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Sample records for alcohols mannitol sorbitol

  1. Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.; Hohmann, S.; Jensen, R.G.; Bohnert, H.J.

    1999-09-01

    For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apply sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol-sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyois than glycerol. The authors suggest that the loss of {gt} 98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety value that dissipates reducing power, which a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyois would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K{sup +}] accumulating during stress. The authors compare these results to the osmotic adjustment concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyois may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control.

  2. Gas chromatographic determination of sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol in chewing gum and sorbitol in mints.

    PubMed

    Daniels, D H; Warner, C R; Fazio, T

    1982-05-01

    A method has been developed for determination of sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol in chewing gum and sorbitol in mints. Chewing gum is partitioned between methylene chloride and water; the mint is simply dissolved in water. The aqueous extract is dried and the residue is derivatized with pyridine-acetic anhydride to form the corresponding peracetates. The derivatives are quantitated by gas chromatography using a 9 ft x 2 mm column packed with 10% Silar 10C on Chromosorb W/AW. Average recoveries of these sugar alcohols ranged from 96 to 102%. PMID:6807952

  3. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate. PMID:19784641

  4. Dietary xylitol, sorbitol and D-mannitol but not erythritol retard bone resorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Mattila, P T; Svanberg, M J; Mäkinen, K K; Knuuttila, M L

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of four dietary polyols to reduce bone resorption. Urinary excretion of 3H radioactivity from [3H]tetracycline-prelabeled rats was used as a marker of bone resorption. After prelabeling, the rats were divided randomly into five groups of 10, and fed for 1 mo a nonpurified diet that was supplemented in four groups with either xylitol, sorbitol, D-mannitol or erythritol, respectively, to give a polyol concentration of 1 mol/kg. Xylitol (42%), sorbitol (44%) and to a lesser degree D-mannitol (23%) decreased the excretion of 3H relative to the basal diet. The erythritol group, however, did not differ from the controls. Sorbitol caused continuous diarrhea, whereas in the other groups, intestinal adaptation took place during the 1st wk of polyol feeding. In conclusion, dietary xylitol, sorbitol and to a lesser degree D-mannitol supplementations in rats retard bone resorption, whereas dietary erythritol has no effect. PMID:8683349

  5. Severe Hypocalcemia Caused by Absorption of Sorbitol-Mannitol Solution during Hysteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jong In; Heo, Hyun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Hysteroscopic procedure can be complicated by intravascular absorption of irrigating fluid. The clinical features of this complication are similar to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) syndrome. There have been few reports on hypocalcemia during endoscopoic surgery and clinical implications of hypocalcemia in TURP syndrome have been underestimated. We report a case of TURP syndrome association with a decreased ionized calcium concentration of 0.53 mM/L after the absorption of a large amount of sorbitol-mannitol solution during hysteroscopy. The hypotension which occurred in TURP syndrome did not respond to vasopressor and inotropic agent but responded to the administration of calcium. This case was also accompanied by hyponatremia, hyperglycemia and lactic acidosis through the metabolism of sorbitol. PMID:19543422

  6. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  7. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions. PMID:25091348

  8. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2014-01-01

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders. PMID:24662364

  9. Radiolysis of carbohydrates as studied by ESR and spin-trapping—II. Glycerol- d8 xylitol, dulcitol, d-sorbitol and d-mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Inanami, O.; Yoshii, G.

    Studies concerning the radicals produced in glycerol by reactions with OH radicals have been carried out by investigating deuterated glycerol (glycerol-d 8) by spin-trapping with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane. Free radicals produced in linear carbohydrates such as xylitol, dulcitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by reactions with OH radicals as well as by direct γ-radiolysis have been also investigated by spin-trapping. The ESR spectra of the spin-trapped radicals were analysed on the basis of the results from ESR and spin-trapping experiments on glycerol and deuterated glycerol, and the formation of three radical species, CHO-CH-, CH 2-CO- and HO-CH-, due to both OH reactions and direct γ-radiolysis was confirmed for all compounds. The presence of a radical, -CO-CH-, was detected for xylitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. General reactions processes induced by OH reactions or γ-radiolysis in the solid state are discussed.

  10. Energetics of the molecular interactions of L-alanine and L-serine with xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2013-04-01

    Integral enthalpies of dissolution Δsol H m of L-alanine and L-serine are measured via the calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol. Standard enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H ○) and the transfer (Δtr H ○) of amino acids from water to binary solvent are calculated from the experimental data. Using the McMillan-Mayer theory, enthalpy coefficients of pairwise interactions h xy of amino acids with molecules of polyols are calculated that are negative. The obtained results are discussed within the theory of the prevalence of different types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of the structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of dissolution of amino acids.

  11. Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the...

  12. Analytical protocol for the sensitive determination of mannitol, sorbitol and glucose containing powders in pharmaceutical workplaces by ion chromatography using a pulsed amperometric detector.

    PubMed

    Butler, Owen; Forder, James; Saunders, John

    2015-03-15

    Workers in the pharmaceutical industry can potentially be exposed to airborne dusts and powders that can contain potent active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Occupational hygienists and health and safety professionals need to assess and ultimately minimise such inhalation and dermal exposure risks. Containment of dusts at source is the first line of defence but the performance of such technologies needs to be verified, for which purpose the good practice guide: assessing the particulate containment performance of pharmaceutical equipment, produced by the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), is a widely used reference document. This guide recommends the use of surrogate powders that can be used to challenge the performance of such containment systems. Materials such as lactose and mannitol are recommended as their physical properties (adhesion, compactability, dustiness, flow characteristics and particle sizes) mimic those of API-containing materials typically handled. Furthermore they are safe materials to use, are available in high purity and can be procured at a reasonable cost. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a sensitive ion-chromatography based analytical procedure for the determination of surrogate powders collected on filter samples so as to meet analytical requirements set out in this ISPE guide. PMID:25459267

  13. Generation of antibodies specific to D-mannitol, a unique haptenic allergen, using reductively aminated D-mannose-bovine serum albumin conjugate as the immunogen.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Venkatesh L; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2007-01-01

    D-mannitol is commonly used as a food additive and excipient due to its sweetness, non-toxicity, and low calorific value. However, several cases of hypersensitivity reactions to mannitol have been reported. Owing to its inert nature, mannitol cannot produce an immunological response. In order to explain the mechanism of immunogenicity of mannitol, a method to obtain mannitol epitopes on a carrier protein, which serves as an immunogen to generate antibodies against mannitol, is described. In the present investigation, D-mannitol-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing rabbits with reductively aminated mannose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) (33 haptens/molecule) as the hapten-carrier conjugate. Anti-mannitol IgG antibodies were purified from the immune serum by hapten-affinity chromatography on a D-mannitol-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-Sepharose CL-6B affinity matrix. The yield of mannitol-specific antibodies was approximately 40 microg per mL of rabbit antiserum. The specificity of the purified antibodies towards D-mannitol was demonstrated by hapten-inhibition in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The affinity-purified antibodies were found to be very specific to D-mannitol showing less than 5% cross-reactivity with other sugars and sugar alcohols, with the exception of its epimer, sorbitol, which showed 8.8% cross-reactivity. Importantly, the antibodies showed <1% cross-reactivity with L-mannitol epitope, thus exhibiting configurational specificity. The inhibition studies provided evidence for the haptenic nature of mannitol and confirmed that the mannitoyl group is a single epitope. The reaction scheme utilized here for the generation of mannitol epitopes provides the basis for the immunogenicity of mannitol. PMID:17336832

  14. Mannitol transport in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Maryanski, J H; Wittenberger, C L

    1975-01-01

    A hexitol-inducible, phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system was demonstrated in Streptococcus mutans. Cell-free extracts obtained from mannitol-grown cells from a representative strain of each of the five S. mutans serotypes (AHT, BHT, C-67-1, 6715, and LM7) were capable of converting mannitol to mannitol-1-phosphate by a reaction which required phosphoenolpyruvate and Mg2+. Mannitol and sorbitol phosphotransferase activities were found in cell-free extracts prepared from cells grown on the respective substrate, but neither hexitol phosphotransferase activity was present in extracts obtained from cells grown on other substrates examined. A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight component was partially purified from glucose-grown cells and found to stimulate the mannitol phosphotransferase system. Divalent cations Mn2+ and Ca2+ partially replaced Mg2+, while Zn2+ was found to be highly inhibitory. PMID:1194241

  15. Substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstad, R I; Köll, P; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    The substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase has been studied by steady-state kinetics over the range pH 7-10. Sorbitol dehydrogenase stereo-selectively catalyses the reversible NAD-linked oxidation of various polyols and other secondary alcohols into their corresponding ketones. The kinetic constants are given for various novel polyol substrates, including L-glucitol, L-mannitol, L-altritol, D-altritol, D-iditol and eight heptitols, as well as for many aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. The maximum velocities (kcat) and the substrate specificity-constants (kcat/Km) are positively correlated with increasing pH. The enzyme-catalysed reactions occur by a compulsory ordered kinetic mechanism with the coenzyme as the first, or leading, substrate. With many substrates, the rate-limiting step for the overall reaction is the enzyme-NADH product dissociation. However, with several substrates there is a transition to a mechanism with partial rate-limitation at the ternary complex level, especially at low pH. The kinetic data enable the elucidation of new empirical rules for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The specificity-constants for polyol oxidation vary as a function of substrate configuration with D-xylo> D-ribo > L-xylo > D-lyxo approximately L-arabino > D-arabino > L-lyxo. Catalytic activity with a polyol or an aromatic substrate and various 1-deoxy derivatives thereof varies with -CH2OH > -CH2NH2 > -CH2OCH3 approximately -CH3. The presence of a hydroxyl group at each of the remaining chiral centres of a polyol, apart from the reactive C2, is also nonessential for productive ternary complex formation and catalysis. A predominantly nonpolar enzymic epitope appears to constitute an important structural determinant for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The existence of two distinct substrate binding regions in the enzyme active site, along with that of the catalytic zinc, is suggested to account for the lack of

  16. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sugar alcohols by dichloroisocyanuric acid—A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2016-02-01

    Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.

  17. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase: evidence for a very divergent long-chain dehydrogenase family.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2003-02-01

    Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (pfMDH) is a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that catalyzes the reversible NAD(P)-dependent oxidation of D-mannitol to D-fructose, D-arabinitol to D-xylulose, and D-sorbitol to L-sorbose. It is a member of the mostly prokaryotic family of long-chain mannitol dehydrogenases that so far includes 66 members. Unlike other alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases that utilize metal cofactors or a conserved active-site tyrosine for catalysis, an invariant lysine is the general base. The crystal structure of pfMDH in a binary complex with NAD(H) and a ternary complex with NAD(H) and D-mannitol have been determined to 1.7 and 1.8 A resolution respectively. Comparison of secondary structure assignment to sequence alignments suggest the shortest members of this family, mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenases, retain core elements but lack secondary structural components found on the surface of pfMDH. The elements predicted to be absent are distributed throughout the primary sequence, implying that a simple truncation or fusion did not occur. The closest structural neighbors are 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, N-(1-D-carboxyethyl)-L-norvaline dehydrogenase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Although sequence identity is only a barely recognizable 7-10%, conservation of secondary structural elements as well as homologous residues that are contributed to the active site indicates they may be related by divergent evolution. PMID:12604241

  18. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  19. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electrolytic reduction or transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol..., glucose, or maltose using the nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus intermedius...

  20. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electrolytic reduction or transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol..., glucose, or maltose using the nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus intermedius...

  1. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as...

  2. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as...

  3. Biotechnological production of mannitol and its application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol (sugar alcohol), is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medical, and chemical industries. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. A number of homo- and heterofermen...

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of sugar alcohols in beverages and foods after nitrobenzoylation.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, S; Saito, K; Taguchi, N; Oishi, M; Maki, T

    1999-01-01

    Use of p-nitrobenzoyl chloride (PNBC) to form an ultraviolet-absorbing derivative was attempted to determine the sugar alcohols meso-erythritol, xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol by liquid chromatography (LC). LC determination of derivatives was performed on an ODS column with acetonitrile-water (65 + 35) as mobile phase. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range 0.01-100 micrograms/mL. Method sensitivity is 10 to 1000 times higher than that of LC with refractive index detection and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Recoveries of sugars added to various foods at 0.1 and 1% ranged from 91 to 102% for meso-erythritol, 75 to 115% for xylitol, 81 to 105% for D-sorbitol, and 81 to 108% for D-mannitol. PMID:10028682

  5. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as fructose, glucose, or maltose using...

  6. Fructose-sorbitol malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria; Viver, Josep M

    2009-10-01

    Important dietary carbohydrates such as fructose and sorbitol are incompletely absorbed in the normal small intestine. This malabsorption is sometimes associated with abdominal complaints and diarrhea development, symptoms indistinguishable from those of functional bowel disease. Recently, polymerized forms of fructose (fructans) also were implicated in symptom production in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Evidence from uncontrolled and controlled challenge studies suggests that malabsorbed sugars (fructose, sorbitol, lactose) and fructans may act as dietary triggers for clinical symptoms suggestive of IBS. Further placebo-controlled studies are needed to obtain definite conclusions about the role of dietary sugar malabsorption in functional bowel disease. PMID:19765364

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF MANNITOL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. We have found that Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL...

  8. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols. PMID:26723007

  9. Phloem Loading Strategies in Three Plant Species That Transport Sugar Alcohols1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Reidel, Edwin J.; Rennie, Emilie A.; Amiard, Véronique; Cheng, Lailiang; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many plants translocate sugar alcohols in the phloem. However, the mechanism(s) of sugar alcohol loading in the minor veins of leaves are debated. We characterized the loading strategies of two species that transport sorbitol (Plantago major and apple [Malus domestica]), and one that transports mannitol (Asarina scandens). Plasmodesmata are abundant at all interfaces in the minor vein phloem of apple, and in one of two types of phloem in the minor veins of A. scandens. Few plasmodesmata are present in the minor veins of P. major. Apple differs from the other two species in that sugar alcohol and sucrose (Suc) are present in much higher concentrations in leaves. Apple leaf tissue exposed to exogenous [14C]sorbitol, [14C]Suc, or 14CO2 did not accumulate radiolabel in the minor veins, as determined by macroautoradiography. P. major minor veins accumulated radiolabel from [14C]Suc, [14C]sorbitol, and 14CO2. A. scandens minor veins accumulated 14C from [14C]Suc and 14CO2, but not from [14C]mannitol. We conclude that the movement of sugar alcohol from the mesophyll into the phloem in apple and A. scandens is symplastic and passive, but in P. major it involves an apoplastic step and is energized. We also suggest that apple leaves transport sorbitol in high concentrations to avoid the feedback limitation of photosynthesis that would result from driving passive movement of solute into the phloem with high levels of Suc alone. The loading pathways and the mechanisms by which hydrostatic pressure is maintained in the minor vein phloem of these species are discussed. PMID:19129415

  10. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We have selected Lactobacillus intermediu...

  12. Fructose, trehalose and sorbitol malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Montalto, M; Gallo, A; Ojetti, V; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent clinical condition, often associated with abdominal symptoms. Although lactose represents the most commonly malabsorbed sugar, also other carbohydrates, such as fructose, trehalose and sorbitol may be incorrectly absorbed in the small intestine. Fructose malabsorption seems more common in patients with functional bowel disease, even if randomized and controlled studies on these topic were few and on small samples. Interpretation of breath hydrogen testing is difficult. In particular, neither studies comparing this test with a gold standard, nor validated doses and concentrations to be used, are available. Trehalose malabsorption due to trehalase deficiency represents a very rare condition and available studies do not support its relevance in clinical practice. Sorbitol absorption is dose and concentration related, and depends on the entity of intestinal absorption surface. Nevertheless, the finding of its malabsorption is not expression of a specific cause of intestinal bowel damage. From available data, it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about clinical relevance of fructose, trehalose and sorbitol malabsorption, as well as, about diagnostic accuracy of commonly used tests to detect all these conditions. On the other hand, in patients who refer abdominal discomfort after ingestion of different carbohydrate-containing foods, a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, should be promptly considered. This is because the large amount of intestinal bacteria may unspecifically ferment sugars, causing an abnormal H2 production and consequently a misleading diagnosis of sugar malabsorption. PMID:24443064

  13. Purification and Characteristics of Sorbitol-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase from Loquat Leaves.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M

    1981-02-01

    To study the role of sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in sorbitol synthesis in leaves of Rosaceous plants, properties of the enzyme and its presence in several plants in the family was investigated. The activity of the enzyme, which catalyzes an NADP-dependent oxidation of the substrate to glucose-6-phosphate, was detected in leaves of Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Rhaphiolepsis indica, Sorbus aucuparia, Cydonia oblonga, Photinia glabra, Sorbaria kirilowii, and Spiraea thunbergii.The enzyme was purified about 60-fold from leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) using affinity chromatography with Blue Sepharose. Neither mannitol-1-phosphate nor fructose-6-phosphate served as substrate. Molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be 65,000 at pH 8.0 by gel filtration. Since sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a peptide of 33,000 daltons, the enzyme was assumed to be a dimer at pH 8.0 K(m) values for sorbitol-6-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, NADP, and NADPH were 2.22 millimolar, 11.6 millimolar, 13.5 micromolar, and 1.61 micromolar, respectively. Equilibrium constant for sorbitol-6-phosphate oxidation was 5.12 x 10(-10). Optimal pH for sorbitol-6-phosphate oxidation was 9.8. The enzyme showed its maximum activity within a broad pH range between 7 and 9 for glucose-6-phosphate reduction. The enzyme was more effective in the direction of glucose-6-phosphate reduction than in the reverse direction at neutral pH. Thus, it is suggested that the enzyme catalyzes sorbitol synthesis from glucose-6-phosphate during photosynthesis in leaves of Rosaceous plants. PMID:16661650

  14. Why is mannitol becoming more and more popular as a pharmaceutical excipient in solid dosage forms?

    PubMed

    Ohrem, H Leonhard; Schornick, Eva; Kalivoda, Adela; Ognibene, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Various fillers/binders which are applied for the formulation of solid oral dosage forms are assessed for their benefits and drawbacks, including lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate. A focus of this work was to evaluate the application of mannitol in comparison to other common fillers/binders as it was observed that this excipient is gaining more and more attention in pharmaceutical formulation development and production. While one of the main advantages of conventional fillers/binders such as lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate is their low price level, mannitol excels regarding its physicochemical characteristics such as a low hygroscopicity, a strong inertness towards both the API and the patient's body, its good compactibility and the ability to produce extremely robust tablets. Additionally, the suitability of mannitol for the emerging formulation technology of orally disintegrating tablets is pointed out. In summary, it is emphasized that the selection of the filler/binder is highly individual, depending, for example, on the preferred characteristics of the final solid dosage form, the applied API and the available budget. However, mannitol exhibits many strong advantages which can be expected to result in a more widespread application in the near future. PMID:23528124

  15. Construction of an efficient Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst for D-mannitol production.

    PubMed

    Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Pagar, Sandip K; Velhal, Vishal S; Maranholakar, Vijay M; Talangkar, Vishal G; Lali, Arvind M

    2014-12-01

    Mannitol is a six carbon sugar alcohol that finds applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. A novel Escherichia coli strain capable of converting D-glucose to D-mannitol has been constructed, wherein native mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD) and codon-optimized Eimeria tenella mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase) have been overexpressed. Codon-optimized Pseudomonas stutzeri phosphite dehydrogenase (PtxD) was overexpressed for cofactor (NADH) regeneration with the concomitant oxidation of phosphite to phosphate. Whole-cell biotransformation using resting cells in a medium containing D-glucose and equimolar sodium phosphite resulted in d-mannitol yield of 87 mol%. Thus, production of an industrially relevant biochemical without using complex media components and elaborate process control mechanisms has been demonstrated. PMID:24908186

  16. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  17. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  18. Fibre-optic biosensor based on luminescence and immobilized enzymes: microdetermination of sorbitol, ethanol and oxaloacetate.

    PubMed

    Gautier, S M; Blum, L J; Coulet, P R

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated highly selective and ultrasensitive biosensors based on luminescent enzyme systems linked to optical transducers. A fibre-optic sensor with immobilized enzymes was designed; the solid-phase bioreagent was maintained in close contact contact with the tip of a glass fibre bundle connected to the photomultiplier tube of a luminometer. A bacterial luminescence fibre-optic sensor was used for the microdetermination of NADH. Various NAD(P)-dependent enzymes, sorbitol dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, were co-immobilized on preactivated polyamide membranes with the bacterial system and used for the microdetermination of sorbitol, ethanol and oxaloacetate at the nanomolar level with a good precision. PMID:2316395

  19. Influence of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Khan, Usman; Mawlud, Shadan

    2016-08-20

    Mannitol is a pharmaceutical excipient that is receiving increased popularity in solid dosage forms. The aim of this study was to provide comparative evaluation on the effect of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical, and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol. The results showed that the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol powders are strong functions of mannitol concentration. By decreasing mannitol concentration, the true density, bulk density, cohesivity, flowability, netcharge-to-mass ratio, and relative degree of crystallinity of LM were decreased, whereas the breakability, size distribution, and size homogeneity of lyophilised mannitol particles were increased. The mechanical properties of lyophilised mannitol tablets improved with decreasing mannitol concentration. The use of lyophilised mannitol has profoundly improved the dissolution rate of indomethacin from tablets in comparison to commercial mannitol. This improvement exhibited an increasing trend with decreasing mannitol concentration. In conclusion, mannitols lyophilised from lower concentrations are more desirable in tableting than mannitols from higher concentrations due to their better mechanical and dissolution properties. PMID:27242312

  20. The crystallographic structure of the mannitol 2-dehydrogenase NADP+ binary complex from Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Hörer, S; Stoop, J; Mooibroek, H; Baumann, U; Sassoon, J

    2001-07-20

    Mannitol, an acyclic six-carbon polyol, is one of the most abundant sugar alcohols occurring in nature. In the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, it is synthesized from fructose by the enzyme mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MtDH; EC ) using NADPH as a cofactor. Mannitol serves as the main storage carbon (up to 50% of the fruit body dry weight) and plays a critical role in growth, fruit body development, osmoregulation, and salt tolerance. Furthermore, mannitol dehydrogenases are being evaluated for commercial mannitol production as alternatives to the less efficient chemical reduction of fructose. Given the importance of mannitol metabolism and mannitol dehydrogenases, MtDH was cloned into the pET28 expression system and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Kinetic and physicochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme are indistinguishable from the natural enzyme. The crystal structure of its binary complex with NADP was solved at 1.5-A resolution and refined to an R value of 19.3%. It shows MtDH to be a tetramer and a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes. The catalytic residues forming the so-called catalytic triad can be assigned to Ser(149), Tyr(169), and Lys(173). PMID:11335726

  1. A modified LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously quantify glycerol and mannitol concentrations in human urine for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Yan, Kuan; Ma, Yanhua; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jun; Ding, Jinglin

    2016-06-01

    Glycerol and mannitol have the potential to act as plasma volume expanders and have been prohibited as masking agents by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accordingly. In this study, an improved strategy was developed and validated for the determination of urinary glycerol and mannitol levels simultaneously using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique within 7min in an initial testing procedure. For confirmation, mannitol and all possible hexitols (allitol, altritol, galactitol, iditol and sorbitol) that can occur in human urine were baseline separated. This method made use of the derivatization of glycerol and mannitol by benzoyl chloride followed by analysis via LC-ESI-MS/MS with limited sample preparation. The limit of detection (LOD) for glycerol and mannitol was lower than 50ng/mL. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for both substances was below 150ng/mL. The assay was linear from 0.15 to 1000μg/mL for glycerol and mannitol in human urine. The coefficients of variation of all inter- and intra-assay determinations at three concentration levels (0.5, 500, 900μg/mL) were better than 13% for glycerol and under 15% for mannitol. The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, derivatization yield, extraction recovery, matrix effect and specificity for both substances. PMID:27093496

  2. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  3. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  5. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  6. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei sorbitol utilization genes requires DNA-binding transcriptional activator GutR and the conserved protein GutM.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2008-09-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIB(Gat) domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIA(Mtl) domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBC(Gut) negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

  7. Regulation of Lactobacillus casei Sorbitol Utilization Genes Requires DNA-Binding Transcriptional Activator GutR and the Conserved Protein GutM▿

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Cristina; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Monedero, Vicente; Deutscher, Josef; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the five genes (gutRMCBA) downstream from the previously described sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding Lactobacillus casei gutF gene revealed that they constitute a sorbitol (glucitol) utilization operon. The gutRM genes encode putative regulators, while the gutCBA genes encode the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA proteins of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTSGut). The gut operon is transcribed as a polycistronic gutFRMCBA messenger, the expression of which is induced by sorbitol and repressed by glucose. gutR encodes a transcriptional regulator with two PTS-regulated domains, a galactitol-specific EIIB-like domain (EIIBGat domain) and a mannitol/fructose-specific EIIA-like domain (EIIAMtl domain). Its inactivation abolished gut operon transcription and sorbitol uptake, indicating that it acts as a transcriptional activator. In contrast, cells carrying a gutB mutation expressed the gut operon constitutively, but they failed to transport sorbitol, indicating that EIIBCGut negatively regulates GutR. A footprint analysis showed that GutR binds to a 35-bp sequence upstream from the gut promoter. A sequence comparison with the presumed promoter region of gut operons from various firmicutes revealed a GutR consensus motif that includes an inverted repeat. The regulation mechanism of the L. casei gut operon is therefore likely to be operative in other firmicutes. Finally, gutM codes for a conserved protein of unknown function present in all sequenced gut operons. A gutM mutant, the first constructed in a firmicute, showed drastically reduced gut operon expression and sorbitol uptake, indicating a regulatory role also for GutM. PMID:18676710

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  9. Purification and characterization of a NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Japanese pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Oura, Y; Yamada, K; Shiratake, K; Yamaki, S

    2000-07-01

    NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14) from Japanese pear fruit was purified to apparent homogeneity (single band by SDS-PAGE with silver staining), and had a specific activity of 916.7 nKatal/mg protein. The molecular of the native enzyme was calculated to be 160 kDa by gel filtration, whereas SDS-PAGE gave a subunit size of 40 kDa, indicating that the native enzyme is a homotetramer. The protein immunologically reacted with an antibody raised in rabbit against the fusion protein expressed in E. coli harboring an apple NAD-SDH cDNA. The Km, values for sorbitol and fructose were 96.4+/-8.60 and 4239+/-33.5 mM, respectively, and optimum pH for sorbitol oxidation was 9.0 and 7.0 for fructose reduction. Pear NAD-SDH had a very narrow substrate specificity, that is, sorbitol, L-iditol, xylitol and L-threitol were oxidized but not any of the other alcohols tested. These data suggest the structural importance of an S configuration at C-2 and an R configuration at C-4 in the substrate(s). Its enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited both by heavy metal ions such as mercury, and by thiol compounds, such as L-cysteine. However, the addition of zinc ion reversed the enzyme inactivation caused by addition of L-cysteine. PMID:10963448

  10. Treating mannitol in a saturated solution of mannitol: a novel approach to modify mannitol crystals for improved drug delivery to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of treatment of a promising dry powder aerosol carrier (mannitol) on the aerosolization performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) using a novel approach: treating excess commercial carrier particles in a saturated solution of the same carrier. Commercial mannitol (CM) particles were treated with aqueous mannitol supersaturated solutions (20% and 25% w/v), under stirring, (300 rpm) for either 24h or 48 h. The results showed that particle treatment did not alter the polymorphic form of mannitol (β-mannitol); however, all treated mannitol particles demonstrated smoother surface topography and improved aerosolization performance compared to CM in dry powder inhalations. Unlike the concentration of mannitol solution used during treatment, the time of treatment to collect mannitol crystals was an essential key to modify the physical properties of mannitol and its effect on the aerosolization performance. In comparison to mannitol particles treated for 48 h, mannitol particles treated for 24h demonstrated larger size, more elongated-less regular shape, and smoother surfaces. No apparent relationship was obtained between in vitro aerosolisation behavior of SS with either mannitol particle size or shape descriptors. However, despite their larger size and more irregular-less uniformed shape, treated mannitol particles with smoother surfaces generated drug particles with smaller aerodynamic size and are expected to deliver higher amounts of drug to lower airways. The results demonstrated the potential of treating mannitol particles in aqueous solutions of the same material under controlled conditions to produce mannitol particles promising for dry powder inhaler systems. The results suggested that mannitol particle surface texture properties dominate over both particle size and particle shape of mannitol in terms of determining the aerosolization performance of mannitol. PMID:23500603

  11. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, can be produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by fermentation. Some homofermentative LAB produce small amounts of mannitol from glucose. Several heterofermentative LAB can produce mannitol effectively from fructose. In this article, a review on mannitol pro...

  12. Challenges in Enzymatic Route of Mannitol Production

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Sheelendra Mangal; Mohan, Anand; Srivastava, Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Mannitol is an important biochemical often used as medicine and in food sector, yet its biotechnological is not preffered in Industry for large scale production, which may be due to the multistep mechanism involved in hydrogenation and reduction. This paper is a comparative preview covering present chemical and biotechnological approaches existing today for mannitol production at industrial scale. Biotechnological routes are suitable for adaptation at industrial level for mannitol production, and whatever concerns are there had been discussed in detail, namely, raw materials, broad range of enzymes with high activity at elevated temperature suitable for use in reactor, cofactor limitation, reduced by-product formation, end product inhibition, and reduced utilization of mannitol for enhancing the yield with maximum volumetric productivity. PMID:25969783

  13. Possible existence of two amorphous phases of d-mannitol related by a first-order transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Men; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John H.; Yu, Lian

    2015-06-01

    We report that the common polyalcohol d-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above its glass transition temperature Tg (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of d-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase with stronger hydrogen bonds. The enthalpy of this so-called Phase X is approximately halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases, a position low for glass aging and high for crystal polymorphs. Similar to the SCL, Phase X is transparent with broad X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering; upon temperature cycling, it exhibits a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to the SCL near Tg + 50 K, enabling a determination of their equilibrium temperature. The presence of d-sorbitol as a plasticizer enables observation of a first-order transition from the SCL to Phase X entirely in the liquid state (liquid-liquid transition). The transition from d-mannitol's SCL to Phase X has intriguing similarities with the formation of the glacial phase of triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and the conversion from high-density to low-density amorphous ice, both studied intensely in the context of polyamorphism. All three processes occur near Tg with substantial enthalpy decrease toward the crystalline phases; the processes in water and d-mannitol both strengthen the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to TPP, d-mannitol's Phase X forms more rapidly and can transform back to the SCL. These features make d-mannitol a valuable new model for understanding polyamorphism.

  14. Mannitol in six autotrophic stramenopiles and Micromonas.

    PubMed

    Dittami, Simon M; Aas, Hoai T N; Paulsen, Berit S; Boyen, Catherine; Edvardsen, Bente; Tonon, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Mannitol plays a central role in brown algal physiology since it represents an important pathway used to store photoassimilate. Several specific enzymes are directly involved in the synthesis and recycling of mannitol, altogether forming the mannitol cycle. The recent analysis of algal genomes has allowed tracing back the origin of this cycle in brown seaweeds to a horizontal gene transfer from bacteria, and furthermore suggested a subsequent transfer to the green microalga Micromonas. Interestingly, genes of the mannitol cycle were not found in any of the currently sequenced diatoms, but were recently discovered in pelagophytes and dictyochophytes. In this study, we quantified the mannitol content in a number of ochrophytes (autotrophic stramenopiles) from different classes, as well as in Micromonas. Our results show that, in accordance with recent observations from EST libraries and genome analyses, this polyol is produced by most ochrophytes, as well as the green alga tested, although it was found at a wide range of concentrations. Thus, the mannitol cycle was probably acquired by a common ancestor of most ochrophytes, possibly after the separation from diatoms, and may play different physiological roles in different classes. PMID:21720212

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Sorbitol accumulation in heart: Implication for diabetic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakada, Tustomu; Kwee, I.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Sorbitol levels in heart were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Significantly higher levels were found in hearts of diabetic rats compared to normal rats. The findings are compatible with either significantly higher de novo synthesis of sorbitol in heart than is generally believed or uptake of circulating sorbitol by heart as previously indicated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in vivo metabolic imaging. Sorbitol accumulation in heart tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy as has been implicated in cataract formation.

  18. Mannitol in Plants, Fungi, and Plant-Fungal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Takshay K; Williamson, John D

    2016-06-01

    Although the presence of mannitol in organisms as diverse as plants and fungi clearly suggests that this compound has important roles, our understanding of fungal mannitol metabolism and its interaction with mannitol metabolism in plants is far from complete. Despite recent inroads into understanding the importance of mannitol and its metabolic roles in salt, osmotic, and oxidative stress tolerance in plants and fungi, our current understanding of exactly how mannitol protects against reactive oxygen is also still incomplete. In this opinion, we propose a new model of the interface between mannitol metabolism in plants and fungi and how it impacts plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26850794

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  20. MANNITOL BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TEST IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Capristo, C; Decima, F; Coronella, A; Indolfi, C; Parisi, G; Maiello, N

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by bronchial obstruction, usually reversible spontaneously or after therapy, bronchial hyperreactivity and accelerated decrease of lung function that may possibly evolve into irreversible obstruction of the respiratory tract. Bronchial provocation tests can be used in order to assess the presence and degree of bronchial hyper reactivity. The recently introduced mannitol powder inhalation indirect test seems to have an interesting and promising role, especially in childhood, because of its high diagnostic specificity, easiness of execution and best standardization. In this study the authors focused on the significance and clinical use of mannitol bronchial challenge test in asthmatic children. PMID:26634590

  1. Continuous manufacturing of delta mannitol by cospray drying with PVP.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Van Bockstal, P-J; Van Snick, B; Peeters, E; Monteyne, T; Gomes, P; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-03-30

    Mannitol is a frequently used diluent in the production of tablets due to its non-hygroscopic character and low drug interaction potential. Although the δ-polymorph of mannitol has superior tabletability in comparison to α- and β-mannitol, the latter are most commonly used because large-scale production of δ-mannitol is difficult. Therefore, a continuous method for production of δ-mannitol was developed in the current study. Spray drying an aqueous solution of mannitol and PVP in a ratio of 4:1 resulted in formation of δ-mannitol. The tabletability of a physical mixture of spray dried δ-mannitol with PVP (5%) and paracetamol (75%) was clearly superior to the tabletability of physical mixtures consisting of spray dried α- and β-mannitol with PVP (5%) and paracetamol (75%) which confirmed the excellent tableting properties of the δ-polymorph. In addition, a coprocessing method was applied to coat paracetamol crystals with δ-mannitol and PVP. The tabletability of the resulting coprocessed particles consisting of 5% PVP, 20% δ-mannitol and 75% paracetamol reached a maximal tensile strength of 2.1 MPa at a main compression pressure of 260 MPa. Moreover the friability of tablets compressed at 184 MPa was only 0.5%. This was attributed to the excellent compression properties of δ-mannitol and the coating of paracetamol crystals with δ-mannitol and PVP during coprocessing. PMID:26851355

  2. Molecular and biochemical characterization of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from the model brown alga Ectocarpus sp.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patricia; Groisillier, Agnès; Raimbault, Alice; Guibert, Anaïs; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    The sugar alcohol mannitol is important in the food, pharmaceutical, medical and chemical industries. It is one of the most commonly occurring polyols in nature, with the exception of Archaea and animals. It has a range of physiological roles, including as carbon storage, compatible solute, and osmolyte. Mannitol is present in large amounts in brown algae, where its synthesis involved two steps: a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (M1PDH) catalyzes a reversible reaction between fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and mannitol-1-phosphate (M1P) (EC 1.1.1.17), and a mannitol-1-phosphatase hydrolyzes M1P to mannitol (EC 3.1.3.22). Analysis of the model brown alga Ectocarpus sp. genome provided three candidate genes for M1PDH activities. We report here the sequence analysis of Ectocarpus M1PDHs (EsM1PDHs), and the biochemical characterization of the recombinant catalytic domain of EsM1PDH1 (EsM1PDH1cat). Ectocarpus M1PDHs are representatives of a new type of modular M1PDHs among the polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (PSLDRs). The N-terminal domain of EsM1PDH1 was not necessary for enzymatic activity. Determination of kinetic parameters indicated that EsM1PDH1cat displayed higher catalytic efficiency for F6P reduction compared to M1P oxidation. Both activities were influenced by NaCl concentration and inhibited by the thioreactive compound pHMB. These observations were completed by measurement of endogenous M1PDH activity and of EsM1PDH gene expression during one diurnal cycle. No significant changes in enzyme activity were monitored between day and night, although transcription of two out of three genes was altered, suggesting different levels of regulation for this key metabolic pathway in brown algal physiology. PMID:26232554

  3. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5470 - Mannitol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mannitol. 582.5470 Section 582.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  6. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F; Mane, Rajaram S; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  7. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  8. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  9. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  10. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase binary and ternary complexes. Specificity and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2002-11-01

    Long-chain mannitol dehydrogenases are secondary alcohol dehydrogenases that are of wide interest because of their involvement in metabolism and potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. They differ from other alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases because they do not contain a conserved tyrosine and are not dependent on Zn(2+) or other metal cofactors. The structures of the long-chain mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (54 kDa) from Pseudomonas fluorescens in a binary complex with NAD(+) and ternary complex with NAD(+) and d-mannitol have been determined to resolutions of 1.7 and 1.8 A and R-factors of 0.171 and 0.176, respectively. These results show an N-terminal domain that includes a typical Rossmann fold. The C-terminal domain is primarily alpha-helical and mediates mannitol binding. The electron lone pair of Lys-295 is steered by hydrogen-bonding interactions with the amide oxygen of Asn-300 and the main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Val-229 to act as the general base. Asn-191 and Asn-300 are involved in a web of hydrogen bonding, which precisely orients the mannitol O2 proton for abstraction. These residues also aid in stabilizing a negative charge in the intermediate state and in preventing the formation of nonproductive complexes with the substrate. The catalytic lysine may be returned to its unprotonated state using a rectifying proton tunnel driven by Glu-292 oscillating among different environments. Despite low sequence homology, the closest structural neighbors are glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, N-(1-d-carboxylethyl)-l-norvaline dehydrogenase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, indicating a possible evolutionary relationship among these enzymes. PMID:12196534

  11. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W. )

    1989-03-15

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations.

  12. Production of d-Mannitol and Glycerol by Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    1968-01-01

    D-Mannitol has not so far been known as a major product of sugar metabolism by yeasts. Three yeast strains, a newly isolated yeast from soy-sauce mash, Torulopsis versatilis, and T. anomala, were found to be good mannitol producers. Under optimal conditions, the isolate produced mannitol at good yield of 30% of the sugar consumed. Glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, maltose, glycerol, and xylitol were suitable substrates for mannitol formation. High concentrations of yeast extract, Casamino Acids, NaCl, and KCl in media affected significantly the mannitol yield, whereas high levels of inorganic phosphate did not show any detrimental effect. PMID:5749751

  13. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity. PMID:25453932

  14. Green and selective polycondensation methods toward linear sorbitol-based polyesters: enzymatic versus organic and metal-based catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; Janssen, William W T J; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-08-23

    Renewable polyesters derived from a sugar alcohol (i.e., sorbitol) were synthesized by solvent-free polycondensation. The aim was to prepare linear polyesters with pendant hydroxyl groups along the polymer backbone. The performance of the sustainable biocatalyst SPRIN liposorb CALB [an immobilized form of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB); SPRIN technologies] and the organo-base catalyst 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4,4,0]dec-5-ene (TBD) were compared with two metal-based catalysts: dibutyl tin oxide (DBTO) and scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate [also known as scandium triflate, Sc(OTf)3 ]. For the four catalytic systems, the efficiency and selectivity for the incorporation of sorbitol were studied, mainly using (13) C and (31) P NMR spectroscopies, whereas side reactions, such as ether formation and dehydration of sorbitol, were evaluated using MALDI-TOF-MS. Especially the biocatalyst SPRIN liposorb CALB succeeded in incorporating sorbitol in a selective way without side reactions, leading to close-to-linear polyesters. By using a renewable hydroxyl-reactive curing agent based on l-lysine, transparent and glossy poly(ester urethane) networks were successfully synthesized offering a tangible example of bio-based coatings. PMID:27406029

  15. Possible existence of two amorphous phases of D-mannitol related by a first-order transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Men; Yu, Lian; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John H.

    2015-06-28

    We report that the common polyalcohol D-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above its glass transition temperature T{sub g} (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of D-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase with stronger hydrogen bonds. The enthalpy of this so-called Phase X is approximately halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases, a position low for glass aging and high for crystal polymorphs. Similar to the SCL, Phase X is transparent with broad X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering; upon temperature cycling, it exhibits a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to the SCL near T{sub g} + 50 K, enabling a determination of their equilibrium temperature. The presence of D-sorbitol as a plasticizer enables observation of a first-order transition from the SCL to Phase X entirely in the liquid state (liquid-liquid transition). The transition from D-mannitol’s SCL to Phase X has intriguing similarities with the formation of the glacial phase of triphenyl phosphite (TPP) and the conversion from high-density to low-density amorphous ice, both studied intensely in the context of polyamorphism. All three processes occur near T{sub g} with substantial enthalpy decrease toward the crystalline phases; the processes in water and D-mannitol both strengthen the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to TPP, D-mannitol’s Phase X forms more rapidly and can transform back to the SCL. These features make D-mannitol a valuable new model for understanding polyamorphism.

  16. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  17. Mannitol metabolism during pathogenic fungal-host interactions under stressed conditions.

