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Sample records for alcohols organic acids

  1. Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Jan, Darrell L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Organic Acid and Alcohol Monitor (OAAM) program has resulted in the successful development of a computer controlled prototype analyzer capable of accurately determining aqueous organic acids and primary alcohol concentrations over a large dynamic range with high sensitivity. Formic, acetic, and propionic acid were accurately determined at concentrations as low as 5 to 10 micrograms/L in under 20 minutes, or as high as 10 to 20 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were determined at concentrations as low as 20 to 100 micrograms/L, or as high as 10 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Importantly for space based application, the OAAM requires no reagents or hazardous chemicals to perform these analyses needing only power, water, and CO2 free purge gas. The OAAM utilized two membrane processes to segregate organic acids from interfering ions. The organic acid concentration was then determined based upon the conductiometric signal. Separation of individual organic acids was accomplished using a chromatographic column. Alcohols are determined in a similar manner after conversion to organic acids by sequential biocatalytic and catalytic oxidation steps. The OAAM was designed to allow the early diagnosis of under performing or failing sub-systems within the Water Recovery System (WRS) baselined for the International Space Station (ISS). To achieve this goal, several new technologies were developed over the course of the OAAM program.

  2. Hydrogen isotope measurements of organic acids and alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by us and others as intermediary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II° quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample. Samples of carboxylic acid (C1 through C4) and alcohols (C1 through C4) were pyrolyzed at 200°C on a CDS Analytical. Inc. Model 5200° pyroprobe and passed through a Thermo Electron GC-MS-TC-IRMS system operating in continuous flow mode. The High Temperature Conversion step

  3. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. PMID:24432652

  4. Recent advances in alcohol and organic acid fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Fei; Yang, Sheng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Organosolv fractionation is a promising process to separate lignocellulosic biomass for the preparation of multiply products including biofuels, chemicals, and materials. This review presents the state of art of different processes applying alcohols and organic acids to treat lignocellulosic biomass for the production of ethanol, lignin, xylose, etc. The major organosolv technologies using ethanol, formic acid, and acetic acid, are intensively introduced and discussed in depth. In addition, the structural modifications of the major components of lignocelluloses, the technical processes, and the applications of the products were also summarized. The object of the review is to provide recent information in the field of organosolv process for the integrated biorefinery. The perspectives of the challenge and opportunity related to this topic are also presented. PMID:26476870

  5. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by others as intermeadiary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II? quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  6. Anhydrosugar and sugar alcohol organic markers associated with carboxylic acids in particulate matter from incense burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Wu, Pei-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Yang, Chi-Ru

    2010-09-01

    Aerosol from the burning two types of sandalwood-based incense, Hsing Shan and Lao Shan, was analyzed to characterize the chemical profile of total particulate matter emitted. The total particulate matter (PM) mass emission factors were 46.3 ± 2.68 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan incense and 43.7 ± 1.08 mg g -1 of Lao Shan incense. Chemical analysis of emissions from the two types of incense revealed that of the 25 components in four groups characterized, anhydrosugars formed the major group, at 46.7-52.2% w/w of the identified particulate and 1078.3-1169.8 μg g -1 of incense, followed by inorganic salts at 30.4-31.8% w/w of identified particulate and 681.6-734.0 μg g -1 of incense, carboxylic acids at 12.0-17.1% w/w of the identified particulate and 268.6-392.8 μg g -1 of incense, and sugar alcohols at 4.44-5.38% w/w of the identified particulate and 102.3-120.6 μg g -1 of incense. More anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were emitted from Lao Shan incense than from Hsing Shan incense whereas more carboxylic acids and organic salts were emitted from Hsing Shan than from Lao Shan. These differences were due to structural and functional differences in the young sandalwood used to make Hsing Shan and the aged sandalwood used to make Lao Shan. The anhydrosugar levoglucosan, used as a marker of biomass burning, was always the most abundant species in emitted PM for both incenses ( Lao Shan 21.7 mg g -1 of PM and Hsing Shan 18.7 mg g -1). K + and Cl - were the second most abundant components (K + and Cl - were summed), accounting for 10.6 mg g -1 of Hsing Shan PM and 9.85 mg g -1 of Lao Shan PM. The most abundant carboxylic acids in the emissions were formic, acetic, succinic, glutaric and phthalic acid. The latter is a fragrance ingredient and a potential health hazard and was twice as prevalent in Lao Shan emissions. Xylitol was the most prevalent of the sugar alcohols at 35.7-36.6% w/w of total identified sugar alcohols. These abundant species are potential markers for

  7. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Alcohols and Organic Acids by Online Pyroprobe-GC-IRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, combined with evidence showing widespread water-rock interaction during martian history, suggests that the production of methane on Mars may be the result of mineral surface-catalyzed CO2 and or CO reduction during Fisher-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions. A better understanding of these reaction pathways and corresponding C and H isotope fractionations is critical to deciphering the synthesis of organic compounds produced under abiotic hydrothermal conditions. Described here is a technique for the extraction and analysis of both C and H isotopes from alcohols (C1-C4) and organic acids (C1-C6). This work is meant to provide a "proof of concept" for making meaningful isotope measurements on complex mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and other intermediary products produced during high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. These analyses are conducted entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS model 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra that is interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer operating in continuous flow mode. Also, this technique is designed to carry a split of the GC-separated product to a DSQ II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making semi-quantitative compositional measurements. Therefore, both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out on the same sample.

  8. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  9. [Determination of sugars, organic acids and alcohols in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose using high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Fan, Guifang; Du, Ran; Li, Peipei; Jiang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the determination of metabolites (sugars, organic acids and alcohols) in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose. Sulfate was first added in the samples to precipitate calcium ions in microbial consortium culture medium and lower the pH of the solution to avoid the dissociation of organic acids, then the filtrates were effectively separated using high performance liquid chromatography. Cellobiose, glucose, ethanol, butanol, glycerol, acetic acid and butyric acid were quantitatively analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 0.10-2.00 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 6 in the range of 0.020 to 1.000 g/L. The recoveries were in the range of 85.41%-115.60% with the relative standard deviations of 0.22% -4.62% (n = 6). This method is accurate for the quantitative analysis of the alcohols, organic acids and saccharides in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose.

  10. Photo-Tautomerization of Acetaldehyde to Vinyl Alcohol: a New Mechanism for Organic Acid Formation in the Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. U.; Heazlewood, B. R.; Maccarone, A. T.; Conroy, T.; Payne, R. J.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Kable, S. H.

    2012-06-01

    We present a detailed kinetic master equation (ME) model of the photochemistry of acetaldehyde under conditions relevant to tropospheric chemistry. The dissociation and isomerization rate constants are benchmarked to collision-free experiments in a supersonic expansion, at wavelengths where reaction is only possible on S_0. Extensive photo-isomerization is observed when irradiated with actinic ultraviolet radiation (310-330 nm). The ME model quantitatively reproduces the experimental observations and shows unequivocally that keto-enol photo-tautomerization, forming vinyl alcohol, is the crucial first step. When collisions are included into the ME, the model quantitatively reproduces the previously reported quantum yields for photodissociation at all pressures (0 - 1 atm) and wavelengths (295 - 340 nm). Crucially, at 1 atm pressure, and averaged over the intensity distribution of the solar spectrum, our model predicts that 26% of the total CH_3CHO quantum yield is into the collisionally-relaxed vinyl alcohol photo-tautomerization product. The photochemistry and photophysics of many carbonyls are similar to that of acetaldehyde. Therefore, we expect that photo-tautomerization of carbonyls into their respective enols will be a general phenomenon under atmospheric conditions. Such photo-tautomerization mechanisms are not included in any current tropospheric model and might, given that an enol will react rapidly to form an acid, we propose that they may account for the production of organic acids in the troposphere.

  11. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions. PMID:27387660

  12. Syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes converting organic acids and alcohols to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Geleijnse, Mitchell; Kolganova, Tatjana V; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-09-01

    Until now anaerobic oxidation of VFA at high salt-pH has been demonstrated only at sulfate-reducing conditions. Here, we present results of a microbiological investigation of anaerobic conversion of organic acids and alcohols at methanogenic conditions by syntrophic associations enriched from hypersaline soda lakes in Central Asia. Sediment incubation experiments showed active, albeit very slow, methane formation from acetate, propionate, butyrate and C2 C4 alcohols at pH 10 and various levels of salinity. Enrichments of syntrophic associations using hydrogenotrophic members of the genus Methanocalculus from soda lakes as partners resulted in several highly enriched cultures converting acetate, propionate, butyrate, benzoate and EtOH to methane. Most syntrophs belonged to Firmicutes, while the propionate-oxidizer formed a novel lineage within the family Syntrophobacteraceae in the Deltaproteobacteria. The acetate-oxidizing syntroph was identified as 'Ca. Syntrophonatronum acetioxidans' previously found to oxidize acetate at sulfate-reducing conditions up to salt-saturating concentrations. Butyrate and a benzoate-degrading syntrophs represent novel genus-level lineages in Syntrophomonadales which are proposed as Candidatus taxons 'Syntrophobaca', 'Syntrophocurvum' and 'Syntropholuna'. Overall, despite very slow growth, the results indicated the presence of a functionally competent syntrophic community in hypersaline soda lakes, capable of efficient oxidation of fermentation products to methane at extremely haloalkaline conditions.

  13. THERMAL DESORPTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMED FROM REACTIONS OF 1-TETRADECENE AND O3 IN THE PRESENCE OF ALCOHOLS AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS. (R826235)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemistry of secondary organic aerosol formation from reactions of
    1-tetradecene and O3 in dry air in the presence of excess alcohols
    and carboxylic acids was investigated in an environmental chamber using a
    thermal desorption particle beam mass spec...

  14. Usability of an Alcohol Disinfectant Containing Organic Acids and Metal Salt for Environmental Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Okunishi, Junji; Nagahara, Hironori; Tsujitani, Kumiko; Matsuse, Hitoshi; Kugawa, Kazuyuki; Soga, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Environmental cleaning and disinfection plays an important role as a part of the standard precautions to prevent healthcare-associated infections, whereas hand hygiene is one of the most important strategies for breaking the chain of transmission. Cleaning and disinfection of high-touch areas in a health-care facility is emphasized. And wiping with an alcohol-saturated cloth which has features such as low corrosion and a wide range of antimicrobial activity is performed commonly for this purpose. Although alcohol provides immediate activity against enveloped viruses, its virucidal activity against certain non-enveloped viruses, including norovirus, is insufficient. We created a novel alcohol-based hand rub, MR06B7, which is safe for the skin, and is active against an extended spectrum of microorganisms including non-enveloped viruses. For environmental surface disinfection, a novel disinfectant MR13B15, which is based on MR06B7, has been developed. In vitro antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens, material compatibility, and simulated surface disinfection and decontamination efficacy of MR13B15 were investigated. According to the results, MR13B15 demonstrated potent bactericidal, fungicidal, mycobactericidal, and virucidal activity within a short contact time in addition to superior efficacy against non-enveloped viruses compared to ethanol for disinfection. Moreover, MR13B15 showed better material compatibility. Two simulation tests conducted for evaluating the disinfection and decontamination potency on environmental surfaces against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus, indicated that MR13B15 had superior efficacy for surface treatment compared to ethanol. These findings suggest that MR13B15, which satisfies most requirements of an environmental surface disinfectant, may contribute to accomplishing advanced standard precautions in preventing infections.

  15. Usability of an Alcohol Disinfectant Containing Organic Acids and Metal Salt for Environmental Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Okunishi, Junji; Nagahara, Hironori; Tsujitani, Kumiko; Matsuse, Hitoshi; Kugawa, Kazuyuki; Soga, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Environmental cleaning and disinfection plays an important role as a part of the standard precautions to prevent healthcare-associated infections, whereas hand hygiene is one of the most important strategies for breaking the chain of transmission. Cleaning and disinfection of high-touch areas in a health-care facility is emphasized. And wiping with an alcohol-saturated cloth which has features such as low corrosion and a wide range of antimicrobial activity is performed commonly for this purpose. Although alcohol provides immediate activity against enveloped viruses, its virucidal activity against certain non-enveloped viruses, including norovirus, is insufficient. We created a novel alcohol-based hand rub, MR06B7, which is safe for the skin, and is active against an extended spectrum of microorganisms including non-enveloped viruses. For environmental surface disinfection, a novel disinfectant MR13B15, which is based on MR06B7, has been developed. In vitro antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens, material compatibility, and simulated surface disinfection and decontamination efficacy of MR13B15 were investigated. According to the results, MR13B15 demonstrated potent bactericidal, fungicidal, mycobactericidal, and virucidal activity within a short contact time in addition to superior efficacy against non-enveloped viruses compared to ethanol for disinfection. Moreover, MR13B15 showed better material compatibility. Two simulation tests conducted for evaluating the disinfection and decontamination potency on environmental surfaces against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus, indicated that MR13B15 had superior efficacy for surface treatment compared to ethanol. These findings suggest that MR13B15, which satisfies most requirements of an environmental surface disinfectant, may contribute to accomplishing advanced standard precautions in preventing infections. PMID:27301389

  16. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Efficient conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by an organic-inorganic hybrid solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehui; Dong, Kun; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2011-01-17

    A clean, facile, and environment-friendly catalytic method has been developed for the conversion of furfuryl alcohol into alkyl levulinates making use of the novel solid catalyst methylimidazolebutylsulfate phosphotungstate ([MIMBS]₃PW₁₂O₄₀). The solid catalyst is an organic-inorganic hybrid material, which consists of an organic cation and an inorganic anion. A study for optimizing the reaction conditions such as the reaction time, the temperature and the catalyst loading has been performed. Under optimal conditions, a high n-butyl levulinate yield of up to 93 % is obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of the reaction pathways and the mechanism for the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol are discussed. This method is environmentally benign and economical for the conversion of biomass-based derivatives into fine chemicals. PMID:21226220

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography with diamond ATR-FTIR detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Andrea; Diewok, Josef; Baena, Josefa Rodriguez; Lendl, Bernhard

    2003-05-01

    A horizontal diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) element has been incorporated in a flow-through cell with low dead volume and used for on-line mid-IR detection in high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical inertness of the ATR element permitted the use of a strongly acidic mobile phase in the isocratic separation. The hyphenation was used for the analysis of organic acids, sugars and alcohols in red wine. In the case of co-eluting analytes multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was successfully employed for quantitative analysis.

  20. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  1. Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionations in organic molecules. II: Linear alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Sessions, Alex L.; Nielsen, Robert J.; Goddard, William A., III

    2009-12-01

    Equilibrium 2H/ 1H fractionation factors (α eq) for various H positions in alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols, and ethers were calculated between 0 and 100 °C using vibrational frequencies from ab initio QM calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Results were then corrected using a temperature-dependent linear calibration curve based on experimental data for H α in ketones ( Wang et al., 2009). The total uncertainty in reported α eq values is estimated at 10-20‰. The effects of functional groups were found to increase the value of α eq for H next to electron-donating groups, e.g. sbnd OR, sbnd OH or sbnd O(C dbnd O)R, and to decrease the value of α eq for H next to electron-withdrawing groups, e.g. sbnd (C dbnd O)R or sbnd (C dbnd O)OR. Smaller but significant functional group effects are also observed for H β and sometimes H γ. By summing over individual H positions, we estimate the equilibrium fractionation relative to water to be -90‰ to -70‰ for n-alkanes and around -100‰ for pristane and phytane. The temperature dependence of these fractionations is very weak between 0 and 100 °C. Our estimates of α eq agree well with field data for thermally mature hydrocarbons (δ 2H values between -80‰ and -110‰ relative to water). Therefore the observed δ 2H increase of individual hydrocarbons and the disappearance of the biosynthetic δ 2H offset between n-alkyl and linear isoprenoid lipids during maturation of organic matter can be confidently attributed to H exchange towards an equilibrium state. Our results also indicate that many n-alkyl lipids are biosynthesized with δ 2H values that are close to equilibrium with water. In these cases, constant down-core δ 2H values for n-alkyl lipids cannot be reliably used to infer a lack of isotopic exchange.

  2. Direct Ruthenium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Carboxylic Acids to Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xinjiang; Li, Yuehui; Topf, Christoph; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    The "green" reduction of carboxylic acids to alcohols is a challenging task in organic chemistry. Herein, we describe a general protocol for generation of alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. Key to success is the use of a combination of Ru(acac)3, triphos and Lewis acids. The novel method showed broad substrate tolerance and a variety of aliphatic carboxylic acids including biomass-derived compounds can be smoothly reduced.

  3. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system.

  4. Extraction of protactinium from mineral acid-alcohol media.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Shabana, R

    1968-07-01

    The extraction of protactinium with organic solvents has been investigated in the presence of water-miscible alcohols and acetone. These additives were found to increase considerably the extraction of protactinium in the cases of trilaurylamine, tributyl phosphate and isobutyl methyl ketone. The influence was less in the case of thenoyltrifluoroacetone. In mixtures of an acid with various alcohols, the influence depended on the alcohol concentration, the acidity and on the chain lengths and dielectric constants of the alcohol introduced into the extraction system. PMID:18960346

  5. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi. PMID:26220851

  6. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  7. Alcoholism, Field Dependency and Organic Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Patricia; Kahn, Marvin W.

    Although research has suggested that field dependency is a relatively stable characteristic of alcoholics, the results have been confounded by the use of different measures and different time intervals. To investigate the degree of organic brain impairment and its association with measured field dependency amongst alcoholics, 41 male alcoholics,…

  8. Quality control of fruit juices by using organic acids determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated bubble cell capillaries.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An enhanced method for the determination of organic acids in several fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV-Vis detection has been developed in this work. First, a study with simulated real juice samples was done to find the best separation conditions. Next, several commercial fruit juices were analyzed, and the organic acid contents were quantified in less than 12 min using a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated fused-silica 'bubble cell' capillary. The present method is reliable, fast and provides detection limits comprised between 0.1 and 2.5 μg mL(-1). Moreover, different chemometric techniques, based on CZE data, were examined. Linear discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of fruit juices according to the fruit type, whereas multiple linear regression models predicted the percentages of orange and pineapple juices in binary blends with grape. Thus, the present methodology is of utmost interest for routine and quality control purposes in food industries. PMID:26041236

  9. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - (800) 66-NOFAS Twitter Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Pinterest RSS Alcohol and Human Development. ... 5th Annual FASD matters conference: navigating stigma, toxic stress, and trauma, which will be held November 10 – ...

  10. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  11. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  12. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1989-08-25

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

  13. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  14. Mixed culture syngas fermentation and conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Stevenson, Bradley S; Tanner, Ralph S; Wilkins, Mark R; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    Higher alcohols such as n-butanol and n-hexanol have higher energy density than ethanol, are more compatible with current fuel infrastructure, and can be upgraded to jet and diesel fuels. Several organisms are known to convert syngas to ethanol, but very few can produce higher alcohols alone. As a potential solution, mixed culture fermentation between the syngas fermenting Alkalibaculum bacchi strain CP15 and propionic acid producer Clostridium propionicum was studied. The monoculture of CP15 produced only ethanol from syngas without initial addition of organic acids to the fermentation medium. However, the mixed culture produced ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol from syngas. The addition of propionic acid, butyric acid and hexanoic acid to the mixed culture resulted in a 50% higher conversion efficiency of these acids to their respective alcohols compared to CP15 monoculture. These findings illustrate the great potential of mixed culture syngas fermentation in production of higher alcohols.

  15. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  16. Thermal transformation of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA) in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2015-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), the ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid supplied to human organisms mainly with coffee, tea, fruit and vegetables, has been one of the most studied polyphenols. It is potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics due to its recently discovered biomedical activity, which revived interest in its properties, isomers and natural occurrence. We found that the heating of the alcoholic solution of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid produced at least twenty compounds (chlorogenic acid derivatives and its reaction products with water and alcohol). The formation of three of them (methoxy, ethoxy and propoxy adducts) has not been reported yet. No reports exist either on methoxy adducts of 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid appearing in buffered methanol/water mixtures at pH exceeding 7. We observed that the amount of each formed component depended on the heating time, type of alcohol, its concentration in alcoholic/water mixture, and pH.

  17. Physiological processes underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Lang, Charles H; Nagy, Laura E; Bailey, Shannon M; Parsons, Loren H; Murray, Gary J

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes the American Physiological Society (APS) Presidential Symposium 1 entitled "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse" at the 2016 Experimental Biology meeting. The symposium was organized by Dr. Patricia Molina, past president of the APS, was held on April 3 at the Convention Center in San Diego, CA, and was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse Symposium" assembled experts and leaders in the field and served as a platform to discuss and share knowledge on the latest developments and scientific advances on the mechanisms underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse. This symposium provided unique, interdisciplinary alcohol research, including several organs, liver, muscle, adipose, and brain, affected by excessive alcohol use. PMID:27436613

  18. Alcohol Dimer is Requisite to Form an Alkyl Oxonium Ion in the Proton Transfer of a Strong (Photo)Acid to Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Young Min; Kwac, Kijeong; Jung, Yousung; Kwon, Oh-Hoon

    2016-03-18

    Alcohols, the simplest amphiprotic organic compounds, can exhibit either acidic or basic behavior by donating or accepting a proton. In this study, proton dissociation of a model photoacid in solution is explored by using time-resolved spectroscopy, revealing quantitatively for the first time that alcohol acts as a Brønsted base because of H-bonded cluster formation to enhance the reactivity. The protonated alcohol cluster, the alkyl oxonium ion, can be regarded as a key reaction intermediate in the well-established alcohol dehydration reaction. This finding signifies, as in water, the cooperativity of protic solvent molecules to facilitate nonaqueous acid-base reactions. PMID:26757097

  19. [Disturbances of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Cylwik, Bogdan; Chrostek, Lech

    2011-04-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse leads to malnutrition, and thus to the deficiency of many nutrients, including vitamins and trace elements. Most often comes to the deficiency of all vitamins, however because the clinical implications, the most important is folic acid (vitamin B9) deficiency. Biochemical effect of folate deficiency is elevated homocysteine concentration in the blood, named "cholesterol of XXI. century". In the paper, the folate and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abuse was discussed. Mechanisms of alcohol action on folate homeostasis in the human body have been indicated. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to deficiency of this vitamin due to their dietary inadequacy, intestinal malabsorption, decreased hepatic uptake and increased body excretion, mainly via urine. The decreased concentration of serum folic acid may occur in 80% of alcoholics. The cause of elevated concentrations of homocysteine in the serum of alcohol abusers is also a deficiency of vitamins involved such as vitamin B12 and pyridoxal phosphate. Disturbance of folic acid and homocysteine metabolism in alcohol abusers can lead to serious clinical consequences. Folic acid deficiency leads inter alia to macrocytic and megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia occurs in about half of alcohol abusers with chronic liver diseases. In turn, high level of homocysteine in blood is associated with an inreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor that favors the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes in patients with coronary heart disease.

  20. Complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid/titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid has been produced and investigated by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. It is claimed that it represents an interpolymeric complex of polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated titanium oxide.

  1. Chemoselective esterification of phenolic acids and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Appendino, Giovanni; Minassi, Alberto; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2002-10-31

    [formula: see text] The Mitsunobu reaction can distinguish between alcohol and phenol hydroxyls in esterification reactions, providing an expeditious and broadly applicable entry into various phenolics and polyphenolics of biomedical and nutritional relevance.

  2. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  3. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  4. Gas-phase NMR studies of alcohols. Intrinsic acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvel, J. Paul; True, Nancy S.

    1985-05-01

    Gas-phase (≈100 Torr) 1H NMR spectra of eighteen simple aliphatic and unsaturated alcohols, four fluorinated alcohols, and two thiols were obtained at 148.6°C where hydrogen bonding has little effect on chemical shifts. For the methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, i-propanol, t-butanol, i- butanol, neopentanol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and benzyl alcohol, the observed hydroxylic proton chemical shifts correlate with previously obtained relative gas-phase acidities from thermochemical analysis which employed equilibrium constants of proton transfer reactions measured via mass spectroscopic and ion cyclotron resonance techniques. The correlational dependence is 10.3(0.5) kcal/mol ppm with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. These results demonstrate that the trend of increasing acidity with increasing size of the alkyl substituent is also reflected in the neutral forms of the alcohols, indicating that the polarizability of the ionic forms is not the only determining factor in relative gas-phase acidities of alcohols. Although factors affecting the hydroxylic proton chemical shifts of the larger substituted and unsaturated alcohols are more complex, their observed 1H NMR spectra also reflect this trend. For methanol and ethanol observed gas-phase 1H chemical shifts are also compared with recent theoritical calculations. 3JHH coupling constants across CO bonds are ≈ 5.5 Hz, significantly smaller than typical 3JHH coupling across sp 3 hybrid C C bonds.

  5. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of polyhydroxy alcohols and acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Luo, Jianbin

    2013-04-30

    In the present work, we show that the superlubricity can be achieved when the polyhydroxy alcohol solutions are mixed with acid solutions. The lowest friction coefficients between 0.003 and 0.006 are obtained on a traditional tribometer with a high pressure under the lubrication of these mixtures. Experimental results indicate that the superlubricity mechanism is in accordance with that under the lubrication of the mixture of glycerol and acid solutions in the study by Li et al. (Li , J. J.; Zhang, C. H.; Ma, L. R.; Liu, Y. H.; Luo, J. B. Superlubricity achieved with mixtures of acids and glycerol. Langmuir 2013, 29, 271-275). It is also found that the superlubricity is closely dependent upon the concentration of polyhydroxy alcohol and the number of hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure of polyhydroxy alcohol. However, the number of carbon atoms and the arrangement of hydroxyl groups in the molecular structure almost have no effect on superlubricity.

  6. Solubilities of stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, and arachidyl alcohol in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35[degree]C

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Yoshio; Koga, Yoshio; Maruyama, Hironori; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    The solubilities of stearic acid (octadecanoic acid), stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol), and arachidyl alcohol (1-eicosanol) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by using a flow-type apparatus at 35 C up to 23.7 MPa. The solubilities of those substances and other fatty acids and higher alcohols in supercritical carbon dioxide at 35 C were correlated by a solution model based on the regular solution model coupled with the Flory-Huggins theory.

  7. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  8. Direct dehydrative esterification of alcohols and carboxylic acids with a macroporous polymeric acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Maki; Baek, Heeyoel; Yamada, Yoichi M A; Han, Jin Wook; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2013-11-15

    A macroporous polymeric acid catalyst was prepared for the direct esterification of carboxylic acids and alcohols that proceeded at 50-80 °C without removal of water to give the corresponding esters with high yield. Flow esterification for the synthesis of biodiesel fuel was also achieved by using a column-packed macroporous acid catalyst under mild conditions without removal of water.

  9. Proteomic approaches for studying alcoholism and alcohol-induced organ damage.

    PubMed

    Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne; Sobin, Josip; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2008-01-01

    Proteomics research is concerned with the analysis of all proteins found in an organism, tissue, cell type, or cellular structure. The shotgun proteomic approach, which involves two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (MS), is used to identify novel proteins affected by alcohol. More targeted analyses study protein-protein interactions using such techniques as the yeast two-hybrid system, affinity chromatography, or immunoprecipitation. Finally, proteomic strategies can be combined with genomic research findings using computer analyses (i.e., in silico). All of these approaches have been used in the alcohol field. These studies have identified proteins in various brain regions whose expression is affected by alcohol. Other investigators have used proteomic approaches to identify proteins that could serve as potential biomarkers of alcohol use. Finally, interaction proteomic analyses have begun to identify proteins involved in several nerve signaling networks in the brain, which then can serve as targets for further studies on alcohol's effects. Future proteomic studies likely will shed more light on the mechanisms underlying alcohol's actions on the body. PMID:23584750

  10. ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: ALCOHOL OXIDATION AND OLEFIN EPOXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasound-assisted Organic Synthesis: Alcohol Oxidation and Olefin Epoxidation

    Unnikrishnan R Pillai, Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie , Vasudevan Namboodiri, Quiming Zhao, Juluis Enriquez
    U.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. , Cincinnati, OH 45268
    Phone: 513-569-773...

  11. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  12. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOEpatents

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  13. Scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate as an extremely active Lewis acid catalyst in acylation of alcohols with acid anhydrides and mixed anhydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, K.; Kubota, M.; Kurihara, H.; Yamamoto, H.

    1996-07-12

    Scandium triflate catalyzes the acylation of alcohols with acid anhydrides or the esterification of alcohols by carboxylic acids in the presence of p-nitrobenzoic anhydrides. The catalytic activity of the scandium triflates is found to be quite high allowing the acylation of secondary and tertiary alcohols.

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Nair, B

    2001-01-01

    Benzyl Alcohol is an aromatic alcohol used in a wide variety of cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component, preservative, solvent, and viscosity-decreasing agent. Benzoic Acid is an aromatic acid used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a pH adjuster and preservative. Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of Benzoic Acid used as a preservative, also in a wide range of cosmetic product types. Benzyl Alcohol is metabolized to Benzoic Acid, which reacts with glycine and excreted as hippuric acid in the human body. Acceptable daily intakes were established by the World Health Organization at 5 mg/kg for Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate are generally recognized as safe in foods according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. No adverse effects of Benzyl Alcohol were seen in chronic exposure animal studies using rats and mice. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Sodium Benzoate in chronic exposure animal studies were limited to reduced feed intake and reduced growth. Some differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated populations were noted in one reproductive toxicity study using mice, but these were limited to lower maternal body weights and decreased mean litter weights. Another study also noted that fetal weight was decreased compared to controls, but a third study showed no differences between control and Benzyl Alcohol-treated groups. Benzoic Acid was associated with an increased number of resorptions and malformations in hamsters, but there were no reproductive or developmental toxicty findings in studies using mice and rats exposed to Sodium Benzoate, and, likewise, Benzoic Acid was negative in two rat studies. Genotoxicity tests for these ingredients were mostly negative, but there were some assays that were positive. Carcinogenicity studies, however, were negative. Clinical data indicated that these ingredients can produce nonimmunologic contact urticaria and nonimmunologic immediate contact reactions

  15. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  4. Formation of Linear Polyenes in Thermal Dehydration of Polyvinyl Alcohol, Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.

  5. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F.; Rodríguez, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver. Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and activity. Moreover, overexpression of a constitutively active form of FXR induced ADH1A and ADH1B expression, whereas silencing of FXR abolished the effects of FXR agonists on ADH1 expression and activity. Transient transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed functional FXR response elements in the ADH1A and ADH1B proximal promoters, thus indicating that both genes are direct targets of FXR. These findings provide the first evidence for direct connection of bile acid signaling and alcohol metabolism. PMID:23772048

  6. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F; Rodríguez, Joan C

    2013-09-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver. Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and activity. Moreover, overexpression of a constitutively active form of FXR induced ADH1A and ADH1B expression, whereas silencing of FXR abolished the effects of FXR agonists on ADH1 expression and activity. Transient transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed functional FXR response elements in the ADH1A and ADH1B proximal promoters, thus indicating that both genes are direct targets of FXR. These findings provide the first evidence for direct connection of bile acid signaling and alcohol metabolism.

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  8. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SOGUT, IBRAHIM; OGLAKCI, AYSEGUL; KARTKAYA, KAZIM; OL, KEVSER KUSAT; SOGUT, MELIS SAVASAN; KANBAK, GUNGOR; INAL, MINE ERDEN

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), the MDA level in the alcohol + boric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (P<0.01). The CAT activity of the alcohol + boric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25667671

  9. Surface Partitioning and Stability of Mixed Films of Fluorinated Alcohols and Acids at the Air- Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, N. A.; Vaida, V.

    2007-05-01

    The production of fluorinated compounds over the past 50 years has had numerous industrial applications. For example, perfluorinated carboxylic acids are used in the synthesis of polymers and fire retardants, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates act as surface protectors, and fluorotelomer alcohols are incorporated into products such as paints, coatings, polymers, and adhesives. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are linear polyfluorinated alcohols with the formula CF3(CF2)nCH2CH2OH (n=1,3,5,...). They have been suggested as possible precursors for perfluorinated carboxylic acids and detected in the troposphere over several North American sites. Perfluorocarboxylic acids have even been detected in the arctic food chain, human blood, tissues of animals and environmental waters. We report the surface activity of fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorinated carboxylic acids at the air-water interface by using a Langmuir trough. Isotherms of the pure compounds along with mixed films with other organic carboxylic acids were collected. The main objective of these experiments was to understand their heterogeneous chemistry by characterizing the pure and mixed films, which serves as a representative model for organic films on atmospheric surfaces such as those found on oceans and aqueous aerosols. Film properties and behavior, notably stabilization, evaporation from the subphase, and miscibility in the single-component mixtures as well as in the mixed films will be discussed. An important consequence of FTOHs and perfluorocarboxylic acids being found to partition to the air-water interface is the possibility of their transport and widespread distribution and deposition using atmospheric aerosols.

