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Sample records for alcohols organic acids

  1. Development of a microgravity-compatible reagentless organic acid and alcohol monitor (OAAM).

    PubMed

    Akse, J R; Atwater, J E; Holtsnider, J T

    2001-01-01

    The development of a microgravity-compatible analyzer capable of quantifying organic acids in water is described. The analyzer employs "reagentless" solid phase acidification to convert organic acids to the volatile form followed by membrane separation and specific conductance detection to determine organic acids at concentrations between 0.005 and 40 mg/L. In the future, this technology will be extended to the detection of alcohols, which will be oxidized to form the corresponding organic acid and then determined using the same processes. An immobilized enzyme biocatalyst, alcohol oxidase, oxidizes alcohols to form an aldehyde. Oxidation to the corresponding organic acid is then completed over a heterogeneous catalyst. The combined organic acid and alcohol monitor (OAAM) will be utilized to determine levels of both analyte classes at various points within the water recovery system (WRS) baselined for the International Space Station (ISS). These data will improve water quality through enhanced process control, while allowing early diagnosis of potential problems. Grant numbers: NAG9-1081.

  2. Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Jan, Darrell L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Organic Acid and Alcohol Monitor (OAAM) program has resulted in the successful development of a computer controlled prototype analyzer capable of accurately determining aqueous organic acids and primary alcohol concentrations over a large dynamic range with high sensitivity. Formic, acetic, and propionic acid were accurately determined at concentrations as low as 5 to 10 micrograms/L in under 20 minutes, or as high as 10 to 20 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were determined at concentrations as low as 20 to 100 micrograms/L, or as high as 10 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Importantly for space based application, the OAAM requires no reagents or hazardous chemicals to perform these analyses needing only power, water, and CO2 free purge gas. The OAAM utilized two membrane processes to segregate organic acids from interfering ions. The organic acid concentration was then determined based upon the conductiometric signal. Separation of individual organic acids was accomplished using a chromatographic column. Alcohols are determined in a similar manner after conversion to organic acids by sequential biocatalytic and catalytic oxidation steps. The OAAM was designed to allow the early diagnosis of under performing or failing sub-systems within the Water Recovery System (WRS) baselined for the International Space Station (ISS). To achieve this goal, several new technologies were developed over the course of the OAAM program.

  3. Ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation of alkenes, alkynes, and alcohols to organic acids with aqueous hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Che, Chi-Ming; Yip, Wing-Ping; Yu, Wing-Yiu

    2006-09-18

    A protocol that adopts aqueous hydrogen peroxide as a terminal oxidant and [(Me3tacn)(CF3CO2)2Ru(III)(OH2)]CF3CO2 (1; Me3tacn = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) as a catalyst for oxidation of alkenes, alkynes, and alcohols to organic acids in over 80% yield is presented. For the oxidation of cyclohexene to adipic acid, the loading of 1 can be lowered to 0.1 mol %. On the one-mole scale, the oxidation of cyclohexene, cyclooctene, and 1-octanol with 1 mol % of 1 produced adipic acid (124 g, 85% yield), suberic acid (158 g, 91% yield), and 1-octanoic acid (129 g, 90% yield), respectively. The oxidative C=C bond-cleavage reaction proceeded through the formation of cis- and trans-diol intermediates, which were further oxidized to carboxylic acids via C-C bond cleavage.

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo

    2011-02-01

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  5. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  6. Construction of Escherichia Coli Cell Factories for Production of Organic Acids and Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Zhu, Xinna; Tan, Zaigao; Zhang, Xueli; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    Production of bulk chemicals from renewable biomass has been proved to be sustainable and environmentally friendly. Escherichia coli is the most commonly used host strain for constructing cell factories for production of bulk chemicals since it has clear physiological and genetic characteristics, grows fast in minimal salts medium, uses a wide range of substrates, and can be genetically modified easily. With the development of metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology, a technology platform has been established to construct E. coli cell factories for bulk chemicals production. In this chapter, we will introduce this technology platform, as well as E. coli cell factories successfully constructed for production of organic acids and alcohols.

  7. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by others as intermeadiary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II? quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  8. Anhydrosugar and sugar alcohol organic markers associated with carboxylic acids in particulate matter from incense burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Wu, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Chi-Ru

    2010-09-01

    Aerosol from the burning two types of sandalwood-based incense, Hsing Shan and Lao Shan, was analyzed to characterize the chemical profile of total particulate matter emitted. The total particulate matter (PM) mass emission factors were 46.3 ± 2.68 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan incense and 43.7 ± 1.08 mg g -1 of Lao Shan incense. Chemical analysis of emissions from the two types of incense revealed that of the 25 components in four groups characterized, anhydrosugars formed the major group, at 46.7-52.2% w/w of the identified particulate and 1078.3-1169.8 μg g -1 of incense, followed by inorganic salts at 30.4-31.8% w/w of identified particulate and 681.6-734.0 μg g -1 of incense, carboxylic acids at 12.0-17.1% w/w of the identified particulate and 268.6-392.8 μg g -1 of incense, and sugar alcohols at 4.44-5.38% w/w of the identified particulate and 102.3-120.6 μg g -1 of incense. More anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were emitted from Lao Shan incense than from Hsing Shan incense whereas more carboxylic acids and organic salts were emitted from Hsing Shan than from Lao Shan. These differences were due to structural and functional differences in the young sandalwood used to make Hsing Shan and the aged sandalwood used to make Lao Shan. The anhydrosugar levoglucosan, used as a marker of biomass burning, was always the most abundant species in emitted PM for both incenses ( Lao Shan 21.7 mg g -1 of PM and Hsing Shan 18.7 mg g -1). K + and Cl - were the second most abundant components (K + and Cl - were summed), accounting for 10.6 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan PM and 9.85 mg g -1 of Lao Shan PM. The most abundant carboxylic acids in the emissions were formic, acetic, succinic, glutaric and phthalic acid. The latter is a fragrance ingredient and a potential health hazard and was twice as prevalent in Lao Shan emissions. Xylitol was the most prevalent of the sugar alcohols at 35.7-36.6% w/w of total identified sugar alcohols. These abundant species are potential markers for

  9. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Alcohols and Organic Acids by Online Pyroprobe-GC-IRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, combined with evidence showing widespread water-rock interaction during martian history, suggests that the production of methane on Mars may be the result of mineral surface-catalyzed CO2 and or CO reduction during Fisher-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions. A better understanding of these reaction pathways and corresponding C and H isotope fractionations is critical to deciphering the synthesis of organic compounds produced under abiotic hydrothermal conditions. Described here is a technique for the extraction and analysis of both C and H isotopes from alcohols (C1-C4) and organic acids (C1-C6). This work is meant to provide a "proof of concept" for making meaningful isotope measurements on complex mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and other intermediary products produced during high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. These analyses are conducted entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS model 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra that is interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer operating in continuous flow mode. Also, this technique is designed to carry a split of the GC-separated product to a DSQ II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making semi-quantitative compositional measurements. Therefore, both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out on the same sample.

  10. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  11. [Determination of sugars, organic acids and alcohols in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose using high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Fan, Guifang; Du, Ran; Li, Peipei; Jiang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the determination of metabolites (sugars, organic acids and alcohols) in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose. Sulfate was first added in the samples to precipitate calcium ions in microbial consortium culture medium and lower the pH of the solution to avoid the dissociation of organic acids, then the filtrates were effectively separated using high performance liquid chromatography. Cellobiose, glucose, ethanol, butanol, glycerol, acetic acid and butyric acid were quantitatively analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 0.10-2.00 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 6 in the range of 0.020 to 1.000 g/L. The recoveries were in the range of 85.41%-115.60% with the relative standard deviations of 0.22% -4.62% (n = 6). This method is accurate for the quantitative analysis of the alcohols, organic acids and saccharides in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose.

  12. Photo-Tautomerization of Acetaldehyde to Vinyl Alcohol: a New Mechanism for Organic Acid Formation in the Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. U.; Heazlewood, B. R.; Maccarone, A. T.; Conroy, T.; Payne, R. J.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Kable, S. H.

    2012-06-01

    We present a detailed kinetic master equation (ME) model of the photochemistry of acetaldehyde under conditions relevant to tropospheric chemistry. The dissociation and isomerization rate constants are benchmarked to collision-free experiments in a supersonic expansion, at wavelengths where reaction is only possible on S_0. Extensive photo-isomerization is observed when irradiated with actinic ultraviolet radiation (310-330 nm). The ME model quantitatively reproduces the experimental observations and shows unequivocally that keto-enol photo-tautomerization, forming vinyl alcohol, is the crucial first step. When collisions are included into the ME, the model quantitatively reproduces the previously reported quantum yields for photodissociation at all pressures (0 - 1 atm) and wavelengths (295 - 340 nm). Crucially, at 1 atm pressure, and averaged over the intensity distribution of the solar spectrum, our model predicts that 26% of the total CH_3CHO quantum yield is into the collisionally-relaxed vinyl alcohol photo-tautomerization product. The photochemistry and photophysics of many carbonyls are similar to that of acetaldehyde. Therefore, we expect that photo-tautomerization of carbonyls into their respective enols will be a general phenomenon under atmospheric conditions. Such photo-tautomerization mechanisms are not included in any current tropospheric model and might, given that an enol will react rapidly to form an acid, we propose that they may account for the production of organic acids in the troposphere.

  13. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  14. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  15. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  16. Improved method for the analysis of organic acids and new derivatization of alcohols in complex natural aqueous matrixes: application to wine and apple vinegar.

    PubMed

    Giumanini, A G; Verardo, G; Della Martina, D; Toniutti, N

    2001-06-01

    An improvement in the procedure for investigation of organic acids and a new derivatization method, amenable to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection of alcohols, are presented. The latter is based on the formation of phenacetyl esters. The simultaneous application of the two methods also allows data to be obtained on some volatile neutrals present in complex natural aqueous fluids. Application to wine and cider vinegars allowed detection of a number of previously unreported components, among which are interesting partially esterified polycarboxylic esters.

  17. Efficient conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by an organic-inorganic hybrid solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui; Dong, Kun; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2011-01-17

    A clean, facile, and environment-friendly catalytic method has been developed for the conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates making use of the novel solid catalyst methylimidazolebutylsulfate phosphotungstate ([MIMBS]₃PW₁₂O₄₀). The solid catalyst is an organic-inorganic hybrid material, which consists of an organic cation and an inorganic anion. A study for optimizing the reaction conditions such as the reaction time, the temperature and the catalyst loading has been performed. Under optimal conditions, a high n-butyl levulinate yield of up to 93 % is obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of the reaction pathways and the mechanism for the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol are discussed. This method is environmentally benign and economical for the conversion of biomass-based derivatives into fine chemicals.

  18. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  19. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system.

  20. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  1. Aldehyde-alcohol reactions catalyzed under mild conditions by chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and phosphotungstic acid composites.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

    2011-12-01

    Porous materials based on chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic frameworks (MIL-101) and their composites with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were studied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in aldehyde-alcohol reactions exemplified by acetaldehyde-phenol (A-P) condensation and dimethylacetal formation from benzaldehyde and methanol (B-M reaction). The MIL-101 was synthesized solvothermically in water, and the MIL101/PTA composite materials were obtained by either impregnation of the already prepared MIL-101 porous matrix with phosphotungstic acid solution or by solvothermic treatment of aqueous mixtures of Cr(NO(3))(3), and terephthalic and phosphotungstic acids. The MIL101/PTA materials appeared to be effective catalysts for both A-P and B-M reactions occurring at room temperature, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 h (A-P) to 1.5-2 h (B-M) and turnover numbers over 600 for A-P and over 2900 for the B-M reaction, respectively. A synergistic effect of the strong acidic moieties (PTA) addition to mildly acidic Brønsted and Lewis acid cites of the MIL-101 was observed with the MIL101/PTA composites. The ability of the PTA and MIL101/PTA materials to strongly absorb and condense acetaldehyde vapors was discovered, with the MIL101/PTA absorbing over 10-fold its dry weight of acetaldehyde condensate at room temperature. The acetaldehyde was converted rapidly to crotonaldehyde and higher-molecular-weight compounds while in contact with MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA materials. The stability of the MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA catalysts was assessed within four cycles of the 1-day alcohol-aldehyde reactions in terms of the overall catalyst recovery, PTA or Cr content, and reaction rate constants in each cycle. The loss of the catalyst over 4 cycles was approximately 10 wt % for all tested catalysts due to the incomplete recovery and minute dissolution of the components. The reaction rates in all cycles remained unchanged and the catalyst losses stopped after the third cycle. The developed

  2. Quality control of fruit juices by using organic acids determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated bubble cell capillaries.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An enhanced method for the determination of organic acids in several fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV-Vis detection has been developed in this work. First, a study with simulated real juice samples was done to find the best separation conditions. Next, several commercial fruit juices were analyzed, and the organic acid contents were quantified in less than 12 min using a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated fused-silica 'bubble cell' capillary. The present method is reliable, fast and provides detection limits comprised between 0.1 and 2.5 μg mL(-1). Moreover, different chemometric techniques, based on CZE data, were examined. Linear discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of fruit juices according to the fruit type, whereas multiple linear regression models predicted the percentages of orange and pineapple juices in binary blends with grape. Thus, the present methodology is of utmost interest for routine and quality control purposes in food industries.

  3. [Effects of alcoholic beverages on the fatty acid spectrum of the expired air condensate lipids in patients with tuberculosis of the respiratory organs].

    PubMed

    Pikas, O B

    2000-01-01

    Results are highlighted of the study into the pulmonary surfactant in healthy subjects. as well as in those afflicted with pulmonary tuberculosis who abused alcoholic drinks, with the aid of the chromotography techniques. It has been ascertained that activity of the pulmonary surfactant is dependent upon the clinical form of tuberculosis, its extension and presence of alcoholism. The lipid polyunsaturated fatty acids, with the linoleic (C18:2) and arachidonic (C20:4) acids being the most sensitive ones to the process of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the study into the spectrum of lipid fatty acids in the expired air consensate suggest intencity of LPO in the pulmonary surfactant and permit carrying out its correction in a timely fashion during the process of treatment.

  4. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  5. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  6. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Through NOFAS Affiliates 0 Comments The number of organizations and advocates dedicated to addressing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders–and their influence and effectiveness–is steadily growing, leading... Read More → 20 Mar NOFAS Launches FASD Justice Task Force 0 Comments Under the guidance of ...

  7. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  8. Kidney injury, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Adebayo; Ifudu, Onyekachi

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, alcoholism and the consequences of ethyl alcohol abuse are major public health concerns in the United States, affecting approximately 14 million people. Pertinent to the global impact of alcoholism is the World Health Organisation estimate that 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcohol dependence. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are the third leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse cost the United State an estimated US$220 billion in 2005, eclipsing the expense associated with cancer (US$196 billion) or obesity (US$133 billion). Orally ingested ethyl alcohol is absorbed rapidly without chemical change from the stomach and intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration in about an hour. Alcohol crosses capillary membranes by simple diffusion, affecting almost every organ system in the body by impacting a wide range of cellular functions. Alcohol causes metabolic derangements either directly, via its chemical by-product or secondarily through alcohol-induced disorders. Many of these alcohol-related metabolic disturbances are increased in severity by the malnutrition that is common in those with chronic alcoholism. This review focuses on the acute and chronic injurious consequences of alcohol ingestion on the kidney, as well as the fluid, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities associated with acute and chronic ingestion of alcohol. PMID:24791039

  9. Mixed culture syngas fermentation and conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Stevenson, Bradley S; Tanner, Ralph S; Wilkins, Mark R; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    Higher alcohols such as n-butanol and n-hexanol have higher energy density than ethanol, are more compatible with current fuel infrastructure, and can be upgraded to jet and diesel fuels. Several organisms are known to convert syngas to ethanol, but very few can produce higher alcohols alone. As a potential solution, mixed culture fermentation between the syngas fermenting Alkalibaculum bacchi strain CP15 and propionic acid producer Clostridium propionicum was studied. The monoculture of CP15 produced only ethanol from syngas without initial addition of organic acids to the fermentation medium. However, the mixed culture produced ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol from syngas. The addition of propionic acid, butyric acid and hexanoic acid to the mixed culture resulted in a 50% higher conversion efficiency of these acids to their respective alcohols compared to CP15 monoculture. These findings illustrate the great potential of mixed culture syngas fermentation in production of higher alcohols.

  10. Alcohol, microbiome, life style influence alcohol and non-alcoholic organ damage.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; Zakhari, Samir; Malnick, Stephen; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Salaspuro, Mikko; Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Barasch, Andrei; Kirpich, Irina A; Thomes, Paul G; Schrum, Laura W; Donohue, Terrence M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Cruz, Marcus; Opris, Mihai

    2017-02-01

    This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, on June 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealed the basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver disease as well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to (1) describe the immuno-pathology of ALD, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of alcoholic hepatitis (ASH) and NAFLD, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), (4) examine age and ethnic differences as well as analyze the validity of some models, (5) develop common research tools and biomarkers to study alcohol-induced effects, 6) examine the role of alcohol in oral health and colon and gastrointestinal cancer and (7) focus on factors that aggravate the severity of organ-damage. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterizes ALD and NAFLD. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD with simple fatty infiltrations and chronic alcoholic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus were discussed

  11. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol.

  12. Alterations of erythrocyte membrane organization in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Beaugé, F; Stibler, H; Borg, S

    1987-01-01

    Studies of fluorescence polarization of DPH have shown that erythrocyte membrane "fluidity" and fluidization by ethanol are significantly reduced in alcoholics. By using probes of the polar part of the membrane, ANS and TMA-DPH, in addition to DPH, it was shown in the present study that disturbances also exist in the polar region of the membrane which probably are related to changes in surface glycoconjugates. Furthermore, the acute fluidizing effect of ethanol was correlated with the capacity of the membrane to bind ethanol, which in turn appeared to be linked to the glycans. Chronic ethanol abuse thus causes complex disturbances of membrane organization at different levels of the membrane.

  13. A novel organic/inorganic polymer membrane based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid/3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Shih, Jeng-Ywan

    2011-05-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (PAMPS)/3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS) organic/inorganic proton-conducting polymer membranes are prepared by a solution casting method. PAMPS is a polymeric acid commonly used as a primary proton donor, while 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is an inorganic precursor forming a semi-interpenetrating network (SIPN). Varying amounts of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) are used as the cross-linker and secondary proton source. The characteristic properties of PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS composite membranes are investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy and the AC impedance method. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) made of PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS composite membranes are assembled and examined. Experimental results indicate that DMFCs employing an inexpensive, non-perfluorinated, organic/inorganic SIPN membrane achieve good electrochemical performance. The highest peak power density of a DMFC using PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS composite membrane with 2 M CH3OH solution fuel at ambient temperature is 23.63 mW cm-2. The proposed organic/inorganic proton-conducting membrane based on PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS appears to be a viable candidate for future DMFC applications.

  14. Complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid/titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid has been produced and investigated by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. It is claimed that it represents an interpolymeric complex of polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated titanium oxide.

  15. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  16. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts NOFAS Now VIDEOS CONTACT DONATE Play it Smart. Alcohol and Pregnancy Don’t Mix! Recent News ... Court, NW, Third Floor, Washington, D.C. 20007 Phone: (202) 785-4585 Fax: (202) 466-6456 E- ...

  17. Silica-supported sulfonic acids as recyclable catalyst for esterification of levulinic acid with stoichiometric amounts of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Raimondo; Shiju, N Raveendran; Santacroce, Veronica; Maestri, Giovanni; Bigi, Franca; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    Converting biomass into value-added chemicals holds the key to sustainable long-term carbon resource management. In this context, levulinic acid, which is easily obtained from cellulose, is valuable since it can be transformed into a variety of industrially relevant fine chemicals. Here we present a simple protocol for the selective esterification of levulinic acid using solid acid catalysts. Silica supported sulfonic acid catalysts operate under mild conditions and give good conversion and selectivity with stoichiometric amounts of alcohols. The sulfonic acid groups are tethered to the support using organic tethers. These tethers may help in preventing the deactivation of the active sites in the presence of water.

  18. Silica-supported sulfonic acids as recyclable catalyst for esterification of levulinic acid with stoichiometric amounts of alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Santacroce, Veronica; Maestri, Giovanni; Bigi, Franca; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Converting biomass into value-added chemicals holds the key to sustainable long-term carbon resource management. In this context, levulinic acid, which is easily obtained from cellulose, is valuable since it can be transformed into a variety of industrially relevant fine chemicals. Here we present a simple protocol for the selective esterification of levulinic acid using solid acid catalysts. Silica supported sulfonic acid catalysts operate under mild conditions and give good conversion and selectivity with stoichiometric amounts of alcohols. The sulfonic acid groups are tethered to the support using organic tethers. These tethers may help in preventing the deactivation of the active sites in the presence of water. PMID:27829924

  19. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  20. The intrinsic (gas-phase) acidities of bridgehead alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Rebeca; Dávalos, Juan Z.; Abboud, José-Luis M.; Alkorta, I.; Koppel, I.; Koppel, I. A.; Sonoda, T.; Mishima, M.

    2007-11-01

    The gas-phase acidities of 1-adamantanol and perfluoro1-adamantanol were determined by means of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry (FT-ICR). The acidity of perfluoro1-adamantanol seems to be the highest ever reported for an alcohol. A computational study of these species and their anions at both the MP2/6-311 + G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) levels was performed. Also studied were the tertiary alcohols (including their perfluorinated forms) derived from norbornane, bicyclo[2.2E2]octane and cubane. It was found that: (i) the intrinsic acidity of non-fluorinated bridgehead alcohols increases with the strain of the hydrocarbon framework and, (ii) perfluorination of these compounds strongly increases their acidity and, likely, significantly modifies their internal strain.

  1. Photo-tautomerization of acetaldehyde to vinyl alcohol: a potential route to tropospheric acids.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Duncan U; Heazlewood, Brianna R; Maccarone, Alan T; Conroy, Trent; Payne, Richard J; Jordan, Meredith J T; Kable, Scott H

    2012-09-07

    Current atmospheric models underestimate the production of organic acids in the troposphere. We report a detailed kinetic model of the photochemistry of acetaldehyde (ethanal) under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants are benchmarked to collision-free experiments, where extensive photo-isomerization is observed upon irradiation with actinic ultraviolet radiation (310 to 330 nanometers). The model quantitatively reproduces the experiments and shows unequivocally that keto-enol photo-tautomerization, forming vinyl alcohol (ethenol), is the crucial first step. When collisions at atmospheric pressure are included, the model quantitatively reproduces previously reported quantum yields for photodissociation at all pressures and wavelengths. The model also predicts that 21 ± 4% of the initially excited acetaldehyde forms stable vinyl alcohol, a known precursor to organic acid formation, which may help to account for the production of organic acids in the troposphere.

  2. Protonation of Alcohols in Sulfuric Acid Solutions at UT/LS Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Vernier, K.; Axson, J.; Morley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The protonation of several small alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol) in cold sulfuric acid aqueous solutions was measured using variable temperature 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acidity of the sulfuric acid + deuterium oxide solutions ranged from 43 to 81 weight percent (wt %) H2SO4. The pKBH+ values, which are a measure of the acidity of each alcohol, range from -2.0 for butanol at room temperature to -2.2 for ethanol at -20°C. The protonation enthalpies of the three alcohols over the temperature range of 22°C to -35°C were found to be small and negative, ranging from -1.8 kJ mol-1 for 2-propanol to -2.3 kJ mol-1 for ethanol. A small, negative protonation enthalpy means that the degree of protonation of the alcohol slightly decreases as temperature decreases. The pKBH+values and protonation enthalpies are used to predict the form of dissolved alcohols in sulfate aerosols. For typical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) conditions (40-70 wt % H2SO4 and 220 K), all three alcohols increase from approximately 10% protonated in 40 wt % H2SO4 to over 60% protonated in 70 wt % H2SO4. The percent of protonated alcohol depends more strongly on m*, the slope factor of the excess acidity treatment, than on pKBH+ values. This relationship may reflect solvation effects. The treatment of strongly acidic, non-ideal solutions as applied to organic solutes in sulfate aerosol particles will be discussed.

  3. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of polyhydroxy alcohols and acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-04-30

    In the present work, we show that the superlubricity can be achieved when the polyhydroxy alcohol solutions are mixed with acid solutions. The lowest friction coefficients between 0.003 and 0.006 are obtained on a traditional tribometer with a high pressure under the lubrication of these mixtures. Experimental results indicate that the superlubricity mechanism is in accordance with that under the lubrication of the mixture of glycerol and acid solutions in the study by Li et al. (Li , J. J.; Zhang, C. H.; Ma, L. R.; Liu, Y. H.; Luo, J. B. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of acids and glycerol. Langmuir 2013, 29, 271-275). It is also found that the superlubricity is closely dependent upon the concentration of polyhydroxy alcohol and the number of hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure of polyhydroxy alcohol. However, the number of carbon atoms and the arrangement of hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure almost have no effect on superlubricity.

  4. Cinnamyl alcohols and methyl esters of fatty acids from Wedelia prostrata callus cultures.

    PubMed

    El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till

    2011-01-01

    Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.

  5. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  6. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: ALCOHOL OXIDATION AND OLEFIN EPOXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasound-assisted Organic Synthesis: Alcohol Oxidation and Olefin Epoxidation

    Unnikrishnan R Pillai, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie , Vasudevan Namboodiri, Quiming Zhao, Juluis Enriquez
    U.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. , Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone: 513-569-773...

  7. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  8. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  9. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric acid output by 57% to 95% of maximal acid output (MAO) and release of gastrin up to 5.1-fold compared with control. If beer, wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation. PMID:9155575

  10. Physiological Function of Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Long-Chain (C30) Fatty Acids in Alcohol Tolerance of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D. S.; Jung, S.-H.; Shen, G.-J.; Hollingsworth, R. I.; Zeikus, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    A mutant strain (39E H8) of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus that displayed high (8% [vol/vol]) ethanol tolerance for growth was developed and characterized in comparison to the wild-type strain (39E), which lacks alcohol tolerance (<1.5% [vol/vol]). The mutant strain, unlike the wild type, lacked primary alcohol dehydrogenase and was able to increase the percentage of transmembrane fatty acids (i.e., long-chain C30 fatty acids) in response to increasing levels of ethanol. The data support the hypothesis that primary alcohol dehydrogenase functions primarily in ethanol consumption, whereas secondary alcohol dehydrogenase functions in ethanol production. These results suggest that improved thermophilic ethanol fermentations at high alcohol levels can be developed by altering both cell membrane composition (e.g., increasing transmembrane fatty acids) and the metabolic machinery (e.g., altering primary alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities). PMID:11916712

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Alcohol, Sugar, and Tartaric Acid in Alcoholic Beverages Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, A.; Bajaj, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode was used for quantifying ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid in alcoholic beverages. One hundred synthetic samples were prepared with different ethanol, sucrose, and tartaric acid concentrations. Experiments were carried out on Bio-Rad 175 C FTS using an ATR accessory. Spectra were recorded in the wavelength region 600–4000 cm −1 . Calibration was performed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Commercially available alcoholic beverages (gin, rum, vodka, etc.) were experimented and concentration of ethanol in these samples was predicted using the developed calibration model. Chemical analysis of these commercial samples was carried out in order to compare the results. The agreement between ATR results with those of chemical analysis revealed good reliability and repeatability of the technique used. PMID:17671618

  12. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  17. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  18. Formation of Linear Polyenes in Thermal Dehydration of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.

  19. Direct Substitution of Alcohols in Pure Water by Brønsted Acid Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rosa; Herrera, Raquel P

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing concern for sustainability, the use of environmentally friendly media to perform chemical processes has attracted the attention of many research groups. Among them, the use of water, as the unique solvent for reactions, is currently an active area of research. One process of particular interest is the direct nucleophilic substitution of an alcohol avoiding its preliminary transformation into a good leaving group, since one of the by-products in this approach would be water. The direct substitution of allylic, benzylic, and tertiary alcohols has been achieved through SN1-type reactions with catalytic amounts of Brønsted or Lewis acids; however, organic solvents are often required. In this review, the pioneering SN1 approaches performed in pure water and in the absence of a metal based Lewis acid are compiled and discussed.

  20. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sogut, Ibrahim; Oglakci, Aysegul; Kartkaya, Kazim; Ol, Kevser Kusat; Sogut, Melis Savasan; Kanbak, Gungor; Inal, Mine Erden

    2015-03-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), the MDA level in the alcohol + boric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (P<0.01). The CAT activity of the alcohol + boric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure.

  1. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SOGUT, IBRAHIM; OGLAKCI, AYSEGUL; KARTKAYA, KAZIM; OL, KEVSER KUSAT; SOGUT, MELIS SAVASAN; KANBAK, GUNGOR; INAL, MINE ERDEN

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), the MDA level in the alcohol + boric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (P<0.01). The CAT activity of the alcohol + boric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25667671

  2. Surface Partitioning and Stability of Mixed Films of Fluorinated Alcohols and Acids at the Air- Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, N. A.; Vaida, V.

    2007-05-01

    The production of fluorinated compounds over the past 50 years has had numerous industrial applications. For example, perfluorinated carboxylic acids are used in the synthesis of polymers and fire retardants, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates act as surface protectors, and fluorotelomer alcohols are incorporated into products such as paints, coatings, polymers, and adhesives. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are linear polyfluorinated alcohols with the formula CF3(CF2)nCH2CH2OH (n=1,3,5,...). They have been suggested as possible precursors for perfluorinated carboxylic acids and detected in the troposphere over several North American sites. Perfluorocarboxylic acids have even been detected in the arctic food chain, human blood, tissues of animals and environmental waters. We report the surface activity of fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorinated carboxylic acids at the air-water interface by using a Langmuir trough. Isotherms of the pure compounds along with mixed films with other organic carboxylic acids were collected. The main objective of these experiments was to understand their heterogeneous chemistry by characterizing the pure and mixed films, which serves as a representative model for organic films on atmospheric surfaces such as those found on oceans and aqueous aerosols. Film properties and behavior, notably stabilization, evaporation from the subphase, and miscibility in the single-component mixtures as well as in the mixed films will be discussed. An important consequence of FTOHs and perfluorocarboxylic acids being found to partition to the air-water interface is the possibility of their transport and widespread distribution and deposition using atmospheric aerosols.

  3. Chiral discrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Indrani; Chaudhari, Sachin R; Suryaprakash, Nagaraja Rao

    2015-02-01

    The manuscript reports two novel ternary ion-pair complexes, which serve as chiral solvating agents, for enantiodiscrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids. The protocol for discrimination of secondary alcohols is designed by using one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure mandelic acid, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and a chiral alcohol. For discrimination of carboxylic acids, the ternary complex is obtained by one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure chiral alcohol, DMAP and a carboxylic acid. The designed protocols also permit accurate measurement of enantiomeric composition.

  4. PROPERTIES OF MONOLAYERS OF OMEGAMONOHALOGENATED FATTY ACIDS AND ALCOHOLS ABSORBED ON WATER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS , *ALCOHOLS, MONOMOLECULAR FILMS, MONOMOLECULAR FILMS, HALOGENS, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, IODINE COMPOUNDS, SURFACE PROPERTIES, SURFACES, DIPOLE MOMENTS, IONS, PH FACTOR, WATER, ADSORPTION.

  5. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  6. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pachunka, Joseph M.; Mott, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. PMID:26610589

  7. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The... generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The... generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols (PMN...

  9. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID IN FETAL AND NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and its metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are developmental toxicants, but metabolism and distribution during pregnancy is not known. To examine this, timed-pregnant mice received a single gavage dose (...

  10. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  11. Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Shoichi

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Oleyl alcohol inhibits intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Murota, K; Kawada, T; Matsui, N; Sakakibara, M; Takahashi, N; Fushiki, T

    2000-12-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are important nutrients, but obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in humans. In this study we investigated the effect of oleyl alcohol on the intestinal long-chain fatty acid absorption in rats. We administered [14C]oleic acid and oleyl alcohol as lipid emulsion intraduodenally in unanesthetized lymph-cannulated rats and measured the lymphatic output of oleic acid. Second, we orally administered lipid emulsion with a stomach tube and measured the luminal and mucosal oleic acid residues. Furthermore, rats were fed oleyl alcohol as a dietary component for 20 days, and fecal lipid and the weight of adipose tissues were measured. In lymph-cannulated rats, triglyceride and [14C]oleic acid output in the lymph were significantly lower in the presence of oleyl alcohol when compared with the absence of oleyl alcohol in a dose-dependent manner. The radioactivity remaining in the intestinal lumen was more strongly detected in rats that had been orally administered oleyl alcohol than in the controls. The feces of rats fed an oleyl-alcohol-added diet contained much higher amounts of lipids, and the weights of their adipose tissues were significantly lower than in the control group. These results suggest that oleyl alcohol inhibits the rat gastrointestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids in vivo.

  15. Rotational Investigation of the Adducts of Formic Acid with Alcohols, Ethers and Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Spada, Lorenzo; Li, Weixing; Caminati, Walther

    2016-06-01

    Mixtures of formic acid with methyl alcohol, with isopropyl alcohol, with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethylether and with isopropylformiate have been supersonically expanded as pulsed jets. The obtained cool plumes have been analyzed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. It has been possible to assign the rotational spectra of the 1:1 adducts of formic acid with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethyl ether and with isopropylformiate. The conformational shapes and geometries of these adducts, as well as the topologies of their itermolecular hydrogen bonds will be presented. An explanation is given of the failure of the assignments of the rotational spectra of the adducts of formic acid with methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol.