    PubMed

    Meena, Mukesh; Prasad, Vishal; Zehra, Andleeb; Gupta, Vijai K; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2015-01-01

    Numerous plants and fungi produce mannitol, which may serve as an osmolyte or metabolic store; furthermore, mannitol also acts as a powerful quencher of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some phytopathogenic fungi use mannitol to stifle ROS-mediated plant resistance. Mannitol is essential in pathogenesis to balance cell reinforcements produced by both plants and animals. Mannitol likewise serves as a source of reducing power, managing coenzymes, and controlling cytoplasmic pH by going about as a sink or hotspot for protons. The metabolic pathways for mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism have been characterized in filamentous fungi by direct diminishment of fructose-6-phosphate into mannitol-1-phosphate including a mannitol-1-phosphate phosphatase catalyst. In plants mannitol is integrated from mannose-6-phosphate to mannitol-1-phosphate, which then dephosphorylates to mannitol. The enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions and must be co-localized with pathogen-secreted mannitol to resist the infection. PMID:26441941

  18. Mannitol metabolism during pathogenic fungal–host interactions under stressed conditions

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mukesh; Prasad, Vishal; Zehra, Andleeb; Gupta, Vijai K.; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous plants and fungi produce mannitol, which may serve as an osmolyte or metabolic store; furthermore, mannitol also acts as a powerful quencher of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some phytopathogenic fungi use mannitol to stifle ROS-mediated plant resistance. Mannitol is essential in pathogenesis to balance cell reinforcements produced by both plants and animals. Mannitol likewise serves as a source of reducing power, managing coenzymes, and controlling cytoplasmic pH by going about as a sink or hotspot for protons. The metabolic pathways for mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism have been characterized in filamentous fungi by direct diminishment of fructose-6-phosphate into mannitol-1-phosphate including a mannitol-1-phosphate phosphatase catalyst. In plants mannitol is integrated from mannose-6-phosphate to mannitol-1-phosphate, which then dephosphorylates to mannitol. The enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase plays a key role in host–pathogen interactions and must be co-localized with pathogen-secreted mannitol to resist the infection. PMID:26441941

  19. [Method of quantitative analysis by HPLC and confirmation by LC-MS of sugar alcohols in foods].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Sadamasu, Yuki; Suzuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Yasukazu; Togawa, Akiko; Uematsu, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    A reliable quantitative determination method of sugar alcohols, D-mannitol, xylitol and D-sorbitol, in food samples by HPLC, and a simple confirmation method by LC-MS were developed. Quantitative HPLC analysis was performed using a separation column packed with polystyrene cation exchange resin of sulfonic acid type, and with pure distilled water as the mobile phase. This column, operated at 0.85 mL/min flow rate of mobile phase and 50℃ column oven temperature, completely separated the three sugar alcohols. Further, these three sugar alcohols were well separated from erythritol and other sugars (sucrose, D-glucose, D-xylose and D-fructose). Recoveries of the three sugar alcohols spiked into food samples, such as orange juice, yogurt, chewing gum and milk, exceeded 91% and the values of coefficient of variance were below 3.1%. A triple extraction process with 80% ethanol was needed for biscuit to achieve recoveries exceeding 82%. LC-MS was carried out on a NH2 column with acetonitrile-water (9 : 1) as the mobile phase, and this afforded partial but acceptable separation of the three sugar alcohols with in 10 minutes. Ion peaks derived from [M-H](-) and [M+Cl](-) were clearly detected for all three sugar alcohols in the negative electrospray inization mode at 30 V cone voltage. The positive electrospray ionization mode produced the ions [M+Na](+) and [M+Na+CH3CN](+). These characteristic ions served to confirm the presence of the sugar alcohols in food samples. PMID:24190289

  20. One-pot conversions of raffinose into furfural derivatives and sugar alcohols by using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Dabral, Saumya; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

    2014-01-01

    Inedible and/or waste biomass reserves are being strongly focused upon as a suitable new energy and chemical source. Raffinose, which is an indigestible trisaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, and fructose, is found abundantly in beet molasses, sugar cane, and seeds of many leguminous plants. Herein, we demonstrate the one-pot synthesis of furan derivatives and sugar alcohols from raffinose by using heterogeneous acid, base, and/or metal-supported catalysts. The combination of Amberlyst-15 and hydrotalcite (HT) showed a high activity (37% yield) for 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) through continuous hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration reactions. In addition, the use of a hydrotalcite-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/HT) successfully afforded 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF, 27% yield) from HMF produced by raffinose, directly. Moreover, the hydrogenation of hexoses obtained by raffinose hydrolysis into sugar alcohols (galactitol, mannitol, sorbitol) was also achieved in a high yield (91%) with Amberlyst-15 and Ru/HT catalysts. Thus, we suggest that raffinose has great potential for the synthesis of important industrial intermediates under mild reaction conditions. PMID:24193816

  1. Hydrogen production from glucose and sorbitol by sorption-enhanced steam reforming: challenges and promises.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Chen, De

    2012-03-12

    Concerning energy and environmental sustainability, it is appealing to produce hydrogen from sugars or sugar alcohols that are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Nevertheless, the conversion of such compounds for hydrogen production poses great technical challenges. In this paper, we report that hydrogen purity and yield can be significantly improved by integrating in situ CO(2) capture into the steam reforming reaction of the model compounds-glucose and sorbitol. The experimental assessment was conducted at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.8 for sorbitol and 6 for glucose from 450-625 °C. As predicted by thermodynamic analysis, combining CO(2) capture and reforming reactions at favorable operating conditions yielded very high purity hydrogen, for instance, 98.8 mol % from sorbitol and 99.9 mol % from glucose. However, there are trade-offs between hydrogen purity and yield in practice. The lower operating temperatures in the examined range helped to increase the hydrogen purity and reduce the CO content in the gas product, whereas a high hydrogen yield was more likely to be obtained at higher temperatures. Coupling CO(2) capture lowered the risk of coke formation during the steam reforming of glucose. Coke accumulated in the reactor for the sorption-enhanced steam reforming of glucose was mostly from the slow pyrolysis of glucose before it came into contact with the catalyst-acceptor bed. This problem may be solved by improving heat transfer or reconstructing the reactor, for instance, by using a fluidized-bed reactor. PMID:22378630

  2. Sorbitol synthesis by an engineered Lactobacillus casei strain expressing a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene within the lactose operon.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2005-08-01

    Sorbitol is claimed to have important health-promoting effects and Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium relevant as probiotic and used as a cheese starter culture. A sorbitol-producing L. casei strain might therefore be of considerable interest in the food industry. A recombinant strain of L. casei was constructed by the integration of a d-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene (gutF) in the chromosomal lactose operon (strain BL232). gutF expression in this strain followed the same regulation as that of the lac genes, that is, it was repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of supernatants of BL232 resting cells demonstrated that, when pre-grown on lactose, cells were able to synthesize sorbitol from glucose. Inactivation of the l-lactate dehydrogenase gene in BL232 led to an increase in sorbitol production, suggesting that the engineered route provides an alternative pathway for NAD(+) regeneration. PMID:16002237

  3. Possible Existence of Two Amorphous Phases of D-Mannitol Related by a First-Order Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Men; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Perepezko, John; Yu, Lian

    We report that the common polyalcohol D-mannitol may have two amorphous phases related by a first-order transition. Slightly above Tg (284 K), the supercooled liquid (SCL) of D-mannitol transforms to a low-energy, apparently amorphous phase (Phase X). The enthalpy of Phase X is roughly halfway between those of the known amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous nature of Phase X is suggested by its absence of birefringence, transparency, broad X-ray diffraction, and broad Raman and NIR spectra. Phase X has greater molecular spacing, higher molecular order, fewer intra- and more inter-molecular hydrogen bonds than the normal liquid. On fast heating, Phase X transforms back to SCL near 330 K. Upon temperature cycling, it shows a glass-transition-like change of heat capacity. The presence of D-sorbitol enables a first-order liquid-liquid transition (LLT) from SCL to Phase X. This is the first report of polyamorphism at 1 atm for a pharmaceutical relevant substance. As amorphous solids are explored for many applications, polyamorphism could offer a tool to engineer the properties of materials. (Ref: M. Zhu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 244504)

  4. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (<3%) asthma. Nineteen subjects had BHR to mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. PMID:25761367

  5. On the role of Brønsted catalysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Klimacek, Mario; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Wilson, David K; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2003-10-01

    X-ray structure of the Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase ternary complex with NAD+ and D-mannitol suggests that Lys-295 provides catalytic base assistance to secondary alcohol group oxidation. We have replaced Lys-295 by site-directed mutagenesis with alanine or methionine and evaluated the catalytic significance of side-chain substitution by kinetic analysis of restoration of activity with external amines, and from pH and solvent isotope effects on the reaction catalysed by K295A (Lys-295-->Ala mutant). K295A and K295M (Lys-295-->Met mutants) show 3x10(4)- and 2x10(6)-fold lower turnover numbers respectively for D-mannitol oxidation (kcatO) at pH 10.0 than the wild-type. The second-order rate constant for non-covalent rescue of activity (kB) by free methylamine base is 31 M(-1) x s(-1) for K295A, but only 0.021 M(-1) x s(-1) for K295M. A Brønsted relationship of log kB (corrected for molecular size effects) and pKa of the external amine is linear (slope beta=0.66+/-0.16; r2=0.99) for K295A-catalysed D-mannitol oxidation at pH 10.0. The kcatO values of K295A in H2O and 2H2O are linearly dependent on [OL-] in the pL range 7.5-10.5 (where L is 1H or 2H). The solvent isotope effect on kcatO is 0.69. The time course of D-fructose reduction by K295A at pH 8.2 displays a pre-steady-state burst of NADH consumption. These data support a mechanism in which the epsilon -NH2 group of Lys-295 participates in an obligatory pH-dependent, pre-catalytic equilibrium which may control alcohol/alkoxide equilibration of enzyme-bound D-mannitol and activates the C2 atom for subsequent catalytic oxidation by NAD+. PMID:12826012

  6. 1-De-oxy-l-mannitol (6-de-oxy-l-mannitol or l-rhamnitol).

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Sarah F; Booth, K Victoria; Gullapalli, Pushpakiran; Morimoto, Kenji; Izumori, Ken; Fleet, George W J; Watkin, David J

    2008-01-01

    The crystalline form of 1-de-oxy-l-mannitol, C(6)H(14)O(5), exists as an extensively hydrogen-bonded structure with each mol-ecule acting as a donor and acceptor for five hydrogen bonds. There are no unusual crystal-packing features; the absolute configuration was determined from the use of 6-de-oxy-l-mannose (l-rhamnose) as the starting material. PMID:21201694

  7. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on...

  9. Optimising inhaled mannitol for cystic fibrosis in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Flume, Patrick A.; Aitken, Moira L.; Agent, Penny; Charlton, Brett; Forster, Emma; Fox, Howard G.; Hebestreit, Helge; Kolbe, John; Zuckerman, Jonathan B; Button, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There has been remarkable progress in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over the past 20 years. However, limitations of standard therapies have highlighted the need for a convenient alternative treatment to effectively target the pathophysiologic basis of CF-related disease by improving mucociliary clearance of airway secretions and consequently improve lung function and reduce respiratory exacerbations. Mannitol is an osmotic agent available as a dry powder, dispensed in a convenient disposable inhaler device for the treatment of adult patients with CF. Inhalation of mannitol as a dry powder is thought to change the viscoelastic properties of airway secretions, increase the hydration of the airway surface liquid and contribute to increased mucociliary and cough clearance of retained secretions. In two large phase 3 studies [1, 2], long-term use of inhaled mannitol resulted in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in lung function relative to control in adult CF subjects and had an acceptable safety profile. Clinical experience with inhaled mannitol confirms that it is safe and effective. A minority of patients are unable to tolerate the medication. However, through training in proper inhaler technique and setting clear expectations regarding therapeutic effects, both the tolerance and adherence necessary for long term efficacy can be positively influenced. Educational aims To discuss the importance of airway clearance treatments in the management of cystic fibrosis. To describe the clinical data that supports the use of mannitol in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. To highlight the role of mannitol tolerance testing in screening for hyperresponsiveness. To provide practical considerations for patient education in use of mannitol inhaler. Key points Inhaled mannitol is a safe and effective option in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol tolerance testing effectively screens for hyperresponsiveness prior to initiation

  10. Scleroglucan compatibility with thickeners, alcohols and polyalcohols and downstream processing implications.

    PubMed

    Viñarta, Silvana C; Yossen, Mariana M; Vega, Jorge R; Figueroa, Lucía I C; Fariña, Julia I

    2013-02-15

    Thickening capacity and compatibility of scleroglucan with commercial thickeners (corn starch, gum arabic, carboxymethylcellulose, gelatin, xanthan and pectin), glycols (ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol), alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and isopropanol) and polyalcohols (sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol) was explored. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from Sclerotium rolfsii ATCC 201126 and a commercial scleroglucan were compared. Compatibility and synergism were evaluated taking into account rheology, pH and sensory properties of different thickener/scleroglucan mixtures in comparison with pure solutions. S. rolfsii ATCC 201126 EPSs induced or increased pseudoplastic behaviour with a better performance than commercial scleroglucan, showing compatibility and synergy particularly with corn starch, xanthan, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose. Compatibility and a slight synergistic behaviour were also observed with 30% (w/v) ethylene glycol whereas mixtures with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitated. Scleroglucan was compatible with polyalcohols, whilst lower alcohols led to scleroglucan precipitation at 20% (v/v) and above. PEG-based scleroglucan downstream processing was compared to the usual alcohol precipitation. Downstream processed EPSi (with isopropanol) and EPS-p (with PEG) were evaluated on their yield, purity, rheological properties and visual aspect pointing to alcohol downstream processing as the best methodology, whilst PEG recovery would be unsuitable. The highest purified EPSi attained a recovery yield of ~23%, similar to ethanol purification, with a high degree of purity (88%, w/w vs. EPS-p, 8%, w/w) and exhibited optimal rheological properties, water solubility and appearance. With a narrower molecular weight distribution (M(w), 2.66×10(6) g/mol) and a radius of gyration (R(w), 245 nm) slightly lower than ethanol-purified EPSs, isopropanol downstream processing showed to be a proper methodology for obtaining a refined-grade scleroglucan. PMID

  11. Application of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection for measuring carbohydrates in routine daily filter samples collected by a national network: 2. Examination of sugar alcohols/polyols, sugars, and anhydrosugars in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, A. P.; Frank, N.; Kenski, D. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Carbohydrate measurements of ambient samples can provide insights into the biogenic fraction of the organic carbon (OC) aerosol. However, lack of measurement on a routine basis limits data analysis. In a companion paper, 1 year of archived 1-in-6 day FRM (Federal Reference Monitor) filter samples from the PM2.5 NAAQS compliance monitoring network collected at 10 sites in the upper Midwest were analyzed using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection to determine the regional impact of biomass burning. Along with levoglucosan, 13 other carbohydrates were simultaneously measured, including two more anhydrosugars (mannosan and galactosan), five sugars (arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose), and six sugar alcohols/polyols (glycerol, methyltetrols, threitol/erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol). This paper focuses on the results from these carbohydrates in order to investigate their sources and trends both spatially and temporally. Mannosan, galactosan, arabinose, xylose, and threitol/erythritol all correlated with levoglucosan (R2 from 0.43 to 0.97), suggesting biomass burning as their main source. Glucose and mannitol exhibited higher concentrations in summer and at more southern sites, likely due to vegetation differences at the sites. Using mannitol, the contribution of spores to OC was found to be <1%. Methyltetrols were highly correlated with water-soluble OC (R2 from 0.63 to 0.95) and in higher concentrations at more eastern sites. This spatial pattern is possibly due to these sites being downwind of the high isoprene emission zones that occur in the western part of the Midwest from oak forests in the Ozarks and spruce forests in the northern lake states.

  12. Multiwell Assay for the Analysis of Sugar Gut Permeability Markers: Discrimination of Sugar Alcohols with a Fluorescent Probe Array Based on Boronic Acid Appended Viologens.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Angel; Panescu, Priera; Zuniga, Ruth; Banda, Isaac; Joseph, Jorly; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Singaram, Bakthan

    2016-05-17

    With the aim of discerning between different sugar and sugar alcohols of biomedical relevance, such as gut permeability, arrays of 2-component probes were assembled with up to six boronic acid-appended viologens (BBVs): 4,4'-o-BBV, 3,3'-o-BBV, 3,4'-o-BBV, 4,4'-o,m-BBV, 4,7'-o-PBBV, and pBoB, each coupled to the fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene, 1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS). These probes were screened for their ability to discriminate between lactulose, l-rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and xylose. Binding studies of sugar alcohols mannitol, sorbitol, erythritol, adonitol, arabitol, galactitol, and xylitol revealed that diols containing threo-1,2-diol units have higher affinity for BBVs relative diols containing erythro-1,2 units. Those containing both threo-1,2- and 1,3-syn diol motifs showed high affinity for boronic acid binding. Fluorescence from the arrays were examined by principle component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Arrays with only three BBVs sufficed to discriminate between sugars (e.g., lactulose) and sugar alcohols (e.g., mannitol), establishing a differential probe. Compared with 4,4'-o-BBV, 2-fold reductions in lower limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were achieved for lactulose with 4,7-o-PBBV (LOD 41 μM, LOQ 72 μM). Using a combination of 4,4'-o-BBV, 4,7-o-PBBV, and pBoB, LDA statistically segregated lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratios from 0.1 to 0.5, consistent with values encountered in small intestinal permeability tests. Another triad containing 3,3'-o-BBV, 4,4'-o-BBV, and 4,7-o-PBBV also discerned similar L/M ratios. This proof-of-concept demonstrates the potential for BBV arrays as an attractive alternate to HPLC to analyze mixtures of sugars and sugar alcohols in biomedical applications and sheds light on structural motifs that make this possible. PMID:27116118

  13. Characterization of the mannitol catabolic operon of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xue; Okai, Naoko; Vertès, Alain A; Inatomi, Ken-Ichi; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2011-09-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes a mannitol catabolic operon, which comprises three genes: the DeoR-type repressor coding gene mtlR (sucR), an MFS transporter gene (mtlT), and a mannitol 2-dehydrogenase gene (mtlD). The mtlR gene is located upstream of the mtlTD genes in the opposite orientation. In spite of this, wild-type C. glutamicum lacks the ability to utilize mannitol. This wild-type phenotype results from the genetic regulation of the genes coding for mannitol transport and catalytic proteins mediated by the autoregulated MtlR protein since mtlR mutants grow on mannitol as the sole carbon source. MtlR binds to sites near the mtlR (two sites) and mtlTD promoters (one site downstream of the promoter), with the consensus sequence 5'-TCTAACA-3' being required for its binding. The newly discovered operon comprises the three basic functional elements required for mannitol utilization: regulation, transport, and metabolism to fructose, further processed to the common intermediate of glycolysis fructose-6-phosphate. When relieved from MtlR repression, C. glutamicum, which lacks a functional fructokinase, excretes the fructose derived from mannitol and imports it by the fructose-specific PTS. In order to use mannitol from seaweed biomass hydrolysates as a carbon source for the production of useful commodity chemicals and materials, an overexpression system using the tac promoter was developed. For congruence with the operon, we propose to rename sucR as the mtlR gene. PMID:21655984

  14. Maintenance of Different Mannitol Uptake Systems during Starvation in Oxidative and Fermentative Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Claire L.; Robb, Frank T.

    1985-01-01

    The mannitol uptake systems in marine Vibrio and Pseudomonas isolates from the kelp beds off the South African west coast were examined. The fermentative Vibrio isolate possessed a constitutive rapid mannitol uptake system and also a soluble mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, indicative of a mannitol phosphotransferase system. An inducible, relatively less active mannitol uptake system was detected in the oxidative Pseudomonas isolate, and this strain possessed a mannitol dehydrogenase. The maintenance of these systems during starvation survival was studied. The Vibrio isolate maintained its initial uptake system for approximately 5 weeks of starvation, after which time the uptake system was replaced by one with a higher affinity for mannitol. The mannitol transport system of the Pseudomonas isolate was depressed early in starvation (30 h) but could be readily induced by exogenous mannitol after 6 weeks of starvation. The relative proportions of mannitol which was incorporated and respired were determined in starved Vibrio and Pseudomonas strains. PMID:16346909

  15. Mannitol delivery by vibrating mesh nebulisation for enhancing mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed

    Chan, John Gar Yan; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Young, Paul M; Chan, Hak-Kim; Traini, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Mucociliary clearance is compromised by airway surface liquid dehydration in respiratory disease states such as cystic fibrosis. Rehydration by hyperosmolar agents such as nebulised hypertonic saline and dry powder mannitol has demonstrated in vivo safety and efficacy for restoring mucociliary function. Mannitol, delivered as a nebulised formulation for this purpose, has not been investigated as yet. The current study examines the feasibility of delivering such a formulation using recent vibrating mesh technology. Nebulisation was conducted using an Aeroneb Go(TM) vibrating mesh nebuliser, and aerosol size was assessed by laser diffraction. Cascade impaction coupled with mass assay by high-performance liquid chromatography was used to confirm fluid uniformity and correlation with laser diffraction sizing. The following nebuliser formulations were prepared and aerosolised: deionised water, mannitol (150 mg/mL) aqueous solution, sodium chloride aqueous solution [0.2%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% (w/v)] and mannitol (150 mg/mL) in sodium chloride solution [0.2%, 1%, 3%, 7% (w/v)]. Mannitol aqueous solution was poorly nebulised, resulting in lengthy treatment times and large median droplet size. Addition of sodium chloride drastically improved nebuliser performance and aerosol characteristics. In vivo studies are necessary to confirm efficacy of nebulised mannitol. If substantiated, it could provide a pleasant-tasting alternative mucoactive agent with prolonged therapeutic action. PMID:21283985

  16. Co-spray-dried mannitol-ciprofloxacin dry powder inhaler formulation for cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Adi, Handoko; Young, Paul M; Chan, Hak-Kim; Agus, Helen; Traini, Daniela

    2010-06-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of delivering a combination therapy, containing mannitol (a sugar alcohol with osmotic characteristics), and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (an antibacterial fluoroquinolone), as a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for inhalation. Single and combination powders were produced by spray drying ciprofloxacin and mannitol, from aqueous solution, at different ratios and under controlled conditions, as to obtain similar particle size distributions. Each formulation was characterised using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic vapour sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and colloidal force microscopy. The in vitro aerosol performance of each formulation was studied using an Aerolizer DPI device and a multi-stage liquid impinger (analysed using high performance liquid chromatography). In addition, a disk diffusion test was performed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of each formulation and starting materials. All formulations had similar particle size distributions, however, the morphology, thermal properties and moisture sorption was dependent on the relative percentages of each component. In general, the combination formulation containing 50% (w/w) mannitol appeared to have the best aerosol performance, good stability and lowest particle cohesion (as measured by colloid probe microscopy). Furthermore, of the formulations tested, mannitol did not appear to alter the effectiveness of the ciprofloxacin antimicrobial activity to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. The combination of co-spray-dried mannitol and ciprofloxacin from a DPI is an attractive approach to promote mucous clearance in the respiratory tract while simultaneously treating local chronic infection, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. PMID:20371286

  17. Expression of a bacterial mtlD gene in transgenic tobacco leads to production and accumulation of mannitol.

    PubMed Central

    Tarczynski, M C; Jensen, R G; Bohnert, H J

    1992-01-01

    A bacterial gene encoding mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, mtlD, was engineered for expression in higher plants. Gene constructions were stably incorporated into tobacco plants. The mtlD gene was expressed and translated into a functional enzyme in tobacco, resulting in the synthesis and accumulation of mannitol, which was identified by NMR and mass spectroscopy. Mannitol concentrations exceeded 6 mumol/g (fresh weight) in the leaves and in the roots of some transformants, whereas this sugar alcohol was not detected in these organs of wild-type tobacco plants or of untransformed tobacco plants that underwent the same regeneration scheme. These experiments demonstrate that branch-points in plant carbohydrate metabolism can be generated by which novel gene products can utilize endogenous substrates to divert metabolic energy into novel compounds. Additionally, the system described here allows for physiological studies in which the responses of wild-type and transgenic tobacco to various environmental stimuli can be compared directly. Such studies will facilitate our understanding of the roles of sugar alcohols (e.g., in stress tolerance) in higher plants. Images PMID:1557364

  18. The effect of sorbitol on acid phosphatase deactivation.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, L; Toscano, G; Pirozzi, D; Greco, G

    1991-12-01

    Acid phosphatase thermal deactivation follows a complex path: an initial decay toward an equilibrium distribution of at least two intermediate structures, mutually at the equilibrium, followed by a final breakdown toward a completely inactive enzyme configuration. The results obtained in the presence of sorbitol have been compared to those produced in the course of purely thermal deactivation of the native enzyme. For any sobitol concentration, an equivalent temperature is calculated that results in exactly the same activity-versus-time profile. This suggests enzyme deactivation to be controlled by a single, unchanging step. Immobilized enzyme runs have been performed, as well, by entrapping acid phosphates within a polymeric network formed onto the upstream surface of an ultrafiltration membrane. The stabilizing effect of entrapment cumulates with that produced by sorbitol. In this case, however, an equivalent temperature cannot be determined, thus indicating that a different deactivation mechanism is followed. PMID:18600710

  19. Molecular dynamics studies of the conformation of sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    Lerbret, A.; Mason, P.E.; Venable, R.M.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Pastor, R.W.; Brady, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a 3 m aqueous solution of D-sorbitol (also called D-glucitol) have been performed at 300 K, as well as at two elevated temperatures to promote conformational transitions. In principle, sorbitol is more flexible than glucose since it does not contain a constraining ring. However, a conformational analysis revealed that the sorbitol chain remains extended in solution, in contrast to the bent conformation found experimentally in the crystalline form. While there are 243 staggered conformations of the backbone possible for this open-chain polyol, only a very limited number were found to be stable in the simulations. Although many conformers were briefly sampled, only eight were significantly populated in the simulation. The carbon backbones of all but two of these eight conformers were completely extended, unlike the bent crystal conformation. These extended conformers were stabilized by a quite persistent intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl groups of carbon C-2 and C-4. The conformational populations were found to be in good agreement with the limited available NMR data except for the C-2–C-3 torsion (spanned by the O-2–O-4 hydrogen bond), where the NMR data supports a more bent structure. PMID:19744646

  20. The mannitol utilization system of the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans.

    PubMed

    Groisillier, Agnès; Labourel, Aurore; Michel, Gurvan; Tonon, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Mannitol is a polyol that occurs in a wide range of living organisms, where it fulfills different physiological roles. In particular, mannitol can account for as much as 20 to 30% of the dry weight of brown algae and is likely to be an important source of carbon for marine heterotrophic bacteria. Zobellia galactanivorans (Flavobacteriia) is a model for the study of pathways involved in the degradation of seaweed carbohydrates. Annotation of its genome revealed the presence of genes potentially involved in mannitol catabolism, and we describe here the biochemical characterization of a recombinant mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (M2DH) and a fructokinase (FK). Among the observations, the M2DH of Z. galactanivorans was active as a monomer, did not require metal ions for catalysis, and featured a narrow substrate specificity. The FK characterized was active on fructose and mannose in the presence of a monocation, preferentially K(+). Furthermore, the genes coding for these two proteins were adjacent in the genome and were located directly downstream of three loci likely to encode an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex, suggesting organization into an operon. Gene expression analysis supported this hypothesis and showed the induction of these five genes after culture of Z. galactanivorans in the presence of mannitol as the sole source of carbon. This operon for mannitol catabolism was identified in only 6 genomes of Flavobacteriaceae among the 76 publicly available at the time of the analysis. It is not conserved in all Bacteroidetes; some species contain a predicted mannitol permease instead of a putative ABC transporter complex upstream of M2DH and FK ortholog genes. PMID:25548051

  1. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  2. The Mannitol Utilization System of the Marine Bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans

    PubMed Central

    Groisillier, Agnès; Labourel, Aurore; Michel, Gurvan

    2014-01-01

    Mannitol is a polyol that occurs in a wide range of living organisms, where it fulfills different physiological roles. In particular, mannitol can account for as much as 20 to 30% of the dry weight of brown algae and is likely to be an important source of carbon for marine heterotrophic bacteria. Zobellia galactanivorans (Flavobacteriia) is a model for the study of pathways involved in the degradation of seaweed carbohydrates. Annotation of its genome revealed the presence of genes potentially involved in mannitol catabolism, and we describe here the biochemical characterization of a recombinant mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (M2DH) and a fructokinase (FK). Among the observations, the M2DH of Z. galactanivorans was active as a monomer, did not require metal ions for catalysis, and featured a narrow substrate specificity. The FK characterized was active on fructose and mannose in the presence of a monocation, preferentially K+. Furthermore, the genes coding for these two proteins were adjacent in the genome and were located directly downstream of three loci likely to encode an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex, suggesting organization into an operon. Gene expression analysis supported this hypothesis and showed the induction of these five genes after culture of Z. galactanivorans in the presence of mannitol as the sole source of carbon. This operon for mannitol catabolism was identified in only 6 genomes of Flavobacteriaceae among the 76 publicly available at the time of the analysis. It is not conserved in all Bacteroidetes; some species contain a predicted mannitol permease instead of a putative ABC transporter complex upstream of M2DH and FK ortholog genes. PMID:25548051

  3. Aeromonas schubertii, a new mannitol-negative species found in human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Fanning, G R; Arduino, M J; Brenner, D J; Farmer, J J

    1988-08-01

    In 1983 the vernacular name Enteric Group 501 was coined for a group of strains that had been referred to our laboratory as "possible Vibrio damsela that does not require NaCl for growth." By DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method, 32P, 60 and 75 degrees C), six strains of Enteric Group 501 were closely related to the labeled strain 2446-81 (70 to 95% at 60 degrees C and 71 to 93% at 75 degrees C; 0 to 1% divergence). Type strains of all Aeromonas species and reference strains of six other Aeromonas DNA hybridization groups were 26 to 42% related (60 degrees C) to strain 2446-81, but type strains of 27 Vibrio and Photobacterium species, including V. damsela, were 0 to 1% (75 degrees C) related. We propose the name Aeromonas schubertii for the highly related group of seven strains formerly known as Enteric Group 501. The type strain is designated as ATCC 43700 (CDC 2446-81). Strains of A. schubertii grew well at 36 degrees C and had positive reactions at this temperature for methyl red, Voges-Proskauer (1% NaCl, Coblentz method), lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase, motility, lipase, DNase, nitrate reduction to nitrite, oxidase, and growth in nutrient broth with 0 and 1% NaCl. There was no growth in 6% NaCl or on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. The following sugars were fermented: D-glucose, D-galactose, maltose, D-mannose, and trehalose. The following sugars were not fermented: adonitol, L-arabinose, D-arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol, erythritol, myo-inositol, lactose, D-mannitol, melibiose, alpha-CH3-D-glucoside, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose, and D-xylose. Esculin was not hydrolyzed, and the string test was negative. The mannitol-negative reaction differtiates A. schubertii from other Aeromonas species. The antibiogram of this organism is typical of other Aeromonas strains (resistance to ampicillin and carbenicillin and susceptibility to most other agents). A. schubertii strains have been isolated from abscesses (two

  4. Characterization and crystal structure of D-mannitol hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cletus; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Botez, Cristian E; Stephens, Peter W

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to isolate and characterize mannitol hydrate, and (ii) to solve its crystal structure from high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Mannitol hydrate was prepared by freeze-drying aqueous mannitol solutions (5% w/v) under controlled conditions. X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that mannitol exists as a hemihydrate (C(6)H(14)O(6) . 0.5H(2)O). Synchrotron data were collected on the X3B1 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The simulated annealing program PSSP was used to solve the structure, which was subsequently refined by Rietveld analysis using the program package GSAS. The compound crystallizes in space group P1, with a = 9.8963 A, b = 10.5424 A, c = 4.7860 A, alpha = 102.589 degrees , beta = 86.092 degrees , and gamma = 116.079 degrees . The unit cell contains two dissimilar D-mannitol molecules and one water molecule, forming a hydrogen bonding pattern significantly different from that seen in the anhydrous polymorphs. PMID:15368529

  5. Carbon Balance of a Mannitol Fermentation and the Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei Hwa

    1967-01-01

    The carbon balance was determined for a fermentation in which mannitol is produced from glucose by an Aspergillus species. The products found were: cells (17% of carbon input), CO2 (26%), mannitol (35%), glycerol (10%), erythritol (2.5%), glycogen (1%), and unidentified compounds (8%). Thus, 92% of the carbon input was accounted for. Cell-free enzyme studies showed that mannitol was synthesized via the reduction of fructose-6-phosphate and not by the direct reduction of fructose. If the cell yield from glucose was assumed to be 50% and the theoretical conversion efficiency from glucose to polyols was 90%, as calculated from the energy balance, then 34% of the glucose carbon was used for growth and 53% was used for polyol formation. PMID:4294822

  6. Conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sorbitol catalyzed by ruthenium supported on a polyoxometalate/metal-organic framework hybrid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinzhu; Wang, Shengpei; Huang, Jing; Chen, Limin; Ma, Longlong; Huang, Xing

    2013-08-01

    Cellulose and cellobiose were selectively converted into sorbitol over water-tolerant phosphotungstic acid (PTA)/metal- organic-framework-hybrid-supported ruthenium catalysts, Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr), under aqueous hydrogenation conditions. The goal was to investigate the relationship between the acid/metal balance of bifunctional catalysts Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) and their performance in the catalytic conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sugar alcohols. The control of the amount and strength of acid sites in the supported PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was achieved through the effective control of encapsulated-PTA loading in MIL-100(Cr). This design and preparation method led to an appropriately balanced Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) in terms of Ru dispersion and hydrogenation capacity on the one hand, and acid site density of PTA/MIL-100(Cr) (responsible for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis) on the other hand. The ratio of acid site density to the number of Ru surface atoms (nA /nRu ) of Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was used to monitor the balance between hydrogenation and hydrolysis functions; the optimum balance between the two catalytic functions, that is, 8.84sorbitol of 57.9% at complete conversion of cellulose, and 97.1% yield in hexitols with a selectivity for sorbitol of 95.1% at complete conversion of cellobiose) were obtained using a Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) catalyst with loadings of 3.2 wt % for Ru and 16.7 wt % for PTA. This research thus opens new perspectives for the rational design of acid/metal bifunctional catalysts for biomass conversion. PMID:23619979

  7. Forearm compartment syndrome after intravenous mannitol extravasation in a carbosulfan poisoning patient.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ahmet; Uzunlar, Halil

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of forearm compartment syndrome caused by extravasation of mannitol in an intoxicated patient. The pathophysiology and management of a forearm compartment syndrome from extravasation of mannitol are discussed in this case. PMID:15462158

  8. Mannitol Utilisation is Required for Protection of Staphylococcus aureus from Human Skin Antimicrobial Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Stacey L.; Ulanov, Alexander; Li, Zhong; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Josefsson, Elisabet; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Mannitol (Mtl) fermentation, with the subsequent production of acid, is a species signature of Staphylococcus aureus, and discriminates it from most other members of the genus. Inactivation of the gene mtlD, encoding Mtl-1-P dehydrogenase was found to markedly reduce survival in the presence of the antimicrobial fatty acid, linoleic acid. We demonstrate that the sugar alcohol has a potentiating action for this membrane-acting antimicrobial. Analysis of cellular metabolites revealed that, during exponential growth, the mtlD mutant accumulated high levels of Mtl and Mtl-P. The latter metabolite was not detected in its isogenic parent strain or a deletion mutant of the entire mtlABFD operon. In addition, the mtlD mutant strain exhibited a decreased MIC for H2O2, however virulence was unaffected in a model of septic arthritis. PMID:23861785

  9. Silencing leaf sorbitol synthesis alters long-distance partitioning and apple fruit quality

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Gianni; Suzuki, Yasuo; Uratsu, Sandie L.; Lampinen, Bruce; Ormonde, Nichole; Hu, William K.; DeJong, Ted M.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorbitol and sucrose are major products of photosynthesis distributed in apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. “Greensleeves”) that affect quality in fruit. Transgenic apple plants were silenced or up-regulated for sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by using the CaMV35S promoter to define the role of sorbitol distribution in fruit development. Transgenic plants with suppressed sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compensated by accumulating sucrose and starch in leaves, and morning and midday net carbon assimilation rates were significantly lower. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio in leaves was reduced by ≈90% and in phloem exudates by ≈75%. The fruit accumulated more glucose and less fructose, starch, and malic acid, with no overall differences in weight and firmness. Sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was reduced in silenced fruit, but activities of neutral invertase, vacuolar invertase, cell wall-bound invertase, fructose kinase, and hexokinase were unaffected. Analyses of transcript levels and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism throughout fruit development revealed significant differences in pathways related to sorbitol transport and breakdown. Together, these results suggest that sorbitol distribution plays a key role in fruit carbon metabolism and affects quality attributes such as sugar–acid balance and starch accumulation. PMID:17132742

  10. 75 FR 42380 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order on Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... from France. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). Pursuant to... United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. Sorbitol From France; Determination, 75 FR 39277... Order, 47 FR 15391 (April 9, 1982). On June 29, 1984, the order was revoked, in part. See Sorbitol...

  11. PREPARATION OF SORBITOL CITRATE POLYESTERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION AND APPLICATION AS INHIBITIORS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol citrates were prepared using a vented ZSK-30-twin-screw extruder as part of a program to develop bio-based, water soluble polycarboxylates. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and included the variables sorbitol, citric acid, sodium citrate, temperature and feed rate. Extent of est...

  12. Production of hydrogen, ethanol and volatile fatty acids from the seaweed carbohydrate mannitol.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Jacob, Amita; Herrmann, Christiane; Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Murphy, Jerry D

    2015-10-01

    Fermentative hydrogen from seaweed is a potential biofuel of the future. Mannitol, which is a typical carbohydrate component of seaweed, was used as a substrate for hydrogen fermentation. The theoretical specific hydrogen yield (SHY) of mannitol was calculated as 5 mol H2/mol mannitol (615.4 mL H2/g mannitol) for acetic acid pathway, 3 mol H2/mol mannitol (369.2 mL H2/g mannitol) for butyric acid pathway and 1 mol H2/mol mannitol (123.1 mL H2/g mannitol) for lactic acid and ethanol pathways. An optimal SHY of 1.82 mol H2/mol mannitol (224.2 mL H2/g mannitol) was obtained by heat pre-treated anaerobic digestion sludge under an initial pH of 8.0, NH4Cl concentration of 25 mM, NaCl concentration of 50mM and mannitol concentration of 10 g/L. The overall energy conversion efficiency achieved was 96.1%. The energy was contained in the end products, hydrogen (17.2%), butyric acid (38.3%) and ethanol (34.2%). PMID:26163759

  13. Mutations Affecting the Dissimilation of Mannitol by Escherichia coli K-121

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, E.; Lin, E. C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the mannitol-specific enzyme II complex of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) or lacking mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase have been isolated. These mutants fail only to grow on mannitol. Growth of the dehydrogenase-negative mutant on casein hydrolysate can be abruptly inhibited by exposure to mannitol. A mutant with constitutive expression of both of these enzymes has also been isolated. All three mutations are clustered in a region represented at min 71 of the Taylor map. In a mutant with less than 5% of the activity of enzyme I of the PTS, both the enzyme II complex and the dehydrogenase remain inducible by mannitol. In the mutant defective in the enzyme II complex, mannitol is able to induce the dehydrogenase. Thus, mannitol, rather than its phosphorylated product, seems to be the inducer. PMID:4559737

  14. The enhanced aerosol performance of salbutamol from dry powders containing engineered mannitol as excipient.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Momin, Mohammed N; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of crystallising mannitol from different binary mixtures of acetone/water on the resultant physical properties and to determine the effects of any changes on in vitro aerosolisation performance, when the different mannitol crystals were used as a carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations containing salbutamol sulphate. Mannitol particles were crystallised under controlled conditions by dissolving the sugar in water and precipitating the sugar using binary mixtures of acetone/water in different percentages as anti-solvent media. For comparison purposes the physical properties and deposition behaviour of commercially available mannitol were also studied. SEM showed that all crystallised mannitol particles were more elongated than the commercial mannitol. Solid state studies revealed that commercial mannitol and mannitol crystallised using acetone in the presence of 10-25% v/v water as anti-solvent was beta-polymorphic form whereas mannitol crystallised in the presence of a small amount of water (0-7.5%) was the alpha-form. All the crystallised mannitol samples showed poor flowability. Nevertheless, the powdered crystallised mannitol and commercial samples were blended with salbutamol in the ratio 67.5:1. The aerosolisation performance of the formulations containing the engineered mannitol (evaluated using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger) was considerably better than that of the commercial mannitol formulation (the fine particle fraction was increased from 15.42% to 33.07-43.99%, for the formulations containing crystallised mannitol). Generally, carriers having a high tapped density and high fraction of fine carrier particles produced a high FPF. The improvement in the DPI performance could be attributed to the presence of elongated carrier particles with smooth surfaces since these are believed to have less adhesive forces between carrier and the drug resulting in easier detachment of the drug during the

  15. Remineralizing potential, antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of xylitol and sorbitol sweetened chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, L M; Odusola, F; Mandel, I D

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of xylitol and sorbitol sweetened chewing gums on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and remineralizing potential of plaque following six weeks of use. Twenty-eight consenting individuals were randomly assigned to each of three phases (six weeks in duration) consisting of chewing xylitol gum, chewing sorbitol gum and a non-chewing phase. Subjects chewed one stick after every meal and at two other times for a total of five sticks per day. At the completion of each treatment phase, plaque and gingival indexes were performed and plaque was later collected. Calcium concentration in plaque was determined by atomic absorption spectophotometry. Reductions in plaque indexes were significant for both xylitol gum (p < 0.001) and sorbitol gum (p < 0.05) when compared to the no chewing period. The gingival indexes reflected a decrement in gingival inflammation with both xylitol and sorbitol, though only sorbitol values were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Chewing xylitol and sorbitol gums reduced plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. In addition, both gums enhanced the remineralization potential of plaque. Xylitol gum showed a superior effect with respect to remineralization potential and plaque reduction. Sorbitol gum had a superior effect on gingival health but not significantly so. PMID:1291185

  16. Contribution of sorbitol combined with activated charcoal in prevention of salicylate absorption.

    PubMed

    Keller, R E; Schwab, R A; Krenzelok, E P

    1990-06-01

    The use of cathartics and activated charcoal in treating toxic ingestions has become a standard treatment modality. Sorbitol has been shown to be the most rapidly acting cathartic, but its therapeutic significance has been debated. Using a previously described aspirin overdose model, ten healthy volunteers participated in a crossover design study that investigated the effect of activated charcoal alone versus that of activated charcoal and sorbitol in preventing salicylate absorption. In phase 1 of the study, subjects consumed 2.5 g aspirin followed by 25 g activated charcoal one hour later. Urine was collected for 48 hours and analyzed for quantitative salicylate metabolites. Phase 2 was identical except that 1.5 g/kg sorbitol was consumed with the activated charcoal. The mean amount of aspirin absorbed without the use of sorbitol was 1.26 +/- 0.15 g, whereas the mean absorption was 0.912 +/- 0.18 g with the addition of sorbitol. This is a 28% decrease in absorption of salicylates attributable to the use of sorbitol. The difference is significant at P less than .05 by the paired Student's t test. This study demonstrates that the addition of sorbitol significantly decreases drug absorption in a simulated drug overdose model. Effects on absorption in actual overdose situations and on patient outcome should be the subjects of further study. PMID:2188536

  17. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  18. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  19. Pulse-plethysmographic variables in hemodynamic assessment during mannitol infusion.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, M; Mohanvelu, K; Veena, S; Sripathy, G; Umamaheswara Rao, G S

    2012-04-01

    Plethysmographic signal using pulse oximetry may be used to assess fluid status of patients during surgery as it resembles arterial pressure waveform. This will avoid placement of invasive arterial lines. This study was designed to find out whether intravascular volume changes induced by mannitol bolus in neurosurgical patients are detected by variations in arterial pressure and plethysmographic waveforms and also to assess the strength of correlation between different variables derived from these two waveforms. The time difference between the onset of arterial and plethysmographic waveforms as means of significant hemodynamic changes was also evaluated. Forty one adult ASA I and II neurosurgical patients requiring mannitol infusion were recruited. Arterial line and plethysmographic probe were placed in the same limb. Digitized waveforms were collected before, at the end, and 15, 30 and 60 min after mannitol infusion. Using MATLAB, the following parameters were collected for three consecutive respiratory cycles,-systolic pressure variation (SPV), pulse pressure variation (PPV), plethysmographic peak variation (Pl-PV), plethysmographic amplitude variation (Pl-AV) and blood pressure-plethysmographic time lag (BP-Pleth time lag). Changes in above parameters over the study period were studied using repeated measure analysis of variance. Correlation between the parameters was analysed. SPV and Pl-PV showed significant increase at 15, 30 and 60 min compared to end of mannitol infusion (P < 0.01 for SPV; P < 0.05 for Pl-PV). PPV and Pl-AV showed significant increase only at 30 min (P < 0.05). The correlation between ∆SPV-∆Pl-PV, ∆PPV-∆Pl-AV and ∆SPV-∆BP-Pleth time lag were significant (r = 0.3; P < 0.01). SPV and time lag had no significant interaction. Pl-PV correlates well with SPV following mannitol infusion and can be used as an alternative to SPV. (BP-Pleth) time-lag promises to be an important parameter in assessing the state of peripheral

  20. Mechanism of generation of drug nanocrystals in celecoxib: mannitol nanocrystalline solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Varun; Shete, Ganesh; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2015-11-10

    Objective of this work was to understand the mechanism of formation of celecoxib nanocrystals in celecoxib: mannitol nanocrystalline solid dispersion (NSD). Solution of celecoxib and mannitol was spray dried in 1:1 (g:g) proportion to obtain NSD, with average crystallite size of 214.07 ± 45.27 nm. Solubility parameters of celecoxib and mannitol were 23.1 MPa(1/2) and 38.5 MPa(1/2), respectively, hinting their immiscibility. Formation of nanocrystals during NanoCrySP proceeds via intermediate amorphous form of the drug. Earlier work from our lab on hesperetin-mannitol system, had underlined the role of plasticization of amorphous drug by excipient in the formation of nanocrystals. However, in present case, mannitol failed to plasticize amorphous celecoxib and Tg of amorphous celecoxib (56.8°C) showed a negligible change (54.8°C) in presence of mannitol. However, DSC data also suggested crystallization inducing potential of mannitol on amorphous celecoxib. Polarized light microscopy provided evidence that, mannitol facilitated heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous celecoxib at their interface. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that, mannitol acted as a physical barrier to crystal growth of celecoxib crystallites. Thus, though mannitol did not plasticize amorphous celecoxib, it aided in nanocrystal generation by heterogeneous nucleation and providing physical barrier to crystal growth. PMID:26327627

  1. Sorbitol treatment extends lifespan and induces the osmotic stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chandler-Brown, Devon; Choi, Haeri; Park, Shirley; Ocampo, Billie R.; Chen, Shiwen; Le, Anna; Sutphin, George L.; Shamieh, Lara S.; Smith, Erica D.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The response to osmotic stress is a highly conserved process for adapting to changing environmental conditions. Prior studies have shown that hyperosmolarity by addition of sorbitol to the growth medium is sufficient to increase both chronological and replicative lifespan in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report a similar phenomenon in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Addition of sorbitol to the nematode growth medium induces an adaptive osmotic response and increases C. elegans lifespan by about 35%. Lifespan extension from 5% sorbitol behaves similarly to dietary restriction in a variety of genetic backgrounds, increasing lifespan additively with mutation of daf-2(e1370) and independently of daf-16(mu86), sir-2.1(ok434), aak-2(ok524), and hif-1(ia04). Dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation or mutation of eat-2(ad1113) fails to further extend lifespan in the presence of 5% sorbitol. Two mutants with constitutive activation of the osmotic response, osm-5(p813) and osm-7(n1515), were found to be long-lived, and lifespan extension from sorbitol required the glycerol biosynthetic enzymes GPDH-1 and GPDH-2. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that exposure to sorbitol at levels sufficient to induce an adaptive osmotic response extends lifespan in worms and define the osmotic stress response pathway as a longevity pathway conserved between yeast and nematodes. PMID:26579191

  2. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose.