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  11. Clarification of cross-linkage structure in boric acid doped poly(vinyl alcohol) and its model compound as studied by an organized combination of X-ray single-crystal structure analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theoretical calculation.

    PubMed

    Itou, Takahiko; Kitai, Hideyuki; Shimazu, Akira; Miyazaki, Tsukasa; Tashiro, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    When boric acid (BA) is added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a chemical reaction occurs to form the cross-linkages between the amorphous PVA chains. The local structural change caused by this reaction has been clarified concretely from the microscopic level on the basis of the X-ray-analyzed crystal structure, Raman spectra, and ab initio density functional theory using a model compound produced by the reaction between pentanediol (PENT) and boric acid (PENT-BA). The PENT-BA compound was found to take the TT and TG conformations in the methylene segmental parts depending on the stereoregularity of the PENT molecule itself, meso and racemo configurations, respectively. These two conformations give the Raman bands at the different positions. By comparison of the Raman spectra between the PVA-BA and PENT-BA model compounds, the local structures of PVA chains connected to BA molecules have been derived concretely: the syndiotactic PVA parts in the amorphous region form the TG-type ring structure with the 3-coordinate boron atom, where T and G are trans and gauche conformers, respectively. On the other hand, the isotactic PVA part takes the TT conformation when it forms a ring with boron atom. The thus-created rings are hydrogen-bonded to form a dimer, which plays a role as cross-linkage between the neighboring PVA chain segments in the amorphous region.

  12. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  13. Chiral discrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Indrani; Chaudhari, Sachin R; Suryaprakash, Nagaraja Rao

    2015-02-01

    The manuscript reports two novel ternary ion-pair complexes, which serve as chiral solvating agents, for enantiodiscrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids. The protocol for discrimination of secondary alcohols is designed by using one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure mandelic acid, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and a chiral alcohol. For discrimination of carboxylic acids, the ternary complex is obtained by one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure chiral alcohol, DMAP and a carboxylic acid. The designed protocols also permit accurate measurement of enantiomeric composition.

  14. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3770 Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen...

  15. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID IN FETAL AND NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and its metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are developmental toxicants, but metabolism and distribution during pregnancy is not known. To examine this, timed-pregnant mice received a single gavage dose (...

  16. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pachunka, Joseph M; Mott, Justin L

    2015-11-20

    Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.

  17. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Pachunka, Joseph M.; Mott, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. PMID:26610589

  18. The acid free asymmetric intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes in fluorinated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2012-04-11

    The acid free asymmetric intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes with alcohols has been discovered using trifluoroethanol as solvent. This unprecedented system affords the enantioenriched functionalized primary alcohols (after NaBH(4) reduction) in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities with wide substrate scope in the absence of any acid additive.

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  1. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  2. Effect of folic acid on prenatal alcohol-induced modification of brain proteome in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yajun; Tang, Yunan; Li, Yong

    2008-03-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can induce central nervous system abnormalities in the fetus, and folic acid supplementation can reverse some of the effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal brain proteome alteration and the protective effect of folic acid using proteomic techniques. Alcohol (5.0 g/kg) was given intragastrically from gestational day (GD) 6 to 15, with or without 60.0 mg folic acid/kg given intragastrically during GD 1-16 to pregnant Balb/c mice. The control group received distilled water only. Results of litter evaluation on GD 18 showed that supplementation of folic acid reversed the prevalence of microcephaly induced by alcohol. Proteomic analysis indicated that, under the dosage of the present investigation, folic acid mainly reversed the alcohol-altered proteins involved in energy production, signal pathways and protein translation, which are all important for central nervous system development. PMID:17697403

  3. Rotational Investigation of the Adducts of Formic Acid with Alcohols, Ethers and Esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Spada, Lorenzo; Li, Weixing; Caminati, Walther

    2016-06-01

    Mixtures of formic acid with methyl alcohol, with isopropyl alcohol, with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethylether and with isopropylformiate have been supersonically expanded as pulsed jets. The obtained cool plumes have been analyzed by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. It has been possible to assign the rotational spectra of the 1:1 adducts of formic acid with tert-butyl alcohol, with dimethyl ether and with isopropylformiate. The conformational shapes and geometries of these adducts, as well as the topologies of their itermolecular hydrogen bonds will be presented. An explanation is given of the failure of the assignments of the rotational spectra of the adducts of formic acid with methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol.

  4. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  7. Exacerbation of Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Patere, S. N.; Majumdar, A. S.; Saraf, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography), polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. PMID:22303057

  8. Supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol and desizing wastewater: influence of NaOH on the organic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Xu, Donghai; Gong, Yanmeng; Tang, Xingying

    2013-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol is a refractory compound widely used in industry. Here we report supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol solution and desizing wastewater with and without sodium hydroxide addition. However, it is difficult to implement complete degradation of organics even though polyvinyl alcohol can readily crack under supercritical water treatment. Sodium hydroxide had a significant catalytic effect during the supercritical water oxidation of polyvinyl alcohol. It appears that the OH- ion participated in the C-C bond cleavage of polyvinyl alcohol molecules, the CO2-capture reaction and the neutralization of intermediate organic acids, promoting the overall reactions moving in the forward direction. Acetaldehyde was a typical intermediate product during reaction. For supercritical water oxidation of desizing wastewater, a high destruction rate (98.25%) based on total organic carbon was achieved. In addition, cases where initial wastewater was alkaline were favorable for supercritical water oxidation treatment, but salt precipitation and blockage issues arising during the process need to be taken into account seriously.

  9. Unexpected dehomologation of primary alcohols to one-carbon shorter carboxylic acids using o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX).

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Itto, Kaori; Satoh, Masahide; Arimoto, Hirokazu

    2014-03-14

    A novel and efficient transformation of primary alcohols to one-carbon shorter carboxylic acids using IBX is reported. Mechanistic studies revealed that the combination of IBX and molecular iodine produces a different active hypervalent iodine species.

  10. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  11. Acid-catalyzed furfurly alcohol polymerization : characterizations of molecular structure and thermodynamic properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.; Assary, R. S.; Marshall, C. L.; Gosztola, D. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stair, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid-phase polymerization of furfuryl alcohol catalyzed by sulfuric acid catalysts and the identities of molecular intermediates were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. At room temperature, with an acid catalyst, a vigorous furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction was observed, whereas even at a high water concentration, furfuryl alcohol was very stable in the absence of an acid catalyst. Theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the thermodynamics of protonation of furfuryl alcohol, initiation of polymerization, and formation of conjugated dienes and diketonic species by using the B3LYP level of theory. A strong aliphatic C=C band observed in the calculated and measured Raman spectra provided crucial evidence to understand the polymerization reaction mechanism. It is confirmed that the formation of a conjugated diene structure rather than a diketone structure is involved in the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction.

  12. Acid-catalyzed Furfuryl Alcohol Polymerization: Characterizations of Molecular Structure and Thermodynamic Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taejin; Assary, Rajeev A.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Gosztola, David J.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Stair, Peter C.

    2011-07-22

    The liquid-phase polymerization of furfuryl alcohol catalyzed by sulfuric acid catalysts and the identities of molecular intermediates were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. At room temperature, with an acid catalyst, a vigorous furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction was observed, whereas even at a high water concentration, furfuryl alcohol was very stable in the absence of an acid catalyst. Theoretical studies were carried out to investigate the thermodynamics of protonation of furfuryl alcohol, initiation of polymerization, and formation of conjugated dienes and diketonic species by using the B3LYP level of theory. A strong aliphatic C=C band observed in the calculated and measured Raman spectra provided crucial evidence to understand the polymerization reaction mechanism. It is confirmed that the formation of a conjugated diene structure rather than a diketone structure is involved in the furfuryl alcohol polymerization reaction.

  13. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, T.W.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  14. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  15. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  16. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  17. Chemoselective O-acylation of hydroxyamino acids and amino alcohols under acidic reaction conditions: History, scope and applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amino acids, whether natural, semisynthetic or synthetic, are among the most important and useful chiral building blocks available for organic chemical synthesis. In principle, they can function as inexpensive, chiral and densely functionalized starting materials. On the other hand, the use of amino acid starting materials routinely necessitates protective group chemistry, and in reality, large-scale preparations of even the simplest side-chain derivatives of many amino acids often become annoyingly strenuous due to the necessity of employing protecting groups, on one or more of the amino acid functionalities, during the synthetic sequence. However, in the case of hydroxyamino acids such as hydroxyproline, serine, threonine, tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), many O-acyl side-chain derivatives are directly accessible via a particularly expedient and scalable method not commonly applied until recently. Direct acylation of unprotected hydroxyamino acids with acyl halides or carboxylic anhydrides under appropriately acidic reaction conditions renders possible chemoselective O-acylation, furnishing the corresponding side-chain esters directly, on multigram-scale, in a single step, and without chromatographic purification. Assuming a certain degree of stability under acidic reaction conditions, the method is also applicable for a number of related compounds, such as various amino alcohols and the thiol-functional amino acid cysteine. While the basic methodology underlying this approach has been known for decades, it has evolved through recent developments connected to amino acid-derived chiral organocatalysts to become a more widely recognized procedure for large-scale preparation of many useful side-chain derivatives of hydroxyamino acids and related compounds. Such derivatives are useful in peptide chemistry and drug development, as amino acid amphiphiles for asymmetric catalysis, and as amino acid acrylic precursors for preparation of

  18. The Central Amygdala and Alcohol: Role of γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Siggins, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking, loss of control in limiting intake, and the emergence of a withdrawal syndrome in the absence of the drug. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for synaptic transmission in the central amygdala (CeA) in mediating alcohol-related behaviors and neuroadaptative mechanisms associated with alcohol dependence. Acute alcohol facilitates γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission in CeA via both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and chronic alcohol increases baseline GABAergic transmission. Acute alcohol inhibits glutamatergic transmission via effects at N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and AMPA receptors in CeA, whereas chronic alcohol up-regulates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. Pro- (e.g., corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]) and anti-stress (e.g., NPY, nociceptin) neuropeptides affect alcohol- and anxiety-related behaviors, and also alter the alcohol-induced effects on CeA neurotransmission. Alcohol dependence produces plasticity in these neuropeptide systems, reflecting a recruitment of those systems during the transition to alcohol dependence. PMID:23085848

  19. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huawei; Trabue, Steven L; Scoggin, Kenwood; Jackson, Wendi A; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Malkina, Irina L; Koziel, Jacek A; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their manure as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). We report measurements of alcohols, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and methane (CH4) emitted from nonlactating (dry) and lactating dairy cows and their manure under controlled conditions. The experiment was conducted in an environmental chamber that simulates commercial concrete-floored freestall cow housing conditions. The fluxes of methanol, ethanol, and CH4 were measured from cows and/or their fresh manure. The average estimated methanol and ethanol emissions were 0.33 and 0.51 g cow(-1) h(-1) from dry cows and manure and 0.7 and 1.27 g cow(-1) h(-1) from lactating cows and manure, respectively. Both alcohols increased over time, coinciding with increasing accumulation of manure on the chamber floor. Volatile fatty acids and phenols were emitted at concentrations close to their detection limit. Average estimated CH4 emissions were predominantly associated with enteric fermentation from cows rather than manure and were 12.35 and 18.23 g cow(-1) h(-1) for dry and lactating cows, respectively. Lactating cows produced considerably more gaseous VOCs and GHGs emissions than dry cows (P < 0.001). Dairy cows and fresh manure have the potential to emit considerable amounts of alcohols and CH4 and research is needed to determine effective mitigation.

  20. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  1. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  2. Octanoic acid in alcohol-responsive essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    McCrossin, Gayle; Lungu, Codrin; Considine, Elaine; Toro, Camilo; Nahab, Fatta B.; Auh, Sungyoung; Buchwald, Peter; Grimes, George J.; Starling, Judith; Potti, Gopal; Scheider, Linda; Kalowitz, Daniel; Bowen, Daniel; Carnie, Andrea; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess safety and efficacy of an oral, single, low dose of octanoic acid (OA) in subjects with alcohol-responsive essential tremor (ET). Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the effect of 4 mg/kg OA in 19 subjects with ET. The primary outcome was accelerometric postural tremor power of the dominant hand 80 minutes after administration. Secondary outcomes included digital spiral analysis, pharmacokinetic sampling, as well as safety measures. Results: OA was safe and well tolerated. Nonserious adverse events were mild (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1) and equally present after OA and placebo. At the primary outcome, OA effects were not different from placebo. Secondary outcome analyses of digital spiral analysis, comparison across the entire time course in weighted and nonweighted accelerometry, as well as nondominant hand tremor power did not show a benefit of OA over placebo. The analysis of individual time points showed that OA improved tremor at 300 minutes (dominant hand, F1,16 = 5.49, p = 0.032 vs placebo), with a maximum benefit at 180 minutes after OA (both hands, F1,16 = 6.1, p = 0.025). Conclusions: Although the effects of OA and placebo at the primary outcome were not different, secondary outcome measures suggest superiority of OA in reducing tremor at later time points, warranting further trials at higher dose levels. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that a single 4-mg/kg dose of OA is not effective in reducing postural tremor in patients with ET at a primary outcome of 80 minutes, but is effective for a secondary outcome after 180 minutes. PMID:23408867

  3. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  4. Asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols catalyzed by vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic Acid complex.

    PubMed

    Noji, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Uechi, Yuria; Kikuchi, Asami; Kondo, Hisako; Sugiyama, Shigeo; Ishii, Keitaro

    2015-03-20

    A vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic acid (BBHA) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols is described. The optically active binaphthyl-based ligands BBHA 2a and 2b were synthesized from (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid and N-substituted-O-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-protected hydroxylamines via a one-pot, three-step procedure. The epoxidations of 2,3,3-trisubstituted allylic alcohols using the vanadium complex of 2a were easily performed in toluene with a TBHP water solution to afford (2R)-epoxy alcohols in good to excellent enantioselectivities.

  5. Lewis acid-water/alcohol complexes as hydrogen atom donors in radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Povie, Guillaume; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Water or low molecular weight alcohols are, due to their availability, low price and low toxicity ideal reagents for organic synthesis. Recently, it was reported that, despite the very strong BDE of the O-H bond, they can be used as hydrogen atom donors in place of expensive and/or toxic group 14 metal hydrides when boron and titanium(III) Lewis acids are present. This finding represents a considerable innovation and uncovers a new perspective on the paradigm of hydrogen atom transfers to radicals. We discuss here the influence of complex formation and other association processes on the efficacy of the hydrogen transfer step. A delicate balance between activation by complex formation and deactivation by further hydrogen bonding is operative.

  6. ABA-alcohol is an intermediate in abscisic acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been established that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to ABA. The ABA-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are blocked in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol. {sup 18}O-Labeling studies of ABA in flacca and sitiens show that these mutants synthesize a large percentage of ({sup 18}O)ABA which contains two {sup 18}O atoms in the carboxyl group. Furthermore, the mutants synthesize much greater amounts of trans-ABA-glucose ester (t-ABA-GE) compared with the wild type, and this ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE is also double labeled in the carboxyl group. Our interpretation of these data is that the {sup 18}O in ABA-aldehyde is trapped in the side chain by reduction to ({sup 18}O)ABA-alcohol, followed by isomerization to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-alcohol and oxidation with {sup 18}O{sub 2} to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA. The ({sup 18}O)t-ABA is then rapidly converted to ({sup 18}O)t-ABA-GE. Because ({sup 18}O)ABA doubly labeled in the carboxyl group has been observed in small amounts in labeling experiments with several species, and various species have been shown to convert ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol and t-ABA-alcohol, we propose that ABA-alcohol is an ABA intermediate in a shunt pathway.

  7. Model Systems of Precursor Cellular Membranes: Long-Chain Alcohols Stabilize Spontaneously Formed Oleic Acid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Adela; Carton, David Gil; Sot, Jesús; García-Pacios, Marcos; Montes, Ruth; Valle, Mikel; Arrondo, José-Luis R.; Goñi, Felix M.; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    Oleic acid vesicles have been used as model systems to study the properties of membranes that could be the evolutionary precursors of more complex, stable, and impermeable phospholipid biomembranes. Pure fatty acid vesicles in general show high sensitivity to ionic strength and pH variation, but there is growing evidence that this lack of stability can be counterbalanced through mixtures with other amphiphilic or surfactant compounds. Here, we present a systematic experimental analysis of the oleic acid system and explore the spontaneous formation of vesicles under different conditions, as well as the effects that alcohols and alkanes may have in the process. Our results support the hypothesis that alcohols (in particular 10- to 14-C-atom alcohols) contribute to the stability of oleic acid vesicles under a wider range of experimental conditions. Moreover, studies of mixed oleic-acid-alkane and oleic-acid-alcohol systems using infrared spectroscopy and Langmuir trough measurements indicate that precisely those alcohols that increased vesicle stability also decreased the mobility of oleic acid polar headgroups, as well as the area/molecule of lipid. PMID:22339864

  8. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  9. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  10. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

  11. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR. PMID:27664739

  12. New aliphatic alcohol and (Z)-4-coumaric acid glycosides from Acanthus ilicifolius.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Zhang, Si; Huang, Jianshe; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Qingxin; Long, Lijuan; Huang, Liangmin

    2003-10-01

    From the aerial parts of Acanthus ilicifolius, a new aliphatic alcohol glycoside (ilicifolioside C) and two new (Z)-4-coumaric acid glycosides, (Z)-4-coumaric acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (Z)-4-coumaric acid 4-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"-->2')-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structural elucidations were based on the analyses of spectroscopic data. Z-Form 4-coumaric acid glycosides were first isolated from plant.

  13. Development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations in highly acidic and phenolic apple musts.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Gloria; Berregi, Iñaki; Santos, José Ignacio; Dueñas, Maite; Irastorza, Ana

    2008-05-01

    This work reports the influence of the high acidity and high phenolic content in apple musts on the development of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and on the final chemical and microbiological composition of the ciders. Four different musts were obtained by pressing several varieties and proportions of cider apples from the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Specially acidic and phenolic varieties were selected. Three musts were obtained in experimental stations and the fourth one, in a cider factory following usual procedures. The evolution of these musts was monitored during five months by measuring 18 parameters throughout eight samplings. In the most acidic of the three experimental musts, yeasts were added to complete the alcoholic fermentation. In the rest of the musts, alcoholic and malolactic fermentations took place spontaneously due to natural microflora and no chemical was added to control these processes. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) finished before alcoholic fermentation in the three tanks obtained in experimental stations, even in the most acidic and phenolic one (pH 3.18, 1.78 g tannic acid/l). After four months, these ciders maintained low levels of lactic acid bacteria (10(4)CFU/ml) and low content of acetic acid (<0.60 g/l). Both fermentations began simultaneously in the must obtained in the cider factory, but MLF finished 10 days after alcoholic fermentation. Subsequently, this must maintained a high population of lactic acid bacteria (>10(6)CFU/ml), causing a higher production of acetic acid (>1.00 g/l) than in the other ciders. These results show the possible advantages of MLF finishing before alcoholic fermentation. PMID:17706419

  14. Boronic acid as an efficient anchor group for surface modification of solid polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Shimizu, Ai

    2016-07-28

    We report the use of boronic acid as an anchor group for surface modification of solid polyvinyl alcohol (PVA); the surfaces of PVA microparticles, films, and nanofibers were chemically modified with boronic acid-appended fluorescent dyes through boronate esterification using a simple soaking technique in a short time under ambient conditions. PMID:27311634

  15. Iron Catalysis for Room-Temperature Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingguo; Zhang, Jiasheng; Ma, Shengming

    2016-07-13

    Oxidation from alcohols to carboxylic acids, a class of essential chemicals in daily life, academic laboratories, and industry, is a fundamental reaction, usually using at least a stoichiometric amount of an expensive and toxic oxidant. Here, an efficient and practical sustainable oxidation technology of alcohols to carboxylic acids using pure O2 or even O2 in air as the oxidant has been developed: utilizing a catalytic amount each of Fe(NO3)3·9H2O/TEMPO/MCl, a series of carboxylic acids were obtained from alcohols (also aldehydes) in high yields at room temperature. A 55 g-scale reaction was demonstrated using air. As a synthetic application, the first total synthesis of a naturally occurring allene, i.e., phlomic acid, was accomplished.

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  17. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2012-07-01

    Assessments of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of alcoholism have not been based on quantitative meta-analysis. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, pooling the effects using odds ratios (ORs) by a generic inverse variance, random effects model. We identified six eligible trials, including 536 participants. There was evidence for a beneficial effect of LSD on alcohol misuse (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.36-2.84; p = 0.0003). Between-trial heterogeneity for the treatment effects was negligible (I² = 0%). Secondary outcomes, risk of bias and limitations are discussed. A single dose of LSD, in the context of various alcoholism treatment programs, is associated with a decrease in alcohol misuse.

  18. Organic acids from biomass by continuous fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    In continuous fermentation, a 90% conversion of glucose and an 86% conversion of xylose were achieved in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for a 72 hour retention time and a 30 g/l total sugar concentration. The fermentation in the CSTR was shown to be about four times faster than that in a batch reactor. A 92% conversion of glucose and a 75% conversion of xylose were found at a 28 hour retention time in the immobilized cell reaction (ICR). Also, about 67% of the sugar can be converted into organic acids in this reactor, yielding more than 20 g/L of organic acids in the ICR. The total capital investment expected for a 20 million lb (9 Gg)/yr propionic acid plant is expected to be just over $11 million, including hydrolysis and acid production. Acetic acid is also produced in this plant at a rate of 11.1 million lb (5 Gg)/yr. For this facility, the recovered acids costs is projected to be 16.6 cents/lbm (36.6cents/kg). 11 references.

  19. Detection and qualitative analysis of fatty acid amides in the urine of alcoholics using HPLC-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Dabur, Rajesh; Mittal, Ashwani

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid amides (FAAs) in alcoholism lead to liver diseases. These amides have been reported in plasma and in other organs of the body, while their detection or presence in the urine is still unknown. Therefore, the focus of the current study was to detect and analyze FAAs qualitatively in urine samples of alcoholics. Furthermore, the effects of Tinospora cordifolia (hepatoprotective medicinal plant) intervention on FAA levels in moderate alcoholics were also analyzed. In the study, asymptomatic chronic alcoholics (n = 22) without chronic liver disease and nonalcoholic healthy volunteers (n = 24) with a mean age of 39 ± 2.0 years were selected. The first-pass urine and fasting blood samples were collected in the morning on day 0 and day 14 after T. cordifolia water extract (TCE) treatment and analyzed using automated biochemistry analyzer and HPLC-QTOF-MS. Results indicated the increased levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and liver function enzymes in alcoholic subjects, which were significantly down-regulated by TCE intervention. Multivariate discrimination analysis of QTOF-MS data showed increased urinary levels of oleoamide (2.55-fold), palmitamide (5.6-fold), and erucamide (1.6-fold) in alcoholics as compared to control subjects. Levels of oleamide (1.8-fold), palmitamide (1.7-fold), and linoleamide (1.5-fold) were found to be increased in plasma. Treatment with TCE in alcoholics (3.0 g lyophilized water extract/day) significantly decreased the plasma and urinary levels of all FAAs except linoleamide. The HPLC-QTOF-MS approach for FAAs analysis in both urinary and plasma samples of alcoholics worked very well. Moreover, findings (i.e., increased levels of FAAs in urine and in plasma) further support other findings that these amides play a very important role in alcoholism. Further, like our previous findings, TCE proved its hepatoprotective effect against alcoholism not only by lowering the levels of these detected FAAs, but also by decreasing the

  20. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations. PMID:25844464

  1. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations.

  2. Role of farnesoid X receptor and bile acids in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Sharon; Ding, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the major causes of liver morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to development of liver pathogenesis encompassing steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in extreme cases, hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, ALD may also associate with cholestasis. Emerging evidence now suggests that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acids also play important roles in ALD. In this review, we discuss the effects of alcohol consumption on FXR, bile acids and gut microbiome as well as their impacts on ALD. Moreover, we summarize the findings on FXR, FoxO3a (forkhead box-containing protein class O3a) and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) in regulation of autophagy-related gene transcription program and liver injury in response to alcohol exposure. PMID:26579442

  3. Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied to determine the critical parameters of pure substances and their acentric factors. The parameters obtained were used to calculate the phase diagrams and critical parameters of mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters, at various alcohol/oil ratios. The conditions of triglyceride transesterification in various lower alcohols providing the supercritical state of reaction mixtures were selected.

  4. Role of farnesoid X receptor and bile acids in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Manley, Sharon; Ding, Wenxing

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the major causes of liver morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to development of liver pathogenesis encompassing steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in extreme cases, hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, ALD may also associate with cholestasis. Emerging evidence now suggests that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acids also play important roles in ALD. In this review, we discuss the effects of alcohol consumption on FXR, bile acids and gut microbiome as well as their impacts on ALD. Moreover, we summarize the findings on FXR, FoxO3a (forkhead box-containing protein class O3a) and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) in regulation of autophagy-related gene transcription program and liver injury in response to alcohol exposure. PMID:26579442

  5. Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty acid composition during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA (ΔPUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ΔPUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ΔPUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The compositions of membrane fatty acid, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty acid composition, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ΔPUFA-induced changes in fatty acid composition and preserves membrane integrity. PMID:24706101

  6. Quantification of organic acids using voltammetric tongues.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan David; Alcaniz, Miguel; Masot, Rafael; Fuentes, Ana; Bataller, Roman; Soto, Juan; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Recently, electronic tongues (ET) have appeared as an excellent alternative to traditional techniques for the evaluation of food quality and processes. ET systems are based on arrays of low selectivity sensors that are simultaneously sensitive to several components in a measured sample (cross-sensitivity). The aim of this study was to determine the ability of an ET based on pulse voltammetry to quantify organic acids (ascorbic, citric and malic acids) in simple (SS) and binary solutions (BS) using different electrodes. The most significant electrodes for ascorbic acid prediction were Ni and Ag for SS, and Ag and Ir for BS where positive pulses were more suitable than negative ones. The prediction of citric and malic acids in SS and BS were suitable using Ir, Rh, Pt, Ag and Cu electrodes, using both positive and negative pulses.

  7. Alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the development of octavolateral organs of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lilliann Y; Lu, Zhongmin

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have many profound detrimental effects on human fetal development (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), which may manifest as lifelong disabilities. However, how alcohol affects the auditory/vestibular system is still largely unknown. This is the first study to investigate morphological effects of alcohol on the developing octavolateral system (the inner ear and lateral line) using the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos of 2 hours post fertilization (hpf) were treated in 2% alcohol for 48 hours and screened at 72 hpf for morphological defects of the inner ear and lateral line. Octavolateral organs from both alcohol-treated and control zebrafish were examined using light, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. We observed several otolith phenotypes for alcohol-treated zebrafish including zero, one, two abnormal, two normal, and multiple otoliths. Results of this study show that alcohol treatment during early development impairs the inner ear (smaller ear, abnormal otoliths, and fewer sensory hair cells) and the lateral line (smaller neuromasts, fewer neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast, and shorter kinocilia of hair cells). Early embryonic alcohol exposure may also result in defects in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic function of zebrafish.

  8. Alcohol-Induced Morphological Deficits in the Development of Octavolateral Organs of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Lilliann Y.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have many profound detrimental effects on human fetal development (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), which may manifest as lifelong disabilities. However, how alcohol affects the auditory/vestibular system is still largely unknown. This is the first study to investigate morphological effects of alcohol on the developing octavolateral system (the inner ear and lateral line) using the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish embryos of 2 hours post fertilization (hpf) were treated in 2% alcohol for 48 hours and screened at 72 hpf for morphological defects of the inner ear and lateral line. Octavolateral organs from both alcohol-treated and control zebrafish were examined using light, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. We observed several otolith phenotypes for alcohol-treated zebrafish including zero, one, two abnormal, two normal, and multiple otoliths. Results of this study show that alcohol treatment during early development impairs the inner ear (smaller ear, abnormal otoliths, and fewer sensory hair cells) and the lateral line (smaller neuromasts, fewer neuromasts and hair cells per neuromast, and shorter kinocilia of hair cells). Early embryonic alcohol exposure may also result in defects in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic function of zebrafish. PMID:23461415

  9. Biocatalytic reduction of short-chain carboxylic acids into their corresponding alcohols with syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jose M; Richter, Hanno; Loftus, Sarah E; Angenent, Largus T

    2013-04-01

    Short-chain carboxylic acids generated by various mixed- or pure-culture fermentation processes have been considered valuable precursors for production of bioalcohols. While conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols is routinely performed with catalytic hydrogenation or with strong chemical reducing agents, here, a biological conversion route was explored. The potential of carboxydotrophic bacteria, such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium ragsdalei, as biocatalysts for conversion of short-chain carboxylic acids into alcohols, using syngas as a source of electrons and energy is demonstrated. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, isobutyric acid, n-valeric acid, and n-caproic acid were converted into their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, biomass yields and fermentation stoichiometry from the experimental data were modeled to determine how much metabolic energy C. ljungdahlii generated during syngas fermentation. An ATP yield of 0.4-0.5 mol of ATP per mol CO consumed was calculated in the presence of hydrogen. The ratio of protons pumped across the cell membrane versus electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(+) via the Rnf complex is suggested to be 1.0. Based on these results, we provide suggestions how n-butyric acid to n-butanol conversion via syngas fermentation can be further improved. PMID:23172270

  10. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  11. Conversion of isoamyl alcohol over acid catalysts: Reaction dependence on nature of active centers

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, G.P.; Murthy, R.S.; Krishnan, V.

    1997-02-01

    Acid catalysts are known to catalyze the dehydration of alcohols. In addition some oxide catalysts with basic properties have also been shown to play an important role in such dehydration reactions. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols to olefins has been studied in detail using alumina silica-alumina and zeolite catalysts. The olefin products further undergo isomerization in presence of acidic sites. The reaction of isoamyl alcohol on catalytic surfaces has not been investigated in greater detail. The dehydration of isoamyl alcohol is of considerable interest in fine chemicals. Isoamyl alcohol may also undergo dehydrogenation as observed in the case of n-butanol. The scope of the present work is to identify the nature of the active sites selective for dehydration and dehydrogenation of isoamyl alcohol and to modify the active sites to promote isomerization of dehydrated products. Four catalytic surfaces on which the acidic strength can be varied, as well as selectively suppressed, are chosen for this study. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Vyshinskaya, L.I.; Vasil'eva, G.A.

    1987-12-10

    As a result of the reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with dibasic organic acids high yields were obtained of new thermally stable titanium(III) complexes: phenyltitanium(III)carboxylates. Under the action of proton-active reagents (hydrochloric acid, cyclopentadiene, methanol) the latter break down with the breakage of titanium-phenyl bond. The proposed structure was based on IR- and ESR-spectral data. The dinuclear structure of the complexes was established on the basis of a study of the triplet structure of the ESR spectra, which showed the existence of intermolecular titanium-titanium exchange through methylene groups of the dicarboxylate bridges.

  13. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  14. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Richard C; Mathies, Laura D; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  15. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Required for Normal Alcohol Response Behaviors in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Richard C.; Mathies, Laura D.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol. PMID:25162400

  16. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Study Design: Over 5 years, lactate was measured on all blood gases taken from neonatal admissions, as well as organic acid whenever electrolytes were required. Results: Arterial blood gases from 63 infants given high calcium TPN were analyzed. Twenty two needed continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) only and 31 intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and surfactant followed by CPAP to treat respiratory distress syndrome in 51 and meconium aspiration syndrome in 2. All survived and were free of infection. Excluded gases were those with high and falling lactate soon after delivery representing perinatal asphyxia, and those on dexamethasone. Strong inverse relations between carbonic and lactic acids were found at all gestational ages and, independent of glomerular filtration, between carbonic and organic acids. Lactate (mmol/L) = 62.53 X PCO2 -0.96(mmHg) r2 0.315, n 1232, p <0.001. Sixty divided by PCO2 is a convenient measure of physiological lactate at any given PCO2. In the first week, 9.13 ± 2.57% of arterial gases from infants on IPPV had lactates above 120/PCO2, significantly more than 4.74 ± 2.73% on CPAP (p<0.05) and 2.47 ± 2.39% on no support. Conclusion: Changes in arterial blood carbonic acid cause immediate inverse changes in lactic acid, because their anions interchange across cell membranes according to the Gibbs –Donnan equilibrium. Increasing PCO2 from 40 to 120 mmHg decreased lactate from 1.5 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, so that the sum of carbonic and lactic acids increased from 2.72 mmol/L to only 4.17 mmol/L. This helps explain the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnoea and highlights the importance of avoiding any degree of hypocapnoea in infants on IPPV. PMID:24392387

  17. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  18. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products.