  16. Additive Effects of Alcohols, Their Acidic By-Products, and Temperature on the Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M de F; Lee, H; Collins-Thompson, D L

    1990-02-01

    The effects of alcohols on the growth and fermentation of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus were investigated at both 30 and 35 degrees C. Addition of alcohols to the culture medium decreased both the growth rate and the final cell yield in a dose-dependent manner, and this decrease was more severe at 35 degrees C. The concentration for 50% growth rate inhibition decreased as the chain length of the alcohol increased. In fermentations using a high initial cell density, production of acids was always observed when the medium was supplemented with alcohols. Supplementation of the culture medium with a short-chain alcohol plus the corresponding acid was shown to exert an additive deleterious effect on fermentation, and this effect increased with temperature. Production of acids was associated with the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in cell extracts.

  17. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  19. Supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol and desizing wastewater: influence of NaOH on the organic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Xu, Donghai; Gong, Yanmeng; Tang, Xingying

    2013-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a refractory compound widely used in industry. Here we report supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol solution and desizing wastewater with and without sodium hydroxide addition. However, it is difficult to implement complete degradation of organics even though polyvinyl alcohol can readily crack under supercritical water treatment. Sodium hydroxide had a significant catalytic effect during the supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol. It appears that the OH- ion participated in the C-C bond cleavage of polyvinyl alcohol molecules, the CO2-capture reaction and the neutralization of intermediate organic acids, promoting the overall reactions moving in the forward direction. Acetaldehyde was a typical intermediate product during reaction. For supercritical water oxidation of desizing wastewater, a high destruction rate (98.25%) based on total organic carbon was achieved. In addition, cases where initial wastewater was alkaline were favorable for supercritical water oxidation treatment, but salt precipitation and blockage issues arising during the process need to be taken into account seriously.

  20. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  1. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  2. Exacerbation of Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Patere, S. N.; Majumdar, A. S.; Saraf, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography), polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. PMID:22303057

  3. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  4. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  5. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  6. The alcohol-sensitive period during early octavolateral organ development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lilliann Y; Miguel, Kayla C; Lu, Zhongmin

    2017-01-20

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively. To determine an alcohol-sensitive period in the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf), Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet4) zebrafish that express green fluorescent protein in sensory hair cells were treated in 2% alcohol for 2, 3, and 5-hours. Octavolateral organs of control and alcohol-exposed larvae were examined at 3, 5, and 7 days post fertilization (dpf). Using confocal and light microscopy, we found that alcohol-exposed larvae had significantly smaller otic vesicles and saccular otoliths than control larvae at 3 dpf. Only alcohol-exposed larvae from 12-17 hpf had smaller otic vesicles at 5 dpf, smaller saccular otoliths at 7 dpf and fewer saccular hair cells, neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast at 3 dpf. In addition, auditory function was assessed by microphonic potential recordings from inner ear hair cells in response to 200-Hz stimulation. Hearing sensitivity was reduced for alcohol-exposed larvae from 7-12 and 12-17 hpf. Our results show that 12-17 hpf is an alcohol-sensitive time window when morphology and function of zebrafish octavolateral organs are most vulnerable to alcohol exposure. This study implies that embryonic alcohol exposure timing during early development can influence severity of hearing deficits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acid-catalyzed furfurly alcohol polymerization : characterizations of molecular structure and thermodynamic properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.; Assary, R. S.; Marshall, C. L.; Gosztola, D. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stair, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid-phase polymerization of furfuryl alcohol catalyzed by sulfuric acid catalysts and the identities of molecular intermediates were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. At room temperature, with an acid catalyst, a vigorous furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction was observed, whereas even at a high water concentration, furfuryl alcohol was very stable in the absence of an acid catalyst. Theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the thermodynamics of protonation of furfuryl alcohol, initiation of polymerization, and formation of conjugated dienes and diketonic species by using the B3LYP level of theory. A strong aliphatic C=C band observed in the calculated and measured Raman spectra provided crucial evidence to understand the polymerization reaction mechanism. It is confirmed that the formation of a conjugated diene structure rather than a diketone structure is involved in the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction.

  8. Acid-catalyzed Furfuryl Alcohol Polymerization: Characterizations of Molecular Structure and Thermodynamic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taejin; Assary, Rajeev A.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Gosztola, David J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Stair, Peter C.

    2011-07-22

    The liquid-phase polymerization of furfuryl alcohol catalyzed by sulfuric acid catalysts and the identities of molecular intermediates were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. At room temperature, with an acid catalyst, a vigorous furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction was observed, whereas even at a high water concentration, furfuryl alcohol was very stable in the absence of an acid catalyst. Theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the thermodynamics of protonation of furfuryl alcohol, initiation of polymerization, and formation of conjugated dienes and diketonic species by using the B3LYP level of theory. A strong aliphatic C=C band observed in the calculated and measured Raman spectra provided crucial evidence to understand the polymerization reaction mechanism. It is confirmed that the formation of a conjugated diene structure rather than a diketone structure is involved in the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction.

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  10. Palladium-catalyzed allylation of acidic and less nucleophilic anilines using allylic alcohols directly.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Chun; Gan, Kim-Hong; Yang, Shyh-Chyun

    2005-10-01

    The direct activation of C-O bonds in allylic alcohols by palladium complexes has been accelerated by carrying out the reactions in the presence of titanium(IV) isoproxide and 4 A molecular sieves. The acidic and less nucleophilic anilines such as diphenylamine, phenothiazine, 4-cyanoaniline, and nitroanilines are efficiently allylated under palladium catalysis using allylic alcohols as allylating reagents.

  11. Catalytic hydrogenation of amino acids to amino alcohols with complete retention of configuration.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masazumi; Tamura, Riku; Takeda, Yasuyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-06-25

    Rh-MoOx/SiO2 is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for selective hydrogenation of amino acids to amino alcohols in a water solvent. MoOx modification of Rh drastically enhanced the activity and improved the selectivity and ee. Various amino alcohols were obtained in high yields (90-94%) with complete retention of configuration.

  12. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  13. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  14. Incoming Students' Alcohol Use and Intent to Join Greek Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Shutt, Michael D.; Cooper, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    Incoming first-time, first-year students attending summer orientation (N = 1,710) at a large public university in the Southeast completed an instrument that assessed their use of alcohol and other drugs during the previous year, their perceptions of use by current students on campus, their intended alcohol use, and their intent to join a Greek…

  15. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  16. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  17. Stability of binary SAMs formed by omega-acid and alcohol functionalized thiol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tielens, Frederik; Humblot, Vincent; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Calatayud, Monica; Illas, Francesc

    2009-09-01

    A simple model is presented to describe the mixing process of acid- and alcohol-terminated thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111). It was found that the low-concentration acid-terminated SAMs are enriched in acid thiol compared with the original solution from which the SAM is made. Due to the relatively strong interaction between acid and alcohol head groups, homogeneously mixed SAMs showing alcohol/acid pairs are preferred when the acid-terminated thiol fraction in solution is below or equal to 50%. This particular behavior affecting the mixing process is explained using atomistic first-principle thermodynamics. The calculated phase diagram has been discussed and interpreted with the help of XPS.

  18. Directory of Academic Institutions and Organizations Offering Drug, Alcohol, and Employee Assistance Program Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This directory lists academic institutions, State offices of alcohol and drug abuse, and national organizations which offer drug, alcohol, and employee assistance program (EAP) educational resources. A matrix format is used. Entries include name, address, telephone number, and contact person. A dot appears directly under column headings which are…

  19. Octanoic acid in alcohol-responsive essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    McCrossin, Gayle; Lungu, Codrin; Considine, Elaine; Toro, Camilo; Nahab, Fatta B.; Auh, Sungyoung; Buchwald, Peter; Grimes, George J.; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Scheider, Linda; Kalowitz, Daniel; Bowen, Daniel; Carnie, Andrea; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess safety and efficacy of an oral, single, low dose of octanoic acid (OA) in subjects with alcohol-responsive essential tremor (ET). Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the effect of 4 mg/kg OA in 19 subjects with ET. The primary outcome was accelerometric postural tremor power of the dominant hand 80 minutes after administration. Secondary outcomes included digital spiral analysis, pharmacokinetic sampling, as well as safety measures. Results: OA was safe and well tolerated. Nonserious adverse events were mild (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1) and equally present after OA and placebo. At the primary outcome, OA effects were not different from placebo. Secondary outcome analyses of digital spiral analysis, comparison across the entire time course in weighted and nonweighted accelerometry, as well as nondominant hand tremor power did not show a benefit of OA over placebo. The analysis of individual time points showed that OA improved tremor at 300 minutes (dominant hand, F1,16 = 5.49, p = 0.032 vs placebo), with a maximum benefit at 180 minutes after OA (both hands, F1,16 = 6.1, p = 0.025). Conclusions: Although the effects of OA and placebo at the primary outcome were not different, secondary outcome measures suggest superiority of OA in reducing tremor at later time points, warranting further trials at higher dose levels. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that a single 4-mg/kg dose of OA is not effective in reducing postural tremor in patients with ET at a primary outcome of 80 minutes, but is effective for a secondary outcome after 180 minutes. PMID:23408867

  20. Asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols catalyzed by vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic Acid complex.

    PubMed

    Noji, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Uechi, Yuria; Kikuchi, Asami; Kondo, Hisako; Sugiyama, Shigeo; Ishii, Keitaro

    2015-03-20

    A vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic acid (BBHA) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols is described. The optically active binaphthyl-based ligands BBHA 2a and 2b were synthesized from (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid and N-substituted-O-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-protected hydroxylamines via a one-pot, three-step procedure. The epoxidations of 2,3,3-trisubstituted allylic alcohols using the vanadium complex of 2a were easily performed in toluene with a TBHP water solution to afford (2R)-epoxy alcohols in good to excellent enantioselectivities.

  1. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  2. Lewis acid-water/alcohol complexes as hydrogen atom donors in radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Povie, Guillaume; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Water or low molecular weight alcohols are, due to their availability, low price and low toxicity ideal reagents for organic synthesis. Recently, it was reported that, despite the very strong BDE of the O-H bond, they can be used as hydrogen atom donors in place of expensive and/or toxic group 14 metal hydrides when boron and titanium(III) Lewis acids are present. This finding represents a considerable innovation and uncovers a new perspective on the paradigm of hydrogen atom transfers to radicals. We discuss here the influence of complex formation and other association processes on the efficacy of the hydrogen transfer step. A delicate balance between activation by complex formation and deactivation by further hydrogen bonding is operative.

  3. Mechanisms of alcohol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and organ injuries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  4. Production of non-alcoholic beer using free and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Marián; Dömény, Zoltán; Sturdík, Ernest; Smogrovicová, Daniela; Gemeiner, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Production of non-alcoholic beer using Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. Non-recombinant mutant strains with a defect in the synthesis of tricarboxylic-acid-cycle enzymes were used and applied in both free and pectate-immobilized form, using both batch and packed-bed continuous systems. After fermentation, basic parameters of the beer produced by five mutant strains were compared with a standard strain of brewing yeast. Results showed that the beer prepared by mutant yeast cells was characterized by lower levels of total alcohols, with ethanol concentrations between 0.07 and 0.31% (w/w). The organic acids produced, especially lactic acid, in concentrations up to 1.38 g x l(-1) had a strong protective effect on the microbial stability of the final product and thus the usual addition of lactic acid could be omitted. Application of the yeast mutants appears to be a good alternative to the classical methods for the production of non-alcoholic beer.

  5. Model Systems of Precursor Cellular Membranes: Long-Chain Alcohols Stabilize Spontaneously Formed Oleic Acid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Adela; Carton, David Gil; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Montes, Ruth; Valle, Mikel; Arrondo, José-Luis R.; Goñi, Felix M.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    Oleic acid vesicles have been used as model systems to study the properties of membranes that could be the evolutionary precursors of more complex, stable, and impermeable phospholipid biomembranes. Pure fatty acid vesicles in general show high sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variation, but there is growing evidence that this lack of stability can be counterbalanced through mixtures with other amphiphilic or surfactant compounds. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis of the oleic acid system and explore the spontaneous formation of vesicles under different conditions, as well as the effects that alcohols and alkanes may have in the process. Our results support the hypothesis that alcohols (in particular 10- to 14-C-atom alcohols) contribute to the stability of oleic acid vesicles under a wider range of experimental conditions. Moreover, studies of mixed oleic-acid-alkane and oleic-acid-alcohol systems using infrared spectroscopy and Langmuir trough measurements indicate that precisely those alcohols that increased vesicle stability also decreased the mobility of oleic acid polar headgroups, as well as the area/molecule of lipid. PMID:22339864

  6. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  7. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    PubMed

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations in highly acidic and phenolic apple musts.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Gloria; Berregi, Iñaki; Santos, José Ignacio; Dueñas, Maite; Irastorza, Ana

    2008-05-01

    This work reports the influence of the high acidity and high phenolic content in apple musts on the development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and on the final chemical and microbiological composition of the ciders. Four different musts were obtained by pressing several varieties and proportions of cider apples from the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Specially acidic and phenolic varieties were selected. Three musts were obtained in experimental stations and the fourth one, in a cider factory following usual procedures. The evolution of these musts was monitored during five months by measuring 18 parameters throughout eight samplings. In the most acidic of the three experimental musts, yeasts were added to complete the alcoholic fermentation. In the rest of the musts, alcoholic and malolactic fermentations took place spontaneously due to natural microflora and no chemical was added to control these processes. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) finished before alcoholic fermentation in the three tanks obtained in experimental stations, even in the most acidic and phenolic one (pH 3.18, 1.78 g tannic acid/l). After four months, these ciders maintained low levels of lactic acid bacteria (10(4)CFU/ml) and low content of acetic acid (<0.60 g/l). Both fermentations began simultaneously in the must obtained in the cider factory, but MLF finished 10 days after alcoholic fermentation. Subsequently, this must maintained a high population of lactic acid bacteria (>10(6)CFU/ml), causing a higher production of acetic acid (>1.00 g/l) than in the other ciders. These results show the possible advantages of MLF finishing before alcoholic fermentation.

  9. Real-time DNP NMR observations of acetic acid uptake, intracellular acidification, and of consequences for glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pernille R; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H; Meier, Sebastian

    2013-09-27

    Uptake and upshot in vivo: Straightforward methods that permit the real-time observation of organic acid influx, intracellular acidification, and concomitant effects on cellular-reaction networks are crucial for improved bioprocess monitoring and control. Herein, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR is used to observe acetate influx, ensuing intracellular acidification and the metabolic consequences on alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis in living cells.

  10. 2('),3(')-didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are degraded to furfuryl alcohol under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junxing; Ray, Adrian S; Mathew, Judy S; Anderson, Karen S; Chu, Chung K; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2004-05-03

    2('),3(')-Didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are clinically relevant antiviral agents. These nucleosides could be degraded under acidic conditions. Acidic stability studies showed the D4N had the following increasing stability order: D4Gacidic cleavage of D4-nucleosides. The cleavage products were characterized as furfuryl alcohol and the corresponding nucleobase. Furfuryl alcohol is an agent found in many everyday food products. The biological results demonstrated that furfuryl alcohol had neither anti-HIV activity nor cytotoxicity in vitro, suggesting the acid instability of D4-nucleosides is unlikely to have an impact on the toxicity of these nucleoside analogs in humans.

  11. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2012-07-01

    Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants. There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.

  12. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  13. Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied to determine the critical parameters of pure substances and their acentric factors. The parameters obtained were used to calculate the phase diagrams and critical parameters of mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters, at various alcohol/oil ratios. The conditions of triglyceride transesterification in various lower alcohols providing the supercritical state of reaction mixtures were selected.

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children: a novel approach?

    PubMed

    Verduci, Elvira; Lassandro, Carlotta; Radaelli, Giovanni; Soldati, Laura

    2015-04-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease represents the most common chronic liver disease in obese children of industrialized countries. Nowadays the first line of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is based on dietary and lifestyle intervention; however compliance to these interventions is very difficult to maintain in long term period. This editorial discusses about docosahexaenoic acid treatment as possible novel approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. Docosahexaenoic acid may modulate the inflammatory response, improve insulin sensitivity and could be effective in enhancing intestinal barrier integrity, essential to protect a healthy gut-liver axis. Indeed alteration of gut microbiota composition and increased intestinal permeability may rise the exposure of liver to gut-derived bacterial products, causing activation of signalling pathways implicated in liver inflammation and fibrogenesis. This mechanism has been observed in vitro and animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease but also in a clinical study in adults. While evidence suggests that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation may decrease liver fat in adults, in pediatric population only a study examined this topic. In obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the possible efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid treatment, and underlying mechanisms, to identify the optimal required dose and to evaluate if the docosahexaenoic acid effect is limited to the duration of the treatment or it may continue after the end of treatment.

  15. Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA (ΔPUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ΔPUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ΔPUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The compositions of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty acid composition, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA-induced changes in fatty acid composition and preserves membrane integrity.

  16. Organic Microporous Nanofillers with Unique Alcohol Affinity for Superior Ethanol Recovery toward Sustainable Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi Quan; Konstas, Kristina; Doherty, Cara M; Wood, Colin D; Mulet, Xavier; Xie, Zongli; Ng, Derrick; Hill, Matthew R; Lau, Cher Hon; Shao, Lu

    2017-03-27

    To minimize energy consumption and carbon footprints, pervaporation membranes are fast becoming the preferred technology for alcohol recovery. However, this approach is confined to small-scale operations, as the flux of standard rubbery polymer membranes remain insufficient to process large solvent volumes, whereas membrane separations that use glassy polymer membranes are prone to physical aging. This study concerns how the alcohol affinity and intrinsic porosity of networked, organic, microporous polymers can simultaneously reduce physical aging and drastically enhance both flux and selectivity of a super glassy polymer, poly-[1-(trimethylsilyl)propyne] (PTMSP). Slight loss in alcohol transportation channels in PTMSP is compensated by the alcohol affinity of the microporous polymers. Even after continuous exposure to aqueous solutions of alcohols, PTMSP pervaporation membranes loaded with the microporous polymers outperform the state-of-the-art and commercial pervaporation membranes.

  17. The road to a world health organization global strategy for reducing the harmful use of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maristela G

    2011-01-01

    Harmful alcohol use and the related health effects are a global problem and therefore need to be addressed not only by individual nations but also on an international level. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) noted that harmful alcohol use is the third leading risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in the world, accounting for approximately 2.5 million deaths worldwide (corresponding to 3.8 percent of all deaths) in 2004 (WHO 2010). Moreover, harmful alcohol use was considered responsible for 4.5 percent of the global burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life-years lost in the same year. Given this scope of the impact, the WHO initiated a series of efforts that culminated in the development of a global strategy for reducing the harmful use of alcohol. This article reviews the alcohol-related activities of the WHO over the years and summarizes the central issues addressed by the global strategy.

  18. The mechanism of the dehydration of alcohols and the hydration of alkenes in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, M. I.; Obraztsov, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Kinetic data for the hydration of unsaturated compounds, the dehydration of alcohols, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols and aqueous solutions of strong acids are analysed to establish the detailed mechanisms of these reactions. The catalytic action of the acid is caused not only by its ability to protonate the reactant but also by the possibility of the formation of reactive complexes of the reactant with the acid hydrates or the molecules of the undissociated acids. Equations are presented whereby the influence of the ionising capacity of the medium on the effective rate constants for the reactions indicated can be taken into account quantitatively. The question of the involvement of carbonium ions as reactive intermediates in reactions involving the dehydration of alcohols, the hydration of unsaturated compounds, and the isotope exchange of the oxygen atom in alcohols is examined. Complexes of the reactant with a solvated proton, the acid molecules, and the acid hydrates are the intermediates in these reactions. The relative contributions of the complexes to the effective rate constant depend on the acid concentration in the aqueous solution. The bibliography includes 65 references

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  20. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  1. Convergent functional genomic studies of omega-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Le-Niculescu, H; Case, N J; Hulvershorn, L; Patel, S D; Bowker, D; Gupta, J; Bell, R; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Kuczenski, R; Geyer, M A; Rodd, Z A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond. PMID:22832392

  2. Convergent functional genomic studies of ω-3 fatty acids in stress reactivity, bipolar disorder and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Le-Niculescu, H; Case, N J; Hulvershorn, L; Patel, S D; Bowker, D; Gupta, J; Bell, R; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Kuczenski, R; Geyer, M A; Rodd, Z A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-04-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment option in psychiatric disorders. Given their other health benefits and their relative lack of toxicity, teratogenicity and side effects, they may be particularly useful in children and in females of child-bearing age, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. A comprehensive mechanistic understanding of their effects is needed. Here we report translational studies demonstrating the phenotypic normalization and gene expression effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in a stress-reactive knockout mouse model of bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcoholism, using a bioinformatic convergent functional genomics approach integrating animal model and human data to prioritize disease-relevant genes. Additionally, to validate at a behavioral level the novel observed effects on decreasing alcohol consumption, we also tested the effects of DHA in an independent animal model, alcohol-preferring (P) rats, a well-established animal model of alcoholism. Our studies uncover sex differences, brain region-specific effects and blood biomarkers that may underpin the effects of DHA. Of note, DHA modulates some of the same genes targeted by current psychotropic medications, as well as increases myelin-related gene expression. Myelin-related gene expression decrease is a common, if nonspecific, denominator of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, our work supports the potential utility of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA, for a spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as stress disorders, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and beyond.

  3. Effect of chain length of alcohol on the lipase-catalyzed esterification of propionic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Varma, Mahesh N; Madras, Giridhar

    2010-04-01

    The esterification of propionic acid was investigated using three different alcohols, namely, isopropyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, and isoamyl alcohol. The variation of conversion with time for the synthesis of isoamyl propionate was investigated in the presence of five enzymes. Novozym 435 showed the highest activity, and this was used as the enzyme for investigating the various parameters that influence the esterification reaction. The Ping-Pong Bi-Bi model with inhibition by both acid and alcohol was used to model the experimental data and determine the kinetics of the esterification reaction.

  4. Conversion of furfuryl alcohol into ethyl levulinate using solid acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul; van de Graaf, Wouter D; Haan, René J

    2009-01-01

    Furfural, a potential coproduct of levulinic acid, can be converted into levulinic acid via hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol and subsequent ethanolysis to ethyl levulinate. The ethanolysis reaction is known to proceed in the presence of H(2)SO(4). We show here that several strongly acidic resins are comparably effective catalysts for this reaction. Optimal performance is achieved by balancing the number of acid sites with their accessibility in the resin. Acidic zeolites such as H-ZSM-5 also catalyze this reaction, although with a lower activity and a higher co-production of diethyl ether.

  5. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  6. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Richard C; Mathies, Laura D; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  7. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Required for Normal Alcohol Response Behaviors in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Richard C.; Mathies, Laura D.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol. PMID:25162400

  8. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  9. Urinary D-glucaric acid and serum hepatic enzyme levels in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tutor, J C; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Bernabeu, F; Pardiñas, M C; Paz, J M; Lareu, V

    1988-06-01

    Urinary D-glucaric acid (DGA) and the activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and other hepatic enzymes in serum were determined in 33 noncirrhotic male alcoholics who had continued to consume alcohol until at least 24 h prior to the taking of samples. DGA excretion was significantly greater in them than in a group of 30 healthy controls (p less than 0.001), exceeding the upper reference level in 38% of the alcoholic cases (as compared with 88% for GGT). In the alcoholic patients, there was highly significant correlation between urinary DGA and serum GGT (r = 0.613, p less than 0.001), suggesting that in both cases the increased levels are due to enzyme induction. None of the biochemical variables studied were significantly correlated with estimated daily alcohol consumption. Urinary DGA levels fell off rapidly with abstinence, and in 31 alcoholic patients who had consumed no alcohol for 5 days, there was no statistically significant correlation between DGA excretion and serum GGT (r = 0.158, p congruent to 0.4).

  10. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products.

  11. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  12. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  13. Partitioning of fluorotelomer alcohols to octanol and different sources of dissolved organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Carmosini, Nadia; Lee, Linda S

    2008-09-01

    Interest in the environmental fate of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) has spurred efforts to understand their equilibrium partitioning behavior. Experimentally determined partition coefficients for FTOHs between soil/water and air/water have been reported, but direct measurements of partition coefficients for dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/water (K(doc)) and octanol/ water(K(ow)) have been lacking. Here we measured the partitioning of 8:2 and 6:2 FTOH between one or more types of DOC and water using enhanced solubility or dialysis bag techniques, and also quantified K(ow) values for 4:2 to 8:2 FTOH using a batch equilibration method. The range in measured log K(doc) values for 8:2 FTOH using the enhanced solubility technique with DOC derived from two soils, two biosolids, and three reference humic acids is 2.00-3.97 with the lowest values obtained for the biosolids and an average across all other DOC sources (biosolid DOC excluded) of 3.54 +/- 0.29. For 6:2 FTOH and Aldrich humic acid, a log K(doc) value of 1.96 +/- 0.45 was measured using the dialysis technique. These average values are approximately 1 to 2 log units lower than previously indirectly estimated K(doc) values. Overall, the affinity for DOC tends to be slightly lower than that for particulate soil organic carbon. Measured log K(ow) values for 4:2 (3.30 +/- 0.04), 6:2 (4.54 +/- 0.01), and 8:2 FTOH (5.58 +/- 0.06) were in good agreement with previously reported estimates. Using relationships between experimentally measured partition coefficients and C-atom chain length, we estimated K(doc) and K(ow) values for shorter and longer chain FTOHs, respectively, that we were unable to measure experimentally.

  14. Degradation of organic acids by dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, F Z; Abo-Elnaga, I G

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and twelve different strains of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the genera Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus, were examined for the ability to degrade 10 organic acids by detecting gas production, using the conventional Durham tube method. All the strains did not break down succinate, glutarate, 2-oxo-glutarate, and mucate. Malate, citrate, pyruvate, fumarate, tartrate, and gluconate were variably attacked. Streptococcus cremoiris AM2, ML8, and SK11 required glucose to produce gas from citrate, whereas Leuconostoc citrovorum and Streptococcus faecalis did not. Streptococcus cremoris differed from the other streptococci in not producing gas from gluconate. From all lactic acid bacteria examined, only Lactobacillus plantarum formed gas from tartarate. Determination of acetoin and diacetyl proved to be a more reliable evidence for assessing the degradation of pyruvate, compared with detection of gas production. Homofermentative lactobacilli and Leuconostoc citrovorum produced acetoin and diacetyl from pyruvate, whereas beta-bacteria did not, a character that would be of taxonomic value. Streptobacteria degraded pyruvate in the presence of glucose with lactate as the major product together with a mean acetate of 4.1%, ethanol 7.9%, acetoin 1.7%, and diacetyl 2.6% yield on a molar basis after 60 days at 30 degrees C. L. brevis produced acetate and lactate. Formation of diacetyl from pyruvate by lactic acid bacteria may play an important role in flavour development in fermenting dairy products, especially in cheese, where lactic acid bacteria usually predominate, and pyruvate is probably excreted in the breaking down of lactose and in the oxidative deamination of alanine by the accompanying microflora.

  15. Gut microbiota, cirrhosis and alcohol regulate bile acid metabolism in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Ridlon, Jason M.; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the complex role of the bile acid-gut microbiome axis in health and disease processes is evolving rapidly. Our focus revolves around the interaction of the gut microbiota with liver diseases, especially cirrhosis. The bile acid pool size has recently been shown to be a function of microbial metabolism of bile acid and regulation of the microbiota by bile acids is important in the development and progression of several liver diseases. Humans produce a large, conjugated hydrophilic bile acid pool, maintained through positive-feedback antagonism of FXR in intestine and liver. Microbes use bile acids, and via FXR signaling this results in a smaller, unconjugated hydrophobic bile acid pool. This equilibrium is critical to maintain health. The challenge is to examine the manifold functions of gut bile acids as modulators of antibiotic, probiotic and disease progression in cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome and alcohol use. Recent studies have shown potential mechanisms explaining how perturbations in the microbiome affect bile acid pool size and composition. With advancing liver disease and cirrhosis, there is dysbiosis in the fecal, ileal and colonic mucosa, in addition to a decrease in bile acid concentration in the intestine due to the liver problems. This results in a dramatic shift toward the Firmicutes, particularly Clostridium cluster XIVa and increasing production of deoxycholic acid (DCA). Alcohol intake speeds up these processes in the subjects with and without cirrhosis without significant FXR feedback. Taken together, these pathways can impact intestinal and systemic inflammation while worsening dysbiosis. The interaction between bile acids, alcohol, cirrhosis and dysbiosis is an important relationship that influences intestinal and systemic inflammation, which in turn determines progression of the overall disease process. These interactions and the impact of commonly used therapies for liver disease can provide insight into the pathogenesis

  16. Reductive Etherification of Fatty Acids or Esters with Alcohols using Molecular Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Erb, Benjamin; Risto, Eugen; Wendling, Timo; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2016-06-22

    In the presence of a catalyst system consisting of a ruthenium/triphos complex and the Brønsted acid trifluoromethanesulfonimide, mixtures of fatty acids and aliphatic alcohols are converted into the corresponding ethers at 70 bar H2 . The protocol allows the sustainable one-step synthesis of valuable long-chain ether fragrances, lubricants, and surfactants from renewable sources. The reaction protocol is extended to various fatty acids and esters both in pure form and as mixtures, for example, tall oil acids or rapeseed methyl ester (RME). Even the mixed triglyceride rapeseed oil was converted in one step.

  17. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  1. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  2. Straightforward glycosylation of alcohols and amino acids mediated by ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Monasson, Olivier; Sizun-Thomé, Gwenaëlle; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Uziel, Jacques; Augé, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    Green glycosylation of functionalized alcohols and α-amino acids, using an ionic liquid as a recyclable solvent, was performed in one step directly from the unprotected monosaccharide under scandium triflate or ferric chloride catalysis. Pure α- and β-glycosides could be obtained after specific enzymatic hydrolysis.

  3. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities of furfuryl alcohol, furfural and furoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Hu, Yong-Hua; Feng, Hui-Ling; Jia, Yu-Long; Guo, Yun-Ji; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The inhibitory kinetics of furfuryl alcohol, furfural and furoic acid on mushroom tyrosinase have been investigated. The results showed that these furan compounds were reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. Furthermore, furfuryl alcohol and furfural were found to be mixed-type inhibitors while furoic acid is uncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibition constants have been confirmed and the order of the inhibiting ability was furfural>furoic acid>furfuryl alcohol. They indicate that the functional groups on the furan ring play a crucial role in the inhibition on the enzyme. In addition, it was also found that these furan compounds could inhibit the proliferation of Salmonella bacteria and Bacillus subtilis to different extents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of furfuryl alcohol, furfural and furoic acid against B. subtilis and S. bacteria were 0.115, 0.027, 0.015 and 0.115, 0.029, 0.009 μM, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of that were 0.115, 0.027, 0.015 and 0.231, 0.121, 0.030 μM, respectively.

  4. Cooperative catalysis by palladium and a chiral phosphoric acid: enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasis; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Cooperative catalysis by [Pd(dba)2] and the chiral phosphoric acid BA1 in combination with the phosphoramidite ligand L8 enabled the efficient enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols with a variety of functionalized amines. This catalytic protocol is highly regio- and stereoselective (up to e.r. 96:4) and furnishes valuable chiral amines in almost quantitative yield.

  5. Transition-Metal-Free Decarboxylative Photoredox Coupling of Carboxylic Acids and Alcohols with Aromatic Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Benjamin; Nauth, Alexander M; Opatz, Till

    2016-08-05

    A transition-metal-free protocol for the redox-neutral light-induced decarboxylative coupling of carboxylic acids with (hetero)aromatic nitriles at ambient temperature is presented. A broad scope of acids and nitriles is accepted, and alcohols can be coupled in a similar fashion through their oxalate half esters. Various inexpensive sources of UV light and even sunlight can be used to achieve this C-C bond formation proceeding through a free radical mechanism.

  6. Novel fatty acid esters of p-coumaryl alcohol in epicuticular wax of apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, B D; Schmidt, W F; Kirk, M C; Barnes, S

    2001-08-01

    Hexane extracts of epicuticular wax from cv. Gala apples were noted to have an unusual, broad absorbance maximum at approximately 258 nm, which led us to isolate and identify the primary UV-absorbing compounds. Column and thin-layer chromatography yielded a fraction that gave a series of paired, 260-nm-absorbing peaks on C(18) HPLC. These were shown to be a family of phenolic fatty acid esters, for which retention times increased with increasing fatty acid chain length, and paired peaks were esters of two related phenolics with the same fatty acid moiety. Alkaline hydrolysis of the esters released two water-soluble phenolics separable by C(18) HPLC. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry gave a molecular mass of 150 for both, and (1)H NMR plus UV absorbance spectra identified them as E and Z isomers of p-coumaryl alcohol. Alkaline cleavage of the fatty acid esters in the presence of methanol or ethanol resulted in partial derivatization of E-p-coumaryl alcohol to the corresponding gamma-O-methyl or O-ethyl ether. Gradient HMQC NMR of the HPLC-purified stearate ester of E-p-coumaryl alcohol indicated that fatty acid esterification occurs at the gamma-OH rather than at the 4-OH on the phenyl ring. This is the first report of fatty acid esters of monolignols as a natural plant product.