  3. Biosynthesis of sucrose and mannitol as a function of leaf age in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Fellman, J.K.; Loescher, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately.

  4. The influence of mannitol on renal function during and after open-heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A R; Jones, P; Barlow, P; Kennington, S; Saville, S; Farrimond, J; Yacoub, M

    1998-05-01

    Mannitol is often included in the priming solution of the heart-lung machine used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was set up to evaluate the effect of different doses of mannitol on human patients. Patients receiving 10 g of mannitol (n = 18) had an increased diuresis only during the bypass period (mean time = 87 min) when compared with a control group (n = 19) who did not receive mannitol. Patients receiving 20 g of mannitol (n = 19) had a significantly greater diuresis than both the control group and the 10 g group and the diuresis continued on throughout the immediate postbypass period (total mean time approximately 3 h). Patients receiving 30 g of mannitol (n = 20) also had a significantly greater diuresis that continued on during the first hour in the intensive care unit (ICU) (total mean time approximately 4 h). After 6 h in the ICU, all three groups of mannitol-treated patients equally demonstrated a trend towards an increased diuresis over the control group, which became a significant increase by 12 h in the ICU (p = 0.001) despite indications that the mannitol had been cleared from the body. These results suggest that there is an improvement of renal function post-CPB if mannitol is included in the CPB prime which may be due to an amelioration of the ischaemic effects of bypass on the kidneys. PMID:9638715

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Mannitol-Based Inhibitors for Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a serious threat against humankind and the need for new therapeutics is crucial. Without working antibiotics, diseases that we thought were extinct will come back. In this paper two new mannitol bisphosphate analogs, 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-diphosphoramidate mannitol and 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-dimethansulfonamide mannitol, have been synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of the enzyme GmhB in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides. 1,6-Dideoxy-1,6-diphosphoramidate mannitol showed promising result in computational docking experiments, but neither phosphate analog showed activity in the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test. PMID:26981280

  6. Solid Material Characterization of Freeze-Dried Gabexate Mesilate Containing D-Mannitol by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Fukura, Naomi; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to characterize polymorphic forms and intermolecular interactions of freeze-dried pharmaceuticals containing additives by terahertz (THz) spectroscopy as a, process analytical technology tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-dried gabexate mesilate/D-mannitol products containing 17-75 mol% gabexate mesilate were obtained using a conventional freeze-dryer. Freeze-dried products and physical mixtures of gabexate mesilate and mannitol with various drug contents were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and THz. The XRD and DSC results indicated that freeze-dried mannitol was obtained as a mixture of β and δ forms of mannitol from a plain solution, but the freeze-dried product of the gabexate mesilate/mannitol mixture consisted of crystalline gabexate mesilate and the pure δ form of mannitol. Similar to the results of XRD and DSC, THz before the freeze-drying of gabexate mesilate was almost the same as that after. In contrast, the THz of mannitol before freeze-drying had specific peaks due to the β form, but that after had peaks due to δ and β forms. To clarify the polymorphic forms of the freeze-dried products, the THz were analyzed by least squares regression. The calibration models used to predict the amounts of gabexate mesilate and mannitol had sufficient accuracy and linearity, respectively. Two decomposed THz in FGMs had specific peaks due to the δ form of mannitol or gabexate mesilate.

  7. Continuous Isosorbide Production From Sorbitol Using Solid Acid Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.; Holladay,J.; Jaffe, M.; Brunelle, D.

    2006-09-29

    This is a final report for a project funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board was the principal contracting entity for the grant. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with General Electric, Pacific Northwest National Lab and New Jersey Institute of Technology to conduct research in this project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and General Electric provided cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate both the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project has led to additional collaborations among other polymer companies. The goals of the project were to develop a renewable route to isosorbide for commercialization that is economically competitive with all existing production technologies and to develop new applications for isosorbide in various products such as polymers and materials. Under this program a novel process for the production of isosorbide was developed and evaluated. The novel process converts corn based sorbitol into isosorbide using a solid catalyst with integrated water removal and product recovery. In addition the work under this program has identified several novel products based on isosorbide chemistries. These market applications include: epoxy resins, UV stabilizers, plasticizers and polyesters. These market applications have commercial interest within the current polymer industry. This report contains an overview summary of the accomplishments. Six inventions and four patent applications have been written as a result of this project. Additional data will be published in the patent applications. The data developed at New Jersey Institute of Technology was presented at two technical conferences held in June of 2006. Several companies have made inquiries about using this material in their products.

  8. A fiber-optic sorbitol biosensor based on NADH fluorescence detection toward rapid diagnosis of diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Gessei, Tomoko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-09-21

    Accumulation of sorbitol in the tissue is known to cause microvascular diabetic complications. In this paper, a fiber-optic biosensor for sorbitol which is used as a biomarker of diabetic complications was developed and tested. The biosensor used a sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas with high substrate specificity and detected the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the enzymatic reaction. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) was used as the excitation light source of NADH. The fluorescence of NADH was detected using a spectrometer or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The UV-LED and the photodetector were coupled using a Y-shaped optical fiber. In the experiment, an optical fiber probe with a sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized membrane was placed in a cuvette filled with a phosphate buffer containing the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The changes in NADH fluorescence intensity were measured after adding a standard sorbitol solution. According to the experimental assessment, the calibration range of the sorbitol biosensor systems using a spectrometer and a PMT was 5.0-1000 μmol L(-1) and 1.0-1000 μmol L(-1), respectively. The sorbitol biosensor system using the sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas has high selectivity and sensitivity compared with that from sheep liver. The sorbitol biosensor allows for point-of-care testing applications or daily health care tests for diabetes patients. PMID:26244794

  9. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial deterioration of both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (Keff) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory c...

  10. Investigation into the subambient behavior of aqueous mannitol solutions using temperature-controlled Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Beattie, J Renwick; Barrett, Lindsay J; Malone, John F; McGarvey, John J; Nieuwenhuyzen, M; Kett, Vicky L

    2007-09-01

    The aim was twofold; to demonstrate the ability of temperature-controlled Raman microscopy (TRM) to locate mannitol within a frozen system and determine its form; to investigate the annealing behavior of mannitol solutions at -30 degrees C. The different polymorphic forms of anhydrous mannitol as well as the hemihydrate and amorphous form were prepared and characterized using crystal or powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) as appropriate and Raman microscopy. Mannitol solutions (3% w/v) were cooled before annealing at -30 degrees C. TRM was used to map the frozen systems during annealing and was able to differentiate between the different forms of mannitol and revealed the location of both beta and delta polymorphic forms within the structure of the frozen material for the first time. TRM also confirmed that the crystalline mannitol is preferentially deposited at the edge of the frozen drop, forming a rim that thickens upon annealing. While there is no preference for one form initially, the study has revealed that the mannitol preferentially transforms to the beta form with time. TRM has enabled observation of spatially resolved behavior of mannitol during the annealing process for the first time. The technique has clear potential for studying other crystallization processes, with particular advantage for frozen systems. PMID:17481870

  11. Tissue sorbitol concentration can be altered by changing the type of dietary carbohydrate or copper status

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M. )

    1989-02-09

    This study was designed to determine whether rehabilitation of tissue sorbitol concentration occurs when rats consuming a high-fructose, low-copper diet are changed to diets containing starch or copper. Weanling male rats were provided with a diet which contained 62.7% fructose and 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g (F-Cu) for 4 weeks and then changed to either a fructose diet which contained 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g or a starch diet which contained either 0.6 or 6.0 {mu}g Cu/g for 2 weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of rats eating copper-deficient diets was about 30% of copper adequate rats regardless of the type of dietary carbohydrate. Pancreatic fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. Kidney fructose and sorbitol concentrations were significantly lowered in rats changed to a starch diet. For all dietary groups, pancreatic and kidney sorbitol concentrations returned to normal after removal of rats from the F-Cu diet. In general, changing rats from a high-fructose, low-copper diet to a fructose diet with copper or a starch diet with or without copper improved the copper deficiency symptoms which changed in concert with tissue sorbitol levels.

  12. Polyol specificity of recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana sorbitol dehydrogenase studied by enzyme kinetics and in silico modeling

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, M. Francisca; Cáceres, Juan Carlos; Fuentealba, Matías; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Stange, Claudia; Cabrera, Ricardo; Handford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Polyols are enzymatically-produced plant compounds which can act as compatible solutes during periods of abiotic stress. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, E. C. 1.1.1.14) from Arabidopsis thaliana L. sorbitol dehydrogenase (AtSDH) is capable of oxidizing several polyols including sorbitol, ribitol, and xylitol. In the present study, enzymatic assays using recombinant AtSDH demonstrated a higher specificity constant for xylitol compared to sorbitol and ribitol, all of which are C2 (S) and C4 (R) polyols. Enzyme activity was reduced by preincubation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, indicating a requirement for zinc ions. In humans, it has been proposed that sorbitol becomes part of a pentahedric coordination sphere of the catalytic zinc during the reaction mechanism. In order to determine the validity of this pentahedric coordination model in a plant SDH, homology modeling, and Molecular Dynamics simulations of AtSDH ternary complexes with the three polyols were performed using crystal structures of human and Bemisia argentifolii (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) SDHs as scaffolds. The results indicate that the differences in interaction with structural water molecules correlate very well with the observed enzymatic parameters, validate the proposed pentahedric coordination of the catalytic zinc ion in a plant SDH, and provide an explanation for why AtSDH shows a preference for polyols with a chirality of C2 (S) and C4 (R). PMID:25755662

  13. Compliance with Xylitol and Sorbitol Chewing Gum Regimens in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    BRETZ, WALTER A.; ROSA, ODILA P. S.; SILVA, SALETE M. B.; CORBY, PATRICIA M. A.; MILANDA, MARCELO; LOESCHE, WALTER J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance of long-term xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens in adult women participating in a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Design The participants included 122 mothers (age range: 16–35 years) residing in the city of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Compliance with the xylitol and sorbitol chewing gum regimens was assessed by weighing, with a precision balance, all used gums returned in zip-lock bags during the study period of 33 months. The total number of returned bags in both chewing gum groups was computed and the differences between groups were determined by one-way ANOVA. Compliance was further categorized into excellent, good, fair or poor based on the distribution of the combined data for both groups by quartiles. These distributions for the xylitol and sorbitol groups were subjected to chi-square analysis. Results Compliance was always superior for the xylitol group in all categories. These distributions were, however, not significantly different in statistical terms. Average compliance in the xylitol chewing gum group was significantly higher when compared to the sorbitol chewing gum group (p=0.0481). Conclusions The results suggest that compliance, and possibly acceptance in this population, was superior for xylitol chewing gum than for sorbitol chewing gum. PMID:22241940

  14. Water in a Soft Confinement: Structure of Water in Amorphous Sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Shalaev, Evgenyi; Soper, Alan K

    2016-07-28

    The structure of water in 70 wt % sorbitol-30 wt % water mixture is investigated by wide-angle neutron scattering (WANS) as a function of temperature. WANS data are analyzed using empirical potential structure refinement to obtain the site-site radial distribution functions (RDFs). Orientational structure of water is represented using OW-OW-OW triangles distributions and a tetrahedrality parameter, q, while water-water correlation function is used to estimate size of water clusters. Water structure in the sorbitol matrix is compared with that of water confined in nanopores of MCM41. The results indicate the existence of voids in the sorbitol matrix with the length scale of approximately 5 Å, which are filled by water. At 298 K, positional water structure in these voids is similar to that of water in MCM41, whereas there is a difference in the tetrahedral (orientational) arrangement. Cooling to 213 K strengthens tetrahedrality, with the orientational order of water in sorbitol becoming similar to that of confined water in MCM41 at 210 K, whereas further cooling to 100 K does not introduce any additional changes in the tetrahedrality. The results obtained allow us to propose, for the first time, that such confinement of water in a sorbitol matrix is the main reason for the lack of ice formation in this system. PMID:27379700

  15. Bioethanol production from mannitol by a newly isolated bacterium, Enterobacter sp. JMP3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Kim, Young Mi; Rhee, Hong Soon; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-05-01

    In this study a new bacterium capable of growing on brown seaweed Laminaria japonica, Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was isolated from the gut of turban shell, Batillus cornutus. In anaerobic condition, it produced high yields of ethanol (1.15 mol-EtOH mol-mannitol(-1)) as well as organic acids from mannitol, the major carbohydrate component of L. japonica. Based on carbon distribution and metabolic flux analysis, it was revealed that mannitol was more favorable than glucose for ethanol production due to their different redox states. This indicates that L. japonica is one of the promising feedstock for bioethanol production. Additionally, the mannitol dehydrogenation pathway in Enterobacter sp. JMP3 was examined and verified. Finally, an attempt was made to explore the possibility of controlling ethanol production by altering the redox potential via addition of external NADH in mannitol fermentation. PMID:23186687

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  17. Mannitol Enhances Antibiotic Sensitivity of Persister Bacteria in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Barraud, Nicolas; Buson, Alberto; Jarolimek, Wolfgang; Rice, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of antibiotic therapies to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the key mortality factor for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, is partly attributed to the high tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Mannitol has previously been found to restore aminoglycoside sensitivity in Escherichia coli by generating a proton-motive force (PMF), suggesting a potential new strategy to improve antibiotic therapy and reduce disease progression in CF. Here, we used the commonly prescribed aminoglycoside tobramycin to select for P. aeruginosa persister cells during biofilm growth. Incubation with mannitol (10–40 mM) increased tobramycin sensitivity of persister cells up to 1,000-fold. Addition of mannitol to pre-grown biofilms was able to revert the persister phenotype and improve the efficacy of tobramycin. This effect was blocked by the addition of a PMF inhibitor or in a P. aeruginosa mutant strain unable to metabolise mannitol. Addition of glucose and NaCl at high osmolarity also improved the efficacy of tobramycin although to a lesser extent compared to mannitol. Therefore, the primary effect of mannitol in reverting biofilm associated persister cells appears to be an active, physiological response, associated with a minor contribution of osmotic stress. Mannitol was tested against clinically relevant strains, showing that biofilms containing a subpopulation of persister cells are better killed in the presence of mannitol, but a clinical strain with a high resistance to tobramycin was not affected by mannitol. Overall, these results suggest that in addition to improvements in lung function by facilitating mucus clearance in CF, mannitol also affects antibiotic sensitivity in biofilms and does so through an active, physiological response. PMID:24349568

  18. An isocratic HPLC method for the determination of sorbitol and glycerol in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Simonzadeh, Ninus; Ronsen, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    Sorbitol and glycerol, along with other inactive ingredients such as preservatives and dyes, are commonly used in various pharmaceutical and personal care products. To accurately assess the effectiveness of various formulations containing sorbitol and/or glycerol, their quantitative determination is essential. In the current study, two types of detectors (a Varian evaporative light scattering detector and an Agilent ultraviolet-visible detector) are evaluated for the assay of working sample solutions. The two detection techniques are complimentary, and a comparison of the results obtained using the two detectors is presented here. The current method is shown to be stability-indicating and free from interference from any of the formulation excipients and potential degradation products. The method is reproducible, accurate, sensitive and selective. It provides enhanced detection sensitivity for sorbitol and comparable sensitivity for glycerol versus similar methods reported in the literature that utilize a refractive index detector for the analysis of either of the two polyols. PMID:22565491

  19. Comparison of 3% sorbitol vs psyllium fibre as oral contrast agents in MR enterography

    PubMed Central

    Saini, S; Colak, E; Anthwal, S; Vlachou, P A; Raikhlin, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the degree of small bowel distension achieved by 3% sorbitol, a high osmolarity solution, and a psyllium-based bulk fibre as oral contrast agents (OCAs) in MR enterography (MRE). Methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. A total of 45 consecutive normal MRE examinations (sorbitol, n = 20; psyllium, n = 25) were reviewed. The patients received either 1.5 l of 3% sorbitol or 2 l of 1.6 g kg−1 psyllium prior to imaging. Quantitative small bowel distension measurements were taken in five segments: proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum, distal ileum and terminal ileum by two independent radiologists. Distension in these five segments was also qualitatively graded from 0 (very poor) to 4 (excellent) by two additional independent radiologists. Statistical analysis comparing the groups and assessing agreement included intraclass coefficients, Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Small bowel distension was not significantly different in any of the five small bowel segments between the use of sorbitol and psyllium as OCAs in both the qualitative (p = 0.338–0.908) and quantitative assessments (p = 0.083–0.856). The mean bowel distension achieved was 20.1 ± 2.2 mm for sorbitol and 19.8 ± 2.5 mm for psyllium (p = 0.722). Visualization of the ileum was good or excellent in 65% of the examinations in both groups. Conclusion: Sorbitol and psyllium are not significantly different at distending the small bowel and both may be used as OCAs for MRE studies. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to directly compare the degree of distension in MRE between these two common, readily available and inexpensive OCAs. PMID:25062448

  20. Virulence of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 sorbitol-positive mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Fratamico, P M; Buchanan, R L; Cooke, P H

    1993-01-01

    Virulence and pathogenicity of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 sorbitol-positive mutant were investigated with an infant rabbit animal model as well as a battery of in vitro assays. Total cell lysate protein profiles, outer membrane protein profiles, plasmid profiles, and levels of cytotoxic activity against Vero cells were similar in the wild-type and mutant strains. Both adhered to intestinal epithelial cells in culture and reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antiserum against E. coli O157:H7. The mutant appeared to be similar to the wild type in all respects except in its ability to ferment sorbitol. [14C]sorbitol uptake and sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were notably increased in the mutant strain. Diarrhea developed in rabbits administered the wild-type strain and in those fed the sorbitol-positive mutant. There was greater bacterial attachment and mucosal damage in the cecum and large intestine than in the small intestine. Scanning electron microscopy revealed bacteria adhering as single cells and as aggregates closely associated with mucus. Mucosal lesions consisted of areas of tissue necrosis with sloughing of epithelial cells. By transmission electron microscopy, electron-dense necrotic epithelial cells were visible in areas where bacteria were present, and epithelial cell debris containing bacteria was observed between the villar luminal surfaces. Light microscopy of epithelial cells of intestinal sections of infected rabbits revealed noticeable vacuolation and spherical, pyknotic nuclei. These data indicate that the sorbitol-negative phenotype is not associated with the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7. Images PMID:8285715

  1. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  2. Mannitol-1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (MtlD) Is Required for Mannitol and Glucitol Assimilation in Bacillus subtilis: Possible Cooperation of mtl and gut Operons

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shouji; Hamano, Miyuki; Kakeshita, Hiroshi; Bunai, Keigo; Tojo, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Hirotake; Fujita, Yasutaro; Wong, Sui-Lam; Yamane, Kunio

    2003-01-01

    We found that mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MtlD), a component of the mannitol-specific phosphotransferase system, is required for glucitol assimilation in addition to GutR, GutB, and GutP in Bacillus subtilis. Northern hybridization of total RNA and microarray studies of RNA from cells cultured on glucose, mannitol, and glucitol indicated that mannitol as the sole carbon source induced hyperexpression of the mtl operon, whereas glucitol induced both mtl and gut operons. The B. subtilis mtl operon consists of mtlA (encoding enzyme IICBAmt1) and mtlD, and its transcriptional regulator gene, mtlR, is located 14.4 kb downstream from the mtl operon on the chromosome. The mtlA, mtlD, and mtlR mutants disrupted by the introduction of the pMUTin derivatives MTLAd, MTLDd, and MTLRd, respectively, could not grow normally on either mannitol or glucitol. However, the growth of MTLAd on glucitol was enhanced by IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside). This mutant has an IPTG-inducible promoter (Pspac promoter) located in mtlA, and this site corresponds to the upstream region of mtlD. Insertion mutants of mtlD harboring the chloramphenicol resistance gene also could not grow on either mannitol or glucitol. In contrast, an insertion mutant of mtlA could grow on glucitol but not on mannitol in the presence or absence of IPTG. MtlR bound to the promoter region of the mtl operon but not to a DNA fragment containing the gut promoter region. PMID:12897001

  3. [Comparative analysis of dependence of saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Morenkova, S A

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of determination of sorbitol and fructosamine in saliva has been studied in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes. The dependence of these metabolites levels in saliva on blood glucose level was demonstrated. It is concluded that saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels measurements may be used as diagnostic tests in diabetes and serve as indicators of efficacy of therapy in diabetes. PMID:15707277

  4. Cloning, sequencing and partial characterisation of sorbitol transporter (srlT) gene encoding phosphotransferase system, glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998.

    PubMed

    Qazi, P H; Johri, S; Verma, V; Khan, L; Qazi, G N

    2004-09-01

    A DNA fragment of approximately 1500 bp, harbouring the sorbitol transport gene (srlT), was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of Erwinia herbicola ATCC 21998 by PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli JM109. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers used were designed based on the conserved regions in the gene sequences within the gut operon of E. coli (Gene Bank accession no. J02708) and the srl operon of Erwinia amylovora (Gene Bank accession no. Y14603). The cloned DNA fragment was sequenced and found to contain an open reading frame of 1473 nucleotides coding for a protein of 491 amino acids, corresponding to a mass of 52410 Da. The nucleotide sequence of this ORF was highly homologous to that of the gutA gene of Escherichia coli gut operon, the srlE gene of Shigella flexrni and the sorbitol transporter gene sequence of Escherichia coli K12 (Gene Bank accession nos. J02708, AE016987 and D90892 respectively). The protein sequence showed significant homology to that of the phosphotransferase system i.e. the glucitol/sorbitol-specific IIBC components of Escherichia coli and Erwinia amylovora (P56580, O32522). The cloned DNA fragment was introduced into a pRA90 vector and the recombinant was used for developing srlT mutants of Erwinia herbicola, by homologous recombination. Mutants obtained were unable to grow on minimal medium with sorbitol. The insertion of the pRA90 vector inside the srlT gene sequence of the mutants was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridisation. PMID:15560368

  5. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    PubMed Central

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd). Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behavior were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle. PMID:23717316

  6. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brassica oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (AbMpd). Knockout mutants deficient for AbMdh or AbMpd and a double mutant lacking both enzyme activities were constructed. Their capacity to cope with various oxidative and drought stresses and their pathogenic behavior were evaluated. Metabolic and gene expression profiling indicated an increase in mannitol production during plant infection. Depending on the mutants, distinct pathogenic processes, such as leaf and silique colonization, sporulation, survival on seeds, were impaired by comparison to the wild-type. This pathogenic alteration could be partly explained by the differential susceptibilities of mutants to oxidative and drought stresses. These results highlight the importance of mannitol metabolism with respect to the ability of A. brassicicola to efficiently accomplish key steps of its pathogenic life cycle. PMID:23717316

  7. Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants by targeting mannitol biosynthesis to chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.; Jensen, R.G.; Bohnert, H.J.

    1997-04-01

    To investigate the potential role of a polyol, mannitol, in oxidative stress protection, a bacterial mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was targeted to chloroplasts by the addition of an aminoterminal transit peptide. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines accumulate mannitol at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 7 {mu}mol/g fresh weight. Line BS1-31 accumulated approximately 100 mm mannitol in chloroplasts and was identical to the wild type in phenotype and photosynthetic performance. The presence of mannitol in chloroplasts resulted in an increased resistance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress, documented by the increased retention of chlorophyll in transgenic leaf tissue following MV treatment. In the presence of MV, isolated mesophyll cells of BS1-31 exhibited higher CO{sub 2} fixation than the wild type. When the hydroxyl radical probe dimethyl sulfoxide was introduced into cells, the initial formation rate of methane sulfinic acid was significantly lower in cells containing mannitol in the chloroplast compartment than in wild-type cells, indicating an increased hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity in BS1-31 tobacco. We suggest that the chloroplast location of mannitol can supplement endogenous radical-scavenging mechanisms and reduce oxidative damage of cells by hydroxyl radicals. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Engineered mannitol as an alternative carrier to enhance deep lung penetration of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Momin, Mohammed N; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-09-01

    In this research mannitol particles were prepared by recrystallisation using non-solvent precipitation technique to investigate the effect of engineered carrier particles on their physicochemical properties and the in vitro deposition profiles of a model drug (salbutamol sulphate (SS)) from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). To this end, mannitol aqueous solution (15%, w/v) was added to different ratios of ethanol:water (100:0, 95:5, 90:10 and 85:15) to obtain mannitol particles. These crystallised mannitol particles were analysed in terms of micromeritic properties, morphology, DSC, FT-IR, and in vitro fine particle fraction (FPF) and emitted dose (ED) of SS. The results showed that the elongation ratio of all the recrystallised mannitol batches was higher than the original material giving them a needle-shaped morphology. Salbutamol sulphate deposition profiles from DPI formulation containing recrystallised needle-shaped mannitol showed enhanced performance and better delivery to the lower MSLI stages. The FPF increased from 15.4+/-1.1 to 45.8+/-0.7% when the commercial mannitol was replaced by mannitol crystallised from ethanol:water (90:10). This improvement could be due to the presence of elongated mannitol crystals in formulation blends. Solid state characterisation of engineered mannitol showed that the commercial mannitol was beta-form, mannitol recrystallised from ethanol:water (85:15) was alpha-form and that samples recrystallised in presence of pure ethanol or other ratios of ethanol:water (95:5 and 90:10) were the mixtures of alpha-, beta- and delta-forms. Multi-solvent recrystallisation technique was proved to have potential to produce mannitol crystals suitable for enhanced aerosolisation efficiency. Comparing different crystallised mannitol formulations showed that the final form (the type of polymorph) of the crystallised mannitol does not have a substantial effect on salbutamol sulphate aerosolisation performance. PMID:20537870

  9. Dietary mannitol increased the absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Sakaguchi, E; Min, X; Kawasaki, K

    2016-08-01

    The effect of mannitol on bone-related mineral absorption and retention and the mechanism was investigated in this study. Fourteen 8-week-old male Wistar rats in experiment 1 and same number and age cecectomized Wistar male rats in experiment 2 were divided into two subgroups of seven animals, respectively, fed diets containing 0 or 4% mannitol for 28 days. Mineral balance tests were determined twice during days 8-12 and days 22-26, and the rats were slaughtered on day 28 both in experiment 1 and experiment 2. The whole caecum and colon were collected with the content to analyse tissue weight, content weight, content's pH and moisture, organic acids' concentration and mineral levels. In experiment 1, Ca absorption and retention and Mg absorption were significantly increased by mannitol feeding during days 8-12. Caecal total weight, tissue weight and content weight were increased, the pH of caecum and colon was reduced, and the concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were modified by mannitol feeding. In experiment 2, during days 8-12 and days 22-26, Ca absorption and retention were significantly lowered by mannitol feeding in cecectomized rats; however, mannitol feeding decreased Mg absorption during days 8-12, but did not impact Mg retention. Colonic total weight, tissue weight and content weight were significantly increased, and colonic pH was reduced by mannitol feeding. In conclusion, dietary mannitol increased the absorption of Ca and Mg and the caecum markedly contributed to this promoting effect of mannitol. PMID:26849275

  10. Rapid conversion of sorbitol to isosorbide in hydrophobic ionic liquids under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Murata, Kengo; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Okagawa, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kaiso, Kouji; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol was effectively converted to isosorbide by treatment with [TMPA][NTf2 ] in the presence of catalytic amounts of TsOH under microwave heating at 180 °C. The reaction completed within 10 min and isosorbide was isolated to about 60%. Ionic liquids were readily recovered by an extraction treatment and reused several times. PMID:25223397

  11. Identification of the Operon for the Sorbitol (Glucitol) Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, David A.; Thevenot, Tracy; Gumbmann, Markus; Honeyman, Allen L.; Hamilton, Ian R.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis and marker rescue were used to isolate and identify an 8.5-kb contiguous region containing six open reading frames constituting the operon for the sorbitol P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) of Streptococcus mutans LT11. The first gene, srlD, codes for sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, followed downstream by srlR, coding for a transcriptional regulator; srlM, coding for a putative activator; and the srlA, srlE, and srlB genes, coding for the EIIC, EIIBC, and EIIA components of the sorbitol PTS, respectively. Among all sorbitol PTS operons characterized to date, the srlD gene is found after the genes coding for the EII components; thus, the location of the gene in S. mutans is unique. The SrlR protein is similar to several transcriptional regulators found in Bacillus spp. that contain PTS regulator domains (J. Stülke, M. Arnaud, G. Rapoport, and I. Martin-Verstraete, Mol. Microbiol. 28:865–874, 1998), and its gene overlaps the srlM gene by 1 bp. The arrangement of these two regulatory genes is unique, having not been reported for other bacteria. PMID:10639465

  12. Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Penicillium echinulatum in Submerged Media Containing Cellulose Amended with Sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    Todero Ritter, Carla Eliana; Camassola, Marli; Zampieri, Denise; Silveira, Mauricio Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of sorbitol as a soluble carbon source, in association with cellulose, to produce cellulases and xylanases in submerged cultures of Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1. Because cellulose is an insoluble carbon source, in cellulase production, there are some problems with rheology and oxygen transfer. The submerged fermentations containing media composed of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% (w/v) sorbitol and cellulose that were added at different times during the cultivation; 0.2% (w/v) soy bran; 0.1% (w/v) wheat bran; and a solution of salts. The highest filter paper activity (FPA) (1.95  ±  0.04 IU·mL−1) was obtained on the seventh day in the medium containing 0.5% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.5% (w/v) cellulose added 24 h after the start of cultivation. However, the CMCases showed an activity peak on the sixth day (9.99 ± 0.75 IU·mL−1) in the medium containing 0.75% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.75% (w/v) cellulose added after 12 h of cultivation. The xylanases showed the highest activity in the medium with 0.75% (w/v) sorbitol and 0.25% (w/v) cellulose added 36 h after the start of cultivation. This strategy enables the reduction of the cellulose concentration, which in high concentrations can cause rheological and oxygen transfer problems. PMID:24058733

  13. Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E; Castillo, Ramon; Lazo, Rocio

    2005-01-01

    Background Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program. Methods Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT), powder and evaporated) were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 years). Each group evaluated xylitol and sorbitol in one type of milk. In the first phase, each child was presented with a tray of four plastic cups containing 50 ml of milk with 0.021 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml sorbitol or no sugar. Each child was asked to taste the samples in a self-selected order. After tasting each sample, the child placed the milk cup in front of one of three cartoon faces (smile, frown or neutral) representing the child's response to the taste of each sample. In the second phase, the child was asked to rank order the milk samples within each category (smile, frown or neutral). Ranks within categories were then combined to obtain a rank ordering for all the test samples. Results The ranking from best to worst for the samples across categories (UHT, powder, evaporated) was xylitol (0.0.042 g/ml), sorbitol (0.042 g/ml), xylitol (0.021 g/ml) and milk alone (Friedman's ANOVA). Xylitol and sorbitol were preferred over milk alone, and xylitol (0.042 g/ml) was preferred to sorbitol (0.042 g/ml)(p < .05 sign test). Conclusion Milk sweetened with xylitol is well accepted by Peruvian children ages 4–7 years. PMID:16042782

  14. Kinetic study of mannitol production using cashew apple juice as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Cláudia P M L; Honorato, Talita L; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2009-06-01

    The use of agriculture excess as substrate in industrial fermentations became an interesting alternative to reduce production costs and to reduce negative environmental impact caused by the disposal of these products. In this work, a kinetic study of mannitol production using cashew apple juice as substrate was studied. The carbohydrates of cashew apple juice are glucose and fructose. Sucrose addition favored the yield of mannitol (85%) at the expense of lower productivity. The best results were obtained applying only cashew apple juice as substrate, containing 50 g L(-1) of total reducing sugar (28 g L(-1) of fructose), yielding 18 g L(-1) of mannitol with 67% of fructose conversion into mannitol and productivity of 1.8 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:18853193

  15. Characterization of mannitol in Curvularia protuberata hyphae by FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Isenor, Merrill; Kaminsky, Susan G.W.; Redman, S.; Gough, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy were used to characterize the composition of Curvularia protuberata hyphae, and to compare a strain isolated from plants inhabiting geothermal soils with a non-geothermal isolate. Thermal IR source images of hyphae have been acquired with a 64 × 64 element focal plane array detector; single point IR spectra have been obtained with synchrotron source light. In some C. protuberata hyphae, we have discovered the spectral signature of crystalline mannitol, a fungal polyol with complex protective roles. With FTIR-FPA imaging, we have determined that the protein content in cells remains fairly constant throughout the length of a hypha, whereas the mannitol is found at discrete, irregular locations. This is the first direct observation of mannitol in intact fungal hyphae. Since the concentration of mannitol in cells varies with respect to position and is not present in all hyphae, this discovery may be related to habitat adaptation, fungal structure and growth stages.