  19. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  20. Simple Organic Molecules as Catalysts for Enantioselective Synthesis of Amines and Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Pilyugina, Tatiana; Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Haeffner, Fredrik; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new catalysts that can generate complex organic compounds via enantioselective transformations is central to advances in the life sciences;i for this reason, many chemists try to discover catalysts that can be used to produce chiral molecules with a strong preference for one mirror image isomer.ii The ideal catalyst should be devoid of precious elementsiii and should bring reactions to completion in a few hours using operationally simple procedures. In this manuscript, we introduce a set of small organic molecules that can catalyze reactions of unsaturated organoboron reagents with imines and carbonyls; the products of the reactions are enantiomerically pure amines and alcohols, which can be used to synthesize more complex, biologically active molecules. A distinguishing feature of this new catalyst class is the presence of a 'key' proton embedded within their structure. The catalyst is derived from the abundant amino acid valine and was prepared in large quantities in four steps using inexpensive reagents. Reactions are scalable, do not demand stringent conditions, and can be performed with as little as 0.25 mol % catalyst in less than six hours at room temperature to generate products in >85% yield and ≥97:3 enantiomeric ratio. The efficiency, selectivity and operational simplicity of the transformations and the range of boron-based reagents render this advance vital to future progress in chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:23407537

  1. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  2. Gut microbiota, cirrhosis and alcohol regulate bile acid metabolism in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Ridlon, Jason M.; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the complex role of the bile acid-gut microbiome axis in health and disease processes is evolving rapidly. Our focus revolves around the interaction of the gut microbiota with liver diseases, especially cirrhosis. The bile acid pool size has recently been shown to be a function of microbial metabolism of bile acid and regulation of the microbiota by bile acids is important in the development and progression of several liver diseases. Humans produce a large, conjugated hydrophilic bile acid pool, maintained through positive-feedback antagonism of FXR in intestine and liver. Microbes use bile acids, and via FXR signaling this results in a smaller, unconjugated hydrophobic bile acid pool. This equilibrium is critical to maintain health. The challenge is to examine the manifold functions of gut bile acids as modulators of antibiotic, probiotic and disease progression in cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome and alcohol use. Recent studies have shown potential mechanisms explaining how perturbations in the microbiome affect bile acid pool size and composition. With advancing liver disease and cirrhosis, there is dysbiosis in the fecal, ileal and colonic mucosa, in addition to a decrease in bile acid concentration in the intestine due to the liver problems. This results in a dramatic shift toward the Firmicutes, particularly Clostridium cluster XIVa and increasing production of deoxycholic acid (DCA). Alcohol intake speeds up these processes in the subjects with and without cirrhosis without significant FXR feedback. Taken together, these pathways can impact intestinal and systemic inflammation while worsening dysbiosis. The interaction between bile acids, alcohol, cirrhosis and dysbiosis is an important relationship that influences intestinal and systemic inflammation, which in turn determines progression of the overall disease process. These interactions and the impact of commonly used therapies for liver disease can provide insight into the pathogenesis

  3. 2-Iodoxybenzenesulfonic acid as an extremely active catalyst for the selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and enones with oxone.

    PubMed

    Uyanik, Muhammet; Akakura, Matsujiro; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2009-01-14

    Electron-donating group-substituted 2-iodoxybenzoic acids (IBXs) such as 5-Me-IBX (1g), 5-MeO-IBX (1h), and 4,5-Me(2)-IBX (1i) were superior to IBX 1a as catalysts for the oxidation of alcohols with Oxone (a trademark of DuPont) under nonaqueous conditions, although Oxone was almost insoluble in most organic solvents. The catalytic oxidation proceeded more rapidly and cleanly in nitromethane. Furthermore, 2-iodoxybenzenesulfonic acid (IBS, 6a) was much more active than modified IBXs. Thus, we established a highly efficient and selective method for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and ketones with Oxone in nonaqueous nitromethane, acetonitrile, or ethyl acetate in the presence of 0.05-5 mol % of 6a, which was generated in situ from 2-iodobenzenesulfonic acid (7a) or its sodium salt. Cycloalkanones could be further oxidized to alpha,beta-cycloalkenones or lactones by controlling the amounts of Oxone under the same conditions as above. When Oxone was used under nonaqueous conditions, Oxone wastes could be removed by simple filtration. Based on theoretical calculations, we considered that the relatively ionic character of the intramolecular hypervalent iodine-OSO(2) bond of IBS might lower the twisting barrier of the alkoxyperiodinane intermediate 16.

  4. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  5. Reductive Etherification of Fatty Acids or Esters with Alcohols using Molecular Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Erb, Benjamin; Risto, Eugen; Wendling, Timo; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2016-06-22

    In the presence of a catalyst system consisting of a ruthenium/triphos complex and the Brønsted acid trifluoromethanesulfonimide, mixtures of fatty acids and aliphatic alcohols are converted into the corresponding ethers at 70 bar H2 . The protocol allows the sustainable one-step synthesis of valuable long-chain ether fragrances, lubricants, and surfactants from renewable sources. The reaction protocol is extended to various fatty acids and esters both in pure form and as mixtures, for example, tall oil acids or rapeseed methyl ester (RME). Even the mixed triglyceride rapeseed oil was converted in one step. PMID:27214823

  6. Properties of polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuaiyang; Ren, Junli; Li, Weiying; Sun, Runcang; Liu, Shijie

    2014-03-15

    Composite films of xylan and polyvinyl alcohol were produced with citric acid as a new plasticizer or a cross-linking agent. The effects of citric acid content and polyvinyl alcohol/xylan weight ratio on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, solubility, degree of swelling and water vapor permeability of the composite films were investigated. The intermolecular interactions and morphology of composite films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The results indicated that polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films had good compatibility. With an increase in citric acid content from 10% to 50%, the tensile strength reduced from 35.1 to 11.6 MPa. However, the elongation at break increased sharply from 15.1% to 249.5%. The values of water vapor permeability ranged from 2.35 to 2.95 × 10(-7)g/(mm(2)h). Interactions between xylan and polyvinyl alcohol in the presence of citric acid become stronger, which were caused by hydrogen bond and ester bond formation among the components during film forming.

  7. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities of furfuryl alcohol, furfural and furoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Hu, Yong-Hua; Feng, Hui-Ling; Jia, Yu-Long; Guo, Yun-Ji; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The inhibitory kinetics of furfuryl alcohol, furfural and furoic acid on mushroom tyrosinase have been investigated. The results showed that these furan compounds were reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. Furthermore, furfuryl alcohol and furfural were found to be mixed-type inhibitors while furoic acid is uncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibition constants have been confirmed and the order of the inhibiting ability was furfural>furoic acid>furfuryl alcohol. They indicate that the functional groups on the furan ring play a crucial role in the inhibition on the enzyme. In addition, it was also found that these furan compounds could inhibit the proliferation of Salmonella bacteria and Bacillus subtilis to different extents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of furfuryl alcohol, furfural and furoic acid against B. subtilis and S. bacteria were 0.115, 0.027, 0.015 and 0.115, 0.029, 0.009 μM, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of that were 0.115, 0.027, 0.015 and 0.231, 0.121, 0.030 μM, respectively.

  8. Functional characterization of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is a significant recalcitrant in the conversion of plant biomass to bioethanol. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyze key steps in the pathway of lignin monomer biosynthesis. Brown midrib mutants in Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor with impaired...

  9. Nonmetal catalyzed insertion reactions of diazocarbonyls to acid derivatives in fluorinated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Lidia; Azzouzi-Zriba, Kaouther; Bonnet-Delpon, Danièle; Crousse, Benoit

    2011-02-18

    The insertion reaction of diazocarbonyls to acids could be performed smoothly in fluorinated alcohols in the absence of metal catalyst. This new procedure allowed the chemoselective preparation of various functionalized compounds such as acyloxyesters, depsipeptides, and sulfonate, phosphonate, or boronate derivatives.

  10. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  15. In vitro release of salicylic acid from lanolin alcohols-ethylcellulose films.

    PubMed

    Khan, A R; Iyer, B V; Cirelli, R A; Vasavada, R C

    1984-03-01

    Lanolin alcohols-ethylcellulose films were investigated as a potential drug delivery system for the controlled release of salicylic acid. The effects of changes in film composition, drug concentration, drug solubility, and stirrer speed on the in vitro release of salicylic acid have been examined. The drug release has been found to obey a diffusion-controlled matrix model and square root of time release profile both in the suspension and solution cases.

  16. Nutritional assessment in alcoholic patients. Its relationship with alcoholic intake, feeding habits, organic complications and social problems.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, F; Pérez-Manzano, J L; Milena, A; González-Reimers, E; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Martínez-Riera, A; Alemán-Valls, M R; de la Vega-Prieto, M J

    2000-06-01

    To establish their ability to predict malnutrition, irregular feeding, alcoholic intake, derangement of social and familial links and organic complications (liver cirrhosis) were assessed in 181 hospitalized male alcoholic. BMI was under 18.5 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, between 18.5-20 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, 20-25 kg/m(2) in 42%, 25-30 kg/m(2) in 32.2% and over 30 kg/m(2) in 8.2% of patients. Malnutrition was related to the intensity of ethanol intake, development of social or familial problems, irregularity of feeding habits and cirrhosis with ascites. Irregularity of feeding habits was also related to heavy drinking and to social or familial derangement. By logistic regression analysis, the only variables which independently predict malnutrition were irregular feeding habits and liver cirrhosis with ascites. In a second step, irregular feeding was dependent on social or familial troubles and daily intake of ethanol. So, malnutrition related to alcoholism seems multifactorial in its pathogenesis.

  17. Ambient cure polyimide foams prepared from aromatic polyisocyanates, aromatic polycarboxylic compounds, furfuryl alcohol, and a strong inorganic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hamermesh, Charles L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Flame and temperature resistant polyimide foams are prepared by the reaction of an aromatic dianhydride, e.g., pyromellitic dianhydride, with an aromatic polyisocyanate, e.g., polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PAPI) in the presence of an inorganic acid and a lower molecular weight alcohol, e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid and furfuryl alcohol. The exothermic reaction between the acid and the alcohol provides the heat necessary for the other reactants to polymerize without the application of any external heat. Such mixtures, therefore, are ideally suited for in situ foam formation, especially where the application of heat is not practical or possible.

  18. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  19. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:27208641

  20. Physicians' Knowledge of Alcohol, Tobacco and Folic Acid in Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, L. G.; Ordean, A.; Midmer, D.; Kahan, M.; Tolomiczenko, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess: (1) physicians' knowledge and clinical confidence regarding problematic substance use in pregnancy compared to folic acid, and (2) physicians' desire for education in this area and their preferred learning modalities tools. Design: Self-administered survey. Setting: "Family Medicine Forum 2004" in Toronto, Canada.…

  1. Nicotinic acid supplementation in the context of alcoholic liver injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2014-07-01

    Li and colleagues (2014) in this issue report that dietary nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation ameliorates ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but a deficiency does not worsen injury induced by alcohol alone. The authors further present some mechanistic insights into the protective role of NA supplementation. Results of this and other previous studies in the context of alcoholic liver injury raise one important question as to what should be an adequate dose of NA that will provide the maximum benefit to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues and with minimum adverse effects.

  2. Retinoic acid response element in the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3: implications for regulation of retinoic acid synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Duester, G; Shean, M L; McBride, M S; Stewart, M J

    1991-01-01

    Retinoic acid regulation of one member of the human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family was demonstrated, suggesting that the retinol dehydrogenase function of ADH may play a regulatory role in the biosynthetic pathway for retinoic acid. Promoter activity of human ADH3, but not ADH1 or ADH2, was shown to be activated by retinoic acid in transient transfection assays of Hep3B human hepatoma cells. Deletion mapping experiments identified a region in the ADH3 promoter located between -328 and -272 bp which confers retinoic acid activation. This region was also demonstrated to confer retinoic acid responsiveness on the ADH1 and ADH2 genes in heterologous promoter fusions. Within a 34-bp stretch, the ADH3 retinoic acid response element (RARE) contains two TGACC motifs and one TGAAC motif, both of which exist in RAREs controlling other genes. A block mutation of the TGACC sequence located at -289 to -285 bp eliminated the retinoic acid response. As assayed by gel shift DNA binding studies, the RARE region (-328 to -272 bp) of ADH3 bound the human retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) and was competed for by DNA containing a RARE present in the gene encoding RAR beta. Since ADH catalyzes the conversion of retinol to retinal, which can be further converted to retinoic acid by aldehyde dehydrogenase, these results suggest that retinoic acid activation of ADH3 constitutes a positive feedback loop regulating retinoic acid synthesis. Images PMID:1996113

  3. The association of vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and gout.

    PubMed

    Towiwat, Patapong; Li, Zhan-Guo

    2015-06-01

    About 2500 years ago, gout was observed by Hippocrates and many people suffered severe pain and deformity. Lifestyle and diet play a significant role in gout and serum uric acid levels. Epidemiological and research studies have supported this evidence. Many recommendations and guidelines from different parts of the world mention the impact of diet on gout. Recently, new research has shown associations between vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and the risk of gout. Our review summarizes recently published research regarding dietary impact on the risk of gout and serum uric acid levels.

  4. General Synthesis of Amino Acid Salts from Amino Alcohols and Basic Water Liberating H2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2016-05-18

    An atom-economical and environmentally friendly method to transform amino alcohols to amino acid salts using just basic water, without the need of pre-protection or added oxidant, catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex, is developed. Water is the solvent, the source of the oxygen atom of the carboxylic acid group, and the actual oxidant, with liberation of dihydrogen. Many important and useful natural and unnatural amino acid salts can be produced in excellent yields by applying this new method. PMID:27139983

  5. The association of vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and gout.

    PubMed

    Towiwat, Patapong; Li, Zhan-Guo

    2015-06-01

    About 2500 years ago, gout was observed by Hippocrates and many people suffered severe pain and deformity. Lifestyle and diet play a significant role in gout and serum uric acid levels. Epidemiological and research studies have supported this evidence. Many recommendations and guidelines from different parts of the world mention the impact of diet on gout. Recently, new research has shown associations between vitamin C, alcohol, coffee, tea, milk and yogurt with uric acid and the risk of gout. Our review summarizes recently published research regarding dietary impact on the risk of gout and serum uric acid levels. PMID:26082349

  6. Catalytic esterification of methacrylic acid with methyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lunin, A.F.; Zheleznaya, L.L.; Karakhanov, R.A.; Meshcheryakov, S.V.; Magadov, R.S.; Mkrtychan, V.R.; Fomin, V.A.

    1987-08-10

    The authors contend that virtually all methods for the production of methacrylic acid esters suffer from the drawbacks of low conversion, dependence on costly catalysts, low feed rates, and the need to use inhibitors in the process. To eliminate these drawbacks, they propose and test a new catalyst, sulfopolyphenyl ketone, which contains an extensive conjugated bond system together with ionic hydroxide groups. The catalytic esterification rate and yield is given for this catalyst and chromatography is performed for the resulting esters.

  7. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  8. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries. PMID:26047032

  9. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries. PMID:26047032

  10. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng

    2015-06-03

    Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  11. Organization of Needs in Male and Female Drug and Alcohol Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huba, George J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Personality Research Form (PRF) was administered to 1,095 college students. Students were divided into groups of nonusers of drugs and alcohol and users of a variety of drug combinations. Results suggest organization of motivational tendencies is the same for both sexes and for different types of substance users. (Author)

  12. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  13. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  14. Pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid effect on hepatic biomarkers in Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Jainu, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1). Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers

  15. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of /sup 3/H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-09-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral /sup 3/H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided.

  16. Influence of biuret and cyanuric acid on dewaxing petroleum stocks with alcoholic urea solution

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, E.Sh.; Ismailov, A.G.; Gadzhiev, A.Sh.; Balayan, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    The influence of biuret and cyanuric acid contents on the formation and separation of the adduct in commercial dewaxing of petroleum stocks by a urea solution in a water and isopropyl alcohol mixture was studied. The stock was a diesel fuel distillate with a solid point of -12/sup 0/C. Experiments were performed with a 3.5:1 volume ratio of urea solution to feed, urea content 38% by weight, isopropyl alcohol concentration 70% by weight, adduct formation temperature 55-30/sup 0/C, and adduct formation duration 30 min. Test results show the adverse effects at different quantities of cyanuric and biuret acids on adduct formation. Solutions for overcoming these effects are proposed.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Derived from 2-Keto-Acid Decarboxylase in Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Masateru; Nishizawa, Akito; Tsuji, Kiyomi; Kimura, Shigenobu; Harada, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol, were detected together with β-cyclocitral from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843. These alcohols were optimally produced after 35 d of culture, during which nitrate nitrogen in the cultured broth became exhausted. Additionally, these alcohols were definitely produced using the 2-keto-acid decarboxylase (MaKDC) in Microcystis strains. These results suggested that these VOCs from Microcystis are significant for their lifecycle, because these compounds are not produced by any other genus of cyanobacteria. This is the first report of 2-keto-acid decarboxylase producing 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol by an oxygenic photosynthetic microorganism. PMID:23047148

  18. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  19. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  20. Laboratory models available to study alcohol-induced organ damage and immune variations; choosing the appropriate model

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; De Witte, Philippe; Spies, Claudia; Littleton, John M.; de Villiers, Willem J. S.; Lott, Amanda J.; Plackett, Timothy P.; Lanzke, Nadine; Meadows, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol-related diseases impose a substantive cost to society globally. To minimize the financial burden on society and improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from the ill effects of alcohol abuse, researchers in the alcohol field are focused on understanding the mechanisms by which alcohol-related diseases develop and progress. Since ethical concerns and inherent difficulties limit the amount of alcohol abuse research that can be performed in humans, most is performed in laboratory animals. This article summarizes the various laboratory models of alcohol abuse that are currently available and are used to study the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse induces organ damage and immune defects. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. Integrated into the review are the presentations that were made in the symposium “Methods of Ethanol Application in Alcohol Model – How Long is Long Enough” at the joint 2008 Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) and International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) meeting, Washington, DC, emphasizing the importance not only of selecting the most appropriate laboratory alcohol model to address the specific goals of a project but also of ensuring that the findings can be extrapolated to alcohol-induced diseases in humans. PMID:20586763

  1. Laboratory models available to study alcohol-induced organ damage and immune variations: choosing the appropriate model.

    PubMed

    D'Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; De Witte, Philippe; Spies, Claudia; Littleton, John M; de Villiers, Willem J S; Lott, Amanda J; Plackett, Timothy P; Lanzke, Nadine; Meadows, Gary G

    2010-09-01

    The morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol-related diseases globally impose a substantive cost to society. To minimize the financial burden on society and improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from the ill effects of alcohol abuse, substantial research in the alcohol field is focused on understanding the mechanisms by which alcohol-related diseases develop and progress. Since ethical concerns and inherent difficulties limit the amount of alcohol abuse research that can be performed in humans, most studies are performed in laboratory animals. This article summarizes the various laboratory models of alcohol abuse that are currently available and are used to study the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse induces organ damage and immune defects. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. Integrated into the review are the presentations that were made in the symposium "Methods of Ethanol Application in Alcohol Model-How Long is Long Enough" at the joint 2008 Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) and International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) meeting, Washington, DC, emphasizing the importance not only of selecting the most appropriate laboratory alcohol model to address the specific goals of a project but also of ensuring that the findings can be extrapolated to alcohol-induced diseases in humans.

  2. Activity of MMP1 and MMP13 and Amino Acid Metabolism in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Szpetnar, Maria; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Sak, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcoholic liver disease remains one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP13) as diagnostic markers of alcoholic liver disease and to determine the changes in free amino acid profile in the patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods Sixty patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis treated in various hospitals of the Lublin region were randomly enrolled. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol. Additionally, a group of alcoholics (22 persons) without liver cirrhosis was included in the study. The activity of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in blood plasma of patients and controls was measured using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique with commercially available quantitative ELISA test kits. Amino acids were determined by automated ion-exchange chromatography. Results No significant differences were observed in the activity of MMP-1 in alcoholics with or without liver cirrhosis or in controls. Increased serum MMP-13 was found in patients with liver cirrhosis (stage A, B, C) compared to the control group. Patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (stage A, B, C) demonstrated reduced concentrations of glutamic acid and glutamine compared to the control group. Plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (stage C) than in controls. Conclusions MMP-13 can be useful to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, but levels of MMP-1 are not significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis compared to controls. The serum branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is markedly reduced in patients with stage C alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:25863779

  3. Serum and muscle levels of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol are normal in chronic alcoholic myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, J; Villegas, E; Nicolàs, J M; Deulofeu, R; Antúnez, E; Sacanella, E; Estruch, R; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-04-01

    Some authors have suggested a possible loss of antioxidant factors in alcoholic skeletal myopathy. To assess the relationship between ethanol consumption and serum and muscle levels of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol in chronic alcoholics with and without skeletal myopathy, a prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Alcohol Unit of a 1000-bed university hospital. Twenty-five chronic male alcoholic patients (10 with skeletal myopathy) and 15 male controls of similar age were included. Evaluation of daily and lifetime ethanol consumption, assessment of anthropometric and protein nutritional parameters, and open biopsy of the left deltoid muscle were performed, as well as determinations of serum and muscle levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid by HPLC analysis. Ten of the 25 chronic alcoholic patients presented histological criteria of skeletal myopathy. Four alcoholics presented caloric malnutrition and three protein malnutrition. All of the muscle biopsies of the control group were entirely normal, as were their nutritional studies. The serum and muscular levels of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol were normal and were similar in both alcoholics and controls. Except for serum retinol, these values were also similar in alcoholic patients with or without skeletal myopathy. In the univariate analysis, we identified the total lifetime dose of ethanol (p < 0.003), the muscle arm area (p < 0.05), and serum levels of prealbumin (p < 0.03) and retinol-binding protein (p < 0.05) as factors influencing the development of alcoholic myopathy. However, in multivariate analysis, the total lifetime dose of ethanol was the only independent factor in relation to alcoholic myopathy (p < 0.003). Serum and muscle levels of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and retinol do not influence the presence of skeletal myopathy in chronic alcoholic patients.

  4. Synthesis of Fused Polycyclic Indoles by Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Intramolecular Alkylation of Indoles with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Anisley; Gohain, Mukut; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; Sanz, Roberto

    2015-10-16

    An efficient methodology for the synthesis of a series of new fused polyclyclic indoles has been developed by Brønsted acid-catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reactions of properly designed indolyl alcohols. PMID:26418556

  5. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed. PMID:26748037

  6. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID (PFNA) IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are the probable precursors of a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) detected globally in both mammalian and environmental samples. Recently, 8-2 FTOH has been classified as a xenoestrogen and its derivatives, perfluoro...

  7. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  8. Biosynthesis of mercapturic acids from allyl alcohol, allyl esters and acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Clive M.

    1973-01-01

    1. 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid, i.e. N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine, was isolated, as its dicyclohexylammonium salt, from the urine of rats after the subcutaneous injection of each of the following compounds: allyl alcohol, allyl formate, allyl propionate, allyl nitrate, acrolein and S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine. 2. Allylmercapturic acid, i.e. N-acetyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, was isolated from the urine of rats after the subcutaneous injection of each of the following compounds: triallyl phosphate, sodium allyl sulphate and allyl nitrate. The sulphoxide of allylmercapturic acid was detected in the urine excreted by these rats. 3. 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid was identified by g.l.c. as a metabolite of allyl acetate, allyl stearate, allyl benzoate, diallyl phthalate, allyl nitrite, triallyl phosphate and sodium allyl sulphate. 4. S-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine was detected in the bile of a rat dosed with allyl acetate. PMID:4762754

  9. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  10. Bile Acids and Dysbiosis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandsma, Robert; Comelli, Elena M.; Arendt, Bianca M.; Zhang, Ling; Fung, Scott; Fischer, Sandra E.; McGilvray, Ian G.; Allard, Johane P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by dysbiosis. The bidirectional effects between intestinal microbiota (IM) and bile acids (BA) suggest that dysbiosis may be accompanied by an altered bile acid (BA) homeostasis, which in turn can contribute to the metabolic dysregulation seen in NAFLD. This study sought to examine BA homeostasis in patients with NAFLD and to relate that with IM data. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of adults with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver: NAFL or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: NASH) and healthy controls (HC). Clinical and laboratory data, stool samples and 7-day food records were collected. Fecal BA profiles, serum markers of BA synthesis 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and intestinal BA signalling, as well as IM composition were assessed. Results 53 subjects were included: 25 HC, 12 NAFL and 16 NASH. Levels of total fecal BA, cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and BA synthesis were higher in patients with NASH compared to HC (p<0.05 for all comparisons). The primary to secondary BA ratio was higher in NASH compared to HC (p = 0.004), but ratio of conjugated to unconjugated BAs was not different between the groups. Bacteroidetes and Clostridium leptum counts were decreased in in a subset of 16 patients with NASH compared to 25 HC, after adjusting for body mass index and weight-adjusted calorie intake (p = 0.028 and p = 0.030, respectively). C. leptum was positively correlated with fecal unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) (r = 0.526, p = 0.003) and inversely with unconjugated CA (r = -0.669, p<0.0001) and unconjugated CDCA (r = - 0.630, p<0.0001). FGF19 levels were not different between the groups (p = 0.114). Conclusions In adults with NAFLD, dysbiosis is associated with altered BA homeostasis, which renders them at increased risk of hepatic injury. PMID:27203081

  11. Betulinic acid prevents alcohol-induced liver damage by improving the antioxidant system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Wu, Jianping; Yuan, Liyun; Wu, Jing; Tu, Di; Fang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene, has a wide range of bioactivities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of BA and the potential mechanism underlying the ability of this compound to prevent liver damage induced by alcohol in vivo. Mice were given oral doses of BA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and induced liver injury by feeding 50% alcohol orally at the dosage of 10 ml/kg after 1 h last administration of BA. BA pretreatment significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerides in a dose-dependent manner in the mice administered alcohol. Hepatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were remarkably increased, while malondialdehyde contents and microvesicular steatosis in the liver were decreased by BA in a dose-dependent manner after alcohol-induced liver injury. These findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective effects of BA might be due to increased antioxidant capacity, mainly through improvement of the tissue redox system, maintenance of the antioxidant system, and decreased lipid peroxidation in the liver. PMID:24378582

  12. Making Organisms Model Human Behavior: Situated Models in North-American Alcohol Research, 1950-onwards

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Argument We examine the criteria used to validate the use of nonhuman organisms in North-American alcohol addiction research from the 1950s to the present day. We argue that this field, where the similarities between behaviors in humans and non-humans are particularly difficult to assess, has addressed questions of model validity by transforming the situatedness of non-human organisms into an experimental tool. We demonstrate that model validity does not hinge on the standardization of one type of organism in isolation, as often the case with genetic model organisms. Rather, organisms are viewed as necessarily situated: they cannot be understood as a model for human behavior in isolation from their environmental conditions. Hence the environment itself is standardized as part of the modeling process; and model validity is assessed with reference to the environmental conditions under which organisms are studied. PMID:25233743

  13. Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Sawant, Onkar B; Lunde, Emilie R; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model.

  14. Monolayers of long-chain alcohols, fatty acids, and fatty acid esters at the air/water interface: a comparison by external infrared reflection-absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Arne; Huehnerfuss, Heinrich

    1994-01-01

    The properties of C15, C16, C18 and C20-alcohols, fatty acids and fatty acid esters are investigated by external infrared reflection-absorption spectrometry in the range 3000 - 1000 cm-1. Analysis of the methylene stretching vibration shows that an increasing space requirement of the hydrophilic headgroup (fatty acid ester > fatty acid >= alcohol) for the same chain length leads to higher chain disorder (i.e., more gauche conformers). However, for a given headgroup the prolongation of the alkyl-chain generally results in an increased hydrophobic interaction and thus in a higher chain-order, i.e., the molecules attain a more transconformation.

  15. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  16. An Analysis of the Role of Preexisting Internal Factors in Collegiate Alcohol Abuse within Membership of Social Groups/Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusilier, Kristy D.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the administration of the CORE Drug and Alcohol Survey long form, with the inclusion of 10 additional questions to assess prior history of behaviors, social organization membership status, and reasons for utilization of alcohol, to a representative sample of 2500 college students within a single university in order to determine…

  17. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  18. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  19. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  20. Kinetic study of esterification of sulfuric acid with alcohols in aerosol bulk phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Jang, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that the formation of organosulfates through the reactions between sulfuric acid and alcohols in the aerosol bulk phase is more efficient than that in solution chemistry. To prove this hypothesis, the kinetics of the organosulfate formation was investigated for both aliphatic alcohol with single OH group (e.g., 1-heptanol) and the multialcohols ranging from semivolatiles (e.g., hydrated-glyoxal and glycerol) to nonvolatiles (e.g., sucrose) using analytical techniques directly monitoring aerosol bulk phase. Both the forward (k1) and the backward (k-1) reaction rate constants of organosulfate formation via the particle phase esterification of 1-heptanol with sulfuric acid were estimated using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer equipped with a flow chamber under varying humidities. Both k1 and k-1 are in orders of 10-3 L mol-1 min-1, which are three orders of magnitude higher than the reported values obtained in solution chemistry. The formation of organosulfate in the H2SO4 aerosol internally mixed with multialcohols was studied by measuring the proton concentration of the aerosol collected on the filter using a newly developed Colorimetry integrated with a Reflectance UV-Visible spectrometer (C-RUV). The formation of organosulfate significantly decreases aerosol acidity due to the transformation of H2SO4 into dialkylsulfates. The forward reaction rate constants for the dialkylsulfate formation in the multialcohol-H2SO4 aerosols were also three orders of magnitude greater than the reported values in solution chemistry. The water content (MH2O) in the multialcohol-H2SO4 particle was monitored using the FTIR spectrometer. A large reduction of MH2O accords with the high yield of organosulfate in aerosol. Based on this study, we conclude that organosulfate formation in atmospheric aerosol, where both alcohols and sulfuric acid are found together, is significant.

  1. Chiral bis(amino alcohol)oxalamide gelators-gelation properties and supramolecular organization: racemate versus pure enantiomer gelation.

    PubMed

    Makarević, Janja; Jokić, Milan; Raza, Zlata; Stefanić, Zoran; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Zinić, Mladen

    2003-11-21

    Four new chiral bis(amino alcohol)oxalamides (1-4: amino alcohol=leucinol, valinol, phenylglycinol, and phenylalaninol, respectively) have been prepared as low-molecular-weight organic gelators. Their gelation properties towards various organic solvents and mixtures were determined and these were then compared to related bis(amino acid) oxalamide gelators. Spectroscopic (FTIR, (1)H NMR) and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the primary organization motif of (S,S)-1 and racemate 1 (rac-1) in lipophilic solvents involved the formation of inverse bilayers. The X-ray crystal structure of (S,S)-1 also shows this type of bilayer organization. The crystal structure of rac-2 reveals meso bilayers of hydrogen-bonded aggregates. Within the bilayers formed, the gelator molecules are connected by cooperative hydrogen bonding between oxalamide units and OH groups, while the interbilayer interactions are realized through lipophilic interactions between the iBu groups of leucinol. Oxalamide meso-1 lacks any gelation ability and crystallizes in monolayers. In dichloromethane rac-1 forms an unstable gel; this is prone to crystallization as a result of the formation of symmetrical meso bilayers. In contrast, in aromatic solvents rac-1 forms stable gels; this indicates that enantiomeric bilayers are formed. Oxalamide rac-1 is capable of gelling a volume of toluene three times larger than (S,S)-1. A tranmission electron microscopy investigation of rac-1 and (S,S)-1 toluene gels reveals the presence of thinner fibers in the former gel, and, hence, a more compact network that is capable of immobilizing a larger volume of the solvent. The self-assembly of these types of gelator molecules into bilayers and subsequent formation of fibrous aggregates can be explained by considering the strength and direction of aggregate forces (supramolecular vectors) in three-dimensional space. PMID:14639640

  2. Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beppu, T

    Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and characterized. Spontaneous mutations at high frequencies in the acetic acid bacteria to cause the deficiency in ethanol oxidation were analyzed. A new insertion sequence element, IS1380, was identified as a major factor of the genetic instability, which causes insertional inactivation of the gene encoding cytochrome c, an essential component of the functional alcohol dehydrogenase complex. Several genes including the citrate synthase gene of A. aceti were identified to confer acetic acid resistance, and the histidinolphosphate aminotransferase gene was cloned as a multicopy suppressor of an ethanol sensitive mutant. Improvement of the acetic acid productivity of an A. aceti strain was achieved through amplification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene with a multicopy vector. In addition, spheroplast fusion of the Acetobacter strains was developed and applied to improve their properties.