  7. Ambient cure polyimide foams prepared from aromatic polyisocyanates, aromatic polycarboxylic compounds, furfuryl alcohol, and a strong inorganic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hamermesh, Charles L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Flame and temperature resistant polyimide foams are prepared by the reaction of an aromatic dianhydride, e.g., pyromellitic dianhydride, with an aromatic polyisocyanate, e.g., polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PAPI) in the presence of an inorganic acid and a lower molecular weight alcohol, e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid and furfuryl alcohol. The exothermic reaction between the acid and the alcohol provides the heat necessary for the other reactants to polymerize without the application of any external heat. Such mixtures, therefore, are ideally suited for in situ foam formation, especially where the application of heat is not practical or possible.

  8. In vitro antifungal activity of organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Caneschi, César Augusto; Almeida, Angelina Maria de; Martins, Francislene Juliana; Hyaric, Mireille Le; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Macedo, Gilson Costa; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2017-02-09

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail caused by high densities of filamentous fungi and yeasts. Treatment for this illness is long-term, and recurrences are frequently detected. This study evaluated in vitro antifungal activities of 12 organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against standard fungal strains, such as Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507 URM 1666, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antifungal compounds were synthesized from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4a-4f) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (9a-9f). Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols M38-A2, M27-A3, and M27-S4. The amine series 4b-4e, mainly 4c and 4e compounds, were effective against filamentous fungi and yeast (MIC from 7.8 to 312μg/mL). On the other hand, the amide series (9a-9f) did not present inhibitory effect against fungi, except amide 9c, which demonstrated activity only against C. albicans. This allowed us to infer that the presence of amine group and intermediate carbon number (8C-11C) in its aliphatic side chain seems to be important for antifungal activity. Although these compounds present cytotoxic activity on macrophages J774, our results suggest that these aromatic compounds might constitute potential as leader molecules in the development of more effective and less toxic analogs that could have considerable implications for future therapies of onychomycosis.

  9. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  10. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries. PMID:26047032

  11. Physicians' Knowledge of Alcohol, Tobacco and Folic Acid in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, L. G.; Ordean, A.; Midmer, D.; Kahan, M.; Tolomiczenko, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess: (1) physicians' knowledge and clinical confidence regarding problematic substance use in pregnancy compared to folic acid, and (2) physicians' desire for education in this area and their preferred learning modalities tools. Design: Self-administered survey. Setting: "Family Medicine Forum 2004" in Toronto, Canada.…

  12. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  13. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P < 0.05). The hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  14. A self-reducible and alcohol-soluble copper-based metal-organic decomposition ink for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hun; Woo, Seunghee; Yem, Hyesuk; Cha, Minjeong; Cho, Sanghun; Kang, Mingyu; Jeong, Sooncheol; Kim, Yoonhyun; Kang, Kyungtae; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2014-03-12

    We report a novel method for the synthesis of a self-reducible (thermally reducible without a reducing atmosphere) and alcohol-soluble copper-based metal-organic decomposition (MOD) ink for printed electronics. Alcohol-solvent-based conductive inks are necessary for commercial printing processes such as reverse offset printing. We selected copper(II) formate as a precursor and alkanolamine (2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) as a ligand to make an alcohol-solvent-based conductive ink and to assist in the reduction reaction of copper(II) formate. In addition, a co-complexing agent (octylamine) and a sintering helper (hexanoic acid) were introduced to improve the metallic copper film. The specific resistivity of copper-based MOD ink (Cuf-AMP-OH ink) after heat treatment at 350 °C is 9.46 μΩ·cm, which is 5.5 times higher than the specific resistivity of bulk copper. A simple stamping transfer was conducted to demonstrate the potential of our ink for commercial printing processes.

  15. Quantitative detection of Amino Acid, Organic Acid and Sugar using an Electrode-separated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Toshiaki; Yamamura, Satoshi; Arikawa, Yukihiko

    An electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal (electrode-separated PQC) is constructed with no electrode attached to either side of the quartz plate, but electrodes are separately inserted in the electrolyte solution on both sides of the quartz plate, and are connected to an oscillator. The frequency shifts due to the solution properties and the mass change on the quartz plate is just the same as for a normal piezoelectric quartz crystal (normal PQC) having two electrodes. The electrode-separated PQC will be more useful than the normal PQC because it can be made smaller, higher frequency, and then cheaper. Amino acid, organic acid and sugar are important substances in the alcoholic beverage made by fermentation, such as sake. The Amino acids were determined using electrode-separated PQC coated with chitosan in copper (II) solution. Formation of complex with chitosan on the quartz plate, Cu(II) and amino acid in the sample solution induced the frequency shift of PQC. On the other hand, using non-coated electrode-separated PQC, concentration of organic acid and sugar in the liquid were determined, because the frequency of the crystal filled with the liquid containing organic acid and sugar was shifted with the viscosity and conductivity, respectively.

  16. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  17. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  18. Behavior of transplutonium elements on ion-exchange materials in mixed aqueous-organic solutions of mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirov, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1987-03-01

    Systematic studies are reported on the behavior of transplutonium elements (TPE) on cation-exchange and anion-exchange materials in mixed aqueous-organic solutions of mineral acids (HClO/sub 4/, HCl, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) as affected by solution composition, nature of acid, and nature of organic solvent. With all these acids, replacing most of the water by alcohol increases the TPE uptake on the ion exchangers, and the effect occurs for the cation exchangers at lower contents of the organic component. Optimum conditions have been identified for concentrating and separating TPE from numerous elements. The most effective system consists of anion exchanger with HNO/sub 3/ and alcohol.

  19. [Determination of fatty acids and organic acids in Ranunculus ternatus Thunb using GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yao, Cheng; Xia, Li-Ming; Ouyang, Ping-Kai

    2006-08-01

    The determination of fatty acids and organic acids in Chinese medicinal plant Ranunculus ternatus Thunb using GC-MS was studied. The Ranunculus ternatus Thunb from Henan province was cut into less than 20 mesh pieces, then extracted by petroleum ether or ether in refluxing and esteried, and finally was determined using GC-MS. The results show that there are 23 kinds of organic compounds in the Chinese medicinal plant Ranunculus ternatus Thunb from Henan, among which 15 kinds of fatty acids were identified, including myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid etc. The unsaturated fatty acids and oleic acid account for 58.19% and 35.68% of the total organic compounds respectively. The kinds of fatty acid in petroleum ether extract and ether extract are the same.

  20. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of /sup 3/H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-09-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral /sup 3/H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided.

  1. Measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and patchouli alcohol of patchouli oil produced in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito

    2017-03-01

    Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.

  2. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  3. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  4. Agreement between the fatty acid ethyl ester hair test for alcohol and social workers' reports.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Gareri, Joey; Fulga, Netta; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social worker reports and the fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) test as a biomarker for heavy alcohol use. In 2005, a diagnostic program to detect excessive alcohol use by FAEE hair analysis in parents at high risk of having children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders was established. All cases submitted by Child Protective Services between May and December of 2007 (n = 172) were included comparing social worker reports with FAEE test outcome by odds ratio analysis. A subanalysis of mothers (n = 119), excluding fathers, was also performed. Factors associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: knowledge of a specific instance of problem drinking within the past 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 5.11, 2.57-10.16 and OR = 8.51, 3.59-20.18, respectively) and third party reports alleging alcohol abuse (OR = 3.31, 1.69-6.46 and OR = 3.30, 1.45-7.50, respectively). Mothers who admitted to heavy drinking were also seven times more likely to test positive for hair FAEE (OR = 6.74, 1.50-30.38) than those who did not. Factors negatively associated with testing positive for hair FAEE in parents, and mothers alone, were: social workers testing for FAEE without the suspicion of alcohol use but rather as a measure to "cover all bases" (OR = 0.09, 0.02-0.40 and (OR = 0.13, 0.03-0.58, respectively) or because of a history/suspicion of illicit drug use (OR = 0.2, 0.07-0.55 and OR = 0.26, 0.08-0.80, respectively). Eleven of 15 reports, indicating levels of consumption, were also in clinical agreement with FAEE test outcome. The FAEE hair test is being applied for the first time in the present context. Our results show the test corroborates well with social workers' suspicion of alcohol use. Reported factors directly related to alcohol use were significantly associated with testing positive for excessive alcohol use, whereas factors not directly related to alcohol use were negatively

  5. Differential malic acid degradation by selected strains of Saccharomyces during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Redzepovic, S; Orlic, S; Majdak, A; Kozina, B; Volschenk, H; Viljoen-Bloom, M

    2003-05-25

    To produce a high-quality wine, it is important to obtain a fine balance between the various chemical constituents, especially between the sugar and acid content. The latter is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to excess malic acid, since wine yeast in general cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. An indigenous Saccharomyces paradoxus strain RO88 was able to degrade 38% of the malic acid in Chardonnay must and produced a wine of good quality. In comparison, Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain F effectively removed 90% of the malic acid, but did not produce a good-quality wine. Although commercially promoted as a malic-acid-degrading wine yeast strain, only 18% of the malic acid was degraded by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lalvin strain 71B. Preliminary studies on the transcriptional regulation of the malic enzyme gene from three Saccharomyces strains, i.e. S. paradoxus RO88, S. cerevisiae 71B and Saccharomyces bayanus EC1118, were undertaken to elucidate the differences in their ability to degrade malic acid. Expression of the malic enzyme gene from S. paradoxus RO88 and S. cerevisiae 71B increased towards the end of fermentation once glucose was depleted, whereas no increase in transcription was observed for S. bayanus EC1118 which was also unable to effectively degrade malic acid.

  6. Hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1 mediates alcohol-induced regulation of bile acid enzyme genes expression via CREBH.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Dipanjan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Li, Tiangang; Misra, Jagannath; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kim, Jung Ran; Kwon, Joseph; Jeong, Won-Il; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Park, Tae-Sik; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Chiang, John Y L; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids concentration in liver is tightly regulated to prevent cell damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that deregulation of bile acid homeostasis can lead to cholestatic liver disease. Recently, we have shown that ER-bound transcription factor Crebh is a downstream effector of hepatic Cb1r signaling pathway. In this study, we have investigated the effect of alcohol exposure on hepatic bile acid homeostasis and elucidated the mediatory roles of Cb1r and Crebh in this process. We found that alcohol exposure or Cb1r-agonist 2-AG treatment increases hepatic bile acid synthesis and serum ALT, AST levels in vivo alongwith significant increase in Crebh gene expression and activation. Alcohol exposure activated Cb1r, Crebh, and perturbed bile acid homeostasis. Overexpression of Crebh increased the expression of key bile acid synthesis enzyme genes via direct binding of Crebh to their promoters, whereas Cb1r knockout and Crebh-knockdown mice were protected against alcohol-induced perturbation of bile acid homeostasis. Interestingly, insulin treatment protected against Cb1r-mediated Crebh-induced disruption of bile acid homeostasis. Furthermore, Crebh expression and activation was found to be markedly increased in insulin resistance conditions and Crebh knockdown in diabetic mice model (db/db) significantly reversed alcohol-induced disruption of bile acid homeostasis. Overall, our study demonstrates a novel regulatory mechanism of hepatic bile acid metabolism by alcohol via Cb1r-mediated activation of Crebh, and suggests that targeting Crebh can be of therapeutic potential in ameliorating alcohol-induced perturbation of bile acid homeostasis.

  7. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  8. Activity of MMP1 and MMP13 and Amino Acid Metabolism in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Szpetnar, Maria; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcoholic liver disease remains one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP13) as diagnostic markers of alcoholic liver disease and to determine the changes in free amino acid profile in the patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods Sixty patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis treated in various hospitals of the Lublin region were randomly enrolled. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol. Additionally, a group of alcoholics (22 persons) without liver cirrhosis was included in the study. The activity of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in blood plasma of patients and controls was measured using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique with commercially available quantitative ELISA test kits. Amino acids were determined by automated ion-exchange chromatography. Results No significant differences were observed in the activity of MMP-1 in alcoholics with or without liver cirrhosis or in controls. Increased serum MMP-13 was found in patients with liver cirrhosis (stage A, B, C) compared to the control group. Patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (stage A, B, C) demonstrated reduced concentrations of glutamic acid and glutamine compared to the control group. Plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (stage C) than in controls. Conclusions MMP-13 can be useful to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, but levels of MMP-1 are not significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis compared to controls. The serum branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is markedly reduced in patients with stage C alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:25863779

  9. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  10. Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information.

    PubMed

    Peel, J L; Dansereau, D F; Dees, S

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers--schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices--in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic and semantic/episodic. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information.

  11. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID (PFNA) IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are the probable precursors of a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) detected globally in both mammalian and environmental samples. Recently, 8-2 FTOH has been classified as a xenoestrogen and its derivatives, perfluoro...

  12. Relative Amino Acid Composition Signatures of Organisms and Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandra; Savageau, Michael A.; Alves, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying organism-environment interactions at the molecular level is crucial to understanding how organisms adapt to and change the chemical and molecular landscape of their habitats. In this work we investigated whether relative amino acid compositions could be used as a molecular signature of an environment and whether such a signature could also be observed at the level of the cellular amino acid composition of the microorganisms that inhabit that environment. Methodologies/Principal Findings To address these questions we collected and analyzed environmental amino acid determinations from the literature, and estimated from complete genomic sequences the global relative amino acid abundances of organisms that are cognate to the different types of environment. Environmental relative amino acid abundances clustered into broad groups (ocean waters, host-associated environments, grass land environments, sandy soils and sediments, and forest soils), indicating the presence of amino acid signatures specific for each environment. These signatures correlate to those found in organisms. Nevertheless, relative amino acid abundance of organisms was more influenced by GC content than habitat or phylogeny. Conclusions Our results suggest that relative amino acid composition can be used as a signature of an environment. In addition, we observed that the relative amino acid composition of organisms is not highly determined by environment, reinforcing previous studies that find GC content to be the major factor correlating to amino acid composition in living organisms. PMID:24204807

  13. An Analysis of the Role of Preexisting Internal Factors in Collegiate Alcohol Abuse within Membership of Social Groups/Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Kristy D.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the administration of the CORE Drug and Alcohol Survey long form, with the inclusion of 10 additional questions to assess prior history of behaviors, social organization membership status, and reasons for utilization of alcohol, to a representative sample of 2500 college students within a single university in order to determine…

  14. Bile Acids and Dysbiosis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandsma, Robert; Comelli, Elena M.; Arendt, Bianca M.; Zhang, Ling; Fung, Scott; Fischer, Sandra E.; McGilvray, Ian G.; Allard, Johane P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by dysbiosis. The bidirectional effects between intestinal microbiota (IM) and bile acids (BA) suggest that dysbiosis may be accompanied by an altered bile acid (BA) homeostasis, which in turn can contribute to the metabolic dysregulation seen in NAFLD. This study sought to examine BA homeostasis in patients with NAFLD and to relate that with IM data. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of adults with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver: NAFL or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: NASH) and healthy controls (HC). Clinical and laboratory data, stool samples and 7-day food records were collected. Fecal BA profiles, serum markers of BA synthesis 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and intestinal BA signalling, as well as IM composition were assessed. Results 53 subjects were included: 25 HC, 12 NAFL and 16 NASH. Levels of total fecal BA, cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and BA synthesis were higher in patients with NASH compared to HC (p<0.05 for all comparisons). The primary to secondary BA ratio was higher in NASH compared to HC (p = 0.004), but ratio of conjugated to unconjugated BAs was not different between the groups. Bacteroidetes and Clostridium leptum counts were decreased in in a subset of 16 patients with NASH compared to 25 HC, after adjusting for body mass index and weight-adjusted calorie intake (p = 0.028 and p = 0.030, respectively). C. leptum was positively correlated with fecal unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) (r = 0.526, p = 0.003) and inversely with unconjugated CA (r = -0.669, p<0.0001) and unconjugated CDCA (r = - 0.630, p<0.0001). FGF19 levels were not different between the groups (p = 0.114). Conclusions In adults with NAFLD, dysbiosis is associated with altered BA homeostasis, which renders them at increased risk of hepatic injury. PMID:27203081

  15. [Efficient killing of anthrax spores using aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid solutions].

    PubMed

    Nattermann, H; Becker, S; Jacob, D; Klee, S R; Schwebke, I; Appel, B

    2005-08-01

    We analysed the sporicidal effect of different concentrations of aqueous and alcoholic peracetic acid (PAA) solutions on anthrax spores in suspension and germ carrier tests. In activation of anthrax spores in suspension assays was achieved in less than 2 min using 1% PAA solution and in less than 3 min using 0.5% PAA solution, respectively. In contrast, in germ carrier as says, a test under practical conditions, spores on 38% of the germ carriers survived treatment with 1% PAA solution for 15 min. The use of PAA in 80% ethyl alcohol outclassed the sporicidal effect of aqueous PAA solutions in both suspension and germ carrier assays. Anthrax spores on 14% of germ carriers tested survived 30 min of treatment with a 1% aqueous PAA solution. In contrast anthrax spores were reliably inactivated under the same test procedure using a 1% alcoholic PAA solution for 30 min. The proven enhancement of the sporicidal effect of alcoholic PAA solutions should be kept in mind when using disinfectants in practice. In further surveys we will optimise the test conditions.

  16. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Sawant, Onkar B; Lunde, Emilie R; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model.

  17. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Shannon E.; Sawant, Onkar B.; Lunde, Emilie R.; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21–30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model. PMID:23315157

  18. Transformation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and furfuryl alcohol, photosensitised by Aldrich humic acids subject to different filtration procedures.

    PubMed

    Minella, Marco; Merlo, Maria Paola; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles in a system made up of Aldrich humic acids (HAs) in water account for about 13% of the total HA mass, 10-11% of the organic carbon and 9-11% of radiation extinction in the UVA region. Extinction would be made up of radiation scattering (less than one third) and absorption (over two thirds). The contribution of particles to the degradation rates of trimethylphenol and furfuryl alcohol (FFA) (probes of triplet states and (1)O(2), respectively) was lower than 10% and possibly negligible. The results indicate that triplet states and (1)O(2) occurring in the solution bulk are mostly produced by the dissolved HA fraction. Experimental data would not exclude production of (1)O(2) in particle hydrophobic cores, unavailable for reaction with FFA. However, the limited to negligible particle fluorescence places an upper limit to particle core photoactivity.

  19. Measuring the relative hydrogen-bonding strengths of alcohols in aprotic organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Tessensohn, Malcolm E; Lee, Melvyn; Hirao, Hajime; Webster, Richard D

    2015-01-12

    Voltammetric experiments with 9,10-anthraquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone performed under controlled moisture conditions indicate that the hydrogen-bond strengths of alcohols in aprotic organic solvents can be differentiated by the electrochemical parameter ΔEp (red) =|Ep (red(1)) -Ep (red(2)) |, which is the potential separation between the two one-electron reduction processes. This electrochemical parameter is inversely related to the strength of the interactions and can be used to differentiate between primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols, and even diols, as it is sensitive to both their steric and electronic properties. The results are highly reproducible across two solvents with substantially different hydrogen-bonding properties (CH3 CN and CH2 Cl2 ) and are supported by density functional theory calculations. This indicates that the numerous solvent-alcohol interactions are less significant than the quinone-alcohol hydrogen-bonding interactions. The utility of ΔEp (red) was illustrated by comparisons between 1) 3,3,3-trifluoro-n-propanol and 1,3-difluoroisopropanol and 2) ethylene glycol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol.

  20. Evaluation of flowable resin composite surfaces eroded by acidic and alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Han, Linlin; Okamoto, Akira; Fukushima, Masayoshi; Okiji, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of the surfaces of flowable resins eroded by orange juice and alcohol drinks. The tested products were Beautifil Flow BF02 and BF10, Clearfil Majesty LV, Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative, Unifil LoFlo Plus and Filtek Supreme. Filler percentages of flowable resins were calculated after the latter were incinerated at 750 degrees C. Specimens were shaped into a disk form with a diameter of 10 mm and a thickness of 1 mm. Morphological changes were evaluated for the following types of flowable resin surfaces: polished surface, surfaces eroded by 100% orange juice, wine and whisky. Filler percentages of the tested flowable resins ranged between 42 and 78%. Surface degradation was observed for the specimens immersed in acidic and alcoholic drinks, and it was thought that the lower the filler percentage, the greater was the surface degradation. Decomposition of the matrix resin and fallout of the fillers were observed in flowable resins that eroded with acidic and alcoholic drinks.

  1. L-(-)-malic acid production by Saccharomyces spp. during the alcoholic fermentation of wine (1).

    PubMed

    Yéramian, N; Chaya, C; Suárez Lepe, J A

    2007-02-07

    In an attempt to increase the acidity of wine by biological means, malate-producing yeasts were selected from a collection of 282 strains isolated in different parts of Spain. Only 4% of these strains (all of which belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae) produced l-(-)-malic acid in the range of 0.5-1 g/L. This was formed between days 2 and 6 of alcoholic fermentation, reaching a maximum on days 3 and 4; the concentration remained stable from day 7. Malic acid production was favored by temperatures in the 18-25 degrees C range and by musts with a high pH and low concentrations of sugar, initial malic acid, and yeast-assimilable nitrogen. Oxaloacetic acid, a precursor of malic acid, had no influence on malate production. The precursors pyruvic and fumaric acid did, however, have a significant effect on the production of this acid in some strains. No direct relation between pyruvate and malate metabolism was observed.

  2. Polyvinyl alcohol-cellulose nanofibrils-graphene oxide hybrid organic aerogels.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Alireza; Zheng, Qifeng; Payen, Francois; Javadi, Abdolreza; Altin, Yasin; Cai, Zhiyong; Sabo, Ronald; Gong, Shaoqin

    2013-07-10

    Hybrid organic aerogels consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), and graphene oxide nanosheets (GONSs) were prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The material properties of these fabricated aerogels were measured and analyzed using various characterization techniques including compression testing, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and contact angle measurements. These environmentally friendly, biobased hybrid organic aerogels exhibited a series of desirable properties including a high specific compressive strength and compressive failure strain, ultralow density and thermal conductivity, good thermal stability, and moisture resistance, making them potentially useful for a broad range of applications including thermal insulation.

  3. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  4. Microbially induced organic acid underdeposit attack in a gas pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, O.C.; Bromel, M.C. )

    1990-04-01

    A leaking undersea carbon-steel gas pipeline was investigated, and attack was confined to low areas where water had accumulated.Analyses showed that pitting, which occurred under deposits, was caused by organic acids generated by bacteria. The metabolic activities of anaerobic sporeformers produce these acids. Alkyl amine carboxylic acid and metronidizole were effective deterrents at low concentrations.

  5. Size distributions of n-alkanes, fatty acids and fatty alcohols in springtime aerosols from New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mingjie; Fu, Pingqing; Aggarwal, Shankar G; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa

    2016-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C19C33), n-fatty acids (C12C30) and n-alcohols (C16C32) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively. Overall, the particulate matter mainly existed in the coarse mode (≥2.1 μm), accounting for 64.8-68.5% of total aerosol mass. During the haze period, large-scale biomass burning emitted substantial fine hydrophilic smoke particles into the atmosphere, which leads to relatively larger GMDs (geometric mean diameter) of n-alkanes in the fine mode than those during the dust storms and non-haze periods. Additionally, the springtime dust storms transported a large quantity of coarse particles from surrounding or local areas into the atmosphere, enhancing organic aerosol concentration and inducing a remarkable size shift towards the coarse mode, which are consistent with the larger GMDs of most organic compounds especially in total and coarse modes. Our results suggest that fossil fuel combustion (e.g., vehicular and industrial exhaust), biomass burning, residential cooking, and microbial activities could be the major sources of lipid compounds in the urban atmosphere in New Delhi.

  6. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  7. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  8. Ethanol and dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/linoleic acid enriched) cause intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier defense in mice chronically fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Falkner, K Cameron; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat both play an important role in alcohol-mediated multi-organ pathology, including gut and liver. In the present study we hypothesized that the combination of alcohol and dietary unsaturated fat (USF) would result in intestinal inflammatory stress and mucus layer alterations, thus contributing to disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. C57BL/6N mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing EtOH and enriched in USF (corn oil/linoleic acid) or SF (medium chain triglycerides: beef tallow) for 8 weeks. Intestinal histology, morphometry, markers of inflammation, as well as levels of mucus protective factors were evaluated. Alcohol and dietary USF triggered an intestinal pro-inflammatory response, characterized by increase in Tnf-α, MCP1, and MPO activity. Further, alcohol and dietary USF, but not SF, resulted in alterations of the intestinal mucus layer, characterized by decreased expression of Muc2 in the ileum. A strong correlation was observed between down-regulation of the antimicrobial factor Cramp and increased Tnf-α mRNA. Therefore, dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/LA enriched) is a significant contributing factor to EtOH-mediated intestinal inflammatory response and mucus layer alterations in rodents.

  9. Cofactor engineering of ketol-acid reductoisomerase (IlvC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (YqhD) improves the fusel alcohol yield in algal protein anaerobic fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weihua; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary Bao; Jaryenneh, James Dekontee; Davis, Ryan W.

    2016-08-24

    Recently the feasibility of conversion of algal protein to mixed alcohols has been demonstrated with an engineered E.coli strain, enabling comprehensive utilization of the biomass for biofuel applications. However, the yield and titers of mixed alcohol production must be improved for market adoption. A major limiting factor for achieving the necessary yield and titer improvements is cofactor imbalance during the fermentation of algal protein. To resolve this problem, a directed evolution approach was applied to modify the cofactor specificity of two key enzymes (IlvC and YqhD) from NADPH to NADH in the mixed alcohol metabolic pathway. Using high throughput screening, more than 20 YqhD mutants were identified to show activity on NADH as a cofactor. Of these 20 mutants, the top five of YqhD mutants were selected for combination with two IlvC mutants with NADH as a cofactor for the modification of the protein conversion strain. The combination of the IlvC and YqhD mutants yielded a refined E.coli strain, subtype AY3, with increased fusel alcohol yield of ~60% compared to wild type under anaerobic fermentation on amino acid mixtures. When applied to real algal protein hydrolysates, the strain AY3 produced 100% and 38% more total mixed alcohols than the wild type strain on two different algal hydrolysates, respectively. The results indicate that cofactor engineering is a promising approach to improve the feasibility of bioconversion of algal protein into mixed alcohols as advanced biofuels.

  10. Polyamino acid display on cell surfaces enhances salt and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Microbes employ cell membranes for reducing exogenous stresses. Polyamino acid display on microbial cell surfaces and their effects on microbial chemical stress tolerance were examined. Growth analysis revealed that displays of polyarginine, polyaspartate and polytryptophan substantially enhanced tolerance of Escherichia coli to NaCl. A titration assay indicated that polyarginine and polyaspartate altered cell surface charges, implying tolerance enhancement via ion atmosphere and/or ionic bond network formations for electrostatic ion repulsion. The enhancement by polytryptophan may have arisen from surface hydrophobicity increase for hydrophobic ion exclusion, because of a strong correlation between hydrophobic characters of amino acids and their effects on tolerance enhancement. The display also enhanced tolerance to other salts and/or alcohols in E. coli and to NaCl in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus polyamino acid display has the potential as an approach for conferring chemical stress tolerance on various microbes.

  11. Development of a method for the quantitation of chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-01-25

    Chloroacetic, bromoacetic, and iodoacetic acids can be found in alcoholic beverages when they are used as preservatives/stabilizers or as disinfectants. As they are toxic components, their addition is not permitted under European Union and U.S. regulations. To date, no sensitive methods are available, and those proposed are very laborious. This paper describes a sensitive and straightforward method for the determination of the three monohalogenated acetic acids (m-HAAs) in wines and beers using static headspace extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Prior to extraction, the target analytes were esterified to increase their volatility, and all parameters related to the extraction/methylation process were optimized to achieve high efficiency (>90%). The study examined the influence both of the ethanol concentration on the headspace partitioning and of the primary acids present in wine on the derivatization reaction of the m-HAAs. The proposed method allows the determination of these compounds at microgram per liter levels in alcoholic beverages.

  12. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  13. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  14. Stability of organic acids on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Zan; Hudson, R.; Moore, M.

    2009-09-01

    Mars receives an influx of carbonaceous material by fine-grained meteoritic impact of 2.4×105 kg carbon per year. Carbonaceous meteorites are known to contain amino acids, up to 249 ppm in primitive CR type meteorites, with glycine abundances as high as 58 ppm. These meteorite-bound amino acids arrive on Mars and may be distributed over the planet aeolian processes. Once on the surface, amino acids can be degraded rapidly by ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and reactions with oxidizing species such as H, OH, HO2, and H2O2. To test the influence of a water matrix on the stability of glycine on Mars, we have photolysed pure glycine and glycine-water ice mixtures (1:4) with a high-pressure xenon arc lamp that produces a spectrum similar to the solar spectrum on Mars. The ices were photolysed at temperatures relevant to Mars, especially at higher latitudes (100-150 K). For comparison, we repeated these experiments with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and formic acid (HCOOH). In addition, we also photolysed solid carbonic acid (H2CO3), which may be formed on Mars in mixed water and CO2 ices when initiated by solar wind particles. Our results show that carbonic acid is an order of magnitude more stable than formic and acetic acid. The glycine-water mixture did not show any degradation over the course of the photolysis experiment. This work is supported by NASA grant NNG05GL46G and the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  15. Developing an Invisible Message about Relative Acidities of Alcohols in the Natural Products Henna, Turmeric, Rose Petals, and Vitamin A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Hadir, Latifa

    2010-01-01

    An engaging and colorful demonstration was developed that illustrates the utility of resonance theory in predicting the relative acidities of alcohols. The demonstration can be used as an introduction to exercises that provide students with practice in writing resonance structures and in predicting relative acidities. The demonstration exploits…

  16. Quantitative Organic Acids in Urine by Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS).

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Lawrence; Ashcraft, Paula; Bennett-Firmin, Jeanna

    2016-01-01

    Seventy-six organic acids in urine specimens are determined with quantitative two dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). The specimen is treated with urease to remove urea then derivatized to form pentafluorobenzyl oximes (PFBO) of oxoacids. The sample is then treated with ethyl alcohol to precipitate proteins and centrifuged. After drying the supernatant, the organic acids are derivatized to form volatile trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives for separation by capillary two dimensional Gas Chromatography (GCxGC) with temperature programming and modulation. Detection is by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) with identification of the organic acids by their mass spectra. Organic acids are quantitated by peak areas of reconstructed ion chromatograms with internal standards and calibration curves. Organic acids are quantified to determine abnormal patterns for the diagnosis of more than 100 inherited disorders of organic acid metabolism. Characteristic abnormal metabolites are quantified to monitor dietary and other modes of treatment for patients who are diagnosed with specific organic acid disorders.

  17. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  18. The acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium provides protection against organic acids.

    PubMed

    Baik, H S; Bearson, S; Dunbar, S; Foster, J W

    1996-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium encounters a variety of acid stress situations during pathogenesis and in the natural environment. These include the extreme low pH encountered in the stomach and a less acidic intestinal environment containing large amounts of organic weak acids (volatile fatty acids). The acid tolerance response (ATR) is a complex defence system that can minimize the lethal effects of extreme low pH (pH3). The data presented illustrate that the ATR can also defend against weak acids such as butyric, acetic or propionic acids. Although an acid shock of pH 4.4 induced the ATR, growth in subinhibitory concentrations of weak acids did not. Various mutations shown to affect tolerance to extreme acid conditions (pH 3) were tested for their effects on tolerance to weak acids. An rpoS mutant lacking the alternative sigma factor sigma s failed to protect cells against weak acids as well as extreme acid pH. The fur (ferric uptake regulator) and atp (Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase) mutants defective in extreme acid tolerance showed no defects in their tolerance to weak acids. Curiously, the atbR mutant that exhibits increased tolerance to extreme acid pH proved sensitive to weak acids. Several insertions that rendered cells sensitive to organic acids were isolated, all of which proved to be linked to the rpoS locus.

  19. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  20. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  1. Influence of Fluorination on the Conformational Properties and Hydrogen-Bond Acidity of Benzyl Alcohol Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Elena; Compain, Guillaume; Mtashobya, Lewis; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Besseau, François; Galland, Nicolas; Linclau, Bruno; Graton, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fluorination on the conformational and hydrogen-bond (HB)-donating properties of a series of benzyl alcohols has been investigated experimentally by IR spectroscopy and theoretically with quantum chemical methods (ab initio (MP2) and DFT (MPWB1K)). It was found that o-fluorination generally resulted in an increase in the HB acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas a decrease was observed upon o,o′-difluorination. Computational analysis showed that the conformational landscapes of the title compounds are strongly influenced by the presence of o-fluorine atoms. Intramolecular interaction descriptors based on AIM, NCI and NBO analyses reveal that, in addition to an intramolecular OH⋅⋅⋅F interaction, secondary CH⋅⋅⋅F and/or CH⋅⋅⋅O interactions also occur, contributing to the stabilisation of the various conformations, and influencing the overall HB properties of the alcohol group. The benzyl alcohol HB-donating capacity trends are properly described by an electrostatic potential based descriptor calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, provided solvation effects are taken into account for these flexible HB donors. PMID:26130594

  2. A convenient iodination method for alcohols using cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid and its comparison using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zia-Ullah; Perveen, Shahnaz; Hayat, Safdar; Ali, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In situ generation of hydrogen iodide from cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid was found to be an attractive reagent combination for the conversion of alkyl, allyl, and benzyl alcohols to their corresponding iodides under mild conditions. The method is compared with that using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

  3. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    PubMed

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol.

