants) cannot synthesize the fermentation product ethanol and are unable to grow anaerobically on glucose and other hexoses. Similarly, phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants (pta mutants) neither excrete acetate nor grow anaerobically. However, when a strain carrying an adh deletion was selected for anaerobic growth on glucose, spontaneous pta mutants were isolated. Strains carrying both adh and pta mutations were observed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance and shown to produce lactic acid as the major fermentation product. Various combinations of adh pta double mutants regained the ability to grow anaerobically on hexoses, by what amounts to a homolactic fermentation. Unlike wild-type strains, such adh pta double mutants were unable to grow anaerobically on sorbitol or on glucuronic acid. The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed terms of redox balance.

  12. Conducting hydrogels of tetraaniline-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) in situ reinforced by supramolecular nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huabo; Li, Wan; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoping; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yajiang

    2014-02-12

    Novel conducting hydrogels (PVA-TA) with dual network structures were synthesized by the grafting reaction of tetraaniline (TA) into the main chains of poly(vinyl alcohol) and in situ reinforced by self-assembly of a sorbitol derivative as the gelator. The chemical structure of the PVA-TA hydrogels was characterized by using FT-IR and NMR. The mechanical strength of the PVA-TA hydrogels was strongly improved due to the presence of supramolecular nanofibers. For instance, the compressive and tensile strengths of supramolecular nanofiber-reinforced hydrogels were, respectively, 10 times and 5 times higher than those of PVA-TA hydrogels. Their storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) were 5 times and 21 times higher than those of PVA-TA hydrogels, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurements indicated that the electroactivity of reinforced hydrogels is not influenced by the presence of supramolecular nanofibers.

  13. Antisense inhibition of sorbitol synthesis leads to up-regulation of starch synthesis without altering CO2 assimilation in apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lailiang; Zhou, Rui; Reidel, Edwin J; Sharkey, Thomas D; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2005-03-01

    Sorbitol is a primary end-product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and many other tree fruit species of the Rosaceae family. Sorbitol synthesis shares a common hexose phosphate pool with sucrose synthesis in the cytosol. In this study, 'Greensleeves' apple was transformed with a cDNA encoding aldose 6-phosphate reductase (A6PR, EC 1.1.1.200) in the antisense orientation. Antisense expression of A6PR decreased A6PR activity in mature leaves to approximately 15-30% of the untransformed control. The antisense plants had lower concentrations of sorbitol but higher concentrations of sucrose and starch in mature leaves at both dusk and predawn. (14)CO(2) pulse-chase labeling at ambient CO(2) demonstrated that partitioning of the newly fixed carbon to starch was significantly increased, whereas that to sucrose remained unchanged in the antisense lines with decreased sorbitol synthesis. Total activities of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39), sucrose-phosphate synthase (EC 2.4.1.14), and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27) were not significantly altered in the antisense lines, whereas both stromal and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) activities were higher in the antisense lines with 15% of the control A6PR activity. Concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) were higher in the antisense plants than in the control, but the 3-phosphoglycerate concentration was lower in the antisense plants with 15% of the control A6PR activity. Fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate concentration increased in the antisense plants, but not to the extent expected from the increase in F6P, comparing sucrose-synthesizing species. There was no significant difference in CO(2) assimilation in response to photon flux density or intercellular CO(2) concentration. We concluded that cytosolic FBPase activity in vivo was down-regulated and starch synthesis was up-regulated in response to decreased sorbitol synthesis

  14. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  15. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  16. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  17. 1,2,3,4-bis(p-methylbenzylidene sorbitol) accelerates crystallization and improves hole mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Nana; Huo, Hong

    2016-02-01

    The addition of 1,2,3,4-bis(p-methylbenzylidene sorbitol) (MDBS) does not change the nucleation mechanism or the crystal form of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), but its presence increases the crystallization temperature (T c) of P3HT, decreases the crystallization half-time (t 1/2) and accelerates P3HT crystallization, which indicates that MDBS is an effective nucleating agent for P3HT. An acceleration of P3HT crystallization by the addition of MDBS decreases the crystalline size and crystallinity of P3HT, and enhances the connectivity between ordered regions of P3HT, leading to the hole mobility rising from 1.99 × 10-6 to 7.57 × 10-5 cm2 V-1s-1 in P3HT:PCBM blend based hole-only devices with sandwich configurations. Our results suggest that accelerating P3HT crystallization by adding a nucleating agent might be an important factor to improve the hole mobility and balance the electron and hole mobility in a photovoltaic blend.