  16. Characterization of mannitol in Curvularia protuberata hyphae by FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isenor, M.; Kaminskyj, S.G.W.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Redman, R.S.; Gough, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy were used to characterize the composition of Curvularia protuberata hyphae, and to compare a strain isolated from plants inhabiting geothermal soils with a non-geothermal isolate. Thermal IR source images of hyphae have been acquired with a 64 ?? 64 element focal plane array detector; single point IR spectra have been obtained with synchrotron source light. In some C. protuberata hyphae, we have discovered the spectral signature of crystalline mannitol, a fungal polyol with complex protective roles. With FTIR-FPA imaging, we have determined that the protein content in cells remains fairly constant throughout the length of a hypha, whereas the mannitol is found at discrete, irregular locations. This is the first direct observation of mannitol in intact fungal hyphae. Since the concentration of mannitol in cells varies with respect to position and is not present in all hyphae, this discovery may be related to habitat adaptation, fungal structure and growth stages. ?? 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  18. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  19. The utility of the mannitol challenge in the assessment of chronic cough: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Singapuri, Amisha; McKenna, Susan; Brightling, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for more objective outcome measures for chronic cough. In this pilot study we sought to investigate the utility of the mannitol challenge as a cough-provocation test in non-asthmatic chronic cough. We studied 16 healthy controls and 13 subjects with chronic cough. We assessed cough severity using a visual analogue score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, health status using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and the dose of mannitol to cause 2 (C2) or 5 (C5) coughs. In all of the subjects with chronic cough and 6 of the controls we assessed the 1-week repeatability of the mannitol challenge. We found that in those subjects with chronic cough the geometric mean (logSEM) mannitol C2 and C5 was heightened compared to controls (C2: 4 (0.2) versus 16 (0.1); p = 0.04 and C5: 63 (0.1) versus 251 (0.1); p = 0.04). Cough visual analogue score, capsacin-induced cough sensitivity and health status were also altered in chronic cough compared to healthy controls, but in those subjects with chronic cough none of these outcomes was correlated with the mannitol C2 or C5. The repeatability of the mannitol challenge assessed by intraclass correlation was C2 = 0.53 and C5 = 0.59. A cut-off in the dose of mannitol of 62 mg/ml for C2 and 550 mg/ml for C5 had a sensitivity of 69 and 62% and specificity of 69 and 81% respectively to distinguish chronic coughers from healthy controls. In conclusion, the mannitol challenge my have potential as a novel cough challenge test and further work is required to extend our findings and to assess whether it has utility in different causes of chronic cough. PMID:19017380

  20. The utility of the mannitol challenge in the assessment of chronic cough: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Singapuri, Amisha; McKenna, Susan; Brightling, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for more objective outcome measures for chronic cough. In this pilot study we sought to investigate the utility of the mannitol challenge as a cough-provocation test in non-asthmatic chronic cough. We studied 16 healthy controls and 13 subjects with chronic cough. We assessed cough severity using a visual analogue score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, health status using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and the dose of mannitol to cause 2 (C2) or 5 (C5) coughs. In all of the subjects with chronic cough and 6 of the controls we assessed the 1-week repeatability of the mannitol challenge. We found that in those subjects with chronic cough the geometric mean (logSEM) mannitol C2 and C5 was heightened compared to controls (C2: 4 (0.2) versus 16 (0.1); p = 0.04 and C5: 63 (0.1) versus 251 (0.1); p = 0.04). Cough visual analogue score, capsacin-induced cough sensitivity and health status were also altered in chronic cough compared to healthy controls, but in those subjects with chronic cough none of these outcomes was correlated with the mannitol C2 or C5. The repeatability of the mannitol challenge assessed by intraclass correlation was C2 = 0.53 and C5 = 0.59. A cut-off in the dose of mannitol of 62 mg/ml for C2 and 550 mg/ml for C5 had a sensitivity of 69 and 62% and specificity of 69 and 81% respectively to distinguish chronic coughers from healthy controls. In conclusion, the mannitol challenge my have potential as a novel cough challenge test and further work is required to extend our findings and to assess whether it has utility in different causes of chronic cough. PMID:19017380

  1. Ciguatera and mannitol: in vivo and in vitro assessment in mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Hoy, A W; Sellin, M

    1993-08-01

    Mannitol (1 g/kg i.v.) is currently the treatment of choice for acute ciguatera, but confirmation of this treatment's apparent efficacy awaits further experimental or controlled clinical evidence. In mice, mannitol (1 g/kg i.v.) administered before or after i.p. ciguatoxin did not influence the signs of intoxication or the time to death. The effects of oral ciguatoxin differed from those following i.p. ciguatoxin, but again i.v. mannitol provided no detectable benefit. Development of hypothermia was rapid in mice receiving i.p. or oral ciguatoxin and was unaffected by i.v. mannitol. A sublethal i.p. dose of ciguatoxin initially retarded (day 0-4) but then accelerated (day 4-12) the growth of mice. Mannitol (i.v.) had no influence on these effects of ciguatoxin on the growth of mice. Ciguatoxin inhibited responses of isolated diaphragms to nerve stimulation (ED50 = 9 x 10(-11) M), while directly stimulated diaphragms were inhibited by five-fold higher concentrations. Mannitol (50 mM) added to the organ bath did not influence the ciguatoxin-induced inhibition of diaphragm responses to nerve stimulation in vitro. Responses of isolated diaphragm to nerve stimulation were normal in preparations removed from ciguatoxin-treated mice displaying pronounced dyspnoea (gasping). However, responses to nerve stimulation were reduced in preparations removed from mice immediately following death from ciguatoxin. Mannitol (i.v.) partially protected the phrenic nerve-diaphragm from this effect of ciguatoxin in vivo. We conclude that the lethal effects of ciguatoxin in mice probably stem from a central action, and suggest that species differences may account for the absence of any marked beneficial effect of i.v. mannitol in the mouse model for ciguatera in humans. PMID:8212042

  2. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to mannitol, airway inflammation and Asthma Control Test in atopic asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Consilvio, Nicola P.; Rapino, Daniele; Nicola, Marta Di; Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Cingolani, Anna; Petrosino, Marianna I.; Filippo, Paola Di; Pillo, Sabrina Di; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol and bronchial inflammation measured as exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to assess whether asthma control correlates with AHR to mannitol and FeNO in atopic asthmatic children. Material and methods Allergy evaluation, the mannitol challenge test, FeNO levels and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) questionnaire were assessed in 40 children with intermittent and mild persistent allergic asthma. Results All the subjects showed positive AHR to mannitol. Pearson's correlation test revealed a significant inverse correlation between AHR (mannitol PD15) and FeNO (p = 0.020). There was also a significant positive correlation between ACT and PD15 (p = 0.020) and a significant negative correlation between ACT and FeNO levels (p = 0.003). The study population was divided into two groups according to FeNO levels (group A ≥ 16 ppb vs. group B < 16 ppb). In group A mannitol PD15 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and ACT score values were significantly lower (p = 0.001) compared to group B. In group A, the ACT showed that 13.3% of subjects had well-controlled asthma, 80% had partially controlled asthma and 6.7% had uncontrolled asthma. In group B, the ACT showed that 72% of subjects had well-controlled asthma and 28% had partially controlled asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the degree of AHR to mannitol correlates with the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatic atopic children; moreover, better control of asthma correlates with a lower degree of AHR to both mannitol and FeNO. PMID:26925129

  3. Mannitol or hypertonic saline in the setting of traumatic brain injury: What have we learned?

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Myles Dustin; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Robinson, Timothy Matthew; Chen, Clark C.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracranial hypertension, defined as an intracranial pressure (ICP) >20 mmHg for a period of more than 5 min, worsens neurologic outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). While several mechanisms contribute to poor outcome, impaired cerebral perfusion appears to be a highly significant common denominator. Management guidelines from the Brain Trauma Foundation recommend measuring ICP to guide therapy. In particular, hyperosmolar therapy, which includes mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS), is frequently administered to reduce ICP. Currently, mannitol (20%) is considered the gold standard hyperosmolar agent. However, HTS is increasingly used in this setting. This review sought to compare the efficacy of mannitol to HTS in severe TBI. Methods: The PubMed database was used to systematically search for articles comparing mannitol to HTS in severe TBI. The following medical subject headings were used: HTS, sodium lactate, mannitol, ICP, intracranial hypertension, and TBI. We included both prospective and retrospective randomized controlled studies of adult patients with intracranial hypertension as a result of severe TBI who received hyperosmolar therapy. Results: Out of 45 articles, seven articles were included in our review: 5 were prospective, randomized trials; one was a prospective, nonrandomized trial; and one was a retrospective, cohort study. Conclusions: While all seven studies found that both mannitol and HTS were effective in reducing ICP, there was heterogeneity with regard to which agent was most efficacious. PMID:26673517

  4. The Merits of Mannitol in the Repair of Orbital Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyung Jin; Lee, Dong Geun; Park, Hyun Min; Choi, Mi Young; Bae, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main concerns in orbital blowout fracture repair is a narrow operation field, due mainly to the innate complex three dimensions of the orbit; however, a deep location and extensive area of the fracture and soft tissue edema can also cause concern. Swelling of the orbital contents progresses as the operation continues. Mannitol has been used empirically in glaucoma, cerebral hemorrhage, and orbital compartment syndrome for decompression. The authors adopted mannitol for the control of intraorbital edema and pressure in orbital blowout fracture repair. Methods This prospective study included 108 consecutive patients who were treated for a pure blowout fracture from January 2007 to October 2012. For group I, mannitol was administered during the operation. Under general anesthesia, all patients underwent surgery by open reduction and insertion of an absorbable mesh implant. The authors compared postoperative complications, the reoperation rate, operation time, and surgical field improvement between the two groups. Results In patients who received intraoperative administration of mannitol, the reoperation rate and operation time were decreased; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The total postoperative complication rates did not differ. Panel assessment for the intraoperative surgical field video recordings showed significantly improved vision in group I. Conclusions For six years, mannitol proved itself an effective, reliable, and safe adjunctive drug in the repair of orbital blowout fractures. With its rapid onset and short duration of action, mannitol could be one of the best methods for obtaining a wider surgical field in blowout fracture defects. PMID:24286045

  5. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration. PMID:27423546

  6. Stereochemical course of the reactions catalyzed by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: Mannitol phosphotransferase system

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, E.G.; Knowles, J.R. ); Khandekar, S.S.; Jacobson, G.R. )

    1990-07-24

    The authors have determined the overall stereochemical course of the reactions leading to the phosphorylation of D-mannitol by mannitol-specific enzyme II (EII{sup Mtl}) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate- (PEP) dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the presence of enzyme I and HPr of the PTS, and of membranes containing EII{sup Mtl}, the phospho group from ((R)-{sup 16}O, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O)PEP was transferred to D-mannitol to form mannitol 1-phosphate with overall inversion of the configuration at phosphorus with respect to that of PEP. Since in the course of these reactions enzyme I and HPr are each covalently phosphorylated at a single site and inversion of the chiral phospho group from PEP indicates an odd number of transfer steps overall, transfer from phospho-HPr to mannitol via EII{sup Mtl} must also occur in an odd number of steps. Taken together with the fact that catalytically important phospho-EII{sup Mtl} intermediates have been demonstrated biochemically, the results imply that EII{sup Mtl} is sequentially phosphorylated at two different sites during phospho transfer from phospho-HPr to mannitol. This conclusion is consistent with the available evidence on phospho-EII{sup Mtl} intermediates and in particular with the recent report that two different phospho peptides can be isolated from the fully phosphorylated protein.

  7. Functional Characterization of the Mannitol Promoter of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 and Its Application for a Mannitol-Inducible Expression System for Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jana; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    A new pBBR1MCS-2-derived vector containing the Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM10506 mannitol promoter PmtlE and mtlR encoding its AraC/XylS type transcriptional activator was constructed and optimized for low basal expression. Mannitol, arabitol, and glucitol-inducible gene expression was demonstrated with Pseudomonas putida and eGFP as reporter gene. The new vector was applied for functional characterization of PmtlE. Identification of the DNA binding site of MtlR was achieved by in vivo eGFP measurement with PmtlE wild type and mutants thereof. Moreover, purified MtlR was applied for detailed in vitro investigations using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNaseI footprinting experiments. The obtained data suggest that MtlR binds to PmtlE as a dimer. The proposed DNA binding site of MtlR is AGTGC-N5-AGTAT-N7-AGTGC-N5-AGGAT. The transcription activation mechanism includes two binding sites with different binding affinities, a strong upstream binding site and a weaker downstream binding site. The presence of the weak downstream binding site was shown to be necessary to sustain mannitol-inducibility of PmtlE. Two possible functions of mannitol are discussed; the effector might stabilize binding of the second monomer to the downstream half site or promote transcription activation by inducing a conformational change of the regulator that influences the contact to the RNA polymerase. PMID:26207762

  8. Functional Characterization of the Mannitol Promoter of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 and Its Application for a Mannitol-Inducible Expression System for Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jana; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    A new pBBR1MCS-2-derived vector containing the Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM10506 mannitol promoter PmtlE and mtlR encoding its AraC/XylS type transcriptional activator was constructed and optimized for low basal expression. Mannitol, arabitol, and glucitol-inducible gene expression was demonstrated with Pseudomonas putida and eGFP as reporter gene. The new vector was applied for functional characterization of PmtlE. Identification of the DNA binding site of MtlR was achieved by in vivo eGFP measurement with PmtlE wild type and mutants thereof. Moreover, purified MtlR was applied for detailed in vitro investigations using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNaseI footprinting experiments. The obtained data suggest that MtlR binds to PmtlE as a dimer. The proposed DNA binding site of MtlR is AGTGC-N5-AGTAT-N7-AGTGC-N5-AGGAT. The transcription activation mechanism includes two binding sites with different binding affinities, a strong upstream binding site and a weaker downstream binding site. The presence of the weak downstream binding site was shown to be necessary to sustain mannitol-inducibility of PmtlE. Two possible functions of mannitol are discussed; the effector might stabilize binding of the second monomer to the downstream half site or promote transcription activation by inducing a conformational change of the regulator that influences the contact to the RNA polymerase. PMID:26207762

  9. Retention of Polyphenolic Species in Spray-Dried Blackberry Extract Using Mannitol as a Thermoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Joshua A.; Repko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of these studies was to determine if a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi Corporation, New Castle, DE, USA) could be used to prepare blackberry extract powders containing mannitol as a thermoprotectant without extensively degrading anthocyanins and polyphenols in the resulting powders. Three blackberry puree extract samples were each prepared by sonication of puree in 30/70% ethanol/water containing 0.003% HCl. Blackberry puree extract sample 1 (S1) contained no mannitol, while blackberry puree extract sample 2 (S2) contained 3.0:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract, and blackberry puree extract sample 3 (S3) contained 6.3:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract. The levels of anthocyanins and polyphenols in reconstituted spray-dried powders produced from S1–S3 were compared to solutions of S1–S3 that were held at 4°C as controls. All extract samples could be spray-dried using the Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290. S1, with no mannitol, showed a 30.8% decrease in anthocyanins and a 24.1% decrease in polyphenols following spray-drying. However, S2 had a reduction in anthocyanins of only 13.8%, while polyphenols were reduced by only 6.1%. S3, with a ratio of mannitol to berry extract of 6.3:1, exhibited a 12.5% decrease in anthocyanins while the decrease in polyphenols after spray-drying was not statistically significant (P=.16). Collectively, these data indicate that a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 is a suitable platform for producing stable berry extract powders, and that mannitol is a suitable thermoprotectant that facilitates retention of thermosensitive polyphenolic species in berry extracts during spray-drying. PMID:24892214

  10. A pharmacokinetic and clinical evaluation of iron poly (sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B C; Lawrence, J R; Sumner, D J; Kelman, A; Smith, A; Elliott, H L; Goldberg, A

    1980-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of iron poly (sorbitol-gluconic acid) complex (IPSG) were studied following a single intramuscular injection of 59Fe-labelled IPSG to 4 iron deficient-patients. The results showed a more rapid uptake of iron from the site of injection than that reported with iron dextran while there was a lower urinary excretion than found with iron sorbitol citrate. A clinical study was carried out in 11 patients with iron deficiency anaemia. Patients were allocated at random to receive IPSG as either 250 mg or 500 mg elemental iron per week for 8 weeks. A satisfactory response to therapy was obtained with each regimen whether measured by an increase in haemoglobin concentration or in serum ferritin concentration. Few side-effects were encountered but discomfort and staining at the injection site was found on the higher dose schedule. PMID:7208542

  11. Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko; Honkala, Eino; Saag, Mare; Kennepohl, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm), dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S. mutans, decreased expression of bacterial genes involved in sucrose metabolism, reduced the overall number of dental caries, and served as a suitable matrix for subgingival air-polishing to replace traditional root scaling. Conclusions. Important differences were reported in the effect of individual polyols on oral health. The current review provides evidence demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health.

  12. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the tetrameric form of SorC sorbitol operon regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sanctis, Daniele de; Rêgo, Ana T.; Marçal, David; McVey, Colin E.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Enguita, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    The sorbitol operon regulator from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å. The sorbitol operon regulator (SorC) regulates the metabolism of l-sorbose in Klebsiella pneumonia. SorC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and crystals were obtained of a tetrameric form. A single crystal showed X-ray diffraction to 3.20 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 113.3, c = 184.1 Å. Analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates the presence of four SorC molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  13. Reversible lactic acidosis associated with repeated intravenous infusions of sorbitol and ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Batstone, G. F.; Alberti, K. G.; Dewar, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Infusions of fructose or sorbitol are used commonly in parenteral nutrition and may cause lactic acidosis. A case is reported in whom blood lactate concentration was monitored frequently over a 5-day period during intravenous feeding with a sorbitol-ethanol-amino acid mixture. During the first five infusions blood lactate rose only moderately, but with the final infusion lactate rose to 11-1 mmol/l and the patient had a severe metabolic acidosis. In retrospect the patient had shown deterioration in renal and hepatic function tests during the preceding 24 hr. On terminating the infusions the blood lactate concentration fell rapidly. It is suggested that great care should be exercised when using such infusions in ill patients and acid base status and renal and hepatic function should be monitored frequently. PMID:22069

  14. Effect of chewing gums with xylitol, sorbitol and xylitol-sorbitol on the remineralization and hardness of initial enamel lesions in situ

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Duygu; Önen, Alev; Yazici, A. Rüya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three chewing gums and paraffin on the remineralization and the hardness of demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 subjects wore intraoral palatal appliances with two demineralized bovine enamel slabs. The study consisted of four experimental periods each lasting 21-days, during which subjects were assigned to one of three gum-chewing regimens: gum containing sorbitol, xylitol and a mixture of sorbitol and xylitol and with paraffin as control. The appliances were worn during gum-chewing for 20 min and then retained for 20 min 4 times/day. The slabs were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and surface microhardness measurements before in setting into the appliance and after the experimental period. The data were subjected to analysis of variance for repeated measures. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mineral analysis revealed no significant difference between the baseline and after chewing periods for all groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was found among the groups either for the baseline measurements or after chewing periods (P > 0.05). All groups showed higher microhardness values after the chewing periods than the baseline except for the Vivident Xylit group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The chewing of gum had no effect on the Ca/P ratio of demineralized enamel surfaces. The hardening of the demineralized enamel surfaces may vary according to the type of chewing gum. PMID:25426142

  15. Use of fructose, xylitol, or sorbitol as a sweetener in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brunzell, J D

    1978-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been utilized in the diet of diabetic patients an an agent to replace glucose and sucrose. Since saccharin might be removed from the marketplace, the nutritive sweeteners fructose, xylitol, and sorbitol are being considered as possible alternatives for glucose and sucrose. This review considers the effects of these nutritive sweeteners on the main dietary concerns in the diabetic diet--control of blood glucose levels, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The potential side effects of these agents are also reviewed. PMID:400132

  16. Sorbitol accumulation in male and female rats consuming starch or fructose diets with or without copper

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M.; Beal, T. )

    1989-02-09

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the sex of the rats, tissue sorbitol accumulation and copper deficiency in rats consuming dietary fructose. Rats were provided with a diet containing either 62.7% fructose or starch, and either 6.0 or 0.6 {mu}g copper/g for three weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of all rats consuming the copper-deficient diets was about 40% of copper sufficient rats. Hepatic, renal and thymic sorbitol concentrations were significantly elevated in males consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups regardless of the sex of the rat. Hepatic, renal the thymic fructose concentrations were significantly higher in rats eating fructose as compared to female rats. Hepatic glucose concentration was higher in males and females consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups. Renal glucose concentration was elevated in males as compared to females. These results demonstrate that the pathology and complications of copper deficiency in the male rat consuming fructose closely parallel aberration in tissue sorbitol accumulation.

  17. Pt nanocatalysts supported on reduced graphene oxide for selective conversion of cellulose or cellobiose to sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Niu, Wenqi; Tan, Minghui; Wu, Mingbo; Zheng, Xuejun; Li, Yanpeng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2014-05-01

    Pt nanocatalysts loaded on reduced graphene oxide (Pt/RGO) were prepared by means of a convenient microwave-assisted reduction approach with ethylene glycol as reductant. The conversion of cellulose or cellobiose into sorbitol was used as an application reaction to investigate their catalytic performance. Various metal nanocatalysts loaded on RGO were compared and RGO-supported Pt exhibited the highest catalytic activity with 91.5 % of sorbitol yield from cellobiose. The catalytic performances of Pt nanocatalysts supported on different carbon materials or on silica support were also compared. The results showed that RGO was the best catalyst support, and the yield of sorbitol was as high as 91.5 % from cellobiose and 58.9 % from cellulose, respectively. The improvement of catalytic activity was attributed to the appropriate Pt particle size and hydrogen spillover effect of Pt/RGO catalyst. Interestingly, the size and dispersion of supported Pt particles could be easily regulated by convenient adjustment of the microwave heating temperature. The catalytic performance was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing particle size. The optimum Pt particle size was 3.6 nm. These findings may offer useful guidelines for designing novel catalysts with beneficial catalytic performance for biomass conversion. PMID:24648252

  18. Subcellular localization and vacuolar targeting of sorbitol dehydrogenase in apple seed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Zi-Ying; You, Chun-Xiang; Kong, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Pu

    2013-09-01

    Sorbitol is the primary photosynthate and translocated carbohydrate in fruit trees of the Rosaceae family. NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), which mainly catalyzes the oxidation of sorbitol to fructose, plays a key role in regulating sink strength in apple. In this study, we found that apple NAD-SDH was ubiquitously distributed in epidermis, parenchyma, and vascular bundle in developing cotyledon. NAD-SDH was localized in the cytosol, the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles, and the vacuolar lumen in the cotyledon at the middle stage of seed development. In contrast, NAD-SDH was mainly distributed in the protein storage vacuoles in cotyledon at the late stage of seed development. Sequence analysis revealed there is a putative signal peptide (SP), also being predicated to be a transmembrane domain, in the middle of proteins of apple NAD-SDH isoforms. To investigate whether the putative internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of NAD-SDH, we analyzed the localization of the SP-deletion mutants of MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 (two NAD-SDH isoforms in apple) by the transient expression system in Arabidopsis protoplasts. MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 were not localized in the vacuoles after their SPs were deleted, suggesting the internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of apple NAD-SDH. PMID:23849111

  19. Sorbitol determination by liquid chromatography: application to red blood cells of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, H; Yamanouchi, T; Ono, H; Nomura, K; Akanuma, Y

    1985-02-01

    This report describes an application of liquid chromatography to the determination of sorbitol in red blood cells. The chromatograph employed in the present study was made up of sub- and main-separation systems and a detector portion. The sub-separation system was for concentration of polyols and involved two small columns, each containing the same anion exchange resin. The first was a tiny column which, in borate form, served as the concentrator of polyols and sugars charged in a large volume, while the second, in acetate form, separated the carbohydrates from the borate. The main system was for the fine separation of each carbohydrate and employed cation exchange columns. The detector part utilized a flow fluorometric method comprising two successive reactions: periodate oxidation followed by the Hantzsch reaction. The resulting whole chromatographic system was applied to the determination of sorbitol in red blood cells obtained from normal rats and rats made diabetic by the administration of streptozotocin; a part of the latter group had also received an aldose reductase inhibitor. Our results supported the concepts that a prolonged duration of high blood glucose level induces an elevated level of sorbitol inside red blood cells and that aldose reductase inhibitors are effective in reducing this level. PMID:3924905

  20. Effect of Xylitol on Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Presence of Fructose and Sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Sammalkivi, Laura; Ikäheimo, Irma; Koskela, Markku; Uhari, Matti

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol is effective in preventing acute otitis media by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To clarify this inhibition we used fructose, which is known to block similar growth inhibition observed in Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of sorbitol in inhibiting the growth of pneumococci, as sorbitol is widely used for indications similar to those for which xylitol is used. The addition of 5% xylitol to the growth medium resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally eliminated in the presence of 1, 2.5, or 5% fructose but not in the presence of 1 or 5% glucose, 1% galactose, or 1% sucrose. This finding implies that xylitol-induced inhibition of pneumococcal growth is mediated via the fructose phosphotransferase system in a way similar to that in which mutans group streptococcal growth is inhibited. The addition of sorbitol at concentrations of 1, 2.5, or 5% to the growth medium did not affect the growth of pneumococci and neither inhibited nor enhanced the xylitol-induced growth impairment. Thus, it seems that xylitol is the only commercially used sugar substitute proven to have an antimicrobial effect on pneumococci. PMID:11120960

  1. The influence of sorbitol on the production of cellulases and xylanases in an airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Carla Eliana Todero; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Camassola, Marli; da Silveira, Maurício Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-11-01

    The production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum in an airlift bioreactor was evaluated. In batch production, we tested media with isolated or associated cellulose and sorbitol. In fed-batch production, we tested cellulose addition at two different times, 30 h and 48 h. Higher liquid circulation velocities in the downcomer were observed in sorbitol 10 g L(-1) medium. In batch production, higher FPA (filter paper activity) and endoglucanase activities were obtained with cellulose (7.5 g L(-1)) and sorbitol (2.5 g L(-1)), 1.0 U mL(-1) (120 h) and 6.4 U m L(-1) (100 h), respectively. For xylanases, the best production condition was cellulose 10 g L(-1), which achieved 5.5 U mL(-1) in 64 h. The fed-batch process was favorable for obtaining xylanases, but not for FPA and endoglucanases, suggesting that in the case of cellulases, the inducer must be added early in the process. PMID:24045195

  2. Unexpected benefit of sorbitol placebo in Mg intervention study of premenstrual symptoms: implications for choice of placebo in RCTs.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ann F; De Souza, M C; Marakis, G; Robinson, P A; Morris, A P; Bolland, K M

    2002-03-01

    We carried out a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of 85 women, designed to investigate the dose-response of daily Mg supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Each woman took one of four treatments: Mg (200, 350 or 500 mg/day) or sorbitol (placebo) for 2 months. This was followed by a washout of 1 month, and then each woman received one of the three remaining treatments for a further 2 months. Unexpectedly, sorbitol (1305 mg) reduced anxiety-related and total premenstrual symptoms after 2 months compared with Mg treatments (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). We conclude that low-dose sorbitol reduces premenstrual symptoms beyond that expected of a placebo. After 2 months of treatment, sorbitol also reduced urinary Mg excretion compared to baseline (no intervention) and Mg treatments (P=0.005). A follow-up study on 17 healthy volunteers confirmed lack of effect on urinary Mg output of a similar sorbitol intervention regime compared with either baseline or cellulose placebo. It appears that sorbitol may influence Mg homeostasis in women suffering premenstrual symptoms, but not in healthy individuals. Implications for placebo choice in RCTs are discussed. PMID:12018972

  3. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:26076968

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  5. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph; however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties. PMID:26553127

  6. Overexpression of bacterial mtlD gene in peanut improves drought tolerance through accumulation of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated. PMID:25436223

  7. Overexpression of Bacterial mtlD Gene in Peanut Improves Drought Tolerance through Accumulation of Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated. PMID:25436223

  8. Differentiation and quantitative determination of surface and hydrate water in lyophilized mannitol using NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjin; Mao, Chen; Chen, Wendy; Lin, Hong; Krishnan, Sampathkumar; Cauchon, Nina

    2006-09-01

    Mannitol hydrate is a metastable form produced during lyophilization. It is unstable, and therefore can undergo dehydration to release water to the surrounding environment at room temperature. The analysis of this form is challenging due to its thermodynamic instability. This study describes the development of a fast and non-invasive method to determine the mannitol hydrate and surface water content in a lyophilized product using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The mannitol hydrate was produced through lyophilization and characterized using XRPD, TGA, and NIR spectroscopy. Quantitative methods for hydrate and surface water were developed for NIR spectra with curve fitting and partial least square (PLS) regression models. The curve fitting method deconvoluted the NIR spectra into hydrate and surface water peaks and generated a calibration model by correlating pure spectra peak area to concentration. The standard error of prediction (SEP) for hydrate and surface water content were 0.65 and 0.40%, respectively. The PLS model developed for the same sample set was better than the curve fitting model; SEP = 0.50% for hydrate water and 0.22% for surface water, respectively. The methods can be used to monitor the formation and stability of mannitol hydrate in mannitol-containing formulations during the lyophilization process. PMID:16850397

  9. The Mannitol Operon Repressor MTIR belongs to a new class of transcription regulators in bacteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Borovilos, M.; Zhou, M; Horer, S; Clancy, S; Moy, S; Volkart, LL; Sassoon, J; Baumann, U; Joachimiak, A

    2009-12-25

    Many bacteria express phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The mannitol-specific PTS catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of d-mannitol. The uptake system comprises several genes encoded in the single operon. The expression of the mannitol operon is regulated by a proposed transcriptional factor, mannitol operon repressor (MtlR) that was first studied in Escherichia coli. Here we report the first crystal structures of MtlR from Vibrio parahemeolyticus (Vp-MtlR) and its homolog YggD protein from Shigella flexneri (Sf-YggD). MtlR and YggD belong to the same protein family (Pfam05068). Although Vp-MtlR and Sf-YggD share low sequence identity (22%), their overall structures are very similar, representing a novel all {alpha}-helical fold, and indicate similar function. However, their lack of any known DNA-binding structural motifs and their unfavorable electrostatic properties imply that MtlR/YggD are unlikely to bind a specific DNA operator directly as proposed earlier. This structural observation is further corroborated by in vitro DNA-binding studies of E. coli MtlR (Ec-MtlR), which detected no interaction of Ec-MtlR with the well characterized mannitol operator/promoter region. Therefore, MtlR/YggD belongs to a new class of transcription factors in bacteria that may regulate gene expression indirectly as a part of a larger transcriptional complex.

  10. Roll compaction of mannitol: compactability study of crystalline and spray-dried grades.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carl Moritz; Pein, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-10

    Purpose of this project was to investigate the roll compaction behavior of various mannitol grades. Therefore, five spray-dried grades as well as unprocessed β-d-mannitol were roll compacted with different compaction forces. The resulting granules were characterized with regard to their particle size distribution, flow properties, and BET surface area and compressed to tablets. Granules of unprocessed mannitol, even when applying high compaction forces during dry granulation, were characterized by a high amount of fines (about 21%), a small surface area (0.83 m(2)/g), and solely fair flowability (ffc=7.2). Tablets revealed either high friability or insufficient disintegration behavior. However, the use of spray-dried mannitol led to better results. Granules showed improved flow properties and a reduced amount of fines. Robust tablets with low friability were produced. Within the various spray-dried grades huge differences concerning the compactability were observed. Large BET surface areas of the granules resulted in advanced tensile strengths of the tablets, but acceptable disintegration behavior was maintained. These findings are relevant for the development of mannitol based drug formulations, in particular (oro)dispersible tablets containing a low dose or poor flowing active pharmaceutical ingredient, where direct compression is inappropriate and a granulation process prior to tableting is mandatory. PMID:23742975

  11. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Koner, Jasdip S; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph; however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties. PMID:26553127

  12. A Holistic Multi Evidence Approach to Study the Fragmentation Behaviour of Crystalline Mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Jasdip S.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Bowen, James; Perrie, Yvonne; Kirby, Daniel; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is an essential excipient employed in orally disintegrating tablets due to its high palatability. However its fundamental disadvantage is its fragmentation during direct compression, producing mechanically weak tablets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the fracture behaviour of crystalline mannitol in relation to the energy input during direct compression, utilising ball milling as the method of energy input, whilst assessing tablet characteristics of post-milled powders. Results indicated that crystalline mannitol fractured at the hydrophilic (011) plane, as observed through SEM, alongside a reduction in dispersive surface energy. Disintegration times of post-milled tablets were reduced due to the exposure of the hydrophilic plane, whilst more robust tablets were produced. This was shown through higher tablet hardness and increased plastic deformation profiles of the post-milled powders, as observed with a lower yield pressure through an out-of-die Heckel analysis. Evaluation of crystal state using x-ray diffraction/differential scanning calorimetry showed that mannitol predominantly retained the β-polymorph however x-ray diffraction provided a novel method to calculate energy input into the powders during ball milling. It can be concluded that particle size reduction is a pragmatic strategy to overcome the current limitation of mannitol fragmentation and provide improvements in tablet properties.

  13. Physical properties and dissolution behaviour of nifedipine/mannitol solid dispersions prepared by hot melt method.

    PubMed

    Zajc, Natalija; Obreza, Ales; Bele, Marjan; Srcic, Stane

    2005-03-01

    Solid dispersions of nifedipine (NIF) with mannitol in preparations containing 10 and 50% (w/w) of drug were manufactured by the hot melt method. Physical properties and the dissolution behaviour of binary systems as physical mixtures and solid dispersions were investigated. In all samples, the crystal structure of NIF was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed, there was no interaction between drug and carrier, however, FTIR spectra indicated formation of thermodynamically less stable polymorph of mannitol. The dissolution rate of NIF from solid dispersions was markedly enhanced, the effect being stronger at higher drug loading (50%, w/w, NIF). The dissolution rate enhancement was attributed to improved wetting of NIF crystals due to mannitol particles, attached on the surface, as inspected by means of SEM. Thermal stability of NIF, mannitol and two other potential carbohydrate carriers (lactose and saccharose) during the hot melt procedure was investigated using 1H NMR. NIF was found to be thermically stable under conditions applied. As expected, among carriers only mannitol demonstrated suitable resistance to high temperature used in experiments. PMID:15707731

  14. Improvement in Myocardial Function and Coronary Blood Flow in Ischemic Myocardium after Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, James T.; Powell, Wm. John; Guiney, Timothy E.; Stark, James J.; Sanders, Charles A.; Leaf, Alexander

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperosmolality on the performance of, and the collateral blood flow to, ischemic myocardium. The myocardial response to mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent which remains extracellular, was evaluated in anesthetized dogs. Mannitol was infused into the aortic roots of 31 isovolumic hearts and of 15 dogs on right heart bypass, before and during ischemia. Myocardial ischemia was produced by temporary ligation of either the proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery. Mannitol significantly improved the depressed ventricular function curves which occurred with left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Mannitol also significantly lessened the S-T segment elevation (epicardial electrocardiogram) occurring during myocardial ischemia in the isovolumic hearts and this reduction was associated with significant increases in total coronary blood flow (P < 0.005) and with increased collateral coronary blood flow to the ischemia area (P < 0.005). Thus, increases in serum osmolality produced by mannitol result in the following beneficial changes during myocardial ischemia: (a) improved myocardial function, (b) reduced S-T segment elevation, (c) increased total coronary blood flow, and (d) increased collateral coronary blood flow. PMID:4640943

  15. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  16. The effect of mannitol on renal function after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with established renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, M N A; Best, D; Sheppard, S V; Smith, D C

    2008-07-01

    The usefulness of mannitol in the priming fluid for cardiopulmonary bypass is uncertain in patients with normal renal function, and has not been studied in patients with established renal dysfunction. We studied 50 patients with serum creatinine between 130 and 250 micromol.l(-1) having cardiac surgery. Patients were randomised to receive mannitol 0.5 g.kg(-1), or an equivalent volume of Hartmann's solution, in the bypass prime. There were no differences between the groups in plasma creatinine or change in creatinine from baseline, urine output, or fluid balance over the first three postoperative days. We conclude that mannitol has no effect on routine measures of renal function during cardiac surgery in patients with established renal dysfunction. PMID:18582254

  17. The 5 A projection structure of the transmembrane domain of the mannitol transporter enzyme II.

    PubMed

    Koning, R I; Keegstra, W; Oostergetel, G T; Schuurman-Wolters, G; Robillard, G T; Brisson, A

    1999-04-16

    The uptake of mannitol in Escherichia coli is controlled by the phosphoenolpyruvate dependent phosphotransferase system. Enzyme II mannitol (EIIMtl) is part of the phosphotransferase system and consists of three covalently bound domains. IICMtl, the integral membrane domain of EIIMtl, is responsible for mannitol transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. In order to understand this molecular process, two-dimensional crystals of IICMtl were grown by reconstitution into lipid bilayers and their structure was investigated by cryo-electron crystallography. The IICMtl crystals obey p22121 symmetry and have a unit cell of 125 Ax65 A, gamma=90 degrees. A projection structure was determined at 5 A resolution using both electron images and electron diffractograms. The unit cell contains two IICMtl dimers with a size of about 40 Ax90 A, which are oriented up and down in the crystal. Each monomer exhibits six domains of high density which most likely correspond to transmembrane alpha-helices and cytoplasmic loops. PMID:10222194

  18. Stability of gabexate mesilate products: Influence of the addition of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Miyuki; Abe, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Noboru; Inoue, Yohei; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Kenji; Uchida, Takahiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Gabexate mesilate is a non-peptide protease inhibitor, developed in Japan, which is used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. This compound is readily hydrolyzed as it has ester bonds in its structure. It is now out of patent in Japan and there are many generic versions on the market. The crystal structure and the hydrolysate content of the branded product and nine generic versions were evaluated by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis and HPLC. The results showed that generic products containing mannitol as an additive had a higher content of hydrolysate as an impurity than the branded product or generic products formulated without mannitol, suggesting that the crystal structure might be altered and stability impaired in mannitol-containing drug products. PMID:20448300

  19. Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria grown in supplemented carob syrup.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Moniz, Patrícia; Duarte, Luís C; Esteves, M Paula; Gírio, Francisco M

    2011-01-01

    Detailed kinetic and physiological characterisation of eight mannitol-producing lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc citreum ATCC 49370, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris ATCC19254, L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum ATCC 19255, L. ficulneum NRRL B-23447, L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, L. lactis ATCC 19256, Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL 3692 and Lb. reuteri DSM 20016, was performed using a carob-based culture medium, to evaluate their different metabolic capabilities. Cultures were thoroughly followed for 30 h to evaluate consumption of sugars, as well as production of biomass and metabolites. All strains produced mannitol at high yields (>0.70 g mannitol/g fructose) and volumetric productivities (>1.31 g/l h), and consumed fructose and glucose simultaneously, but fructose assimilation rate was always higher. The results obtained enable the studied strains to be divided mainly into two groups: one for which glucose assimilation rates were below 0.78 g/l h (strains ATCC 49370, ATCC 19256 and ATCC 19254) and the other for which they ranged between 1.41 and 1.89 g/l h (strains NRRL B-3692, NRRL B-2041, NRRL B-23447 and DSM 20016). These groups also exhibited different mannitol production rates and yields, being higher for the strains with faster glucose assimilation. Besides mannitol, all strains also produced lactic acid and acetic acid. The best performance was obtained for L. fructosum NRRL B-2041, with maximum volumetric productivity of 2.36 g/l h and the highest yield, stoichiometric conversion of fructose to mannitol. PMID:20820868

  20. Engineered mannitol ternary additives improve dispersion of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhalations.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of novel engineered fine mannitol particles (4.7%, w/w) on the performance of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations to obtain promising aerosolisation properties. The results showed that the more elongated the fine mannitol particles, the weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the better the drug content homogeneity, the higher the amount of drug expected to be delivered to the lower airways and the higher the total DPI formulation desirability. Linear relationships were established showing that mannitol particles with a more elongated shape generated powders with broader size distributions and that were less uniform in shape. The weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the higher the fine particle fraction of the drug is upon aerosolisation. It is believed that more elongated fine mannitol particles reduce the number of drug-carrier and drug-drug physical contact points and increase the ability of the drug particles to travel into the lower airways. Additionally, a lower drug-carrier contact area, lower drug-carrier press-on forces and easier drug-carrier detachment are suggested in the case of formulations containing more elongated fine mannitol particles. Ternary 'drug-coarse carrier-elongated fine ternary component' DPI formulations were more favourable than both 'drug-coarse carrier' and 'drug-elongated coarse carrier' binary formulations. This study provides a comprehensive approach for formulators to overcome the undesirable properties of dry powder inhalers, as both improved aerosolisation performance and reasonable flow characteristics were obtained using only a small amount of elongated engineered fine mannitol particles. PMID:23591748

  1. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1 h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11β-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11β-PGF(2α) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. PMID:20696561

  2. Simultaneous determination of glucose, 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol and related sugar alcohols in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with benzoic acid derivatization.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Masatoki; Matsuda, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoru; Ishikawa, Hiromichi

    2006-05-01

    A new, simple and sensitive pre-column high-performance chromatographic method for the determination of diabetes marker d-glucose, 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol and related compounds is reported. Sugars (d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, sucrose and arabinose) were derivatized with benzoic acid (BA) at 80 degrees C for 60 min. l-Fucose, fructose, d-lactose, l-rhamnose, arabinose and ascorbic acid were not reacted. Sugar alcohols (xylitol, erythritol, mannitol, sorbitol myo-inositol) were also derivatized with BA at 80 degrees C for 60 min. The fluorescence derivatives were separated on a TSK amide 80 column (4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm, 5 microm) with acetonitrile-50 mm acetate buffer (pH 5.6; 4:96, v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength of beizoic acid derivatives was lambda(ex) 275 nm and lambda(em) 315 nm. The detection limits of sugars were 10-80 microg/mL. The calibration graphs were linear up to 10 mg/mL. The relative standard deviations of 500 microg/mL sugars were 7.0-7.3%. The proposed method was compared with the enzymatic photometric glucose analysis method (Glucose B-Test II Wako). The correlation coefficient was 0.83 (n = 20) and y = 0.82x + 5.91, where y and x are concentrations in microg/mL obtained by the proposed pre-column HPLC and enzyme-photometric method, respectively. The detection limits of sugar alcohols were 100-1000 ng/mL. The calibration graphs were linear to 50 microg/mL and relative standard deviations of 10 microg/mL were 7.2-8.2%. The 1,5-AG data by the proposed method was also compared with the enzymatic photometric 1,5-AG analysis method (Rana AG 1,5-AG determination kit, Nihon Kayaku) and good correlation (r = 0.91, n = 20) was also obtained. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of d-glucose, 1,5-AG and related sugar alcohols in serum from healthy males. PMID:16161184

  3. Improved tabletability after a polymorphic transition of delta-mannitol during twin screw granulation.

    PubMed

    Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, B; Peeters, E; De Beer, T; Remon, J-P; Vervaet, C

    2016-06-15

    In most formulations processed via continuous twin screw granulation microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and/or lactose are used as excipients, but mannitol is also a preferred excipient for wet granulation and tableting due to its non-hygroscopicity and inertness. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of process parameters on critical quality attributes of granules (moisture content, solid state, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area, friability, flowability and hygroscopicity) and tablets (tensile strength and friability) after twin screw granulation of δ-mannitol. The δ-polymorph was selected since a moisture-induced transformation to β-mannitol was observed during batch wet granulation, which exhibited a unique morphology with a large surface area and improved tabletability. A full factorial experimental design was performed, varying screw speed (400-900rpm), granulation temperature (25-40°C), number of kneading elements (6 or 12) and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, on the granulation unit of a ConsiGma™-25 line (a continuous powder-to-tablet manufacturing system). After tray drying the granules were milled and tableted. The results showed that the polymorphic transition from δ- to β-mannitol also occurred during twin screw granulation, although the residence time and L/S ratios were much lower in continuous twin screw granulation compared to batch processing. However, the polymorphic transition was not complete in all experiments and depended on the L/S ratio, screw speed and number of kneading elements. Nevertheless all granules exhibited the unique morphology linked to the polymorphic transition and had a superior tabletability compared to granules produced with β-mannitol as starting material. This was attributed to enhanced plastic deformation of the granules manufactured using δ-mannitol as starting material. In addition, it was concluded that mannitol was granulated via a different mechanism than

  4. Effects of pH and Corn Steep Liquor Variability on Mannitol Production by Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693 produce mannitol, lactic acid, and acetic acid when grown on fructose at 37 deg C. The optimal pH for mannitol production from fructose by the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (LAB) in pH controlled fermentation was at pH 5.0. It produced 160.7±1.1 g m...

  5. Partitioning and transport of the translocates mannitol and sucrose in the light and dark in celery (Apium Graveolens L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Loescher, W.H.

    1987-04-01

    Sucrose and mannitol are major photosynthetic products and translocates in celery. Assimilate partitioning and transport were studied by pulse-labeling leaves with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ followed by different length chases in ambient air. After a 2 h chase in the light there was more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol in source leaves and their petioles. In contrast after a 2 h dark chase leaves contained more /sup 14/C in mannitol than sucrose but petioles had more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol. After a 15 h chase (6 h light; 9 h dark) labeled sucrose was higher in source petiole vascular bundles than in adjacent parenchyma tissue but label in glucose and fructose was higher in the parenchyma tissue. After the 15 h chase most of the /sup 14/C remaining in developing sink leaves and their petioles was in mannitol. Although in the light mannitol:sucrose ratios are the same in leaf and petiole tissues, in the dark sucrose is initially the major translocate with mannitol becoming more important as leaf sucrose pools are depleted. When synthesized, sucrose is rapidly transported and then metabolized to hexose sugars whereas mannitol is used both for transport and storage.