  4. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  5. Low voltage vertical organic field-effect transistor with polyvinyl alcohol as gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Lucieli; Seidel, Keli F.; Machado, Wagner S.; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2011-11-01

    We report the preparation of low gate leakage current organic field effect transistors in vertical architecture using polyvinyl alcohol as gate insulator and C60 fullerene as n-type semiconductor in devices with gate, source, and drain electrodes of Al. Intermediate electrode and top electrode operate, respectively, as source and drain, or vice-versa, depending on polarity. In these devices the intermediate electrode (source or drain) is permeable to the electric field produced by the gate so that increased drain current is obtained at either increasingly negative gate voltage when the source is the intermediate electrode or increasingly positive gate voltage when the drain is the intermediate electrode.

  6. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  7. Survey of organic acid eluents for anion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Book, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range 5 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 10/sup -3/ M. The eluent should have the same charge as inorganic anions, a higher charge than organic acid samples. Choice of eluents for separation of halides, chloride and sulfate, multivalent inorganic anions, small alkyl acids, and aromatic acids is discussed. (DLC)

  8. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  9. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGES

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; ...

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  10. Newer Reagents in Preparative Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Outlined is the development and use of oxidants for use in elementary organic chemistry classes. Discussed is the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, and the oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes to carboxylic acids. (CW)

  11. Effects of alcohol inhalation on the fatty acid composition of rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, D.M.; Karanian, J.W.; Salem, N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in rat tissues are altered by alcohol exposure. Therefore, rats were exposed to ethanol vapor using an inhalation system designed in their laboratory and capable of producing rats with blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 50-400 mg%, as desired. Mean BEC were determined after 7 or 14 days of exposure and the lipids were extracted from brains, hearts, livers and aortas by the method of Bligh and Dyer. These total lipid extracts were transmethylated with BF/sub 3/ in methanol and analyzed using a fused silica capillary column. The largest compositional changes were observed in the liver after 14 days of exposure; 18:0, 18:2w6 and 20:4w6 decreased by 7, 18, and 20%, respectively, whereas 16:1w7, 18:1w9, 18:3w3 and 22:6w3 increased by 42, 19, 9, and 11%, respectively. A similar, although quantitatively smaller, effect was observed after only 7 days of alcohol inhalation. Little change was observed in the total lipid extract fatty acyl distribution in the brain or heart, however, the aorta showed losses in the polyunsaturates 20:4w6 and 22:6w3. More detailed data will be presented for the fatty acid distributional changes in individual phospholipid classes. It appears that the direction and magnitude of compositional changes depend upon both the duration of exposure and the blood concentration of alcohol.

  12. A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

    2006-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan.

  13. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-09-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed microbial cultures with a headspace of 1.5 bar of hydrogen. Observed alcohol concentrations were 3.69+/-0.25 mM of ethanol, 8.08+/-0.85 mM of propanol and 3.66+/-0.05 mM of n-butanol. The conversion efficiency based on the electron balance was 55.1+/-5.6% with acetate as substrate, 50.3+/-4.7% with propionate and 46.7+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. Methane was the most predominant by-product in each batch experiment, 33.6+/-9.6% of VFA and hydrogen was converted to methane with acetate as substrate; which was 27.1+/-7.1% with propionate and 36.6+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. This VFAs reducing renewable fuel production process does not require carbohydrates like fermentable sugars, but uses biomass with high water content or low sugar content that is unsuitable as feedstock for current fermentation processes. This so-called low-grade biomass is abundantly present in many agricultural areas and is economically very attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels.

  14. High-resolution atmospheric modeling of fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorocarboxylic acids in the North American troposphere.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Greg; Kemball-Cook, Susan; Keinath, Michael; Waterland, Robert L; Korzeniowski, Stephen H; Buck, Robert C; Russell, Mark H; Washburn, Stephen T

    2007-08-15

    A high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric model is used to evaluate the potential contribution of fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and perfluorocarboxylate (PFCA) emissions associated with the manufacture, use, and disposal of DuPont fluorotelomer-based products in North America to air concentrations of FTOH, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in North America and the Canadian Arctic. A bottom-up emission inventory for PFCAs and FTOHs was developed from sales and product composition data. A detailed FTOH atmospheric degradation mechanism was developed to simulate FTOH degradation to PFCAs and model atmospheric transport of PFCAs and FTOHs. Modeled PFCA yields from FTOH degradation agree with experimental smog-chamber results supporting the degradation mechanism used. Estimated PFCA and FTOH air concentrations and PFCA deposition fluxes are compared to monitoring data and previous global modeling. Predicted FTOH air concentrations are generally in agreement with available monitoring data. Overall emissions from the global fluorotelomer industry are estimated to contribute approximately 1-2% of the PFCAs in North American rainfall, consistent with previous global emissions estimates. Emission calculations and modeling results indicate that atmospheric inputs of PFCAs in North America from fluorotelomer-based products will decline by an order of magnitude in the near future as a result of current industry commitments to reduce manufacturing emissions and lower the residual fluorotelomer alcohol raw material and trace PFCA product content.

  15. Determination of organic acids by CE and CEC methods.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Christian W

    2007-10-01

    A comprehensive overview of the analysis of low-molecular-mass organic acids employing electromigration methods in the capillary format is given. This review includes papers published since 2003 and can be seen as an update of the review paper published by Galli et al. in 2003. Tables included in this review contain application papers describing the determination of organic acids from a variety of fields like the analysis of food and beverages, environmental samples, samples from clinical origin, and from natural products.

  16. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  17. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  18. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  19. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  20. Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

  1. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  2. Interaction of Humic Acids with Organic Toxicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Yudina, N. V.; Maltseva, E. V.; Nechaev, L. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of humic acids with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (naphthalene and anthracene) and triazole series fungicides (cyproconazole (CC) and tebuconazole (TC)) is investigated by the method of fluorescence quenching depending on the concentration of substances in solutions and their structural features. Humic acids were modified by mechanochemical activation in a planetary mill. The complex character of intermolecular interactions between PAH and fungicides with humic acids, including donor-acceptor and hydrophobic binding, is established. Thermodynamically stable conformations of biocide molecules were estimated using ChemOffice CS Chem3D 8.0 by methods of molecular mechanics (MM2) and molecular dynamics. Biocide molecules with pH 7 are in energetically favorable position when the benzene and triazole rings are almost parallel to each other. After acidification of solutions to pH 4.5, the CC molecule retains the geometry for which donor-acceptor interactions are possible: the benzene ring in the molecule represents the electron donor, and triazole is the acceptor. In this case, the electron density in CC is redistributed easier, which is explained by a smaller number of carbon atoms between the triazole and benzene rings, unlike TC. As a result, the TC triazole ring is protonated to a greater degree, acquiring a positive charge, and enters into donoracceptor interactions with humic acid (HA) samples. The above-indicated bond types allow HA to participate actively in sorption processes and to provide their interaction with biocides and PAH and hence, to act as detoxifying agents for recultivation of the polluted environment.

  3. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  4. Ohio solid organ transplantation consortium criteria for liver transplantation in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Humberson, Annette; Hanouneh, Mohamad A; Barnes, David S; Arora, Zubin; Zein, Nizar N; Eghtesad, Bijan; Kelly, Dympna; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate risk of recidivism on a case-by-case basis. METHODS From our center’s liver transplant program, we selected patients with alcoholic liver disease who were listed for transplant based on Ohio Solid Organ Transplantation Consortium (OSOTC) exception criteria. They were considered to have either a low or medium risk of recidivism, and had at least one or three or more months of abstinence, respectively. They were matched based on gender, age, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to controls with alcohol-induced cirrhosis from Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data. RESULTS Thirty six patients with alcoholic liver disease were approved for listing based on OSOTC exception criteria and were matched to 72 controls. Nineteen patients (53%) with a median [Inter-quartile range (IQR)] MELD score of 24 (13) received transplant and were followed for a median of 3.4 years. They were matched to 38 controls with a median (IQR) MELD score of 25 (9). At one and five years, cumulative survival rates (± standard error) were 90% ± 7% and 92% ± 5% and 73% ± 12% and 77% ± 8% in patients and controls, respectively (Log-rank test, P = 0.837). Four (21%) patients resumed drinking by last follow-up visit. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional criteria for assessment of risk of recidivism, a careful selection process with more flexibility to evaluate eligibility on a case-by-case basis can lead to similar survival rates after transplantation. PMID:27721920

  5. Enzymatic Synthesis of Furfuryl Alcohol Ester with Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B and Its Kinetic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Avery; Dey, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Mahua; Ghosh, Jaydip; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the successful enzymatic production of furfuryl oleate and its detailed kinetic study by Michaelis-Menten model. Esterification of oleic acid and furfuryl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation) in a solvent free system was studied in the present work at 1:1 molar ratio of furfuryl alcohol and oleic acid. About 99 % conversion (on the basis of oleic acid) has been achieved within 6 h at 5 % enzyme concentration. Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomenon taken into account) was applied to describe the ratios as a complex kinetic model. The kinetic parameters were determined using MATLAB language programme. The two initial rate constants KA and KB respectively were found out by different progress curves plotted with the help of MATLAB language programme. It was concluded from the results that furfuryl alcohol considerably inhibited the enzymatic reaction while oleic acid had negligible inhibitory effect. It was clearly seen that the initial rate was increased with the increase in the furfuryl alcohol concentration until 2 M/L after which there was a drop in the initial rate depicting the inhibitory effect of furfuryl alcohol. Surprisingly, it has been observed that addition of 0.1 mol of product activated the esterification reaction. Finally, the model was found to be statistically fitting well with the experimental data.

  6. Expedited Phonon Transfer in Interfacially Constrained Polymer Chain along Self-Organized Amino Acid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liwen; Li, Yifan; Mehra, Nitin; Ji, Tuo; Zhu, Jiahua

    2017-04-05

    In this work, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/amino acid (AA) composites were prepared by a self-organized crystallization process. Five different AAs (cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, ornithine, and lysine) were selected based on their similar functional groups but different molecular structures. The different PVA-AA interactions in the five PVA/AA composites lead to two crystal patterns, i.e., continuous network (cysteine and lysine) and discrete particles (glutamic acid, ornithine, and aspartic acid). Scanning thermal microscopy is then applied to map the distribution of thermal conduction in these composites. It is found that the interface surrounding the crystals plays a dominating role in phonon transport where the polymer chains are greatly restrained by the interfacial confinement effect. Continuous crystal network builds up a continuous interface that facilitates phonon transfer while phonon scattering occurs in discrete crystalline structures. Significantly improved thermal conductivity of ∼0.7 W/m·K is observed in PVA/cysteine composite with AA loading of 8.4 wt %, which corresponds to a 170% enhancement as compared to pure PVA. The strong PVA-AA molecular interaction and self-organized crystal structure are considered the major reasons for the unique interface property and superior thermal conductivity.

  7. [Inhibition of growth of microscopic fungi with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Conková, E; Para, L; Kocisová, A

    1993-01-01

    Fungicidal effects of five selected organic acids (lactic, acetic, formic, oxalic, and propionic) in concentrations 3, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ml/l on nine selected species of moulds were tested. Lactic and oxalic acids did not prove the satisfactory fungicidal activity in any of the chosen concentrations. The antifungal effect of the other three acids, manifested by the growth inhibition of the tested moulds is shown in Tab. I and it can be expressed by sequence: propionic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid. These acids also had effects only in concentrations 20 ml/l and 50 ml/l. Propionic acid in concentration 20 ml/l inhibited the growth of five moulds (Penicillium glabrum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum). In testing of concentration 50 ml/l, the lower fungicidal ability was ascertained only in growth suppression of Aspergillus flavus. The fungicidal activity of formic acid was registered in concentration 20 ml/l in two cases and in concentration 50 ml/l in six cases. Acetic acid inhibited the growth in concentration 50 ml/l only in two cases. Tab. II shows the percentual evaluation of propionic acid and formic acid with regard to their inhibition abilities. The fungicidal efficiency of propionic acid resulting from the experiment is 88.9%.

  8. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  9. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations.

  10. The oxidation of chiral alcohols catalyzed by catalase in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Magner, E.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1995-04-20

    The catalytic properties of bovine liver catalase have been investigated in organic solvents. In tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, and acetone (all containing 1% to 3% of water), the enzyme breaks down tert-butyl hydroperoxide several fold faster than in pure water. Furthermore, the rate of catalase-catalyzed production of tert-butanol from tert-butyl hydroperoxide increases more than 400-fold upon transition from aqueous buffer to ethanol as the reaction medium. The mechanistic rationale for this striking effect is that in aqueous buffer the rate-limiting step of the enzymatic process involves the reduction of catalase`s compound 1 by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. In ethanol, an additional step in the reaction scheme becomes available in which ethanol, greatly outcompeting the hydroperoxide, is oxidized by compound 1 regenerating the free enzyme. In solvents, such as acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran, which themselves are not oxidizable by compound 1, catalase catalyzes the oxidation of numerous primary and secondary alcohols with tert-butyl hydroperoxide to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The enzymatic oxidation of some chiral alcohols (2,3-butanediol, citronellol, and menthol) under these conditions occurs enantioselectively. Examination of the enantioselectivity for the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol in a series of organic solvents reveals a considerable solvent dependence.

  11. Alkanes, Alcohols, and Fatty Acids Record Complementary Signals in Fluvial Sediments: Insights From a Three Year Congo River Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, J. D.; Schefuß, E.; Bienvenu, D. J.; Pryer, H. V.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations, distributions, δ13C and dD of plant waxes carried by fluvial suspended sediments contain valuable information about terrestrial ecosystems and climate. To properly interpret past changes recorded in sedimentary archives it is crucial to understand the sources and variability of exported plant waxes in modern systems on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Here, we present distributions, δ13C, and δD composition of three compound classes (n-alkanes, n-alcohols, n-alkanoic acids) in a 34-month time series of suspended sediments from the Congo River. We show multiple end-members contribute differentially to n-alkanes, as evidenced by a large δ13C spread of 4.2 ± 0.7‰ across homologues and low correlation between homologue concentrations. n-Acids and n-alcohols exhibit less δ13C variability, indicating dominance of C3 end-members. Temporally, n-acid and n-alcohol concentrations, distributions, and δD values are much more influenced by seasonal changes in discharge than n-alkanes. Increasing discharge through the low-lying swamp forest likely biases n-acids and n-alcohols toward this highly productive source area, while n-alkanes are less affected due to their more refractory nature and persistence during transport. This is reflected in large changes in n-alcohol/acid minus n-alkane δD (∆δD) between high and low discharge of 15-20‰. We conclude that the n-alkanoic acids and n-alcohols respond to seasonal/inter-annual changes in source area while n-alkanes better represent a seasonally stable signal, and that multiple n-alkyl lipid classes therefore record complementary information in sedimentary archives.

  12. Organic acids as indicators of VOC oxidation: Measurements of formic acid and other gas-phase acids during SOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, D.; Brophy, P.; Murschell, T.

    2013-12-01

    Oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere affects not only the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, but also the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Organic acids are produced during VOC oxidation, although additional sources include biomass burning and primary emissions. While some organic acids are semi-volatile and dominantly present in the aerosol phase, formic acid and other small organic acids are dominantly present in the gas phase. The concentrations of these gas-phase organic acids can provide insight into oxidation chemistry. Here, we present measurements made during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in Centerville, Alabama during the summer of 2013 by a high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) operated in a novel switching reagent ion mode to measure gas phase organic acids with both acetate (CH3COO-) and iodide (I-) reagent ions. Formic acid was quantified using for both ionization schemes using multiple calibration techniques. In this study, we will focus on the impact of anthropogenic pollutants, including nitrogen and sulfur oxides, on oxidation chemistry, and discuss the potential use of organic acids as tracers for atmospheric oxidation chemistry.

  13. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  14. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  15. Decarboxylative and dehydrative coupling of dienoic acids and pentadienyl alcohols to form 1,3,6,8-tetraenes

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, I F Dempsey; Nagy, Emma E; Gettys, Kristen E; Sayed, Sommayah S; Joliat, Christine M; Daniel, Paige E; Vummalaneni, Rupa M; Morehead, Andrew T; Sargent, Andrew L

    2017-01-01

    Dienoic acids and pentadienyl alcohols are coupled in a decarboxylative and dehydrative manner at ambient temperature using Pd(0) catalysis to generate 1,3,6,8-tetraenes. Contrary to related decarboxylative coupling reactions, an anion-stabilizing group is not required adjacent to the carboxyl group. Of mechanistic importance, it appears that both the diene of the acid and the diene of the alcohol are required for this reaction. To further understand this reaction, substitutions at every unique position of both coupling partners was examined and two potential mechanisms are presented. PMID:28382176

  16. Fabrication and characterization of methylene-blue-doped polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid blend for holographic recording.

    PubMed

    Ushamani, Mythili; Sreekumar, Krishnapillai; Kartha, Cheranellore S; Joseph, Rani

    2004-06-20

    A methylene-blue-sensitized polymer blend of polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylic acid is fabricated and tested for holographic recording. It was found to have good characteristics such as high sensitivity, storage stability, ease of fabrication, and environmental stability. Optimization of the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid, the sensitizer concentration, pH, energy, diffraction efficiency measurements, etc., have been done. pH is found to have a great influence on the recovery of the dye in this matrix. The results of experimental investigations into the properties of this new material are reported.

  17. Cofactor engineering of ketol-acid reductoisomerase (IlvC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (YqhD) improves the fusel alcohol yield in algal protein anaerobic fermentation

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Weihua; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary Bao; Jaryenneh, James Dekontee; ...

    2016-08-24

    Recently the feasibility of conversion of algal protein to mixed alcohols has been demonstrated with an engineered E.coli strain, enabling comprehensive utilization of the biomass for biofuel applications. However, the yield and titers of mixed alcohol production must be improved for market adoption. A major limiting factor for achieving the necessary yield and titer improvements is cofactor imbalance during the fermentation of algal protein. To resolve this problem, a directed evolution approach was applied to modify the cofactor specificity of two key enzymes (IlvC and YqhD) from NADPH to NADH in the mixed alcohol metabolic pathway. Using high throughput screening,more » more than 20 YqhD mutants were identified to show activity on NADH as a cofactor. Of these 20 mutants, the top five of YqhD mutants were selected for combination with two IlvC mutants with NADH as a cofactor for the modification of the protein conversion strain. The combination of the IlvC and YqhD mutants yielded a refined E.coli strain, subtype AY3, with increased fusel alcohol yield of ~60% compared to wild type under anaerobic fermentation on amino acid mixtures. When applied to real algal protein hydrolysates, the strain AY3 produced 100% and 38% more total mixed alcohols than the wild type strain on two different algal hydrolysates, respectively. The results indicate that cofactor engineering is a promising approach to improve the feasibility of bioconversion of algal protein into mixed alcohols as advanced biofuels.« less

  18. Clinical applications of urinary organic acids. Part 2. Dysbiosis markers.

    PubMed

    Lord, Richard S; Bralley, J Alexander

    2008-12-01

    Part 1 of this series focused on urinary organic acids as markers of detoxification; part 2 focuses on dysbiosis markers. Intestinal microbial growth is accompanied by the release of products of their metabolism that may be absorbed and excreted in urine. Several organic acids are known to be specific products of bacterial metabolic action on dietary polyphenols or unassimilated amino acids or carbohydrates. Associated gastrointestinal or neurological symptoms may result from irritation of the intestinal mucosa or systemic distribution of absorbed neurotoxic products. Detection of abnormally elevated levels of these products is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with gastrointestinal or toxicological symptoms. Test profiles of urinary organic acids associated with microbial overgrowth can include benzoate, hippurate, phenylacetate, phenylpropionate, cresol, hydroxybenzoate, hydroxyphenylacetate, hydroxyphenylpropionate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionate, indican, tricarballylate, D-lactate, and D-arabinitol. Effective treatments for the associated microbial overgrowths may be directed at reducing microbial populations, introducing favorable microbes, and restoring intestinal mucosal integrity.

  19. Protic acid immobilized on solid support as an extremely efficient recyclable catalyst system for a direct and atom economical esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Asit K; Singh, Bavneet; Chankeshwara, Sunay V; Patel, Alpesh R

    2009-08-21

    A convenient and clean procedure of esterification is reported by direct condensation of equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids with alcohols catalyzed by an easy to prepare catalyst system of perchloric acid immobilized on silica gel (HClO(4)-SiO(2)). The direct condensation of aryl, heteroaryl, styryl, aryl alkyl, alkyl, cycloalkyl, and long-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids with primary/secondary alkyl/cycloalkyl, allyl, propargyl, and long-chain aliphatic alcohols has been achieved to afford the corresponding esters in excellent yields. Chiral alcohol and N-t-Boc protected chiral amino acid also resulted in ester formation with the representative carboxylic acid or alcohol without competitive N-t-Boc deprotection and detrimental effect on the optical purity of the product demonstrating the mildness and chemoselectivity of the procedure. The esters of long-chain (>C(10)) acids and alcohols are obtained in high yields. The catalyst is recovered and recycled without significant loss of activity. The industrial application of the esterification process is demonstrated by the synthesis of prodrugs of ibuprofen and a few commercial flavoring agents. Other protic acids such as H(2)SO(4), HBr, TfOH, HBF(4), and TFA that were adsorbed on silica gel were less effective compared to HClO(4)-SiO(2) following the order HClO(4)-SiO(2) > H(2)SO(4)-SiO(2) > HBr-SiO(2) > TfOH-SiO(2) > HBF(4)-SiO(2) approximately TFA-SiO(2). When HClO(4) was immobilized on other solid supports the catalytic efficiency followed the order HClO(4)-SiO(2) > HClO(4)-K10 > HClO(4)-Al(2)O(3) (neutral) > HClO(4)-Al(2)O(3) (acidic) > HClO(4)-Al(2)O(3) (basic).

  20. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a biocarrier on volatile fatty acids production of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chaikasem, Supawat; Abeynayaka, Amila; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    This work studied the effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-gel) beads, as an effective biocarrier for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in hydrolytic reactor of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (TAnMBR). The two-stage TAnMBR, treating synthetic high strength particulate wastewater with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) [16.4±0.8 g/L], was operated at 55 °C. Under steady state conditions, the reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 8.2±0.4 kg COD/m(3) d. Operational performance of the system was monitored by assessing VFA composition and quantity, methane production and COD removal efficiency. Increment of VFA production was observed with PVA-gel addition. Hydrolytic effluent contained large amount of acetic acid and n-butyric acid. However, increase in VFA production adversely affected the methanogenic reactor performance due to lack of methanogenic archaea.

  1. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  2. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  3. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  4. Surface complexation modeling or organic acid sorption to goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Evanko, C.R.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and

  5. Surface Complexation Modeling of Organic Acid Sorption to Goethite.

    PubMed

    Evanko; Dzombak

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and constants similar to those for pyromellitic acid. This four-carboxyl group compound may be useful as a model for fulvic acid with respect to sorption. Other simple organic acids having multiple carboxylic and phenolic functional groups were identified as potential models for humic

  6. Hydrogen generation from magnesium hydride by using organic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yen-Hsi

    In this paper, the hydrolysis of solid magnesium hydride has been studied with the high concentration of catalyst at the varying temperature. An organic acid (acetic acid, CH3COOH) has been chosen as the catalyst. The study has three objectives: first, using three different weights of MgH 2 react with aqueous solution of acid for the hydrogen generation experiments. Secondly, utilizing acetic acid as the catalyst accelerates hydrogen generation. Third, emphasizing the combination of the three operating conditions (the weight of MgH2, the concentration of acetic acid, and the varying temperature) influence the amount of hydrogen generation. The experiments results show acetic acid truly can increase the rate of hydrogen generation and the weight of MgH2 can affect the amount of hydrogen generation more than the varying temperature.

  7. A comparative study of the sulfation of bile acids and a bile alcohol by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) and human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs)

    PubMed Central

    Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Injeti, Elisha; Liu, Ming-Yih; Williams, Frederick E.; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the sulfation of bile acids and bile alcohols by the Zebra danio (Danio rerio) SULTs in comparison with human SULTs. A systematic analysis using the fifteen Zebra danio SULTs revealed that SULT3 ST2 and SULT3 ST3 were the major bile acid/alcohol-sulfating SULTs. Among the eleven human SULTs, only SULT2A1 was found to be capable of sulfating bile acids and bile alcohols. To further investigate the sulfation of bile acids and bile alcohols by the two Zebra danio SULT3 STs and the human SULT2A1, pH-dependence and kinetics of the sulfation of bile acids/alcohols were analyzed. pH-dependence experiments showed that the mechanisms underlying substrate recognition for the sulfation of lithocholic acid (a bile acid) and 5α-petromyzonol (a bile alcohol) differed between the human SULT2A1 and the Zebra danio SULT3 ST2 and ST3. Kinetic analysis indicated that both the two Zebra danio SULT3 STs preferred petromyzonol as substrate compared to bile acids. In contrast, the human SULT2A1 was more catalytically efficient toward lithocholic acid than petromyzonol. Collectively, the results imply that the Zebra danio and human SULTs have evolved to serve for the sulfation of, respectively, bile alcohols and bile acids, matching the cholanoid profile in these two vertebrate species. PMID:21839837

  8. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154 degrees celcius. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154 degrees C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154 degrees C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by HPLC, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, butdegreaded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. (Refs. 18).

  9. Conversion of acids to alcohols by Clostridium ragsdalei strain P11: Process optimization and biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, Catherine E.

    Research focus was directed toward the development of a biocatalyst that can be used to produce commodity chemicals and transportation fuels from volatile fatty acids ubiquitous in waste biomass. Clostridium ragsdalei was introduced to serve as an exemplar carboxidotrophic acetogen that reduces VFAs to alcohols of the same carbon structure with only acetate and ethanol as by-products of the fermentation. This dissertation developed a better understanding of this process in C. ragsdalei and, in turn, other similar bacteria and to supported previous discoveries as they relate to carboxylate reduction in acetogens. Additionally, pure culture studies allowed for a more detailed understanding of the biochemical behavior response to different compounds without skewing the results due to the influence of other species.

  10. Chemorheological analysis and model-free kinetics of acid catalysed furfuryl alcohol polymerization.

    PubMed

    Guigo, Nathanael; Mija, Alice; Vincent, Luc; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas

    2007-10-21

    The complete curing of furfuryl alcohol (FA), was studied by chemorheological analysis and model-free kinetics under isothermal and non-isothermal modes. Polymerization of FA under acidic catalysis involves complex reactions, with several steps (such as condensations and Diels-Alder cycloadditions). To account for the polymerization complexity, kinetic analysis of DSC data was performed with a model-free isoconversional method. The obtained E(alpha)-dependencies were closely-correlated with the variation of complex viscosity during curing. Linear condensations are predominant during the early curing stage and are followed by two distinct stages of branching cycloadditions. Gelation and vitrification, identified by rheometric measurements, were associated with a decrease of the overall reaction rate that becomes controlled by diffusion of small oligomers. Before vitrification, the rate of crosslinking is limited by the mobility of longer polymer chains and diffusion encounters a large energy barrier due to the cooperative nature of the motions, leading to higher E(alpha) values.

  11. [The bile acids as an example of patogens destructive hepatocytes in alcoholic liver injury].

    PubMed

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Augustyńska, Beata; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Moś, Danuta

    2009-10-01

    Chronic cholestasis in alcoholic liver disease contributes to the death of hepatocyte by either apoptotic or necrotic pathways. The hydrophobic acid inducing toxins in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes cause the perturbation of their mitochondrial membrane, marginal condensation of chromatin and also proteolytic digestion of the cell structure. In the activation of the apoptosis mechanism in hepatocytes the following cytokines take part: the Fas system, TNF alpha. The proteins Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-w inhibit apoptosis, while Bax and Bad protein promotes it. The Bax protein interacts with mitochondrial pores inducing cytochrome c, which contributes to the release of caspase-activated proteins and starts the apoptosis. The development of the new therapeutic strategies by protecting hepatocytes from apoptosis remains very important research for the nearest future.

  12. Hydrothermal Mineral-Assisted Organic Transformations of Carboxylic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Gould, I.; Williams, L. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our research is to probe the varieties of reactions possible in a hydrothermal system in which both organic compounds and minerals interact. We performed experiments at physical conditions representative of deep-sea and subsurface systems (300°C and 1000 bar) and analyzed the effect of the mineral magnetite (Fe3O4) in systems with carboxylic acids, either phenylacetic acid or hydrocinnamic acid (a.k.a., phenylpropanoic acid). Control experiments were also conducted with the same organic compounds in the absence of magnetite. Whereas previous studies of carboxylic acid reactivity with minerals have focused exclusively on simple molecules such as acetic acid and valeric acid (Bell et al. 1994; McCollom et al. 2003), the carboxylic acids used in our study differ from previous experimental compounds by the addition of a phenyl ring, which allows for the investigation of the specific mechanistic pathways of product formation. Decarboxylation (i.e., RCO2H → RH + CO2) is one of the major reaction pathways for carboxylic acids in hydrothermal conditions without minerals. Under our experimental conditions, decarboxylation leads to the ~80% conversion of phenylacetic acid into toluene within ~50 hours and the ~8% conversion of hydrocinnamic acid to ethyl benzene within ~190 hours. We found that magnetite had a different effect on the two organic compounds studied. In experiments with phenylacetic acid, the presence of magnetite did not enhance the rate of toluene production from decarboxylation but did activate additional product pathways that include diphenyl alkanes, alkenes, and ketones, as well as benzoic acid, a carboxylic acid one carbon length shorter than the parent compound. Magnetite had even more noticeable effects on the hydrocinnamic acid system leading to an increase of its consumption at 190 hours from ~9% in magnetite's absence to ~35% in the mineral's presence. Products of the experiments with magnetite included an enhanced rate of

  13. Electrospinning of porphyrin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and their acid vapor sensing capability.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kihun; Baek, Il Woong; Back, Sung Yul; Ahn, Heejoon

    2011-07-01

    Fluorescing 5,10,15,20-terakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyrin tetra(p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP)-embedded and -coated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were fabricated by using the electrospinning technique. To improve nonpolar solvent solubility of TMPyP/PVA nanofibers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a cross-linking agent. UV-vis spectroscopy showed a strong Q band and two relatively weak Soret bands from the TMPyP/PVA nanofibers, and revealed that the TMPyP molecules were homogeneously loaded to the fibers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the electrospun nanofibers had ultrafine structures with an average diameter of ca. 250 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositional structure of TMPyP/PVA/TEOS nanofibers and revealed the relative coverage of TMPyP molecules on the surface of TMPyP-embedded and TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS fibers. For the comparison of the acid vapor sensitivity, TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS films, and TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS fibers, TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS fibers were exposed to 1N nitric-acid vapor for 20-60 seconds. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS nanofibers exhibited better acid-sensing capability than TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS nanofibers and films.

  14. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring.

  15. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    PubMed Central

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring. PMID:27291059

  16. Distribution of hydrophobic ionogenic organic compounds between octanol and water: Organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Jafvert, C.T. ); Westall, J.C. ); Grieder, E.; Schwarzenbach, R.P. )

    1990-12-01

    The octanol-water distributions of 10 environmentally significant organic acid compounds were determined as a function of aqueous-phase salt concentration (0.05-0.2 M LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, or MgCl{sub 2}) and pH. The compounds were pentachlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol, (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid, 4-chloro-{alpha}-(4-chlorophenyl)benzeneacetic acid, 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butanoic acid, 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,3,6-trichlorobenzeneacetic acid, and 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid. The experimental results were interpreted quantitatively with an equilibrium model that accounts for acid dissociation in the aqueous phase and partitioning into the octanol phase by the neutral organic species, free inorganic and organic ions, and ion pairs. The partition constants for the neutral ion pairs correlate well with the partition constants of the neutral acids. Two experiments address the applicability of these octanol-water distribution data to the distribution of ionogenic compounds in the environment: the distribution of 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol on a natural sorbent as a function of salt concentration (NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}) and pH, and competitive adsorption of pentachlorophenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol on an environmental sorbent.

  17. The composition of the cuticular and internal free fatty acids and alcohols from Lucilia sericata males and females.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    GC, GC-MS, and HPLC-LLSD analyses were used to identify and quantify cuticular and internal lipids in males and females of the blow-fly (Lucilia sericata). Sixteen free fatty acids, seven alcohols and cholesterol were identified and quantitatively determined in the cuticular lipids of L. sericata. Cuticular fatty acids ranged from C(6) to C(20) and included unsaturated entities such as 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9, 20:4n-3 and 20:5n-3. Cuticular alcohols (only saturated and even-numbered) ranged from C(12) to C(20) in males and C(10) to C(22) in females. Only one sterol was found in the cuticular lipids of both males and females. 23 free fatty acids, five alcohols and cholesterol were identified in the internal lipids. Internal fatty acids were present in large amounts-7.4 mg/g (female) and 10.1 mg/g (male). Only traces of internal alcohols (from C(14) to C(26) in males, from C(14) to C(22) in females) were found in L. sericata. Large amounts of internal cholesterol were identified in L. sericata males and females (0.49 and 0.97 mg/g of the insect body, respectively).