  3. Ethanol and dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/linoleic acid enriched) cause intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier defense in mice chronically fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Falkner, K Cameron; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat both play an important role in alcohol-mediated multi-organ pathology, including gut and liver. In the present study we hypothesized that the combination of alcohol and dietary unsaturated fat (USF) would result in intestinal inflammatory stress and mucus layer alterations, thus contributing to disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. C57BL/6N mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing EtOH and enriched in USF (corn oil/linoleic acid) or SF (medium chain triglycerides: beef tallow) for 8 weeks. Intestinal histology, morphometry, markers of inflammation, as well as levels of mucus protective factors were evaluated. Alcohol and dietary USF triggered an intestinal pro-inflammatory response, characterized by increase in Tnf-α, MCP1, and MPO activity. Further, alcohol and dietary USF, but not SF, resulted in alterations of the intestinal mucus layer, characterized by decreased expression of Muc2 in the ileum. A strong correlation was observed between down-regulation of the antimicrobial factor Cramp and increased Tnf-α mRNA. Therefore, dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/LA enriched) is a significant contributing factor to EtOH-mediated intestinal inflammatory response and mucus layer alterations in rodents.

  4. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, James A.; Clendenon, Sherry G.; Ratcliffe, Don R.; Fielding, Stephen M.; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid signaling caused by embryonic ethanol. Retinoic acid deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100 mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with retinoic acid at a low concentration (10−9 M) and 100 mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100 mM ethanol alone. The rescue phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10−9 M retinoic acid alone (retinoic acid toxicity) than to untreated or 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. Retinoic acid rescues defects caused by 100 mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e. g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by retinoic acid supplement. PMID:20036484

  5. Increasing serum Pre-adipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) correlates with decreased body fat, increased free fatty acids, and level of recent alcohol consumption in excessive alcohol drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Bennett, Rachel; Westerhold, Chi; Ross, Ruth A.; Crabb, David W.; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with alcoholic liver disease have been reported to have a significantly lower percentage of body fat (%BF) than controls. The mechanism for the reduction in %BF in heavy alcohol users has not been elucidated. In adipose tissue, Pref-1 is specifically expressed in pre-adipocytes but not in adipocytes. Pref-1 inhibits adipogenesis and elevated levels are associated with reduced adipose tissue mass. We investigated the association between serum Pref-1 and %BF, alcohol consumption, and serum free fatty acids (FFA) in a well-characterized cohort of heavy alcohol users compared to controls. Methods One hundred forty-eight subjects were prospectively recruited. The Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB) questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed over the 30-day period before their enrollment. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate %BF. Serum Pref-1 and FFA were measured. Results Fifty-one subjects (mean age 32 ± 9 years, 88% men) were non-excessive drinkers whereas 97 were excessive drinkers (mean age 41 ± 18 years, 69% men). Compared to non-excessive drinkers, individuals with excessive drinking had significantly higher levels of Pref-1 (p < 0.01), FFA (p < 0.001), and lower %BF (p = 0.03). Serum levels of Pref-1 were associated with the amount of alcohol consumed during the previous 30 days. Serum Pref-1 was negatively correlated with %BF, but positively associated with serum FFA. Conclusions Our data suggest that elevated Pref-1 levels in excessive drinkers might inhibit the expansion of adipose tissue, decreasing %BF in alcoholics. Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use. PMID:25449367

  6. Increasing serum pre-adipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) correlates with decreased body fat, increased free fatty acids, and level of recent alcohol consumption in excessive alcohol drinkers.

    PubMed

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Bennett, Rachel; Westerhold, Chi; Ross, Ruth A; Crabb, David W; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease have been reported to have a significantly lower percentage of body fat (%BF) than controls. The mechanism for the reduction in %BF in heavy alcohol users has not been elucidated. In adipose tissue, Pref-1 is specifically expressed in pre-adipocytes but not in adipocytes. Pref-1 inhibits adipogenesis and elevated levels are associated with reduced adipose tissue mass. We investigated the association between serum Pref-1 and %BF, alcohol consumption, and serum free fatty acids (FFA) in a well-characterized cohort of heavy alcohol users compared to controls. One hundred forty-eight subjects were prospectively recruited. The Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB) questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed over the 30-day period before their enrollment. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate %BF. Serum Pref-1 and FFA were measured. Fifty-one subjects (mean age 32 ± 9 years, 88% men) were non-excessive drinkers whereas 97 were excessive drinkers (mean age 41 ± 18 years, 69% men). Compared to non-excessive drinkers, individuals with excessive drinking had significantly higher levels of Pref-1 (p<0.01), FFA (p < 0.001), and lower %BF (p = 0.03). Serum levels of Pref-1 were associated with the amount of alcohol consumed during the previous 30 days. Serum Pref-1 was negatively correlated with %BF, but positively associated with serum FFA. Our data suggest that elevated Pref-1 levels in excessive drinkers might inhibit the expansion of adipose tissue, decreasing %BF in alcoholics. Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use.

  7. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  8. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate

    2014-08-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  9. A nonhuman primate model of type II excessive alcohol consumption? Part 1. Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations and diminished social competence correlate with excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1996-06-01

    Developmental, biochemical, and behavioral concomitants of excessive alcohol consumption were investigated using a nonhuman primate model. The variables of interest were: (1) interindividual stability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) from infancy to adulthood, (2) effect of parental deprivation early in life on adult CSF 5-HIAA concentrations; (3) correlations between CSF 5-HIAA and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) concentrations and alcohol consumption; and (4) correlation between the frequency of competent social behaviors and alcohol consumption. Twenty-nine rhesus macaques were reared for their first 6 months either with their mothers or without adults in peer-only conditions. At 6 and 50 months of age, each subject underwent a series of four, 4-day social separations. Cisternal CSF was sampled before and during the first and last separations; concomitantly, observational data were collected on social dominance behavior in the home-cage. When they reached 50 months of age, the monkeys were provided free access to a palatable alcohol solution daily for 1-hr periods before, during, and after the social separations. Before and after the 50-month separations, data were collected on all types of social behavior in the home-cage. Results showed that peer-reared subjects consumed more alcohol than mother-reared subjects during baseline conditions. Mother-reared subjects, however, increased their rates of consumption to equal peer-reared subjects' rates of consumption during the conditions of a social separation stressor. Peer-reared subjects also exhibited lower CSF 5-HIAA concentrations in infancy and adulthood than their mother-reared counterparts. With rearing condition held constant, interindividual differences in CSF 5-HIAA, MHPG, and homovanillic acid were stable from infancy to adulthood, and high rates of alcohol were consumed by the young adult monkeys with low CSF 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations, particularly when the CSF

  10. [Study on hydrophilicity and degradability of polyvinyl alcohol/polylactic acid blend film].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Sheng, Mingang; Zhai, Linfeng; Li, Yanhong

    2008-02-01

    Based on casting and solvent evaporation method, the degradable PLA/PVA blend film was prepared with polylactic acid (PLA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as raw material. The moisture absorbability, water absorbability and degradability of the polylactic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (PLA/PVA) blend film were studied; also the degradation mechanism of blend film was investigated. The results showed that the moisture absorption and water absorption of blend film decreased as the concentration of PLA increased. The degradation process of blend film in the normal saline is conducted by stepwise. At the forepart, the degradation of PLA played an important role, while PVA was the main degradation substance later. The solvent acidity could catalyze the degradation of PLA, and degradation of PLA was always turning from noncrystalline region to crystalline region. PVA had abilities to accelerate the degradation of PLA by increasing the hydrophilicity of the blend film and by breaking the crystallinity of PLA. Therefore, the hydrophilicity and degradability of PLA/PVA blend film can be controlled in a certain range by adjusting the proportion of PLA and PVA. PMID:18435276

  11. Adsorption of alcohols and fatty acids onto hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simič, R.; Kalin, M.; Kovač, J.; Jakša, G.

    2016-02-01

    Information about the interactions between lubricants and DLC coatings is scarce, despite there having been many studies over the years. In this investigation we used ToF-SIMS, XPS and contact-angle analyses to examine the adsorption ability and mechanisms with respect to two oiliness additives, i.e., hexadecanol and hexadecanoic acid, on an a-C:H coating. In addition, we analyzed the resistance of the adsorbed films to external influences like solvent cleaning. The results show that both molecules adsorb onto surface oxides and hydroxides present on the initial DLC surface and shield these structures with their hydrocarbon tails. This makes the surfaces less polar, which is manifested in a smaller polar component of the surface energy. We also showed that ultrasonic cleaning in heptane has no significant effect on the quantity of adsorbed molecules or on their chemical state. This not only shows the relatively strong adsorption of these molecules, but also provides useful information for future experimental work. Of the two examined molecules, the acid showed a greater adsorption ability than the alcohol, which explains some of the previously reported better tribological properties in the case of the acid with respect to the alcohol.

  12. Organic acids in continental background aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  13. Perfluorinated alcohols and acids induce coacervation in aqueous solutions of amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Morteza G; Jenkins, Samuel I; Liang, Shuang

    2013-02-26

    We have discovered that water-miscible perfluorinated alcohols and acids (FA) can induce simple and complex coacervation in aqueous solutions of a wide range of amphiphilic molecules such as synthetic surfactants, phospholipids, and bile salts as well as polyelectrolytes. This unique phenomenon seems to be nearly ubiquitous, especially for complex coacervate systems composed of mixed catanionic amphiphiles. In addition, coacervation and aqueous phase separation were observed over a wide range of surfactants concentrations and for different mole fractions of the oppositely charged amphiphile.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol-polystyrene sulphonic acid blend electrolyte for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva Kumar, M.; Bhat, D. Krishna

    2009-05-01

    A new polymer blend electrolyte based on poly vinyl alcohol and poly styrene sulphonic acid has been studied as an electrolyte for supercapcitors. A carbon-carbon supercapacitor has been fabricated using this electrolyte and its electrochemical characteristics and performance have been studied. The conductivity has been calculated using the bulk impedance obtained through impedance spectroscopy. The real and imaginary parts of the electrical modulus of samples show a long tail feature, which can be attributed to high capacitance of the material. The super capacitor showed a fairly good specific capacitance of 40 F g-1 and a time constant of 5 s.

  15. Developing an Invisible Message about Relative Acidities of Alcohols in the Natural Products Henna, Turmeric, Rose Petals, and Vitamin A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Hadir, Latifa

    2010-01-01

    An engaging and colorful demonstration was developed that illustrates the utility of resonance theory in predicting the relative acidities of alcohols. The demonstration can be used as an introduction to exercises that provide students with practice in writing resonance structures and in predicting relative acidities. The demonstration exploits…

  16. Sustainable synthesis of aldehydes, ketones or acids from neat alcohols using nitrogen dioxide gas, and related reactions.

    PubMed

    Naimi-Jamal, M Reza; Hamzeali, Hamideh; Mokhtari, Javad; Boy, Jürgen; Kaupp, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Benzylic alcohols are quantitatively oxidized by gaseous nitrogen dioxide to give pure aromatic aldehydes. The reaction gas mixtures are transformed to nitric acid, which renders the processes free of waste. The exothermic gas-liquid or gas-solid reactions profit from the solubility of nitrogen dioxide in the neat benzylic alcohols. The acid formed impedes further oxidation of the benzaldehydes. The neat isolated benzaldehydes and nitrogen dioxide quantitatively give the benzoic acids. Solid long-chain primary alcohols are directly and quantitatively oxidized with nitrogen dioxide gas to give the fatty acids in the solid state. The oxidations with ubiquitous nitrogen dioxide are extended to solid heterocyclic thioamides, which gives disulfides, and to diphenylamine, which gives tetraphenylhydrazine. These sustainable (green) specific oxidation procedures produce no dangerous residues from the oxidizing agent or from auxiliaries. PMID:19115303

  17. Influence of Fluorination on the Conformational Properties and Hydrogen-Bond Acidity of Benzyl Alcohol Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Elena; Compain, Guillaume; Mtashobya, Lewis; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Besseau, François; Galland, Nicolas; Linclau, Bruno; Graton, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fluorination on the conformational and hydrogen-bond (HB)-donating properties of a series of benzyl alcohols has been investigated experimentally by IR spectroscopy and theoretically with quantum chemical methods (ab initio (MP2) and DFT (MPWB1K)). It was found that o-fluorination generally resulted in an increase in the HB acidity of the hydroxyl group, whereas a decrease was observed upon o,o′-difluorination. Computational analysis showed that the conformational landscapes of the title compounds are strongly influenced by the presence of o-fluorine atoms. Intramolecular interaction descriptors based on AIM, NCI and NBO analyses reveal that, in addition to an intramolecular OH⋅⋅⋅F interaction, secondary CH⋅⋅⋅F and/or CH⋅⋅⋅O interactions also occur, contributing to the stabilisation of the various conformations, and influencing the overall HB properties of the alcohol group. The benzyl alcohol HB-donating capacity trends are properly described by an electrostatic potential based descriptor calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, provided solvation effects are taken into account for these flexible HB donors. PMID:26130594

  18. Bis-tert-Alcohol-Functionalized Crown-6-Calix[4]arene: An Organic Promoter for Nucleophilic Fluorination.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Choi, Wonsil; Lee, Sung-Sik; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Dong Wook

    2016-03-18

    A bis-tert-alcohol-functionalized crown-6-calix[4]arene (BACCA) was designed and prepared as a multifunctional organic promoter for nucleophilic fluorinations with CsF. By formation of a CsF/BACCA complex, BACCA could release a significantly active and selective fluoride source for SN2 fluorination reactions. The origin of the promoting effects of BACCA was studied by quantum chemical methods. The role of BACCA was revealed to be separation of the metal fluoride to a large distance (>8 Å), thereby producing an essentially "free" F(-). The synergistic actions of the crown-6-calix[4]arene subunit (whose O atoms coordinate the counter-cation Cs(+)) and the terminal tert-alcohol OH groups (forming controlled hydrogen bonds with F(-)) of BACCA led to tremendous efficiency in SN2 fluorination of base-sensitive substrates. PMID:26880350

  19. Bis-tert-Alcohol-Functionalized Crown-6-Calix[4]arene: An Organic Promoter for Nucleophilic Fluorination.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Choi, Wonsil; Lee, Sung-Sik; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Dong Wook

    2016-03-18

    A bis-tert-alcohol-functionalized crown-6-calix[4]arene (BACCA) was designed and prepared as a multifunctional organic promoter for nucleophilic fluorinations with CsF. By formation of a CsF/BACCA complex, BACCA could release a significantly active and selective fluoride source for SN2 fluorination reactions. The origin of the promoting effects of BACCA was studied by quantum chemical methods. The role of BACCA was revealed to be separation of the metal fluoride to a large distance (>8 Å), thereby producing an essentially "free" F(-). The synergistic actions of the crown-6-calix[4]arene subunit (whose O atoms coordinate the counter-cation Cs(+)) and the terminal tert-alcohol OH groups (forming controlled hydrogen bonds with F(-)) of BACCA led to tremendous efficiency in SN2 fluorination of base-sensitive substrates.

  20. A convenient iodination method for alcohols using cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid and its comparison using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zia-Ullah; Perveen, Shahnaz; Hayat, Safdar; Ali, Muhammad; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In situ generation of hydrogen iodide from cesium iodide/methanesulfonic acid was found to be an attractive reagent combination for the conversion of alkyl, allyl, and benzyl alcohols to their corresponding iodides under mild conditions. The method is compared with that using cesium iodide/p-toluenesulfonic acid or cesium iodide/aluminium chloride.

  1. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    PubMed

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol. PMID:26675839

  2. Chronic alcohol consumption augments loss of sialic acid residues and alters erythrocyte membrane charge in type II diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Serkan; Akalin, Aysen; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of alcohol consumption on erythrocyte membrane properties in type 2 diabetic patients were investigated. Therefore, we measured total and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) levels, sialidase activities, and erythrocyte membrane negative charge. Three groups, including control group (n = 20), alcohol-consuming diabetic patients group (n = 14), and diabetic patients without alcohol consumption group (n = 42), were created. Plasma total sialic acid (TSA) levels of the alcohol-consuming diabetic group were elevated as compared to the healthy control and diabetic group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). TSA levels of the diabetic group were significantly elevated as compared to the healthy control group (p > 0.001). Plasma LSA levels of the alcohol-consuming diabetic group were higher than that in the healthy control and diabetic group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). LSA levels of the diabetic group were found to be high as compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05). Plasma sialidase activities of the alcohol-consuming diabetic group and diabetic group were significantly elevated as compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Sialidase activities of the alcohol-consuming diabetic group were elevated as compared to the diabetic group, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Erythrocyte membrane negativity levels of the alcohol-consuming diabetic group and diabetic group were significantly decreased (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) as compared to the healthy control group. Erythrocyte membrane negativity levels of the alcohol-consuming diabetic group were decreased as compared to the diabetic group, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that chronic alcohol consumption may augment membrane alterations in type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  4. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. PMID:27560489

  5. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability.

  6. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Asymmetric Three-Component Coupling Reaction: Facile Synthesis of α-Fluoromethylated Tertiary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Kondo, Daisuke; Honda, Kazuya; Mikami, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    A chiral dicationic palladium complex is found to be an efficient Lewis acid catalyst for the synthesis of α-fluoromethyl-substituted tertiary alcohols using a three-component coupling reaction. The reaction transforms three simple and readily available components (terminal alkyne, arene, and fluoromethylpyruvate) to valuable chiral organofluorine compounds. This strategy is completely atom-economical and results in perfect regioselectivities and high enantioselectivities of the corresponding tertiary allylic alcohols in good to excellent yields.

  7. Enzymatic gallic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Weetal, H H

    1985-02-01

    Gallic acid esters of n-propyl and amyl alcohols have been produced by enzymatic synthesis in organic solvents using immobilized tannase. Studies indicate that maximum esterification of gallic acid occurs with amyl alcohol. The enzyme shows broad alcohol specificity. However, the enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the acid portion of the ester. Studies were carried out on K(m), V(max), pH, and temperature optima.

  8. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Partanen, K H; Mroz, Z

    1999-06-01

    Organic acids and their salts appear to be potential alternatives to prophylactic in-feed antibiotics and growth promoters in order to improve the performance of weaned piglets, fattening pigs and reproductive sows, although their growth-promoting effects are generally less than that of antibiotics. Based on an analysis of published data, the growth-promoting effect of formates, fumarates and citrates did not differ in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, formates were the most effective followed by fumarates, whereas propionates did not improve growth performance. These acids improved the feedgain ratio of both weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In weaned piglets, the growth-promoting effects of dietary organic acids appear to depend greatly on their influence on feed intake. In sows, organic acids may have anti-agalactia properties. Successful application of organic acids in the diets for pigs requires an understanding of their modes of action. It is generally considered that dietary organic acids or their salts lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes and gastric retention time, and thus improved protein digestion. Reduced gastric pH and increased retention time have been difficult to demonstrate, whereas improved apparent ileal digestibilities of protein and amino acids have been observed with growing pigs, but not in weaned piglets. Organic acids may influence mucosal morphology, as well as stimulate pancreatic secretions, and they also serve as substrates in intermediary metabolism. These may further contribute to improved digestion, absorption and retention of many dietary nutrients. Organic acid supplementation reduces dietary buffering capacity, which is expected to slow down the proliferation and|or colonization of undesirable microbes, e.g. Escherichia coli, in the gastro-ileal region. However, reduced scouring has been observed in only a few studies. As performance responses to dietary organic acids in pigs often varies

  9. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  10. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGES

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  11. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  12. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  13. Quantitative Organic Acids in Urine by Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS).

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Lawrence; Ashcraft, Paula; Bennett-Firmin, Jeanna

    2016-01-01

    Seventy-six organic acids in urine specimens are determined with quantitative two dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). The specimen is treated with urease to remove urea then derivatized to form pentafluorobenzyl oximes (PFBO) of oxoacids. The sample is then treated with ethyl alcohol to precipitate proteins and centrifuged. After drying the supernatant, the organic acids are derivatized to form volatile trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives for separation by capillary two dimensional Gas Chromatography (GCxGC) with temperature programming and modulation. Detection is by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) with identification of the organic acids by their mass spectra. Organic acids are quantitated by peak areas of reconstructed ion chromatograms with internal standards and calibration curves. Organic acids are quantified to determine abnormal patterns for the diagnosis of more than 100 inherited disorders of organic acid metabolism. Characteristic abnormal metabolites are quantified to monitor dietary and other modes of treatment for patients who are diagnosed with specific organic acid disorders.

  14. Enhanced antiamyloidal activity of hydroxy cinnamic acids by enzymatic esterification with alkyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hazuki; Sugiyama, Haruka; Katayama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipophilic derivatives of hydroxyl cinnamic acids (HCAs) including caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid, sinapic acid (SA), and chlorogenic acid were synthesized by esterification with butanol, octanol, or hexadecanol catalyzed by the lipase from Candida antarctica to investigate the effect of lipophilicity on their antiamyloidal activity assessed by the inhibitory activities toward fibrillization of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Among them, CA showed the highest activity at 50 μM, reducing the amyloid fibril formation of Aβ to 34.4 ± 6.8%. The antiamyloidal effects of HCAs were enhanced by esterification with alkyl alcohols, and the longer alkyl chain tended to be more effective except for SA. Aβ fibril formation was suppressed by the hexadecyl ester of CA, which was reduced to 8.8 ± 2.3%. In contrast, those of octyl and butyl esters were 19.3 ± 2.3% and 41.6 ± 6.1%, respectively. These results show that lipophilicity plays an important role in the antiamyloidal activities of esterified phenolic compounds.

  15. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol ultra-thin layer chromatography of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tian; Olesik, Susan V

    2013-01-01

    Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) ultrathin layer chromatographic (UTLC) plates were fabricated using in situ crosslinking electrospinning technique. The value of these ULTC plates were characterized using the separation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled amino acids and the separation of amino acids followed visualization using ninhydrin. The in situ crosslinked electrospun PVA plates showed enhanced stability in water and were stable when used for the UTLC study. The selectivity of FITC labeled amino acids on PVA plate was compared with that on commercial Si-Gel plate. The efficiency of the separation varied with analyte concentration, size of capillary analyte applicator, analyte volume, and mat thickness. The concentration of 7mM or less, 50μm i.d. capillary applicator, minimum volume of analyte solution and three-layered mat provides the best efficiency of FITC-labeled amino acids on PVA UTLC plate. The efficiency on PVA plate was greatly improved compared to the efficiency on Si-Gel HPTLC plate. The hydrolysis products of aspartame in diet coke, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, were also successfully analyzed using PVA-UTLC plate.

  16. Effects of alcohol inhalation on the fatty acid composition of rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, D.M.; Karanian, J.W.; Salem, N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in rat tissues are altered by alcohol exposure. Therefore, rats were exposed to ethanol vapor using an inhalation system designed in their laboratory and capable of producing rats with blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 50-400 mg%, as desired. Mean BEC were determined after 7 or 14 days of exposure and the lipids were extracted from brains, hearts, livers and aortas by the method of Bligh and Dyer. These total lipid extracts were transmethylated with BF/sub 3/ in methanol and analyzed using a fused silica capillary column. The largest compositional changes were observed in the liver after 14 days of exposure; 18:0, 18:2w6 and 20:4w6 decreased by 7, 18, and 20%, respectively, whereas 16:1w7, 18:1w9, 18:3w3 and 22:6w3 increased by 42, 19, 9, and 11%, respectively. A similar, although quantitatively smaller, effect was observed after only 7 days of alcohol inhalation. Little change was observed in the total lipid extract fatty acyl distribution in the brain or heart, however, the aorta showed losses in the polyunsaturates 20:4w6 and 22:6w3. More detailed data will be presented for the fatty acid distributional changes in individual phospholipid classes. It appears that the direction and magnitude of compositional changes depend upon both the duration of exposure and the blood concentration of alcohol.

  17. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  18. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  19. Organic acids and bases: Review of toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Organic acids and bases are among the most frequently used chemicals in the manufacturing industries. However, the toxicology of only a number of them has been fully characterized, and for fewer still have occupational exposure limits been established. This paper reviews the acute and chronic toxicity data of the organic acids and bases, and considers the mechanism by which these chemicals produce their effects. A methodology for establishing preliminary occupational exposure limits based on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals is presented. Workplace exposure limits for 20 organic acids and bases which currently have no exposure guidelines are suggested. Advice regarding appropriate medical treatment of exposure to these materials is discussed. 98 references.

  20. Influence of Glyoxal on Preparation of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Blend Film.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Yoon, Soon-Do; Lee, Ju-Heon; Lee, In-Hwa

    2015-08-01

    The preparation of a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/glyoxal film (PVA = poly(vinyl alcohol); PAA = poly(acrylic acid)) with high tensile strength and hydrophobic properties by using the crosslinking reaction for OH group removal is reported herein. PAA was selected as a crosslinking agent because the functional carboxyl group in each monomer unit facilitates reaction with PVA. The OH groups on unreacted PVA were removed by the addition of glyoxal to the PVA/PAA solution. The chemical properties of the PVA/PAA films were investigated using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and the thermal properties of the PVA/PAA/glyoxal films were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. A tensile strength of 48.6 N/mm2 was achieved at a PVA/PAA ratio of 85/15 for the PVA/PAA film. The tensile strength of the cross-linked PVA/PAA/glyoxal film (10 wt% glyoxal) was increased by 55% relative to the pure PVA/PAA (85/15) film. The degree of swelling (DS) and solubility (S) of the 10 wt% (PVA/PAA = 85/15, wt%) film added 10 wt% glyoxal were 1.54 and 0.6, respectively. PMID:26369179

  1. In situ fourier transform infrared study of crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic acid, and maleic anhydride oxidation on a V-P-O industrial catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.; Schrader, G.L.

    1987-10-22

    Crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic (2-butenoic) acid, and maleic anhydride were fed to an in situ infrared cell at 300/sup 0/C containing a P/V = 1.1 vanadium-phosphorous-oxide (V-P-O) catalyst used for the selective oxidation of n-butane. Crotyl alcohol was used as a mechanistic probe for the formation of reactive olefin species observed during previous n-butane and 1-butene studies. Crotonic acid, maleic acid, and maleic anhydride were fed as probes for the existence of other possible adsorbed intermediates. Olefin species and maleic acid are proposed as possible reaction intermediates in n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride. The involvement of peroxide species in the oxidation of butadiene to maleic acid is also discussed.

  2. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented. PMID:25811473

  3. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  4. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  5. Prevention of alcoholic fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Olsson, Nils U.; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims We reported that reduced dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic (AA,20:4n6, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA,22:6n3, omega-3) acids led to alcohol-induced fatty liver and fibrosis. This study was aimed at studying the mechanisms by which a DHA/AA-supplemented diet prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol or control liquid-diet with or without DHA/AA for 9 weeks. Plasma transaminase levels, liver histology, oxidative/nitrosative stress markers, and activities of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins were evaluated. Results Chronic alcohol administration increased the degree of fatty liver but fatty liver decreased significantly in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Alcohol exposure increased oxidative/nitrosative stress with elevated levels of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, nitric oxide synthase, nitrite and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. However, these increments were normalized in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The number of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins was markedly increased following alcohol exposure but significantly reduced in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The suppressed activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in ethanol-exposed rats were also recovered in animals fed the ethanol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Conclusions Addition of DHA/AA prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model by protecting various mitochondrial enzymes most likely through reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:18571270

  6. Alkanes, Alcohols, and Fatty Acids Record Complementary Signals in Fluvial Sediments: Insights From a Three Year Congo River Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, J. D.; Schefuß, E.; Bienvenu, D. J.; Pryer, H. V.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations, distributions, δ13C and dD of plant waxes carried by fluvial suspended sediments contain valuable information about terrestrial ecosystems and climate. To properly interpret past changes recorded in sedimentary archives it is crucial to understand the sources and variability of exported plant waxes in modern systems on seasonal to inter-annual timescales. Here, we present distributions, δ13C, and δD composition of three compound classes (n-alkanes, n-alcohols, n-alkanoic acids) in a 34-month time series of suspended sediments from the Congo River. We show multiple end-members contribute differentially to n-alkanes, as evidenced by a large δ13C spread of 4.2 ± 0.7‰ across homologues and low correlation between homologue concentrations. n-Acids and n-alcohols exhibit less δ13C variability, indicating dominance of C3 end-members. Temporally, n-acid and n-alcohol concentrations, distributions, and δD values are much more influenced by seasonal changes in discharge than n-alkanes. Increasing discharge through the low-lying swamp forest likely biases n-acids and n-alcohols toward this highly productive source area, while n-alkanes are less affected due to their more refractory nature and persistence during transport. This is reflected in large changes in n-alcohol/acid minus n-alkane δD (∆δD) between high and low discharge of 15-20‰. We conclude that the n-alkanoic acids and n-alcohols respond to seasonal/inter-annual changes in source area while n-alkanes better represent a seasonally stable signal, and that multiple n-alkyl lipid classes therefore record complementary information in sedimentary archives.

  7. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  8. Newer Reagents in Preparative Organic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Outlined is the development and use of oxidants for use in elementary organic chemistry classes. Discussed is the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, and the oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes to carboxylic acids. (CW)

  9. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  10. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  11. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  12. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed mono-N-allylation of unprotected anthranilic acids with allylic alcohols in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Hikawa, Hidemasa; Yokoyama, Yuusaku

    2011-10-21

    Palladium-catalyzed N-allylation of anthranilic acids 1a-j with allyl alcohol 2a in the presence of Pd(OAc)(2), sodium diphenylphosphinobenzene-3-sulfonate (TPPMS) in THF-H(2)O at room temperature gave only mono-N-allylated anthranilic acids 3a-j in good yields (70-98%). The reactions of 4-bromoanthranilic acid 1i with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol 2b showed complete chemoselectivity in N-allylation (neutral conditions) and C-vinylation (basic conditions). In our catalytic system, the keys to success are use of an unprotected anthranilic acid as a starting material and the presence of water in the reaction medium. The carboxyl group of anthranilic acid and water may play important roles for the smooth generation of the π-allyl palladium species by activation of the hydroxyl group of the allylic alcohol. PMID:21919524

  14. Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

  15. Adaptive changes in fatty acid profile of erythrocyte membrane in relation to plasma and red cell metabolic changes in chronic alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2012-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a major reason for several human diseases, and alcoholism has been associated with a variety of societal problems. Changes in fatty acid metabolism in alcoholics and its effects leading to membrane damage are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids in relation with plasma lipid profile and other plasma metabolites in chronic alcoholics in comparison with controls. We systematically measured the levels of glucose, lactate and pyruvate in the blood and free amino acids, free fatty acids, mucoproteins and glycolipids, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) in plasma of chronic alcoholics and controls. Furthermore, we measured fatty acid composition by gas chromatographic analysis. The fatty acid composition clearly revealed certain changes in chronic alcoholic erythrocyte membrane, chiefly increments in C16:0 and a decrease in C22:4 and C22:6 fatty acids besides the presence of unidentified fatty acids, probably C-24 or C-26 fatty acids. In addition, a significant increase in blood lactate, decrease in blood pyruvate and increased levels of free amino acids and free fatty acids, mucoproteins, VLDL cholesterol, TG and HDL-C in chronic alcoholics were observed with no significant change in plasma TC, LDL-C and glycolipids when compared with controls. Alcohol-induced alterations in plasma and erythrocyte membranes of chronic alcoholics in the present study might be an adaptive response to counteract the deleterious effects of alcohol. The implications of our findings warrant further investigation and needs further in-depth study to explore the mechanisms of alcohol-induced membrane changes.

  16. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  17. Perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid--a catalyst for certain organic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Etlis, V.S.; Beshenova, E.P.; Semenova, E.A.; Shomina, F.N.; Dreiman, N.A.; Balaev, G.A.

    1986-09-10

    The purpose of this work was to examine the possibility of using, as a catalyst in certain organic reactions, the perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid F-4SK in the H form, which is an analog of the perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid Nafion-H.