  6. Effect of Mannitol on Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Amorphous Flavonoids: Implications on the Formation of Nanocrystalline Solid Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Shete, Ganesh; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we studied crystallization kinetics of amorphous hesperetin (HRN) and naringenin (NRN) alone, and in 1:1 proportion with mannitol at Tg + 15 K. Crystallization rate of NRN was found to be significantly higher than HRN. Mannitol accelerated crystallization of HRN as well as NRN. NRN exhibited higher crystallization rate than HRN, in presence of mannitol, as well. Finke-Watzky model was used to deconvolute the crystallization kinetics data into nucleation and crystal growth rate constant. HRN alone had 9.56 × 10(9) times faster nucleation rate and 1.88 times slower crystal growth than NRN alone. Mannitol increased nucleation and crystal growth rate of HRN as well as NRN. In presence of mannitol, HRN possessed 1.34 × 10(10) times faster nucleation rate and 1.70 times slower crystal growth rate than NRN. Differences in crystallization behavior of HRN and NRN were explained by their thermodynamic properties. PMID:26183113

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  8. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  9. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  10. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  11. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  12. Unusual carbon partitioning during phosphate deficiency in celery, a mannitol-synthesizing species

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, R.H.; Loescher, W.H. )

    1989-04-01

    Mannitol and sucrose are the main photosynthetic products and translocated carbon compounds in celery (Apium graveolens L.). Carbon partitioning was studied in greenhouse-grown celery plants supplied with a nutrient solution containing or lacking phosphate (P). P-deficient plants developed new leaves at about the same rate as control plants, but showed greatly reduced growth of leaves and petioles; root growth was apparently unaffected. P-deficient leaves contained less mannitol and more sucrose than control leaves. Starch content increased with P-deficiency only in mature (the most photosynthetically-active) leaves, and then amounted to less than 10 mg/g fresh weight. Similarly, when {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was supplied to intact plants, P-deficient leaves contained less label in mannitol and more in sucrose than did control leaves; labeling of starch changed little. The P-status of celery leaves apparently affects the partitioning of carbon between mannitol and sucrose more than it affects starch accumulation. This is in marked contrast to the large increase in starch content commonly observed during P-deficiency in species that produce and translocate predominantly sucrose.

  13. VOLATILE HALOCARBON PRODUCTION FROM THE CHLORINATION OF MARINE ALGAL BYPRODUCTS, INCLUDING D-MANNITOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of various exudates of marine algae to produce chloroform during solution chlorination was investigated. D-Mannitol generated amounts that increased markedly with increase in pH, whereas glycerol under similar conditions yielded little product. L-Proline exerted an in...

  14. Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...

  15. Mannitol Infusion Within 15 Min of Cross-Clamp Improves Living Donor Kidney Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Peter M.; Cooper, Matthew; Verbesey, Jennifer; Ghasemian, Seyed; Rogalsky, Derek; Moody, Patrick; Chen, Allen; Alexandrov, Peter; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed that cells lining proximal convoluted tubules of living donor kidneys (LDKs) procured by laparoscopic procedures were very swollen in response to the brief period of ischemia experienced between the time of arterial vessel clamping and flushing the excised kidney with cold preservation solution. Damage to the tubules as a result of this cell swelling resulted in varying degrees of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) that slowed the recovery of the donor kidneys during the first 2 weeks after their transplantation. Methods To prevent this cell damage during LDK procurement, we changed the protocol for intravenous administration of mannitol (i.e., 12.5 or 25 g) to the donor. Specifically, we reduced the time of mannitol administration from 30 to 15 min or less before clamping the renal artery. Result OCT revealed that this change in the timing of mannitol administration protected the human donor proximal tubules from normothermic-induced cell swelling. An evaluation of posttransplant recovery of renal function showed that patients treated with this modified protocol returned to normal renal function significantly faster than those treated with mannitol 30 min or more before clamping the renal artery. Conclusion Because slow graft recovery in the first weeks after transplantation represents a risk factor for long-term graft function and survival, we believe that this change in pretreatment protocol will improve renal transplants in patients receiving LDK. PMID:24831920

  16. Quantum chemical density functional theory studies on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Swaminathan, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2015-02-25

    A collective experimental and theoretical study was conducted on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of mannitol. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of mannitol were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, thermodynamic functions and atomic charges of mannitol in the ground state have been calculated by using the ab initio HF (Hartree-Fock) and density functional methods (B3LYP) invoking cc-pVDZ basis set. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of Total Energy Distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes. The UV absorption spectra of the title compound dissolved in water. Natural bond orbital analysis has been carried out to explain the charge transfer or delocalization of charge due to the intra-molecular interactions. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO methods. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) of this novel molecular system and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of mannitol are calculated using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ and HF/cc-pVDZ methods on the finite-field approach. By using TD-DFT calculation, electronic absorption spectra of the title compound have been predicted and a good agreement with experimental one is established. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) have been investigated using theoretical calculations, the calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that the charge transfer within the molecule. PMID:25233034

  17. DETECTION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN WATER USING 14C-MANNITOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of 14C-mannitol (UL) to detect fecal coliforms (FC). implemethod was developed using m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35oC for 2 h, f...

  18. Structure and function of the mannitol permease of the Escherichia coli phosphotransferase sugar transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The mannitol permease, or mannitol enzyme II, is responsible for the phosphorylation and transmembrane transport of the hexitol mannitol via the phosphotransferase sugar transport system (PTS) in Escherichia coli. Neither the detailed molecular mechanisms by which this protein carries out these functions nor its three dimensional structure in the membrane are known. An in vivo selective radiolabeling system was used to study the enzyme's subunits interactions as they related to function, as well as its membrane topography, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intramembrane topography of the mannitol enzyme II was investigated using proteases as probes of enzyme structure in the membrane. The enzyme was found to have two distinct domains, a very hydrophobic, membrane-bound, N-terminal domain, and a relatively hyprophilic C-terminal domain which protrudes into the cytoplasm. The membrane-bound domain was further dissected, and an extra-membrane loop region was identified using peptide-specific antibodies. The cytoplasmic domain was found to contain a site of covalent phosphorylation using (/sup 32/p)-labeled PEP, as well as the binding site for the phosphodonor HPr.

  19. On the thermal properties of aqueous solution of D-mannitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Bama, G.; Anitha, R.; Ramachandran, K.

    2010-03-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of aqueous solution of D-mannitol for various concentrations are measured at room temperature by ultrasonics and photoacoustic techniques, which show weak concentration dependence. The present result will be useful as data for further use, as these are rarely reported in literature.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Mannitol-Producing Strain Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573

    PubMed Central

    Bleckwedel, Juliana; Terán, Lucrecia C.; Bonacina, Julieta; Saavedra, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae CRL573, isolated from child fecal samples, efficiently converts fructose and/or sucrose into the low-calorie sugar mannitol when cultured in modified MRS medium at pH 5.0. Also, the strain is capable of producing bacteriocin. The draft genome sequence of this strain with potential industrial applications is presented here. PMID:25502678

  1. Best combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for the rapid conversion of sorbitol to glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Sar, Pintu; Malik, Susanta; Saha, Bidyut

    2014-03-01

    Kinetic data for oxidation of D-sorbitol to glucose by hexavalent chromium in aqueous medium and aqueous surfactant medium (SDS, TX-100) have been reported. Effect of promoter such as PA, bipy and phenanthroline on the reaction has been investigated. The reaction is performed under pseudo first order condition with an excess of substrate over the oxidant. The reaction is first order with respect to substrate and oxidant. The micelles have a catalytic effect on the reaction. Combination of phen and TX-100 produces almost twelve times increase in rate of oxidation.

  2. Role of polyols (erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol) on the structural stabilization of collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usha, R.; Raman, S. Sundar; Subramanian, V.; Ramasami, T.

    2006-10-01

    The effect of erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol on monomeric collagen solution was evaluated with melting temperature, fluorescence studies, conformational stability and binding energy. The emission intensity and the melting temperature increase as the chain length of polyols increases. Circular dichroism (CD) results indicate the possibility of aggregation of collagen in the presence of polyols. The interaction between collagen and polyols were calculated using binding energy, RMS deviation with collagen like models. Molecular mechanics calculations suggest that polyols bind well with collagen models, that have serine in the X position. The stability of collagen decreases as the number of carbon atoms present in the polyols increases.

  3. Standardising the Lactulose Mannitol Test of Gut Permeability to Minimise Error and Promote Comparability

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Ivana R.; Lentle, Roger G.; Kruger, Marlena C.; Hurst, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactulose mannitol ratio tests are clinically useful for assessing disorders characterised by changes in gut permeability and for assessing mixing in the intestinal lumen. Variations between currently used test protocols preclude meaningful comparisons between studies. We determined the optimal sampling period and related this to intestinal residence. Methods Half-hourly lactulose and mannitol urinary excretions were determined over 6 hours in 40 healthy female volunteers after administration of either 600 mg aspirin or placebo, in randomised order at weekly intervals. Gastric and small intestinal transit times were assessed by the SmartPill in 6 subjects from the same population. Half-hourly percentage recoveries of lactulose and mannitol were grouped on a basis of compartment transit time. The rate of increase or decrease of each sugar within each group was explored by simple linear regression to assess the optimal period of sampling. Key Results The between subject standard errors for each half-hourly lactulose and mannitol excretion were lowest, the correlation of the quantity of each sugar excreted with time was optimal and the difference between the two sugars in this temporal relationship maximal during the period from 2½-4 h after ingestion. Half-hourly lactulose excretions were generally increased after dosage with aspirin whilst those of mannitol were unchanged as was the temporal pattern and period of lowest between subject standard error for both sugars. Conclusion The results indicate that between subject variation in the percentage excretion of the two sugars would be minimised and the differences in the temporal patterns of excretion would be maximised if the period of collection of urine used in clinical tests of small intestinal permeability were restricted to 2½-4 h post dosage. This period corresponds to a period when the column of digesta column containing the probes is passing from the small to the large intestine. PMID:24901524

  4. Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Chemical properties and binding of substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, T

    1986-01-01

    Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity, and some chemical and physical properties were examined. The isoelectric point is 4.19. Amino acid analysis and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in presence of SDS indicate a subunit Mr of about 22,000, whereas gel filtration and electrophoresis of the native enzyme indicate an Mr of 45,000. Thus the enzyme is a dimer. Amino acid analysis showed cysteine, tyrosine, histidine and tryptophan to be present in low quantities, one, three, four and four residues per subunit respectively. The zinc content is not significant to activity. The enzyme is inactivated (greater than 99%) by reaction of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) with the single thiol group; the inactivation rate depends hyperbolically on reagent concentration, indicating non-covalent binding of the reagent before covalent modification. The pH-dependence indicated a pKa greater than 10.5 for the thiol group. Coenzymes (NAD+ and NADH) at saturating concentrations protect completely against reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate), and substrates (mannitol 1-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate) protect strongly but not completely. These results suggest that the thiol group is near the catalytic site, and indicate that substrates as well as coenzymes bind to free enzyme. Dissociation constants were determined from these protective effects: 0.6 +/- 0.1 microM for NADH, 0.2 +/- 0.03 mM for NAD+, 9 +/- 3 microM for mannitol 1-phosphate, 0.06 +/- 0.03 mM for fructose 6-phosphate. The binding order for reaction thus may be random for mannitol 1-phosphate oxidation, though ordered for fructose 6-phosphate reduction. Coenzyme and substrate binding in the E X NADH-mannitol 1-phosphate complex is weaker than in the binary complexes, though in the E X NADH+-fructose 6-phosphate complex binding is stronger. PMID:3545182

  5. Mannitol/l-Arginine-Based Formulation Systems for Freeze Drying of Protein Pharmaceuticals: Effect of the l-Arginine Counter Ion and Formulation Composition on the Formulation Properties and the Physical State of Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that protein storage stability in freeze-dried l-arginine-based systems improved in the presence of chloride ions. However, chloride ions reduced the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg') and made freeze drying more challenging. In this study, l-arginine was freeze dried with mannitol to obtain partially crystalline solids that can be freeze dried in a fast process and result in elegant cakes. We characterized the effect of different l-arginine counter ions on physicochemical properties of mannitol compared with mannitol/sucrose systems. Thermal properties of formulations with different compositions were correlated to thermal history during freeze drying and to physicochemical properties (cake appearance, residual moisture, reconstitution time, crystallinity). Partially crystalline solids were obtained even at the highest l-arginine level (mannitol:l-arginine of 2:1) used in this study. All l-arginine-containing formulations yielded elegant cakes. Only cakes containing l-arginine chloride and succinate showed a surface "crust" formed by phase separation. X-ray powder diffraction showed that inhibition of mannitol crystallization was stronger for l-arginine compared with sucrose and varied with the type of l-arginine counter ion. The counter ion affected mannitol polymorphism and higher levels of mannitol hemi-hydrate were obtained at high levels of l-arginine chloride. PMID:27506270

  6. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  7. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  8. Aging of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in the glass-forming liquids sorbitol and xylitol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Employing frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibility of both liquids possesses a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench through the glass transition, the susceptibility slowly approaches the equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, the magnitude of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation displays a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is quantitatively very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak frequency. The Johari-Goldstein relaxation time remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it decreases slightly with age for xylitol. Hence, one cannot sensibly assign a fictive temperature to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation. This behavior contrasts with that of liquids lacking distinct Johari-Goldstein peaks for which the excess wing of the alpha peak tracks the main part of the peak during aging, enabling the assignment of a single fictive temperature to the entire spectrum. The aging behavior of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation time further calls into question the possibility that the relaxation time possesses stronger temperature dependence in equilibrium than is observed in the out-of-equilibrium state below the glass transition.

  9. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents. PMID:26136174

  10. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  11. Comparison of mannitol and methacholine to predict exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and a clinical diagnosis of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sandra D; Charlton, Brett; Weiler, John M; Nichols, Sara; Spector, Sheldon L; Pearlman, David S

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma can be difficult to diagnose, but bronchial provocation with methacholine, exercise or mannitol is helpful when used to identify bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), a key feature of the disease. The utility of these tests in subjects with signs and symptoms of asthma but without a clear diagnosis has not been investigated. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of mannitol to identify exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) as a manifestation of BHR; compared this with methacholine; and compared the sensitivity and specificity of mannitol and methacholine for a clinician diagnosis of asthma. Methods 509 people (6–50 yr) were enrolled, 78% were atopic, median FEV1 92.5% predicted, and a low NAEPPII asthma score of 1.2. Subjects with symptoms of seasonal allergy were excluded. BHR to exercise was defined as a ≥ 10% fall in FEV1 on at least one of two tests, to methacholine a PC20 ≤ 16 mg/ml and to mannitol a 15% fall in FEV1 at ≤ 635 mg or a 10% fall between doses. The clinician diagnosis of asthma was made on examination, history, skin tests, questionnaire and response to exercise but they were blind to the mannitol and methacholine results. Results Mannitol and methacholine were therapeutically equivalent to identify EIB, a clinician diagnosis of asthma, and prevalence of BHR. The sensitivity/specificity of mannitol to identify EIB was 59%/65% and for methacholine it was 56%/69%. The BHR was mild. Mean EIB % fall in FEV1 in subjects positive to exercise was 19%, (SD 9.2), mannitol PD15 158 (CI:129,193) mg, and methacholine PC20 2.1(CI:1.7, 2.6)mg/ml. The prevalence of BHR was the same: for exercise (43.5%), mannitol (44.8%), and methacholine (41.6%) with a test agreement between 62 & 69%. The sensitivity and specificity for a clinician diagnosis of asthma was 56%/73% for mannitol and 51%/75% for methacholine. The sensitivity increased to 73% and 72% for mannitol and methacholine when two exercise tests were positive

  12. Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol < 2-propanol for the monohydric alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ≈ xylitol ≈ meso-erythritol < glycerol < ethylene glycol < methanol for the polyhydric alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration. PMID:24921669

  13. β-(1→3)-Glucan-mannitol conjugates: scope and amazing results

    PubMed Central

    Descroix, Karine; Jamois, Frank; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that β-(1→3)-Glucans present high applicative potential in human health as immunostimulating agents. Numerous studies have highlighted this, but mainly used native polysaccharides extracted from various natural sources. These compounds are therefore inevitably polydisperse but also present structures that are not homogeneous, in an analytical point of view. This is the reason why we have achieved the chemical synthesis of small glucan-mannitol derivatives especially found in brown seaweeds. The targets differ from each other by the nature of the conjunction between the laminaribiose and the mannose or mannitol, i.e., (1→6) or (1→3). We established that (I) these molecules were efficiently obtained from glucose, laminaribiose and/or mannose derivatives; (II) the synthetic plan has to be adapted to the first connection between a glucosyl entity and the mannosyl residue; and (III) resulting pure compounds may be used as the standard for analytical purposes. PMID:25332988

  14. Evaluation of Honey and Rice Syrup as Replacements for Sorbitol in the Production of Restructured Duck Jerky

    PubMed Central

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of natural humectants such as honey and rice syrup to replace sorbitol in the production of restructured duck jerky. Each humectant was mixed at 3%, 6%, and 10% (wt/wt) concentrations with the marinating solution. The values of water activity and the moisture-to-protein ratio of all of the samples were maintained below 0.75. Jerky samples treated with honey retained more moisture than those exposed to other treatments. Among all samples, those treated with 10% sorbitol produced the highest processing yield and the lowest shear force values. The highest L* value and the lowest b* value were observed for the sorbitol-treated sample, followed by the rice syrup- and honey-treated samples. Duck jerky samples treated with 10% honey showed the highest scores for the sensory parameters evaluated. The overall acceptability scores of samples treated with rice syrup were comparable with those of samples treated with sorbitol. Microscopic observation of restructured duck jerky samples treated with honey showed stable forms and smaller pores when compared with other treatments. PMID:26732452

  15. Trehalose and sorbitol alter the kinetic pattern of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase during drying in levitated microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    A single-droplet acoustic levitator was used to determine the drying rate and the kinetics of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of added trehalose or sorbitol. The solution was also spray dried under the same process condition of drying gas temperature on a bench-top machine. Both trehalose and sorbitol delay the point of onset of enzyme inactivation which lies after the critical point of drying. Both carbohydrates also reduce the apparent rate constant of inactivation calculated during the subsequent inactivation phase. The carbohydrates stabilise, therefore, the enzyme during droplet drying and particle formation mainly during the falling rate drying period. There is no difference between the stabilising effects of the two carbohydrates when examined as levitated single droplets. This suggests the importance of water replacement as a stabilising mechanism in the levitated droplets/particles. On spray drying, the trehalose stabilises the enzyme better than does the sorbitol at a drying gas (outlet) temperature of 60°C. This suggests glass formation with the trehalose but not the sorbitol during the very rapid drying process of small-atomised droplets in the spray dryer. PMID:24122651

  16. Whole-bowel irrigation versus activated charcoal in sorbitol for the ingestion of modified-release pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kirshenbaum, L A; Mathews, S C; Sitar, D S; Tenenbein, M

    1989-09-01

    Overdose with modified-release pharmaceuticals is an increasing phenomenon. This study examines whole-bowel irrigation as a potential decontamination strategy after overdose with enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid and compares it with administration of activated charcoal in sorbitol, which is currently the recommended intervention. A three-phase randomized crossover protocol was used in 10 adult volunteers. Each volunteer ingested nine 325 mg doses of enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid on three occasions, with at least 1 week between each administration period. Serum samples were analyzed for salicylic acid concentration by HPLC. Both interventions decreased peak salicylic acid concentration, time-to-zero salicylic acid concentration, and AUC when compared with control (p less than 0.01). Whole-bowel irrigation was superior to activated charcoal in sorbitol by all three criteria (p less than 0.05). Adverse effects were qualitatively and quantitatively greater during activated charcoal in sorbitol, and the volunteers preferred whole-bowel irrigation over charcoal in sorbitol. Our data suggest that whole-bowel irrigation should be considered for overdose of other modified-release pharmaceuticals. PMID:2673619

  17. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  18. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY LACTOBACILLUS INTERMEDIUS NRRL B-3693 IN FED-BATCH AND CONTINUOUS CELL-RECYCLE FERMENTATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved fermentation processes were developed for the production of mannitol by a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B-3693). A fed-batch fermentation protocol overcame limitations caused by high substrate concentrations. The process was developed using prima...

  19. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burshtein, N.; Lang-Yona, N.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a). Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m-3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m-3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m-3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposing.

  20. Ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol as tracers for biogenic aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burshtein, N.; Yona, N. Lang; Rudich, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Aerosols containing biological components can have a significant effect on human health by causing primarily irritation, infection and allergies. Specifically, airborne fungi can cause a wide array of adverse responses in humans depending on the type and quantity present. In this study we used chemical biomarkers for analyzing fungi-containing aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean region during the year 2009 in order to quantify annual fungal abundances. The prime marker for fungi used in this study was ergosterol, and its concentrations were compared with those of mannitol and arabitol, which were recently suggested to also correlate with fungal spores concentrations (Bauer et al., 2008a). Back trajectory analysis, inorganic ions, humidity and temperature were used in an attempt to identify sources as well as the dependence on seasonal and environmental conditions. We found that the ambient concentrations of ergosterol, arabitol and mannitol range between 0 and 2.73 ng m-3, 1.85 and 58.27 ng m-3, 5.57 and 138.03 ng m-3, respectively. The highest levels for all biomarkers were during the autumn, probably from local terrestrial sources, as deduced from the inorganic ions and back trajectory analysis. Significant correlations were observed between arabitol and mannitol during the entire year except for the winter months. Both sugars correlated with ergosterol only during the spring and autumn. We conclude that mannitol and arabitol might not be specific biomarkers for fungi and that the observed correlations during spring and autumn may be attributed to high levels of vegetation during spring blossoms and autumn decomposition.

  1. Mannitol in Amanita muscaria--an osmotic blood-brain barrier disruptor enhancing its hallucinogenic action?

    PubMed

    Maciejczyk, E; Kafarski, P

    2013-11-01

    Hypothesis have been made that relatively high level of mannitol present in the tissues of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) enables more efficient transportation of these active substances into the brain and thus enhance their total activity. It may have been supported by the fact that hallucinogenic effect after A. muscaria consumption is greater than after ingestion of an active substance quantity which the eaten fungi dose contain. PMID:23932733

  2. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and structure analysis of Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Jennifer; Vieille, Claire; Song, Seung H; Fodje, Michel N; Grochulski, Pawel; Delbaere, Louis T J

    2007-04-01

    Diffraction data have been collected from a crystal of Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase at the Canadian Light Source. The crystal diffracted to 3.3 A resolution and belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 83.43, b = 120.61, c = 145.76 A. The structure is likely to be solved by molecular replacement. PMID:17401214

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  6. Preoperative mannitol infusion improves perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation and enhances postoperative recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Wesam F.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi R.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Gameel, Haytham Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effect of preoperative mannitol infusion on perioperative decreased cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Forty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study conducted at Dammam Hospital of the University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2013 to June 2014. Patients received either 0.5 g/kg of 20% intravenous mannitol infusion over 10 minutes before induction of anesthesia (group M), or an equal volume of normal saline instead (group C). Primary outcome variable was rSO2. Other variables included extubation time, clinical assessment of consciousness recovery using the Modified Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S), and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for cognitive evaluation. Results: Anesthesia induction increased rSO2 in both groups. Pneumoperitoneum decreased rSO2 in group C, but not in group M. This drop in rSO2 in the group C reached its maximum 30 minutes after extubation, and was significantly less than the preinduction value. Time to extubation in group M was significantly shorter compared to group C (p=0.007). The OAAS in group M at 10 min after extubation was significantly higher compared to group C. No differences were found between the 2 groups in cognitive function as measured by MMSE score. Conclusion: Preoperative mannitol infusion maintains perioperative rSO2 during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and shortens extubation time with earlier resurgence of OAAS. PMID:26446331

  7. Co-Processed Chitin-Mannitol as a New Excipient for Oro-Dispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Daraghmeh, Nidal; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT). The excipient (Cop–CM) consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w) and produced by roll compaction (RC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were used to characterize Cop–CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop–CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a) for Cop–CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661) than that of mannitol (0.576) due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818). Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop–CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop–CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets. PMID:25830680

  8. The effects of histamine and leukotriene receptor antagonism on nasal mannitol challenge in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel K C; Haggart, Kay; Currie, Graeme P; Anderson, Sandra D; Lipworth, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    Aims It is unclear as to which mediators are involved in mediating the response to nasal mannitol challenge, a novel osmotic stimulus. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design was employed. Nine patients with allergic rhinitis were randomized to receive a single-dose of desloratadine 5 mg, montelukast 10 mg or placebo, and underwent nasal mannitol challenges with nasal peak inspiratory flow recordings over 60 min. The change in peak nasal inspiratory flow was calculated as percentage change from baseline as the peak response and area under the time–response curve (AUC). Results Desloratadine and montelukast conferred a significant degree of protection compared to placebo for peak and AUC response, but there were no significant differences between the two drugs. For the peak response as percentage fall, the mean difference (95% CI) vs placebo was 27.7 (8.0, 47.4)% for desloratadine and 17.6 (1.9, 33.3)% for montelukast. Conclusions Our results suggest that histamine and cysteinyl-leukotrienes are involved in mediating the response to nasal mannitol in allergic rhinitis. PMID:12814463

  9. Analysis of co-spray-dried meloxicam-mannitol systems containing crystalline microcomposites.

    PubMed

    Pomázi, Anita; Ambrus, Rita; Sipos, Péter; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2011-09-10

    The crystal size, form, wettability and rate of dissolution of a drug are factors limiting its nasal or pulmonary administration. The aim of this work was to achieve an ideal crystal habit, good wettability and the rapid release of meloxicam (MEL), a poorly water-soluble non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The structures of MEL and the carrier-based systems were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology were investigated by laser diffraction and SEM analyses. The novelty of this work was the use of a co-spray-drying technique, which resulted in mannitol-based crystalline microcomposites (1-6 μm) containing MEL microcrystals (1-5 μm). The particle size and form of the MEL microcrystals were adjusted by a top-down method. The presence of mannitol (with a MEL:mannitol mass ratio of 1:1) with additives ensured the homogeneous distribution of MEL in the microcomposites with good wettability and rapid release (100% MEL within 5 min). PMID:21652159

  10. Urinary CC16 after challenge with dry air hyperpnoea and mannitol in recreational summer athletes.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Tufvesson, Ellen; Ali, Leena; Bjermer, Leif; Anderson, Sandra D

    2013-12-01

    Airway epithelial injury is regarded as a key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes. The concentration of the pneumoprotein club cell (Clara cell) CC16 in urine has been found to be a non-invasive marker for hyperpnoea-induced airway epithelial perturbation. Exercise-hyperpnoea induces mechanical, thermal and osmotic stress to the airways. We investigated whether osmotic stress alone causes airway epithelial perturbation in athletes with suspected EIB. Twenty-four recreational summer sports athletes who reported respiratory symptoms on exertion performed a standard eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test with dry air and a mannitol test (osmotic challenge) on separate days. Median urinary CC16 increased from 120 to 310 ρg μmol creatinine(-1) after dry air hyperpnoea (P = 0.002) and from 90 to 191 ρg μmol creatinine(-1) after mannitol (P = 0.021). There was no difference in urinary CC16 concentration between athletes who did or did not bronchoconstrict after dry air hyperpnoea or mannitol. We conclude that, in recreational summer sports athletes with respiratory symptoms, osmotic stress per se to the airway epithelium induces a rise in urinary excretion of CC16. This suggests that hyperosmolarity of the airway surface lining perturbs the airway epithelium in symptomatic athletes. PMID:24120076

  11. Co-processed chitin-mannitol as a new excipient for Oro-dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Daraghmeh, Nidal; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Leharne, Stephen A; Al Omari, Mahmoud M H; Badwan, Adnan A

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and performance of a novel excipient for use in oro-dispersible tablets (ODT). The excipient (Cop-CM) consists of chitin and mannitol. The excipient with optimal physicochemical properties was obtained at a chitin: mannitol ratio of 2:8 (w/w) and produced by roll compaction (RC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform-Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were used to characterize Cop-CM, in addition to characterization of its powder and ODT dosage form. The effect of particle size distribution of Cop-CM was investigated and found to have no significant influence on the overall tablet physical properties. The compressibility parameter (a) for Cop-CM was calculated from a Kawakita plot and found to be higher (0.661) than that of mannitol (0.576) due to the presence of the highly compressible chitin (0.818). Montelukast sodium and domperidone ODTs produced, using Cop-CM, displayed excellent physicochemical properties. The exceptional binding, fast wetting and superdisintegration properties of Cop-CM, in comparison with commercially available co-processed ODT excipients, results in a unique multifunctional base which can successfully be used in the formulation of oro-dispersible and fast immediate release tablets. PMID:25830680

  12. Effects of L-Lactate and D-Mannitol on γ-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Overdoses of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug of abuse, result in coma, respiratory arrest, and death. The objective of this study was to evaluate a potential GHB detoxification strategy by inhibiting the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated renal reabsorption of GHB in rats, using the MCT substrate L-Lactate. The use of the osmotic diuretic D-mannitol alone or combined with L-Lactate was also explored. GHB (208 mg/h/kg) was infused i.v. for 3 h in the absence or presence of L-Lactate (60.5, 121, and 302.5 mg h−1 kg−1), D-mannitol (0.5 g/kg), or L-Lactate (60.5 mg h−1 kg−1) combined with D-mannitol (0.5 g/kg). GHB in plasma and urine samples was determined along with blood pH, electrolytes, glucose, and L-Lactate. Administration of L-Lactate, or the combination of L-Lactate and D-mannitol, but not D-mannitol alone, significantly increased the renal and total clearances of GHB in rats. Blood pH and electrolyte concentrations exhibited small changes with GHB, GHB/lactate, and GHB/mannitol treatments, although most values remained within their normal range. The concomitant administration of lactated Ringer's solution (28 mM L-Lactate) at 300 µl/min with mannitol (0.5 g/kg) resulted in a significant increase in GHB clearance and a decrease in sleep time after an i.v. dose of 1 g/kg. Overall, our results indicated the following: 1) the use of the MCT inhibitor L-Lactate can increase the renal and total clearances of GHB, and 2) the combination of lactated Ringer's solution and D-mannitol significantly alters GHB toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and represents a potential clinical detoxification strategy for the treatment of GHB overdoses. PMID:18719239

  13. Homeologous genes involved in mannitol synthesis reveal unequal contributions in response to abiotic stress in Coffea arabica.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Nagashima, Getulio T; Bespalhok Filho, João C; Vieira, Luiz G E; Pereira, Luiz F P; Domingues, Douglas S

    2014-10-01

    Polyploid plants can exhibit transcriptional modulation in homeologous genes in response to abiotic stresses. Coffea arabica, an allotetraploid, accounts for 75% of the world's coffee production. Extreme temperatures, salinity and drought limit crop productivity, which includes coffee plants. Mannitol is known to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance in higher plants. This study aimed to investigate the transcriptional responses of genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism in C. arabica leaves under water deficit, salt stress and high temperature. Mannitol concentration was significantly increased in leaves of plants under drought and salinity, but reduced by heat stress. Fructose content followed the level of mannitol only in heat-stressed plants, suggesting the partitioning of the former into other metabolites during drought and salt stress conditions. Transcripts of the key enzymes involved in mannitol biosynthesis, CaM6PR, CaPMI and CaMTD, were modulated in distinct ways depending on the abiotic stress. Our data suggest that changes in mannitol accumulation during drought and salt stress in leaves of C. arabica are due, at least in part, to the increased expression of the key genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis. In addition, the homeologs of the Coffea canephora subgenome did not present the same pattern of overall transcriptional response, indicating differential regulation of these genes by the same stimulus. In this way, this study adds new information on the differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes under adverse environmental conditions showing that abiotic stresses can influence the homeologous gene regulation pattern, in this case, mainly on those involved in mannitol pathway. PMID:24861101

  14. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-01

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  15. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika Sterzyński, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-17

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  16. The glutathione redox couple modulates zinc transfer from metallothionein to zinc-depleted sorbitol dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Juan; Maret, Wolfgang; Vallee, Bert L.

    1998-01-01

    The release and transfer of zinc from metallothionein (MT) to zinc-depleted sorbitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.14) in vitro has been used to explore the role of MT in cellular zinc distribution. A 1:1 molar ratio of MT to sorbitol dehydrogenase is required for full reactivation, indicating that only one of the seven zinc atoms of MT is transferred in this process. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) are critical modulators of both the rate of zinc transfer and the ultimate number of zinc atoms transferred. GSSG increases the rate of zinc transfer 3-fold, and its concentration is the major determinant for efficient zinc transfer. GSH has a dual function. In the absence of GSSG, it inhibits zinc transfer from MT, indicating that MT is in a latent state under the relatively high cellular concentrations of GSH. In addition, it primes MT for the reaction with GSSG by enhancing the rate of zinc transfer 10-fold and by increasing the number of zinc atoms transferred to four. 65Zn-labeling experiments confirm the release of one zinc from MT in the absence of glutathione and the more effective release of zinc in the presence of GSH and GSSG. In vivo, MT may keep the cellular concentrations of free zinc very low and, acting as a temporary cellular reservoir, release zinc in a process that is dynamically controlled by its interactions with both GSH and GSSG. These results suggest that a change of the redox state of the cell could serve as a driving force and signal for zinc distribution from MT. PMID:9520392

  17. Selective effect of mannitol-induced hyperosmolality on brain interstitial fluid and water content in white matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, G.A.; Barrett, J.; Estrada, E.; Brayer, J.; Kyner, W.T.

    1988-09-01

    We studied the effect of mannitol-induced hyperosmolality on brain interstitial fluid (ISF) by autoradiography. Adult cats underwent intracerebral infusion of the extracellular marker, /sup 14/C-sucrose. Nine animals were given 2g/kg of mannitol intravenously, and another nine animals without mannitol were controls. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolalities were measured. After 2 hr the brains were removed for determination of water and electrolyte content and for preparation of the autoradiograms. Diffusion coefficients were calculated for intracerebral transport with equations for radial diffusion. We found that mannitol increased the plasma osmolality but did not affect that of the CSF. Water and potassium contents were significantly lower in the white matter of mannitol-treated animals than in controls. Diffusion was reduced in the direction of gray matter into the white matter. We conclude that lower doses of mannitol control CSF pressure by selectively removing water from white matter, reducing the CSF volume, and affecting molecular transport at the gray/white interface.

  18. Effects of Replacing Sucrose with Various Sugar Alcohols on Quality Properties of Semi-dried Jerky

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of replacing sucrose with sugar alcohols (sorbitol, glycerol and xylitol) on the quality properties of semi-dried jerky. Total 7 treatments of jerkies were prepared as follows: control with sucrose, and treatments with 2.5 and 5.0% of sucrose replaced by each sugar alcohol, respectively. Drying yield, pH, water activity, moisture content, shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, sugar content, and sensory evaluation were evaluated. Xylitol slightly decreased the pH when compared to the other sugar alcohols (p>0.05). The water activity of the semi-dried jerky was significantly reduced by treatment with glycerol and xylitol (p<0.05). The moisture content of semi-dried jerky containing various sugar alcohols was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05), while replacing sucrose with glycerol yielded the highest moisture content. The shear force of semi-dried jerky containing sugar alcohols was not significantly different for the sorbitol and glycerol treatments, but that replacing sucrose with 5.0% xylitol demonstrated the lowest shear force (p<0.05). The TBARS values of semi-dried jerkies with sugar alcohols were lower than the control (p<0.05). The sugar content of the semi-dried jerkies containing sorbitol and glycerol were lower than the control and xylitol treatment (p<0.05). In comparison with the control, the 5.0% xylitol treatment was found to be significantly different in the sensory evaluation (p<0.05). In conclusion, semi-dried jerky made by replacement with sugar alcohols improved the quality characteristics, while xylitol has applicability in manufacturing meat products. PMID:26761890

  19. Sorbitol required for cell growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During ethanol fermentation, the ethanologenic bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis may encounter several environmental stresses such as heat, ethanol and osmotic stresses due to high sugar concentration. Although supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol into culture medium enhances cell growth of Z. mobilis under osmotic stress, the protective function of this compound on cell growth and ethanol production by this organism under other stresses such as heat and ethanol has not been described yet. The formation of sorbitol in Z. mobilis was carried out by the action of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) enzyme which is regulated by the gfo gene. Therefore, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted by the fusion-PCR-based construction technique in the present study, and the protective function of sorbitol on cell growth, protein synthesis and ethanol production by Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses was investigated. Results Based on the fusion-PCR-based construction technique, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted. Disruption of the Z. mobilis gfo gene resulted in the reduction of cell growth and ethanol production not only under osmotic stress but also under heat and ethanol stresses. Under these stress conditions, the transcription level of pdc, adhA, and adhB genes involved in the pyruvate-to-ethanol (PE) pathway as well as the synthesis of proteins particularly in Z. mobilis disruptant strain were decreased compared to those of the parent. These findings suggest that sorbitol plays a crucial role not only on cell growth and ethanol production but also on the protection of cellular proteins from stress responses. Conclusion We showed for the first time that supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol not only promoted cell growth but also increased the ethanol fermentation capability of Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance to stress conditions

  20. Roller compaction, granulation and capsule product dissolution of drug formulations containing a lactose or mannitol filler, starch, and talc.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chialu Kevin; Alvarez-Nunez, Fernando A; Rinella, Joseph V; Magnusson, Lars-Erik; Sueda, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of excipient composition to the roller compaction and granulation characteristics of pharmaceutical formulations that were comprised of a spray-dried filler (lactose monohydrate or mannitol), pregelatinized starch, talc, magnesium stearate (1% w/w) and a ductile active pharmaceutical ingredient (25% w/w) using a mixed-level factorial design. The main and interaction effects of formulation variables (i.e., filler type, starch content, and talc content) to the response factors (i.e., solid fraction and tensile strength of ribbons, particle size, compressibility and flow of granules) were analyzed using multi-linear stepwise regression analysis. Experimental results indicated that roller compacted ribbons of both lactose and mannitol formulations had similar tensile strength. However, resulting lactose-based granules were finer than the mannitol-based granules because of the brittleness of lactose compared to mannitol. Due to the poor compressiblility of starch, increasing starch content in the formulation from 0% to 20% w/w led to reduction in ribbon solid fraction by 10%, ribbon tensile strength by 60%, and granule size by 30%. Granules containing lactose or more starch showed less cohesive flow than granules containing mannitol and less starch. Increasing talc content from 0% to 5% w/w had little effect to most physical properties of ribbons and granules while the flow of mannitol-based granules was found improved. Finally, it was observed that stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH over 12 weeks, gelatin capsules containing lactose-based granules had reduced dissolution rates due to pellicle formation inside capsule shells, while capsules containing mannitol-based granules remained immediate dissolution without noticeable pellicle formation. PMID:18459052

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  2. Catalytic mechanism of Zn2+-dependent polyol dehydrogenases: kinetic comparison of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase with wild-type and Glu154→Cys forms of yeast xylitol dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Klimacek, Mario; Hellmer, Heidemarie; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Co-ordination of catalytic Zn2+ in sorbitol/xylitol dehydrogenases of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily involves direct or water-mediated interactions from a glutamic acid residue, which substitutes a homologous cysteine ligand in alcohol dehydrogenases of the yeast and liver type. Glu154 of xylitol dehydrogenase from the yeast Galactocandida mastotermitis (termed GmXDH) was mutated to a cysteine residue (E154C) to revert this replacement. In spite of their variable Zn2+ content (0.10–0.40 atom/subunit), purified preparations of E154C exhibited a constant catalytic Zn2+ centre activity (kcat) of 1.19±0.03 s−1 and did not require exogenous Zn2+ for activity or stability. E154C retained 0.019±0.003% and 0.74±0.03% of wild-type catalytic efficiency (kcat/Ksorbitol=7800±700 M−1· s−1) and kcat (=161±4 s−1) for NAD+-dependent oxidation of sorbitol at 25 °C respectively. The pH profile of kcat/Ksorbitol for E154C decreased below an apparent pK of 9.1±0.3, reflecting a shift in pK by about +1.7–1.9 pH units compared with the corresponding pH profiles for GmXDH and sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (termed slSDH). The difference in pK for profiles determined in 1H2O and 2H2O solvent was similar and unusually small for all three enzymes (≈+0.2 log units), suggesting that the observed pK in the binary enzyme–NAD+ complexes could be due to Zn2+-bound water. Under conditions eliminating their different pH-dependences, wild-type and mutant GmXDH displayed similar primary and solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects of 1.7±0.2 (E154C, 1.7±0.1) and 1.9±0.3 (E154C, 2.4±0.2) on kcat/Ksorbitol respectively. Transient kinetic studies of NAD+ reduction and proton release during sorbitol oxidation by slSDH at pH 8.2 show that two protons are lost with a rate constant of 687±12 s−1 in the pre-steady state, which features a turnover of 0.9±0.1 enzyme equivalents as NADH was produced with a rate constant of 409±3 s−1. The

  3. Insights into the evolution of sorbitol metabolism: phylogenetic analysis of SDR196C family

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) are NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases with a highly conserved 3D structure and of an early origin, which has allowed them to diverge into several families and enzymatic activities. The SDR196C family (http://www.sdr-enzymes.org) groups bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH), which are of great industrial interest. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationship between the members of this family, and based on the findings and some sequence conserved blocks, a new and a more accurate classification is proposed. Results The distribution of the 66 bacterial SDH species analyzed was limited to Gram-negative bacteria. Six different bacterial families were found, encompassing α-, β- and γ-proteobacteria. This broad distribution in terms of bacteria and niches agrees with that of SDR, which are found in all forms of life. A cluster analysis of sorbitol dehydrogenase revealed different types of gene organization, although with a common pattern in which the SDH gene is surrounded by sugar ABC transporter proteins, another SDR, a kinase, and several gene regulators. According to the obtained trees, six different lineages and three sublineages can be discerned. The phylogenetic analysis also suggested two different origins for SDH in β-proteobacteria and four origins for γ-proteobacteria. Finally, this subdivision was further confirmed by the differences observed in the sequence of the conserved blocks described for SDR and some specific blocks of SDH, and by a functional divergence analysis, which made it possible to establish new consensus sequences and specific fingerprints for the lineages and sub lineages. Conclusion SDH distribution agrees with that observed for SDR, indicating the importance of the polyol metabolism, as an alternative source of carbon and energy. The phylogenetic analysis pointed to six clearly defined lineages and three sub lineages, and great variability in the origin of this gene

  4. Combined inhaled salbutamol and mannitol therapy for mucus hyper-secretion in pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hui Xin; Traini, Daniela; Ballerin, Giulia; Morgan, Lucy; Buddle, Lachlan; Scalia, Santo; Young, Paul M

    2014-03-01

    This study focuses on the co-engineering of salbutamol sulphate (SS), a common bronchodilator, and mannitol (MA), a mucolytic, as a potential combination therapy for mucus hypersecretion. This combination was chosen to have a synergic effect on the airways: the SS will act on the β2-receptor for relaxation of smooth muscle and enhancement of ciliary beat frequency, whilst mannitol will improve the fluidity of mucus, consequently enhancing its clearance from the lung. A series of co-spray-dried samples, containing therapeutically relevant doses of SS and MA, were prepared. The physico-chemical characteristics of the formulations were evaluated in terms of size distribution, morphology, thermal and moisture response and aerosol performance. Additionally, the formulations were evaluated for their effects on cell viability and transport across air interface Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells, contractibility effects on bronchial smooth muscle cells and cilia beat activity using ciliated nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The formulations demonstrated size distributions and aerosol performance suitable for inhalation therapy. Transport studies revealed that the MA component of the formulation enhanced penetration of SS across the complex mucus layer and the lung epithelia cells. Furthermore, the formulation in the ratios of SS 10(-6) and MA 10(-3) M gave a significant increase in cilia beat frequency whilst simultaneously preventing smooth muscle contraction associated with mannitol administration. These studies have established that co-spray dried combination formulations of MA and SS can be successfully prepared with limited toxicity, good aerosol performance and the ability to increase ciliary beat frequency for improving the mucociliary clearance in patients suffering from hyper-secretory diseases, whilst simultaneously acting on the underlying smooth muscle. PMID:24431080

  5. Understanding Measurements of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Humans with Urine Lactulose and Mannitol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Lamsam, Jesse; Nord, Sara Linker; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Sweetser, Seth; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Singh, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to understand the information from differential two-sugar excretion (2-SE) in measuring intestinal permeability. In a crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers, we compared urinary excretion ratios of lactulose (L) to mannitol [(M) LMR] after ingestion in liquid formulation (LF) or in delayed-release, methacrylate-coated capsules (CAP). Both formulations were radiolabeled. Urine was collected every 2 hours from 0–8h, and from 8–24h. Two hours after LF, gastric residual was 15.9 ± 6.2 % (SEM), and the percentage in colon was 49.6 ± 7.8 %; in 11/12 participants, liquid had entered colon within 2h. Average CAP arrival time in colon was 5.16 ± 0.46h (mode 6 h). After LF, mannitol was extensively absorbed in the first 8h; lactulose absorption was low thoughout the 24h. After the LF, the LMR (geometric mean, 95% CI/hour) in the 0–2h urine was 0.08 [0.05, 0.11]), which was lower than in 8–24h urine (0.32,[0.16, 0.46]; p<0.05). Urine LMRs at 8–24h were similar after LF or CAP. We concluded that, after LF, sugar excretion in 0–2h urine may reflect both SI and colon permeability. Colonic permeability is reflected by urine sugar excretion between 6 and 24h. CAP delivery reduces mannitol excreted at 0–6h, compared to LF. The 0 to 5 or 6h 2-SE urine likely reflects both SI and colon permeability; the higher LMR in the 8–24h urine relative to 0–2h urine should be interpreted with caution and does not mean that colon is more permeable than SI. PMID:19614866

  6. Efficient mannitol production by wild-type Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 is attained at constant pH using a simplified culture medium.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol with multiple industrial applications. In this work, mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 was studied at free- and controlled-pH (6.0-4.8) fermentations using a simplified culture medium containing yeast and beef extracts and sugarcane molasses. The activity of mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH), the enzyme responsible for mannitol synthesis, was determined. The effect of the initial biomass concentration was further studied. Mannitol production (41.5 ± 1.1 g/l), volumetric productivity (Q Mtl 1.73 ± 0.05 g/l h), and yield (Y Mtl 105 ± 11 %) were maximum at pH 5.0 after 24 h while the highest MDH activity (1.66 ± 0.09 U/mg protein) was obtained at pH 6.0. No correlation between mannitol production and MDH activity was observed when varying the culture pH. The increase (up to 2000-fold) in the initial biomass concentration did not improve mannitol formation after 24 h although a 2-fold higher amount was produced at 8 h using 1 or 2 g cell dry weight/l comparing to the control (0.001 g cell dry weight/l). Finally, mannitol isolation under optimum fermentation conditions was achieved. The mannitol production obtained in this study is the highest reported so far by a wild-type L. reuteri strain and, more interestingly, using a simplified culture medium. PMID:26084891

  7. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  8. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times. PMID:26578426

  9. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times. PMID:26578426

  10. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

  11. NMR studies in chemistry. I. Organometallic tin and geramanium compounds. II. The sorbitol pathway in intact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been utilized in the study of two very different chemical problems. The bonding and structure of various cyclopropyl derivatives of tin and germanium has been investigated by means of Sn-119, Ge-73, C-13, and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. Intact rabbit lenses have also been studied using NMR spectroscopy with regard to diabetic cataract formation. C-13 and P-31 NMR spectroscopies have been utilized in the study of the sorbitol pathway and aldose reductase inhibition.