  18. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  19. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  20. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  1. COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MALE, FEMALE AND PREGNANT MICE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in environmental and mammalian matrices has spurred regulatory interest in potential sources of this stable compound. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol, a primary compound used in polymer synthesis, is found ubiquitously in the envi...

  2. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Đurđica; Babić, Jurislav; Jozinović, Antun; Miličević, Borislav; Jokić, Stela; Miličević, Radoslav; Rajič, Marija; Šubarić, Drago

    2015-10-27

    Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS), which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  3. Determination of the Free Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Nucleotide in Commercial Vinegars.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Zhang, Li-Li; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao

    2017-03-29

    The selected taste-active compounds in several kinds of commercial vinegar including amino acids, organic acids, and nucleotides were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that glutamine and alanine, which contribute the umami and sweet taste to the flavor of vinegar, are high in Taste Activity Value (TAV). Acetic acid is the major organic acid in vinegar, making up as much as 91.4% of the total organic acid composition. Nucleotides, which were only detected in 5 brands of commercial vinegar and are both low in TAV, contribute less taste in vinegar. Our research provides a multiple chemical compositional characterization of vinegar and proposes a possibility of classification of different kinds of vinegar.

  4. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  5. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  6. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulation (Normeta) in oxidative stress induced by alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron in rats.

    PubMed

    Patere, Shilpa N; Saraf, Madhusudan N; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a large number of diseases or disorders which are initiated and/or exacerbated by pro-oxidants such as various drugs including alcohol and food additives. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with polyherbal formulation Normeta (2 ml and 4 ml/kg) on hepatic damage induced by alcohol 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained at levels between 150 and 350 mg/dl), thermally oxidized oil (polyunsaturated fatty acids) (15% of diet) and carbonyl iron (1.5-2% of diet) for 30 days in rats. In vitro studies with 1, 1-Diphenyl, 2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide and Ferric chloride (Fe(+3) ions) showed that Normeta possesses antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron feeding produced an increase in serum levels of iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and decrease in serum proteins. It was also associated with elevated lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and disruption of antioxidant defence mechanism in liver, decreased body weight and increased liver to body weight ratio. Oral administration of Normeta along with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron decreased the serum iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels and increased serum protein levels. The levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased. Improvement in body weight and liver to body weight ratio was also observed. The effects of Normeta on physico-metabolic parameters were comparable with silymarin. This indicates that Normeta has favourable effect in bringing down the severity of hepatotoxicity.

  8. Sea salt particles react with organic acids in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-10-01

    Sea salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), particles lofted into the atmosphere by the motion of ocean waves affect atmospheric chemistry; these particles can undergo reactions with trace atmospheric gases and internal mixing with anthropogenic pollutants depositing on particle surface. Several studies have found that NaCl particles in the atmosphere are depleted in chloride and have attributed this to reactions with inorganic acids. However, reactions with inorganic acids do not fully account for the observed chloride depletion in some locations; it has been suggested that organic acids, likely of anthropogenic origin, may also play a role in chloride depletion, but results have been uncertain.

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  10. Temperature dependence of the rate constants for oxidation of organic compounds by peroxyl radicals in aqueous alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Alfassi, Z.B.; Huie, R.E.; Kumar, M.; Neta, P.

    1992-01-23

    Rate constants for reactions of chlorinated methylperoxyl radicals with chlorpromazine (2-chloro-10-[3-(dimethylamino)-propyl]phenothiazine), trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), and ascorbate in aqueous alcohol solutions have been measured by pulse radiolysis as a function of temperature, generally between 5 and 75{degrees}C. The rate constants varied between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, the calculated Arrhenius activation energies ranged from 1 to 30 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and the preexponential factors also varied considerably, with log A ranging from 7 to 14. In general, room temperature rate constants increase with an increase in the number of chlorine atoms on the radical (increasing its electron affinity and thus the driving force for the reaction) and with an increase in the solvent polarity. The Arrhenius preexponential factor and the activation energy both increased as the proportion of water in the solvent mixture increased; i.e., the increase in rate constant with solvent polarity is a result of two compensating effects. Electron transfer from the organic reductants to the chlorinated methylperoxyl radicals is suggested to take place via an inner-sphere mechanism involving a transient adduct of the peroxyl radical to the reductant. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The thermal stability of organic acids in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Crossey, L.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds in subsurface brines directly affect the evolution of porosity and permeability during sedimentary diagenesis. Recent examination of the aqueous thermal degradation of oxalic acid (a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid) and its anions has implications for the thermal stability of dicarboxylic acids under sedimentary basin conditions. Because the thermal stability of these compounds is pH-dependent, consideration of the dissociation behavior of carboxylic acids as a function of temperature is essential for estimating the longevity of difunctional carboxylic acids. Results of burial history models suggest that dicarboxylic acid species may be long-lived in formation waters. Comparison with other experimental studies of carboxylic acids and their anion indicates that acetate stability is greater than formate stability, which is greater than oxalate stability, which is greater than gallate and malonate stability. In addition to the implications of natural systems, the aqueous degradation behavior is critical in evaluating other types of experimental results; notably mineral dissolution studies performed at elevated temperatures in the presence of organic materials and hydrous pyrolysis experiments involving kerogens.

  12. Long-term γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and disulfiram combination therapy in GHB treatment-resistant chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rovai, Luca; Pacini, Matteo; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2011-07-01

    Leading Italian studies support the use of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), not only in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but also in maintaining alcohol abstinence. GHB gives a better result than naltrexone and disulfiram in maintaining abstinence, and it has a better effect on craving than placebo or disulfiram. The problem is that about 30-40% of alcoholics are non-responders to GHB therapy. In our clinical practice, we speculate that by combining disulfiram with GHB treatment we may be able to achieve a kind of 'antagonist' effect by using the 'psychological threat' of disulfiram (adversative effect) while taking advantage of the anticraving effect of GHB, despite the limitation of its 'non-blockade' effect on alcohol. In this context, to improve the outcome in GHB long-term treated alcoholics, we added disulfiram to GHB in the management of GHB treatment-resistant alcoholics. In this study we compared retention in treatment of 52 patients who were treated with the GHB-disulfiram combination for up to six months, with retention for the same subjects considering their most recent unsuccessful outpatient long-term treatment with GHB only. An additional comparison was carried out on the days of complete abstention from alcohol. Thirty four patients (65.4%) successfully completed the protocol and were considered to be responders; 18 (34.6%) left the programme, and were considered to be non-responders. Considering the days of complete abstinence from alcohol, 36 patients stayed in treatment longer with the GHB-Disulfiram combination, 12 stayed for a shorter time and four for the same time. The results of this study seem to indicate a higher efficacy of the GHB-disulfiram association compared with GHB alone. Randomized controlled trials are now needed to verify this hypothesis.

  13. Long-Term γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) and Disulfiram Combination Therapy in GHB Treatment-Resistant Chronic Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rovai, Luca; Pacini, Matteo; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2011-01-01

    Leading Italian studies support the use of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), not only in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but also in maintaining alcohol abstinence. GHB gives a better result than naltrexone and disulfiram in maintaining abstinence, and it has a better effect on craving than placebo or disulfiram. The problem is that about 30–40% of alcoholics are non-responders to GHB therapy. In our clinical practice, we speculate that by combining disulfiram with GHB treatment we may be able to achieve a kind of ‘antagonist’ effect by using the ‘psychological threat’ of disulfiram (adversative effect) while taking advantage of the anticraving effect of GHB, despite the limitation of its ‘non-blockade’ effect on alcohol. In this context, to improve the outcome in GHB long-term treated alcoholics, we added disulfiram to GHB in the management of GHB treatment-resistant alcoholics. In this study we compared retention in treatment of 52 patients who were treated with the GHB-disulfiram combination for up to six months, with retention for the same subjects considering their most recent unsuccessful outpatient long-term treatment with GHB only. An additional comparison was carried out on the days of complete abstention from alcohol. Thirty four patients (65.4%) successfully completed the protocol and were considered to be responders; 18 (34.6%) left the programme, and were considered to be non-responders. Considering the days of complete abstinence from alcohol, 36 patients stayed in treatment longer with the GHB-Disulfiram combination, 12 stayed for a shorter time and four for the same time. The results of this study seem to indicate a higher efficacy of the GHB-disulfiram association compared with GHB alone. Randomized controlled trials are now needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:21845160

  14. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  15. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method.

  16. Use of virginiamycin to control the growth of lactic acid bacteria during alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hynes, S H; Kjarsgaard, D M; Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W M

    1997-04-01

    The antibiotic virginiamycin was investigated for its effects on growth and lactic acid production by seven strains of lactobacilli during the alcoholic fermentation of wheat mash by yeast. The lowest concentration of virginiamycin tested (0.5 mg Lactrol kg-1 mash), was effective against most of the lactic acid bacteria under study, but Lactobacillus plantarum was not significantly inhibited at this concentration. The use of virginiamycin prevented or reduced potential yield losses of up to 11% of the produced ethanol due to the growth and metabolism of lactobacilli. However, when the same concentration of virginiamycin was added to mash not inoculated with yeast, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. paracasei grew after an extensive lag of 48 h and L. plantarum grew after a similar lag even in the presence of 2 mg virginiamycin kg-1 mash. Results showed a variation in sensitivity to virginiamycin between the different strains tested and also a possible reduction in effectiveness of virginiamycin over prolonged incubation in wheat mash, especially in the absence of yeast.

  17. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  18. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols with use of montmorillonite catalysts as solid Brønsted acids.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Nakagiri, Nobuaki; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Ebitani, Kohki; Kaneda, Kiyotomi

    2007-08-03

    We have developed an environmentally benign synthetic approach to nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols that minimizes or eliminates the formation of byproducts, resulting in a highly atom-efficient chemical process. Proton- and metal-exchanged montmorillonites (H- and Mn+-mont) were prepared easily by treating Na+-mont with an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride or metal salt, respectively. The H-mont possessed outstanding catalytic activity for nucleophilic substitution reactions of a variety of alcohols with anilines, because the unique acidity of the H-mont catalyst effectively prevents the neutralization by the basic anilines. In addition, amides, indoles, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and allylsilane act as nucleophiles for the H-mont-catalyzed substitutions of alcohols, which allowed efficient formation of various C-N and C-C bonds. The solid H-mont was reusable without any appreciable loss in its catalytic activity and selectivity. Especially, an Al3+-mont showed high catalytic activity for the alpha-benzylation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with primary alcohols due to cooperative catalysis between a protonic acid site and a Lewis acidic Al3+ species in its interlayer spaces.

  19. Importance of the interaction between sodium silicate and organic materials to astrobiology: alcohol-based organo-silicates as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Patrick J.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2007-09-01

    We have found that alcohols catalyze a rapid polymerization of silicic acid to silica gel upon the addition of alcohols. Like amino acids, alcohols could be preserved in the silica gel by two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, the alcohols become entombed in the silica gel. In this case, only Si-O-Si bonds would be observed in the infrared (IR) spectra. In the second mechanism, the alcohols make chemical bonds with the silicic acid, to create organo-silicates. In this case, Si-O-C bonds would be observed in the IR. We have found that steric hindrance plays a major role in the volume of an alcohol required. Amino alcohols are more effective in creating a viscous gel than the alcohols, and appeared to form covalent Si-O-C bonds in some cases. Characteristic shifts in the Si-O-Si bands of over 50 cm -1 towards lower IR frequencies can be observed in the alcohol gels. The hydrolysis of known organo-silicates has led to the identification of the Si-O-C band in the region of 1225-1150 cm -1, and the Si-O-Si band in the region of 1125-1000 cm -1. Alcohols play an important role in many biological pathways, and could serve as biosignatures in extreme environments including meteorites and other planets.

  20. Influence of two different alcohols in the esterification of fatty acids over layered zinc stearate/palmitate.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Eduardo José Mendes; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Wärnå, Johan; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Wypych, Fernando; Salmi, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    In this work, esterification of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and stearic acid) with a commercial zinc carboxylate (a layered compound formed by simultaneous intercalation of stearate and palmitate anions) was performed. Kinetic modeling using a quasi-homogeneous approach successfully fitted experimental data at different molar ratio of fatty acids/alcohols (1-butanol and 1-hexanol) and temperature. An apparent first-order reaction related to all reactants was found and activation energy of 66 kJ/mol was reported. The catalyst showed to be unique, as it can be easily recovered like a heterogeneous catalysts behaving like ionic liquids. In addition, this catalyst demonstrated a peculiar behavior, because higher reactivity was observed with the increase in the alcohols chain length compared to the authors' previous work using ethanol.

  1. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95–1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61–1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51–0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004–1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241–5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248–0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:26288848

  2. Reduced Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity in Adult Patients With Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Del Ben, Maria; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Di Santo, Serena; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by intra-hepatic fat accumulation and mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not fully explained. Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. We investigated its activity in patients with fatty liver. LAL activity (nmol/spot/h) was measured in 100 adult healthy subjects (HS) and in 240 NAFLD patients. A sub-analysis on 35 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was performed. Median LAL activity was 1.15 (0.95-1.72) in HS. It was significantly reduced in NAFLD [0.78 (0.61-1.01), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. A further reduction was observed in the subgroup of NASH [0.67 (0.51-0.77), p < 0.001 vs. HS]. Patients with LAL activity below median had higher values of serum total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-c (p < 0.05), and increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, p < 0.001; AST, p < 0.01; GGT, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with LAL activity below median were ALT (OR: 1.018, 95% CI 1.004-1.032, p = 0.011) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.551, 95% CI 1.241-5.245, p = 0.011), whilst statin use predicted a better LAL function (OR: 0.464, 95% CI 0.248-0.866, p = 0.016). Our findings suggest a strong association between impaired LAL activity and NAFLD. A better knowledge of the role of LAL may provide new insights in NAFLD pathogenesis.

  3. Application of organic acids for plant protection against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Dedyukhina, Emilia G; Chistyakova, Tatiana I; Lunina, Julia N; Mironov, Alexey A; Stepanova, Nadezda N; Shemshura, Olga N; Vainshtein, Mikhail B

    2017-02-01

    The basic tendency in the field of plant protection concerns with reducing the use of pesticides and their replacement by environmentally acceptable biological preparations. The most promising approach to plant protection is application of microbial metabolites. In the last years, bactericidal, fungicidal, and nematodocidal activities were revealed for citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, palmitoleic, and other organic acids. It was shown that application of carboxylic acids resulted in acceleration of plant development and the yield increase. Of special interest is the use of arachidonic acid in very low concentrations as an inductor (elicitor) of protective functions in plants. The bottleneck in practical applications of these simple, nontoxic, and moderately priced preparations is the absence of industrial production of the mentioned organic acids of required quality since even small contaminations of synthetic preparations decrease their quality and make them dangerous for ecology and toxic for plants, animals, and human. This review gives a general conception on the use of organic acids for plant protection against the most dangerous pathogens and pests, as well as focuses on microbiological processes for production of these microbial metabolites of high quality from available, inexpensive, and renewable substrates.

  4. Formation of Organic Tracers for Isoprene SOA under Acidic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical compositions of a series of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples, formed by irradiating mixtures of isoprene and NO in a smog chamber in the absence or presence of acidic aerosols, were analyzed using derivatization-based GC-MS methods. In addition to the known is...

  5. pH-Dependent sorption of acidic organic chemicals to soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Tülp, Holger C; Fenner, Kathrin; Schwarzenbach, René P; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2009-12-15

    Due to their increased polarity, many contemporary biologically active chemicals exhibit acid functions and may thus dissociate to their anionic conjugated base at pH values typically present in the environment. Despite its negative charge, soil organic matter (SOM) has been demonstrated to be the main sorbent in soils, even for the anionic species of organic acids. Nevertheless, few data exist that allow for a systematic interpretation of the sorption of organic acids into SOM. Therefore, in this study, the sorption of the neutral and anionic species of 32 diverse organic acids belonging to nine different chemical groups to SOM was investigated. Partition coefficients were determined from HPLC retention volumes on a column packed with peat, at three Ca(2+)-concentrations and over a pH range of 4.5-7.5. The influence of Ca(2+)-concentrations on anion sorption was small (factor 2 in the usual environmental Ca(2+)-concentration range) and independent of molecular structure. Generally, the organic carbon-water partition coefficients, K(oc), of both the neutral and anionic species increased with increasing molecular size and decreased with increasing polarity. At an environmentally relevant Ca(2+)-concentration of 10 mM, the investigated anions sorbed between a factor of 7-60 less than the corresponding neutral acid. This factor was more homogeneous within a group of structurally related compounds. These results indicate that while similar nonionic interactions seem to govern the partitioning of both the neutral and anionic species into SOM, the electrostatic interactions of the anionic species with SOM are a complex and currently not well understood function of the type of acidic functional group. The HPLC-based, flow through method presented in this study was shown to yield consistent results for a wide range of organic acids in a high-throughput manner. It should therefore prove highly useful in further investigating how different acidic functional groups affect

  6. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  7. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects.

  8. Removal of lead by apatite and its stability in the presence of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Makimura, Akihiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, lead sorption and desorption tests were conducted with apatite and organic acids (i.e. citric, malic, and formic acids) to understand lead removal by apatite in the presence of an organic acid and lead dissolution from the lead- and organic-acid-sorbed apatite by such organic acid exposure. The lead sorption test showed that the amount of lead removed by apatite in the presence of organic acid varied depending on the type of acid used. The molar amounts of calcium dissolved from apatite in the presence and absence of organic acid were exactly the same as those of lead removed even under different pH conditions as well as different organic acid concentrations, indicating that the varying amount of lead removal in the presence of different organic acids resulted from the magnitude of the dissolution of apatite and the precipitation of lead phosphate minerals. The percentages of lead dissolved from the organic-acid-sorbed and non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by all the organic acid extractions were equal and higher than those by water extraction. In particular, the highest extractions were observed in the non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by citric and malic acids. These results suggest that to immobilize lead by the use of apatite in the presence of organic acids, much more apatite must be added than in the absence of organic acid, and that measures must be taken to ensure that the immobilized lead is not dissolved.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James A.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-02-14

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over Amberlyst TM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5- trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over AmberlystTM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  11. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  12. Parts per Million Detection of Alcohol Vapors via Metal Organic Framework Functionalized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors.

    PubMed

    Vandezande, Wouter; Janssen, Kris P F; Delport, Filip; Ameloot, Rob; De Vos, Dirk E; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Roeffaers, Maarten B J

    2017-03-30

    The development of novel molecular sieves opens opportunities in the development of more sensitive analytical devices. In this paper, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically ZIF-8 and ZIF-93, are grown on fiber optic based surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) sensors. FO-SPR has enabled sensitive sensing capabilities in biomedical settings and the addition of an MOF coating opens the way for the sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gaseous media. FO-SPR probes were homogeneously functionalized with ZIF-8 and ZIF-93 in each case using two different precursor solutions to obtain a sequential nucleation and growth phase. The difference in MOF nucleation and growth kinetics of the two solutions was directly monitored by the FO-SPR system. The two established MOF-FO-SPR sensors were then subjected to sensing experiments with several alcohol vapors to establish their sensing capabilities. Vapors with mPa partial pressures, ppm concentrations, could successfully be detected, e.g., an LOD of 2.5 ppm for methanol detection was acquired. The difference in recognition behavior of the hydrophobic ZIF-8 and more hydrophilic ZIF-93 recognition layers can be exploited to yield qualitative information regarding the vapor composition.

  13. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Liu, Di; Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui; Zhao, Fuhua; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. • The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. • Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. • Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  14. Synthesis of 1,3-Amino Alcohols, 1,3-Diols, Amines, and Carboxylic Acids from Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mingshuo; Herzon, Seth B

    2015-09-04

    The half-sandwich ruthenium complexes 1-3 activate terminal alkynes toward anti-Markovnikov hydration and reductive hydration under mild conditions. These reactions are believed to proceed via addition of water to metal vinylidene intermediates (4). The functionalization of propargylic alcohols by metal vinylidene pathways is challenging owing to decomposition of the starting material and catalytic intermediates. Here we show that catalyst 2 can be employed to convert propargylic alcohols to 1,3-diols in high yield and with retention of stereochemistry at the propargylic position. The method is also amenable to propargylic amine derivatives, thereby establishing a route to enantioenriched 1,3-amino alcohol products. We also report the development of formal anti-Markovnikov reductive amination and oxidative hydration reactions to access linear amines and carboxylic acids, respectively, from terminal alkynes. This chemistry expands the scope of products that can be prepared from terminal alkynes by practical and high-yielding metal-catalyzed methods.

  15. An unprecedented (3,4,24)-connected heteropolyoxozincate organic framework as heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dong-Ying; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Sun, Zhong; Yan, Li-Kai; O'Keeffe, Michael; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Shun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xin-Long; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2013-01-01

    A novel 3D hexadecanuclear heteropolyoxozincate organic framework, IFMC-200, has been successfully synthesized based on a late transition metal-oxygen cluster. IFMC-200 not only represents the first example of (3,4,24)-connected framework but also contains the first 24-connected single metal cluster in a crystal structure. It exhibits superior thermal stability, good water-stability, and even insensitivity to the existence of acid and base within a certain range of pH values. Furthermore, it performs as a heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst with good activity for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids rather than short-chain ones, and high recycling efficiency for esterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols to produce biodiesel. PMID:24019078

  16. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  18. Study of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as semiconductor/insulator for application in low voltage organic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenho, Adriano R. V.; Machado, Wagner S.; Cruz-Cruz, Isidro; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2013-06-01

    In this work we study the cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfacial properties of an organic field effect transistor. We use cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) prepared with different ammonium dichromate:poly(vinyl alcohol) proportions, ranging from 0% to 35%, as insulator. Using admittance spectroscopy, we show that the interfacial properties change when the ammonium dichromate concentration is altered. The interfacial properties and the better insulation are responsible for the improvement of the device performance in these organic field effect transistors, achieving best performance in the blend with ammonium dichromate:poly(vinyl alcohol) proportion of 0.25:1.

  19. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  20. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  1. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar.

    PubMed

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-03-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of

  2. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1−5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial

  3. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  4. Various instrumental approaches for determination of organic acids in wines.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, Jiri; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Milovanovic, Miodrag; Kubesa, Ondrej; Zeisbergerova, Marta; Lacina, Karel; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Glatz, Zdenek; Skladal, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Biosensors based on lactate oxidase, sarcosine oxidase and mixture of fumarase and sarcosine oxidase were used for monitoring of organic acids in wine samples. Additionally, tartaric acid was determined by modified colorimetric method based on formation of the vanadate-tartrate complex. The above mentioned methods were used for the analysis of 31 wine samples and obtained data were compared with the results from capillary electrophoresis as a basic standard method. This comparison showed a certain degree of correlation between biosensors and capillary electrophoresis. The provided information pointed to the potential uses of biosensors in the field of winemaking.

  5. Competitive threshold collision-induced dissociation: Gas-phase acidities and bond dissociation energies for a series of alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    DeTuri, V.F.; Ervin, K.M.

    1999-09-02

    Energy-resolved competitive collision-induced dissociation methods are used to measure the gas-phase acidities of a series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol). The competitive dissociation reactions of fluoride-alcohol, [F{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOR], alkoxide-water, [RO{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOH], and alkoxide-methanol [RO{+-}{center{underscore}dot}HOCH{sub 3}] proton-bound complexes are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The reaction cross sections and product branching fractions to the two proton transfer channels are measured as a function of collision energy. The enthalpy difference between the two product channels is found by modeling the reaction cross sections near threshold using RRKM theory to account for the energy-dependent product branching ratio and kinetic shift. From the enthalpy difference, the alcohol gas-phase acidities are determined relative to the well-known values of HF and H{sub 2}O. The measured gas-phase acidities are {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}OH) = 1599 {+-} 3 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) = 1586 {+-} 5 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHOH) = 1576 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, and {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH) = 1573 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  6. A Case of Terra Firma-Forme Dermatosis Treated with Salicylic Acid Alcohol Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sin Wook; Lee, Suk Young; Kim, Jong Baik; Choi, Hoo Min; Ro, Byung In

    2017-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) is a bizarre, acquired and idiopathic dermatosis that etiology has still not been fully defined. It is characterized by the presence of asymptomatic, brownish dirt-like lesion maybe due to disorder of keratinization. These lesions cannot be removed with ordinary cleansing. Therefore, TFFD can be differentiated from dermatosis neglecta. Patient was a 17-year-old man with brownish lesions on his face for 1 month. The patient had a history of regular washing habit with soap and water. The lesions were asymptomatic however due to cosmetic reasons, the patient wanted to treat his skin lesions. Punch biopsy revealed hyperkeratosis and fungal spore are in stratum corneum. Salicylic acid peeling with alcohol base was performed on the patient's face. The skin lesions disappeared completely on gentle swabbing with peeling. In this point, the diagnosis of TFFD could be considered. Since, this disease can be confused with dermatosis neglecta, we report this case with literature review. PMID:28223752

  7. Electrospun polylactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol fibers as efficient and stable nanomaterials for immobilization of lipases.

    PubMed

    Sóti, Péter Lajos; Weiser, Diana; Vigh, Tamás; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf; Poppe, László; Marosi, György

    2016-03-01

    Electrospinning was applied to create easy-to-handle and high-surface-area membranes from continuous nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). Lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia and Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB) could be immobilized effectively by adsorption onto the fibrous material as well as by entrapment within the electrospun nanofibers. The biocatalytic performance of the resulting membrane biocatalysts was evaluated in the kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1) and 1-phenylethyl acetate (rac-2). Fine dispersion of the enzymes in the polymer matrix and large surface area of the nanofibers resulted in an enormous increase in the activity of the membrane biocatalyst compared to the non-immobilized crude powder forms of the lipases. PLA as fiber-forming polymer for lipase immobilization performed better than PVA in all aspects. Recycling studies with the various forms of electrospun membrane biocatalysts in ten cycles of the acylation and hydrolysis reactions indicated excellent stability of this forms of immobilized lipases. PLA-entrapped lipases could preserve lipase activity and enantiomer selectivity much better than the PVA-entrapped forms. The electrospun membrane forms of CaLB showed high mechanical stability in the repeated acylations and hydrolyses than commercial forms of CaLB immobilized on polyacrylamide beads (Novozyme 435 and IMMCALB-T2-150).

  8. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Tannic Acid Hydrogels with Excellent Mechanical Properties and Shape Memory Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Nan; Peng, Lufang; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Yaxin; Shi, Shengjie; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-10-12

    Shape memory hydrogels have promising applications in a wide variety of fields. Here we report the facile fabrication of a novel type of shape memory hydrogels physically cross-linked with both stronger and weaker hydrogen bonding (H-bonding). Strong multiple H-bonding formed between poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and tannic acid (TA) leads to their coagulation when they are physically mixed at an elevated temperature and easy gelation at room temperature. The amorphous structure and strong H-bonding endow the PVA-TA hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties, as indicated by their high tensile strengths (up to 2.88 MPa) and high elongations (up to 1100%). The stronger H-bonding between PVA and TA functions as the "permanent" cross-link and the weaker H-bonding between PVA chains as the "temporary" cross-link. The reversible breakage and formation of the weaker H-bonding imparts the PVA-TA hydrogels with excellent temperature-responsive shape memory. Wet and dried hydrogel samples with a deformed or elongated shape can recover to their original shapes when immersed in 60 °C water in a few seconds or at 125 °C in about 2.5 min, respectively.

  9. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement.

  10. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919

  11. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively.

  12. Sulfoacetic acid modifying poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel and its electroresponsive behavior under DC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Genqi; Zhang, Cheng; Liao, Jiae

    2013-01-01

    A strong electrolyte hydrogel was prepared by modifying poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with sulfoacetic acid (SA-PVA). Its swelling properties, mechanical properties, and electroresponsive behavior in Na2SO4 solutions were studied. The results indicated that the water take-up ability of the hydrogel decreased with the increasing ionic strength of Na2SO4 solution. The Young’s modulus, elongation at break and tensile strength of the hydrogel swollen in deionized water are 1.247 MPa, 187% and 2.2 MPa, respectively. The hydrogel swollen in a Na2SO4 solution bent towards the cathode under non-contact dc electric fields, and its bending speed and equilibrium strain increased with increasing applied voltage. There is a critical ionic strength of 0.03 at which the maximum equilibrium strain of the hydrogel occurs. Also the bending behavior of hydrogel was not affected by the pH changes. By altering the direction of the applied potential cyclically, the hydrogel exhibited good reversible bending behavior. On this basis, a gel-worm was designed. Under a cyclically varying electric field (the period was 8 s, and the voltage ranged from -10 to 10 V), the walking speed was up to 15 cm min-1 in Na2SO4 solution with an ionic strength of 0.03.

  13. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-11-25

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  14. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato - 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154/degree/C. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154/degree/C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154/degree/C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, but degraded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, Under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. 18 refs.

  15. Correlating Acid Properties and Catalytic Function: A First-Principles Analysis of Alcohol Dehydration Pathways on Polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Janik, Michael J.; Macht, Josef; Iglesia, Enrique; Neurock, Matthew

    2009-02-05

    Density functional theory calculations and reactivity data were used to examine the mechanism of alcohol dehydration on Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) catalysts and the influence of the POM composition and the degree of substitution of the alcohol on kinetically relevant elimination steps. Dehydration was found to proceed through E1 pathways in which the alcohol CsO bond is cleaved heterolytically via a carbeniumion transition state. Dehydration rates were found to depend on the elimination rate constant and the equilibrium constant for the formation of unreactive alcohol dimers. E2-type elimination transition states, involving concerted CsH and CsO bond cleavage, were not found. The extent of substitution at the R-carbon on the alcohol was found to lead to marked effects on elimination barriers, because substitution increases the proton affinity of the alcohol and the stability of the carbenium-ion transition state. Changes in the central and addenda atoms of the POM cluster and the presence of n-donors, a support, vicinal POM clusters, or charge-compensating cations were found to lead to changes in the deprotonation energy (DPE) of the POM cluster, activation barriers to dehydration, and the stability of the unreactive dimer. These effects are all captured in a general linear relation between activation barriers and deprotonation energy, a rigorous measure of acid strength. The explicit dependence of the E1 activation barrier on the acid deprotonation energy is much weaker than that on reactant proton affinity. This results from the more effective compensation between the acid deprotonation energy and the interaction energy between the cationic hydrocarbon fragment and the anionic POM cluster at the transition state. The direct interactions between the POM protons and the support, other POM clusters, n-donors, base probe molecules, and charge-compensating cations increased the negative charge of the oxide shell of the W12O40 conjugate base, which increased the

  16. Microbiological degradation of organic components in oil shale retort water: organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J E; Riley, R G; Li, S W; Mann, D C; Wildung, R E

    1981-11-01

    The losses of benzoic acid and a homologous series of both mono- and dibasic aliphatic acids in oil shale retort water were monitored with time (21 days) in liquid culture (4% retort water, vol/vol) inoculated with soil. The organic acids constituted approximately 12% of the dissolved organic carbon in retort water, which served as the sole source of carbon and energy in these studies. The levels of the acids in solution were reduced by 80 to 90% within 9 days of incubation. From mass balance calculations, the decrease in dissolved organic carbon with time of incubation was equal to the formation of CO(2) and bacterial cell carbon. The decrease in the level of the acid components, either from degradation to CO(2) or incorporation into bacteria, would account for approximately 70% of the loss in dissolved organic carbon within the first 9 days of incubation and would account for approximately 50% of the loss over the entire 21-day incubation period.

  17. Novel hydrogels of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-glycolic acid copolymer with enhanced rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Lejardi, A; Hernández, R; Criado, M; Santos, Jose I; Etxeberria, A; Sarasua, J R; Mijangos, C

    2014-03-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been grafted with glycolic acid (GL), a biodegradable hydroxyl acid to yield modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAGL). The formation of hydrogels at pH = 6.8 and physiological temperature through blending chitosan (CS) and PVAGL at different concentrations has been investigated. FTIR, DOSY NMR and oscillatory rheology measurements have been carried out on CS/PVAGL hydrogels and the results have been compared to those obtained for CS/PVA hydrogels prepared under the same conditions. The experimental results point to an increase in the number of interactions between chitosan and PVAGL in polymer hydrogels prepared with modified PVA. The resulting materials with enhanced elastic properties and thixotropic behavior are potential candidates to be employed as injectable materials for biomedical applications.

  18. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  19. Regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols: A facile and stereoselective synthesis of α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Silong; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    A highly regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction between Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols, azodicarboxylates, and triphenylphosphine is developed, which provides an easy access to α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives in high yields and good stereoselectivity. This reaction represents the first direct transformation of MBH alcohols into hydrazines.