  18. Transformation of organic and inorganic compounds in trifluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnetskaya, M. V.; Mel'nikov, M. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    It is established that the effectiveness of fluorine-containing acids in the transformation of organic and inorganic substrates is due to the ability of the acid to perform several functions: to accumulate relatively high concentrations of molecular oxygen, to activate it, and to serve as a hydrogen-containing medium.

  19. Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols catalysed by an amino-acid-based small molecule.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Rodrigo, Jason; Hoveyda, Amir H; Snapper, Marc L

    2006-09-01

    Reliable, selective and environmentally friendly chemical transformations are crucial to the development of new therapeutics and the design of novel materials. Chiral catalysts that can be easily prepared and used to obtain organic molecules of high enantiomeric purity are critical to modern chemical synthesis. The development of protecting groups that shield reactive functionalities has also proved indispensable in the preparation of complex biologically active molecules. Here we present a chiral catalyst that promotes the enantioselective protection of a secondary alcohol as one of the most commonly used protected forms of an alcohol: a silyl ether. The catalyst is a small, simple molecule that can be prepared in three steps from commercial materials without the need for rigorously controlled conditions. Enantioselective silylations are performed with commercial silyl chlorides and produce yields of up to 96 per cent at an enantiomeric ratio of up to 98:2. Chiral catalysts for selective formation of commonly used protecting groups such as silyl ethers should significantly enhance the ability of chemical synthesis to deliver, in a more practical and efficient manner, important organic molecules.

  20. Acoustic properties of organic acid mixtures in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macavei, I.; Petrisor, V.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the rate of propagation of ultrasounds in organic acid mixtures in water points to structural changes caused by interactions that take place under conditions of thermal agitation, at different acid concentrations. At the same time, a difference is found in the changes in velocity as a function of the length of the carbon chain of the acids in the mixture as a result of their effect on the groups of water molecules associated by hydrogen bonds.

  1. Interaction of Humic Acids with Organic Toxicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Yudina, N. V.; Maltseva, E. V.; Nechaev, L. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of humic acids with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (naphthalene and anthracene) and triazole series fungicides (cyproconazole (CC) and tebuconazole (TC)) is investigated by the method of fluorescence quenching depending on the concentration of substances in solutions and their structural features. Humic acids were modified by mechanochemical activation in a planetary mill. The complex character of intermolecular interactions between PAH and fungicides with humic acids, including donor-acceptor and hydrophobic binding, is established. Thermodynamically stable conformations of biocide molecules were estimated using ChemOffice CS Chem3D 8.0 by methods of molecular mechanics (MM2) and molecular dynamics. Biocide molecules with pH 7 are in energetically favorable position when the benzene and triazole rings are almost parallel to each other. After acidification of solutions to pH 4.5, the CC molecule retains the geometry for which donor-acceptor interactions are possible: the benzene ring in the molecule represents the electron donor, and triazole is the acceptor. In this case, the electron density in CC is redistributed easier, which is explained by a smaller number of carbon atoms between the triazole and benzene rings, unlike TC. As a result, the TC triazole ring is protonated to a greater degree, acquiring a positive charge, and enters into donoracceptor interactions with humic acid (HA) samples. The above-indicated bond types allow HA to participate actively in sorption processes and to provide their interaction with biocides and PAH and hence, to act as detoxifying agents for recultivation of the polluted environment.

  2. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  3. Protic acid immobilized on solid support as an extremely efficient recyclable catalyst system for a direct and atom economical esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Asit K; Singh, Bavneet; Chankeshwara, Sunay V; Patel, Alpesh R

    2009-08-21

    A convenient and clean procedure of esterification is reported by direct condensation of equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids with alcohols catalyzed by an easy to prepare catalyst system of perchloric acid immobilized on silica gel (HClO(4)-SiO(2)). The direct condensation of aryl, heteroaryl, styryl, aryl alkyl, alkyl, cycloalkyl, and long-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids with primary/secondary alkyl/cycloalkyl, allyl, propargyl, and long-chain aliphatic alcohols has been achieved to afford the corresponding esters in excellent yields. Chiral alcohol and N-t-Boc protected chiral amino acid also resulted in ester formation with the representative carboxylic acid or alcohol without competitive N-t-Boc deprotection and detrimental effect on the optical purity of the product demonstrating the mildness and chemoselectivity of the procedure. The esters of long-chain (>C(10)) acids and alcohols are obtained in high yields. The catalyst is recovered and recycled without significant loss of activity. The industrial application of the esterification process is demonstrated by the synthesis of prodrugs of ibuprofen and a few commercial flavoring agents. Other protic acids such as H(2)SO(4), HBr, TfOH, HBF(4), and TFA that were adsorbed on silica gel were less effective compared to HClO(4)-SiO(2) following the order HClO(4)-SiO(2) > H(2)SO(4)-SiO(2) > HBr-SiO(2) > TfOH-SiO(2) > HBF(4)-SiO(2) approximately TFA-SiO(2). When HClO(4) was immobilized on other solid supports the catalytic efficiency followed the order HClO(4)-SiO(2) > HClO(4)-K10 > HClO(4)-Al(2)O(3) (neutral) > HClO(4)-Al(2)O(3) (acidic) > HClO(4)-Al(2)O(3) (basic).

  4. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  5. Ohio solid organ transplantation consortium criteria for liver transplantation in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Humberson, Annette; Hanouneh, Mohamad A; Barnes, David S; Arora, Zubin; Zein, Nizar N; Eghtesad, Bijan; Kelly, Dympna; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate risk of recidivism on a case-by-case basis. METHODS From our center’s liver transplant program, we selected patients with alcoholic liver disease who were listed for transplant based on Ohio Solid Organ Transplantation Consortium (OSOTC) exception criteria. They were considered to have either a low or medium risk of recidivism, and had at least one or three or more months of abstinence, respectively. They were matched based on gender, age, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to controls with alcohol-induced cirrhosis from Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data. RESULTS Thirty six patients with alcoholic liver disease were approved for listing based on OSOTC exception criteria and were matched to 72 controls. Nineteen patients (53%) with a median [Inter-quartile range (IQR)] MELD score of 24 (13) received transplant and were followed for a median of 3.4 years. They were matched to 38 controls with a median (IQR) MELD score of 25 (9). At one and five years, cumulative survival rates (± standard error) were 90% ± 7% and 92% ± 5% and 73% ± 12% and 77% ± 8% in patients and controls, respectively (Log-rank test, P = 0.837). Four (21%) patients resumed drinking by last follow-up visit. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional criteria for assessment of risk of recidivism, a careful selection process with more flexibility to evaluate eligibility on a case-by-case basis can lead to similar survival rates after transplantation. PMID:27721920

  6. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  7. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts.

  8. The oxidation of chiral alcohols catalyzed by catalase in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Magner, E.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1995-04-20

    The catalytic properties of bovine liver catalase have been investigated in organic solvents. In tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, and acetone (all containing 1% to 3% of water), the enzyme breaks down tert-butyl hydroperoxide several fold faster than in pure water. Furthermore, the rate of catalase-catalyzed production of tert-butanol from tert-butyl hydroperoxide increases more than 400-fold upon transition from aqueous buffer to ethanol as the reaction medium. The mechanistic rationale for this striking effect is that in aqueous buffer the rate-limiting step of the enzymatic process involves the reduction of catalase`s compound 1 by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. In ethanol, an additional step in the reaction scheme becomes available in which ethanol, greatly outcompeting the hydroperoxide, is oxidized by compound 1 regenerating the free enzyme. In solvents, such as acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran, which themselves are not oxidizable by compound 1, catalase catalyzes the oxidation of numerous primary and secondary alcohols with tert-butyl hydroperoxide to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The enzymatic oxidation of some chiral alcohols (2,3-butanediol, citronellol, and menthol) under these conditions occurs enantioselectively. Examination of the enantioselectivity for the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol in a series of organic solvents reveals a considerable solvent dependence.

  9. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as a biocarrier on volatile fatty acids production of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chaikasem, Supawat; Abeynayaka, Amila; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    This work studied the effect of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-gel) beads, as an effective biocarrier for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in hydrolytic reactor of a two-stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (TAnMBR). The two-stage TAnMBR, treating synthetic high strength particulate wastewater with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) [16.4±0.8 g/L], was operated at 55 °C. Under steady state conditions, the reactor was operated at an organic loading rate of 8.2±0.4 kg COD/m(3) d. Operational performance of the system was monitored by assessing VFA composition and quantity, methane production and COD removal efficiency. Increment of VFA production was observed with PVA-gel addition. Hydrolytic effluent contained large amount of acetic acid and n-butyric acid. However, increase in VFA production adversely affected the methanogenic reactor performance due to lack of methanogenic archaea.

  10. Lactational alcohol exposure elicits long-term immune deficits and increased noradrenergic synaptic transmission in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesfeld, Z. ); LeGrue, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in immunomodulation. While chronic alcohol consumption has been associated with immune deficits, the effects of exposure to alcohol during early postnatal life on subsequent immunocompetence and activity of sympathetic neurons in lymphoid organs are not known. This study examined the long-term effects of lactational alcohol consumption on cellular immune responses and noradrenergic synaptic transmission in lymphoid and other organs of the young adult C57BL/6 mouse. The data show that exposure to alcohol via the mother's milk was associated with long-term deficits in cellular immunity, including suppression of the local graft vs host and contact hypersensitive responses. The animals also displayed enhanced noradrenergic synaptic transmission and decreased {beta}-adrenoceptor density selectively in lymphoid organs. These neuroimmune changes are particularly striking since body weight-gain of the suckling pups was normal and their blood alcohol concentration was considerably lower than that of the alcohol-consuming dam. This suggests an increased sensitivity of the nascent immune and nervous systems during the critical period of early postnatal development.

  11. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  12. Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for obtaining building-block chemicals from renewable carbon sources. Although some acids have been produced for some time and in-depth knowledge of these microbial production processes has been gained, further microbial production processes seem to be feasible, but large-scale production has not yet been possible. Citric, lactic and succinic acid production exemplify three processes in different stages of industrial development. Although the questions being addressed by current research on these processes are diverging, a comparison is helpful for understanding microbial organic acid production in general. In this article, through analysis of the current advances in production of these acids, we present guidelines for future developments in this fast-moving field. PMID:18191255

  13. Habituation to organic acid anions induces resistance to acid and bile in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Carpenter, Charles E; Broadbent, Jeff R; Luo, Xin

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the intrinsic and inducible resistance of four human pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes to acid and bile, factors associated with virulence. Cells were grown in media at pH 7.4, or in media at pH 6.0 containing 0 (HCl control) or 4.75 mM of different organic acids, harvested at stationary or mid log phase, and challenged for 1h in acid or bile. Stationary phase cells were intrinsically more resistant to either challenge than log phase cells, and large differences between strains were evident among the latter. Compared to the HCl control, habituation to log phase with organic acids induced significant (p<0.05) and meaningful (≥1 log) increases in acid resistance of three of four strains tested, and in bile resistance of two strains suggesting that exposure to organic acid anions may enhance virulence in L. monocytogenes.

  14. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154 degrees celcius. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154 degrees C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154 degrees C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by HPLC, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, butdegreaded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. (Refs. 18).

  15. Conversion of acids to alcohols by Clostridium ragsdalei strain P11: Process optimization and biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, Catherine E.

    Research focus was directed toward the development of a biocatalyst that can be used to produce commodity chemicals and transportation fuels from volatile fatty acids ubiquitous in waste biomass. Clostridium ragsdalei was introduced to serve as an exemplar carboxidotrophic acetogen that reduces VFAs to alcohols of the same carbon structure with only acetate and ethanol as by-products of the fermentation. This dissertation developed a better understanding of this process in C. ragsdalei and, in turn, other similar bacteria and to supported previous discoveries as they relate to carboxylate reduction in acetogens. Additionally, pure culture studies allowed for a more detailed understanding of the biochemical behavior response to different compounds without skewing the results due to the influence of other species.

  16. Amino acid alcohols: growth inhibition and induction of differentiated features in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Landau, O; Wasserman, L; Deutsch, A A; Reiss, R; Panet, H; Novogrodsky, A; Nordenberg, J

    1993-05-14

    The effects of a series of D- and L-amino acid alcohols on the proliferation and phenotypic expression of B16 mouse melanoma cells were evaluated. B16 melanoma cells were incubated for different time intervals in the presence of D- or L-phenylalaninol (PHE), D- or L-alaninol (AL), D- or L-leucinol (LE), L-histidinol (HIS), L-tyrosinol (TYR) and L-methioninol (MET). All agents, including the D or L configuration, induced an anti-proliferative effect, although of considerably different magnitude. D-PHE was the most active growth inhibitor. The growth inhibitory effects were accompanied by phenotypic alterations, which included morphological changes and enhancement in the activities of NADPH cytochrome c reductase and tau-glutamyl transpeptidase. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the growth inhibitory effects of the different agents and seem to reflect a higher differentiated state. PMID:8099846

  17. Isoselenazolones as catalysts for the activation of bromine: bromolactonization of alkenoic acids and oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Balkrishna, Shah Jaimin; Prasad, Ch Durga; Panini, Piyush; Detty, Michael R; Chopra, Deepak; Kumar, Sangit

    2012-11-01

    Isoselenazolones were synthesized by a copper-catalyzed Se-N bond forming reaction between 2-halobenzamides and selenium powder. The catalytic activity of the various isoselenazolones was studied in the bromolactonization of pent-4-enoic acid. Isoselenazolone 9 was studied as a catalyst in several reactions: the bromolactonization of a series of alkenoic acids with bromine or N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in the presence of potassium carbonate as base, the bromoesterification of a series of alkenes using NBS and a variety of carboxylic acids, and the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones using bromine as an oxidizing reagent. Mechanistic details of the isoselenazolone-catalyzed bromination reaction were revealed by (77)Se NMR spectroscopic and ES-MS studies. The oxidative addition of bromine to the isoselenazolone gives the isoselenazolone(IV) dibromide, which could be responsible for the activation of bromine under the reaction conditions. Steric effects from an N-phenylethyl group on the amide of the isoselenazolone and electron-withdrawing fluoro substituents on the benzo fused-ring of the isoselenazolone appear to enhance the stability of the isoselenazolone as a catalyst for the bromination reaction. PMID:23046286

  18. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  19. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization’s internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations. PMID:24634639

  20. Effects of annealing, acid and alcoholic beverages on Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Taen, T.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Shi, Z. X.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We have systematically investigated and compared different methods to induce superconductivity in the iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4, including annealing in a vacuum, N2, O2 and I2 atmospheres and immersing samples into acid and alcoholic beverages. Vacuum and N2 annealing are proved to be ineffective in inducing superconductivity in a Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Annealing in O2 and I2 and immersion in acid and alcoholic beverages can induce superconductivity by oxidizing the excess Fe in the sample. Superconductivity in O2 annealed samples is of a bulk nature, while I2, acid and alcoholic beverages can only induce superconductivity near the surface. By comparing the different effects of O2, I2, acid and alcoholic beverages we propose a scenario to explain how the superconductivity is induced in the non-superconducting as-grown Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4.

  1. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  2. COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MALE, FEMALE AND PREGNANT MICE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in environmental and mammalian matrices has spurred regulatory interest in potential sources of this stable compound. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol, a primary compound used in polymer synthesis, is found ubiquitously in the envi...

  3. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  4. One-Carbon Homologation of Primary Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides via Mitsunobu Reactions with MAC Reagents.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Natsuko; Nibbs, Antoinette E; Rawal, Viresh H

    2016-05-20

    A method is reported for the one-carbon homologation of an alcohol to the extended carboxylic acid, ester, or amide. The process involves the Mitsunobu reaction with an alkoxymalononitrile, followed by unmasking in the presence of a suitable nucleophile. The homologation and unmasking can even be performed in a one-pot process in high yield. PMID:27135854

  5. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jürgen; Parker, Jeffrey; à Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes.

  6. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  7. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  8. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  9. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring.

  10. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    PubMed Central

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring. PMID:27291059

  11. Uric acid substantially enhances the free radical-induced inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kittridge, K J; Willson, R L

    1984-05-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase ( YADH ) are inactivated when attacked by hydroxy free radicals (OH). Organic molecules with a high rate constant of reaction with OH such as ascorbate or urate can compete with the enzymes for these strongly oxidising radicals. However, although 10(-3)M ascorbate can substantially protect both LDH and YADH from OH attack, in the presence of 10(-3)M urate only LDH is protected. In the case of YADH an even greater degree of inactivation than with OH occurs. The extent of inactivation is considerably reduced when oxygen is absent, in agreement with a urate peroxy radical perhaps being partly responsible for the increased inactivation of the enzyme.

  12. Comparative effects of curcumin and its analog on alcohol- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alterations in circulatory lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake induces hyperlipidemia. Studies suggest that natural principles and their analogs are known to possess anti-hyperlipidemic properties. In the present work we tested the effect of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and a curcumin analog on alcohol- and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid (deltaPUFA)- induced hyperlipidemia. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of curcumin and curcumin analog was evaluated by analyzing the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids (PLs), and free fatty acids (FFAs). The results showed that the levels of cholesterol, TGs, PLs, and FFAs were increased significantly in alcohol-, deltaPUFA-, and alcohol + deltaPUFA-treated groups, which were brought down significantly on treatment with either of the curcuminoids. Curcumin analog treatment was found to be more effective than curcumin treatment. From the results obtained, we conclude that both curcumin and its analog effectively protect the system against alcohol- and deltaPUFA-induced hyperlipidemia and are possible candidates for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  13. The biohydrogenation of α-linoleic acid and oleic acid by rumen micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, P. F.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1966-01-01

    1. α-[U-14C]Linolenic acid was incubated with the rumen contents of sheep and the metabolic products were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas–liquid chromatography and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared. 2. A tentative scheme for the biohydrogenation route to stearic acid is presented. The main pathway is through diconjugated cis–cis–cis-octadecatrienoic acid, non-conjugated trans–cis (cis–trans)-octadecadienoic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid, but other pathways are apparent. 3. Washed rumen micro-organisms possessed only a limited capacity to hydrogenate α-linolenic acid and oleic acid but the rate was greatly stimulated by a factor(s) present in the supernatant rumen liquor. 4. Pure cultures of Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and a coliform organism isolated from sheep faeces possessed negligible ability to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids compared with a mixed population of rumen micro-organisms. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens slowly converted linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4287407

  14. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Đurđica; Babić, Jurislav; Jozinović, Antun; Miličević, Borislav; Jokić, Stela; Miličević, Radoslav; Rajič, Marija; Šubarić, Drago

    2015-10-27

    Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS), which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  15. Long-term γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and disulfiram combination therapy in GHB treatment-resistant chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rovai, Luca; Pacini, Matteo; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2011-07-01

    Leading Italian studies support the use of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), not only in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, but also in maintaining alcohol abstinence. GHB gives a better result than naltrexone and disulfiram in maintaining abstinence, and it has a better effect on craving than placebo or disulfiram. The problem is that about 30-40% of alcoholics are non-responders to GHB therapy. In our clinical practice, we speculate that by combining disulfiram with GHB treatment we may be able to achieve a kind of 'antagonist' effect by using the 'psychological threat' of disulfiram (adversative effect) while taking advantage of the anticraving effect of GHB, despite the limitation of its 'non-blockade' effect on alcohol. In this context, to improve the outcome in GHB long-term treated alcoholics, we added disulfiram to GHB in the management of GHB treatment-resistant alcoholics. In this study we compared retention in treatment of 52 patients who were treated with the GHB-disulfiram combination for up to six months, with retention for the same subjects considering their most recent unsuccessful outpatient long-term treatment with GHB only. An additional comparison was carried out on the days of complete abstention from alcohol. Thirty four patients (65.4%) successfully completed the protocol and were considered to be responders; 18 (34.6%) left the programme, and were considered to be non-responders. Considering the days of complete abstinence from alcohol, 36 patients stayed in treatment longer with the GHB-Disulfiram combination, 12 stayed for a shorter time and four for the same time. The results of this study seem to indicate a higher efficacy of the GHB-disulfiram association compared with GHB alone. Randomized controlled trials are now needed to verify this hypothesis.

  16. Electrically controlled release of sulfosalicylic acid from crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Juntanon, Kanokporn; Niamlang, Sumonman; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-05-22

    Electrically controlled drug delivery using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels as the matrix/carriers for a model drug was investigated. The drug-loaded PVA hydrogels were prepared by solution-casting using sulfosalicylic acid as the model drug and glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The average molecular weight between crosslinks, the crosslinking density, and the mesh size of the PVA hydrogels were determined from the equilibrium swelling theory as developed by Peppas and Merril, and the latter data were compared with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of the hydrogels were studied using modified Franz-Diffusion cells in an acetate buffer with pH 5.5 and temperature 37 degrees C during a period of 48 h, in order to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio, electric field strength, and electrode polarity. The amounts of drug released were analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The amounts of drug released vary linearly with square root of time. The diffusion coefficients of drug-loaded PVA hydrogels decrease with increasing crosslink ratio. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients of the charged drug in the PVA hydrogels depend critically on the electric field strength between 0 and 5 V as well as on the electrode polarity. Thus, the release rate of sulfosalicylic acid can be altered and controlled precisely through electric field stimulation.

  17. Using organic acids to diagnose and manage recalcitrant patients.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sherry A

    2006-01-01

    "Organic acids" refers to a broad class of compounds used in fundamental metabolic processes of the body. They provide valuable clues about functional nutrient deficiencies, mitochondrial energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, free radical overload, and more, including where to start when diagnosing a patient with complicated symptoms. Organic acids present a whole new exciting world of therapeutic options. They are one of the tools that enable us to identify and correct the underlying causes of disease, and not merely temporarily suppress symptoms with pharmaceuticals. The sicker the patient, the more they need this intervention: half the patients in intensive care units were found to be nutrient-deficient in studies that look at only 1 or a few of the many nutrients. Studies show that a patient's outcome is more dismal and his chances of dying are greater as undiagnosed nutrient deficiencies mount. Furthermore, studies confirm that giving pennies' worth of antioxidants to patients in intensive care can cut the death rate in half. What drug can accomplish this, much less for pennies a day? Doesn't it make more sense to individually determine the patients' deficiencies and correct them? Combined with companion tests of intracellular minerals, toxic elements (heavy metals), fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids, organic acids testing can clearly indicate health challenges the patient will face in the future. In many cases, they are correctable and curable. This article explored only 5 categories of organic acids out of more than 9 and 29 organic acids out of more than 47. For physicians who want more information, there are several resources available. This knowledge, along with biochemical knowledge and patient experience, can further empower physicians to help truly heal their patients.

  18. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  19. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  20. Alcohol and Acetaldehyde in Public Health: From Marvel to Menace

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages. PMID:20617031

  1. Selective conversion of alcohols in water to carboxylic acids by in situ generated ruthenium trans dihydrido carbonyl PNP complexes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Hoo; Heim, Leo E; Ahrens, Mike; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2014-12-14

    In this work, we present a mild method for direct conversion of primary alcohols into carboxylic acids with the use of water as an oxygen source. Applying a ruthenium dihydrogen based dehydrogenation catalyst for this cause, we investigated the effect of water on the catalytic dehydrogenation process of alcohols. Using 1 mol% of the catalyst we report up to high yields. Moreover, we isolated key intermediates which most likely play a role in the catalytic cycle. One of the intermediates was identified as a trans dihydrido carbonyl complex which is generated in situ in the catalytic process.

  2. Influence of two different alcohols in the esterification of fatty acids over layered zinc stearate/palmitate.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Eduardo José Mendes; Corazza, Marcos Lúcio; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Wärnå, Johan; Murzin, Dmitry Yu; Wypych, Fernando; Salmi, Tapio

    2015-10-01

    In this work, esterification of fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and stearic acid) with a commercial zinc carboxylate (a layered compound formed by simultaneous intercalation of stearate and palmitate anions) was performed. Kinetic modeling using a quasi-homogeneous approach successfully fitted experimental data at different molar ratio of fatty acids/alcohols (1-butanol and 1-hexanol) and temperature. An apparent first-order reaction related to all reactants was found and activation energy of 66 kJ/mol was reported. The catalyst showed to be unique, as it can be easily recovered like a heterogeneous catalysts behaving like ionic liquids. In addition, this catalyst demonstrated a peculiar behavior, because higher reactivity was observed with the increase in the alcohols chain length compared to the authors' previous work using ethanol.

  3. Beneficial effects of chlorogenic acid on alcohol-induced damage in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yong-Tang; Wei, Jing-Xiang; Shu, Ya-Hai; Xiao, Lan; Lu, Xiu-Min

    2016-04-01

    As one of the most commonly abused psychotropic substances, ethanol exposure has deleterious effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The most detrimental results of ethanol exposure during development are the loss of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus and neocortex, which may be related to the apoptosis and necrosis mediated by oxidative stress. Recent studies indicated that a number of natural drugs from plants play an important role in protection of nerve cells from damage. Among these, it has been reported that chlorogenic acid (CA) has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. Thus, it may play some beneficial effects on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. However, the effects of CA on ethanol-induced nerve damage remain unclear. In order to investigate the protective effects of CA on alcohol-induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, in the present study, cell viability and the optimal dosage of CA were first quantified by MTT assay. Then, the cell apoptosis and cell cycle were respectively investigated by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer (FCM). To further clarify the possible mechanism, followed with the test of mitochondria transmembrane potential with Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) staining, the expression of Bcl-2, Capase-3 and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were analyzed by immunofluorescence assay separately. The results showed that treatment with 500 mM alcohol decreased the cell viability and then significantly induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. However, when pretreated with different concentrations of CA (1, 5, 10, 50 μM), cell viability increased in different degree. Comparatively, CA with the concentration of 10 μM most effectively promoted the proliferation of damaged cells, increased the distribution ratio of the cells at the G2/M and S phases, and enhanced mitochondria transmembrane potential. This appears to be in agreement with up-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and GAP-43, and down-regulation of

  4. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. PMID:23199277

  5. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  6. Recent advances with a novel model organism: Alcohol tolerance and sensitization in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence is a rapidly growing problem with few treatment options available. The zebrafish has become a popular animal model for behavioural neuroscience. This species may be appropriate for investigating the effects of alcohol on the vertebrate brain. In the current review, we examine the literature by discussing how alcohol alters behaviour in zebrafish and how it may affect biological correlates. We focus on two phenomena that are often examined in the context of alcohol-induced neuroplasticity. Alcohol tolerance (a progressive decrease in the effect of alcohol over time) is often observed following continuous (chronic) exposure to low concentrations of alcohol. Alcohol sensitization also called reverse tolerance (a progressive increase in the effect of alcohol over time) is often observed following repeated discrete exposures to higher concentrations of alcohol. These two phenomena may underlie the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. The phenotypical characterization of these responses in zebrafish may be the first important steps in establishing this species as a tool for the analysis of the molecular and neurobiological mechanisms underlying human alcohol addiction. PMID:24593943

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over AmberlystTM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  8. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  9. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Liu, Di; Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui; Zhao, Fuhua; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. • The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. • Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. • Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  10. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method. PMID:12545440

  11. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  12. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects.

  13. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  14. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. PMID:17265932

  15. Formation of Organic Tracers for Isoprene SOA under Acidic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical compositions of a series of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples, formed by irradiating mixtures of isoprene and NO in a smog chamber in the absence or presence of acidic aerosols, were analyzed using derivatization-based GC-MS methods. In addition to the known is...

  16. Metabolism of Sugars and Organic Acids in Immature Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Individual intact excised immature Sultana berries were supplied through the cut pedicel with 14C-sugars and organic acids. When 14C-hexoses were supplied malic and tartaric acids accounted for 25% and 10% of the total activity extracted after 24 hours, and sucrose was synthesized. It is proposed that the changes in the levels of organic acids during ripening are related to changes in the ability of the berry to synthesize them. Although administration of uniformly labeled sucrose resulted in the unequal labeling of glucose and fructose, the results indicate breakdown of sucrose by invertase. It is suggested that the route of entry of the pedicel-fed sugars into the berry may be different from the route taken by sugar translocated from the leaf. PMID:16656755

  17. Surface crystallographic dependence of voltammetric oxidation of polyhydric alcohols and related systems at monocrystalline gold-acidic aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Antoinette; Ho, Yeunghaw; Chang, Si-Chung; Gao, Xiaoping; Weaver, Michael J.

    1992-02-01

    The voltammetric oxidation in aqueous 0.1 Molar perchloric acid of four polyhydric alcohols, ethylene glycol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, and d-mannitol, on seven oriented gold surfaces is reported with the objective of assessing the role of surface crystallographic orientation on the catalytic electrooxidation of such poly-functional reactants. The automatically well-ordered nature of these gold surfaces has been scrutinized by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the Au(221) and (533) faces were selected since they provide stepped surfaces, 4(111)-(111) and 4(111)-(100), respectively. The results are compared with corresponding data for simple unifunctional reactants, specifically for formic acid oxidation and with results reported previously for carbon monoxide oxidation. In contrast to the last reaction, the electrooxidation rates for both the polyhydric alcoholic and formic acid are greatest on Au(111), with Au(110) displaying unusually low activity. While formic acid electrooxidation is insensitive to the presence of monoatomic surface steps, the polyhydric alcohols (especially mannitol) are substantially less reactive on AU(221) and (533) relative to Au(111).

  18. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. ||; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  19. Removal of lead by apatite and its stability in the presence of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Makimura, Akihiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, lead sorption and desorption tests were conducted with apatite and organic acids (i.e. citric, malic, and formic acids) to understand lead removal by apatite in the presence of an organic acid and lead dissolution from the lead- and organic-acid-sorbed apatite by such organic acid exposure. The lead sorption test showed that the amount of lead removed by apatite in the presence of organic acid varied depending on the type of acid used. The molar amounts of calcium dissolved from apatite in the presence and absence of organic acid were exactly the same as those of lead removed even under different pH conditions as well as different organic acid concentrations, indicating that the varying amount of lead removal in the presence of different organic acids resulted from the magnitude of the dissolution of apatite and the precipitation of lead phosphate minerals. The percentages of lead dissolved from the organic-acid-sorbed and non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by all the organic acid extractions were equal and higher than those by water extraction. In particular, the highest extractions were observed in the non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by citric and malic acids. These results suggest that to immobilize lead by the use of apatite in the presence of organic acids, much more apatite must be added than in the absence of organic acid, and that measures must be taken to ensure that the immobilized lead is not dissolved.

  20. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  1. Free Fatty Acids Differentially Downregulate Chemokines in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells: Insights into Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Rachel H.; Porsche, Cara E.; Edwards, Michael G.; Rosen, Hugo R.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a prevalent problem throughout the western world. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) have been shown to play important roles in liver injury and repair, but their role in the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease remains undefined. Here, we evaluated the effects of steatosis on LSEC gene expression in a murine model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an immortalized LSEC line. Using microarray we identified distinct gene expression profiles following exposure to free fatty acids. Gene pathway analysis showed a number of differentially expressed genes including those involved in lipid metabolism and signaling and inflammation. Interestingly, in contrast to hepatocytes, fatty acids led to decreased expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines including CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL10 and CXCL16 in both primary and LSEC cell lines. Chemokine downregulation translated into a significant inhibition of monocyte migration and LSECs isolated from steatotic livers demonstrated a similar shift towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Overall, these pathways may represent a compensatory mechanism to reverse the liver damage associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27454769

  2. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH3-TPD and N2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)-MCM-48 samples, SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO42-/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h-1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C.

  3. An unprecedented (3,4,24)-connected heteropolyoxozincate organic framework as heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dong-Ying; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Sun, Zhong; Yan, Li-Kai; O'Keeffe, Michael; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Shun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xin-Long; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2013-01-01

    A novel 3D hexadecanuclear heteropolyoxozincate organic framework, IFMC-200, has been successfully synthesized based on a late transition metal-oxygen cluster. IFMC-200 not only represents the first example of (3,4,24)-connected framework but also contains the first 24-connected single metal cluster in a crystal structure. It exhibits superior thermal stability, good water-stability, and even insensitivity to the existence of acid and base within a certain range of pH values. Furthermore, it performs as a heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst with good activity for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids rather than short-chain ones, and high recycling efficiency for esterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols to produce biodiesel. PMID:24019078

  4. Competitive threshold collision-induced dissociation: Gas-phase acidities and bond dissociation energies for a series of alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    DeTuri, V.F.; Ervin, K.M.