  12. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  13. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence. PMID:25700743

  14. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Yennawar, Hemant; Møller, Magda; Gillilan, Richard; Yennawar, Neela

    2011-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure and a small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase have been determined. The details of the interactions that enable the tetramer scaffold to be the functional biological unit have been analyzed. The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was also used to identify the quaternary structure of the tetramer of slSDH in solution.

  15. TDP-43 is directed to stress granules by sorbitol, a novel physiological osmotic and oxidative stressor.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Colleen M; Cenik, Basar; Sephton, Chantelle F; Dries, Daniel R; Mayer, Paul; Good, Shannon K; Johnson, Brett A; Herz, Joachim; Yu, Gang

    2011-03-01

    TDP-43, or TAR DNA-binding protein 43, is a pathological marker of a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions. TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA-binding protein implicated in transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Recent work also suggests that TDP-43 associates with cytoplasmic stress granules, which are transient structures that form in response to stress. In this study, we establish sorbitol as a novel physiological stressor that directs TDP-43 to stress granules in Hek293T cells and primary cultured glia. We quantify the association of TDP-43 with stress granules over time and show that stress granule association and size are dependent on the glycine-rich region of TDP-43, which harbors the majority of pathogenic mutations. Moreover, we establish that cells harboring wild-type and mutant TDP-43 have distinct stress responses: mutant TDP-43 forms significantly larger stress granules, and is incorporated into stress granules earlier, than wild-type TDP-43; in striking contrast, wild-type TDP-43 forms more stress granules over time, but the granule size remains relatively unchanged. We propose that mutant TDP-43 alters stress granule dynamics, which may contribute to the progression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:21173160

  16. Effects of some anti-neoplastic drugs on sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Alim, Zuhal; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2012-12-01

    Stress is an important factor for many diseases in living metabolisms. The mini pathway named as polyol is a critical junction for stress factors. This pathway has two enzymes: aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). It is linked with some diseases such as diabetes mellitus and some cancer types. In particular, SDH is very sensitive and unstable in in vitro conditions. In this study, SDH was purified by using simple and rapid chromatographic methods such as DEAE-Sephadex and CM-Sephadex C-50 columns. Subunit and active form molecular weights were found as 39.8 kDa and 150 kDa, respectively. The in vitro effects of some antineoplastic drugs were investigated. IC(50) values were 0.025, 0.081, 0.291, 1.62, 4.86, 6.54 mM for dacarbazine, methotrexate, epirubicin hydrochloride, calcium folinate, gemcitabine hydrochloride, oxaliplatin, respectively. From these results, dacarbazine was lowest IC(50) value and it is the strongest inhibitor for liver SDH enzyme activity compared to the other drugs. PMID:22639851

  17. Direct immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme from natural mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on D-sorbitol cinnamic ester.

    PubMed

    Marín-Zamora, María Elisa; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio

    2006-11-10

    Mushroom tyrosinase was immobilized from an extract onto the totally cinnamoylated derivative of D-sorbitol by direct adsorption as a result of the intense hydrophobic interactions that took place. The immobilization pH value and mass of lyophilized mushrooms were important parameters that affected the immobilization efficiency, while the immobilization time and immobilization support concentration were not important in this respect. The extracted/immobilized enzyme could best be measured above pH 3.5 and the optimum measuring temperature was 55 degrees C. The apparent Michaelis constant using 4-tert-butylcatechol as substrate was 0.38+/-0.02 mM, which was lower than for the soluble enzyme from Sigma (1.41+/-0.20 mM). Immobilization stabilized the extracted enzyme against thermal inactivation and made it less susceptible to activity loss during storage. The operational stability was higher than in the case of the tyrosinase supplied by Sigma and immobilized on the same support. The results show that the use of p-nitrophenol as enzyme-inhibiting substrate during enzyme extraction and immobilization made the use of ascorbic acid unnecessary and is a suitable method for extracting and immobilizing the tyrosinase enzyme, providing good enzymatic activity and stability. PMID:16730834

  18. Radiation-induced radicals in different polymorphic modifications of D-mannitol: Structure, conformations and dosimetric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosulin, Ilya S.; Shiryaeva, Ekaterina S.; Feldman, Vladimir I.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and conformation of radicals produced by X-ray irradiation of three polymorphic forms of D-mannitol were investigated using EPR spectroscopy. In all the cases, primary species were identified as radicals resulting from hydrogen abstraction from position 3 or 4 of the mannitol molecule. It was found that molecular packing in crystals of different polymorphic modifications had noticeable effect on the conformation of radicals observed after irradiation at room temperature and the dehydration of the primary radicals occurring at 400 K. The radicals trapped in stable modifications (β- and δ-forms) were found to be very stable at room temperature. Relatively high radical yields and remarkable stability of radicals suggest that D-mannitol can be used as an EPR dosimeter or irradiation marker.

  19. Origins of the Relative Stabilities of Anhydrous and Hydrated d-Mannitol Crystals.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Teresa M; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-08-25

    d-Mannitol, a common bulking agent used in the pharmaceutical and food industries, is known to crystallize in three anhydrous polymorphs (α, β, and δ) and a hemihydrate form. In this work, solid-state density functional theory simulations and experimental terahertz spectroscopy were used to evaluate the stabilities, thermodynamic relationships, and spectral signatures of these various solids. The thermodynamic analyses of the anhydrous polymorphs identified enantiotropic transitions for β-δ at approximately room temperature and α-δ near the α melting point, but showed α and β to be monotropically related. Computational refinement of the d-mannitol hemihydrate crystal structure and comparison of its Gibbs free energy to the anhydrous forms showed the hemihydrate to be stable only at low temperatures (<253 K), in agreement with experiment, and reveals its conversion to the δ polymorph upon dehydration. Quantification of the intramolecular and intermolecular energies within these solids highlights the competition that exists between molecular conformation and cohesion energies and how a balance of these forces dictates the observed behaviors. PMID:27463148

  20. Crystal structure of 2,5-anhydro-1-O-(p-tolylsulfonyl)-D-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Voll, R J; Nguyen, T M; Fronczek, F R; Younathan, E S

    1993-03-17

    2,5-Anhydro-1-O-(p-tolylsulfonyl)-D-mannitol, C13H18SO7, Mr = 318.4, monoclinic, C2, a = 26.370(6), b = 7.9741(11), c = 6.6801(6) A, beta = 91.401(11) degrees, V = 1404.3(6) A3, Z = 4, DX = 1.506 g/cm3, CuK alpha, lambda = 1.54184 A, mu = 23.03 cm-1, F(000) = 672, T = 296(1) K, R = 0.042 for 2832 observations with I > 3 sigma (I) (of 2864 unique data). On the esterified side of the molecule, three bond lengths and three bond angles show small changes compared to the unesterified side, which is similar to the symmetrical parent compound, 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol. The conformation of the five-membered ring is E5 with P = 49.3 degrees and tau m = 38.1 degrees. The hydroxymethyl groups adopt g+ and g- dispositions similar to the parent molecule. The three hydroxyl groups are involved in a network of intermolecular hydrogen bounds both as donors and acceptors. PMID:8472261

  1. Micropuncture study of hypertonic mannitol diuresis in the proximal and distal tubule of the dog kidney

    PubMed Central

    Seely, John F.; Dirks, John H.

    1969-01-01

    Fractional reabsorption of water, sodium, and potassium at proximal and distal tubular sites within the nephron was studied by recollection-micropuncture experiments on dogs undergoing hypertonic mannitol diuresis. After an initial control hydropenic phase, 16% mannitol in modified Ringer's solution was administered intravenously, resulting in marked increases in fractional excretion of water (28.7%), sodium (12.6%), and potassium (63.9%). Inulin clearance decreased significantly from 35.1 to 25.2 ml/min. Analysis of paired micropuncture data revealed a significant decrease in tubule fluid to plasma (TF:P) inulin ratios in both the proximal tubule (1.63-1.45) and distal tubule (5.38-1.94). There was also a significant decrease in proximal TF:P sodium ratios (0.99-0.93) and potassium ratios (1.05-0.98). Distal TF:P sodium ratios, in contrast, rose significantly (0.38-0.59), while TF:P potassium ratios tended towards unity whether initially greater or less than one. Fractional reabsorption of sodium and water decreased by 5% and 10% respectively in the proximal tubule, but to a lesser extent than the resulting increases in fractional urinary excretion. The nonreabsorbed fraction, however, had increased sharply at the point of distal puncture for water (32%), sodium (26%), and potassium (26%), indicating a large inhibitory effect within the loop of Henle in addition to the smaller proximal effects. PMID:5355344

  2. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  3. Determination of sugar alcohols in confectioneries by high-performance liquid chromatography after nitrobenzoylation.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, S; Taguchi, N; Oishi, M; Suzuki, S

    2000-09-29

    A method was developed for the determination of sugar alcohols, meso-erythritol, xylitol, D-glucitol, D-mannitol, maltitol and parachinit by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sugar alcohols were converted into strong ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing derivatives with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride. HPLC was performed on a phenyl column, using acetonitrile-water (67:33) as mobile phase and UV detection (260 nm). The calibration curves for all sugar alcohols tested were linear in the 10-250 microg/ml range. The average recoveries of the sugar alcohols from four sugarless confectioneries spiked at 5 and 10% levels of six sugar alcohol standards ranged from 73.2 to 109.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.7 to 9.0%. The detection limit of the developed method was 0.1% for the above sugar alcohols contained in the samples. PMID:11043600

  4. Incidence and Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury Following Mannitol Infusion in Patients With Acute Stroke: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic, is commonly used to treat patients with acute brain edema, but its use also increases the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigated the incidence and risk factors of mannitol-related AKI in acute stroke patients.A total of 432 patients (ischemic stroke 62.3%) >20 years of age who were admitted to the neurocritical care center in a tertiary hospital and received mannitol treatment were enrolled in this study. Clinical parameters including the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, vascular risk factors, laboratory data, and concurrent nephrotoxic medications were registered. Acute kidney injury was defined as an absolute elevation in the serum creatinine (Scr) level of ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline or a ≥50% increase in Scr.The incidence of mannitol-related AKI was 6.5% (95% confidence interval, 4.5%-9.3%) in acute stroke patients, 6.3% in patients with ischemic stroke, and 6.7% in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline, higher initial NIHSS score, and concurrent use of diuretics increased the risk of mannitol-related AKI. When present, the combination of these elements displayed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.839 (95% confidence interval, 0.770-0.909). In conclusion, mannitol-related AKI is not uncommon in the treatment of acute stroke patients, especially in those with vulnerable risk factors. PMID:26632702

  5. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  6. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  7. A new selective fluorene-based fluorescent internal charge transfer (ICT) sensor for sugar alcohols in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol, are commonly used as a replacement for sucrose in the food industry, applied as starting material for vitamin C synthesis, and involved as one of the causative factors in diabetic complications. Therefore, their detection and quantification in aqueous solution are necessary. The reversible covalent interactions between boronic acids and diols are the basis of efficient methods for the detection of saccharides. Herein, we report a new internal charge transfer (ICT) fluorene-based fluorescent boronic acid sensor (1) 2-[(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-amino)methyl] phenyl boronic acid that shows significant fluorescence changes upon addition of saccharides. The boronic acid has high affinity (K a = 1107.9 M(-1)) and selectivity for sorbitol at pH = 8.31. It showed a linear response toward sorbitol in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-5) to 6.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 7.04 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). Sensor 1 was used to detect sorbitol in real samples with good recovery. PMID:26758597

  8. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  9. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  10. Molecular Characterization of Human Atypical Sorbitol-Fermenting Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157 Reveals High Diversity.

    PubMed

    Kossow, Annelene; Zhang, Wenlan; Bielaszewska, Martina; Rhode, Sophie; Hansen, Kevin; Fruth, Angelika; Rüter, Christian; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Alongside the well-characterized enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, serogroup O157 comprises sorbitol-fermenting typical and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC/aEPEC) strains that carry the intimin-encoding gene eae but not Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx). Since little is known about these pathogens, we characterized 30 clinical isolates from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or uncomplicated diarrhea with respect to their flagellin gene (fliC) type and multilocus sequence type (MLST). Moreover, we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the phylogenetic relationship with other eae-positive EHEC serotypes and the composition of the rfbO157 region. fliC typing resulted in five fliC types (H7, H16, H34, H39, and H45). Isolates of each fliC type shared a unique ST. In comparison to the 42 HUS-associated E. coli (HUSEC) strains, only the stx-negative isolates with fliCH7 shared their ST with EHEC O157:H7/H(-) strains. With the exception of one O157:H(-) fliCH16 isolate, HUS was exclusively associated with fliCH7. WGS corroborated the separation of the fliCH7 isolates, which were closely related to the EHEC O157:H7/H(-) isolates, and the diverse group of isolates exhibiting different fliC types, indicating independent evolution of the different serotypes. This was also supported by the heterogeneity within the rfbO157 region that exhibited extensive recombinations. The genotypic subtypes and distribution of clinical symptoms suggested that the stx-negative O157 strains with fliCH7 were originally EHEC strains that lost stx The remaining isolates form a distinct and diverse group of atypical EPEC isolates that do not possess the full spectrum of virulence genes, underlining the importance of identifying the H antigen for clinical risk assessment. PMID:26984976

  11. [Brain edema treatment procedure using continuous controlled infusion of mannitol in neurosurgical patients].

    PubMed

    Taranova, I I; Kokhno, V N

    2010-01-01

    The paper evaluates the efficiency and safety of the developed osmotherapy protocol using controlled continuous infusion of 15% mannitol solution. Two hundred and nine patients with intracranial hypertension (ICH) syndrome of various etiologies had 15% mannitol infusion, the rate of which was determined by clinical criteria. The infusion rate was 50 ml/hr with midline brain structure dislocation of 8 mm or more and major depression of consciousness (a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of less than 8) and 25 ml/hr with brain dislocation of 7-mm or less and a GCS score of 8 or higher. The monitoring program was as follows: Block 1 comprised the clinical and instrumental data characterizing the adequacy of brain perfusion (GCS, the magnitude of focal neurological symptoms, ICH, mean blood pressure, computed tomographic dislocation); Block 2 involved the clinical and laboratory data identifying the extracerebral complications of osmotherapy (packed cell volume, plasma osmolarity, urine density, and renal ultrasonography); Block 3 consisted of cerebral oximetry (CO) and Neurotrend. The authors' early proposed integral indicators of OC, such as interhemispheric asymmetry coefficient and hemodynamic conformity index, were used to estimate the adequacy of brain perfusion. In cerebral vasospasm, a Neurotrend microsensor was implanted at 3-cm depth for the direct quantitative determination of pO2, pCO2, pH, and brain temperature. ICH was characterized by natural changes in the CO indicators. In vasospasm, the mean linear blood flow velocity was 245 +/- 14 cm/sec in the basilar arteries, which was attended by low pO2 and metabolic acidosis, as shown by readings. Optimization of artificial ventilation, stabilization of hemodynamics, and the use of postural exposures and osmo diuretics promoted ICH normalization and central perfusion pressure optimization, which was accompanied by the disappearance of tissue hypoxia and acidosis, as suggested by Neurotrend reading. The duration of

  12. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  13. Dextran or hydroxyethyl starch in spray-freeze-dried trehalose/mannitol microparticles intended as ballistic particulate carriers for proteins.

    PubMed

    Rochelle, Christian; Lee, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the effects of dextran 10 kDa on the properties of spray-freeze-dried microparticles for use with ballistic injectors. A novel carrier of trehalose, mannitol, and the polymer is known to maximize particle density. Measurements of T'(g) showed that the dextran anti-plasticizes the trehalose/mannitol, but also undergoes phase separation. The product temperature exceeded T'(g) during primary drying. The collapsed particles can therefore be explained by plastic flow of the freeze concentrate. DSC of the powder showed T(g) at 45 degrees C and, in the first scan, a wide endothermic melting peak caused by mannitol recrystallization. Catalase showed 35% activity loss on rehydration of its spray freeze-drying (SFD) powder, which was improved in the TM/D (3:3:4) formulation, but not up to that level seen with either trehalose or mannitol alone. The dextran 10 kDa, which is vital to maximize particle density, was therefore detrimental to protein integrity during SFD, as also found with a 65-72 kDa dextran. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 200 kDa gave similar, limited stabilizing effects on the protein. The proportion of polymer in the formulation should be low to minimize protein damage, whilst high enough to give required particle morphology and density. PMID:17274046

  14. Heat transfer characteristics of uc(d)-mannitol as a phase change material for a medium thermal energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, Makoto; Liu, Qiusheng; Fukuda, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    Melting process and heat transfer characteristics of uc(d)-mannitol were investigated experimentally and numerically to construct a fundamental database of the waste heat recovery systems for ships. uc(d-)Mannitol which has relatively high latent heat was selected in this study as a phase-change material for medium thermal energy storage. Experimental results indicate that the melting temperature and latent heat of uc(d)-mannitol were affected by the heating rate. The weight of uc(d)-mannitol did not decrease with the increase in temperature between 436 and 455 K. Moreover, numerical simulation was conducted using the commercial CFD code, ANSYS FLUENT. On the basis of the numerical simulation, melting process was affected by natural convection at the inner wall. As the heat flux of the cartridge heater input came from the inner wall, the liquid fraction increased from the inner wall to the outer wall through natural convection. The numerical result was compared with the experimental data. The temperature of the numerical simulation was approximately consistent with the experimental data. Moreover, the local heat transfer coefficients at the heater surface were calculated by the result of the numerical simulation. The heat transfer coefficients decreased during the phase change. It was considered that the heat transfer process changed from conductive heat transfer of solid state to natural convection heat transfer of liquid state as the liquid fraction increased with time.

  15. Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of <2.5%. Prosolv® only ODTs showed the highest tablet hardness of ∼ 73 N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was <1% although friability of Prosolv®:Mannitol ODTs was higher than for pure Prosolv®. DT of all ODTs was <30 s. Method 2 showed the fastest DT. Method 3 was non-discriminatory giving a DT of 13-15 s for all formulations. Atorvastatin dissolution from all ODTs was >60% within 5 min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution. PMID:24397821

  16. Use of the lactulose to mannitol ratio to evaluate childhood environmental enteric dysfunction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; VanBuskirk, Kelley; Nelson, Zakia C; Musser, Christine A; Hay Burgess, Deborah C; Tarr, Phillip I

    2014-11-01

    Childhood gut dysfunction (enteropathy) is common in resource-poor environments. Stunting is its presumed major consequence. Identification of biomarkers of gut dysfunction could identify the presence of, and, ideally, assess interventions for, enteropathy. Classically, enteropathy has been identified histopathologically. However, less invasive assays may be more sensitive for detecting earlier perturbations reflecting specific functional derangements. The most commonly used test has been the urinary lactulose to mannitol ratio (L:M), which primarily assesses gut leakiness, and which also measures absorption. We systematically reviewed the L:M literature published from 2000 to 2010 pertinent to children in developing country settings, and identified 25 relevant publications representing heterogeneous studies. We conclude that the L:M test has many attributes, including reflecting 2 physiologic processes (absorption and permeability) and likely correlation with growth failure consequent to child gut dysfunction. However, improved test technical performance, data reporting, and correlation with host phenotypes are needed to maximize the utility of this test. PMID:25305289

  17. Accessible Mannitol-Based Amphiphiles (MNAs) for Membrane Protein Solubilisation and Stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hazrat; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J; Mortensen, Jonas S; Tarrasch, Jeffrey; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian K; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-05-17

    Integral membrane proteins are amphipathic molecules crucial for all cellular life. The structural study of these macromolecules starts with protein extraction from the native membranes, followed by purification and crystallisation. Detergents are essential tools for these processes, but detergent-solubilised membrane proteins often denature and aggregate, resulting in loss of both structure and function. In this study, a novel class of agents, designated mannitol-based amphiphiles (MNAs), were prepared and characterised for their ability to solubilise and stabilise membrane proteins. Some of MNAs conferred enhanced stability to four membrane proteins including a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2 AR), compared to both n-dodecyl-d-maltoside (DDM) and the other MNAs. These agents were also better than DDM for electron microscopy analysis of the β2 AR. The ease of preparation together with the enhanced membrane protein stabilisation efficacy demonstrates the value of these agents for future membrane protein research. PMID:27072057

  18. Mannitol bolus preferentially shrinks non-infarcted brain in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Videen, T O; Zazulia, A R; Manno, E M; Derdeyn, C P; Adams, R E; Diringer, M N; Powers, W J

    2001-12-11

    Changes in brain tissue volume in six patients who had acute complete middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions and CT evidence of midline shift were measured using the brain boundary shift integral (BBSI) on sequential T1-weighted MR images acquired before and after a 1.5-g/kg bolus infusion of mannitol. At 50 to 55 minutes after the baseline scan, total brain volume decreased by 8.1 +/- 2.8 mL (0.6%, p < 0.005). Brain in the noninfarcted hemisphere shrank more (0.8 +/- 0.4%) than in the infarcted hemisphere (0.0 +/- 0.5%, p < 0.05). PMID:11739839

  19. Mannitol an Adjuvant in Local Anaesthetic Solution: Recent Concept & Changing Trends (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ruchika; Srivastava, Ram K; Ali, Iqbal; Wadhwani, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Various adjuncts have been utilized with lignocaine to decrement tourniquet pain and prolong postoperative analgesia and its efficacy during dental extraction and various other restorative procedures in dentistry. An obligatory part of the dental process is to sanction a patient to feel comfortable and pain-free during operational and remedial dental procedures. The most popular local anaesthetic injection for lower teeth is the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block. Instead of this the percentage of ineffectiveness is higher is inferior alveolar nerve block as compared to other local anaesthetic nerve block. The goal of cumulating different drugs is to engender the best therapeutic effects with the fewest or no unpropitious effects. There are fewer researches and evidence present which recommend and promote the application and effectiveness of mannitol other than in the administration in decreasing raised intracranial pressure. It is paramount to know how the drug interacts with each other to minimize the unexpected or perilous effects. PMID:25584240

  20. Characterization of mannitol-fermenting methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from pigs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugwu, Clifford C; Gomez-Sanz, Elena; Agbo, Ifeoma C; Torres, Carmen; Chah, Kennedy F

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the species distribution, antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes and virulence traits of mannitol-positive methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) isolated from pigs in Nsukka agricultural zone, Nigeria. Twenty mannitol-positive methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal (MRCoNS) strains harboring the mecA gene were detected among the 64 Staphylococcus isolates from 291 pigs. A total of 4 species were identified among the MRCoNS isolates, namely, Staphylococcus sciuri (10 strains), Staphylococcus lentus (6 strains), Staphylococcus cohnii (3 strains) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one strain). All MRCoNS isolates were multidrug-resistant. In addition to β-lactams, the strains were resistant to fusidic acid (85%), tetracycline (75%), streptomycin (65%), ciprofloxacin (65%), and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (60%). In addition to the mecA and blaZ genes, other antimicrobial resistance genes detected were tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), erm(C), aacA-aphD, aphA3, str, dfrK, dfrG, cat pC221, and cat pC223. Thirteen isolates were found to be ciprofloxacin-resistant, and all harbored a Ser84Leu mutation within the QRDR of the GyrA protein, with 3 isolates showing 2 extra substitutions, Ser98Ile and Arg100Lys (one strain) and Glu88Asp and Asp96Thr (2 strains). A phylogenetic tree of the QRDR nucleotide sequences in the gyrA gene revealed a high nucleotide diversity, with several major clusters not associated with the bacterial species. Our study highlights the possibility of transfer of mecA and other antimicrobial resistance genes from MRCoNS to pathogenic bacteria, which is a serious public health and veterinary concern. PMID:26413075

  1. Increased mannitol production in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 production strain with a modified 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria; Legiša, Matic

    2014-07-10

    Based on established knowledge of the simultaneous use of the phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) and the Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) - as a secondary pathway with a smaller flux - by mannitol producer Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, we demonstrated the hypothesis that by enhancing the flux through the EMP the ability of the microorganism to handle elevated glucose concentrations will be improved, in addition to its growth rate and biomass yield. NADH availability will be increased and its demand will be satisfied, allowing the electron acceptor fructose to be more efficiently transformed into mannitol. A truncated version of the gene encoding 6-phospho-1-fructokinase (tpfkA) from the NRRL 2270 strain of Aspergillus niger along with its activator pkaC were introduced into the microorganism by plasmid transformation. Growth of the transformants at elevated glucose concentrations in the presence of fructose resulted in improved assimilation of the provided carbohydrates and a significant increase in the overall fermentation productivities. At the highest tested levels of glucose and fructose (75g/l each), the transformant strain experienced a 4-fold increase in PFK activity and a 2.3-fold increase in the glycolytic flux while the biomass yield reached 7g/l (1.6g/l in the parental strain), the mannitol yield was 56g/l (10g/l in the parental strain) and the lactate yield was 21g/l (3.5g/l in the parental strain). A high NADH/NAD(+) ratio occurred under increased glycolytic flux conditions and facilitated the efficient conversion of fructose to mannitol. A direct effect of deregulated PFK activity on the glycolytic flux is therefore demonstrated in the present case suggesting an alternative approach of metabolic engineering in L. reuteri for increased mannitol production. PMID:24742994

  2. Crystal structure and IR spectrum of 1- O- α- D-glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkkalainen, P.; Pitkänen, I.; Huuskonen, J.

    1999-11-01

    1- O- α- D-Glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1), (C 12H 24O 11) 2-C 2H 5OH, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 with unit cell dimensions a=11.4230(8) Å, b=9.525(4) Å, c=15.854(2) Å, β=102.751(7)° and V=1682.4(7) Å 3, Z=2, Dx=1.45 Mg m -3, λ (Mo-K α)=0.71069 Å, μ=0.128 mm -1, F(000)=788 and T=293(2) K. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined by least-squares calculations on F2 to R1=0.0371[ I>2 σ( I)], and 0.0930 (all data, 3542 independent reflections, Rint=0.021). There are two molecules of glucopyranosylmannitol (GPM) and one ethanol molecule in the asymmetric unit, and the glucopyranosyl ring adopts a chair conformation in both GPM molecules. Bond lengths and angles accord well with the mean values of related structures. The conformation along the mannitol side chain for one of the GPM molecules was the same as for the known polymorphs of D-mannitol, while the conformation of the other molecule was different, indicating different conformational arrangements in the terminal carbon atoms of the mannitol side chains of the two GPM molecules. The structure in 1- O- α- D-glucopyranosyl- D-mannitol-ethanol (2/1) is held together by a very complex hydrogen bonding system, which consists of an infinte chain propagating along the b-axis and a discontinuous chain, which binds the ethanol molecule to the structure. The FTIR spectra for anhydrous GPM, GPM dihydrate and GPM-ethanol (2/1) were recorded. Both IR and X-ray results indicate the extensive hydrogen bonding in crystalline state.

  3. Polyhydric alcohol protective effect on Rhizomucor miehei lipase deactivation enhanced by pressure and temperature treatment.

    PubMed

    Noël, Marilyne; Lozano, Pedro; Combes, Didier

    2005-10-01

    The influence of polyhydric alcohols (sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, glycerol) on the thermal stability of Rhizomucor miehei lipase has been studied at high hydrostatic pressure (up to 500 MPa). In the absence of additives, a protective effect (PE) (the ratio between the residual activities determined at 480 MPa for the enzyme in the presence or absence of polyhydric alcohols) of low-applied pressures (from 50 MPa to 350 MPa) against thermal deactivations (at 50 degrees C and 55 degrees C) has been noticed. In the presence of additives, a strong correlation between PE and the total hydroxyl group concentration has been obtained, for the first time, under treatments of combining denaturing temperatures and high hydrostatic pressures. This relationship does not seem to be dependent on the nature polyhydric alcohols as the same effect could be observed with 1 M sorbitol and 2 M glycerol. This PE, against thermal and high pressure combined lipase deactivation, increases with polyhydric alcohol concentrations, and when temperature increases from 25 degrees C to 55 degrees C. PMID:16044285

  4. From Alcohol Dehydrogenase to a “One-way” Carbonyl Reductase by Active-site Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Directional preference in catalysis is often used to distinguish alcohol dehydrogenases from carbonyl reductases. However, the mechanistic basis underpinning this discrimination is weak. In mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, stabilization of (partial) negative charge on the substrate oxyanion by the side chains of Asn-191 and Asn-300 is a key feature of catalysis in the direction of alcohol oxidation. We have disrupted this ability through individual and combined substitutions of the two asparagines by aspartic acid. Kinetic data and their thermodynamic analysis show that the internal equilibrium of enzyme-NADH-fructose and enzyme-NAD+-mannitol (Kint) was altered dramatically (104- to 105-fold) from being balanced in the wild-type enzyme (Kint ≈ 3) to favoring enzyme-NAD+-mannitol in the single site mutants, N191D and N300D. The change in Kint reflects a selective slowing down of the mannitol oxidation rate, resulting because Asn → Asp replacement (i) disfavors partial abstraction of alcohol proton by Lys-295 in a step preceding catalytic hydride transfer, and (ii) causes stabilization of a nonproductive enzyme-NAD+-mannitol complex. N191D and N300D appear to lose fructose binding affinity due to deprotonation of the respective Asp above apparent pK values of 5.3 ± 0.1 and 6.3 ± 0.2, respectively. The mutant incorporating both Asn→Asp substitutions behaved as a slow “fructose reductase” at pH 5.2, lacking measurable activity for mannitol oxidation in the pH range 6.8–10. A mechanism is suggested in which polarization of the substrate carbonyl by a doubly protonated diad of Asp and Lys-295 facilitates NADH-dependent reduction of fructose by N191D and N300D under optimum pH conditions. Creation of an effectively “one-way” reductase by active-site redesign of a parent dehydrogenase has not been previously reported and holds promise in the development of carbonyl reductases for application in organic synthesis. PMID:20639204

  5. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU. PMID:24628656

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  7. Application of microencapsulation for toxicology studies. I. Principles and stabilization of trichloroethylene in gelatin-sorbitol microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Melnick, R L; Jameson, C W; Goehl, T J; Kuhn, G O

    1987-05-01

    Microencapsulation is an innovative, alternative means of incorporating volatile, reactive, and/or unpalatable chemicals into animal feed for toxicologic studies. For such usage, the materials in the microcapsule shell must not adversely affect the laboratory animals, and the encapsulation process must not alter the chemical under study. Trichloroethylene (TCE), a volatile chemical identified in drinking water, was encapsulated in gelatin-sorbitol microcapsules. The concentration of TCE ranged from 40 to 43% (w/w) and most particles (approximately 85%) were between 300 and 420 micron in diameter. Under optimum storage conditions, loss of TCE from the microcapsules was less than 1% per month. Less than 2% of the TCE was lost from microcapsules held in uncovered petri dishes at ambient temperature and humidity for 14 days. Microencapsulated TCE was mixed with NIH-07 rodent feed at a level of 50 mg microcapsules/g feed (equivalent to 20.6 mg TCE/g feed) and stored at room temperature for 7 days in an open container or for 21 days in a sealed container. There was no detectable loss of TCE from the feed blends stored under these conditions. Thus, the stability of TCE in gelatin-sorbitol microcapsules is adequate for dosed-feed toxicity studies of this chemical. PMID:3609532

  8. Prevalence of sorbitol non-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Black Bengal goats on smallholdings.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M DAS; DAS, A; Islam, M Z; Biswas, P K

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bangladesh with the sampling of 514 Black Bengal goats on smallholdings to determine the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SNF) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swab samples collected from the recto-anal junction were plated onto cefixime and potassium tellurite added sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, a selective medium for STEC O157 serogroup, where this serogroup and other SNF STEC produce colourless colonies. The SNF E. coli (SNF EC) isolates obtained from the survey were investigated by PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing genes, stx1 and stx2, and two other virulence genes, eae and hlyA that code for adherence factor (intimin protein) and pore-forming cytolysin, respectively. The SNF EC isolates were also assessed for the presence of the rfbO157 gene to verify their identity to O157 serogroup. The results revealed that the proportions of goats carrying SNF EC isolates and stx1 and stx2 genes were 6·2% (32/514) [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-8·7)], 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6) and 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6), respectively. All the SNF STEC tested negative for rfbO157, hlyA and eae genes. The risk for transmission of STEC from Black Bengal goats to humans is low. PMID:27267779

  9. [Effect of sodium fluoride mouth rinses containing xylitol and sorbitol on the number of Streptococcus mutans from human saliva].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, N C; Valsecki Júnior, A; Salvador, S L; Bergamo, G C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride solutions containing 2.5% or 12.5% xylitol on the number of Streptococcus mutans in the human mouth. Fifty boys between 8 and 16 years of age participated in this double-blind crossover study. Of the original 50 boys, 33 finished the study. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. The following solutions were employed: placebo solution; 0.05% sodium fluoride solution; 0.05% sodium fluoride + 2.5% xylitol + 2% sorbitol; 0.05% sodium fluoride + 12.5% xylitol + 2% sorbitol. Each solution was used for a 28-day period (20 mL/day, twice a day), with a 10-day washout period between solutions. There were no significant differences (P = 0.32) between the two xylitol-containing solutions (2.5% vs. 12.5%) concerning the number of Streptococcus mutans. However, there was a significant difference between these two xylitol-containing solutions and the sodium fluoride and placebo solutions (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that the 0.05% sodium fluoride solutions containing either 2.5% or 12.5% xylitol caused a significant reduction in the number of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:11253275

  10. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  13. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  14. Flow, packing and compaction properties of novel coprocessed multifunctional directly compressible excipients prepared from tapioca starch and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-12-01

    Novel multifunctional excipients were prepared by coprocessing tapioca starch with mannitol using two methods viz; co-grinding and co-fusion. The flow, packing and compaction properties of the native and novel excipients were evaluated by using density, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose, the maximum volume reduction, consolidation index, the rate of consolidation, angle of internal friction, morphological properties, Heckel analysis, tensile strength and dilution potential as evaluation parameters. The study revealed that the method of coprocessing, particle size and particle shape influenced the properties of the resulting novel excipients. Co-grinding was less effective than co-fusion in the preparation of excipients with enhanced properties. The study concluded that coprocessing tapioca starch and mannitol will enhance the flow, packing and compaction properties of the novel excipient and that the co-fusion method of coprocessing would produce novel excipients with enhanced direct compression potential compared to the co-grinding method. PMID:24089696

  15. Does removing Mannitol and Voluven from the priming fluid of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit have clinical effects?