  20. Change of monochloroacetic acid to biodegradable organic acids by hydrothermal reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungrean; Fujita, Masafumi; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2004-04-30

    The feasibility of biodegradability improvement induced from the structural conversion of refractory pollutants by hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) was selected as a preliminary material represented for linear hydrocarbon structured refractory pollutants. Under the tested conditions, MCAA was partially destructed and then converted to biodegradable reaction products by hydrolysis, dehydration and thermal decomposition. The identified products were glycolic acid, citric acid and formic acid. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction during the structural conversion did not exceed 24%, except the results at the reaction conditions of 350 degrees C and 17 MPa. However, Produced biodegradable organic acids were reduced by thermal decomposition with increasing reaction temperature and time. At the reaction temperature of 250 and 300 degrees C, biodegradability (BOD/COD(Cr)) was reached at 0.51 in 6.9 min and 0.52 in 7.4 min despite the presence of dissociated chlorine ions. The detachment of recalcitrant chlorine ion from MCAA and the production of biodegradable organic acids by hydrothermal reaction were directly related to the biodegradability improvement of reaction products.

  1. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  2. External concentration of organic acid anions and pH: key independent variables for studying how organic acids inhibit growth of bacteria in mildly acidic foods.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C E; Broadbent, J R

    2009-01-01

    Although the mechanisms by which organic acids inhibit growth of bacteria in mildly acidic foods are not fully understood, it is clear that intracellular accumulation of anions is a primary contributor to inhibition of bacterial growth. We hypothesize that intracellular accumulation of anions is driven by 2 factors, external anion concentration and external acidity. This hypothesis follows from basic chemistry principles that heretofore have not been fully applied to studies in the field, and it has led us to develop a novel approach for predicting internal anion concentration by controlling the external concentration of anions and pH. This approach overcomes critical flaws in contemporary experimental design that invariably target concentration of either protonated acid or total acid in the growth media thereby leaving anion concentration to vary depending on the pK(a) of the acids involved. Failure to control external concentration of anions has undoubtedly confounded results, and it has likely led to misleading conclusions regarding the antimicrobial action of organic acids. In summary, we advocate an approach for directing internal anion levels by controlling external concentration of anions and pH because it presents an additional opportunity to study the mechanisms by which organic acids inhibit bacterial growth. Knowledge gained from such studies would have important application in the control of important foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and may also facilitate efforts to promote the survival in foods or beverages of desirable probiotic bacteria.

  3. Cadmium–BINOL Metal–Organic Framework for the Separation of Alcohol Isomers†

    PubMed Central

    Bueno‐Perez, Rocio; Gómez‐Álvarez, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The large‐scale isolation of specific isomers of amyl alcohols for applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biochemical industries represents a challenging task due to the physicochemical similarities of these structural isomers. The homochiral metal–organic framework cadmium–BINOL (BINOL=1,1′‐bi‐2‐naphthol) is suitable for the separation of pentanol isomers, combining adsorption selectivities above 5 with adsorption capacities of around 4.5 mol kg−1. Additionally, a slight ability for separation of racemic mixtures of 2‐pentanol is also detected. This behavior is explained based on matching shapes, strength of host–guest interactions, and on the network of hydrogen bonds. The last of these explains both the relative success and shortfalls of prediction methods at high loadings (ideal adsorbed solution theory) or at low coverage (separation factors), which are therefore useful here at a qualitative level, but not accurate in quantitative terms. Finally, the high selectivity of cadmium–BINOL for 1‐pentanol over its isomers offers prospects for practical applications and some room for optimizing conditions. PMID:27859759

  4. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields.

  5. NBS/DBU mediated one-pot synthesis of α-acyloxyketones from benzylic secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghui; Wei, Wei; Yang, Daoshan; Cui, Hong; Cui, Huanhuan; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Hua

    2016-11-22

    A simple and efficient one-pot NBS/DBU-mediated method has been developed for the synthesis of α-acyloxyketones from various benzylic secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids. Through this methodology, a series of α-acyloxyketones could be obtained in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. Importantly, this new reaction avoids the direct usage of toxic metal catalysts or potentially dangerous peroxide oxidants.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed esterification of ferulic Acid with oleyl alcohol in ionic liquid/isooctane binary systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bilian; Liu, Huanzhen; Guo, Zheng; Huang, Jian; Wang, Minzi; Xu, Xuebing; Zheng, Lifei

    2011-02-23

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ferulic acid oleyl alcohol ester in an ionic liquid (IL)/isooctane system was investigated. Considerable bioconversion and volumetric productivity were achieved in inexpensive 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Hmim][PF(6)]) and 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Omim][PF(6)]) mediated systems, and thus, the two types of ILs were selected for further optimization of variables. The results showed that, before reaching a maximum, the increase of ferulic acid concentration, temperature, or enzyme dosage led to an increase in volumetric productivity. Variations of the ratios of IL/isooctane and concentrations of oleyl alcohol also profoundly affected the volumetric productivity. To a higher extent, [Hmim][PF(6)]/isooctane and [Omim][PF(6)]/isooctane show similar reaction behaviors. Under the optimized reaction conditions (60 °C, 150 mg of Novozym 435 and 100 mg of molecular sieves), up to 48.50 mg/mL productivity of oleyl feruleate could be achieved for the [Hmim][PF(6)]/isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system with a substrate concentration of ferulic acid of 0.08 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol of 0.32 mmol; while an optimum volumetric productivity of 26.92 mg/mL was obtained for the [Omim][PF(6)]/ isooctane (0.5 mL/1.5 mL) system under a similar reaction condition other than the substrate concentrations of ferulic acid at 0.05 mmol/mL and oleyl alcohol at 0.20 mmol.

  7. Assessment of bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by organic acid extraction and phosphatase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin S A; Chadwick, David; Haygarth, Philip M; Hawkins, Jane M B; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-12-15

    Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4.4-6.1, total P 86-429 mg P kg(- 1)) were extracted with 2 mM citric acid (i.e., 10 μmol g(- 1), approximating rhizosphere concentrations) adjusted to soil pH in a 4:1 solution to soil ratio for 1 h. Three phosphatase enzymes were then added to the soil extract to determine the forms of hydrolysable organic phosphorus. Total phosphorus extracted by the procedure ranged between 3.22 and 8.06 mg P kg(- 1) (mean 5.55 ± 0.42 mg P kg(- 1)), of which on average three quarters was unreactive phosphorus (i.e., organic phosphorus plus inorganic polyphosphate). Of the enzyme-hydrolysable unreactive phosphorus, 28% was simple phosphomonoesters hydrolyzed by phosphomonoesterase from bovine intestinal mucosa, a further 18% was phosphodiesters hydrolyzed by a combination of nuclease from Penicillium citrinum and phosphomonoesterase, and the remaining 51% was hydrolyzed by a broad-spectrum phytase from wheat. We conclude that soil organic phosphorus can be solubilized and hydrolyzed by a combination of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes in lowland tropical forest soils, indicating that this pathway could make a significant contribution to biological phosphorus acquisition in tropical forests. Furthermore, we have developed a method that can be used to assess the bioavailability of this soil organic phosphorus.

  8. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D < MCPA < 2,4-DB < triclosan. Combining comprehensive characterization of the sorbents with the sorption dataset allowed the discussion of sorption mechanisms and driving factors of sorption. Statistical analysis suggests that (i) partitioning was the main driver for sorption to sorbents with small specific surface area (< 25 m²/g), whereas (ii) specific mechanisms dominated sorption to sorbents with larger specific surface area. Results showed that factors usually not considered for the sorption of neutral contaminants play an important role for the sorption of organic acids. The pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic

  9. Chronic alcohol binging injures the liver and other organs by reducing NAD⁺ levels required for sirtuin's deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W

    2016-04-01

    NAD(+) levels are markedly reduced when blood alcohol levels are high during binge drinking. This causes liver injury to occur because the enzymes that require NAD(+) as a cofactor such as the sirtuin de-acetylases cannot de-acetylate acetylated proteins such as acetylated histones. This prevents the epigenetic changes that regulate metabolic processes and which prevent organ injury such as fatty liver in response to alcohol abuse. Hyper acetylation of numerous regulatory proteins develops. Systemic multi-organ injury occurs when NAD(+) is reduced. For instance the Circadian clock is altered if NAD(+) is not available. Cell cycle arrest occurs due to up regulation of cell cycle inhibitors leading to DNA damage, mutations, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. NAD(+) is linked to aging in the regulation of telomere stability. NAD(+) is required for mitochondrial renewal. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present in every visceral organ in the body so that there is a systemic reduction of NAD(+) levels in all of these organs during binge drinking.

  10. Difficulties in Laboratory Studies and Astronomical Observations of Organic Molecules: Hydroxyacetone and Lactic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apponi, A. J.; Brewster, M. A.; Hoy, J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 35 years, radio astronomy has revealed a rich organic chemistry in the interstellar gas, which is exceptionally complex towards active star-forming regions. New solar systems condense out of this gas and may influence the evolution of life on newly formed planets. Much of the biologically important functionality is present among the some 130 gas-phase molecules found to date, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, amines, amides and even the simplest sugar - glycolaldehyde. Still, many unidentified interstellar radio signals remain, and their identification relies on further laboratory study. The molecules hydroxyacetone and lactic acid are relatively small organic molecules, but possess rather complex rotational spectra owing to their high asymmetry. Hydroxyacetone is particularly problematic because it possess a very low barrier to internal rotation, and exhibits strong coupling of the free-rotor states with the overall rotation of the molecule. As in the case of acetamide, a full decomposition method was employed to order the resultant eigenstates onto normal asymmetric top eigenvectors.

  11. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation. PMID:26501337

  12. ALCOHOL OXIDATION - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alco...

  13. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS - COMPARING DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alc...

  14. The antifungal activity of the cuticular and internal fatty acid methyl esters and alcohols in Calliphora vomitoria.

    PubMed

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    SUMMARY The composition of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and alcohol fractions of the cuticular and internal lipids of Calliphora vomitoria larvae, pupae and male/female adults was obtained by separating these two fractions by HPLC-LLSD and analysing them quantitatively using GC-MS. Analysis of the cuticular lipids of the worldwide, medically important ectoparasite C. vomitoria revealed 6 FAMEs with odd-numbered carbon chains from C15:0 to C19:0 in the larvae, while internal lipids contained 9 FAMEs ranging from C15:1 to C19:0. Seven FAMEs from C15:0 to C19:0 were identified in the cuticular lipids of the pupae, whereas the internal lipids of the pupae contained 10 FAMEs from C13:0 to C19:0. The cuticular lipids of males and females and also the internal lipids of males contained 5, 7 and 6 FAMEs from C15:0 to C19:0 respectively. Seven FAMEs from C13:0 to C19:0 were identified in the internal lipids of females, and 7, 6, 5 and 3 alcohols were found in the cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females respectively. Only saturated alcohols with even-numbered carbon chains were present in these lipids. Only 1 alcohol (C22:0) was detected in the internal lipids of C. vomitoria larvae, while just 4 alcohols from - C18:0 to C24:0 - were identified in the internal lipids of pupae, and males and females. We also identified glycerol and cholesterol in the larvae, pupae, males and females of C. vomitoria. The individual alcohols and FAMEs, as well as their mixtures isolated from the cuticular and internal lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of C. vomitoria, demonstrated antimicrobial activity against entomopathogenic fungi.

  15. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Organic Amines and Amino Acids in Saline and Acidic Samples Using the Mars Organic Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Amanda M.; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-11-01

    The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has enabled the sensitive detection of amino acid and amine biomarkers in laboratory standards and in a variety of field sample tests. However, the MOA is challenged when samples are extremely acidic and saline or contain polyvalent cations. Here, we have optimized the MOA analysis, sample labeling, and sample dilution buffers to handle such challenging samples more robustly. Higher ionic strength buffer systems with pKa values near pH 9 were developed to provide better buffering capacity and salt tolerance. The addition of ethylaminediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ameliorates the negative effects of multivalent cations. The optimized protocol utilizes a 75 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) for Pacific Blue labeling of amines and amino acids. After labeling, 50 mM (final concentration) EDTA is added to samples containing divalent cations to ameliorate their effects. This optimized protocol was used to successfully analyze amino acids in a saturated brine sample from Saline Valley, California, and a subcritical water extract of a highly acidic sample from the Río Tinto, Spain. This work expands the analytical capabilities of the MOA and increases its sensitivity and robustness for samples from extraterrestrial environments that may exhibit pH and salt extremes as well as metal ions.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of organic amines and amino acids in saline and acidic samples using the Mars organic analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Amanda M; Chiesl, Thomas N; Lowenstein, Tim K; Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Mathies, Richard A

    2009-11-01

    The Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has enabled the sensitive detection of amino acid and amine biomarkers in laboratory standards and in a variety of field sample tests. However, the MOA is challenged when samples are extremely acidic and saline or contain polyvalent cations. Here, we have optimized the MOA analysis, sample labeling, and sample dilution buffers to handle such challenging samples more robustly. Higher ionic strength buffer systems with pK(a) values near pH 9 were developed to provide better buffering capacity and salt tolerance. The addition of ethylaminediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ameliorates the negative effects of multivalent cations. The optimized protocol utilizes a 75 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) for Pacific Blue labeling of amines and amino acids. After labeling, 50 mM (final concentration) EDTA is added to samples containing divalent cations to ameliorate their effects. This optimized protocol was used to successfully analyze amino acids in a saturated brine sample from Saline Valley, California, and a subcritical water extract of a highly acidic sample from the Río Tinto, Spain. This work expands the analytical capabilities of the MOA and increases its sensitivity and robustness for samples from extraterrestrial environments that may exhibit pH and salt extremes as well as metal ions.

  17. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  18. Acanthoic Acid Can Partially Prevent Alcohol Exposure-Induced Liver Lipid Deposition and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yao, You-Li; Han, Xin; Li, Zhi-Man; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to detect the effect of acanthoic acid (AA) on alcohol exposure-induced liver lipid deposition and inflammation, and to explore the mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with single dose of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage or equal volume of saline, and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight, 25%, w/v) by gavage within 24 h. The mice were sacrificed at 6 h after the last ethanol dosing. Serum and hepatic indexes were detected by western blot, RT-PCR, and histopathological assay. AML-12 cells were pretreated with AA (5, 10, 20 μM), or AICAR (500 μM), GW3965 (1 μM), SRT1720 (6 μM), Nicotinamide (20 mM) for 2 h, respectively, and then following treated with EtOH (200 mM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for additional 48 h. Cell protein and mRNA were collected for western blot and RT-PCR. Cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release were detected by ELISA assay. Results: It was found that AA significantly decreased acute ethanol-induced increasing of the serum ALT/AST, LDH, ALP levels, and hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. AA significantly suppressed the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), IL-1β, and caspase-1 induced by ethanol. Furthermore, a significant decline of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and liver X receptors (LXRs) levels was observed in EtOH group, compared with normal group mice. And AA pretreatment increased the Sirt1 and LXRs levels, and also ameliorated phosphorylation of liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) proteins, compared with EtOH group. However, the levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -α or -γ (PPAR-α or PPAR-γ) induced by acute ethanol were reversed by AA. In EtOH/LPS cultivated AML-12 cells, AA decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, lipid

  19. Acanthoic Acid Can Partially Prevent Alcohol Exposure-Induced Liver Lipid Deposition and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, You-Li; Han, Xin; Li, Zhi-Man; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing; Wu, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The present study aims to detect the effect of acanthoic acid (AA) on alcohol exposure-induced liver lipid deposition and inflammation, and to explore the mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with single dose of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage or equal volume of saline, and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight, 25%, w/v) by gavage within 24 h. The mice were sacrificed at 6 h after the last ethanol dosing. Serum and hepatic indexes were detected by western blot, RT-PCR, and histopathological assay. AML-12 cells were pretreated with AA (5, 10, 20 μM), or AICAR (500 μM), GW3965 (1 μM), SRT1720 (6 μM), Nicotinamide (20 mM) for 2 h, respectively, and then following treated with EtOH (200 mM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for additional 48 h. Cell protein and mRNA were collected for western blot and RT-PCR. Cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release were detected by ELISA assay. Results: It was found that AA significantly decreased acute ethanol-induced increasing of the serum ALT/AST, LDH, ALP levels, and hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver. AA significantly suppressed the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), IL-1β, and caspase-1 induced by ethanol. Furthermore, a significant decline of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and liver X receptors (LXRs) levels was observed in EtOH group, compared with normal group mice. And AA pretreatment increased the Sirt1 and LXRs levels, and also ameliorated phosphorylation of liver kinase B-1 (LKB-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) proteins, compared with EtOH group. However, the levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor -α or -γ (PPAR-α or PPAR-γ) induced by acute ethanol were reversed by AA. In EtOH/LPS cultivated AML-12 cells, AA decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, lipid

  20. Organic acids make Escherichia coli more resistant to pulsed electric fields at acid pH.

    PubMed

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2010-01-01

    Stationary growth phase cells of Escherichiacoli were more pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistant in citrate-phosphate McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. The greater PEF resistance was also confirmed in fruit juices of similar acid pH. In this work we studied whether the higher PEF resistance of E. coli at acid pH was due to the low pH itself or to the interaction of the components of the treatment medium with the cells. The protective effect on E. coli cells was due to the presence of organic acids such as citric, acetic, lactic or malic at pH 4.0. The protective effect of citric acid at pH 4.0 depended on its concentration. A linear relationship was observed between the Log(10) of the citric acid concentration and the degree of inactivation. Organic acids contained in laboratory treatment media (citrate-phosphate buffer) or in fruit juices did not sensitize E. coli cells to PEF but, on the contrary, they induced a protective effect that made E. coli cells more resistant at pH 4.0 than at neutral pH. This work could be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology and it contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF.

  1. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  2. Osteochondral defect repair using a polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid (PVA-PAAc) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Bichara, David A; Bodugoz-Sentruk, Hatice; Ling, Doris; Malchau, Erik; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels can be candidates for articular cartilage repair due to their high water content. We synthesized a PVA-poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel formulation and determined its ability to function as a treatment option for condylar osteochondral (OC) defects in a New Zealand white rabbit (NZWR) model for 12 weeks and 24 weeks. In addition to hydrogel OC implants, tensile bar-shaped hydrogels were also implanted subcutaneously to evaluate changes in mechanical properties as a function of in vivo duration. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the water content measured in the OC hydrogel implant that was harvested after 12 weeks and 24 weeks, and non-implanted controls. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the break stress, strain at break or modulus of the tensile bars either between groups. Histological analysis of the OC defect, synovial capsule and fibrous tissue around the tensile bars determined hydrogel biocompatibility. Twelve-week hydrogels were found to be in situ flush with the articular cartilage; meniscal tissue demonstrated an intact surface. Twenty-four week hydrogels protruded from the defect site due to lack of integration with subchondral tissue, causing fibrillation to the meniscal surface. Condylar micro-CT scans ruled out osteolysis and bone cysts of the subchondral bone, and no PVA-PAAc hydrogel contents were found in the synovial fluid. The PVA-PAAc hydrogel was determined to be fully biocompatible, maintained its properties over time, and performed well at the 12 week time point. Physical fixation of the PVA-PAAc hydrogel to the subchondral bone is required to ensure long-term performance of hydrogel plugs for OC defect repair.

  3. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol.

    PubMed

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M; Assary, Rajeev S; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A

    2012-09-20

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol).

  4. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  5. Modelling malic acid accumulation in fruits: relationships with organic acids, potassium, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lobit, Philippe; Genard, Michel; Soing, Patrick; Habib, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Malic acid production, degradation, and storage during fruit development have been modelled. The model assumes that malic acid content is determined essentially by the conditions of its storage in the mesocarp cells, and provides a simplified representation of the mechanisms involved in the accumulation of malate in the vacuole and their regulation by thermodynamic constraints. Solving the corresponding system of equations made it possible to predict the malic acid content of the fruit as a function of organic acids, potassium concentration, and temperature. The model was applied to peach fruit, and parameters were estimated from the data of fruit development monitored over 2 years. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulations were performed to analyse the behaviour of the model in response to variations in composition and temperature.

  6. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Levels Predict Multiple Organ Failure and Death in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863

  7. Domino rhodium/palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of alcohols to acids by hydrogen transfer to inactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Trincado, Mónica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Vizza, Francesco; Bianchini, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    The combination of the d(8) Rh(I) diolefin amide [Rh(trop(2)N)(PPh(3))] (trop(2)N=bis(5-H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)amide) and a palladium heterogeneous catalyst results in the formation of a superior catalyst system for the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols. The overall process represents a mild and direct method for the synthesis of aromatic and heteroaromatic carboxylic acids for which inactivated olefins can be used as hydrogen acceptors. Allyl alcohols are also applicable to this coupling reaction and provide the corresponding saturated aliphatic carboxylic acids. This transformation has been found to be very efficient in the presence of silica-supported palladium nanoparticles. The dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol by the rhodium amide, [Rh]N, follows the well established mechanism of metal-ligand bifunctional catalysis. The resulting amino hydride complex, [RhH]NH, transfers a H(2) molecule to the Pd nanoparticles, which, in turn, deliver hydrogen to the inactivated alkene. Thus a domino catalytic reaction is developed which promotes the reaction R-CH(2)-OH+NaOH+2 alkene-->R-COONa+2 alkane.

  8. Alleviation of alcoholic liver injury by betaine involves an enhancement of antioxidant defense via regulation of sulfur amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Suk; Kim, Sun Ju; Kwon, Do Young; Ahn, Chul Won; Kim, Young Soon; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Young Chul

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies suggested that the hepatoprotective activity of betaine is associated with its effects on sulfur amino acid metabolism. We examined the mechanism by which betaine prevents the progression of alcoholic liver injury and its therapeutic potential. Rats received a liquid ethanol diet for 6 wk. Ethanol consumption elevated serum triglyceride and TNFα levels, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and lipid accumulation in liver. The oxyradical scavenging capacity of liver was reduced, and expression of CD14, TNFα, COX-2, and iNOS mRNAs was induced markedly. These ethanol-induced changes were all inhibited effectively by betaine supplementation. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, cysteine, and glutathione levels, reduced in the ethanol-fed rats, were increased by betaine supplementation. Methionine adenosyltransferase and cystathionine γ-lyase were induced, but cysteine dioxygenase was down-regulated, which appeared to account for the increment in cysteine availability for glutathione synthesis in the rats supplemented with betaine. Betaine supplementation for the final 2 wk of ethanol intake resulted in a similar degree of hepatoprotection, revealing its potential therapeutic value in alcoholic liver. It is concluded that the protective effects of betaine against alcoholic liver injury may be attributed to the fortification of antioxidant defense via improvement of impaired sulfur amino acid metabolism.

  9. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  10. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  11. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    Many thermophilic microbes are heterotrophs, but little is known about the organic compounds present in hydrothermal ecosystems. More is known about what these organisms will metabolize in lab experiments than what they do metabolize in nature. In an effort to bridge this gap, we have begun to incorporate organic analyses into ongoing research on Yellowstone hydrothermal ecosystems. After filtering at least a liter of hot spring water to minimize contamination, samples were collected into sixty-milliliter serum vials containing ultra-pure phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, or benzalkonium chloride. Approximately 80 sites were sampled spanning temperatures from 60 to 90°C and pH values from 2 to 9. Analytical data for organic acid anions (including formate, acetate, lactate, and succinate) were obtained by ion chromatography. Preliminary results indicate that concentrations of organic acids anions range from 5 to 300 ppb. These results can be used with other field and lab data (sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, ammonia, bicarbonate, pH, hydrogen) in thermodynamic calculations to evaluate the amounts of energy available in heterotrophic reactions. Preliminary results of such calculations show that sulfate reduction to sulfide coupled to succinate oxidation to bicarbonate yields about 6 kcal per mole of electrons transferred. When formate oxidation to bicarbonate or hydrogen oxidation to water is coupled to sulfate reduction there is less energy available by approximately a factor of two. A comparison with nitrate reduction to ammonia involving succinate and/or formate oxidation reveals several similarities. Using formate to reduce nitrate can yield about as much energy as nitrate reduction with hydrogen (typically 12 to 14 kcal per mole of electrons transferred), but using succinate can yield more than twice as much energy. In fact, reduction of nitrate with succinate can provide more energy than any of the inorganic nitrate reduction reactions involving sulfur, iron

  12. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples.

  13. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  14. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  15. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  16. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  17. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  19. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  1. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  3. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  7. Organic matter in sediment layers of an acidic mining lake as assessed by lipid analysis. Part II: Neutral lipids.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, Juergen; Koschorreck, Matthias; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2017-02-01

    Natural neutralization of acidic mining lakes is often limited by organic matter. The knowledge of the sources and degradability of organic matter is crucial for understanding alkalinity generation in these lakes. Sediments collected at different depths (surface sediment layer from 0 to 1 cm and deep sediment layer from 4 to 5cm) from an acidic mining lake were studied in order to characterize sedimentary organic matter based on neutral signature markers. Samples were exhaustively extracted, subjected to pre-chromatographic derivatizations and analyzed by GC/MS. Herein, molecular distributions of diagnostic alkanes/alkenes, terpenes/terpenoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols and ketones, sterols, and hopanes/hopanoids were addressed. Characterization of the contribution of natural vs. anthropogenic sources to the sedimentary organic matter in these extreme environments was then possible based on these distributions. With the exception of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, combined concentrations across all marker classes proved higher in the surface sediment layer as compared to those in the deep sediment layer. Alkane and aliphatic alcohol distributions pointed to predominantly allochthonous over autochthonous contribution to sedimentary organic matter. Sterol patterns were dominated by phytosterols of terrestrial plants including stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Hopanoid markers with the ββ-biohopanoid "biological" configuration were more abundant in the surface sediment layer, which pointed to higher bacterial activity. The pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed to prevailing anthropogenic input. Pyrolytic makers were likely to due to atmospheric deposition from a nearby former coal combustion facility. The combined analysis of the array of biomarkers provided new insights into the sources and transformations of organic matter in lake sediments.

  8. Determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic acids in acetic acid by catalytic thermometric titration.

    PubMed

    Vajgand, V J; Gaál, F F

    1967-03-01

    A new method of determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic adds in acetic acid solution, to which about 2 % of water and 8% acetic anhydride are added, is described. After the equivalence point, the excess of perchloric acid catalyses the exothermic reaction of water with acetic anhydride. The end-point is determined from the graph of temperature against volume of added titrant. If a slightly soluble compound is produced during the titration, the precision of the new method is superior to that of the potentiometric method.

  9. Analysis of liver damage from radon, X-ray, or alcohol treatments in mice using a self-organizing map

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Norie; Kataoka, Takahiro; Etani, Reo; Sasaoka, Kaori; Kanagawa, Akihiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies, we found that low-dose radiation inhibits oxidative stress–induced diseases due to increased antioxidants. Although these effects of low-dose radiation were demonstrated, further research was needed to clarify the effects. However, the analysis of oxidative stress is challenging, especially that of low levels of oxidative stress, because antioxidative substances are intricately involved. Thus, we proposed an approach for analysing oxidative liver damage via use of a self-organizing map (SOM)—a novel and comprehensive technique for evaluating hepatic and antioxidative function. Mice were treated with radon inhalation, irradiated with X-rays, or subjected to intraperitoneal injection of alcohol. We evaluated the oxidative damage levels in the liver from the SOM results for hepatic function and antioxidative substances. The results showed that the effects of low-dose irradiation (radon inhalation at a concentration of up to 2000 Bq/m3, or X-irradiation at a dose of up to 2.0 Gy) were comparable with the effect of alcohol administration at 0.5 g/kg bodyweight. Analysis using the SOM to discriminate small changes was made possible by its ability to ‘learn’ to adapt to unexpected changes. Moreover, when using a spherical SOM, the method comprehensively examined liver damage by radon, X-ray, and alcohol. We found that the types of liver damage caused by radon, X-rays, and alcohol have different characteristics. Therefore, our approaches would be useful as a method for evaluating oxidative liver damage caused by radon, X-rays and alcohol. PMID:27614200

  10. Computational Design of Non-natural Sugar Alcohols to Increase Thermal Storage Density: Beyond Existing Organic Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-09-14

    Thermal storage, a technology that enables us to control thermal energy, makes it possible to reuse a huge amount of waste heat, and materials with the ability to treat larger thermal energy are in high demand for energy-saving societies. Sugar alcohols are now one promising candidate for phase change materials (PCMs) because of their large thermal storage density. In this study, we computationally design experimentally unknown non-natural sugar alcohols and predict their thermal storage density as a basic step toward the development of new high performance PCMs. The non-natural sugar alcohol molecules are constructed in silico in accordance with the previously suggested molecular design guidelines: linear elongation of a carbon backbone, separated distribution of OH groups, and even numbers of carbon atoms. Their crystal structures are then predicted using the random search method and first-principles calculations. Our molecular simulation results clearly demonstrate that the non-natural sugar alcohols have potential ability to have thermal storage density up to ∼450-500 kJ/kg, which is significantly larger than the maximum thermal storage density of the present known organic PCMs (∼350 kJ/kg). This computational study suggests that, even in the case of H-bonded molecular crystals where the electrostatic energy contributes mainly to thermal storage density, the molecular distortion and van der Waals energies are also important factors to increase thermal storage density. In addition, the comparison between the three eight-carbon non-natural sugar alcohol isomers indicates that the selection of preferable isomers is also essential for large thermal storage density.

  11. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki–Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a “green” alcohol solvent. The experiment employs heterocyclic substrates, which are important pharmaceutical building blocks. Thus, this laboratory procedure exposes students to a variety of contemporary topics in organic chemistry, including transition metal-catalyzed cross-couplings, green chemistry, and the importance of heterocycles in drug discovery, none of which are well represented in typical undergraduate organic chemistry curricula. The experimental protocol uses commercially available reagents and is useful in both organic and inorganic instructional laboratories. PMID:25774064

  12. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J; Garg, Neil K

    2015-03-10

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The experiment employs heterocyclic substrates, which are important pharmaceutical building blocks. Thus, this laboratory procedure exposes students to a variety of contemporary topics in organic chemistry, including transition metal-catalyzed cross-couplings, green chemistry, and the importance of heterocycles in drug discovery, none of which are well represented in typical undergraduate organic chemistry curricula. The experimental protocol uses commercially available reagents and is useful in both organic and inorganic instructional laboratories.

  13. Inhibitory effects of several saturated fatty acids and their related fatty alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Yui, Satoru; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of 5 saturated fatty acids and their related alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans. The inhibitory effects of these compounds against the yeast and hyphal growth forms of C. albicans were examined using the modified NCCLS method and crystal violet staining, respectively. Among these compounds, capric acid inhibited both types of growth at the lowest concentration. The IC(80), i.e., the concentration at which the compounds reduced the growth of C. albicans by 80% in comparison with the growth of control cells, of capric acid for the hyphal growth of this fungus, which is indispensable for its mucosal invasion, was 16.7 μM. These fatty acids, including capric acid, have an unpleasant smell, which may limit their therapeutic use. To test them at reduced concentrations, the combined effect of these fatty acids and oligonol, a depolymerized polyphenol, was evaluated in vitro. These combinations showed potent synergistic inhibition of hyphal growth [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index = 0.319]. Our results demonstrated that capric acid combined with oligonol could be used as an effective anti-Candida compound. It may be a candidate prophylactic or therapeutic tool against mucosal Candida infection.

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of Methyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, S

    2001-01-01

    Methyl Alcohol is an aliphatic alcohol with use in a few cosmetic formulations as a solvent and denaturant. Concentrations up to 5% are typically used to denature ethyl alcohol in cosmetic products. Methyl Alcohol is readily absorbed through the skin and from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is distributed throughout all organs and tissues (in direct relation to the body's water distribution), and is eliminated primarily via the lungs. Undiluted Methyl Alcohol is an ocular and skin irritant. Inhalation studies showed a no-effect level for maternal damage of 10,000 ppm and for teratogenic effects of 5,000 ppm. Overall, Methyl Alcohol is not considered mutagenic. Carcinogenicity data were unavailable. The toxicity of Methyl Alcohol in humans results from the metabolism of the alcohol to formate and formic acid through a formaldehyde intermediate. Formate accumulation causes metabolic acidosis and inhibits cellular respiration. Methyl Alcohol toxicity is time and concentration dependent, and its toxic effect is competitively inhibited with ethyl alcohol. Because of the moderating effect of ethyl alcohol, it was concluded that Methyl Alcohol is safe as used to denature ethyl alcohol used in cosmetic products. No conclusion was reached regarding any other use of Methyl Alcohol.

  15. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Aedes albopictus to certain acids and alcohols present in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Agrawal, O P; Parashar, B D

    2014-10-01

    Human skin emanations attract hungry female mosquitoes toward their host for blood feeding. In this study, we report the flight orientation and electroantennogram response of Aedes albopictus females to certain unsaturated acids and alcohols found in human skin. In the Y-tube olfactometer, odors of lactic acid and 2-methyl-3-pentanol attracted 54-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. However, at the highest dose (10(-2) g), the acids repelled 40-45% females. Attractancy (ca. 62-68%) at lower doses and repellency (ca. 30-45%) at higher doses were recorded for 3-methyl-3-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol, while 5-hexen-1-ol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol, and trans 2-hexen-1-ol odor repelled ca. 55-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses. Antenna of female Ae. albopictus exhibited a dose-dependent EAG response up to 10(-3) g of L-lactic acid, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexen-1-ol and 1-octen-3-ol stimulations; however, the highest dose (10(-2) g) caused a little decline in the EAG response. EAG response of 9-10-fold was elicited by lactic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, and 3-methyl-3-pentanol, while cis-2-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-methyl pentenoic acid elicited 1-5-fold responses compared to solvent control. A blend of attractive compounds could be utilized in odor-baited trap for surveillance and repellent molecules with suitable formulation could be used to reduce the biting menace of mosquitoes.