    1999-09-02

    Energy-resolved competitive collision-induced dissociation methods are used to measure the gas-phase acidities of a series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol). The competitive dissociation reactions of fluoride-alcohol, [F{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOR], alkoxide-water, [RO{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOH], and alkoxide-methanol [RO{+-}{center{underscore}dot}HOCH{sub 3}] proton-bound complexes are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The reaction cross sections and product branching fractions to the two proton transfer channels are measured as a function of collision energy. The enthalpy difference between the two product channels is found by modeling the reaction cross sections near threshold using RRKM theory to account for the energy-dependent product branching ratio and kinetic shift. From the enthalpy difference, the alcohol gas-phase acidities are determined relative to the well-known values of HF and H{sub 2}O. The measured gas-phase acidities are {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}OH) = 1599 {+-} 3 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) = 1586 {+-} 5 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHOH) = 1576 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, and {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH) = 1573 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  5. Electric field-controlled benzoic acid and sulphanilamide delivery from poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Niamlang, Sumonman; Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-12-01

    The controlled release of benzoic acid (3.31 Å) and sulphanilamide (3.47 Å) from poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, hydrogels fabricated by solution casting at various cross-linking ratios, were investigated. The PVA hydrogels were characterized in terms of the degree of swelling, the molecular weight between cross-links, and the mesh size. The drug release experiment was carried out using a modified Franz diffusion cell, at a pH value of 5.5 and at temperature of 37°C. The amount of drug release and the diffusion coefficients of the drugs from the PVA hydrogels increased with decreasing cross-linking ratio, as a larger mesh size was obtained with lower cross-linking ratios. With the application of an electric field, the amount of drug release and the diffusion coefficient increased monotonically with increasing electric field strength, since the resultant electrostatic force drove the ionic drugs from the PVA matrix. The drug size, matrix pore size, electrode polarity, and applied electric field were shown to be influential controlling factors for the drug release rate. PMID:23065453

  6. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato - 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154/degree/C. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154/degree/C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154/degree/C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, but degraded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, Under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. 18 refs.

  7. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively. PMID:20124754

  8. Sulfoacetic acid modifying poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel and its electroresponsive behavior under DC electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Genqi; Zhang, Cheng; Liao, Jiae

    2013-01-01

    A strong electrolyte hydrogel was prepared by modifying poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with sulfoacetic acid (SA-PVA). Its swelling properties, mechanical properties, and electroresponsive behavior in Na2SO4 solutions were studied. The results indicated that the water take-up ability of the hydrogel decreased with the increasing ionic strength of Na2SO4 solution. The Young’s modulus, elongation at break and tensile strength of the hydrogel swollen in deionized water are 1.247 MPa, 187% and 2.2 MPa, respectively. The hydrogel swollen in a Na2SO4 solution bent towards the cathode under non-contact dc electric fields, and its bending speed and equilibrium strain increased with increasing applied voltage. There is a critical ionic strength of 0.03 at which the maximum equilibrium strain of the hydrogel occurs. Also the bending behavior of hydrogel was not affected by the pH changes. By altering the direction of the applied potential cyclically, the hydrogel exhibited good reversible bending behavior. On this basis, a gel-worm was designed. Under a cyclically varying electric field (the period was 8 s, and the voltage ranged from -10 to 10 V), the walking speed was up to 15 cm min-1 in Na2SO4 solution with an ionic strength of 0.03.

  9. Kinetics of enzymatic synthesis of liquid wax ester from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Salina Mat; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Ariff, Arbakariya; Rahman, Mohammad Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of wax ester synthesis from oleic acid and oleyl alcohol using immobilized lipase from Candida antartica as catalyst was studied with different types of impeller (Rushton turbine and AL-hydrofoil) to create different mixing conditions in 2l stirred tank reactor. The effects of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and impeller tip speed on the synthesis were also evaluated. Rushton turbine impeller exhibited highest conversion rate at lower impeller tip speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil impeller. A second-order reversible kinetic model from single progress curve for the prediction of fractional conversion at given reaction time was proposed and the corresponding kinetic parameter values were calculated by non-linear regression method. The results from the simulation using the proposed model showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Activation energy shows a value of 21.77 Kcal/mol. The thermodynamic parameters of the process, enthalpy and entropy, were 21.15 Kcal/mol and 52.07 cal/mol.K, respectively.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Morales, Javier; Amariei, Georgiana; Letón, Pedro; Rosal, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Electrospun nanofibers were prepared from blends of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The fibers were stabilized by heat curing at 140°C via anhydride and ketone formation and crosslinking esterification. The antimicrobial effect was assessed using strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by tracking their capacity to form colonies and their metabolic impairment upon contact with PAA/PVA membranes. Membranes containing >35wt.% PAA displayed significant antibacterial activity, which was particularly high for the gram-positive S. aureus. All membranes were negatively charged, with surface ζ-potential in the (-34.5)-(-45.6)mV range, but the electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged cells was not the reason for the antimicrobial effect. Neither pH reduction nor the passing of non-crosslinked polymers to the solution affected microbial growth. The antibacterial activity was attributed to the chelation of the divalent cations stabilizing the outer cell membrane. The effect on gram-positive bacteria was attributed to the destabilization of the peptidoglycan layer. The sequestration of divalent cations was demonstrated with experiments in which calcium and a chelating agent were added to the cultures in contact with membranes. The damage to bacterial cells was tracked by measuring their surface charge and the evolution of intracellular calcium during the early stages after contact with PAA/PVA membranes. PMID:27318959

  11. Electrospun polylactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol fibers as efficient and stable nanomaterials for immobilization of lipases.

    PubMed

    Sóti, Péter Lajos; Weiser, Diana; Vigh, Tamás; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf; Poppe, László; Marosi, György

    2016-03-01

    Electrospinning was applied to create easy-to-handle and high-surface-area membranes from continuous nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). Lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia and Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB) could be immobilized effectively by adsorption onto the fibrous material as well as by entrapment within the electrospun nanofibers. The biocatalytic performance of the resulting membrane biocatalysts was evaluated in the kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1) and 1-phenylethyl acetate (rac-2). Fine dispersion of the enzymes in the polymer matrix and large surface area of the nanofibers resulted in an enormous increase in the activity of the membrane biocatalyst compared to the non-immobilized crude powder forms of the lipases. PLA as fiber-forming polymer for lipase immobilization performed better than PVA in all aspects. Recycling studies with the various forms of electrospun membrane biocatalysts in ten cycles of the acylation and hydrolysis reactions indicated excellent stability of this forms of immobilized lipases. PLA-entrapped lipases could preserve lipase activity and enantiomer selectivity much better than the PVA-entrapped forms. The electrospun membrane forms of CaLB showed high mechanical stability in the repeated acylations and hydrolyses than commercial forms of CaLB immobilized on polyacrylamide beads (Novozyme 435 and IMMCALB-T2-150).

  12. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919

  13. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement.

  14. Electrospun polylactic acid and polyvinyl alcohol fibers as efficient and stable nanomaterials for immobilization of lipases.

    PubMed

    Sóti, Péter Lajos; Weiser, Diana; Vigh, Tamás; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf; Poppe, László; Marosi, György

    2016-03-01

    Electrospinning was applied to create easy-to-handle and high-surface-area membranes from continuous nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). Lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia and Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CaLB) could be immobilized effectively by adsorption onto the fibrous material as well as by entrapment within the electrospun nanofibers. The biocatalytic performance of the resulting membrane biocatalysts was evaluated in the kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1) and 1-phenylethyl acetate (rac-2). Fine dispersion of the enzymes in the polymer matrix and large surface area of the nanofibers resulted in an enormous increase in the activity of the membrane biocatalyst compared to the non-immobilized crude powder forms of the lipases. PLA as fiber-forming polymer for lipase immobilization performed better than PVA in all aspects. Recycling studies with the various forms of electrospun membrane biocatalysts in ten cycles of the acylation and hydrolysis reactions indicated excellent stability of this forms of immobilized lipases. PLA-entrapped lipases could preserve lipase activity and enantiomer selectivity much better than the PVA-entrapped forms. The electrospun membrane forms of CaLB showed high mechanical stability in the repeated acylations and hydrolyses than commercial forms of CaLB immobilized on polyacrylamide beads (Novozyme 435 and IMMCALB-T2-150). PMID:26724947

  15. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of a similar magnitude, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity-dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  16. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters, and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied with experimental methods. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of similar magnitudes, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  17. A simple and advantageous protocol for the oxidation of alcohols with O-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX).

    PubMed

    More, Jesse D; Finney, Nathaniel S

    2002-08-22

    [reaction: see text] An efficient, user-friendly procedure for the oxidation of alcohols using IBX is described. Simply heating a solution of the alcohol in the presence of suspended IBX followed by filtration and removal of the solvent gives excellent yields of the corresponding carbonyl compounds. We illustrate this procedure with a panel of primary and secondary alcohol substrates and note that it allows recycling and reuse of the oxidant.

  18. Correlating Acid Properties and Catalytic Function: A First-Principles Analysis of Alcohol Dehydration Pathways on Polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Janik, Michael J.; Macht, Josef; Iglesia, Enrique; Neurock, Matthew

    2009-02-05

    Density functional theory calculations and reactivity data were used to examine the mechanism of alcohol dehydration on Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) catalysts and the influence of the POM composition and the degree of substitution of the alcohol on kinetically relevant elimination steps. Dehydration was found to proceed through E1 pathways in which the alcohol CsO bond is cleaved heterolytically via a carbeniumion transition state. Dehydration rates were found to depend on the elimination rate constant and the equilibrium constant for the formation of unreactive alcohol dimers. E2-type elimination transition states, involving concerted CsH and CsO bond cleavage, were not found. The extent of substitution at the R-carbon on the alcohol was found to lead to marked effects on elimination barriers, because substitution increases the proton affinity of the alcohol and the stability of the carbenium-ion transition state. Changes in the central and addenda atoms of the POM cluster and the presence of n-donors, a support, vicinal POM clusters, or charge-compensating cations were found to lead to changes in the deprotonation energy (DPE) of the POM cluster, activation barriers to dehydration, and the stability of the unreactive dimer. These effects are all captured in a general linear relation between activation barriers and deprotonation energy, a rigorous measure of acid strength. The explicit dependence of the E1 activation barrier on the acid deprotonation energy is much weaker than that on reactant proton affinity. This results from the more effective compensation between the acid deprotonation energy and the interaction energy between the cationic hydrocarbon fragment and the anionic POM cluster at the transition state. The direct interactions between the POM protons and the support, other POM clusters, n-donors, base probe molecules, and charge-compensating cations increased the negative charge of the oxide shell of the W12O40 conjugate base, which increased the

  19. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  20. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  1. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. PMID:27469095

  2. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis.

  3. Novel hydrogels of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-glycolic acid copolymer with enhanced rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Lejardi, A; Hernández, R; Criado, M; Santos, Jose I; Etxeberria, A; Sarasua, J R; Mijangos, C

    2014-03-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been grafted with glycolic acid (GL), a biodegradable hydroxyl acid to yield modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAGL). The formation of hydrogels at pH = 6.8 and physiological temperature through blending chitosan (CS) and PVAGL at different concentrations has been investigated. FTIR, DOSY NMR and oscillatory rheology measurements have been carried out on CS/PVAGL hydrogels and the results have been compared to those obtained for CS/PVA hydrogels prepared under the same conditions. The experimental results point to an increase in the number of interactions between chitosan and PVAGL in polymer hydrogels prepared with modified PVA. The resulting materials with enhanced elastic properties and thixotropic behavior are potential candidates to be employed as injectable materials for biomedical applications.

  4. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid. PMID:27431730

  5. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  6. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Veeraraghavan, Vishnu Priya; Jainu, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is an important component of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which progresses to the end stage liver disease, if not diagnosed and treated properly. The disproportionate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from fat contributes to the pathogenesis of NASH. In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix (ECM) component levels were studied in experimentally induced NASH. Materials and Methods: The experimental protocol consists of using 48 male Wister rats, which were divided into 8 groups. The levels of hyaluronic acid, leptin and adiponectin were monitored in experimental NASH. Results: The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Conclusion: Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid. PMID:26557974

  7. Mild oxidation of alcohols with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) in water/acetone mixture in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Surendra, K; Krishnaveni, N Srilakshmi; Reddy, M Arjun; Nageswar, Y V D; Rao, K Rama

    2003-03-01

    A mild and efficient oxidation of alcohols with o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) catalyzed by beta-cyclodextrin in a water/acetone mixture (86:14) has been developed. A series of alcohols were oxidized at room temperature in excellent yields.

  8. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  9. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  10. Dual Catalysis Using Boronic Acid and Chiral Amine: Acyclic Quaternary Carbons via Enantioselective Alkylation of Branched Aldehydes with Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaobin; Hall, Dennis G

    2016-08-31

    A ferrocenium boronic acid salt activates allylic alcohols to generate transient carbocations that react with in situ-generated chiral enamines from branched aldehydes. The optimized conditions afford the desired acyclic products embedding a methyl-aryl quaternary carbon center with up to 90% yield and 97:3 enantiomeric ratio, with only water as the byproduct. This noble-metal-free method complements alternative methods that are incompatible with carbon-halogen bonds and other sensitive functional groups. PMID:27518200

  11. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields. PMID:25541815

  12. The aerobic oxidation of alcohols with a ruthenium porphyrin catalyst in organic and fluorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Korotchenko, Vasily N; Severin, Kay; Gagné, Michel R

    2008-06-01

    Carbonylruthenium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin Ru(TPFPP)(CO) was utilized for the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The in situ activation of the catalyst with mCPBA provided a species capable of catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols with molecular oxygen. The choice of solvent and additive was crucial to obtaining high activity and selectivity. Secondary aromatic alcohols were oxidized in the presence of the ruthenium porphyrin and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide in the solvent bromotrichloromethane, enabling high yields to be achieved (up to 99%). Alternatively, alcohols could be oxidized in perfluoro(methyldecalin) with the ruthenium porphyrin at higher temperatures (140 degrees C) and elevated oxygen pressures (50 psi).

  13. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  14. Various instrumental approaches for determination of organic acids in wines.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, Jiri; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Milovanovic, Miodrag; Kubesa, Ondrej; Zeisbergerova, Marta; Lacina, Karel; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Glatz, Zdenek; Skladal, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Biosensors based on lactate oxidase, sarcosine oxidase and mixture of fumarase and sarcosine oxidase were used for monitoring of organic acids in wine samples. Additionally, tartaric acid was determined by modified colorimetric method based on formation of the vanadate-tartrate complex. The above mentioned methods were used for the analysis of 31 wine samples and obtained data were compared with the results from capillary electrophoresis as a basic standard method. This comparison showed a certain degree of correlation between biosensors and capillary electrophoresis. The provided information pointed to the potential uses of biosensors in the field of winemaking.

  15. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  16. Electrochemical Study of AISI C1018 Steel in Methanesulfonic Acid Containing an Acetylenic Alcohol-Based Corrosion Inhibitor Formulation.

    PubMed

    Finšgar, Matjaž; Jackson, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the electrochemical potentiodynamic behavior of AISI C1018 lower-grade steel material was investigated in 20 wt.% methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solutions with or without different components to design corrosion inhibitor formulations based on acetylenic alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 1-dodecylpyridinium chloride, and methanol. MSA has recently been considered as a new potential acid to be used in the matrix stimulation procedure and in well cleaning. It is demonstrated that AISI C1018 steel MSA needs to be inhibited. Inhibition type is determined for single components as well as for formulations.

  17. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  18. Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Palaghias, G

    1986-06-01

    A conventional and two high copper amalgams were tested in 0.5% aqueous solutions of acetic, formic, lactic and succinic acid. The corrosion behavior of the amalgams in the different solutions was evaluated by analyzing the soluble corrosion products using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer every month during a 6-month experimental period. The high copper amalgams showed a high dissolution rate in formic and lactic acid solutions from the initial stages of immersion when compared to the conventional. Later a marked decrease of the dissolution rate could be observed but it still remained at high levels. In acetic acid the amounts of elements dissolved from high copper amalgams were much less. Conventional amalgam released much smaller amounts of elements in almost all solutions tested except in the case of silver in lactic acid. Finally, in succinic acid solution, the amounts of elements dissolved were unexpectedly small considering the low pH of the solution and the dissolution rates of the amalgams in the other organic acid solutions. PMID:3461548

  19. Air-nitric acid destructive oxidation of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution with air sparging. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sub +2} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. The rate for aliphatic organic compounds (polyethylene, PVC, and n-dodecane) is relatively very slow. This is due to the large energy required to abstract a hydrogen atom from these compounds, 99 kcal/mole. The combination of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} and H{center_dot} to produce HNO{sub 2} releases only 88 kcal/mole. Under conditions of high NO{sub 2}{center_dot} concentration it should be possible to oxidize these aliphatic compounds.

  20. Organic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in perchloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Stupnisek-Lisac, E. . Dept. of Electrochemistry); Grubac, Z. . Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

    1994-02-01

    Substituted N-arylpyrroles containing carbaldehyde groups on a pyrrole ring and their inhibitive effects on the corrosion of aluminum (Al) in perchloric acid (HCIO[sub 4]) were investigated. Electrochemical measurements showed the organic compounds examined had good inhibiting properties at 40 C. The high inhibition effect of the N-aryl-2,5-dimethylpyrroles containing carbaldehyde groups on a pyrrole ring on corrosion of Al in acid media was explained on the basis of the electronic structure of the molecule and by the condensation characteristic of the carbaldehydes. Investigation of the influence of substitution type ([minus]F,[minus]Cl,[minus]NH[sub 2]) on the inhibiting characteristics of examined organic compounds showed the best inhibiting effect was from substituted N-arylpyrrole with fluorine in the ortho position of the phenyl ring.

  1. Alcohol Use and Participation in Organized Recreational Sports among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Brian W.; Gryczynski, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined alcohol use among students involved in recreational sports. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study of alcohol use in which researchers separate recreational sports participants from intercollegiate athletes and examine them as a separate group of interest. Participants: The authors generated a random…

  2. ALCOHOL OXIDATION - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alco...

  3. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS - COMPARING DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alc...

  4. Aquatic organisms in acidic environments: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.M.; Lien, G.J.; Berg, R.G.

    1985-10-01

    Acid deposition has aroused concern about aquatic organisms in soft water lakes and streams, as the loss of indigenous species is commonly observed when pH decreases. This literature review was initiated to intensively examine the distribution of invertebrates with respect to pH, in order to define the tolerance limits of various species in acidified waters and predict how acidification would alter distributions.

  5. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D < MCPA < 2,4-DB < triclosan. Combining comprehensive characterization of the sorbents with the sorption dataset allowed the discussion of sorption mechanisms and driving factors of sorption. Statistical analysis suggests that (i) partitioning was the main driver for sorption to sorbents with small specific surface area (< 25 m²/g), whereas (ii) specific mechanisms dominated sorption to sorbents with larger specific surface area. Results showed that factors usually not considered for the sorption of neutral contaminants play an important role for the sorption of organic acids. The pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic

  6. Difficulties in Laboratory Studies and Astronomical Observations of Organic Molecules: Hydroxyacetone and Lactic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apponi, A. J.; Brewster, M. A.; Hoy, J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 35 years, radio astronomy has revealed a rich organic chemistry in the interstellar gas, which is exceptionally complex towards active star-forming regions. New solar systems condense out of this gas and may influence the evolution of life on newly formed planets. Much of the biologically important functionality is present among the some 130 gas-phase molecules found to date, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, amines, amides and even the simplest sugar - glycolaldehyde. Still, many unidentified interstellar radio signals remain, and their identification relies on further laboratory study. The molecules hydroxyacetone and lactic acid are relatively small organic molecules, but possess rather complex rotational spectra owing to their high asymmetry. Hydroxyacetone is particularly problematic because it possess a very low barrier to internal rotation, and exhibits strong coupling of the free-rotor states with the overall rotation of the molecule. As in the case of acetamide, a full decomposition method was employed to order the resultant eigenstates onto normal asymmetric top eigenvectors.

  7. Chronic alcohol binging injures the liver and other organs by reducing NAD⁺ levels required for sirtuin's deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W

    2016-04-01

    NAD(+) levels are markedly reduced when blood alcohol levels are high during binge drinking. This causes liver injury to occur because the enzymes that require NAD(+) as a cofactor such as the sirtuin de-acetylases cannot de-acetylate acetylated proteins such as acetylated histones. This prevents the epigenetic changes that regulate metabolic processes and which prevent organ injury such as fatty liver in response to alcohol abuse. Hyper acetylation of numerous regulatory proteins develops. Systemic multi-organ injury occurs when NAD(+) is reduced. For instance the Circadian clock is altered if NAD(+) is not available. Cell cycle arrest occurs due to up regulation of cell cycle inhibitors leading to DNA damage, mutations, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. NAD(+) is linked to aging in the regulation of telomere stability. NAD(+) is required for mitochondrial renewal. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present in every visceral organ in the body so that there is a systemic reduction of NAD(+) levels in all of these organs during binge drinking. PMID:26896648

  8. Chronic alcohol binging injures the liver and other organs by reducing NAD⁺ levels required for sirtuin's deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W

    2016-04-01

    NAD(+) levels are markedly reduced when blood alcohol levels are high during binge drinking. This causes liver injury to occur because the enzymes that require NAD(+) as a cofactor such as the sirtuin de-acetylases cannot de-acetylate acetylated proteins such as acetylated histones. This prevents the epigenetic changes that regulate metabolic processes and which prevent organ injury such as fatty liver in response to alcohol abuse. Hyper acetylation of numerous regulatory proteins develops. Systemic multi-organ injury occurs when NAD(+) is reduced. For instance the Circadian clock is altered if NAD(+) is not available. Cell cycle arrest occurs due to up regulation of cell cycle inhibitors leading to DNA damage, mutations, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. NAD(+) is linked to aging in the regulation of telomere stability. NAD(+) is required for mitochondrial renewal. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present in every visceral organ in the body so that there is a systemic reduction of NAD(+) levels in all of these organs during binge drinking.

  9. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol). PMID:25035710

  10. Osteochondral defect repair using a polyvinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid (PVA-PAAc) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Bichara, David A; Bodugoz-Sentruk, Hatice; Ling, Doris; Malchau, Erik; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K

    2014-08-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels can be candidates for articular cartilage repair due to their high water content. We synthesized a PVA-poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel formulation and determined its ability to function as a treatment option for condylar osteochondral (OC) defects in a New Zealand white rabbit (NZWR) model for 12 weeks and 24 weeks. In addition to hydrogel OC implants, tensile bar-shaped hydrogels were also implanted subcutaneously to evaluate changes in mechanical properties as a function of in vivo duration. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the water content measured in the OC hydrogel implant that was harvested after 12 weeks and 24 weeks, and non-implanted controls. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in the break stress, strain at break or modulus of the tensile bars either between groups. Histological analysis of the OC defect, synovial capsule and fibrous tissue around the tensile bars determined hydrogel biocompatibility. Twelve-week hydrogels were found to be in situ flush with the articular cartilage; meniscal tissue demonstrated an intact surface. Twenty-four week hydrogels protruded from the defect site due to lack of integration with subchondral tissue, causing fibrillation to the meniscal surface. Condylar micro-CT scans ruled out osteolysis and bone cysts of the subchondral bone, and no PVA-PAAc hydrogel contents were found in the synovial fluid. The PVA-PAAc hydrogel was determined to be fully biocompatible, maintained its properties over time, and performed well at the 12 week time point. Physical fixation of the PVA-PAAc hydrogel to the subchondral bone is required to ensure long-term performance of hydrogel plugs for OC defect repair.

  11. Protein engineering of alcohol dehydrogenase--1. Effects of two amino acid changes in the active site of yeast ADH-1.

    PubMed

    Murali, C; Creaser, E H

    1986-01-01

    One of the promises held out by protein engineering is the ability to alter predictably the properties of an enzyme to enable it to find new substrates or catalyse existing substrates more efficiently, such manipulations being of interest both enzymologically and, potentially, industrially. It has been postulated that in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH-1) certain amino acids such as Trp 93 and Thr 48 constrict the active site due to their bulky side chains and thus impede catalysis of molecules larger than ethanol. To study effects of enlarging the active site we have made two changes into YADH-1, replacing Trp 93 with Phe and Thr 48 with Ser. Kinetic experiments showed that this enzyme had marked increases in reaction velocity for the n-alcohols propanol, butanol, pentanol, hexanol, heptanol, octanol and cinnamyl alcohol compared to the parent, agreeing with the prediction that expanding the active site should facilitate the oxidation of larger alcohols. The substrate affinities were slightly reduced in the altered enzyme, possibly due to its having reduced hydrophobicity at Phe 93.

  12. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  13. Photo-induced cold vapor generation with low molecular weight alcohol, aldehyde, or carboxylic acid for atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunfang; Zheng, Chengbin; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Guanglei; Lv, Yi; Hou, Xiandeng

    2007-06-01

    With UV irradiation, Hg(2+) in aqueous solution can be converted into Hg(0) cold vapor by low molecular weight alcohols, aldehydes, or carboxylic acids, e.g., methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, or malonic acid. It was found that the presence of nano-TiO(2) more or less improved the efficiency of the photo-induced chemical/cold vapor generation (photo-CVG) with most of the organic reductants. The nano-TiO(2)-enhanced photo-CVG systems can be coupled to various analytical atomic spectrometric techniques for the determination of ultratrace mercury. In this work, we evaluated the application of this method to the atomic fluorescence spectrometric (AFS) determination of mercury in cold vapor mode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the instrumental limits of detection (based on three times the standard deviation of 11 measurements of a blank solution) were around 0.02-0.04 microg L(-1), with linear dynamic ranges up to 15 microg L(-1). The interference of transition metals and the mechanism of the photo-CVG are briefly discussed. Real sample analysis using the photo-CVG-AFS method revealed that it was promising for water and geological analysis of ultralow levels of mercury.

  14. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  15. Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Teixeira, Natércia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-01

    Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ω-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ω-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time.

  16. Organic and petroleum chemistry for nonchemists

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerling, L.

    1981-01-01

    A nontechnical book dealing with organic and petroleum chemistry is presented. The contents include: elements and compounds; hydrocarbons; equations; alcohols and phenols; aldehydes; ketones; carboxylic acids; esters; acid halides; amides, and anhydrides; petroleum; and a glossary of compounds. (JMT)

  17. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid ester derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2012-09-01

    The aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid ester derivatives (AAASAE) group of fragrance ingredients was critically evaluated for safety following a complete literature search of the pertinent data. For high end users, calculated maximum skin exposures vary widely from 0.01% to 4.17%. AAASAE exhibit a common route of primary metabolism by carboxylesterases resulting in the formation of the simple acid and an aryl alkyl alcohol. They have low acute toxicity. No significant toxicity was observed in repeat-dose toxicity tests. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity of benzyl alcohol when it was administered in the feed; gavage studies resulted in pancreatic carcinogenesis due to the corn oil vehicle. The AAASAE are not mutagenic in bacterial systems or in vitro in mammalian cells, and have little to no in vivo genotoxicity. Reproductive and developmental toxicity data show no indication of adverse effects on reproductive function and NOELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current exposure levels. The AAASAE are generally not irritating or sensitizing at the current levels of exposure. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding the AAASAE at the current levels of use and exposure.

  18. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  19. Organic acid-catalyzed polyurethane formation via a dual-activated mechanism: unexpected preference of N-activation over O-activation of isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Sardon, Haritz; Engler, Amanda C; Chan, Julian M W; García, Jeannette M; Coady, Daniel J; Pascual, Ana; Mecerreyes, David; Jones, Gavin O; Rice, Julia E; Horn, Hans W; Hedrick, James L

    2013-10-30

    A systematic study of acid organocatalysts for the polyaddition of poly(ethylene glycol) to hexamethylene diisocyanate in solution has been performed. Among organic acids evaluated, sulfonic acids were found the most effective for urethane formations even when compared with conventional tin-based catalysts (dibutyltin dilaurate) or 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. In comparison, phosphonic and carboxylic acids showed considerably lower catalytic activities. Furthermore, sulfonic acids gave polyurethanes with higher molecular weights than was observed using traditional catalyst systems. Molecular modeling was conducted to provide mechanistic insight and supported a dual activation mechanism, whereby ternary adducts form in the presence of acid and engender both electrophilic isocyanate activation and nucleophilic alcohol activation through hydrogen bonding. Such a mechanism suggests catalytic activity is a function of not only acid strength but also inherent conjugate base electron density. PMID:24083673

  20. Comparison of capillary pressure relationships of organic liquid water systems containing an organic acid or base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, D. L.; Demond, A. H.; Hayes, K. F.

    2005-04-01

    The presence of surface-active solutes such as organic acids and bases may have a profound influence on the transport of organic liquid contaminants through their impact on the constitutive relationship of capillary pressure vs. saturation. This relationship is a function of the interfacial tension and wettability of the system, which, in turn, depend on the pH and the concentration of organic acids and bases that are present. This study examines the impact of pH and the concentration on the interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure of systems consisting of tetrachloroethylene, water, and quartz containing either octanoic acid or dodecylamine. In general, the ionic form of the solute tended to remain in the aqueous phase and reduced the capillary pressure through its impact on the interfacial tension and contact angle; on the other hand, the neutral form of the solute partitioned into the organic liquid phase and had a lesser impact on the capillary pressure for the same total mass of solute. A comparison of these data with data generated in previous research in similar systems where o-xylene was the organic liquid showed that the trends are analogous. Thus, the behavior of these two solvent systems seems to be driven primarily by the aqueous phase speciation of the solute, and the differences between the capillary pressure relationships for the two systems could be attributed to the pure system interfacial tension.

  1. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  2. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  3. Palladium-phosphinous acid complexes catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid in water/alcoholic solvents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ben; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2013-06-01

    Highly active, air-stable and water-soluble palladium-phosphinous acid complexes have been applied to Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides under mild conditions in water/alcoholic solvents. Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid occurred efficiently using palladium phosphinous acid complexes (POPd) and phase transfer catalyst (tetrabutylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol) in water/ethanol mixture, water/propanol mixture and neat water respectively, the corresponding yields of cross-coupling heteroaryl-aryls were satisfied. The tert-butyl substituted ligand di-tert-butylphosphino in combination with POPd was found to be more active than the same family derived catalysts dipalladium complexes POPd1 and POPd2, and other two kinds of Pd-catalysts Pd(PPh3)4 and Pd2(dba)3. The mechanism of Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between heteroaryl bromides and phenylboronic acid in water was proposed with respect to the key role of phase transfer catalyst on the transmetallation step. Compared with other solid phase transfer catalysts, TBAB was tested as the ideal one. The alkalinity of base and the molar proportion between POPd and TBAB were investigated in water and alcoholic solvents. Notably, in the presence of TBAB adding alcoholic solvents into water enhanced the yields of target products. However in terms of the liquid phase transfer catalyst of PEGs, mixing water into PEGs could slightly decrease the yields with respect to the water free PEGs bulk phase, which was probably due to the homogenous liquid conditions in pure PEGs and weak interactions between PEGs and heteroaryl bromide molecules in water depending on their molecular chain lengths.

  4. Predictions of diagenetic reactions in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Wendy J.; Thyne, Geoffrey D.

    1992-02-01

    Stability constants have been estimated for cation complexes with anions of monofunctional and difunctional acids (combinations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Sr, Mn, U, Th, Pb, Cu, Zn with formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, and salicylate) between 0 and 200°C. Difunctional acid anions form much more stable complexes than monofunctional acid anions with aluminum; the importance of the aluminum-acetate complex is relatively minor in comparison to aluminum oxalate and malonate complexes. Divalent metal cations such as Mg, Ca, and Fe form more stable complexes with acetate than with difunctional acid anions. Aluminum-oxalate can dominate the species distribution of aluminum under acidic pH conditions, whereas the divalent cation-acetate and oxalate complexes rarely account for more than 60% of the total dissolved cation, and then only in more alkaline waters. Mineral thermodynamic affinities were calculated using the reaction path model EQ3/6 for waters having variable organic acid anion (OAA) contents under conditions representative of those found during normal burial diagenesis. The following scenarios are possible: 1) K-feldspar and albite are stable, anorthite dissolves 2) All feldpars are stable 3) Carbonates can be very unstable to slightly unstable, but never increase in stability. Organic acid anions are ineffective at neutral to alkaline pH in modifying stabilities of aluminosilicate minerals whereas the anions are variably effective under a wide range of pH in modifying carbonate mineral stabilities. Reaction path calculations demonstrate that the sequence of mineral reactions occurring in an arkosic sandstone-fluid system is only slightly modified by the presence of OAA. A spectrum of possible sandstone alteration mineralogies can be obtained depending on the selected boundary conditions: EQ3/6 predictions include quartz overgrowth, calcite replacement of plagioclase, albitization of plagioclase, and the formation of porosity-occluding calcite

  5. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yanchao; Si, Zhenjun; Duan, Qian

    2014-05-01

    Three ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids of 3,3'-(4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-1), 4,4',4″-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4,5-triyl)tribenzoic acid (Tz-2), and 4,4'-(4-(4'-carboxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-3) were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by the (1)H NMR, the IR absorption spectra, and the X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was found that Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3 could give out the ultraviolet photoluminescent spectra centered at 369 nm, 365 nm and 350 nm, respectively. The luminescence quantum yields of Tz-1 and Tz-2 were measured to be 0.20 and 0.14, respectively. Additionally, the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT calculations were also carried out for Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3.