    PubMed

    Haydock, Matthew D; Kruger, Cornelis; Willcox, Timothy; Haydock, David A

    2014-03-01

    The Auckland Hospital cardiothoracic unit recently removed Mannitol and Voluven from its Plasma-lyte-based cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) priming fluid. Like with any change to practice, a comprehensive audit should be performed to identify positive or negative effects. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the effect of changing the CPB prime constituents on fluid balance and clinical outcome parameters. Clinical records were reviewed for 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 50 patients before the prime change and 50 after. All data were collated into a central database for analysis. Mean arterial pressure while on bypass was higher in the new prime group (61.5 mmHg versus 57.5 mmHg, p = .002). There was no significant difference in hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum sodium, serum potassium, or creatinine postoperatively between groups. In regard to important outcomes such as postoperative weight and fluid balance, time on ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital, and mortality, there were no significant differences. Interestingly, new prime group spent a smaller proportion of their time in the ICU on mechanical ventilation (23% versus 36%, p = .022). Mannitol and Voluven, like with all drugs, carry their own potential adverse effects. This study demonstrates that removing Mannitol and Voluven from priming fluid did not have any detrimental effect on electrolytes, fluid status, and other important outcomes in this consecutive series of patients having primary isolated CABG surgery. The risk-benefit balance combined with the obvious economic benefit clearly favors removing Mannitol and Voluven from priming fluids. PMID:24779123

  16. STYLAGE®: a range of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers containing mannitol. Physical properties and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Fonteles, Lívia Arcanjo; Lagalhard, Cecília Schubert Xavier; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula Cercal

    2013-01-01

    Dermatological procedures which are considered as being minimally invasive, such as those using injectable fillers based on hyaluronic acid, revolutionized aging treatment, especially of the face. By promoting the replacement of lost volume and attenuating grooves and wrinkles, they ensure a more youthful appearance and certain functional recovery of facial aesthetics. The authors review some of the main physicochemical characteristics of these dermal fillers, highlighting the product line Stylage®, the manufacture of which includes mannitol. PMID:24187508

  17. High T(g) bio-based aliphatic polyesters from bicyclic D-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Lavilla, Cristina; Alla, Abdelilah; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián

    2013-03-11

    The carbohydrate-based diol 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol (Manx) has been used to obtain aliphatic polyesters. Manx is a symmetric bicyclic compound consisting of two fused 1,3-dioxane rings and bearing two primary hydroxyl groups. In terms of stiffness, it is comparable to the widely known isosorbide, but it affords the additional advantages of being much more reactive in polycondensation and capable of producing stereoregular polymers with fairly high molecular weights. A fully bio-based homopolyester (PManxS) has been synthesized by polycondensation in the melt from dimethyl succinate and Manx. The high thermal stability of PManxS, its relatively high glass transition temperature (Tg = 68 °C) and elastic modulus, and its enhanced sensitivity to the action of lipases point to PManxS as a polyester of exceptional interest for those applications where biodegradability and molecular stiffness are priority requirements. In addition, random copolyesters (PBxManxyS) covering a broad range of compositions have been obtained using mixtures of Manx and 1,4-butanediol in the reaction with dimethyl succinate. All PBxManxyS were semicrystalline and displayed Tg values from -29 to +51 °C steadily increasing with the content in Manx units. The stress-strain behavior of these copolyesters largely depended on their content in Manx and they were enzymatically degraded faster than PBS. PMID:23363397

  18. Promoted hydrogen release from ammonia borane with mannitol via a solid-state reaction route.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuede; Wang, Yan; Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2012-01-21

    Promoted hydrogen release from ammonia borane (NH(3)BH(3), AB) with mannitol (C(6)H(8)(OH)(6), MA) additive is reported. It is found that for the MA/2AB sample, the dehydrogenation temperature is lowered by ~25 °C compared to that of neat AB, the liberation of undesired byproduct borazine is suppressed, and the released ammonia can be removed by using anhydrous MgCl(2) as absorber. The analyses of Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (11)B nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrate the breaking of B-N, B-H and O-H bonds and the formation of B-O bonds for the dehydrogenation process of MA/2AB. These results suggest a solid-state dehydrogenation reaction between AB and MA: the B-H(δ-) bonds in AB and the O-H(δ+) bonds in MA combine with each other to release H(2). Furthermore, the use of the perfect -OH carrier MA as additive leads to a straightforward understanding of the improved dehydrogenation of AB under the effect of hydroxyl groups in the solid state. PMID:22080403

  19. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  20. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  1. Enhancement of electric field-mediated gene delivery through pretreatment of tumors with a hyperosmotic mannitol solution.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, J; Mossop, B; Yuan, F

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields can enhance interstitial transport of plasmid DNA (pDNA) in solid tumors. However, the extent of enhancement is still limited. To this end, the effects of cellular resistance to electric field-mediated gene delivery were investigated. The investigation used two tumor cell lines (4T1 (a murine mammary carcinoma) and B16.F10 (a metastatic subline of B16 murine melanoma)) either in suspensions or implanted in two in vivo models (dorsal skin-fold chamber (DSC) and hind leg). The volume fraction of cells was altered by pretreatment with a hyperosmotic mannitol solution (1 M). It was observed that the pretreatment reduced the volumes of 4T1 and B16.F10 cells, suspended in an agarose gel, by 50 and 46%, respectively, over a 20-min period, but did not cause significant changes ex vivo in volumes of hind-leg tumor tissues grown from the same cells in mice. The mannitol pretreatment in vivo improved electric field-mediated gene delivery in the hind-leg tumor models, in terms of reporter gene expression, but resulted in minimal enhancement in pDNA electrophoresis over a few microns distance in the DSC tumor models. These data demonstrated that hyperosmotic mannitol solution could effectively improve electric field-mediated gene delivery around individual cells in vivo by increasing the extracellular space. PMID:20847751

  2. Physicochemical characterization and in vitro dissolution studies of solid dispersions of ketoprofen with PVP K30 and d-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankajkumar S; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Bhat, Hans Raj; Mazumder, B

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble, BCS class-II drug Ketoprofen (KETO) by solid-dispersion approach. Solid dispersions were prepared by using polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) and d-mannitol in different drugs to carrier ratios. Dispersions with PVP K30 were prepared by kneading and solvent evaporation techniques, whereas solid dispersions containing d-mannitol were prepared by kneading and melting techniques. These formulations were characterized in the liquid state by phase-solubility studies and in the solid state by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of KETO was favored by the presence of both carriers. The negative values of Gibbs free energy illustrate the spontaneous transfer from pure water to the aqueous polymer environment. Solid state characterization indicated KETO was present as fine particles in d-mannitol solid dispersions and entrapped in carrier matrix of PVP K30 solid dispersions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure KETO, dispersions of drug in carriers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersions prepared with PVP K30 showed the highest improvement in dissolution rate of KETO. Even physical mixtures of KETO prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure KETO. PMID:24109206

  3. Mannitol Does Not Enhance Tobramycin Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Cystic Fibrosis Model System of Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Price, Katherine E; Orazi, Giulia; Ruoff, Kathryn L; Hebert, Wesley P; O'Toole, George A; Mastoridis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a human genetic disease that results in the accumulation of thick, sticky mucus in the airways, which results in chronic, life-long bacterial biofilm infections that are difficult to clear with antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is correlated with worsening lung disease and P. aeruginosa transitions to an antibiotic tolerant state during chronic infections. Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside currently used to combat lung infections in individuals with CF. While tobramycin is effective at eradicating P. aeruginosa in the airways of young patients, it is unable to completely clear the chronic P. aeruginosa infections in older patients. A recent report showed that co-addition of tobramycin and mannitol enhanced killing of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro as a biofilm on an abiotic surface. Here we employed a model system of bacterial biofilms formed on the surface of CF-derived airway cells to determine if mannitol would enhance the antibacterial activity of tobramycin against P. aeruginosa grown on a more clinically relevant surface. Using this model system, which allows the growth of robust biofilms with high-level antibiotic tolerance analogous to in vivo biofilms, we were unable to find evidence for enhanced antibacterial activity of tobramycin with the addition of mannitol, supporting the observation that this type of co-treatment failed to reduce the P. aeruginosa bacterial load in a clinical setting. PMID:26506004

  4. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  5. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  6. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation. PMID:23604535

  7. Characterization of AgMaT2, a Plasma Membrane Mannitol Transporter from Celery, Expressed in Phloem Cells, Including Phloem Parenchyma Cells[OA

    PubMed Central

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523

  8. [Primary double contrast study of the large intestine using citrate-sorbitol-barium suspension in the diagnosis of chronic colitis].

    PubMed

    Sidorov, V S

    1991-01-01

    X-ray investigation of the colon was conducted in 292 patients with clinically diagnosed chronic colitis: standard 3-phase irrigoscopy-in 189 patients and a primary double contrast study of the colon with citrate-sorbitol-barium suspension in 103. Basing on x-ray and morphological findings, the diagnosis was confirmed in 128 patients of the 1st group (68.2%) and in 89 patients of the 2nd group (86%). The primary double contrast study of the colon was found more effective as it permitted the detection of elements of the mucosal "microcontours": transversal strips, not coinciding with haustration, focal granularity, diffuse granularity, small barium suspension "depots" or "niches", nodular granularity. It permitted the recommendation of the method for a wide clinical use. PMID:1996079

  9. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  10. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  11. The effect of mannitol on intraoperative brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of brain swelling after dural opening is high in patients with midline shift undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery. Brain swelling may result in increased intracranial pressure, impeded tumor exposure, and adverse outcomes. Mannitol is recommended as a first-line dehydration treatment to reduce brain edema and enable brain relaxation during neurosurgery. Research has indicated that mannitol enhanced brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery; however, these results need further confirmation, and the optimal mannitol dose has not yet been established. We propose to examine whether different doses of 20% mannitol improve brain relaxation in a dose-dependent manner when administered at the time of incision. We will examine patients with preexisting mass effects and midline shift undergoing elective supratentorial brain tumor surgery. Methods This is a single-center, randomized controlled, parallel group trial that will be carried out at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. Randomization will be achieved using a computer-generated table. The study will include 220 patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery whose preoperative computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging results indicate a brain midline shift. Patients in group A, group B, and group C will receive dehydration treatment at incision with 20% mannitol solutions of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.4 g/kg, respectively, at a rate of 600 mL/h. The patients in the control group will not receive mannitol. The primary outcome is an improvement in intraoperative brain relaxation and dura tension after dehydration with mannitol. Secondary outcomes are postoperative outcomes and the incidence of mannitol side effects. Discussion The aim of this study is to determine the optimal dose of 20% mannitol for intraoperative infusion. We will examine brain relaxation and outcome in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery. If our results are positive, the study

  12. Energy/temperature diagram and compression behavior of the polymorphs of D-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Burger, A; Henck, J O; Hetz, S; Rollinger, J M; Weissnicht, A A; Stöttner, H

    2000-04-01

    Three modifications of D-mannitol were produced and investigated: mod. I (mp 166.5 degrees C, heat of fusion 53.5 kJ mol(-1)), mod. II (mp 166 degrees C, heat of fusion 52.1 kJ mol(-1)), and mod. III (mp incongruent 150-158 degrees C, heat of transition, III to I 0.2 kJ mol(-1)). The measured densities are 1.490 +/- 0.000 g cm(-3) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for mod. I, 1.468 +/- 0.002 g cm(-3) (95% CI) for mod. II, and 1.499 +/- 0.004 g cm(-3) (95% CI) for mod. III. It was possible to relate the different modifications given in the literature to one of the three pure crystal forms or to mixtures of two or all three modifications. The thermodynamic relationship among the crystal forms is represented in a semi-schematic energy/temperature diagram. From these data we can conclude that mod. III is thermodynamically stable at absolute zero. It is enantiotropically related to mod. I and mod. II. FTIR and Raman spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and X-ray powder patterns of these crystal forms are depicted for doubtless assignment in the future. The water uptake of the three modifications at 92% relative humidity and 25 degrees C is less than 1%. The differences of the heat capacities and the heats of solution between mod. II and III are not significant, whereas mod. I shows small significant differences compared with the other modifications. In addition, compaction studies of these crystal forms were performed by means of an instrumented hydraulic press. The results show that mod. III should have the best tableting behavior under these conditions. PMID:10737907

  13. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  15. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  19. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  20. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOEpatents

    Chopade, Shubham P [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  1. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Sugar Alcohols Over Stuctured Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chunshe; White, James F.; Wang, Yong; Frye, John G.

    2007-01-01

    A novel gas-liquid-solid reactor based on monolith catalyst structure was developed for converting sugar alcohols to value-added chemicals such as propylene glycol. The structured catalyst was used intending to improve product selectivity. Testing at the pressure of 1200psig and 210°C with H2 to sorbitol molar ratio of 8.9 and a space velocity range from 0.15 to 5 hr-1 demonstrated that as high as 41 wt% of propylene glycol selectivity and 13 wt% ethylene glycol selectivity can be obtained. In addition, monolith catalysts gave higher C3/C2 ratio than that in the conventional trickle bed reactor with similar liquid hourly space velocities.

  2. The stimulatory effect of mannitol on levan biosynthesis: Lessons from metabolic systems analysis of Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6(T.).

    PubMed

    Ates, Ozlem; Arga, Kazim Y; Oner, Ebru Toksoy

    2013-01-01

    Halomonas smyrnensis AAD(T) is a halophilic, gram-negative bacterium that can efficiently produce levan from sucrose as carbon source via levansucrase activity. However, systems-based approaches are required to further enhance its metabolic performance for industrial application. As an important step toward this goal, the genome-scale metabolic network of Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM3043, which is considered a model organism for halophilic bacteria, has been reconstructed based on its genome annotation, physiological information, and biochemical information. In the present work, the genome-scale metabolic network of C. salexigens was recruited, and refined via integration of the available biochemical, physiological, and phenotypic features of H. smyrnensis AAD6(T) . The generic metabolic model, which comprises 1,393 metabolites and 1,108 reactions, was then systematically analyzed in silico using constraints-based simulations. To elucidate the relationship between levan biosynthesis and other metabolic processes, an enzyme-graph representation of the metabolic network and a graph decomposition technique were employed. Using the concept of control effective fluxes, significant links between several metabolic processes and levan biosynthesis were estimated. The major finding was the elucidation of the stimulatory effect of mannitol on levan biosynthesis, which was further verified experimentally via supplementation of mannitol to the fermentation medium. The optimal concentration of 30 g/L mannitol supplemented to the 50 g/L sucrose-based medium resulted in a twofold increase in levan production in parallel with increased sucrose hydrolysis rate, accumulated extracellular glucose, and decreased fructose uptake rate. PMID:24123998

  3. A novel formulation for solubility and content uniformity enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs using highly-porous mannitol.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Morteza; Ebrahimi, Amirali; Langrish, Timothy

    2016-02-15

    The present study investigates the enhancement of the dissolution rates for poorly-water soluble drugs by a new adsorption method. The results show that the current adsorption method enhanced the dissolution rate of both nifedipine and indomethacin to a significant extent by nano-confinement of drugs into the pore spaces of highly-porous excipients. Porous mannitol particles with a surface area and pore volume of 6.3±0.1m(2)g(-1) and 0.036±0.002mlg(-1), respectively, were drug loaded in two different concentrations of indomethacin and nifedipine. The results of drug loading for nifedipine showed an increase from 3.2±0.1% w/w for a 0.08M drug solution to 9.1±0.3% w/w drug loading for a 0.16M drug solution, while indomethacin had slightly better performance for the adsorption process, with 4.1±0.2% w/w and 12.6±0.4% w/w for 0.08M and 0.16M concentrations of indomethacin, respectively, in the final formulation. This result also indicated highly-uniform blends with a percentage relative standard deviation of less than 4% for drug-loaded mannitol in both nifedipine and indomethacin. This method gave a significant enhancement of the dissolution rate for both drugs due to nano-confinement of drugs into porous excipients and high solubility of porous mannitol, with 80% drug release within the first 15min for the drug-loaded samples. PMID:26687442

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Privileged Monodentate Phosphoramidite Ligands and Chiral Brønsted Acids Derived from d-Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majid, Abdullah Mohammed A.; Barakat, Assem; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of several novel chiral phosphoramidite ligands (L1–L8) with C2 symmetric, pseudo C2 symmetric secondary amines and chiral Brønsted acids 1a,b has been achieved. These chiral auxiliaries were obtained from commercially available d-mannitol, and secondary amines in moderate to excellent yields. Excellent diastereoselectivites of ten chiral auxiliaries were obtained. The chiral phosphoramidite ligands and chiral Brønsted acids were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods. PMID:22489121

  5. Analysis of ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica points out the importance of mannitol metabolism in fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Thierry; Lazar, Zbigniew; Dulermo, Rémi; Rakicka, Magdalena; Haddouche, Ramedane; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    The role of the two key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis, ATP-citrate lyase (Acl) and malic enzyme (Mae), was analyzed in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. In most oleaginous yeasts, Acl and Mae are proposed to provide, respectively, acetyl-CoA and NADPH for FA synthesis. Acl was mainly studied at the biochemical level but no strain depleted for this enzyme was analyzed in oleaginous microorganisms. On the other hand the role of Mae in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica remains unclear since it was proposed to be a mitochondrial NAD(H)-dependent enzyme and not a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent enzyme. In this study, we analyzed for the first time strains inactivated for corresponding genes. Inactivation of ACL1 decreases FA synthesis by 60 to 80%, confirming its essential role in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. Conversely, inactivation of MAE1 has no effects on FA synthesis, except in a FA overaccumulating strain where it improves FA synthesis by 35%. This result definitively excludes Mae as a major key enzyme for FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. During the analysis of both mutants, we observed a negative correlation between FA and mannitol level. As mannitol and FA pathways may compete for carbon storage, we inactivated YlSDR, encoding a mannitol dehydrogenase converting fructose and NADPH into mannitol and NADP+. The FA content of the resulting mutant was improved by 60% during growth on fructose, demonstrating that mannitol metabolism may modulate FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. PMID:25959598

  6. Impairment of blood brain barrier is related with the neuroinflammation induced peripheral immune status in intracerebroventricular colchicine injected rats: An experimental study with mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sil, Susmita; Ghosh, Arijit; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-09-01

    The neurodegeneration in AD patients may be associated with changes of peripheral immune responses. Some peripheral immune responses are altered due to neuroinflammation in colchicine induced AD (cAD) rats. The leaky blood brain barrier (BBB) in cAD-rats may be involved in inducing peripheral inflammation, though there is no report in this regard. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of BBB in cADrats by altering the BBB in a time dependent manner with injection (i.v.) of mannitol (BBB opener). The inflammatory markers in the brain and serum along with the peripheral immune responses were measured after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection in cAD rats. The results showed higher inflammatory markers in the hippocampus and serum along with alterations in peripheral immune parameters in cAD rats. Although the hippocampal inflammatory markers did not further change after mannitol injection in cAD rats, the serum inflammatory markers and peripheral immune responses were altered and these changes were greater after 60min than that of 30min of mannitol injection. The present study shows that the peripheral immune responses in cAD rats after 30 and 60min of mannitol injection are related to magnitude of impairment of BBB in these conditions. It can be concluded from this study that impairment of BBB in cAD rats is related to the changes of peripheral immune responses observed in that condition. PMID:27288705

  7. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    PubMed

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50 mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0 g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results

  8. Effects of water on the primary and secondary relaxation of xylitol and sorbitol: Implication on the origin of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psurek, T.; Maslanka, S.; Paluch, M.; Nozaki, R.; Ngai, K. L.

    2004-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was employed to study the effects of water on the primary α -relaxation and the secondary β -relaxation of xylitol. The measurements were made on anhydrous xylitol and mixtures of xylitol with water with three different water concentrations over a temperature range from 173K to 293K . The α -relaxation speeds up with increasing concentration of water in xylitol, whereas the rate of the β -relaxation is essentially unchanged. Some systematic differences in the behavior of α -relaxation for anhydrous xylitol and the mixtures were observed. Our findings confirm all the observations of Nozaki [R. Nozaki, H. Zenitani, A. Minoguchi, and K. Kitai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 307, 349 (2002)] in sorbitol/water mixtures. Effects of water on both the α - and β -relaxation dynamics in xylitol and sorbitol are explained by using the coupling model.

  9. Nissui Glucose Fermentative Gram-Negative Rod Identification System EB-20 Gives a Unique Profile for Typical Non-Sorbitol-Fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Kodaka, H.; Uesaka, Y.; Kashitani, F.

    2004-01-01

    The 98 non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains identified on a Nissui glucose fermentative gram-negative rod identification system (EB-20) gave a unique biochemical profile number that was not detected in 85 pathogenic and 13 nonpathogenic E. coli strains. Thus, EB-20 is useful for the identification of NSF E. coli O157:H7 and provides a simple, cost-effective, and reliable tool for clinical laboratories. PMID:14715777

  10. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar O157 versus Sorbitol-MacConkey Medium for Routine Detection of Escherichia coli O157 in a Centralized Regional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory▿

    PubMed Central

    Church, D. L.; Emshey, D.; Semeniuk, H.; Lloyd, T.; Pitout, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of BBL CHROMagar O157 (CHROM) versus that of sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) media for detection of Escherichia coli O157 was determined for a 3-month period. Results for 27/3,116 (0.9%) stool cultures were positive. CHROM had a higher sensitivity (96.30%) and negative predictive value (100%) and a better diagnostic efficiency than SMAC. Labor and material costs decreased when CHROM was used. PMID:17634298

  11. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  12. The effect of the addition of sorbitol and glycerol towards the edible film characteristics of the belitung taro starch and the lime leaves as antimicrobial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asria, Merry; Elizarni, Samah, dan Selfa Dewati

    2015-12-01

    Plastics have been generally used for food packaging, but plastics using causing environmental problem for as non biodegradable. Resolving the problem need another alternative packaging that environmental friendly such as the edible film as biodegradable packing material. This research intend to determination the effects of sorbitol and glycerol (concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) as addition to the edible film characteristics from the belitung taro starch (Xanthosoma sagitifolium). Lime leaves (Citrus aurantifolia) extract used as an antimicrobial film (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% respectively). From the research obtained that using sorbitol has given more rigid and hard film texture, while glycerol provides more elastic and flexible texture. Sorbitol give best performance at 2% where thickness 0.17 mm; tensile strength 41.60 MPa; yield strength 34.28 MPa; modulus of elasticity 7983.71 MPa; and maximum strain 29,8%. While, glycerol (2%) provides thickness 0.18 mm; tensile strength 35.72 MPa; yield strength 30.78 MPa; modulus of elasticity 9065.90 MPa; and maximum strain 14.4% for best performance. SEM and FTIR analysis applied to determine film surface morphology's characterization and determine the functional groups of the film materials. The addition of lime leaves extract as antimicrobial gives the growth inhibition activity against the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  13. The combination of mannitol and albumin in the priming solution reduces positive intraoperative fluid balance during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, I R; Curtis, A P

    1995-09-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) an adequate reservoir volume is maintained by the addition of crystalloid, colloid or packed cells to the reservoir. This volume contributes to the overall perioperative positive fluid balance. We studied the effect of the preoperative addition of either 75 g albumin, or 50 g mannitol followed by 50 g at commencement of rewarming or both of the above to a bypass circuit prime of lactated Ringer's solution (LR) on intraoperative fluid balance, postoperative indices of oxygenation and time to extubation. The study was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded controlled trial of 103 patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring CPB. There was a large and highly significant reduction in volume of fluid added to the reservoir during CPB (2137 +/- 1499 ml versus 144 +/- 230 ml), the fluid balance during bypass, including prime volume (3236 +/- 650 ml versus 5876 +/- 1465 ml), and perioperative fluid balance (4470 +/- 936 ml versus 7023 +/- 1760 ml) in the group receiving both mannitol and albumin in the pump prime compared with the group receiving only lactated Ringer's solution. There were no differences between the groups with respect to both measured indices of oxygenation measured on return to ICU (alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (DA-aO2) or arterial oxygen tension to inspired oxygen fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2), or time from ICU admission to extubation. PMID:8601041

  14. Genotype comparison of sorbitol-negative Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens from different commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, B; Gattuso, M; Moisan, H; Malouin, F; Diarra, M S

    2009-07-01

    Hybridization on arrays was used to assess the presence of virulence-associated genes and to determine the relatedness of 32 non-O157 sorbitol-negative Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens. These isolates were from commercial farms that used feed supplemented with different antimicrobial agents (virginiamycin, bacitracin, salinomycin, narasin, nicarbazin, or diclazuril). For each isolate, fluorescent probes were made from genomic DNA and were hybridized on DNA arrays composed of genes associated with general functions, virulence, iron uptake systems, and DNA repair genes (e.g., mut genes). Hybridization on arrays results showed that isolates from the same farm tended to be clustered but actually represented 18 genetically distinct groups of isolates. Results revealed that some isolates showed similarity to human uropathogenic E. coli or avian pathogenic E. coli. Four avian pathogenic E. coli-like isolates were detected. Another isolate possessed the intimin gene (eaeA) and typical genes of the type 3 secretion system associated with enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Genes from a second system (secondary type 3 secretion system) homologous to that found in Salmonella Typhimurium were detected in many isolates. Several of the studied isolates also possessed the aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin genes involved in iron acquisition in pathogenic bacteria. Our results clearly suggest that commensal E. coli isolates from chickens are reservoirs of virulence-associated genes and may represent colibacillosis and zoonotic risks. PMID:19531720

  15. Dry powder inhalers: physicochemical and aerosolization properties of several size-fractions of a promising alterative carrier, freeze-dried mannitol.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2015-02-20

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and inhalation characteristics of different size fractions of a promising carrier, i.e., freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). FDM was prepared and sieved into four size fractions. FDMs were then characterized in terms of micromeritic, solid-state and bulk properties. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were prepared using salbutamol sulphate (SS) and then evaluated in terms of drug content homogeneity and in vitro aerosolization performance. The results showed that the crystalline state of mannitol was maintained following freeze-drying for all size fractions of FDM. All FDM particles showed elongated morphology and contained mixtures of α-, β- and δ-mannitol. In comparison to small FDM particles, FDMs with larger particle sizes demonstrated narrower size distributions, higher bulk and tap densities, lower porosities and better flowability. Regardless of particle size, all FDMs generated a significantly higher (2.2-2.9-fold increase) fine particle fraction (FPF, 37.5 ± 0.9%-48.6 ± 2.8%) of SS in comparison to commercial mannitol. The FPFs of SS were related to the shape descriptors of FDM particles; however, FPFs did not prove quantitative apparent relationships with either particle size or powder bulk descriptors. Large FDM particles were more favourable than smaller particles because they produced DPI formulations with better flowability, better drug content homogeneity, lower amounts of the drug depositing on the throat and contained lower fine-particle-mannitol. Optimized stable DPI formulations with superior physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties can be achieved using larger particles of freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). PMID:25497318

  16. Freeze-drying of mannitol-trehalose-sodium chloride-based formulations: the impact of annealing on dry layer resistance to mass transfer and cake structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Pikal, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the mechanism by which annealing increases the primary drying time in mannitol-trehalose-sodium chloride-based formulations. The thermal events occurring during annealing and the glass transition of the frozen solutions were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Manometric temperature measurement was used to evaluate the dry layer resistances during primary drying. The morphologies of the freeze-dried cakes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degrees of crystallinity of mannitol and sodium chloride (NaCl) in freeze-dried cakes were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC results indicated that annealing during freezing did not increase the glass transition temperature (Tg') significantly, but there was a distinct decrease of deltaCp at Tg' with annealing, suggesting a decrease in amorphous content. SEM revealed that most mannitol crystallized as the delta-form during annealing at -23 degrees C, and further crystallized as the alpha-form, together with NaCl crystallization, during subsequent annealing at -33 degrees C. The powder XRD results demonstrated that annealing caused crystal growth of mannitol and NaCl, and thus prevented the partial collapse observed without annealing. However, the highly crystallized mannitol blocked the pathways for water vapor escape, contributing to the increase in the dry layer resistance and thus the longer times for primary drying. Freeze-dried cakes without annealing had lower dry layer resistances because partial collapse created larger channels for water vapor escape. Therefore, two-step annealing in freezing makes mannitol-trehalose-sodium chloride-based formulations robust in freeze-drying, but annealing increases the dry layer resistances, thereby extending primary drying. PMID:15000469

  17. Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic media effects on polyols.

    PubMed

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Conway, Barbara R; Hajamohaideen, Mohamed J; Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali; Larhrib, Hassan

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of drug products with alcohol can have an adverse effect on drug levels in a patient's blood. The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) issued an alert in 2005 after hydromorphone was withdrawn from the market after clinical trials showed ingestion with alcohol to potentially result in lethal drug peak plasma concentrations. The potential impact of alcohol on extended release (ER) tablet matrices and the need to develop ER matrices robust to alcohol effects has then been of interest. This study investigated the compaction properties of polyols and their effect on drug release. Polyols (erythritol, xylitol, mannitol and maltitol) with increasing hydroxyl groups were used as diluents for HPMC matrices containing theophylline. Release profiles were determined in pH 1.2 and 6.8 dissolution media with hydro-alcoholic concentrations of 5-40%. Increases in the polyols' hydroxyl groups brought about an increase in tablet strength and a decrease in the drug release rates. This is likely due to stronger bond formation with increasing hydroxyls. The impact of alcohol on drug release was studied further for maltitol formulations. Maltitol was resilient to the presence of ethanol (5-40% v/v) at pH 1.2 (f2=57-74) but not at pH 6.8 (f2=36-48). Drug release was not different above 5% alcohol concentration at pH 6.8. The results of this in vitro study suggest that ethanol concentrations as high as 40% do not substantially alter the drug release properties of theophylline from maltitol matrix tablets. However, care and consideration should be given to the choice of polyol or mixture of polyols in obtaining a desired drug release profile. PMID:23777788

  18. Quantification of myo-inositol, 1,5-anhydro- D-sorbitol, and D-chiro-inositol using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in very small volume clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Karen J; Meek, Claudia C; Leff, Richard D; Phelps, Dale L; Schmitz, Daniel J; Cordle, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    Inositol is a six-carbon sugar alcohol and is one of nine biologically significant isomers of hexahydroxycyclohexane. Myo-inositol is the primary biologically active form and is present in higher concentrations in the fetus and newborn than in adults. It is currently being examined for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity in newborn preterm infants. A robust method for quantifying myo-inositol (MI), D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and 1,5-anhydro- D-sorbitol (ADS) in very small-volume (25 μL) urine, blood serum and/or plasma samples was developed. Using a multiple-column, multiple mobile phase liquid chromatographic system with electrochemical detection, the method was validated with respect to (a) selectivity, (b) accuracy/recovery, (c) precision/reproducibility, (d) sensitivity, (e) stability and (f) ruggedness. The standard curve was linear and ranged from 0.5 to 30 mg/L for each of the three analytes. Above-mentioned performance measures were within acceptable limits described in the Food and Drug Administration's Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation. The method was validated using blood serum and plasma collected using four common anticoagulants, and also by quantifying the accuracy and sensitivity of MI measured in simulated urine samples recovered from preterm infant diaper systems. The method performs satisfactorily measuring the three most common inositol isomers on 25 μL clinical samples of serum, plasma, milk, and/or urine. Similar performance is seen testing larger volume samples of infant formulas and infant formula ingredients. MI, ADS and DCI may be accurately tested in urine samples collected from five different preterm infant diapers if the urine volume is greater than 2-5 mL. PMID:26010453

  19. Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Hu, Jianli; Wang, Yong; Werpy, Todd A.; Zhang, Xinjie

    2010-01-19

    The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

  20. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  1. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  2. Development of inhalable hyaluronan/mannitol composite dry powders for flucytosine repositioning in local therapy of lung infections.

    PubMed

    Costabile, G; d'Angelo, I; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, R; Mitidieri, E; Pompili, B; Del Porto, P; Leoni, L; Visca, P; Miro, A; Quaglia, F; Imperi, F; Sorrentino, R; Ungaro, F

    2016-09-28

    Flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine, 5-FC) is a fluorinated analogue of cytosine currently approved for the systemic treatment of fungal infections, which has recently demonstrated a very promising antivirulence activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we propose novel inhalable hyaluronic acid (HA)/mannitol composite dry powders for repositioning 5-FC in the local treatment of lung infections, including those affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Different dry powders were produced in one-step by spray-drying. Powder composition and process conditions were selected after in depth formulation studies aimed at selecting the 5-FC/HA/mannitol formulation with convenient aerosolization properties and drug release profile in simulated lung fluids. The optimized 5-FC/HA/mannitol powder for inhalation (HyaMan_FC#3) was effectively delivered from different breath-activated dry powder inhalers (DPI) already available to CF patients. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic assessment of fine particles suggested that the developed formulation well fit with a low-resistance DPI. HyaMan_FC#3 inhibited the growth of the fungus Candida albicans and the production of the virulence factor pyoverdine by P. aeruginosa at 5-FC concentrations that did not affect the viability of both wild type (16HBE14o-) and CF (CFBE41o-) human bronchial epithelial cells. Finally, pharmacokinetics of HyaMan_FC#3 inhalation powder and 5-FC solution after intratracheal administration in rats were compared. In vivo results clearly demonstrated that, when formulated as dry powder, 5-FC levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were significantly higher and sustained over time as compared to those obtained with the 5-FC solution. Of note, when the same 5-FC amount was administered intravenously, no significant drug amount was found in the lung at each time point from the injection. To realize a 5-FC lung concentration similar to that obtained by using HyaMan_FC#3

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  4. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  5. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  7. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  8. Mannitol alleviates chromium toxicity in wheat plants in relation to growth, yield, stimulation of anti-oxidative enzymes, oxidative stress and Cr uptake in sand and soil media.

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Iqbal, Muhammad; Aslam Bharwana, Saima; Siddiqi, Zeenat; Farid, Mujahid; Ali, Qasim; Saeed, Rashid; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the most phytotoxic metals in the agricultural soils and its concentration is continuously increasing mainly through anthropogenic activities. Little is known on the role of mannitol (M) on plant growth and physiology under metal stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of growth amelioration and antioxidant enzyme activities in Cr-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lasani 2008) by exogenously applied mannitol. For this, wheat seedlings were sown in pots containing soil or sand and subjected to increasing Cr concentration (0, 0.25 and 0.5mM) in the form of of K2Cr2O7 with and without foliar application of 100mM mannitol. Plants were harvested after four months and data regarding growth characteristics, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant enzymes were recorded. Mannitol application increased plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes while decreased Cr uptake and accumulation in plants as compared to Cr treatments alone. In this study, we observed that M applied exogenously to Cr-stressed wheat plants, which normally cannot synthesize M, improved their Cr tolerance by increasing growth, photosynthetic pigments and enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and by decreasing Cr uptake and translocation in wheat plants. From this study, it can be concluded that M could be used to grow crops on marginally contaminated soils for which separate remediation techniques are time consuming and not cost effective. PMID:26164268

  9. Single-droplet evaporation kinetics and particle formation in an acoustic levitator. Part 2: drying kinetics and particle formation from microdroplets of aqueous mannitol, trehalose, or catalase.

    PubMed

    Schiffter, Heiko; Lee, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    A single droplet drying acoustic levitator has been used to examine the drying behavior of droplets of pharmaceutically relevant solutes used to produce protein-loaded particles via spray-drying. The drying behavior of solution droplets of mannitol, trehalose, or catalase was determined. Evidence of super-saturation of the solute in the droplet surface up to the critical point of drying was obtained. The trehalose achieves a lower degree of super-saturation than does the mannitol before precipitating at the droplet surface. This results in a shorter duration of the constant-rate period, but protracted further drying of this amorphous material. Mannitol achieved a higher degree of super-saturation, and a later critical point with shorter falling-rate period. Measurements of dried particle radius showed that both solutes form hollow particles. The catalase formed holed, hollow particles with characteristic drying rate profiles that correlated well with developing particle morphology. A strong similarity between the morphologies of dried particles of mannitol, trehalose, or catalase produced either in the levitator or in a spray-dryer was found. PMID:17523166

  10. Microautoradiographic localisation of [3H]sucrose and [3H]mannitol in Robinia pseudoacacia pulvinar tissues during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure.

    PubMed

    Moysset, L; Llambrich, E; López-Iglesias, C; Simón, E

    2006-11-01

    We have analysed the incorporation of [(3)H]sucrose and [(3)H]mannitol in pulvinar motor cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L. during phytochrome-mediated nyctinastic closure. Pairs of leaflets, excised 2 h after the beginning of the photoperiod, were fed with 50 mM [(3)H]sucrose or [(3)H]mannitol, irradiated with red (15 min) or far-red (5 min) light and placed in the dark for 2-3 h. Label uptake was measured in whole pulvini by liquid scintillation counting. The distribution of labelling in pulvinar sections was assessed by both light and electron microautoradiography. [(3)H]Sucrose uptake was twice that of [(3)H]mannitol incorporation in both red- and far-red-irradiated pulvini. In the autoradiographs, [(3)H]sucrose and [(3)H]mannitol labelling was localised in the area from the vascular bundle to the epidermis, mainly in vacuoles, cytoplasm, and cell walls. Extensor and flexor protoplasts displayed a different distribution of [(3)H]sucrose after red and far-red irradiation. Far-red light drastically reduced the [(3)H]sucrose incorporation in extensor protoplasts and caused a slight increase in internal flexor protoplasts. After red light treatment, no differences in [(3)H]sucrose labelling were found between extensor and flexor protoplasts. Our results indicate a phytochrome control of sucrose distribution in cortical motor cells and seem to rule out the possibility of sucrose acting as an osmoticum. PMID:17102931

  11. Intra-Arterial Delivery of AAV Vectors to the Mouse Brain After Mannitol Mediated Blood Brain Barrier Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Santillan, Alejandro; Sondhi, Dolan; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Ballon, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutics to neural tissue is greatly hindered by the blood brain barrier (BBB). Direct local delivery via diffusive release from degradable implants or direct intra-cerebral injection can bypass the BBB and obtain high concentrations of the therapeutic in the targeted tissue, however the total volume of tissue that can be treated using these techniques is limited. One treatment modality that can potentially access large volumes of neural tissue in a single treatment is intra-arterial (IA) injection after osmotic blood brain barrier disruption. In this technique, the therapeutic of interest is injected directly into the arteries that feed the target tissue after the blood brain barrier has been disrupted by exposure to a hyperosmolar mannitol solution, permitting the transluminal transport of the therapy. In this work we used contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of IA injections in mice to establish parameters that allow for extensive and reproducible BBB disruption. We found that the volume but not the flow rate of the mannitol injection has a significant effect on the degree of disruption. To determine whether the degree of disruption we observed with this method was sufficient for delivery of nanoscale therapeutics, we performed IA injections of an adeno-associated viral vector containing the CLN2 gene (AAVrh.10CLN2), which is mutated in the lysosomal storage disorder Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL). We demonstrated that IA injection of AAVrh.10CLN2 after BBB disruption can achieve widespread transgene production in the mouse brain after a single administration. Further, we showed that there exists a minimum threshold of BBB disruption necessary to permit the AAV.rh10 vector to pass into the brain parenchyma from the vascular system. These results suggest that IA administration may be used to obtain widespread delivery of nanoscale therapeutics throughout the murine brain after a single

  12. Intra-arterial delivery of AAV vectors to the mouse brain after mannitol mediated blood brain barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Foley, Conor P; Rubin, David G; Santillan, Alejandro; Sondhi, Dolan; Dyke, Jonathan P; Gobin, Y Pierre; Crystal, Ronald G; Ballon, Douglas J

    2014-12-28

    The delivery of therapeutics to neural tissue is greatly hindered by the blood brain barrier (BBB). Direct local delivery via diffusive release from degradable implants or direct intra-cerebral injection can bypass the BBB and obtain high concentrations of the therapeutic in the targeted tissue, however the total volume of tissue that can be treated using these techniques is limited. One treatment modality that can potentially access large volumes of neural tissue in a single treatment is intra-arterial (IA) injection after osmotic blood brain barrier disruption. In this technique, the therapeutic of interest is injected directly into the arteries that feed the target tissue after the blood brain barrier has been disrupted by exposure to a hyperosmolar mannitol solution, permitting the transluminal transport of the therapy. In this work we used contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of IA injections in mice to establish parameters that allow for extensive and reproducible BBB disruption. We found that the volume but not the flow rate of the mannitol injection has a significant effect on the degree of disruption. To determine whether the degree of disruption that we observed with this method was sufficient for delivery of nanoscale therapeutics, we performed IA injections of an adeno-associated viral vector containing the CLN2 gene (AAVrh.10CLN2), which is mutated in the lysosomal storage disorder Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (LINCL). We demonstrated that IA injection of AAVrh.10CLN2 after BBB disruption can achieve widespread transgene production in the mouse brain after a single administration. Further, we showed that there exists a minimum threshold of BBB disruption necessary to permit the AAV.rh10 vector to pass into the brain parenchyma from the vascular system. These results suggest that IA administration may be used to obtain widespread delivery of nanoscale therapeutics throughout the murine brain after a single

  13. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  14. Lactulose:Mannitol Diagnostic Test by HPLC and LC-MSMS Platforms: Considerations for Field Studies of Intestinal Barrier Function and Environmental Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwenyth O.; Kosek, Peter; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Singh, Ravinder; Yori, Pablo P.; Olortegui, Maribel P.; Lamsam, Jesse L.; Oliveira, Domingos B.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The lactulose:mannitol (L:M) diagnostic test is frequently used in field studies of environmental enteropathy (EE); however, heterogeneity in test administration and disaccharide measurement has limited the comparison of results between studies and populations. We aim to assess the agreement between L:M measurement between high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPLC-PAD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) platforms. Methods: The L:M test was administered in a cohort of Peruvian infants considered at risk for EE. A total of 100 samples were tested for lactulose and mannitol at 3 independent laboratories: 1 running an HPLC-PAD platform and 2 running LC-MSMS platforms. Agreement between the platforms was estimated. Results: The Spearman correlation between the 2 LC-MSMS platforms was high (ρ ≥ 0.89) for mannitol, lactulose, and the L:M ratio. The correlation between the HPLC-PAD platform and LC-MSMS platform was ρ = 0.95 for mannitol, ρ = 0.70 for lactulose, and ρ = 0.43 for the L:M ratio. In addition, the HPLC-PAD platform overestimated the lowest disaccharide concentrations to the greatest degree. Conclusions: Given the large analyte concentration range, the improved accuracy of LC-MSMS has important consequences for the assessment of lactulose and mannitol following oral administration in populations at risk for EE. We recommend that researchers wishing to implement a dual-sugar test as part of a study of EE use an LC-MSMS platform to optimize the accuracy of results and increase comparability between studies. PMID:24941958

  15. An equiosmolar study on early intracranial physiology and long term outcome in severe traumatic brain injury comparing mannitol and hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Jagannatha, Aniruddha Tekkatte; Sriganesh, Kamath; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Rao, Ganne Sesha Umamaheswara

    2016-05-01

    The impact of hypertonic saline (HTS) on long term control of intracranial hypertension (ICH) is yet to be established. The current prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in 38 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Over 450 episodes of refractory ICH were treated with equiosmolar boluses of 20% mannitol in 20 patients and 3.0% HTS in 18 subjects. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was monitored for 6days. ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were comparable between the groups. The mannitol group had a progressive increase in the ICP over the study period (p=0.01). A similar increase was not seen in the HTS group (p=0.1). The percentage time for which the ICP remained below a threshold of 20 mmHg on day6 was higher in the HTS group (63% versus 49%; p=0.3). The duration of inotrope requirement in the HTS group was less compared to the mannitol group (p=0.06). The slope of fall in ICP in response to a bolus dose at a given baseline value of ICP was higher with HTS compared to mannitol (p=0.0001). In-hospital mortality tended to be lower in the HTS group (3 versus 10; p=0.07) while mortality at 6 months was not different between the groups (6 versus 10; p=0.41). Dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale scores at 6months were comparable between the groups (p=0.21). To conclude, immediate physiological advantages seen with HTS over mannitol did not translate into long term benefit on ICP/CPP control or mortality of patients with TBI. PMID:26924183

  16. The effect of taste masking agents on in situ gelling pectin formulations for oral sustained delivery of paracetamol and ambroxol.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shozo; Kubo, Wataru; Itoh, Kunihiko; Konno, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Mariko; Dairaku, Masatake; Togashi, Mitsuo; Mikami, Ryozo; Attwood, David

    2005-06-13

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polyhydric alcohols (taste masking agents) on the rheological properties of in situ gelling pectin formulations and on the in vitro and in vivo release of paracetamol and ambroxol from these formulations. Gelation of orally administered pectin solutions containing calcium in complexed form occurred on release of calcium in the acidic environment of the stomach. Inclusion of 10% (w/v) sorbitol in 2% (w/v) pectin sols reduced the viscosity and ensured Newtonian flow properties. Xylitol and mannitol in similar concentrations were less effective in reducing viscosity; sucrose increased viscosity and caused non-Newtonian flow. The in vitro release of paracetamol from 2% (w/v) pectin gels formulated with 10% (w/v) of sorbitol, erythritol, xylitol or mannitol, and of ambroxol from 2% (w/v) pectin gels containing 10% (w/v) sorbitol, followed diffusion-controlled kinetics. Pectin gels (2%, w/v) containing sorbitol (10%, w/v) sustained the release of paracetamol in the rat stomach and bioavailabilities of approximately 90% of those from an orally administered paracetamol syrup were achieved. Sustained release of ambroxol from in situ gelling formulations was achieved with pectin concentrations of 1.5 and 1% (w/v) and a sorbitol concentration of 10% (w/v). PMID:15907595