  16. Characterization of an Allylic/Benzyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Yokenella sp. Strain WZY002, an Organism Potentially Useful for the Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated Alcohols from Allylic Aldehydes and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiangxian; Wang, Yifang; Xiong, Bin; Wu, Tingting; Xie, Liping; Yu, Meilan

    2014-01-01

    A novel whole-cell biocatalyst with high allylic alcohol-oxidizing activities was screened and identified as Yokenella sp. WZY002, which chemoselectively reduced the C=O bond of allylic aldehydes/ketones to the corresponding α,β-unsaturated alcohols at 30°C and pH 8.0. The strain also had the capacity of stereoselectively reducing aromatic ketones to (S)-enantioselective alcohols. The enzyme responsible for the predominant allylic/benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity was purified to homogeneity and designated YsADH (alcohol dehydrogenase from Yokenella sp.), which had a calculated subunit molecular mass of 36,411 Da. The gene encoding YsADH was subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant YsADH protein was characterized. The enzyme strictly required NADP(H) as a coenzyme and was putatively zinc dependent. The optimal pH and temperature for crotonaldehyde reduction were pH 6.5 and 65°C, whereas those for crotyl alcohol oxidation were pH 8.0 and 55°C. The enzyme showed moderate thermostability, with a half-life of 6.2 h at 55°C. It was robust in the presence of organic solvents and retained 87.5% of the initial activity after 24 h of incubation with 20% (vol/vol) dimethyl sulfoxide. The enzyme preferentially catalyzed allylic/benzyl aldehydes as the substrate in the reduction of aldehydes/ketones and yielded the highest activity of 427 U mg−1 for benzaldehyde reduction, while the alcohol oxidation reaction demonstrated the maximum activity of 79.9 U mg−1 using crotyl alcohol as the substrate. Moreover, kinetic parameters of the enzyme showed lower Km values and higher catalytic efficiency for crotonaldehyde/benzaldehyde and NADPH than for crotyl alcohol/benzyl alcohol and NADP+, suggesting the nature of being an aldehyde reductase. PMID:24509923

  17. Gamma Peptide Nucleic Acids: As Orthogonal Nucleic Acid Recognition Codes for Organizing Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sacui, Iulia; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Manna, Arunava; Sahu, Bichismita; Ly, Danith H

    2015-07-08

    Nucleic acids are an attractive platform for organizing molecular self-assembly because of their specific nucleobase interactions and defined length scale. Routinely employed in the organization and assembly of materials in vitro, however, they have rarely been exploited in vivo, due to the concerns for enzymatic degradation and cross-hybridization with the host's genetic materials. Herein we report the development of a tight-binding, orthogonal, synthetically versatile, and informationally interfaced nucleic acid platform for programming molecular interactions, with implications for in vivo molecular assembly and computing. The system consists of three molecular entities: the right-handed and left-handed conformers and a nonhelical domain. The first two are orthogonal to each other in recognition, while the third is capable of binding to both, providing a means for interfacing the two conformers as well as the natural nucleic acid biopolymers (i.e., DNA and RNA). The three molecular entities are prepared from the same monomeric chemical scaffold, with the exception of the stereochemistry or lack thereof at the γ-backbone that determines if the corresponding oligo adopts a right-handed or left-handed helix, or a nonhelical motif. These conformers hybridize to each other with exquisite affinity, sequence selectivity, and level of orthogonality. Recognition modules as short as five nucleotides in length are capable of organizing molecular assembly.

  18. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  19. Brönsted Acid-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Indoles from o-Aminobenzyl Alcohols and Furans

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Makarov, Anton; Rubtsov, Alexandr E.; Butin, Alexander V.; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Brönsted acid-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of indoles from o-aminobenzyl alcohols and furans has been developed. This method operates via the in situ formation of aminobenzylfuran, followed by its recyclization into the indole core. The method proved to be efficient for substrates possessing different functional groups, including -OMe, -CO2Cy, and -Br. The resulting indoles can easily be transformed into diverse scaffolds, including 2,3- and 1,2-fused indoles, and indole possessing an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety at the C-2 position. PMID:24255969

  20. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  1. Additional Nucleophile-Free FeCl3-Catalyzed Green Deprotection of 2,4-Dimethoxyphenylmethyl-Protected Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Masuda, Masahiro; Honda, Akie; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Park, Kwihwan; Yasukawa, Naoki; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-01-01

    The deprotection of the methoxyphenylmethyl (MPM) ether and ester derivatives can be generally achieved by the combinatorial use of a catalytic Lewis acid and stoichiometric nucleophile. The deprotections of 2,4-dimethoxyphenylmethyl (DMPM)-protected alcohols and carboxylic acids were found to be effectively catalyzed by iron(III) chloride without any additional nucleophile to form the deprotected mother alcohols and carboxylic acids in excellent yields. Since the present deprotection proceeds via the self-assembling mechanism of the 2,4-DMPM protective group itself to give the hardly-soluble resorcinarene derivative as a precipitate, the rigorous purification process by silica-gel column chromatography was unnecessary and the sufficiently-pure alcohols and carboxylic acids were easily obtained in satisfactory yields after simple filtration.

  2. Improved conversion efficiencies for n-fatty acid reduction to primary alcohols by the solventogenic acetogen "Clostridium ragsdalei".

    PubMed

    Isom, Catherine E; Nanny, Mark A; Tanner, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    "Clostridium ragsdalei" is an acetogen that ferments synthesis gas (syngas, predominantly H2:CO2:CO) to ethanol, acetate, and cell mass. Previous research showed that C. ragsdalei could also convert propionic acid to 1-propanol and butyric acid to 1-butanol at conversion efficiencies of 72.3 and 21.0 percent, respectively. Our research showed that C. ragsdalei can also reduce pentanoic and hexanoic acid to the corresponding primary alcohols. This reduction occurred independently of growth in an optimized medium with headspace gas exchange (vented and gassed with CO) every 48 h. Under these conditions, conversion efficiencies increased to 97 and 100 % for propionic and butyric acid, respectively. The conversion efficiencies for pentanoic and hexanoic acid to 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol, respectively, were 82 and 62 %. C. ragsdalei also reduced acetone to 2-propanol at a conversion efficiency of 100 %. Further, we showed that C. ragsdalei uses an aldehyde oxidoreductase-like enzyme to reduce n-fatty acids to the aldehyde intermediates in a reaction that requires ferredoxin and exogenous CO.

  3. Sonolysis of Short-Chain Organic Dicarboxylic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, Yukio; Harada, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Sonolyses of C4 (carbon number 4) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, maleic acid, and fumaric acid) were performed in aqueous solution. They changed one into the other during sonication, affording carbon-number-conserving transformations. Maleic acid and fumaric acid were produced from saccinic acid by dehydrogenation. Furthermore, malic acid and tartaric acid were obtained by hydroxylation. The sonochemical reaction processes are discussed in terms of the time dependences of products and the addition of radical scavengers. In addition, mutual isomerization of fumaric acid and maleic acid was observed during sonication without the use of mediators.

  4. Sequencing around 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol-Derived Units in Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase-Deficient Poplar Lignins1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fachuang; Marita, Jane M.; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a bifunctional enzyme that methylates the 5- and 3-hydroxyl positions on the aromatic ring of monolignol precursors, with a preference for 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, on the way to producing sinapyl alcohol. Lignins in COMT-deficient plants contain benzodioxane substructures due to the incorporation of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol (5-OH-CA), as a monomer, into the lignin polymer. The derivatization followed by reductive cleavage method can be used to detect and determine benzodioxane structures because of their total survival under this degradation method. Moreover, partial sequencing information for 5-OH-CA incorporation into lignin can be derived from detection or isolation and structural analysis of the resulting benzodioxane products. Results from a modified derivatization followed by reductive cleavage analysis of COMT-deficient lignins provide evidence that 5-OH-CA cross couples (at its β-position) with syringyl and guaiacyl units (at their O-4-positions) in the growing lignin polymer and then either coniferyl or sinapyl alcohol, or another 5-hydroxyconiferyl monomer, adds to the resulting 5-hydroxyguaiacyl terminus, producing the benzodioxane. This new terminus may also become etherified by coupling with further monolignols, incorporating the 5-OH-CA integrally into the lignin structure. PMID:20427467

  5. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Alcohol Acetylation: An Organic Experiment Using Organocatalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John P.; Shrimp, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students in the teaching laboratory have successfully used N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as organocatalysts for the acetylation of primary alcohols, despite the high water sensitivity of uncomplexed ("free") NHCs. The free NHC readily reacted with chloroform, resulting in an air- and moisture-stable adduct that liberates…

  6. The effect of SO2 on the production of ethanol, acetaldehyde, organic acids, and flavor volatiles during industrial cider fermentation.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-05-21

    SO(2) is widely used in cider fermentation but also in other alcoholic beverages such as wine. Although the authorized limit is 200 ppm total SO(2), the International Organizations recommend its total elimination or at least reduction due to health concerns. Addition of SO(2) to apple juice at levels frequently used in industrial cidermaking (100 mg/L) induced significantly higher acetaldehyde production by yeast than that obtained without SO(2). Although the practical implications of acetaldehyde evolution under cidermaking conditions has been overcome by research and few data are available, this compound reached levels in two 2000 L bioreactors that may have prevented the occurrence of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. It was observed that malolactic fermentation had a positive effect promoting reduction of acetaldehyde levels in cider fermented with juice, SO(2)-treated or not. The addition of SO(2) clearly delayed malolactic fermentation comparing to the control, affecting not the onset of the malolactic fermentation but the rate of malic acid degradation. This compound, however, had a stimulatory effect on alcoholic fermentation.

  7. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  8. Biomass acid-catalyzed liquefaction – Catalysts performance and polyhydric alcohol influence

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Maria Margarida; Carvalho, Ricardo; Bordado, João Carlos; Santos, Rui Galhano dos

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary experiments conducted with different catalyst, as well as with two polyhydric alcohols (glycerol and 2-ethylhexanol), for the preparation biooils from cork liquefaction at 160 °C, is disclosed. This data may be helpful for those who intent to outline a liquefaction procedure avoiding, thus, high number of experiments. PMID:26693504

  9. Biomass acid-catalyzed liquefaction - Catalysts performance and polyhydric alcohol influence.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Maria Margarida; Carvalho, Ricardo; Bordado, João Carlos; Santos, Rui Galhano Dos

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary experiments conducted with different catalyst, as well as with two polyhydric alcohols (glycerol and 2-ethylhexanol), for the preparation biooils from cork liquefaction at 160 °C, is disclosed. This data may be helpful for those who intent to outline a liquefaction procedure avoiding, thus, high number of experiments.

  10. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-05

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  11. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Alexis J.; Haimovich, Adrian D.; Katz, Spencer R.; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W.; Gassaway, Brandon M.; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R.; Gallagher, Ryan R.; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels, and chemicals1. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems2,3, which include bioremediation4 and probiotics5. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation6, inducible toxin switches7, and engineered auxotrophies8, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations9,10. Here, we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs)11 whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) pair into the chromosome of a GRO that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE)12, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harboring 3 TAG codons in conserved functional residues13 of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼1011 cells on solid media for seven days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches2,3,6-10. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternate genetic

  12. Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Choi, Tae Bong; Park, Hae-Kyong; Kim, Myunghee; Lee, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Organic acids are formed in food as a result of metabolism of large molecular mass compounds. These organic acids play an important role in the taste and aroma of fermented food products. Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste product that provides a major source of protein. The quantitative data for volatile and non-volatile organic acid contents of 18 samples of Doenjang were determined by comparing the abundances of each peak by gas (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean values of volatile organic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid), determined in 18 Doenjang samples, were found to be 91.73, 29.54, 70.07 and 19.80 mg%, respectively, whereas the mean values of non-volatile organic acids, such as oxalic acid, citric acid, lactic acid and succinic acid, were noted to be 14.69, 5.56, 9.95 and 0.21 mg%, respectively. Malonic and glutaric acids were absent in all the tested samples of Doenjang. The findings of this study suggest that determination of organic acid contents by GC and HPLC can be considered as an affective approach to evaluate the quality characteristics of fermented food products.

  13. Group III alcohol dehydrogenase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum: insights into enzymatic activity and organization of the metal ion-containing region.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Fodor, Krisztian; von der Heyde, Amélie; Klippel, Barbara; Wilmanns, Matthias; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-05-01

    NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely distributed in all phyla. These proteins can be assigned to three nonhomologous groups of isozymes, with group III being highly diverse with regards to catalytic activity and primary structure. Members of group III ADHs share a conserved stretch of amino acid residues important for cofactor binding and metal ion coordination, while sequence identities for complete proteins are highly diverse (<20 to >90 %). A putative group III ADH PaYqhD has been identified in BLAST analysis from the plant pathogenic enterobacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The PaYqhD gene was expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified in a two-step purification procedure to homogeneity indicating an obligate dimerization of monomers. Four conserved amino acid residues involved in metal ion coordination were substituted with alanine, and their importance for catalytic activity was confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum determination, in vitro, and growth experiments. PaYqhD exhibits optimal activity at 40 °C with short carbon chain aldehyde compounds and NADPH as cofactor indicating the enzyme to be an aldehyde reductase. No oxidative activities towards alcoholic compounds were detectable. EDTA completely inhibited catalytic activity and was fully restored by the addition of Co(2+). Activity measurements together with sequence alignments and structure analysis confirmed that PaYqhD belongs to the butanol dehydrogenase-like enzymes within group III of ADHs.

  14. Polyamino acid functionalized membranes for metal capture and nanofiltration of organics: Modeling and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestekin, Jamie Allen

    2000-10-01

    addition to functionalized membranes, negatively-charged nanofiltration membranes were studied to establish the role of non-aqueous solvents (alcohols) on flux and rejection behavior of ionized organic molecules.

  15. Polyene Formation Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid and Aluminum Chloride in Thin Films of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Maly, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of linear polyenes -(CH=CH) n - during thermal dehydration of thin layers (9-20 μm) of poly(vinyl alcohol) containing phosphotungstic-acid and aluminum-chloride catalysts was investigated. It was found that the concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid increased smoothly with increasing annealing time although the kinetics of the dehydration were independent of the film thickness. The polyene ( n ≥ 8) formation rate in films containing aluminum chloride dropped quickly with decreasing film thickness and increasing annealing time. As a result, long-chain polyenes practically did not form regardless of the annealing time for a film thickness of 11 μm.

  16. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  17. Incidence of craving for and abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in different populations of treated alcoholics: an open comparative study.

    PubMed

    Caputo, F; Francini, S; Stoppo, M; Lorenzini, F; Vignoli, T; Del Re, A; Comaschi, C; Leggio, L; Addolorato, G; Zoli, G; Bernardi, M

    2009-11-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug currently used for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of craving for and abuse of GHB in 47 patients enrolled and divided into four groups: group A (pure alcoholics), group B (alcoholics with a sustained full remission from cocaine dependence), group C (alcoholics with a sustained full remission from heroin dependence) and group D (alcoholics in a methadone maintenance treatment [MMT] programme). All patients were treated with an oral dose of GHB (50 mg/kg of body weight t.i.d.) for three months. Craving for GHB was statistically significant higher in group B than in group A (P < 0.001), C (P = 0.01) and D (P < 0.001), and in group C than in group D (P < 0.05). Abuse of GHB proved to be statistically significant higher in group B than in group A (P < 0.001) and D (P < 0.01), and in group C than in group A (P = 0.01) and D (P < 0.05). Thus, the administration of GHB in alcoholics with a sustained full remission from heroin or cocaine dependence is not recommended; however, this should not discourage physicians from using GHB for the treatment of pure alcoholics or alcohol dependents following a MMT.

  18. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  19. Dietary exposure of secondary school students in Hong Kong to benzoic acid in prepackaged non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ka Ming; Chan, Cheok Man; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the dietary exposure of secondary school students in Hong Kong to benzoic acid from pre-packaged non-alcoholic beverages. Exposure was estimated using local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000 and the benzoic acid level detected in pre-packaged beverages, including soft drink (both diet/light and regular types), fruit juice, soy milk, Chinese tea and coffee/tea) available locally in late 2006. The estimated dietary exposure to benzoic acid from pre-packaged beverages of average and high consumers (95(th) percentile) was 0.31 and 0.97 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These exposures accounted for 6.1 and 19.3% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI: 0-5 mg kg(-1) bw) of benzoic acid for average and high consumers, respectively. As in other countries, soft drinks contributed most to dietary exposure to benzoic acid from pre-packaged beverages in Hong Kong.

  20. Sensitive determination of nucleic acids using organic nanoparticle fluorescence probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yunyou; Bian, Guirong; Wang, Leyu; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun; Kan, Jian

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of organic nanoparticles by reprecipitation method under sonication and vigorous stirring. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the size and size distribution of the luminescent nanoparticles. Their average diameter was about 25 nm with a size variation of ±18%. The fluorescence decay lifetime of the nanoparticles also was determined on a self-equipped fluorospectrometer with laser light source. The lifetime (˜0.09 μs) of nanoparticles is about three times long as that of the monomer. The nanoparticles were in abundant of hydrophilic groups, which increased their miscibility in aqueous solution. These organic nanoparticles have high photochemical stability, excellent resistance to chemical degradation and photodegradation, and a good fluorescence quantum yield (25%). The fluorescence can be efficiently quenched by nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence quenching of nanoparticles, a fluorescence quenching method was developed for determination of microamounts of nucleic acids by using the nanoparticles as a new fluorescent probe. Under optimal conditions, maximum fluorescence quenching is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 345 and 402 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range 0.4-19.0 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and 0.3-19.0 μg ml -1 for fish sperm DNA (fs-DNA). The corresponding detection limits are 0.25 μg ml -1 for ct-DNA and 0.17 μg ml -1 for fs-DNA. The relative standard deviation of six replicate measurements is 1.3-2.1%. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive with wide linear range. The recovery and relative standard deviation are very satisfactory.

  1. Combined impact of pH and organic acids on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Salovaara, Susan; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Andlid, Thomas

    2003-12-17

    Previous studies have shown that organic acids have an impact on both Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake in Caco-2 cell. However, to what extent this effect is correlated with the anion of organic acids per se, or with the resulting decrease in pH, has not yet been clarified. Therefore, we studied the effect of five organic acids (tartaric, succinic, citric, oxalic, and propionic acid) on the absorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Caco-2 cells and compared this with sample solutions without organic acids but set to equivalent pH by HCl. The results showed that the mechanisms behind the enhancing effect of organic acids differed for the two forms of iron. For ferric iron the organic acids promoted uptake both by chelation and by lowering the pH, whereas for ferrous iron the promoting effect was caused only by the lowered pH.

  2. Microencapsulation of lobster carotenoids within poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(D,L-lactic acid) membranes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z M; Poncelet, D; Conway, J; Neufeld, R J

    1995-01-01

    The use of natural pigments such as lobster carotenoids in fish feed formulations offers advantages over the use of the synthetic alternatives. Microencapsulation of the pigments, with or without the addition of antioxidants to the formulation, may be of benefit in terms of stabilizing pigment colour. In the present study, lobster carotenoids were extracted from lobster shell into petroleum ether and microencapsulated by phase separation and salt coacervation within (poly vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(D,L-lactic acid) membranes. Spherical microcapsules, with smooth, thin and resilient membranes were obtained with mean diameters ranging from 50 to 150 microns, depending on the membrane material, and source of pigment. The microcapsules were pink-orange in colour, and colour stability was followed spectrophotometrically. Enhanced stability was observed in both membrane materials, in comparison to the non-encapsulated control. Rates of discoloration were determined under a variety of storage conditions, including the absence of light, reduced temperatures and under nitrogen atmosphere. The best stability of lobster carotenoids was observed under a nitrogen atmosphere within PVA/PLA membranes, representing an 11-fold enhancement of pigment stability in comparison to the controls. Under ambient conditions, the enhancement in pigment stability was approximately 6-fold. The optimum concentration of PVA during microencapsulation was 3-4%, and the microencapsulated pigments appeared most stable under acidic conditions. The rate of discoloration appeared independent of pigment concentration.

  3. Human liver class I alcohol dehydrogenase gammagamma isozyme: the sole cytosolic 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of iso bile acids.

    PubMed

    Marschall, H U; Oppermann, U C; Svensson, S; Nordling, E; Persson, B; Höög, J O; Jörnvall, H

    2000-04-01

    3beta-Hydroxy (iso) bile acids are formed during enterohepatic circulation from 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids and constitute normal compounds in plasma but are virtually absent in bile. Isoursodeoxycholic acid (isoUDCA) is a major metabolite of UDCA. In a recent study it was found that after administration of isoUDCA, UDCA became the major acid in bile. Thus, epimerization of the 3beta-hydroxy to a 3alpha-hydroxy group, catalyzed by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) and 3-oxo-reductases must occur. The present study aims to characterize the human liver bile acid 3beta-HSD. Human liver cytosol and recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) betabeta and gammagamma isozymes were subjected to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. Activity staining with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) as cofactors and various iso bile acids as substrates was used to screen for 3beta-HSD activity. Reaction products were identified and quantified by gas chromotography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Computer-assisted substrate docking of isoUDCA to the active site of a 3-dimensional model of human class I gammagamma ADH was performed. ADH gammagamma isozyme was identified as the iso bile acid 3beta-HSD present in human liver cytosol, with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Values for k(cat)/K(m) were in the rank order isodeoxycholic acid (isoDCA), isochenodeoxycholic acid (isoCDCA), isoUDCA, and isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) (0.10, 0.09, 0.08, and 0. 05 min(-1) x micromol/L(-1), respectively). IsoUDCA fits as substrate to the 3-dimensional model of the active-site of ADH gammagamma. ADH gammagamma isozyme was defined as the only bile acid 3beta-HSD in human liver cytosol. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are candidates for the binding and transport of 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids. We assume that ADH gammagamma isozyme is involved in cytosolic bile acid binding and transport processes as well.

  4. Use of Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy to Characterize Organic Acids and Aerosols Emitted in Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bililign, Solomon; Fiddler, Marc; Singh, Sujeeta

    2012-02-01

    One poorly understood, but significant class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in biomass burning is gas-phase organic acids and inorganic acids. These acids are extremely difficult to measure because of their adsorptive nature. Particulates and aerosols are also produced during biomass burning and impact the radiation budget of the Earth and, hence, impact global climate. Use cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRD) to measure absorption cross sections for OH overtone induced photochemistry in some organic acids (acetic acid and peracetic acid) will be presented and planed measurements of optical properties of aerosols composed of mixtures of different absorbing and non-absorbing species using CRD will be discussed.

  5. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  7. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  8. Formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols and olefins in zeolite H-ZSM-5 under mild conditions via trapping of alkyl carbenium ions with carbon monoxide: An in situ {sup 13}C solid state NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, A.G.; Luzgin, M.V.; Romannikov, V.N.; Sidelnikov, V.N.; Zamaraev K.I.

    1996-12-01

    Using in situ {sup 13}C solid state MAS NMR (for some reagents in combination with ex situ GC-MS), it is shown that butyl alcohols and olefins (ethene, isobutene, octene-1) undergo carbonylation to form carboxylic acids (the Koch reaction) with high conversion on zeolite H-ZSM-5 at 296-373 K. The reactions proceed without application of pressurized conditions, just upon coadsorption of CO and alcohols or CO, H{sub 2}O, and olefins on zeolite. The observed Koch reaction under mild conditions provides strong evidence for the formation of alkyl carbenium ions from alcohols and olefins on the zeolites as crucial reaction intermediates. Of the family of carbenium ions, CO reacts selectively with tertiary cations to produce tertiary carboxylic acids, unless the carbonylated molecule is too large for more bulky tertiary moieties to be accommodated and carbonylated in the narrow pores of H-ZSM05. Thus, t-BuOH, i-BuOH, and isobutene produce trimethylacetic acid with high selectivity and conversion, while ethene transforms selectively into 2-methyl-2-ethyl butyric acid. Reaction of octene-1 molecules with CO and H{sub 2}O results in acids of the C{sub 8}H{sub 17}COOH and C{sub 16}H{sub 33}COOH families with predominantly linear hydrocarbon chains. The data obtained may open up new possibilities in using solid acids in organic synthesis as carbonylation catalysts under mild conditions i.e., low temperature and normal atmospheric pressure. 55 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  10. [Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on inorganic phosphorus transformation in red soil and its acidity].

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongqing; Liao, Lixia; Wang, Xinglin

    2002-07-01

    Red soil samples collected from southern Hubei province and northern Jiangxi province were tested to analyze their inorganic phosphorus fractions, pH and active aluminum after incubated with added various organic acids. The results indicated that application of organic acids increased the content of Ca2-P in both red soils, in the order of citric acid > malic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid, did not affect the contents of Ca8-P and Ca10-P, but usually reduced Fe-P, Al-P and O-P. The pH values of the soils treated by organic acids, except for acetic acid, were reduced by 0.65-1.96, compared with the control. Soil active Al extracted with 0.02 mol.L-1 CaCl2 in treatments with citric, malic and succinic acid was 5.7-51.3 times as the control, and Al extracted with 1 mol.L-1 KCl also increased 4.0-67.3 times. However, acetic acid had little influence on active soil Al. It was concluded that in red soils, organic acid could improve phosphorus availability, but enhance the soil toxicity caused by active Al.

  11. Solvent-free, visible-light photocatalytic alcohol oxidations applying an organic photocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Obst, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A method for the solvent-free photocatalytic conversion of solid and liquid substrates was developed, using a novel rod mill apparatus. In this setup, thin liquid films are realized which is crucial for an effective photocatalytic conversion due to the low penetration depth of light in heterogeneous systems. Several benzylic alcohols were oxidized with riboflavin tetraacetate as photocatalyst under blue light irradiation of the reaction mixture. The corresponding carbonyl compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields. PMID:28144303

  12. Solvent-free, visible-light photocatalytic alcohol oxidations applying an organic photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; König, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    A method for the solvent-free photocatalytic conversion of solid and liquid substrates was developed, using a novel rod mill apparatus. In this setup, thin liquid films are realized which is crucial for an effective photocatalytic conversion due to the low penetration depth of light in heterogeneous systems. Several benzylic alcohols were oxidized with riboflavin tetraacetate as photocatalyst under blue light irradiation of the reaction mixture. The corresponding carbonyl compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields.

  13. Influence of Volatile Anesthesia on the Release of Glutamate and other Amino Acids in the Nucleus Accumbens in a Rat Model of Alcohol Withdrawal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Seidemann, Thomas; Spies, Claudia; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Netzhammer, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition, which can occur when patients with alcohol use disorders undergo general anesthesia. Excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, act as neurotransmitters and are known to play a key role in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. To understand this process better, we investigated the influence of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane anesthesia on the profile of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of alcohol-withdrawn rats (AWR). Methods Eighty Wistar rats were randomized into two groups of 40, pair-fed with alcoholic or non-alcoholic nutrition. Nutrition was withdrawn and microdialysis was performed to measure the activity of amino acids in the NAcc. The onset time of the withdrawal syndrome was first determined in an experiment with 20 rats. Sixty rats then received isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane anesthesia for three hours during the withdrawal period, followed by one hour of elimination. Amino acid concentrations were measured using chromatography and results were compared to baseline levels measured prior to induction of anesthesia. Results Glutamate release increased in the alcohol group at five hours after the last alcohol intake (p = 0.002). After 140 min, desflurane anesthesia led to a lower release of glutamate (p < 0.001) and aspartate (p = 0.0007) in AWR compared to controls. GABA release under and after desflurane anesthesia was also significantly lower in AWR than controls (p = 0.023). Over the course of isoflurane anesthesia, arginine release decreased in AWR compared to controls (p < 0.001), and aspartate release increased after induction relative to controls (p20min = 0.015 and p40min = 0.006). However, amino acid levels did not differ between the groups as a result of sevoflurane anesthesia. Conclusions Each of three volatile anesthetics we studied showed different effects on excitatory and inhibitory amino acid concentrations. Under

  14. Investigation of the possible protective role of gallic acid on paraoxanase and arylesterase activities in livers of rats with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Oğlakçi, Ayşegül; Şentürk, Hakan; Bayramoğlu, Gökhan; Canbek, Mediha; Kanbak, Güngör

    2013-04-01

    Gallic acid, a polyphenyl class natural product from gallnut and green tea, is known to be antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenger. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of gallic acid on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in liver exposed to acute alcohol intoxication. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in liver tissue and serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were measured. Histological investigations were also made. In our study, we observed a significant increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, which are indicators of liver damage after acute ethanol consumption. Gallic acid therapy has significantly reduced the increase in these biomarkers, indicating a possible hepatoprotective effect of gallic acid. Ethanol consumption caused a significant decrease in liver paraoxonase activity (P < 0.001). Gallic acid treatment partly restored this decreased paraoxonase activity, which resulted from ethanol administration. A gallic acid dose of 100 mg/kg was observed as highest restoring effect for paraoxonase activity (P < 0.05). The activity of arylesterase was decreased in the ethanol group as compared with the control group, but this was not significant. However, 50 mg/kg of gallic acid treatment restored the loss of this activity due to ethanol exposure (P < 0.001). We observed that gallic acid ameliorates the liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption in a dose-dependent way. Our results in this study showed that gallic acid might have a protective effect against alcoholic liver disease.

  15. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  16. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants. PMID:25401063

  17. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  18. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium.

  19. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Feng, Kun; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The α-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:27220557

  20. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W. )

    1989-03-15

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations.

  1. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  4. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  8. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Xue, Ruyi; Ji, Lingling; Shen, Xizhong; Chen, She; Gu, Jianxin; Zhang, Si

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: • FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. • FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. • FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup −/−}) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup −/−} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup −/−}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.

  9. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Alcohols and Amino Acids for Development of Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramesh N.

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates and drugs has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes derived there from for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enatioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral alcohols and unntural aminoacids for pharmaceuticals. PMID:24970190

  10. Evaluation of organic acids as fuel cell electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Nguyen, T.H.; Foley, R.T.

    1981-11-01

    The electrochemical behavior of methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, and sulfoacetic acid as fuel cell electrolytes was studied in half-cell at various temperatures. The rate of the electro-oxidation of hydrogen at 115/degree/C was very high in methanesulfonic acid. The rate of the electro-oxidation of propane in all three acids was low even at 135/degree/C. Further, there is evidence for adsorption of these acids on the platinum electrode. It is concluded that anhydrous sulfonic acids are not good electrolytes; water solutions are required. Sulfonic acids containing unprotected carbon-hydrogen bonds are adsorbed on platinum and probably decompose during electrolysis. 9 refs.

  11. Pyruvate Decarboxylase Catalyzes Decarboxylation of Branched-Chain 2-Oxo Acids but Is Not Essential for Fusel Alcohol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    ter Schure, Eelko G.; Flikweert, Marcel T.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.; Verrips, C. Theo

    1998-01-01

    The fusel alcohols 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-propanol are important flavor compounds in yeast-derived food products and beverages. The formation of these compounds from branched-chain amino acids is generally assumed to occur via the Ehrlich pathway, which involves the concerted action of a branched-chain transaminase, a decarboxylase, and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Partially purified preparations of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) have been reported to catalyze the decarboxylation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids formed upon transamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Indeed, in a coupled enzymatic assay with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, cell extracts of a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain exhibited significant decarboxylation rates with these branched-chain 2-oxo acids. Decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids was not detectable in cell extracts of an isogenic strain in which all three PDC genes had been disrupted. Experiments with cell extracts from S. cerevisiae mutants expressing a single PDC gene demonstrated that both PDC1- and PDC5-encoded isoenzymes can decarboxylate branched-chain 2-oxo acids. To investigate whether pyruvate decarboxylase is essential for fusel alcohol production by whole cells, wild-type S. cerevisiae and an isogenic pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain were grown on ethanol with a mixture of leucine, isoleucine, and valine as the nitrogen source. Surprisingly, the three corresponding fusel alcohols were produced in both strains. This result proves that decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids via pyruvate decarboxylase is not an essential step in fusel alcohol production. PMID:9546164

  12. Early liver transplantation for patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis: public views and the effects on organ donation.

    PubMed

    Stroh, G; Rosell, T; Dong, F; Forster, J

    2015-06-01

    Patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis may not survive to fulfill the standard 6 months of abstinence and counseling prior to transplantation. A prospective study demonstrated that early liver transplantation in such patients improved 2 year survival from 23% to 71% and only 3 of 26 patients returned to drinking after 1140 days; graft function was unaffected. Nonetheless, this treatment protocol may raise public concerns and affect organ donation rates. A total of 503 participants took a survey made available at an online crowdsourcing marketplace. The survey measured attitudes on liver transplantation generally and early transplantation for this patient population, in addition to measuring responses to nine vignettes describing fictional candidates. The majority of respondents (81.5%, n = 410) was at least neutral toward early transplantation for these patients; only a minority (26.3%) indicated that transplantation in any vignette would make them hesitant to donate their organs. Middle-aged patients with good social support and financial stability were viewed most favorably (p < 0.001). Age was considered the most important selection factor and financial stability the least important factor (each p < 0.001). Results indicate early transplantation for carefully selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis may not be as controversial to the public as previously thought.