  7. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  8. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  9. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  10. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  11. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  12. A unique enzyme of acetic acid bacteria, PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, is also present in Frateuria aurantia.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2013-08-01

    A membrane-bound, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was purified from Frateuria aurantia LMG 1558(T). Although F. aurantia belongs to a group of γ-Proteobacteria, the characteristics of its PQQ-ADH were similar to the enzyme characteristics of the typical high-acetic acid-resistant bacterium Gluconacetobacter europaeus from the group of α-Proteobacteria. The PQQ-dependent ADH was solubilized from the membranes and purified after anionic, cationic, and affinity chromatography with specific activity of 117 U/mg. The purified enzyme was estimated to be composed of two subunits of ca. 72 and 45 kDa, as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme had maximum activity at pH 4.5 and showed the highest substrate specificity to ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol. The deduced sequences of cloned genes adhA and adhB encoding subunits I and II of PQQ-ADH showed 80 % amino acid (AA) identity to AdhA and 68 % AA identity to AdhB of Ga. europaeus V3 (LMG 18494). Because of the high similarity between genes encoding subunits I and II of PQQ-ADH and its homologous genes found in a distantly related taxonomic group of acetic acid bacteria, the results suggest the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between these two groups of genera.

  13. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Aedes albopictus to certain acids and alcohols present in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Agrawal, O P; Parashar, B D

    2014-10-01

    Human skin emanations attract hungry female mosquitoes toward their host for blood feeding. In this study, we report the flight orientation and electroantennogram response of Aedes albopictus females to certain unsaturated acids and alcohols found in human skin. In the Y-tube olfactometer, odors of lactic acid and 2-methyl-3-pentanol attracted 54-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. However, at the highest dose (10(-2) g), the acids repelled 40-45% females. Attractancy (ca. 62-68%) at lower doses and repellency (ca. 30-45%) at higher doses were recorded for 3-methyl-3-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol, while 5-hexen-1-ol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol, and trans 2-hexen-1-ol odor repelled ca. 55-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses. Antenna of female Ae. albopictus exhibited a dose-dependent EAG response up to 10(-3) g of L-lactic acid, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexen-1-ol and 1-octen-3-ol stimulations; however, the highest dose (10(-2) g) caused a little decline in the EAG response. EAG response of 9-10-fold was elicited by lactic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, and 3-methyl-3-pentanol, while cis-2-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-methyl pentenoic acid elicited 1-5-fold responses compared to solvent control. A blend of attractive compounds could be utilized in odor-baited trap for surveillance and repellent molecules with suitable formulation could be used to reduce the biting menace of mosquitoes.

  14. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Aedes albopictus to certain acids and alcohols present in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Agrawal, O P; Parashar, B D

    2014-10-01

    Human skin emanations attract hungry female mosquitoes toward their host for blood feeding. In this study, we report the flight orientation and electroantennogram response of Aedes albopictus females to certain unsaturated acids and alcohols found in human skin. In the Y-tube olfactometer, odors of lactic acid and 2-methyl-3-pentanol attracted 54-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. However, at the highest dose (10(-2) g), the acids repelled 40-45% females. Attractancy (ca. 62-68%) at lower doses and repellency (ca. 30-45%) at higher doses were recorded for 3-methyl-3-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol, while 5-hexen-1-ol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol, and trans 2-hexen-1-ol odor repelled ca. 55-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses. Antenna of female Ae. albopictus exhibited a dose-dependent EAG response up to 10(-3) g of L-lactic acid, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexen-1-ol and 1-octen-3-ol stimulations; however, the highest dose (10(-2) g) caused a little decline in the EAG response. EAG response of 9-10-fold was elicited by lactic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, and 3-methyl-3-pentanol, while cis-2-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-methyl pentenoic acid elicited 1-5-fold responses compared to solvent control. A blend of attractive compounds could be utilized in odor-baited trap for surveillance and repellent molecules with suitable formulation could be used to reduce the biting menace of mosquitoes. PMID:25049052

  15. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  20. Hydrogen generation from alcohols (α-hydroxy carboxylic acids) and alcohol-ammonia coupling in aqueous media catalysed by water-soluble bipyridine-Cp*Ir (Rh or Os) catalyst: a computational mechanism insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Chen, Xian-Kai; Liu, Hui-Ling; Huang, Xu-Ri

    2015-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of the dehydrogenative oxidation of various primary alcohols (or α-hydroxy carboxylic acids) and the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols with ammonia catalysed by the same water-soluble Cp*Ir complex bearing a 2-pyridonate-based ligand (A-Ir). Another two new catalysts A-Rh and A-Os are computationally designed for the dehydrogenative oxidation of alcohols. The plausible pathway for alcohol dehydrogenation includes three steps: alcohol oxidation to aldehyde (step I); the generation of dihydrogen in the metal coordination sphere (step II); and the liberation of dihydrogen accompanied with the regeneration of active catalyst A (step III). Among them, the step I follows bifunctional concerted double hydrogen transfer mechanism rather than the β-H elimination. For step II, the energy barriers involving the addition of one or two water molecules are higher than in absence of water. Our results also confirm that A-Ir can be applied in the dehydrogenation of various α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by the similar mechanism. Remarkably, A-Ir is also found to be efficient for the coupling reactions of various primary benzyl alcohols with ammonia to afford amides.

  1. Computational Design of Non-natural Sugar Alcohols to Increase Thermal Storage Density: Beyond Existing Organic Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-09-14

    Thermal storage, a technology that enables us to control thermal energy, makes it possible to reuse a huge amount of waste heat, and materials with the ability to treat larger thermal energy are in high demand for energy-saving societies. Sugar alcohols are now one promising candidate for phase change materials (PCMs) because of their large thermal storage density. In this study, we computationally design experimentally unknown non-natural sugar alcohols and predict their thermal storage density as a basic step toward the development of new high performance PCMs. The non-natural sugar alcohol molecules are constructed in silico in accordance with the previously suggested molecular design guidelines: linear elongation of a carbon backbone, separated distribution of OH groups, and even numbers of carbon atoms. Their crystal structures are then predicted using the random search method and first-principles calculations. Our molecular simulation results clearly demonstrate that the non-natural sugar alcohols have potential ability to have thermal storage density up to ∼450-500 kJ/kg, which is significantly larger than the maximum thermal storage density of the present known organic PCMs (∼350 kJ/kg). This computational study suggests that, even in the case of H-bonded molecular crystals where the electrostatic energy contributes mainly to thermal storage density, the molecular distortion and van der Waals energies are also important factors to increase thermal storage density. In addition, the comparison between the three eight-carbon non-natural sugar alcohol isomers indicates that the selection of preferable isomers is also essential for large thermal storage density. PMID:27505107

  2. Computational Design of Non-natural Sugar Alcohols to Increase Thermal Storage Density: Beyond Existing Organic Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-09-14

    Thermal storage, a technology that enables us to control thermal energy, makes it possible to reuse a huge amount of waste heat, and materials with the ability to treat larger thermal energy are in high demand for energy-saving societies. Sugar alcohols are now one promising candidate for phase change materials (PCMs) because of their large thermal storage density. In this study, we computationally design experimentally unknown non-natural sugar alcohols and predict their thermal storage density as a basic step toward the development of new high performance PCMs. The non-natural sugar alcohol molecules are constructed in silico in accordance with the previously suggested molecular design guidelines: linear elongation of a carbon backbone, separated distribution of OH groups, and even numbers of carbon atoms. Their crystal structures are then predicted using the random search method and first-principles calculations. Our molecular simulation results clearly demonstrate that the non-natural sugar alcohols have potential ability to have thermal storage density up to ∼450-500 kJ/kg, which is significantly larger than the maximum thermal storage density of the present known organic PCMs (∼350 kJ/kg). This computational study suggests that, even in the case of H-bonded molecular crystals where the electrostatic energy contributes mainly to thermal storage density, the molecular distortion and van der Waals energies are also important factors to increase thermal storage density. In addition, the comparison between the three eight-carbon non-natural sugar alcohol isomers indicates that the selection of preferable isomers is also essential for large thermal storage density.

  3. Brönsted Acid-Catalyzed One-Pot Synthesis of Indoles from o-Aminobenzyl Alcohols and Furans

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Makarov, Anton; Rubtsov, Alexandr E.; Butin, Alexander V.; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Brönsted acid-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of indoles from o-aminobenzyl alcohols and furans has been developed. This method operates via the in situ formation of aminobenzylfuran, followed by its recyclization into the indole core. The method proved to be efficient for substrates possessing different functional groups, including -OMe, -CO2Cy, and -Br. The resulting indoles can easily be transformed into diverse scaffolds, including 2,3- and 1,2-fused indoles, and indole possessing an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety at the C-2 position. PMID:24255969

  4. Difference in Hepatic Metabolism of Long- and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids: the Role of Fatty Acid Chain Length in the Production of the Alcoholic Fatty Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Charles S.; Lefèvre, André; Spritz, Norton; Feinman, Lawrence; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    1967-01-01

    Replacement of dietary triglycerides containing long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by triglycerides containing medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) markedly reduced the capacity of alcohol to produce fatty liver in rats. After 24 days of ethanol and MCFA, the increase in hepatic triglycerides was only 3 times that of controls, whereas an 8-fold rise was observed after ethanol and LCFA. The triglyceride fatty acids that accumulated in the liver after feeding of ethanol with MCFA contained only a small percentage of the MCFA; their composition also differed strikingly from that of adipose lipids. To study the mechanism of the reduction in steatosis, we compared oxidation to CO2 and incorporation into esterified lipids of 14C-labeled chylomicrons or palmitate-14C (representing LCFA), and of octanoate-14C (as MCFA) in liver slices and isolated perfused livers, in the presence or absence of ethanol. Ethanol depressed the oxidation of all substrates to CO2; MCFA, however, was much more oxidized and reciprocally much less esterified than LCFA, with a 100-fold difference in the ratio of esterified lipid-14C to 14CO2. Furthermore, in hepatic microsomal fractions incubated with α-glycerophosphate, octanoate was much less esterified than palmitate. This propensity of MCFA to oxidation rather than esterification represents a likely explanation for the reduction in alcoholic steatosis upon replacement of dietary LCFA by MCFA. PMID:6036539

  5. Petasis Borono-Mannich reaction and allylation of carbonyl compounds via transient allyl boronates generated by palladium-catalyzed substitution of allyl alcohols. an efficient one-pot route to stereodefined alpha-amino acids and homoallyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Selander, Nicklas; Kipke, Andreas; Sebelius, Sara; Szabó, Kalman J

    2007-11-01

    An efficient one-pot procedure was designed by integration of the pincer-complex-catalyzed borylation of allyl alcohols in the Petasis borono-Mannich reaction and in allylation of aldehydes and ketones. These procedures are suitable for one-pot synthesis of alpha-amino acids and homoallyl alcohols from easily available allyl alcohol, amine, aldehyde, or ketone substrates. In the presented transformations, the active allylating agents are in situ generated allyl boronic acid derivatives. These transient intermediates are proved to be reasonably acid-, base-, alcohol-, water-, and air-stable species, which allows a high level of compatibility with the reaction conditions of the allylation of various aldehyde/ketone and imine electrophiles. The boronate source of the reaction is diboronic acid or in situ hydrolyzed diboronate ester ensuring that the waste product of the reaction is nontoxic boric acid. The regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction is excellent, as almost all products form as single regio- and stereoisomers. The described procedure is suitable to create quaternary carbon centers in branched allylic products without formation of the corresponding linear allylic isomers. Furthermore, products comprising three stereocenters were formed as single products without formation of other diastereomers. Because of the highly disciplined consecutive processes, up to four-step, four-component transformations could be performed selectively as a one-pot sequence. For example, stereodefined pyroglutamic acid could be prepared from a simple allyl alcohol, a commercially available amine, and glyoxylic acid in a one-step procedure. The presented method also grants an easy access to stereodefined 1,7-dienes that are useful substrates for Grubbs ring-closing metathesis.

  6. Additional Nucleophile-Free FeCl3-Catalyzed Green Deprotection of 2,4-Dimethoxyphenylmethyl-Protected Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Masuda, Masahiro; Honda, Akie; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Park, Kwihwan; Yasukawa, Naoki; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-01-01

    The deprotection of the methoxyphenylmethyl (MPM) ether and ester derivatives can be generally achieved by the combinatorial use of a catalytic Lewis acid and stoichiometric nucleophile. The deprotections of 2,4-dimethoxyphenylmethyl (DMPM)-protected alcohols and carboxylic acids were found to be effectively catalyzed by iron(III) chloride without any additional nucleophile to form the deprotected mother alcohols and carboxylic acids in excellent yields. Since the present deprotection proceeds via the self-assembling mechanism of the 2,4-DMPM protective group itself to give the hardly-soluble resorcinarene derivative as a precipitate, the rigorous purification process by silica-gel column chromatography was unnecessary and the sufficiently-pure alcohols and carboxylic acids were easily obtained in satisfactory yields after simple filtration.

  7. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki–Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a “green” alcohol solvent. The experiment employs heterocyclic substrates, which are important pharmaceutical building blocks. Thus, this laboratory procedure exposes students to a variety of contemporary topics in organic chemistry, including transition metal-catalyzed cross-couplings, green chemistry, and the importance of heterocycles in drug discovery, none of which are well represented in typical undergraduate organic chemistry curricula. The experimental protocol uses commercially available reagents and is useful in both organic and inorganic instructional laboratories. PMID:25774064

  8. Comparative study for differentiation of aquatic humic-type organic constituents by capillary zone electrophoresis using polyvinyl alcohol-coated capillary.

    PubMed

    Peuravuori, Juhani; Lehtonen, Tero; Lepane, Viia; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2005-07-15

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV detection (254nm) was applied to characterize aquatic dissolved humic matter (DHM) from different environmental sources (lake, river and sea waters, in all 15 different samples). A series of separation examples of DHMs using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated silica open tubular capillary were carried out in a phosphate buffer (40mM) as a background electrolyte at neutral acidity (pH 6.8). The separative power of electropherograms was reasonable and the reproducibility was above the mark. Each electropherogram was characteristic of the corresponding humic sample. Special functional fulvic and humic acids or their overall mixtures separated with XAD, DAX and DEAE sorbing solids as well as the original dissolved organic matter (DOM) were nicely differentiated according to their environmental sources. The PVA coating of open tubular silica capillaries seems to be very potential in electrophoretic characterization and separation of different humic solutes at neutral acidities with low sample concentrations thus permitting a workable technique, in a growing series of CZE studies, for better compared results from different studies. PMID:18970143

  9. Identification of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)-utilizing organisms in BioGAC reactors using 13C-DNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Aslett, Denise; Haas, Joseph; Hyman, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Biodegradation of the gasoline oxygenates methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) can cause tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) to accumulate in gasoline-impacted environments. One remediation option for TBA-contaminated groundwater involves oxygenated granulated activated carbon (GAC) reactors that have been self-inoculated by indigenous TBA-degrading microorganisms in ground water extracted from contaminated aquifers. Identification of these organisms is important for understanding the range of TBA-metabolizing organisms in nature and for determining whether self-inoculation of similar reactors is likely to occur at other sites. In this study (13)C-DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify TBA-utilizing organisms in samples of self-inoculated BioGAC reactors operated at sites in New York and California. Based on 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences, all TBA-utilizing organisms identified were members of the Burkholderiales order of the β-proteobacteria. Organisms similar to Cupriavidus and Methylibium were observed in both reactor samples while organisms similar to Polaromonas and Rhodoferax were unique to the reactor sample from New York. Organisms similar to Hydrogenophaga and Paucibacter strains were only detected in the reactor sample from California. We also analyzed our samples for the presence of several genes previously implicated in TBA oxidation by pure cultures of bacteria. Genes Mpe_B0532, B0541, B0555, and B0561 were all detected in (13)C-metagenomic DNA from both reactors and deduced amino acid sequences suggested these genes all encode highly conserved enzymes. One gene (Mpe_B0555) encodes a putative phthalate dioxygenase-like enzyme that may be particularly appropriate for determining the potential for TBA oxidation in contaminated environmental samples.

  10. Gamma Peptide Nucleic Acids: As Orthogonal Nucleic Acid Recognition Codes for Organizing Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sacui, Iulia; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Manna, Arunava; Sahu, Bichismita; Ly, Danith H

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acids are an attractive platform for organizing molecular self-assembly because of their specific nucleobase interactions and defined length scale. Routinely employed in the organization and assembly of materials in vitro, however, they have rarely been exploited in vivo, due to the concerns for enzymatic degradation and cross-hybridization with the host's genetic materials. Herein we report the development of a tight-binding, orthogonal, synthetically versatile, and informationally interfaced nucleic acid platform for programming molecular interactions, with implications for in vivo molecular assembly and computing. The system consists of three molecular entities: the right-handed and left-handed conformers and a nonhelical domain. The first two are orthogonal to each other in recognition, while the third is capable of binding to both, providing a means for interfacing the two conformers as well as the natural nucleic acid biopolymers (i.e., DNA and RNA). The three molecular entities are prepared from the same monomeric chemical scaffold, with the exception of the stereochemistry or lack thereof at the γ-backbone that determines if the corresponding oligo adopts a right-handed or left-handed helix, or a nonhelical motif. These conformers hybridize to each other with exquisite affinity, sequence selectivity, and level of orthogonality. Recognition modules as short as five nucleotides in length are capable of organizing molecular assembly.

  11. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments. PMID:26841776

  12. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  13. Complete amino acid sequence and characterization of the reaction mechanism of a glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens).

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Ryoko; Kubota, Humie; Hosoki, Tomoko; Ikehara, Kenji; Tanaka, Mieko

    2002-02-15

    A glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase has been isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens) and its fundamental properties have been characterized. The enzyme catalyzes NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of aliphatic alcohols and amino alcohols. In this work, the complete amino acid sequence of the alcohol dehydrogenase was determined by PCR method using genomic DNA of A. radiobacter as template. The enzyme comprises 336 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 36 kDa. The primary structure of the enzyme demonstrates a high homology to structures of alcohol dehydrogenases from Shinorhizobium meliloti (83% identity, 90% positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65% identity, 76% positive). The two Zn(2+) ion binding sites, both the active site and another site that contributed to stabilization of the enzyme, are conserved in those enzymes. Sequences analysis of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family using a hypothetical phylogenetic tree indicates that these three enzymes form a new group distinct from other members of the Zn-containing long-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. The physicochemical properties of alcohol dehydrogenase from A. radiobacter were characterized as follows. (1) Stereospecificity of the hydride transfer from ethanol to NADH was categorized as pro-R type by NMR spectra of NADH formed in the enzymatic reaction using ethanol-D(6) was used as substrate. (2) Optimal pH for all alcohols with no amino group examined was pH 8.5 (of the C(2)-C(6) alcohols, n-amyl alcohol demonstrated the highest activity). Conversely, glucosaminitol was optimally dehydrogenated at pH 10.0. (3) The rate-determining step of the dehydrogenase for ethanol is deprotonation of the enzyme-NAD-Zn-OHCH(2)CH(3) complex to enzyme-NAD-Zn-O(-)CH(2)CH(3) complex and that for glucosaminitol is H(2)O addition to enzyme-Zn-NADH complex. PMID:11831851

  14. Complete amino acid sequence and characterization of the reaction mechanism of a glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens).

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Ryoko; Kubota, Humie; Hosoki, Tomoko; Ikehara, Kenji; Tanaka, Mieko

    2002-02-15

    A glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase has been isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens) and its fundamental properties have been characterized. The enzyme catalyzes NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of aliphatic alcohols and amino alcohols. In this work, the complete amino acid sequence of the alcohol dehydrogenase was determined by PCR method using genomic DNA of A. radiobacter as template. The enzyme comprises 336 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 36 kDa. The primary structure of the enzyme demonstrates a high homology to structures of alcohol dehydrogenases from Shinorhizobium meliloti (83% identity, 90% positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65% identity, 76% positive). The two Zn(2+) ion binding sites, both the active site and another site that contributed to stabilization of the enzyme, are conserved in those enzymes. Sequences analysis of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family using a hypothetical phylogenetic tree indicates that these three enzymes form a new group distinct from other members of the Zn-containing long-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. The physicochemical properties of alcohol dehydrogenase from A. radiobacter were characterized as follows. (1) Stereospecificity of the hydride transfer from ethanol to NADH was categorized as pro-R type by NMR spectra of NADH formed in the enzymatic reaction using ethanol-D(6) was used as substrate. (2) Optimal pH for all alcohols with no amino group examined was pH 8.5 (of the C(2)-C(6) alcohols, n-amyl alcohol demonstrated the highest activity). Conversely, glucosaminitol was optimally dehydrogenated at pH 10.0. (3) The rate-determining step of the dehydrogenase for ethanol is deprotonation of the enzyme-NAD-Zn-OHCH(2)CH(3) complex to enzyme-NAD-Zn-O(-)CH(2)CH(3) complex and that for glucosaminitol is H(2)O addition to enzyme-Zn-NADH complex.

  15. Selective cellular acidification and toxicity of weak organic acids in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Karuri, A R; Dobrowsky, E; Tannock, I F

    1993-12-01

    The mean extracellular pH (pHe) within solid tumours has been found to be lower than in normal tissues. Agents which cause intracellular acidification at low pHe might have selective toxicity towards cells in tumours. Weak acids (or their anions) with pKa values in the range of 4-6 have a higher proportion of molecules in the uncharged form at low pHe and can diffuse more rapidly into cells. The effects of organic acids including succinate, monomethyl succinate and malonate to acidify cells have been evaluated under conditions of different pHe in the acidic range. These weak acids caused intracellular acidification of murine EMT-6 and human MGH-U1 cells in a concentration and pHe dependent fashion. At concentrations of 10 mM and above, these acids also caused in vitro cytotoxicity to these cells at low pHe (< 6.5). The rate and extent of cellular acidification caused by these weak acids, and their cytotoxicity at low pHe, were enhanced by exposure to amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), agents which inhibit Na+/H+ exchange, and hence the regulation of intracellular pH. Acid dependent cytotoxicity was also investigated in a murine solid tumour using the endpoints of growth delay and colony formation in vitro following treatment in vivo. Agents were tested alone or with 15 Gy X-rays to select a population of hypoxic (and presumably acidic) cells. Achievable serum concentrations of succinate were about 1 mM and no antitumour activity of succinate was detected when used in this way. It is concluded that weak acids are selectively taken up into cells, and can cause selective cellular acidification and toxicity, at low pHe in culture. Weak acids that are normal cellular metabolites are not toxic in vivo, but weak acids carrying cytotoxic groups offer the potential for selective uptake and toxicity under the conditions of low pHe that exist in many solid tumours.

  16. Selective cellular acidification and toxicity of weak organic acids in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Karuri, A. R.; Dobrowsky, E.; Tannock, I. F.

    1993-01-01

    The mean extracellular pH (pHe) within solid tumours has been found to be lower than in normal tissues. Agents which cause intracellular acidification at low pHe might have selective toxicity towards cells in tumours. Weak acids (or their anions) with pKa values in the range of 4-6 have a higher proportion of molecules in the uncharged form at low pHe and can diffuse more rapidly into cells. The effects of organic acids including succinate, monomethyl succinate and malonate to acidify cells have been evaluated under conditions of different pHe in the acidic range. These weak acids caused intracellular acidification of murine EMT-6 and human MGH-U1 cells in a concentration and pHe dependent fashion. At concentrations of 10 mM and above, these acids also caused in vitro cytotoxicity to these cells at low pHe (< 6.5). The rate and extent of cellular acidification caused by these weak acids, and their cytotoxicity at low pHe, were enhanced by exposure to amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), agents which inhibit Na+/H+ exchange, and hence the regulation of intracellular pH. Acid dependent cytotoxicity was also investigated in a murine solid tumour using the endpoints of growth delay and colony formation in vitro following treatment in vivo. Agents were tested alone or with 15 Gy X-rays to select a population of hypoxic (and presumably acidic) cells. Achievable serum concentrations of succinate were about 1 mM and no antitumour activity of succinate was detected when used in this way. It is concluded that weak acids are selectively taken up into cells, and can cause selective cellular acidification and toxicity, at low pHe in culture. Weak acids that are normal cellular metabolites are not toxic in vivo, but weak acids carrying cytotoxic groups offer the potential for selective uptake and toxicity under the conditions of low pHe that exist in many solid tumours. PMID:8260358

  17. Evolution of hydrogen from acidic aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions by reduced forms of isopolytungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Saidkhanov, S.S.; Parmon, V.N.; Savinov, E.N.

    1986-02-10

    The authors determine the specific nature of the hydrogen-releasing polytungstate (PT) species and investigate the features of H/sub 2/ evolution by this species. In aqueous and aqueous-alcohol solutions, reoxidation of the doubly reduced form of hexatungstate proceeds spontaneously, accompanied by hydrogen evolution; in contrast, the reduced form of the PT is stable with respect to reoxidation.

  18. Biomass acid-catalyzed liquefaction - Catalysts performance and polyhydric alcohol influence.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Maria Margarida; Carvalho, Ricardo; Bordado, João Carlos; Santos, Rui Galhano Dos

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary experiments conducted with different catalyst, as well as with two polyhydric alcohols (glycerol and 2-ethylhexanol), for the preparation biooils from cork liquefaction at 160 °C, is disclosed. This data may be helpful for those who intent to outline a liquefaction procedure avoiding, thus, high number of experiments. PMID:26693504

  19. Biomass acid-catalyzed liquefaction – Catalysts performance and polyhydric alcohol influence

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Maria Margarida; Carvalho, Ricardo; Bordado, João Carlos; Santos, Rui Galhano dos

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary experiments conducted with different catalyst, as well as with two polyhydric alcohols (glycerol and 2-ethylhexanol), for the preparation biooils from cork liquefaction at 160 °C, is disclosed. This data may be helpful for those who intent to outline a liquefaction procedure avoiding, thus, high number of experiments. PMID:26693504

  20. Biomass acid-catalyzed liquefaction - Catalysts performance and polyhydric alcohol influence.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Maria Margarida; Carvalho, Ricardo; Bordado, João Carlos; Santos, Rui Galhano Dos

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the data acquired regarding the preliminary experiments conducted with different catalyst, as well as with two polyhydric alcohols (glycerol and 2-ethylhexanol), for the preparation biooils from cork liquefaction at 160 °C, is disclosed. This data may be helpful for those who intent to outline a liquefaction procedure avoiding, thus, high number of experiments.

  1. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  2. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  3. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways. PMID:21416338

  4. Polyvinyl alcohol and amino acids as substitutes for bovine serum albumin in culture media for mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Biggers, J D; Summers, M C; McGinnis, L K

    1997-01-01

    The effect of replacing bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a simple defined medium (KSOM) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or amino acids on the percentages of mouse zygotes that develop to at least the blastocyst stage and that hatch at least partially or completely is reported. Blastocysts could form when BSA was replaced with only PVA, but at a moderately reduced rate; however, partial hatching, and hence complete hatching, were severely impaired when BSA was replaced with only PVA. The substitution of BSA with amino acids alone resulted in a high rate of blastocyst formation and moderate impairment of hatching. The addition of PVA to BSA-free KSOM supplemented with amino acids had no extra effect. BSA had significant effects when added to BSA-free KSOM supplemented with amino acids. The BSA caused a significant increase in the rate of partial hatching, and may even have had a small effect on the rate of blastocyst formation. The results also showed that glucose, at a high concentration of 5.56 mM, does not inhibit the development of mouse zygotes to hatched blastocysts when cultured in KSOM supplemented with amino acids. PMID:9286737

  5. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  6. Incidence of craving for and abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in different populations of treated alcoholics: an open comparative study.

    PubMed

    Caputo, F; Francini, S; Stoppo, M; Lorenzini, F; Vignoli, T; Del Re, A; Comaschi, C; Leggio, L; Addolorato, G; Zoli, G; Bernardi, M

    2009-11-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug currently used for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of craving for and abuse of GHB in 47 patients enrolled and divided into four groups: group A (pure alcoholics), group B (alcoholics with a sustained full remission from cocaine dependence), group C (alcoholics with a sustained full remission from heroin dependence) and group D (alcoholics in a methadone maintenance treatment [MMT] programme). All patients were treated with an oral dose of GHB (50 mg/kg of body weight t.i.d.) for three months. Craving for GHB was statistically significant higher in group B than in group A (P < 0.001), C (P = 0.01) and D (P < 0.001), and in group C than in group D (P < 0.05). Abuse of GHB proved to be statistically significant higher in group B than in group A (P < 0.001) and D (P < 0.01), and in group C than in group A (P = 0.01) and D (P < 0.05). Thus, the administration of GHB in alcoholics with a sustained full remission from heroin or cocaine dependence is not recommended; however, this should not discourage physicians from using GHB for the treatment of pure alcoholics or alcohol dependents following a MMT.

  7. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Alcohol Acetylation: An Organic Experiment Using Organocatalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John P.; Shrimp, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students in the teaching laboratory have successfully used N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as organocatalysts for the acetylation of primary alcohols, despite the high water sensitivity of uncomplexed ("free") NHCs. The free NHC readily reacted with chloroform, resulting in an air- and moisture-stable adduct that liberates…

  8. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  9. The effect of SO2 on the production of ethanol, acetaldehyde, organic acids, and flavor volatiles during industrial cider fermentation.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-05-21

    SO(2) is widely used in cider fermentation but also in other alcoholic beverages such as wine. Although the authorized limit is 200 ppm total SO(2), the International Organizations recommend its total elimination or at least reduction due to health concerns. Addition of SO(2) to apple juice at levels frequently used in industrial cidermaking (100 mg/L) induced significantly higher acetaldehyde production by yeast than that obtained without SO(2). Although the practical implications of acetaldehyde evolution under cidermaking conditions has been overcome by research and few data are available, this compound reached levels in two 2000 L bioreactors that may have prevented the occurrence of simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. It was observed that malolactic fermentation had a positive effect promoting reduction of acetaldehyde levels in cider fermented with juice, SO(2)-treated or not. The addition of SO(2) clearly delayed malolactic fermentation comparing to the control, affecting not the onset of the malolactic fermentation but the rate of malic acid degradation. This compound, however, had a stimulatory effect on alcoholic fermentation.

  10. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  15. Adsorption of organic molecules at the mercury-solution interface: effect of anion specific adsorption on double layer properties. [Benzyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Buckfelder, J.J. III

    1980-08-01

    Adsorption of iso-pentanol, pentanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol at the mercury-solution interface was studied in HC1O/sub 4/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaNO/sub 3/, and NaF electrolytes. The Frumkin isotherm equation Ba = (theta/(1-theta))exp(2..cap alpha..theta) together with the implied charge vs. surface excess relation: q = (1-theta)q/sub w/ + thetaQ were used to analyze the experimental data. Linear charge vs surface excess plots were obtained for the aliphatic compounds over the entire potential region studied; for benzyl alcohol, plots were linear only at anodic potentials. The slopes of these lines agreed with those predicted by the above equation, with Q = C/sub org/(V-V/sub n/), for cathodic potentials. At potentials anodic to the electrocapillary maximum, deviations between experimental and theoretical slopes appeared. In the model proposed, the double layer consists of two parts. The layer closest to the surface is restricted to water molecules and specifically adsorbed ions. The second layer contains organic molecules exclusively; any charge necessary to balance the surface charge is considered to be in a monolayer adjacent to the organic layer. From the slope of the charge vs surface excess plots, it is possible to calculate the charge on the covered portion of the surface and then calculate the amount of specific adsorption. The relative amounts of specific adsorption are in agreement with known strengths of adsorption of the anions of the electrolyte. Capacity curves were also calculated and were in good agreement with experimental curves.

  16. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  17. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  18. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Feng, Kun; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The α-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:27220557

  19. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W. )

    1989-03-15

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations.