  18. The human sorbitol dehydrogenase gene: cDNA cloning, sequence determination, and mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.K.; Chung, S. ); Cheung, M.C. )

    1994-05-15

    The cDNA for human sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) has been cloned and sequenced. It translates into a peptide of 356 amino acid residues, one more than the sequence previously reported from peptide analysis. An extra alanine was found at the acetyl-blocked N-terminal, between positions 1 and 4. This matches the rat cDNA, which also has 356 amino acids, with an extra proline at position 3. Four other mismatches were also observed, but these are all amino acid substitutions that occur outside proposed functionally important regions. Further work must be performed to determine whether these discrepancies represent polymorphic forms of the enzyme. The SORD gene was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization and found to occupy a single site on chromosome 15q15, indicating that it is a single-copy gene. This was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. SORD is thought to be involved in the etiology of diabetic complications, and its deficiency has been linked to congenital cataracts. The cloned gene could be used as a probe to study the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of these diseases. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Studies on an iron-poly(sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex for parenteral treatment of iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Domeij, K; Hellström, V; Högberg, K G; Lindvall, S; Rydell, G; Wichman, U; Ortengren, B

    1977-01-01

    A preparation containing an iron-poly(sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex for parenteral treatment of iron deficiency anaemia is described. The physical and chemical properties of the iron complex have been studied by using electrophoresis and gel permeation chromatography. A rapid absorption from the injection site after intramuscular administration to rabbits takes place, 70% of the iron being absorbed after 24-48 hours. Thereafter, the absorption rate is slower, and 32 days after the injection 94% has been absorbed from the injection site. In rabbits the maximum level of iron in serum is reached after 12-24 hours; in dogs after 1-3 hours. Disappearance from the serum takes place slowly. The complex is exclusively absorbed via the lymphatic route. Nine to ten per cent of the given dose is excreted by the kidney within 72 hours in rats and 24 hours in rabbits after intramuscular administration. On administration of the preparation to rats, made anaemic by phlebotomy, a rapid increase of haemoglobin values is observed as well as a very high utilization of the retained amount of the given dose.

  20. Pharmacological studies on an iron-poly-(sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex for parenteral treatment of iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, H; Svärd, P O

    1977-01-01

    Intravenous injection of the iron-poly(sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex (IPSG) to cats anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone caused a transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and a temporary increase in central venous pressure, heart rate and femoral blood flow at large doses (cumulative doses up to 744 mg/kg). Tachyphylaxis developed upon repeated administration. A temporary reduction in the magnitude of the blood pressure responses to noradrenaline and isoprenaline was obtained after large doses of IPSG. The blood pressure effects of acetylcholine, histamine and bilateral carotid occlusion were not affected. No definite effects were seen on the electrocardiograms. The transient cardiovascular effects were interpreted as being due to the presence of small amounts of ferrous iron in the preparation. IPSG did not significantly affect blood coagulation or platelet aggregation as judged from results of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Immunogenicity studies in rabbits and antibody analyses of sera from patients treated with IPSG failed to demonstrate any effect of IPSG on the immune system.

  1. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Gandhi, Sumit G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3′ monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  2. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  3. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  4. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  5. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  6. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  7. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  9. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  10. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  11. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  12. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  13. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance.

  14. Investigation of cyano-bridged coordination nanoparticles Gd3+/[Fe(CN)6]3-/d-mannitol as T1-weighted MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, M.; Gallud, A.; Ayadi, A.; Kennouche, S.; Porredon, C.; Gary-Bobo, M.; Larionova, J.; Goze-Bac, Ch.; Zanca, M.; Garcia, M.; Basile, I.; Long, J.; de Lapuente, J.; Borras, M.; Guari, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cyano-bridged Gd3+/[Fe(CN)6]3- coordination polymer nanoparticles of 3-4 nm stabilized with d-mannitol presenting a high r1 relaxivity value of 11.4 mM-1 s-1 were investigated in vivo as contrast agents (CA) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). They allow an increase of the MR image contrast and can act as an efficient intravascular T1 CA with a relatively long blood-circulation lifetime (60 min) without specific toxicity.Cyano-bridged Gd3+/[Fe(CN)6]3- coordination polymer nanoparticles of 3-4 nm stabilized with d-mannitol presenting a high r1 relaxivity value of 11.4 mM-1 s-1 were investigated in vivo as contrast agents (CA) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). They allow an increase of the MR image contrast and can act as an efficient intravascular T1 CA with a relatively long blood-circulation lifetime (60 min) without specific toxicity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, toxicological data, physical characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01557j

  15. Improvement of Polymyxin-Egg Yolk-Mannitol-Bromothymol Blue Agar for the Enumeration and Isolation of Bacillus cereus in Various Foods.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-03-01