  17. The impact of hot-melt extrusion on the tableting behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Grymonpré, W; De Jaeghere, W; Peeters, E; Adriaensens, P; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-02-10

    There is evidence that processing techniques like hot-melt extrusion (HME) could alter the mechanical properties of pharmaceuticals, which may impede further processability (e.g. tableting). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if HME has an impact on the tableting behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-formulations. Mixtures of partially hydrolysed PVA grades (with a hydroxylation degree of 75 and 88%) and sorbitol (0, 10 and 40%) were extruded, (cryo-) milled and compressed into compacts of 350 ± 10 mg. Before compression all intermediate products were characterized for their solid-state (Tg, Tm, crystallinity) and material properties (particle size, moisture content, moisture sorption). Because both PVA-grades required higher extrusion temperatures (i.e. 180 °C), sorbitol was added to PVA as plasticizing agent to allow extrusion at 140 °C. Compaction experiments were performed on both physical mixtures and cryo-milled extrudates of PVA-sorbitol. By measuring tablet tensile strength and porosity in function of compaction pressure, tableting behaviour was compared before and after HME by means of the CTC-profiles (compressibility, tabletability, compactibility). A higher amorphous content in the formulation (as a result of HME) negatively influenced the tableting behaviour (i.e. lower tablet tensile strength). HME altered the mechanical properties towards more elastically deforming materials, thereby increasing tablet elastic recovery during decompression. The lower tensile strengths resulted from a combined effect of less interparticulate bonding areas (because of higher elastic recovery) and weaker bonding strengths per unit bonding area (between glassy particles). PMID:26691654

  18. Plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Brown, Alan R; Mewburn, Ben R; Clarke, David J; Fry, Stephen C; Campopiano, Dominic J; Govan, John R W

    2008-08-01

    The species that presently constitute the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. Since the first description of pathogenicity in the Bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the Bcc. Many Bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when onion tissue was provided as the sole nutrient. EPS production was not species-specific, was observed in isolates from both clinical and environmental sources, and did not correlate with the ability to cause maceration of onion tissue. Chemical analysis suggested that the onion components responsible for EPS induction were primarily the carbohydrates sucrose, fructose and fructans. Additional sugars were investigated, and all alcohol sugars tested were able to induce EPS production, in particular mannitol and glucitol. To investigate the molecular basis for EPS biosynthesis, we focused on the highly conserved bce gene cluster thought to be involved in cepacian biosynthesis. We demonstrated induction of the bce gene cluster by mannitol, and found a clear correlation between the inability of representatives of the Burkholderia cenocepacia ET12 lineage to produce EPS and the presence of an 11 bp deletion within the bceB gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase. Insertional inactivation of bceB in Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD results in loss of EPS production on sugar alcohol media. These novel and surprising insights into EPS biosynthesis highlight the metabolic potential of the Bcc and show that a potential virulence factor may not be detected by routine laboratory culture. Our results also highlight a potential hazard in the use of inhaled mannitol as an osmolyte to improve mucociliary clearance in individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18667584

  19. Salivary mutans streptococci and dental caries in three-year-old children after maternal exposure to chewing gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine, and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Thorild, Ingrid; Lindau, Britt; Twetman, Svante

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal use of chewing gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine, and fluoride on salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts and caries prevalence in the mothers' 3-year-old children. After screening 416 women with newborn babies, 173 mothers with high counts of salivary MS were randomly assigned into 3 experimental chewing gum groups containing (A) xylitol (n = 61), (B) chlorhexidine/xylitol/sorbitol (n = 55), and (C) sodium fluoride/xylitol/ sorbitol (n = 57). Mothers with low or medium MS counts formed a reference group (D) without any intervention (n = 232). The participants in the experimental groups were instructed to chew one piece of the gum for 5 min 3 times a day. The chewing regimen started when the child was 6 months old and was terminated 1 year later. The outcome measures were salivary MS counts and caries prevalence at the age of 3 years. Bacterial enumeration was carried out with a chair-side technique and caries (defs) was scored by clinical examination. Medium and high counts of salivary MS were found in 13%, 16%, and 22% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The mean defs was 0.1 in group A, 0.2 in group B, and 0.4 in group C. The differences concerning salivary MS and caries were not statistically significant. The MS counts and caries prevalence in children of mothers with low MS counts (group D) were similar to those found in groups A and B. In conclusion, lower but non-significant levels of salivary MS and dental decay were observed in 3-year-old children to mothers who used high-content xylitol gums compared with those who used lower amounts of xylitol. The efficiency of this type of targeted intervention in a low-caries community may be questioned. PMID:15841810

  20. Influence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.

    PubMed

    Carly, F; Niu, H; Delvigne, F; Fickers, P

    2016-04-01

    High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (<4 % DO). Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work. PMID:26790417

  1. Secretory production of an FAD cofactor-containing cytosolic enzyme (sorbitol-xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor) using the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Sandra; Oertel, Dan; Bongaerts, Johannes; Evers, Stefan; Hellmuth, Hendrik; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Bott, Michael; Freudl, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Carbohydrate oxidases are biotechnologically interesting enzymes that require a tightly or covalently bound cofactor for activity. Using the industrial workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum as the expression host, successful secretion of a normally cytosolic FAD cofactor-containing sorbitol-xylitol oxidase from Streptomyces coelicolor was achieved by using the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) protein export machinery for protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results demonstrate for the first time that, also for cofactor-containing proteins, a secretory production strategy is a feasible and promising alternative to conventional intracellular expression strategies. PMID:23163932

  2. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  3. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  4. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  5. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  6. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  7. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  8. An open-label study examining the effect of pharmacological treatment on mannitol- and exercise-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mannitol- and exercise bronchial provocation tests are both used to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The study aim was to compare the short-term treatment response to budesonide and montelukast on airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol challenge test and to exercise challenge test in children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods Patients were recruited from a paediatric asthma rehabilitation clinic located in the Swiss Alps. Individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and a positive result in the exercise challenge test underwent mannitol challenge test on day 0. All subjects then received a treatment with 400 μg budesonide and bronchodilators as needed for 7 days, after which exercise- and mannitol-challenge tests were repeated (day 7). Montelukast was then added to the previous treatment and both tests were repeated again after 7 days (day 14). Results Of 26 children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, 14 had a positive exercise challenge test at baseline and were included in the intervention study. Seven of 14 (50%) also had a positive mannitol challenge test. There was a strong correlation between airway responsiveness to exercise and to mannitol at baseline (r = 0.560, p = 0.037). Treatment with budesonide and montelukast decreased airway hyperresponsiveness to exercise challenge test and to a lesser degree to mannitol challenge test. The fall in forced expiratory volume in one second during exercise challenge test was 21.7% on day 0 compared to 6.7% on day 14 (p = 0.001) and the mannitol challenge test dose response ratio was 0.036%/mg on day 0 compared to 0.013%/mg on day 14 (p = 0.067). Conclusion Short-term treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid and an additional leukotriene receptor antagonist in children and adolescents with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction decreases airway hyperresponsiveness to exercise and to mannitol. PMID:25084607

  9. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  10. Surface crystallographic dependence of voltammetric oxidation of polyhydric alcohols and related systems at monocrystalline gold-acidic aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Antoinette; Ho, Yeunghaw; Chang, Si-Chung; Gao, Xiaoping; Weaver, Michael J.

    1992-02-01

    The voltammetric oxidation in aqueous 0.1 Molar perchloric acid of four polyhydric alcohols, ethylene glycol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, and d-mannitol, on seven oriented gold surfaces is reported with the objective of assessing the role of surface crystallographic orientation on the catalytic electrooxidation of such poly-functional reactants. The automatically well-ordered nature of these gold surfaces has been scrutinized by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the Au(221) and (533) faces were selected since they provide stepped surfaces, 4(111)-(111) and 4(111)-(100), respectively. The results are compared with corresponding data for simple unifunctional reactants, specifically for formic acid oxidation and with results reported previously for carbon monoxide oxidation. In contrast to the last reaction, the electrooxidation rates for both the polyhydric alcoholic and formic acid are greatest on Au(111), with Au(110) displaying unusually low activity. While formic acid electrooxidation is insensitive to the presence of monoatomic surface steps, the polyhydric alcohols (especially mannitol) are substantially less reactive on AU(221) and (533) relative to Au(111).

  11. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  12. Protein crowding in solution, frozen and freeze-dried states: small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering study of lysozyme/sorbitol/water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Susan; Khodadadi, Sheila; Clark, Nicholas; McAuley, Arnold; Cristiglio, Viviana; Theyencheri, Narayanan; Curtis, Joseph; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2015-03-01

    For effective preservation, proteins are often stored as frozen solutions or in glassy states using a freeze-drying process. However, aggregation is often observed after freeze-thaw or reconstitution of freeze-dried powder and the stability of the protein is no longer assured. In this study, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) have been used to investigate changes in protein-protein interaction distances of a model protein/cryoprotectant system of lysozyme/sorbitol/water, under representative pharmaceutical processing conditions. The results demonstrate the utility of SAXS and SANS methods to monitor protein crowding at different stages of freezing and drying. The SANS measurements of solution samples showed at least one protein interaction peak corresponding to an interaction distance of ~ 90 Å. In the frozen state, two protein interaction peaks were observed by SANS with corresponding interaction distances at 40 Å as well as 90 Å. On the other hand, both SAXS and SANS data for freeze-dried samples showed three peaks, suggesting interaction distances ranging from ~ 15 Å to 170 Å. Possible interpretations of these interaction peaks will be discussed, as well as the role of sorbitol as a cryoprotectant during the freezing and drying process.

  13. Phase I study using desferrioxamine and iron sorbitol citrate in an attempt to modulate the iron status of tumor cells to enhance doxorubicin activity.

    PubMed

    Voest, E E; Neijt, J P; Keunen, J E; Dekker, A W; van Asbeck, B S; Nortier, J W; Ros, F E; Marx, J J

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach to enhance the activity of doxorubicin is to increase the availability of cellular "chelatable" iron to participate in doxorubicin-mediated free-radical generation. To achieve this, we designed a regimen consisting of desferrioxamine (DFO, 50 mg/kg daily given as an i.v. infusion over 72 h) to increase cellular iron uptake. Thereafter, the combination of iron sorbitol citrate (ISC) and doxorubicin (as a single agent or as part of the CHOP regimen) was given. In a phase I study we investigated the toxicity of this regimen in nine patients with refractory malignant disease. Severe but reversible ocular toxicity (i.e., acute maculopathy) was observed in two patients. As these patients were the only ones who were pretreated with cisplatin, we caution against the use of DFO in cisplatin-pretreated patients. Severe phlebitis was encountered in five of nine patients. A partial remission was observed in two of four patients with refractory Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who were treated with DFO, ISC, and doxorubicin as part of the CHOP regimen. We conclude that pretreatment with DFO and iron sorbitol citrate may be of benefit in the treatment of malignancies with doxorubicin-containing regimens, but ocular toxicity and severe phlebitis limits the use of DFO in this approach. The attachment of DFO to biocompatible polymers may be a method of overcoming the observed toxicity and warrants further study. PMID:8431969

  14. Structural and functional properties of a yeast xylitol dehydrogenase, a Zn2+-containing metalloenzyme similar to medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Lunzer, R; Mamnun, Y; Haltrich, D; Kulbe, K D; Nidetzky, B

    1998-01-01

    The NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Galactocandida mastotermitis has been purified in high yield (80%) and characterized. Xylitol dehydrogenase is a heteronuclear multimetal protein that forms homotetramers and contains 1 mol of Zn2+ ions and 6 mol of Mg2+ ions per mol of 37.4 kDa protomer. Treatment with chelating agents such as EDTA results in the removal of the Zn2+ ions with a concomitant loss of enzyme activity. The Mg2+ ions are not essential for activity and are removed by chelation or extensive dialysis without affecting the stability of the enzyme. Results of initial velocity studies at steady state for d-sorbitol oxidation and d-fructose reduction together with the characteristic patterns of product inhibition point to a compulsorily ordered Theorell-Chance mechanism of xylitol dehydrogenase in which coenzyme binds first and leaves last. At pH 7.5, the binding of NADH (Ki approximately 10 microM) is approx. 80-fold tighter than that of NAD+. Polyhydroxyalcohols require at least five carbon atoms to be good substrates of xylitol dehydrogenase, and the C-2 (S), C-3 (R) and C-4 (R) configuration is preferred. Therefore xylitol dehydrogenase shares structural and functional properties with medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases. PMID:9806889

  15. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  16. Partial solubility parameters of lactose, mannitol and saccharose using the modified extended Hansen method and evaporation light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Peña, M A; Daali, Y; Barra, J; Bustamante, P

    2000-02-01

    The modified extended Hansen method was tested for the first time to determine partial solubility parameters of non-polymeric pharmaceutical excipients. The method was formerly tested with drug molecules, and is based upon a regression analysis of the logarithm of the mole fraction solubility of the solute against the partial solubility parameters of a series of solvents of different chemical classes. Two monosaccharides and one disaccharide (lactose monohydrate, saccharose and mannitol) were chosen. The solubility of these compounds was determined in a series of solvents ranging from nonpolar to polar and covering a wide range of the solubility parameter scale. Sugars do not absorb at the UV-vis region, and the saturated solutions were assayed with a recent chromatographic technique coupled to an evaporative light scattering detector. This technique was suitable to determine the concentration dissolved in most solvents. The modified extended Hansen method provided better results than the original approach. The best model was the four parameter equation, which includes the dispersion delta d, dipolar delta p, acidic delta a and basic delta b partial solubility parameters. The partial solubility parameters obtained, expressed as MPa1/2, were delta d = 17.6, delta p = 28.7, delta h = 19, delta a = 14.5, delta b = 12.4, delta T = 32.8 for lactose, delta d = 16.2, delta p = 24.5, delta h = 14.6, delta a = 8.7, delta b = 12.2, delta T = 32.8 for mannitol and delta d = 17.1, delta p = 18.5, delta h = 13, delta a = 11.3, delta b = 7.6, delta T = 28.4 for saccharose. The high total solubility parameters delta T obtained agree with the polar nature of the sugars. The dispersion parameters delta d are quite similar for the three sugars indicating that the polar delta p and hydrogen bonding parameters (delta h, delta a, delta b) are responsible for the variation in the total solubility parameters delta T obtained, as also found for drugs. The results suggest that the method

  17. Propionispora vibrioides, nov. gen., nov. sp., a new gram-negative, spore-forming anaerobe that ferments sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Biebl, H; Schwab-Hanisch, H; Spröer, C; Lünsdorf, H

    2000-10-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures, with erythritol as substrate, resulted in the isolation of a strain with properties not yet found in an existing genus in this combination. The strain, FKBS1, was strictly anaerobic, stained gram-negative and formed spores. Cells were small motile vibrios with flagella inserted at the concave side of the cell. Spores were located terminally and caused only slight swelling of the cells if compared to related spore-forming genera. FKBS1 fermented fructose, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol and erythritol to propionic acid, acetic acid, CO2 and small amounts of H2 to balance the difference in the oxidation-reduction value between substrate and cell mass. The 16S rDNA sequence revealed relationship to the Sporomusa-Pectinatus-Selenomonas group. However, the phylogenetic distance to any of its members was too great to allow it to be placed in one of the existing genera. Morphologically the strain resembled Sporomusa, which, however, performs an acetogenic type of fermentation. The propionic-acid-forming genera of the group are either not spore-formers or, in the case of Dendrosporobacter quercicolus (syn. Clostridium quercicolum), morphologically different. It is therefore proposed to classify strain FKBS1 as a new genus and species, Propionispora vibrioides. PMID:11081792

  18. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  19. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  20. The ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs ERF6 and ERF11 Antagonistically Regulate Mannitol-Induced Growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Marieke; Van den Broeck, Lisa; Claeys, Hannes; Van Vlierberghe, Kaatje; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Leaf growth is a tightly regulated and complex process, which responds in a dynamic manner to changing environmental conditions, but the mechanisms that reduce growth under adverse conditions are rather poorly understood. We previously identified a growth inhibitory pathway regulating leaf growth upon exposure to a low concentration of mannitol and characterized the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 transcription factor ERF6 as a central activator of both leaf growth inhibition and induction of stress tolerance genes. Here, we describe the role of the transcriptional repressor ERF11 in relation to the ERF6-mediated stress response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using inducible overexpression lines, we show that ERF6 induces the expression of ERF11. ERF11 in turn molecularly counteracts the action of ERF6 and represses at least some of the ERF6-induced genes by directly competing for the target gene promoters. As a phenotypical consequence of the ERF6-ERF11 antagonism, the extreme dwarfism caused by ERF6 overexpression is suppressed by overexpression of ERF11. Together, our data demonstrate that dynamic mechanisms exist to fine-tune the stress response and that ERF11 counteracts ERF6 to maintain a balance between plant growth and stress defense. PMID:25995327

  1. Improved intestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble oral drug using mannitol microparticles containing a nanosolid drug dispersion.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Yukiko; Kubota, Aya; Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    A nozzle for a spray dryer that can prepare microparticles of water-soluble carriers containing various nanoparticles in a single step was previously developed in our laboratory. To enhance the solubility and intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, we used probucol (PBL) as a poorly water-soluble drug, mannitol (MAN) as a water-soluble carrier for the microparticles, and EUDRAGIT (EUD) as a polymer vehicle for the solid dispersion. PBL-EUD-acetone-methanol and aqueous MAN solutions were simultaneously supplied through different liquid passages of the spray nozzle and dried together. PBL-EUD solid dispersion was nanoprecipitated in the MAN solution using an antisolvent mechanism and rapidly dried by surrounding it with MAN. PBL in the dispersion vehicle was amorphous and had higher physical stability according to powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The bioavailability of PBL in PBL-EUD S-100-MAN microparticles after oral administration in rats was markedly higher (14- and 6.2-fold, respectively) than that of the original PBL powder and PBL-MAN microparticles. These results demonstrate that the composite microparticles containing a nanosized solid dispersion of a poorly water-soluble drug prepared using the spray nozzle developed by us should be useful to increase the solubility and bioavailability of drugs after oral administration. PMID:22864998

  2. Guide to establishing water potential of aqueous two-phase solutions (polyethylene glycol plus dextran) by amendment with mannitol

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, B.E.; Wiggins, O.K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A practical guide to calculating the mannitol (MAN) amendment required to achieve the desired water potential (PSI) of polyethylene glycol/dextran (PEG/DEX) aqueous two-phase systems for protoplast purification is presented. The empirically generated equation PSI = 305(PEG')/sup 2/(MAN) + 0.74(PEG')(MAN)T - 103(PEG')(MAN) + 5.6(PEG')/sup 2/T - 623(PEG')/sup 2/ - 0.25(PEG')T + 12.7(PEG') - 0.078(MAN)T - 22.75(MAN) accurately predicts experimental PSI (in bars). The equation is applicable for these ranges: (PEG') from 0.047 to 0.13 gram per gram H/sub 2/O; (MAN) from 0 to 0.7 molal; T from 4.5 to 40/sup 0/C. The PSI for solutions of MAN, of PEG, and of DEX were also determined. Equations to fit data for each were generated. Analyses indicated a significant synergistic effect on PSI when MAN is added to PEG/DEX and, at certain concentrations, between PEG and DEX.

  3. Crystal structure of the NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase from Cladosporium herbarum: Implications for oligomerisation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Nüss, Dorota; Goettig, Peter; Magler, Iris; Denk, Ursula; Breitenbach, Michael; Schneider, Peter B; Brandstetter, Hans; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit

    2010-08-01

    The ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum is a prominent fungal inducer of Type I allergy. The only major allergen identified so far is Cla h 8, a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH). MtDH, a cytoplasmic protein of 28.5kDa, belongs to the Short chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases (SDR), acting as a NADP-dependent oxidoreductase. In this study, we found that C. herbarum MtDH can exist as monomers, dimers and tetramers in solution and, correspondingly, forms tetramers and higher oligomers in two crystal structures. Additionally, we identified a unique adaptive binding site for the metal ions Na(+) and Zn(2+) that were distinguished by an anomalous dispersion experiment. A Translation-Libration-Screw analysis confirmed the stabilising effect of Zn(2+) for the tetrameric assembly. Moreover, the zinc containing structure explains the mode of MtDH multimerisation by metal bridging of the tetramers. The formation of oligomers and higher multimers of MtDH provides a missing link to its allergenic properties. Based on the well defined active site region and a comparative analysis with related structures, we can also clarify the atypical enzymatic properties of MtDH by two alternative binding modes of the substrate to the active site. PMID:20420880

  4. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from alternative sugar blends: 3. Trehalose dihydrate and D-mannitol carriers.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Heidi M; Xu, Zhen; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between physicochemical properties of drug/carrier blends and aerosol drug powder delivery was evaluated. Four pulmonary drugs each representing the major pulmonary therapeutic classes and with a different pharmacological action were employed. Specifically, the four pulmonary drugs were albuterol sulfate, ipratropium bromide monohydrate, disodium cromoglycate, and fluticasone propionate. The two carrier sugars, each representing a different sugar class, were D-mannitol and trehalose dihydrate. Dry powder aerosols (2%, w/w, drug in carrier) delivered using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) were characterized by twin-stage liquid impinger. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress, tau(s), and the maximum fine particle fraction (FPF(max)) was correlated with a deaggregation constant, k(d), by using a powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE) by nonlinear and linear regression analyses applied to pharmaceutical inhalation aerosol systems in the solid state. For the four pulmonary drugs representing the major pulmonary therapeutic classes and two chemically distinct pulmonary sugar carriers (non-lactose types) aerosolized with SETs having well-defined shear stress values, excellent correlation and predictive relationships were demonstrated for the novel and rigorous application of PADE for dry powder inhalation aerosol dispersion within a well-defined shear stress range, in the context of pulmonary drug/sugar carrier physicochemical and interfacial properties. PMID:20229601

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  6. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  7. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Raut, P P; Prasanth, K V; Prasad, R G

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 3(2) factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  8. Structure of the cytoplasmic loop between putative helices II and III of the mannitol permease of Escherichia coli: a tryptophan and 5-fluorotryptophan spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Vos, Erwin P P; Bokhove, Marcel; Hesp, Ben H; Broos, Jaap

    2009-06-16

    In this work, four single tryptophan (Trp) mutants of the dimeric mannitol transporter of Escherichia coli, EII(mtl), are characterized using Trp and 5-fluoroTrp (5-FTrp) fluorescence spectroscopy. The four positions, 97, 114, 126, and 133, are located in a region shown by recent studies to be involved in the mannitol translocation process. To spectroscopically distinguish between the Trp positions in each subunit of dimeric EII(mtl), 5-FTrp was biosynthetically incorporated because of its much simpler photophysics compared to those of Trp. The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methodologies used point out that all four positions are in structured environments, both in the absence and in the presence of a saturating concentration of mannitol. The fluorescence decay of all 5-FTrp-containing mutants was highly homogeneous, suggesting similar microenvironments for both probes per dimer. However, Stern-Volmer quenching experiments using potassium iodide indicate different solvent accessibilities for the two probes at positions 97 and 133. A 5 A two-dimensional (2D) projection map of the membrane-embedded IIC(mtl) dimer showing 2-fold symmetry is available. The results of this work are in better agreement with a 7 A projection map from a single 2D crystal on which no symmetry was imposed. PMID:19402710

  9. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  10. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  11. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  12. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  13. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  14. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  15. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  17. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  18. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  1. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  2. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  3. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  4. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  5. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  6. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  7. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  8. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  9. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  10. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  11. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  12. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  13. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  14. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  15. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  16. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol ≥ xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  17. Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Kauko K

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol >/= xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. In vivo measurements of sulcal plaque pH in rats after topical applications of xylitol, sorbitol, glucose, sucrose, and sucrose plus 53 mM sodium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Firestone, A R; Navia, J M

    1986-01-01

    In two series of experiments, Sprague-Dawley-derived rats were infected orally with cariogenic micro-organisms and fed caries-promoting diets. By means of an antimony electrode, resting pH values were measured in the mesial sulcus of the maxillary left first molar. 100 or 200 microL of the test solutions were applied, and the change in pH (delta pH) was recorded for three min. Test solutions were: (a) 10% sucrose, 10% glucose, 10% sorbitol, or 10% xylitol; (b) 0%, 10%, 20%, or 40% sucrose; (c) 0%, 3%, 7%, or 10% sucrose; and (d) 10% sucrose, 10% sucrose + 53 mmol/L NaF (1000 ppmF-), or 10% sucrose + 53 mmol/L NaCl. Experimental design was a 4 X 4 Latin square (a, b, c) or a cross-over design (d). Solutions of sucrose and glucose gave significantly greater decreases in pH than did sorbitol or xylitol. pH fall was maximal for 10% sucrose and significantly less for 40% sucrose during the three-minute experimental period. For sucrose solutions ranging in concentration from 3 to 10%, pH fall was highest after application of 10% sucrose when plaque was previously rinsed with water, but this pH fall did not differ significantly from that obtained using a 7% sucrose solution. Adding 1000 ppmF- to a 10% sucrose solution caused an increase in pH. Rinsing the teeth to remove saliva resulted in significantly lower resting pH values. The results of these experiments are in agreement with the results of human plaque pH measurements. PMID:3455697

  20. Production of lactobionic acid and sorbitol from lactose/fructose substrate using GFOR/GL enzymes from Zymomonas mobilis cells: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Pedruzzi, Israel; da Silva, Eduardo A Borges; Rodrigues, Alírio E

    2011-07-10

    In this work, we have investigated the kinetics of the biotechnological production of lactobionic acid (LBA) and sorbitol by the catalytic action of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and glucono-δ-lactonase (GL) enzymes. The cells of bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 containing this enzymatic complex were submitted to permeabilization and reticulation procedures. The effect of the concentration of substrates on the rate of product formation using a mobilized cell system was investigated. The application of higher fructose concentration seems to not affect the initial rate of formation of the bionic acid. Under conditions of low initial concentration of lactose, the experimental kinetic data of the bi-substrate reaction were modelled by assuming a rate equation of the classical ping-pong mechanism. The found kinetic parameters displayed a low affinity of the GFOR enzyme for both substrates. The enzymatic system did not exhibit normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics in response to a change of concentration of lactose, when fructose was held constant, presenting a sigmoid relationship between initial velocity and substrate concentration. A rate equation based on Hill kinetics was used to describe the kinetic behaviour of this enzyme-substituted reaction at higher lactose concentrations. The results from batch experiments using immobilized cells within Ca-alginate beads revealed that there is no pronounced occurrence of mass transfer limitations on LBA production for beads with 1.2 mm in average diameter. This discussion aids for defining the best operating conditions to maximize the productivity for LBA and sorbitol in this bioconversion and also for reducing the complexity of downstream separation processes. PMID:22112407

  1. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  2. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  3. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  4. A quality by design approach to investigate the effect of mannitol and dicalcium phosphate qualities on roll compaction.

    PubMed

    Souihi, Nabil; Dumarey, Melanie; Wikström, Håkan; Tajarobi, Pirjo; Fransson, Magnus; Svensson, Olof; Josefson, Mats; Trygg, Johan

    2013-04-15

    Roll compaction is a continuous process for solid dosage form manufacturing increasingly popular within pharmaceutical industry. Although roll compaction has become an established technique for dry granulation, the influence of material properties is still not fully understood. In this study, a quality by design (QbD) approach was utilized, not only to understand the influence of different qualities of mannitol and dicalcium phosphate (DCP), but also to predict critical quality attributes of the drug product based solely on the material properties of that filler. By describing each filler quality in terms of several representative physical properties, orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) was used to understand and predict how those properties affected drug product intermediates as well as critical quality attributes of the final drug product. These models were then validated by predicting product attributes for filler qualities not used in the model construction. The results of this study confirmed that the tensile strength reduction, known to affect plastic materials when roll compacted, is not prominent when using brittle materials. Some qualities of these fillers actually demonstrated improved compactability following roll compaction. While direct compression qualities are frequently used for roll compacted drug products because of their excellent flowability and good compaction properties, this study revealed that granules from these qualities were more poor flowing than the corresponding powder blends, which was not seen for granules from traditional qualities. The QbD approach used in this study could be extended beyond fillers. Thus any new compound/ingredient would first be characterized and then suitable formulation characteristics could be determined in silico, without running any additional experiments. PMID:23434544

  5. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  6. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  7. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  8. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  9. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  12. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  13. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  14. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  15. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  16. Evaluation of corneal optical properties in subjects wearing hydrogel etafilcon A contact lenses and the effect of administering mannitol-enriched sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Marco; Rosati, Marianna; Pileri, Marco; Schiano-Lomoriello, Domenico; Serrao, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily administration of mannitol-enriched sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution on the corneal optical properties of subjects wearing low Dk hydrogel (etafilcon A) contact lenses (CLs). Methods Forty-five subjects wearing etafilcon A CLs daily for more than 6 months were recruited into this pilot study. Fifteen of the subjects administered a 10% mannitol-enriched 0.05% sodium hyaluronate solution (study group) once daily and 30 subjects did not administer any ophthalmic solution (control group). The subjects were examined at baseline and one month after recruitment. Changes in central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal light backscatter were evaluated by Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR). Changes in corneal total high-order aberration, corneal spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil were evaluated using the OPD scan II. Results At one month, corneal light backscatter decreased significantly in the study group (≤18.30 arbitrary units; P<0.05) and this was highly correlated with a decrease in CCT (R=0.81; P=0.04). The decrease in corneal total high-order aberration, spherical aberration, and coma was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (P<0.05). No changes in corneal light backscatter or CCT were found in the control group during follow-up. Conclusion Once-daily administration of a mannitol-enriched lubricant ophthalmic solution was effective for improving the corneal optical quality and reducing corneal swelling in subjects wearing low Dk hydrogel (etafilcon A) CLs during one month follow-up. PMID:25473260

  17. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Gandhi, Sumit G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3′ monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  18. Mannitol Stress Directs Flavonoid Metabolism toward Synthesis of Flavones via Differential Regulation of Two Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Coleus forskohlii.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Praveen; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450s) are known to play important roles in biosynthesis of all secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. Despite this, few CYP450s have been functionally characterized in model plants and roles of fewer CYP450s are known in non-model, medicinal, and aromatic plants. Our study in Coleus forskohlii indicates that flavone synthase (CYP93B) and flavonoid 3' monooxygenase (CYP706C) are key enzymes positioned at a metabolic junction, to execute the biosynthesis of different sub-classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonol, anthocynanin, isoflavones etc.) from a common precursor. Such branch points are favored targets for artificially modulating the metabolic flux toward specific metabolites, through genetic manipulation or use of elicitors that differentially impact the expression of branch point genes. Genkwanin, the only flavone reported from C. forskohlii, is known to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is biosynthesized from the general flavonoid precursor: naringenin. Two differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes (CfCYP93B, CfCYP706C), exhibiting maximum expression in leaf tissues, were isolated from C. forskohlii. Mannitol treatment resulted in increased expression of CfCYP93B and decrease in expression of CfCYP706C. Metabolite quantification data showed that genkwanin content increased and anthocyanin levels decreased in response to mannitol treatment. Alignment, phylogenetic analysis, modeling, and molecular docking analysis of protein sequences suggested that CfCYP93B may be involved in conversion of naringenin to flavones (possibly genkwanin via apigenin), while CfCYP706C may act on common precursors of flavonoid metabolism and channel the substrate toward production of flavonols or anthocynanins. Decrease in expression of CfCYP706C and increase in accumulation of genkwanin suggested that mannitol treatment may possibly lead to accumulation of genkwanin via suppression of a competitive branch of flavonoids in C

  19. Evaluation of the Xpa-deficient transgenic mouse model for short-term carcinogenicity testing: 9-month studies with haloperidol, reserpine, phenacetin, and D-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ben A R; Woutersen, Ruud A; Bruijntjes, Joost P; van Benthem, Jan; van den Berg, Jolanda A H; Monbaliu, Johan; Thoolen, Bob J J M; Beems, Rudolf B; van Kreijl, Coen F

    2004-01-01

    As part of the international evaluation program coordinated by ILSI/HESI, the potential of DNA repair deficient Xpa-/- mice and the double knockout Xpa-/-.p53+/- mice for short term carcinogenicity assays was evaluated. For comparison also wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT) were included in these studies. Four test compounds were administered to groups of 15 male and 15 female Xpa-/- mice, Xpa-/-.p53+/- mice and WT mice for 39 weeks. The model compounds investigated were haloperidol, reserpine (nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens, putative human noncarcinogens), phenacetin (genotoxic rodent carcinogen, suspected human carcinogen), and D-mannitol (noncarcinogen in rodents and humans). The test compounds were administered as admixture to rodent diet at levels up to 25 mg/kg diet for haloperidol, 7.5 mg/kg diet for reserpine, 0.75% for phenacetin, and 10% for D-mannitol. These levels included the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). Survival was not affected with any of the test compounds. Haloperidol, reserpine and D-mannitol were negative in the carcinogenicity assay with Xpa-/- and Xpa-/-.p53+/- mice, showing low and comparable tumor incidences in controls and high-dose animals. The results obtained with phenacetin may be designated equivocal in Xpa-/-.p53+/- mice, based on the occurrence of a single rare tumor in the target organ (kidney) accompanied by a low incidence of hyperplastic renal lesions and a high incidence of karyomegaly. These results are in agreement with the currently known carcinogenic potential of the 4 test compounds in humans. PMID:15200157

  20. Sugar alcohols enhance calcium transport from rat small and large intestine epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Tomita, Fusao

    2002-06-01

    We compared the effect of a variety of sugar alcohols on calcium absorption from the rat small and large intestine in vitro. An Ussing chamber technique was used to determine the net transport of Ca across the epithelium isolated from the jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of rats. The concentration of Ca in the serosal and mucosal Tris buffer solution was 1.25 mM and 10 mM, respectively. The Ca concentration in the serosal medium was determined after incubation for 30 min and the net Ca absorption was evaluated. The addition of 0.1-200 mM erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol, palatinit, or lactitol to the mucosal medium affected net Ca absorption in the intestinal preparations. Differences in Ca transport were observed between portions of the intestine, but not between sugar alcohols tested. We concluded that sugar alcohols directly affect the epithelial tissue and promote Ca absorption from the small and large intestine in vitro. PMID:12064809

  1. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  2. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  3. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  4. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  6. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  7. Investigation of cyano-bridged coordination nanoparticles Gd(3+)/[Fe(CN)6](3-)/D-mannitol as T1-weighted MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Perrier, M; Gallud, A; Ayadi, A; Kennouche, S; Porredon, C; Gary-Bobo, M; Larionova, J; Goze-Bac, Ch; Zanca, M; Garcia, M; Basile, I; Long, J; de Lapuente, J; Borras, M; Guari, Y

    2015-07-28

    Cyano-bridged Gd(3+)/[Fe(CN)6](3-) coordination polymer nanoparticles of 3-4 nm stabilized with D-mannitol presenting a high r1 relaxivity value of 11.4 mM(-1) s(-1) were investigated in vivo as contrast agents (CA) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). They allow an increase of the MR image contrast and can act as an efficient intravascular T1 CA with a relatively long blood-circulation lifetime (60 min) without specific toxicity. PMID:25967733

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  9. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  10. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  11. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  12. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  13. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  14. Prevalence and molecular characterization of sorbitol fermenting and non-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H7(+)/H7(-) isolated from cattle at slaughterhouse and slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Erol, Irfan

    2014-03-17

    The prevalence and seasonal distribution of E. coli O157:H7(+)/H7(-) in an array of aged cattle at slaughter and its dissemination with slaughterhouse wastewater over a two year period in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 720 samples (240 rectoanal mucosal swap [RAMS], 240 carcass sponge and 240 bile samples) of 240 cattle categorized according to age, gender, breed and sampling site were collected along with additional 24 wastewater samples and were subjected to immunomagnetic separation based cultivation technique to efficiently isolate E. coli O157 from the background flora. Identification (rfbEO157, fliCh7), detection of major virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3 and espA), intimin variants (eae-α1, eae-α2, eae-β, eae-β1, eae-β2, eae-γ1 and eae-γ2/θ) and shiga toxin variants (stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f and stx2g) of all the isolates were assessed by PCR. From 10 (4.2%) of RAMS and 11 (4.6%) of carcass sponge samples and 5 (20.8%) of slaughterhouse wastewater samples, a total of 102 colonies (99 sorbitol negative and 3 sorbitol positive) were isolated. Overall, 17 (7.1%) and 15 (6.3%) of 240 sampled cattle were shown to harbor E. coli O157 and E. coli O157:H7, respectively either in their RAMS or carcass sponge samples analyzed. Statistically significant differences between categories; season, age, gender and breed of cattle were not observed (p>0.05). None of the isolated E. coli O157:H7(+)/H7(-) strains harbored any of the investigated intimin types other than eaeγ1 or shiga toxin variants stx1d, stx2e, stx2f or stx2g while all were lpfA1-3(+) except 5 E. coli O157:H7(-) strains. Intimin variant eaeγ1 and shiga toxin 1 variant stx1c were detected from all of the eaeA(+) (97/102, 95.1%) and stx1(+) (32/102, 31.3%) strains, respectively while from stx2(+) (80/102, 78.4%) isolates, both stx2c (68/80, 85.0%) and stx2d (12/80, 15.0%) variants were determined. In the last decade, prevalence of E. coli O157:H7

  15. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  16. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  17. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  18. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  19. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  20. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  1. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  2. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  3. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  6. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  7. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  8. Effect of different polyol-based plasticizers on thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol:starch blends.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Ilberg, Vladimir

    2016-01-20

    A series of gelatinized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA):starch blends were prepared with various polyol-based plasticizers in 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% ratios via solution casting method. The obtained films were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkable changes have been observed in glass-transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability of the samples containing varying concentrations of different plasticizers and they have been discussed in detail with respect to the conducted thermal and chemical analyses. The observed order of Tg point depression of the samples containing 15 wt% plasticizer is 1,4-butanediol - 1,2,6-hexanetriol--pentaerythriyol--xylitol--mannitol, which is similar to the sequence of the thermal stability changes of the samples. PMID:26572374

  9. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  10. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  11. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  12. Investigation of cyano-bridged coordination nanoparticles Gd3+/[Fe(CN)6]3-/d-mannitol as T1-weighted MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, M.; Gallud, A.; Ayadi, A.; Kennouche, S.; Porredon, C.; Gary-Bobo, M.; Larionova, J.; Goze-Bac, Ch.; Zanca, M.; Garcia, M.; Basile, I.; Long, J.; de Lapuente, J.; Borras, M.; Guari, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cyano-bridged Gd3+/[Fe(CN)6]3- coordination polymer nanoparticles of 3-4 nm stabilized with d-mannitol presenting a high r1 relaxivity value of 11.4 mM-1 s-1 were investigated in vivo as contrast agents (CA) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). They allow an increase of the MR image contrast and can act as an efficient intravascular T1 CA with a relatively long blood-circulation lifetime (60 min) without specific toxicity.Cyano-bridged Gd3+/[Fe(CN)6]3- coordination polymer nanoparticles of 3-4 nm stabilized with d-mannitol presenting a high r1 relaxivity value of 11.4 mM-1 s-1 were investigated in vivo as contrast agents (CA) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). They allow an increase of the MR image contrast and can act as an efficient intravascular T1 CA with a relatively long blood-circulation lifetime (60 min) without specific toxicity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, toxicological data, physical characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01557j

  13. Anesthetic Efficacy of a Combination of 0.9 M Mannitol Plus 68.8 mg of Lidocaine With 50 μg Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks: A Prospective Randomized, Single Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Howard; Reader, Al; Drum, Melissa; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized, single blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of 68.8 mg of lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine compared to 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.9 M mannitol in inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks. Forty subjects randomly received 2 IAN blocks consisting of a 1.72-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine and a 5-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine (1.72 mL) plus 0.9 M mannitol (3.28 mL) in 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly electric pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Total percent pulpal anesthesia was defined as the total of all the times of pulpal anesthesia (80 readings), for each tooth, over the 60 minutes. One hundred percent of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The results demonstrated that the 5 mL-formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine plus 0.9 M mannitol was significantly better than the 1.72-mL formulation of 68.8 mg lidocaine with 50 μg epinephrine for all teeth, except the lateral incisor. We concluded that adding 0.9 M mannitol to a lidocaine with epinephrine formulation was significantly more effective in achieving a greater percentage of total pulpal anesthesia (as defined in this study) than a lidocaine formulation without mannitol. However, the 0.9 M mannitol/lidocaine formulation would not provide 100% pulpal anesthesia for all the mandibular teeth. PMID:24423417

  14. Activation of dendritic cells and induction of T cell responses by HPV 16 L1/E7 chimeric virus-like particles are enhanced by CpG ODN or sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Alonso, Angel; Hartmann, Gunther; Gissmann, Lutz

    2004-08-01

    Chimeric human papillomavirus-like particles, consisting of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 L1-E7 fusion proteins [HPV 16 L1/E7 chimeric virus-like particles (CVLP)], are a vaccine candidate for treatment and prevention of cervical cancer. Although in preclinical studies CVLPs were shown to induce neutralizing antibodies and L1- and E7-specific T cell responses, the results of a recent clinical trial emphasized the need of improved immunogenicity of CVLPs. Here we studied the interaction of HPV 16 L1/E7 CVLPs with mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) activated with different immune adjuvants. We found that lipopolysaccharides (LPS), unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODN) and sorbitol enhanced CVLP-induced stimulation of C57BL/6 mouse BMDCs as revealed by increased levels of CD40, CD80, MHC II and CD54 at the cell surface. CpG ODN and sorbitol also enhanced the presentation of Db-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes to HPV 16 L1- or E7-specific T lymphocytes after loading of CVLPs onto BMDCs. Treatment of BMDCs with CpG ODN in combination with CVLPs improved in vitro priming of naive T lymphocytes by CVLP-loaded BMDCs. In vivo, CVLP-loaded BMDCs were more immunogenic as compared with injection of CVLPs alone. CpG ODN and sorbitol further enhanced priming of antigen-specific T cell responses. Our data demonstrate that CpG ODN- or sorbitol-activated BMDCs substantially increase the immunogenicity of CVLPs. Implementing our results in clinical trial protocols may lead to improved activity of therapeutic HPV vaccines for the treatment of HPV-induced cancer. PMID:15456078

  15. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  16. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-16

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  17. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  19. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-11-23

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  20. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-17

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