  20. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Xue, Ruyi; Ji, Lingling; Shen, Xizhong; Chen, She; Gu, Jianxin; Zhang, Si

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: • FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. • FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. • FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup −/−}) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup −/−} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup −/−}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.

  1. Qualitative urinary organic acid analysis: 10 years of quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Bonham, James R; Hoffmann, Georg F; Scott, Camilla; Langhans, Claus-Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, a total of 90 urine samples from patients with metabolic disorders and controls were circulated to different laboratories in Europe and overseas, starting with 67 laboratories in 2005 and reaching 101 in 2014. The participants were asked to analyse the samples in their usual way and to prepare a report as if to a non-specialist pediatrician. The performance for the detection of fumarase deficiency, glutaric aciduria type I, isovaleric aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria, mevalonic aciduria, phenylketonuria and propionic aciduria was excellent (98-100 %). Over the last few years, detection has clearly improved for tyrosinaemia type I (39 % in 2008 to over 80 % in 2011/2014), maple syrup urine disease (85 % in 2005 to 98 % in 2012), hawkinsinuria (62 % in 2010 to 88 % in 2014), aminoacylase I deficiency (43 % in 2009 to 73 % in 2012) and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (60 % in 2005 to 93 % by 2011). Normal urines were mostly considered as normal (83-100 %), but laboratories often made additional diagnostic suggestions. When the findings were unambiguous, the reports were mostly clear. However, when they were less obvious, the content and quality of reports varied greatly. Repetition of organic acid measurements on a fresh sample was rarely suggested, while more complex or invasive diagnostic strategies, including further metabolic screening or biopsy were recommended. Surprisingly very few participants suggested referral from the general paediatrician to a specialist metabolic centre to confirm a diagnosis and, if applicable, to initiate treatment despite evidence suggesting that this improves the outcome for patients with inherited metabolic disorders. The reliability of qualitative organic acid analysis has improved over the last few years. However, several aspects of reporting to non-specialists may need discussion and clinicians need to be aware of the uncertainty inherent in all forms of laboratory diagnostic

  2. Qualitative urinary organic acid analysis: 10 years of quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Bonham, James R; Hoffmann, Georg F; Scott, Camilla; Langhans, Claus-Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, a total of 90 urine samples from patients with metabolic disorders and controls were circulated to different laboratories in Europe and overseas, starting with 67 laboratories in 2005 and reaching 101 in 2014. The participants were asked to analyse the samples in their usual way and to prepare a report as if to a non-specialist pediatrician. The performance for the detection of fumarase deficiency, glutaric aciduria type I, isovaleric aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria, mevalonic aciduria, phenylketonuria and propionic aciduria was excellent (98-100 %). Over the last few years, detection has clearly improved for tyrosinaemia type I (39 % in 2008 to over 80 % in 2011/2014), maple syrup urine disease (85 % in 2005 to 98 % in 2012), hawkinsinuria (62 % in 2010 to 88 % in 2014), aminoacylase I deficiency (43 % in 2009 to 73 % in 2012) and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (60 % in 2005 to 93 % by 2011). Normal urines were mostly considered as normal (83-100 %), but laboratories often made additional diagnostic suggestions. When the findings were unambiguous, the reports were mostly clear. However, when they were less obvious, the content and quality of reports varied greatly. Repetition of organic acid measurements on a fresh sample was rarely suggested, while more complex or invasive diagnostic strategies, including further metabolic screening or biopsy were recommended. Surprisingly very few participants suggested referral from the general paediatrician to a specialist metabolic centre to confirm a diagnosis and, if applicable, to initiate treatment despite evidence suggesting that this improves the outcome for patients with inherited metabolic disorders. The reliability of qualitative organic acid analysis has improved over the last few years. However, several aspects of reporting to non-specialists may need discussion and clinicians need to be aware of the uncertainty inherent in all forms of laboratory diagnostic

  3. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF PROTEUS AND PROVIDENCE ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Falkow, Stanley; Ryman, I. R.; Washington, O.

    1962-01-01

    Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria. PMID:13891463

  4. Rapid simultaneous determination of organic acids, free amino acids, and lactose in cheese by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Izco, J M; Tormo, M; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2002-09-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the simultaneous separation of 11 metabolically important organic acids (oxalic, formic, citric, succinic, orotic, uric, acetic, pyruvic, propionic, lactic, and butyric), 10 amino acids (Asp, Glu, Tyr, Gly, Ala, Ser, Leu, Phe, Lys, and Trp), and lactose has been optimized, validated, and tested in dairy products. Repeatability and linearity were calculated for each compound, with detection limit values as low as 0.2 x 10(-2) mM for citric acid and Gly. The method was applied to analyze yogurt and different varieties of commercial cheeses. This method yielded specific CE patterns for different varieties of cheese. Also, it has been shown to be sensitive enough to measure small changes in composition of some of those compounds in fresh cheese stored under accelerated ripening conditions for 2 d at 32 degrees C (e.g., from 1728.3 +/- 45.0 to 1166.7 +/- 4.5 mg/100 g of DM in the case of lactose, or from 23.5 +/- 0.6 to 76.8 +/- 16.7 mg/100 g of DM in the case of acetic acid).

  5. Use of Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy to Characterize Organic Acids and Aerosols Emitted in Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bililign, Solomon; Fiddler, Marc; Singh, Sujeeta

    2012-02-01

    One poorly understood, but significant class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in biomass burning is gas-phase organic acids and inorganic acids. These acids are extremely difficult to measure because of their adsorptive nature. Particulates and aerosols are also produced during biomass burning and impact the radiation budget of the Earth and, hence, impact global climate. Use cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRD) to measure absorption cross sections for OH overtone induced photochemistry in some organic acids (acetic acid and peracetic acid) will be presented and planed measurements of optical properties of aerosols composed of mixtures of different absorbing and non-absorbing species using CRD will be discussed.

  6. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  8. Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Sabine; Liu, Xiang; Meyerowitz, Joseph T; Snow, Christopher D; Chen, Mike M Y; Arnold, Frances H

    2011-05-01

    2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol) is a leading candidate biofuel for the replacement or supplementation of current fossil fuels. Recent work has demonstrated glucose to isobutanol conversion through a modified amino acid pathway in a recombinant organism. Although anaerobic conditions are required for an economically competitive process, only aerobic isobutanol production has been feasible due to an imbalance in cofactor utilization. Two of the pathway enzymes, ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase, require nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH); glycolysis, however, produces only nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH). Here, we compare two solutions to this imbalance problem: (1) over-expression of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase PntAB and (2) construction of an NADH-dependent pathway, using engineered enzymes. We demonstrate that an NADH-dependent pathway enables anaerobic isobutanol production at 100% theoretical yield and at higher titer and productivity than both the NADPH-dependent pathway and transhydrogenase over-expressing strain. Our results show how engineering cofactor dependence can overcome a critical obstacle to next-generation biofuel commercialization.

  9. Calculating the acidity constants of homologues and isomers of organic acids by means of recurrence relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, I. G.

    2013-06-01

    It is noted that the p K a values of organic acids can be calculated using the unique recurrence relation p K a( n + 1) = ap K a( n) + b from the p K a values of other (usually the simplest and, consequently, better characterized) homologues of the same series. It is shown that this relation is valid within two taxonomic groups: insertion homologues of the ω-substituted acids X(CH2) n CO2H ( n ≥ 1) and isomers that differ in the position of substituents X in their alkyl fragments, k-X(C n H2 n )CO2H ( n ≥ 1, 1 ≤ k ≤ n + 1). It is concluded that this algorithm is a consequence of the unique mathematical properties of recurrence relations.

  10. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  11. OXPHOS-Mediated Induction of NAD+ Promotes Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Akie, Thomas E; Liu, Lijun; Nam, Minwoo; Lei, Shi; Cooper, Marcus P

    2015-01-01

    OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance--ROS and PKCε activity--were both modestly reduced. As reported by others, improvement of NAFLD was associated with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Regarding hepatic lipid homeostasis, the ratio of NAD+ to NADH was dramatically increased in mouse liver replete with LRPPRC. Pharmacological activators and inhibitors of the cellular respiration respectively increased and decreased the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, indicating respiration-mediated control of the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio. Supporting a prominent role for NAD+, increasing the concentration of NAD+ stimulated complete oxidation of fatty acids. Importantly, NAD+ rescued impaired fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes deficient for either OXPHOS or SIRT3. These data are consistent with a model whereby augmented hepatic OXPHOS increases NAD+, which in turn promotes complete oxidation of fatty acids and protects against NAFLD.

  12. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  13. [Effects of organic acids on the toxicity of cadmium during ryegrass growth].

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Huang, Changyong

    2002-01-01

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids(oxalic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid) and higher molecular weight organic acid(humic acid) on the toxicity of Cd during ryegrass growth were studied. The results showed that Cd toxicity enhanced gradually with increasing the concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, and led to the decreasing of chlorophyll concentration in ryegrass plant and the biomass of ryegrass. The sequence of this influence was: oxalic acid < acetic acid < citric acid. On the contrary, Cd toxicity was reduced as a result of addition of humic acid, and the concentration of chlorophyll in ryegrass shoots and the biomass of ryegrass increased consequently. The concentration of Cd in roots and shoots of the ryegrass increased with increasing the concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, and the sequence of this influence was: citric acid > acetic acid > oxalic acids. The concentration of Cd decreased gradually as a result of increasing the concentration of humic acid, which means humic acid could reduce the toxicity of Cd on ryegrass. Furthermore, the concentration of Cd was higher in roots than in shoots, which indicated that the roots of ryegrass could prevent transport of Cd from roots to shoots and reduce Cd accumulation in the shoots.

  14. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants.

  15. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  16. Phase equilibria in systems of formates with isobutyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Seselkin, I.V.; Garber, Y.N.; Mironenko, V.F.

    1985-09-01

    The borate method, based on esterification with boric acid, was proposed for isolation of isobutyl alchohol. The method inv olves formation and hydrolysis of alkyl borate esters; in particular, formation and hydrolysis of triisobutyl borate. Esterification of isobutyl alcohol with boric acid is a reversible equilibrium reaction, and therefore in order to obtain high yields the water formed in the reaction must be removed. The presence of other organic compounds, which do not react with boric acid, in the mixture does not affect esterification of the alcohol. The reaction proceeds at 95-100/sup 0/ under atmospheric pressure. It was found that up to 97% of the isobutyl alcohol combines with boric acid. The resultant triisobutyl borate is isolated by ordinary distillation and then hydrolyzed to form boric acid and isobutyl alcohol.

  17. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  18. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium. PMID:25575763

  19. A novel anaerobic two-phase system for biohydrogen production and in situ extraction of organic acid byproducts.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    Owing to CO2-free emission, hydrogen is considered as a potential green alternative of fossil fuels. Water is the major emission of hydrogen combustion process and gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is nearly three times more than that of gasoline and diesel fuel. Biological hydrogen production, therefore, has commercial significance; especially, when it is produced from low-cost industrial waste-based feedstock. Light independent anaerobic fermentation is simple and mostly studied method of biohydrogen production. During hydrogen production by this method, a range of organic acid byproducts are produced. Accumulation of these byproducts is inhibitory for hydrogen production as it may result in process termination due to sharp decrease in medium pH or by possible metabolic shift. For the first time, therefore, a two-phase anaerobic bioreactor system has been reported for biohydrogen production which involves in situ extraction of different organic acids. Among different solvents, based on biocompatibility oleyl alcohol has been chosen as the organic phase of the two-phase system. An organic:aqueous phase ratio of 1:50 has been found to be optimum for hydrogen production. The strategy was capable of increasing the hydrogen production from 1.48 to 11.65 mmol/L-medium.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: design and rationale of randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome since obesity and insulin resistance are the main pathogenic contributors for both conditions. NAFLD carries increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. There is an urgent need to find effective and safe therapy for children and adults with NAFLD. Data from research and clinical studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in metabolic syndrome-related conditions and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids in children with NAFLD. Patients are randomized to receive either omega-3 fatty acids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or placebo for 24 weeks. The dose of omega-3 (DHA+ EPA) ranges from 450 to 1300 mg daily. Low calorie diet and increased physical activity are advised and monitored using validated questionnaires. The primary outcome of the trial is the number of patients who decreased ALT activity by ≥ 0,3 of upper limit of normal. The main secondary outcomes are improvement in the laboratory liver tests, liver steatosis on ultrasound, markers of insulin resistance and difference in fat/lean body mass composition after 6 months of intervention. Discussion Potential efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of NAFLD will provide needed rationale for use of this safe diet supplement together with weight reduction therapy in the growing population of children with NAFLD. Trial registration NCT01547910 PMID:23702094

  1. An innovative arrangement for in-vial membrane-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction: application to the determination of esters of phthalic acid in alcoholic beverages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    March, Juan Gabriel; Cerdà, Victor

    2015-05-01

    A new arrangement for membrane-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction is presented. The extracting organic solvent was placed into a chromatographic microvial, compatible with the chromatograph autosampler, whose septum was replaced by a disc of porous hydrophobic membrane. This extraction device was completely immersed into the analytical sample contained in a cylindrical container subjected to rotary and basculant movement. Then, the extraction of analytes took place from the sample to the organic solvent contained in the vial through the membrane. Esters of the phthalic acid have been selected as model analytes to determine the performance characteristics of the extraction system. The limits of detection, limits of quantification and relative standard deviations (%) were in the range 0.1-0.4, 0.3-1 and 4-7, respectively. Esters of phthalic acid have been successfully analysed in alcoholic beverages. The main operational advantages of this arrangement consisted of minimal required handling, minimal risk of cross contamination and its simplicity.

  2. An innovative arrangement for in-vial membrane-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction: application to the determination of esters of phthalic acid in alcoholic beverages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    March, Juan Gabriel; Cerdà, Victor

    2015-05-01

    A new arrangement for membrane-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction is presented. The extracting organic solvent was placed into a chromatographic microvial, compatible with the chromatograph autosampler, whose septum was replaced by a disc of porous hydrophobic membrane. This extraction device was completely immersed into the analytical sample contained in a cylindrical container subjected to rotary and basculant movement. Then, the extraction of analytes took place from the sample to the organic solvent contained in the vial through the membrane. Esters of the phthalic acid have been selected as model analytes to determine the performance characteristics of the extraction system. The limits of detection, limits of quantification and relative standard deviations (%) were in the range 0.1-0.4, 0.3-1 and 4-7, respectively. Esters of phthalic acid have been successfully analysed in alcoholic beverages. The main operational advantages of this arrangement consisted of minimal required handling, minimal risk of cross contamination and its simplicity. PMID:25876533

  3. Antimicrobial action of esters of polyhydric alcohols.

    PubMed

    Conley, A J; Kabara, J J

    1973-11-01

    A broth dilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of a series of fatty acid esters of polyhydric alcohols against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. Gram-negative organisms were not affected. Gram-positive organisms were inhibited as follows. Of the monoglycerol esters, monoglycerol laurate was the most active. Esters of polyglycerols (tri-, hexa-, and decaglycerol esters) were generally active when the fatty acid had chain lengths of 8 to 12 carbon atoms. Sucrose esters, when active, except for laurate, are more active than the free fatty acid. The spectrum of antimicrobial action of esters of polyhydric alcohols is narrower when compared with the free acids. PMID:4791484

  4. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  5. The Activation Effects of Low Level Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure on Arterial Blood Pressures Are Associated with Decreased 5-Hydroxyindole Acetic Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xinxia; Xing, Xiumei; Lu, Yao; Sun, Yi; Ou, Xiaoyan; Su, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Yarui; Chen, Jingli; Shen, Biling; He, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purposes The objectives of this paper are to study the impact of low level isopropyl alcohol exposure on blood pressure and to explore its potential mechanism. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective occupational cohort in south China, which focusing on occupational risk factors related cardiovascular health problems. A total of 283 participants (200 low isopropyl alcohol exposed workers and 83 controls) was finally enrolled in this study. Linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between arterial blood pressures and low level isopropyl alcohol exposure. We used mediation method to explore possible mediated roles of neurogenic factors. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP, 123±10 vs. 118±11), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 79±7 vs. 74±7) and mean blood pressure (MBP, 93±8 vs. 89±9) were different between the exposed group and the control group (p < 0.01). After adjusting for covariates, the difference was still significant. Besides, isopropyl alcohol and smoking had an interactive effect on DBP and MBP (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed a mediated effect of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) on isopropyl alcohol exposure induced arterial blood pressure increase, which accounted for about 25%. Conclusions Our results suggest that low level isopropyl alcohol exposure is a potential risk factor for the increased arterial blood pressure and 5-HIAA partly mediates the association between low level isopropyl alcohol exposure and arterial blood pressures. PMID:27622502

  6. Corticotropin Releasing Factor–Induced Amygdala Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Release Plays a Key Role in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa; Cruz, Maureen T.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Sabino, Valentina; Schweitzer, Paul; Bajo, Michal; Cottone, Pietro; Madamba, Samuel G.; Stouffer, David G.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.; Siggins, George R.; Parsons, Loren H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic systems in the central amygdala (CeA) are implicated in the high-anxiety, high-drinking profile associated with ethanol dependence. Ethanol augments CeA GABA release in ethanol-naive rats and mice. Methods Using naive and ethanol-dependent rats, we compared electrophysiologic effects and interactions of CRF and ethanol on CeA GABAergic transmission, and we measured GABA dialyzate in CeA after injection of CRF1 antagonists and ethanol. We also compared mRNA expression in CeA for CRF and CRF1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We assessed effects of chronic treatment with a CRF1 antagonist on withdrawal-induced increases in alcohol consumption in dependent rats. Results CRF and ethanol augmented CeA GABAergic transmission in naive rats via increased GABA release. Three CRF1 receptor (CRF1) antagonists decreased basal GABAergic responses and abolished ethanol effects. Ethanol-dependent rats exhibited heightened sensitivity to CRF and CRF1 antagonists on CeA GABA release. Intra-CeA CRF1 antagonist administration reversed dependence–related elevations in GABA dialysate and blocked ethanol-induced increases in GABA dialyzate in both dependent and naive rats. Polymerase chain reaction studies indicate increased expression of CRF and CRF1 in CeA of dependent rats. Chronic CRF1 antagonist treatment blocked withdrawal-induced increases in alcohol drinking by dependent rats and tempered moderate increases in alcohol consumption by nondependent rats in intermittent testing. Conclusions These combined findings suggest a key role for specific presynaptic CRF-GABA interactions in CeA in the development and maintenance of ethanol dependence. PMID:20060104

  7. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  8. Clinical use of meconium fatty acid ethyl esters for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. However, until now, FAEEs have been largely used anonymously in epidemiological studies, and by child protection authorities in need for verification of heavy alcohol use in pregnancy. Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. The neonate's meconium tested high for FAEEs (52 nmol/g; positive cut-off ≥ 2 nmol/g), which prompted active follow-up of the infant's development, identifying early neurocognitive problems and allowing initiation of a remedial program. PMID:22247425

  9. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  10. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Myhre, C. E.; Nielsen, C. J.

    2004-09-01

    Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  11. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Myhre, C. E.; Nielsen, C. J.

    2004-06-01

    Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  12. Alcohol Induced Alterations to the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robin D.; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  13. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robin D; Dailey, Allyson; Zaidi, Fatima; Navarro, Karl; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip A; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis). However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1) an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2) a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3) a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4) a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5) a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6) decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies. PMID:25751150

  14. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-01

    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process.

  15. Oxidation of alcohols and activated alkanes with Lewis acid-activated TEMPO.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D; Wright, Ashley M; Page, Joshua S; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2014-11-01

    The reactivity of MCl3(η(1)-TEMPO) (M = Fe, 1; Al, 2; TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) with a variety of alcohols, including 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxyethanol, and 1,2-diphenyl-2-methoxyethanol, was investigated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complex 1 was effective in cleanly converting these substrates to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. Complex 2 was also able to oxidize these substrates; however, in a few instances the products of overoxidation were also observed. Oxidation of activated alkanes, such as xanthene, by 1 or 2 suggests that the reactions proceed via an initial 1-electron concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) event. Finally, reaction of TEMPO with FeBr3 in Et2O results in the formation of a mixture of FeBr3(η(1)-TEMPOH) (23) and [FeBr2(η(1)-TEMPOH)]2(μ-O) (24), via oxidation of the solvent, Et2O.

  16. Photonic crystal fiber interferometric pH sensor based on polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid hydrogel coating.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengbing; Dong, Xinyong; Wong, Wei Chang; Chen, Li Han; Ni, Kai; Chan, Chi Chiu

    2015-04-01

    We present a simple photonic crystal fiber interferometer (PCFI) that operates in reflection mode for pH measurement. The sensor is made by coating polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid (PVA/PAA) hydrogel onto the surface of the PCFI, constructed by splicing a stub of PCF at the distal end of a single-mode fiber with its free end airhole collapsed. The experimental results demonstrate a high average sensitivity of 0.9 nm/pH unit for the 11 wt.% PVA/PAA coated sensor in the pH range from 2.5 to 6.5. The sensor also displays high repeatability and stability and low cross-sensitivity to temperature. Fast, reversible rise and fall times of 12 s and 18 s, respectively, are achieved for the sensor time response. PMID:25967171

  17. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of Fe3O4/poly(vinyl alcohol-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.

    2014-10-01

    This work focused on the synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4)/poly(vinyl alcohol-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposite by in situ polymerization. The composite were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, TGA, AC and DC conductivity measurements. The spectroscopic studies revealed the molecular interaction between the polymer and nanocomposites. SEM, XRD indicated the uniform dispersion of nanoparticle inside the molecular chain of copolymer. TGA studies indicated the excellent thermal stability of copolymer nanocomposites. AC and DC conductivity of nanocomposites were higher than that of the copolymer and conductivity values were significantly increased with increase in concentration of metal oxide nanoparticles. These properties suggest that the polymer composite can be used as multifunctional material for nanoelectronics.

  18. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir Zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg(-1)). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5(th) and 10(th) days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats.

  19. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir Zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg(-1)). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5(th) and 10(th) days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27642329

  20. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg-1). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5th and 10th days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27642329

  1. Involvement of endocannabinoids in alcohol “binge” drinking: studies of mice with human fatty acid amide hydrolase genetic variation and after CB1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Ted; Lee, Francis; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has been found to play an important role in modulating alcohol intake. Inhibition or genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, a key catabolic enzyme for endocannabinoids) leads to increased alcohol consumption and preference in rodent models. A common human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C385A, rs324420) in the FAAH gene is associated with decreased enzymatic activity of FAAH, resulting in increased anandamide levels in both humans and FAAH C385A knock-in mice. Methods As this FAAH SNP has been reported to be associated with altered alcohol abuse, the present study used these genetic knock-in mice containing the human SNP C385A to determine the impact of variant FAAH gene on alcohol “binge” drinking in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) model. Results We found that the FAAHA/A mice had greater alcohol intake and preference than the wild-type FAAHC/C mice, suggesting that increased endocannabinoid signaling in FAAHA/A mice led to increased alcohol “binge” consumption. The specificity on alcohol vulnerability was suggested by the lack of any FAAH genotype difference on sucrose or saccharin intake. Using the “binge” DID model, we confirmed that selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reduced alcohol intake in the wild-type mice. Conclusions These data suggest that there is direct and selective involvement of the human FAAH C385A SNP and CB1 receptors in alcohol “binge” drinking. PMID:26857901

  2. Support Effects on Bronsted acid site densities and alcohol dehydration turnover rates on tungsten oxide domains

    SciTech Connect

    Macht, Josef; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; May-Lozano, Marcos; Soled, Stuart L.; Wang, Yong; Iglesia, Enrique

    2005-03-01

    Initial activity and acid site density of several WAl, WSi (MCM41) and one WSn sample were determined. Trans/cis 2-butene selectivity is dependent on the support. Presumably, these differences are due to subtle differences in base strengths. 2-Butanol dehydration rates (per W-atom) reached maximum values at intermediate WOx surface densities on WAl, as reported for 2-butanol dehydration reactions on WZr. Titration results indicate that Bronsted acid sites are required for 2-butanol dehydration on WAl, WSi and WSn. UV-visible studies suggest that WAl is much more difficult to reduce than WZr. The detection of reduced centers on WAl, the number of which correlates to Bronsted acid site density and catalyst activity, as well as the temperature dependence of Bronsted acid site density indicate the in-situ formation of these active sites. We infer that this mechanism is common among all supported WOx samples described in this study. Turnover rates are a function of Bronsted acid site density only. High acid site densities lead to high turnover rates. Higher active site densities may cause stronger conjugate bases, as a higher electron density has to be stabilized, and thus weaker acidity, enabling a faster rate of product desorption. The maximum achievable active site density is dependent on the support. WZr reaches a higher active site density than WAl.

  3. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  4. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. PMID:17478019

  5. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  6. Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christian; Helmerius, Jonas; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3), and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L(-1), was obtained with Na2CO3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of approximately 40 g L(-1). Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) for up to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  7. Effects of organic acids, amino acids and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin in an aqueous model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Cheorun; Chung, Jinwoo; Kim, Soohyun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Dongho

    2008-06-01

    The effects of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin by gamma irradiation in an aqueous model system were investigated. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin remained in apple juice. In the aqueous model system, the radio-degradation of patulin was partially inhibited by the addition of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol. The proportions of remaining patulin after irradiation with the dose of 1.0 kGy in the 1% solution of malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, and ethanol were 31.4%, 2.3%, 31.2%, 6.1%, 50.8%, and 12.5%, respectively. During 30 days of storage, the remaining patulin was reduced gradually in the solution of ascorbic acid and malic acid compared to being stable in other samples. The amino acids, serine, threonine, and histidine, inhibited the radio-degradation of patulin. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependent.

  8. UPLC-MS-based urine metabolomics reveals indole-3-lactic acid and phenyllactic acid as conserved biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver disease in the Ppara-null mouse model.

    PubMed

    Manna, Soumen K; Patterson, Andrew D; Yang, Qian; Krausz, Kristopher W; Idle, Jeffrey R; Fornace, Albert J; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Since the development and prognosis of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) vary significantly with genetic background, identification of a genetic background-independent noninvasive ALD biomarker would significantly improve screening and diagnosis. This study explored the effect of genetic background on the ALD-associated urinary metabolome using the Ppara-null mouse model on two different backgrounds, C57BL/6 (B6) and 129/SvJ (129S), along with their wild-type counterparts. Reversed-phase gradient UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis revealed that urinary excretion of a number of metabolites, such as ethylsulfate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid sulfate, adipic acid, pimelic acid, xanthurenic acid, and taurine, were background-dependent. Elevation of ethyl-β-d-glucuronide and N-acetylglycine was found to be a common signature of the metabolomic response to alcohol exposure in wild-type as well as in Ppara-null mice of both strains. However, increased excretion of indole-3-lactic acid and phenyllactic acid was found to be a conserved feature exclusively associated with the alcohol-treated Ppara-null mouse on both backgrounds that develop liver pathologies similar to the early stages of human ALD. These markers reflected the biochemical events associated with early stages of ALD pathogenesis. The results suggest that indole-3-lactic acid and phenyllactic acid are potential candidates for conserved and pathology-specific high-throughput noninvasive biomarkers for early stages of ALD.

  9. Percutaneous Sclerotherapy Using Acetic Acid After Failure of Alcohol Ablation in an Intra-abdominal Lymphangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Hong, Suk Joo; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Hwan Hoon

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of percutaneous sclerotherapy using acetic acid in a 22-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma who was not successfully treated with ethanol despite multiple trials.

  10. Qualitative urinary organic acid analysis: methodological approaches and performance.

    PubMed

    Peters, V; Garbade, S F; Langhans, C D; Hoffmann, G F; Pollitt, R J; Downing, M; Bonham, J R

    2008-12-01

    A programme for proficiency testing of biochemical genetics laboratories undertaking urinary qualitative organic acid analysis and its results for 50 samples examined for factors contributing to poor performance are described. Urine samples from patients in whom inherited metabolic disorders have been confirmed as well as control urines were circulated to participants and the results from 94 laboratories were evaluated. Laboratories showed variability both in terms of their individual performance and on a disease-specific basis. In general, conditions including methylmalonic aciduria, propionic aciduria, isovaleric aciduria, mevalonic aciduria, Canavan disease and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase were readily identified. Detection was poorer for other diseases such as glutaric aciduria type II, glyceric aciduria and, in one sample, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. To identify the factors that allow some laboratories to perform well on a consistent basis while others perform badly, we devised a questionnaire and compared the responses with the results for performance in the scheme. A trend towards better performance could be demonstrated for those laboratories that regularly use internal quality control (QC) samples in their sample preparation (p = 0.079) and those that participate in further external quality assurance (EQA) schemes (p = 0,040). Clinicians who depend upon these diagnostic services to identify patients with these defects and the laboratories that provide them should be aware of the potential for missed diagnoses and the factors that may lead to improved performance.

  11. IDRD2 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with urinary homovanillic acid levels in a sample of Spanish male alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Ponce, G; Hoenicka, J; Rodríguez-Jiménez, R; Gozalo, A; Jimenéz, M; Monasor, R; Aragüés, M; Rubio, G; Jiménez-Arriero, M A; Ramos, J A; Palomo, T

    2004-01-01

    The TaqIA1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene D2 (DRD2) has been associated with alcoholism, as well as with other addictive behaviours. The exact nature of how the presence of this allele can be a vulnerability factor in the development of alcoholism remains unclear. In this study we found that the presence in the DRD2 genotype of the TaqIA1 allele in Spanish alcoholics is associated with higher levels of urine homovanillic acid (HVA) when compared to patients homozygous for the TaqIA2 allele. A sample of 142 Spanish male alcoholic patients was split into 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of the A1 allele in their genotype. The urine sample was analyzed by high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC), and the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and vanilylmandelic acid (VMA) was determined. We found a statistical difference in the concentration of HVA between the groups, that suggests this polymorphism could be related to the variance of urine HVA levels.

  12. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  13. Novel, major 2α- and 2β-hydroxy bile alcohols and bile acids in the bile of Arapaima gigas, a large South American river fish.

    PubMed

    Sato née Okihara, Rika; Saito, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nakane, Naoya; Namegawa, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Shoutaro; Omura, Kaoru; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Raines, Jan; Hagey, Lee R; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Bile alcohols and bile acids from gallbladder bile of the Arapaima gigas, a large South American freshwater fish, were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the major isolated compounds were determined by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. The novel bile salts identified were six variants of 2-hydroxy bile acids and bile alcohols in the 5α- and 5β-series, with 29% of all compounds having hydroxylation at C-2. Three C27 bile alcohols were present (as ester sulfates): (24ξ,25ξ)-5α-cholestan-2α,3α,7α,12α,24,26-hexol; (25ξ)-5β-cholestan-2β,3α,7α,12α,26,27-hexol, and (25ξ)-5α-cholestan-2α,3α,7α,12α,26,27-hexol. A single C27 bile acid was identified: (25ξ)-2α,3α,7α,12α-tetrahydroxy-5α-cholestan-26-oic acid, present as its taurine conjugate. Two novel C24 bile acids were identified: the 2α-hydroxy derivative of allochenodeoxycholic acid and the 2β-hydroxy derivative of cholic acid, both occurring as taurine conjugates. These studies extend previous work in establishing the natural occurrence of novel 2α- and 2β-hydroxy-C24 and C27 bile acids as well as C27 bile alcohols in both the normal (5β) as well as the (5α) "allo" A/B-ring juncture. The bile salt profile of A. gigas appears to be unique among vertebrates. PMID:26768415

  14. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface. PMID:25254114

  15. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  16. Ion-exclusion chromatography determination of organic acid in uridine 5'-monophosphate fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huanqing; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Wu, Jinglan; Liu, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous determination of organic acids using ion-exclusion liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection is described. The chromatographic conditions are optimized when an Aminex HPX-87H column (300 × 7.8 mm) is employed, with a solution of 3 mmol/L sulfuric acid as eluent, a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and a column temperature of 60°C. Eight organic acids (including orotic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and acetic acid) and one nucleotide are successfully quantified. The calibration curves for these analytes are linear, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. The average recovery of organic acids is in the range of 97.6% ∼ 103.1%, and the relative standard deviation is in the range of 0.037% ∼ 0.38%. The method is subsequently applied to obtain organic acid profiles of uridine 5'-monophosphate culture broth fermented from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data demonstrate the quantitative accuracy for nucleotide fermentation mixtures, and suggest that the method may also be applicable to other biological samples. PMID:22634191

  17. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  20. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.