  13. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  14. Effect of alcohol compounds found in hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zaldivar, J; Martinez, A; Ingram, L O

    2000-06-05

    Lignocellulose can be readily hydrolyzed into a mixture of sugars using dilute mineral acids. During hydrolysis, a variety of inhibitors are also produced which include aromatic alcohols from lignin and furfuryl alcohol from pentose destruction. Seven compounds were investigated individually and in binary combinations (catechol, coniferyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, guaiacol, hydroquinone, methylcatechol, and vanillyl alcohol). Aromatic alcohols and furfuryl alcohol inhibited ethanol production from xylose in batch fermentations primarily by inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli LY01, the biocatalyst. The toxicities of these compounds were directly related to their hydrophobicity. Methylcatechol was the most toxic compound tested (MIC = 1.5 g/L). In binary combination, the extent of growth inhibition was roughly additive for most compounds tested. However, combinations with furfuryl alcohol and furfural (furaldehyde) appear synergistic in toxicity. When compared individually, alcohol components which are formed during hemicellulose hydrolysis are less toxic for growth than the aldehydes and organic acids either on a weight basis or a molar basis.

  15. Ion-exclusion chromatographic behavior of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids on a sulfonated styrene--divinylbenzene co-polymer resin column with sulfuric acid containing various alcohols as eluent.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    2003-05-16

    The addition of C1-C7 alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, heptanol, hexanol and heptanol) to dilute sulfuric acid as eluent in ion-exclusion chromatography using a highly sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer resin (TSKgel SCX) in the H+ form as the stationary phase was carried out for the simultaneous separations of both (a) C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, 2-methylvaleric, isocaproic, caproic, 2,2-dimethyl-n-valeric, 2-methylhexanoic, 5-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and (b) benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, hemimellitic, trimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic and salicylic acids and phenol). Heptanol was the most effective modifier in ion-exclusion chromatography for the improvement of peak shapes and a reduction in retention volumes for higher aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and relatively highly sensitive conductimetric detection for these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved on the TSKgel SCX column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 30 min using 0.5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.025% heptanol as eluent. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive UV detection at 200 nm for these benzenecarboxylic acids were also achieved on the TSKgel SCX column in 30 min using 5 mM sulfuric acid containing 0.075% heptanol as eluent.

  16. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  17. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  18. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  19. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  20. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  1. The Activation Effects of Low Level Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure on Arterial Blood Pressures Are Associated with Decreased 5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xinxia; Xing, Xiumei; Lu, Yao; Sun, Yi; Ou, Xiaoyan; Su, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Yarui; Chen, Jingli; Shen, Biling; He, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purposes The objectives of this paper are to study the impact of low level isopropyl alcohol exposure on blood pressure and to explore its potential mechanism. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective occupational cohort in south China, which focusing on occupational risk factors related cardiovascular health problems. A total of 283 participants (200 low isopropyl alcohol exposed workers and 83 controls) was finally enrolled in this study. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between arterial blood pressures and low level isopropyl alcohol exposure. We used mediation method to explore possible mediated roles of neurogenic factors. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, 123±10 vs. 118±11), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 79±7 vs. 74±7) and mean blood pressure (MBP, 93±8 vs. 89±9) were different between the exposed group and the control group (p < 0.01). After adjusting for covariates, the difference was still significant. Besides, isopropyl alcohol and smoking had an interactive effect on DBP and MBP (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed a mediated effect of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) on isopropyl alcohol exposure induced arterial blood pressure increase, which accounted for about 25%. Conclusions Our results suggest that low level isopropyl alcohol exposure is a potential risk factor for the increased arterial blood pressure and 5-HIAA partly mediates the association between low level isopropyl alcohol exposure and arterial blood pressures. PMID:27622502

  2. Halfway Houses for Alcohol Dependents: From Theoretical Bases to Implications for the Organization of Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Alessandra Diehl; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to supply a narrative review of the concepts, history, functions, methods, development and theoretical bases for the use of halfway houses for patients with mental disorders, and their correlations, for the net construction of chemical dependence model. This theme, in spite of its relevance, is still infrequently explored in the national literature. The authors report international and national uses of this model and discuss its applicability for the continuity of services for alcohol dependents. The results suggest that this area is in need of more attention and interest for future research. PMID:19061008

  3. A novel method for isolating and analyzing organic acids in biological cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, K.

    1995-12-31

    Fermentatively produced organic acids have significant potential as chemical feedstocks for the production of various commodity materials. Such acids include acetic and succinic acids. Fermentations frequently result in the simultaneous production of two or more organic acids, and often other fermentation products as well. This necessitates separation of these products from each other, so that quantification and purification can be achieved. A multitude of methodologies for the identification, purification, and quantitation of organic acids has been developed and described; both liquid and gas chromatography have been used for such separations. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) media used for the separation of organic acids have included C18 columns, Aminex HPX-87H (ion-moderated partition resin), TEAP-Si 100 Polyol (strongly basic anion-exchange resin), Dowex 1 (cation-exchange column), Shodex Ionpak KC811, and others. Methodologies for HPLC analysis of organic acids also vary in these aspects: (1) Sample pretreatment (e.g., pretreatment with Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or with DEAE-Sephadex); (2) Mobile-phase composition (e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or formic acid); and (3) Method of organic acid detection (e.g., refractive index or light absorption). In this study, we present a methodology for isolating and quantifying organic acids found in fermentation broths. The methodology is simple, utilizes dual separation chemistries to effect an enhanced separation capacity, and is durable in terms of HPLC column life.

  4. Severity of alcohol dependence is associated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase Pro129Thr missense variant.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Matthew E; Gowin, Joshua L; Yan, Jia; Schwandt, Melanie L; Spagnolo, Primavera A; Sun, Hui; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD. Participants were genotyped for FAAH rs324420, and ancestry was determined via a genome-wide panel of ancestry informative markers. Subjects participated in Structured Clinical Interviews for psychiatric disorders and 90-day Timeline Followback interviews to assess recent alcohol use. European American participants with current AD had a higher Thr129 allele frequency than non-dependent controls. In European Americans with lifetime AD, there were significantly different distributions of drinking days and binge drinking days between the two genotype groups, with Thr129 carriers reporting a median of 10 fewer abstinent days and 13 more binge drinking days than Pro129/Pro129 homozygotes. In African American participants, there were no significant differences between Thr129 allele frequency in cases and controls and no significant differences in measures of AD severity by genotype. These findings provide evidence that the Pro129Thr missense variant is associated with AD severity in European Americans.

  5. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  6. Development of a biochemical process for production of alcohol fuel from peat. Final technical report, June 1, 1981-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P.F.; de Riel, S.R.; Heneghan, E.P.; Cheng, L.K.; Sanderson, J.E.

    1983-07-29

    This report relates progress in the development of a process for production of mixed alcohol fuel from peat. The process has four steps - pretreatment of peat to promote biodegradability, anaerobic fermentation to produce organic acids, electrolytic oxidation of organic acids to olefins, and hydration of the olefins to alcohols. Since production of alcohols by hydration of olefins is an acknowledged technology, the development program focuses on demonstrating technical feasibility of the other three steps. 70 references, 70 figures, 61 tables.

  7. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  8. Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christian; Helmerius, Jonas; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3), and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L(-1), was obtained with Na2CO3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of approximately 40 g L(-1). Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) for up to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  9. Dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in alcohol-cholic acid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyshin, A. A.; Eliseeva, O. V.; Bondarenko, G. V.; Kolker, A. M.; Zakharov, A. G.; Fedorov, M. V.; Kiselev, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    A procedure for dispersing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for the preparation of suspensions with high concentrations of individual nanotubes in various solvents was described. The most stable suspensions were obtained from a mixture of ethanol with cholic acid at an acid concentration of 0.018 mol/kg.

  10. Impact of Fluorescent Lighting on Oxidation of Model Wine Solutions Containing Organic Acids and Iron.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-22

    Previous studies have provided evidence that light exposure can increase oxygen consumption in wine and that the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate could contribute to this process. In the present study, model wine solutions containing iron(III) and various organic acids, either alone or combined, were stored in sealed clear glass wine bottles and exposed to light from fluorescent lamps. Dissolved oxygen was monitored, and afterward the organic acid degradation products were determined and the capacity of the solutions to bind sulfur dioxide, the main wine preservative, was assessed. In the dark controls, little or no dissolved oxygen was consumed and the organic acids were stable. In the irradiated solutions, dissolved oxygen was consumed at a rate that was dependent on the specific organic acid present, and the latter were oxidized to various carbonyl compounds. For the solutions containing tartaric acid, malic acid, and/or citric acid, irradiation increased their sulfur dioxide-binding capacity.

  11. Oxidation of alcohols and activated alkanes with Lewis acid-activated TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D; Wright, Ashley M; Page, Joshua S; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2014-11-03

    The reactivity of MCl3(η(1)-TEMPO) (M = Fe, 1; Al, 2; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) with a variety of alcohols, including 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxyethanol, and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol, was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complex 1 was effective in cleanly converting these substrates to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. Complex 2 was also able to oxidize these substrates; however, in a few instances the products of overoxidation were also observed. Oxidation of activated alkanes, such as xanthene, by 1 or 2 suggests that the reactions proceed via an initial 1-electron concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) event. Finally, reaction of TEMPO with FeBr3 in Et2O results in the formation of a mixture of FeBr3(η(1)-TEMPOH) (23) and [FeBr2(η(1)-TEMPOH)]2(μ-O) (24), via oxidation of the solvent, Et2O.

  12. Polydopamine-coated electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) membranes as efficient dye adsorbent with good recyclability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiajie; Huang, Yunpeng; Miao, Yue-E; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Free-standing poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) membranes with polydopamine (PDA) coating were prepared based on the combination of electrospinning and self-polymerization of dopamine. This is a facile, mild, controllable, and low-energy consumption process without any rigorous restriction to reactive conditions. Benefiting from the high specific surface area of electrospun membranes and the abundant "adhesive" functional groups of polydopamine, the as-prepared membranes exhibit efficient adsorption performance towards methyl blue with the adsorption capacity reaching up to 1147.6 mg g(-1). Moreover, compared to other nanoparticle adsorbents, the as-prepared self-standing membrane is highly flexible, easy to operate and retrieve, and most importantly, easy to elute, and regenerate, which enable its potential applications in wastewater treatment.

  13. Studies on performance evaluation of a green plasticizer made by enzymatic esterification of furfuryl alcohol and castor oil fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sohini; Ghosh, Mahua

    2017-02-10

    The esterification of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and castor oil fatty acid (COFA) at 3:1 molar ratio, by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B (NS 435 from Novozyme) in a solvent free system gave a maximum yield of 88.64% (%w/w) at 5h. Performance of the FA-COFA ester plasticized Ethyl Cellulose (EC) films were evaluated by surface morphologies, XRD analysis, mechanical properties,thermal properties, water vapor permeability and migration stability test. It was an effective plasticizer with better mechanical properties and thermal stability at the increasing concentration of FA-COFA ester (15-25%) containing EC film, than the traditional plasticizer, i.e; dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in producing good quality films. Chemical structure and the intermolecular interactions between FA-COFA ester and ethyl cellulose chains were the causative agents of these outstanding performances. Therefore, this FA-COFA ester, with significant plasticizing property, at a certain concentration, can be a substitute of DBP.

  14. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg-1). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5th and 10th days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27642329

  15. Involvement of endocannabinoids in alcohol “binge” drinking: studies of mice with human fatty acid amide hydrolase genetic variation and after CB1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Ted; Lee, Francis; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has been found to play an important role in modulating alcohol intake. Inhibition or genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, a key catabolic enzyme for endocannabinoids) leads to increased alcohol consumption and preference in rodent models. A common human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C385A, rs324420) in the FAAH gene is associated with decreased enzymatic activity of FAAH, resulting in increased anandamide levels in both humans and FAAH C385A knock-in mice. Methods As this FAAH SNP has been reported to be associated with altered alcohol abuse, the present study used these genetic knock-in mice containing the human SNP C385A to determine the impact of variant FAAH gene on alcohol “binge” drinking in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) model. Results We found that the FAAHA/A mice had greater alcohol intake and preference than the wild-type FAAHC/C mice, suggesting that increased endocannabinoid signaling in FAAHA/A mice led to increased alcohol “binge” consumption. The specificity on alcohol vulnerability was suggested by the lack of any FAAH genotype difference on sucrose or saccharin intake. Using the “binge” DID model, we confirmed that selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reduced alcohol intake in the wild-type mice. Conclusions These data suggest that there is direct and selective involvement of the human FAAH C385A SNP and CB1 receptors in alcohol “binge” drinking. PMID:26857901

  16. Catalytic enantioselective amination of alcohols by the use of borrowing hydrogen methodology: cooperative catalysis by iridium and a chiral phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Lim, Ching-Si; Sim, Derek Sui Boon; Pan, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-27

    The catalytic asymmetric reduction of ketimines has been explored extensively for the synthesis of chiral amines, with reductants ranging from Hantzsch esters, silanes, and formic acid to H2 gas. Alternatively, the amination of alcohols by the use of borrowing hydrogen methodology has proven a highly atom economical and green method for the production of amines without an external reductant, as the alcohol substrate serves as the H2 donor. A catalytic enantioselective variant of this process for the synthesis of chiral amines, however, was not known. We have examined various transition-metal complexes supported by chiral ligands known for asymmetric hydrogenation reactions, in combination with chiral Brønsted acids, which proved essential for the formation of the imine intermediate and the transfer-hydrogenation step. Our studies led to an asymmetric amination of alcohols to provide access to a wide range of chiral amines with good to excellent enantioselectivity.

  17. Teaching Relative Acidity in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traynham, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a teaching method for connecting relative acidity among various species by the use of familiar references. Considered are teaching the acidity of alpha-hydrogens of ketones, alkylation of amides and imides, and others. (CW)

  18. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  19. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface. PMID:25254114

  20. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species.

  1. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  2. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  3. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  4. Regulating the Skin Permeation Rate of Escitalopram by Ion-pair Formation with Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian; Quan, Peng; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2016-12-01

    In order to regulate the skin permeation rate (flux) of escitalopram (ESP), ion-pair strategy was used in our work. Five organic acids with different physicochemical properties, benzoic acid (BA), ibuprofen (IB), salicylic acid (SA), benzenesulfonic acid (BSA), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), were employed as counter-ions to regulate the permeation rate of ESP across the rabbit abdominal skin in vitro. The interaction between ESP and organic acids was characterized by FTIR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that all organic acids investigated in this study performed a controlling effect on ESP flux. To further analyze the factors concerned with the permeation capability of ESP-acid complex, a multiple linear regression model was used. It is concluded that the steady-state flux (J) of ESP-acid complexes had a positive correlation with log K o/w (the n-octanol/water partition coefficient of ion-pair complex) and pK a (the acidity of organic acid counter-ion), but a negative correlation with MW (the molecular weight of ion-pair complex). The logK o/w of ion-pair complex is the primary one in all the factors that influence the skin permeation rate of ESP. The results demonstrated that organic acid with appropriate physicochemical properties can be considered as suitable candidate for the transdermal drug delivery of escitalopram.

  5. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  6. [Determination of organic acids in rice wine by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojie; Wei, Wei; He, Zhigang; Lin, Xiaozi

    2014-03-01

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in rice wine was developed. An IC-Pak Ion Exclusion column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 7 microm) was used at 50 degrees C. The mobile phases were H2SO4 (phase A) and acetonitrile (phase B) (98:2, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The gradient elution program was as follows: 0-40 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 to 0.02 mol/L H2SO4; 40-50 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4. The injection volume was 10 microL. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The results showed that oxalic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, succinic acid, lactic, fumaric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid and butyric acid were completely separated and determined in 30 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 7 in the range of 0.001- 1.000 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of organic acids in rice wine were in the range of 93.4% - 103.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 0.1% - 1.5%. This method is feasible, convenient, fast, accurate and applicable for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids in rice wine.

  7. HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of desmethylmebeverine acid, mebeverine acid and mebeverine alcohol in human plasma along with its application to a pharmacokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Moskaleva, Natalia E; Baranov, Pavel A; Mesonzhnik, Natalia V; Appolonova, Svetlana A

    2017-05-10

    A new simple, rapid and sensitive high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of mebeverine metabolites as: mebeverine alcohol (MAL), mebeverine acid (MAC) and desmethylmebeverine acid (DMAC) in human plasma. Sample preparation was performed by protein precipitation following the separation of analytes using an Acquity UPLC BEN C8 column 1.7 mm 2.1×50mm (Waters, USA). (2)H5-desmethylmebeverine acid ((2)H5-DMAC) was used as the internal standard (IS). The proposed method was validated with linear ranges of 0.1-10ng/mL; 1-100ng/mL and 5-1000ng/mL for MAL, MAC and DMAC, respectively. Accuracy for all analytes (%RE), given as deviation between nominal and measured concentration and assay variability (CV) ranged from -4.04% to 4.60% and from 0.31% to 6.43% respectively both for within- and between-run. The overall recoveries for all metabolites were above 85%. The proposed method was used successfully for analysis of real samples from a pharmacokinetics study.

  8. IDRD2 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with urinary homovanillic acid levels in a sample of Spanish male alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Ponce, G; Hoenicka, J; Rodríguez-Jiménez, R; Gozalo, A; Jimenéz, M; Monasor, R; Aragüés, M; Rubio, G; Jiménez-Arriero, M A; Ramos, J A; Palomo, T

    2004-01-01

    The TaqIA1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene D2 (DRD2) has been associated with alcoholism, as well as with other addictive behaviours. The exact nature of how the presence of this allele can be a vulnerability factor in the development of alcoholism remains unclear. In this study we found that the presence in the DRD2 genotype of the TaqIA1 allele in Spanish alcoholics is associated with higher levels of urine homovanillic acid (HVA) when compared to patients homozygous for the TaqIA2 allele. A sample of 142 Spanish male alcoholic patients was split into 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of the A1 allele in their genotype. The urine sample was analyzed by high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC), and the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and vanilylmandelic acid (VMA) was determined. We found a statistical difference in the concentration of HVA between the groups, that suggests this polymorphism could be related to the variance of urine HVA levels.

  9. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  10. Stable and catalytically active iron porphyrin-based porous organic polymer: Activity as both a redox and Lewis acid catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Oveisi, Ali R.; Zhang, Kainan; Khorramabadi-zad, Ahmad; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    A new porphyrin-based porous organic polymer (POP) with BET surface area ranging from 780 to 880 m2/g was synthesized in free-base form via the reaction of meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin and a rigid trigonal building block, hexahydroxytriphenylene. The material was then metallated with Fe(III) imparting activity for Lewis acid catalysis (regioselective methanolysis ring-opening of styrene oxide), oxidative cyclization catalysis (conversion of bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)methanes to the corresponding spirodienone), and a tandem catalytic processes: an in situ oxidation-cyclic aminal formation-oxidation sequence, which selectively converts benzyl alcohol to 2-phenyl-quinazolin-4(3H)-one. Notably, the catalyst is readily recoverable and reusable, with little loss in catalytic activity. PMID:26177563

  11. Percutaneous Sclerotherapy Using Acetic Acid After Failure of Alcohol Ablation in an Intra-abdominal Lymphangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Hong, Suk Joo; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Hwan Hoon

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy using acetic acid in a 22-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma who was not successfully treated with ethanol despite multiple trials.

  12. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Zare, A.; Cozzi, F.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Skov, H.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Ström, J.; Tunved, P.; Krejci, R.; Glasius, M.

    2014-08-01

    Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeastern Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010, respectively. Speciation of organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12 organosulfates and 1 nitrooxy organosulfate were identified in aerosol samples from the two sites using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer. At Station Nord, compound concentrations followed a distinct annual pattern, where high mean concentrations of organosulfates (47 ± 14 ng m-3) and organic acids (11.5 ± 4 ng m-3) were observed in January, February and March, contrary to considerably lower mean concentrations of organosulfates (2 ± 3 ng m-3) and organic acids (2.2 ± 1 ng m-3) observed during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain, organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at a mean concentration of 15 ± 4 ng m-3 and 3.9 ± 1 ng m-3, respectively. However during four weeks of spring, remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m-3) and total organic acids (7-10 ng m-3) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain was associated with a 100% increase in the number of detected organosulfate species compared with periods of air mass transport from the Arctic Ocean, Scandinavia and Greenland. The results from this

  13. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  14. Correlation between ethanol stress and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non-Saccharomyces in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae by multivariate techniques.

    PubMed

    Archana, K M; Ravi, R; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2015-10-01

    Wine production is a complex process both from biochemical and microbiological point of view in which yeast plays a central role. The use of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for wine fermentations is of increasing interest to enhance the quality of wine.The most common stress, yeast cells encounter during wine fermentation is the increase in ethanol concentration.To enhance ethanol tolerance, alteration in the cellular lipid composition is one of its defence mechanism. Ethanol tolerance and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non Saccharomyces forms were compared with enological strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for the study, tolerated 15 % of ethanol and the non Saccharomyces strains such as, Issatchenkia occidentalis and Issatchenkia orientalis tolerated 10 % of ethanol. On exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol stress, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease in saturated fatty acids. Decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids, exhibited by non-Saccharomyces yeasts when exposed to ethanol stress, could be one of the reasons for their inability to withstand more than 10 % of alcohol. Multivariate techniques of data analysis - principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed in order to establish differentiation criteria as function of yeast strains, alcohol stress and their fatty acid profile. Based on the data, Chemometrics, such as principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, can be successfully applied to fatty acid data to categorize the yeast.

  15. Tropospheric chemistry of internally mixed sea salt and organic particles: Surprising reactivity of NaCl with weak organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, Pascal; Shutthanandan, Janani

    2012-08-01

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected onboard the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and in particular hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles, may result in formation of organic salts that will modify the acidity, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aged particles.

  16. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

    2012-08-03

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  17. Semicontinuous measurements of organic carbon and acidity during the Pittsburgh air quality study: implications for acid-catalyzed organic aerosol formation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Takahama; C.I. Davidson; S.N. Pandis

    2006-04-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that inorganic acid seed particles may increase secondary organic aerosol yields secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through heterogeneous chemistry. Additional laboratory studies, however, report that organic acidity generated in the same photochemical process by which SOA is formed may be sufficient to catalyze these heterogeneous reactions. Understanding the interaction between inorganic acidity and SOA mass is important when evaluating emission controls to meet PM2.5 regulations. Semicontinuous measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and inorganic species from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study were examined to determine if coupling in the variations of inorganic acidity and OC could be detected. Significant enhancements of SOA production could not be detected due to inorganic acidity in Western Pennsylvania most of the time, but its signal might have been lost in the noise. If a causal relationship between inorganic acidity and OC is assumed, reductions in OC for Western Pennsylvania that might result from drastic reductions in inorganic acidity were estimated to be 2 {+-} 4% by a regression technique, and an upper bound for this geographic area was estimated to be 5 {+-} 8% based on calculations from laboratory measurements. 48 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursunoglu, Sait; Kaya, Muammer

    2015-11-01

    The dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method was investigated. The effects of the type of organic acid, acid concentration, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the lateritic nickel ore were examined. Organic acids were used individually prior to sequential leaching. Citric acid was more effective than the other two acids for the selective leaching of nickel and cobalt. An increase in the citric acid concentration negligibly affected the dissolution of the metals, whereas temperature exhibited a strong beneficial effect. Oxalic acid was determined to be the most appropriate organic acid for the second leaching step. After 8 h (4 h + 4 h) of leaching with organic acids (0.5 M citric + 0.5 M oxalic) in sequence at 90°C, 89.63% Ni, 82.89% Co, and 69.63% Fe were leached from the lateritic nickel ore. A sequential citric + oxalic acid leaching method could represent a viable alternative for the dissolution of metals from lateritic nickel ore.

  19. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  20. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  1. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures of eight organic salts based on 2,6-diaminopyridine, and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Jin, Xiunan; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2015-11-01

    Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the organic acids as trichloroacetic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, m-phthalic acid, naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid, and glutaric acid. The eight crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. Except salt 4, all structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthon. There were extensive N-H···O/O-H···O/N-H···N/N-H···S hydrogen bonds as well as CH···O, CH-N, CH-π, NH-π, π-π, C-π, Cl-O, and O-O interactions in the supramolecular architectures. The combination of these weak and strong hydrogen bonding associations in the crystal packing led to the formation of the 2D/3D structures.

  2. Elevated Linoleic Acid (A Pro-Inflammatory PUFA) and Liver Injury in a Treatment Naive HIV-HCV Co-Infected Alcohol Dependent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Barve, Shirish S.; McClain, Craig J.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.

    2016-01-01

    HIV and HCV co-infection is a unique disease condition, and medical management of such condition is difficult due to severity and systemic complications. Added with heavy alcohol drinking, risk of liver injury increases due to several pro-inflammatory responses that subsequently get involved with alcohol metabolism. Elevated levels of fatty acids have been reported both in viral infections as well as alcoholic liver disease though such investigations have not addressed the adverse events with dual viral infection of HIV and HCV along with heavy drinking. This case report is of a patient with excessive alcohol drinking and first time diagnosis of HIV and HCV dual infection, elaborating concurrent alteration in Linoleic Acid (LA) levels and pro-inflammatory shift in ω-6/ω-3 ratio along with the elevations in liver injury markers. Elevated LA has been recently studied extensively for its role in alcoholic liver disease; and in the present case, we also found it to be clinically relevant to liver injury. PMID:27489857

  3. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A.

    2007-12-01

    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  4. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed.

  5. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  6. Detoxification of biomass hydrolysates with nucleophilic amino acids enhances alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Carvin, Jamarius; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds generated in biomass pretreatment hinder the biochemical conversion of biomass hydrolysates to biofuels. A novel approach of detoxifying hydrolysates with amino acids for ethanol production was developed. Among the 20 amino acids assessed for their detoxification efficiency and nucleophilicity, cysteine was the most effective one. It increased both ethanol productivity and final yield of biomass hydrolysates from 0.18 (untreated) to 1.77 g/L/h and from 0.02 to 0.42 g/g, respectively. Detoxification efficiency was followed by histidine and it increased the final yield to 0.42 g/g, then by lysine, tryptophan and asparagine. It was observed all five effective amino acids contained reactive side-chain functional groups, which played important roles in the amino acid detoxification reaction. The study further showed cysteine and glycine detoxifications were temperature and pH dependent. The mechanistic study using mass spectrometry revealed thiazolidine carboxylic acid, a Schiff base, was formed by condensation of aldehyde and cysteine.

  7. Acid-catalyzed liquefaction of bagasse in the presence of polyhydric alcohol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hairong; Luo, Jun; Li, Yingying; Guo, Haijun; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xinde

    2013-08-01

    Bagasse was subjected to a liquefaction process with polyethylene glycol/glycerol using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The effects of various liquefaction conditions, such as reaction time, liquefaction temperature, catalyst content, and liquid ratio (liquefaction solvents/bagasse), on the liquefied residue (LR) content and hydroxyl and acid numbers of liquefied products were investigated. The preferred liquefaction condition of bagasse was determined through orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the catalyst content and reaction time have a greater influence than liquid ratio and liquefaction temperature on the percentage of LR. The hydroxyl and acid numbers of the liquefied products were influenced by many factors, including liquefaction temperature, reaction time, acid content, and liquid ratio. The hydroxyl number of liquefied products decreased as the liquefaction reaction progressed, but the acid number of liquefied products increased. Based on the obtained data, the kinetics for liquefaction was modeled using the first-order reaction rate law and the apparent activation energy for the liquefaction of bagasse was estimated to be 38.30 kJ mol(-1).

  8. Alcoholic disease: liver and beyond.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-28

    The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world's third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the "necrosis-fibrosis" sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  10. Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Desr.) by LC.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Sakariah, K K

    2002-04-15

    Organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Kokam) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major organic acid in leaves and rinds has been found to be (-)-hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 4.1-4.6 and 10.3-12.7%, respectively, by isocratic elution with 8 mM sulfuric acid as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min using UV detection at 210 nm. Hydroxycitric acid lactone and citric acid are present in leaves and rinds in minor quantities. This method has been shown to be very reproducible with the coefficient of variation ranging from 2.8 to 4.2%. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids in the leaves and rinds of G. indica by HPLC.

  11. Acyl Meldrum's acid derivatives: application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janikowska, K.; Rachoń, J.; Makowiec, S.

    2014-07-01

    This review is focused on an important class of Meldrum's acid derivatives commonly known as acyl Meldrum's acids. The preparation methods of these compounds are considered including the recently proposed and rather rarely used ones. The chemical properties of acyl Meldrum's acids are described in detail, including thermal stability and reactions with various nucleophiles. The possible mechanisms of these transformations are analyzed. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  12. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  13. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  14. Structure of six organic acid-base adducts from 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine and acidic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Daqi; Tao, Lin; Zhou, Mengjian; Shen, Yinyan; Chen, Quan; Lin, Zhanghui; Gao, Xingjun

    2014-05-01

    Six anhydrous organic acid-base adducts of 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine were prepared with organic acids as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, salicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malonic acid and sebacic acid. The compounds 1-6 were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis. The melting points of all the adducts were given. Of the six adducts, 1, 3, 4, and 5 are organic salts, while 2, and 6 are cocrystals. The supramolecular arrangement in the crystals 2-6 is based on the R22(8) synthon. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-6 suggests that there are strong NH⋯O, OH⋯N, and OH⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and base components in the supramolecular assemblies. When the hydroxyl group is present in the ortho position of the carboxy, the intramolecular S6 synthon is present, as expected. Besides the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, other noncovalent interactions also play important roles in structure extension. Due to the synergetic effect of these weak interactions, compounds 1-6 display 1D-3D framework structure.

  15. Sorption of vapors of some organic liquids on soil humic acid and its relation to partitioning of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chlou, G.T.; Kile, D.E.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor sorption of water, ethanol, benzene, hexane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dibromoethane on (Sanhedron) soil humic acid has been determined at room temperature. Isotherms for all organic liquids are highly linear over a wide range of relative pressure (P/P??), characteristic of the partitioning (dissolution) of the organic compounds in soil humic acid. Polar liquids exhibit markedly greater sorption capacities on soil humic acid than relatively nonpolar liquids, in keeping with the polar nature of the soil humic acid as a partition medium. The limiting sorption (partition) capacities of relatively non-polar liquids are remarkably similar when expressed in terms of volumes per unit weight of soil humic acid. The soil humic acid is found to be about half as effective as soil organic matter in sorption of relatively nonpolar organic compounds. The nearly constant limiting sorption capacity for nonpolar organic liquids with soil humic acid on a volume-to-weight basis and its efficiency in sorption relative to soil organic matter provide a basis for predicting the approximate sorption (partition) coefficients of similar compounds in uptake by soil in aqueous systems.

  16. Effect of acid and alcohol network forces within functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes bundles on adsorption of copper (II) species.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Shirley; Sorial, George A; Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Mack, James

    2013-01-01

    The adsorptive capacity of multiwall CNTs for copper species in water depends on the type of functional group present on their surface. The alcohol (OH) and acid (COOH) network forces formed by van der Waals bonds within the CNT bundles can define their aggregate state and available sites for copper adsorption. Copper is attracted to different oxygen radicals on the surface and within the bundles of CNTs. The effect of initial concentration shown on isotherm curves was investigated as an impact of different network forces and the presence of impurities leached from as-received CNTs. Deprotonation of CNTs reduced the COOH network forces, improved adsorption capacity and removed the effect of initial concentration. Impurities leached from CNTs under the effect of pH were less than 1 mg g(-1) for each metal, which was insignificant compared to copper in solution. Pristine CNTs were acid washed and purified (Ox-CNTs), improving their adsorption capacity, but the effect of initial concentration was still present. Adsorption of copper is stronger for OH-functionalized CNTs, followed by deprotonated COOH-functionalized CNTs, as-received COOH-functionalized CNT, Ox-CNTs and finally pristine CNTs. FTIR, XPS and zeta potential measurements were used to identify and quantify the different surface functional groups present on CNTs.

  17. Pentoxifylline ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jia-Hung; Chao, Jung; Chang, Ming-Ling; Peng, Wen-Huang; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pao, Li-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which includes simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, is characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver in the absence of excessive alcohol intake. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), concurrent NAFLD might increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and the mortality rate. Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of pentoxifylline (PTX) in NAFLD treatment, no results are available to verify the effectiveness of PTX in treating T2D associated with NAFLD. In this study, we developed a combined high-fat diet-induced obesity and low-dose streptozocin-induced hyperglycaemia mouse model to mimic the concurrent NAFLD and T2D pathological condition. By combining physiological assessments, pathological examinations, metabolomics studies on blood, urine, and liver, and measurements of gene and protein expression, we elucidated the effectiveness and the underlying mechanism of action of PTX in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice. Our results revealed that PTX ameliorated NAFLD in the hyperglycaemic and dyslipidaemic mice by upregulating fatty acid β-oxidation. Furthermore, the glycolysis pathway and branched-chain amino acid-related pathways in these mice were restored by PTX. PMID:27612024