    A modified polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (mPEMBA) was developed by supplementing polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar (PEMBA) with trimethoprim to improve the selectivity for and recoverability of Bacillus cereus from naturally and artificially contaminated food samples. The number of B. cereus in mPEMBA was significantly higher than in PEMBA, indicating better recoverability (P < 0.05) in red pepper powder (PEMBA 0.80 ± 0.22 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 1.95 ± 0.17 log CFU/g) and soybean paste (PEMBA 2.19 ± 0.18 log CFU/g versus mPEMBA 3.09 ± 0.13 log CFU/g). In addition, mPEMBA provided better visual differentiation of B. cereus colonies than PEMBA, which is attributable to the reduced number of competing microflora. We conclude that the addition of trimethoprim to PEMBA could generate a synergistic effect to improve selectivity for B. cereus .

  16. Treatment of fulminant hepatic failure with infusions of Co-factors and mannitol and charcoal-hemoperfusions during Forty-one days.

    PubMed

    Thölen, H; Bianchi, L; Ulrich, J; Heierli, C; Ritz, R

    1979-09-17

    The clinical course of a 26 year old female patient with acute liver necrosis and coma due to hepatitis B is reported. The disturbances of conciousness had improved. The patient survived 41 days after the beginning of the coma and developed liver cell regeneration and an acute post-hepatitic liver cirrhosis. As a grave complication a septicemia with aspergillus was observed. The patient died because of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. At autopsy there were no signs of brain edema. The treatment consisted in: daily infusions with coenzyme A, nicotinamid-adenin-dinucleotide, alpha lipoic acid and cocarboxylase to improve the metabolic disorders and the clinical picture; mannitol intravenously to prevent and to treat cerebral edema; 33 charcoal-hemoperfusions to remove toxic substances of acute liver failure. Treatment of the aspergillus infection with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericine B and infusion of concentrated ascites led to a decompensation of liver functions. From this observation the following conclusions can be drawn: after an acute viral hepatic necrosis, new synthetic functions and improvements of the disturbed intermediary metabolism in regenerated liver-cells can eventually be seen only after twenty-four to thirty days. With systematically applicated mannitol infusions it is possible to treat cerebral edema effectively.

  17. H2O2 seed priming improves tolerance to salinity; drought and their combined effect more than mannitol in Cakile maritima when compared to Eutrema salsugineum.

    PubMed

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Sghayar, Souhir; Abdelly, Chedly

    2017-03-01

    The effect of H2O2 and mannitol seed priming was investigated on plant growth, oxidative stress biomarkers and activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of Cakile maritima and Eutrema salsugineum, when exposed to drought and salt stress, either separately applied or combined. Under unprimed conditions, drought severely restricted growth (40% as compared to the control) and redox balance of C. maritima seedlings, whereas E. salsugineum showed these drastic effects under individual salinity (33% as compared to the control). Combined salinity and drought maintained and even stimulated the antioxidant defense of both plants from unprimed seeds. Both priming agents (mannitol and H2O2) significantly ameliorated growth and antioxidant defense of both species grown under salinity, drought and their combined effect. However, H2O2 priming appeared to be more beneficial in C. maritima seedlings. Indeed, oxidative injuries were significantly reduced, together with significantly higher concentrations of ascorbic acid (36%), glutathione (2-fold) and proline production (2-fold), leading to a greater redox balance that was closely associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, specifically under salt stress. Overall, our results indicate that it is very likely that H2O2 priming, due to its signal role, improves C. maritima tolerance to both osmotic stresses and enables the plant to memorize and to decode early signals that are rapidly activated when plants are later exposed to stress.

  18. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  19. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  20. Alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity: a role for oxygen free radicals.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1987-01-01

    Perfusion of isolated rat livers with ethanol at a concentration of 2 g/l (%o) resulted in a release of glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) into the perfusate as markers of toxicity. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase by 4-methylpyrazole or of aldehyde dehydrogenase by cyanamide totally abolished ethanol hepatotoxicity despite of a severalfold increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the perfusate. Addition of superoxide dismutase or catalase clearly suppressed the ethanol-induced release of GPT and SDH, suggesting that .O2- and H2O2 are involved in this process. Also, chelation of iron ions by means of desferrioxamine displayed a clear inhibitory action, suggesting the involvement of an iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss-reaction leading to the formation of .OH radicals in the hepatotoxic response to ethanol. Our data suggest that during the metabolism of acetaldehyde primary reactive oxygen species (.O2-, H2O2) are produced which may interact to yield hydroxyl or .OH-like radicals, which possibly represent the hepatotoxic principle of ethanol.