Science.gov

Sample records for alcohols reaction products

  1. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10485 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10485 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  11. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products of... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products of... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products of... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  6. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. PMID:27469095

  7. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  8. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  9. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  10. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-10-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  11. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation.

    PubMed

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the α-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the β-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets. PMID:27236926

  12. Grain production for alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lockeretz, W.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides primarily an assessment of the resource base for producing alcohol fuel from grain. The effect of different levels of alcohol production are discussed with respect to farm income, land conservation practices, food prices, and exports. The economics of ethanol production from the standpoint of feedstock availability and price are comprehensively examined.

  13. γ-Amino alcohols via organocascade reactions involving dienamine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Appayee, Chandrakumar; Fraboni, Americo J; Brenner-Moyer, Stacey E

    2012-10-01

    Whereas cascade reactions catalyzed by secondary amines combine iminium- and/or enamine-catalyzed reactions, we introduce the feasibility of combining these modes of catalysis with dienamine-catalysis as a new general mechanism for cascade reactions. Enantioenriched β-functionalized-γ-amino alcohols were produced from simple achiral enals in one flask by combining dienamine- and iminium-catalyzed intermolecular reactions. Reaction products are precursors of γ-amino acids, γ-lactams, and pyrrolidines; one was employed in a synthesis of γ-amino acid (S)-vigabatrin, the bioactive enantiomer of Sabril. PMID:22970912

  14. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols. PMID:27465852

  15. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  16. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  17. Measuring social reactions to female survivors of alcohol-involved sexual assault: The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    For women who disclose sexual assault, social reactions can affect post-assault adjustment. Approximately half of the sexual assaults of adult women involve alcohol use. Experimental studies indicate that people put more blame on women who were drinking before the assault, yet no studies have assessed how often actual survivors receive social reactions specific to their alcohol use. This study presents a new measure to assess alcohol-specific social reactions for survivors of sexual assault (The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol, SRQ-A). Factor analyses of a large community sample indicated that women often receive both positive and negative alcohol-specific reactions when disclosing assault. Discriminant validity confirmed that such reactions are distinct from other types of assault-related social reactions. Against predictions, alcohol-specific reactions were not associated with depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, binge drinking, or intoxication. However, in support of the hypotheses, alcohol-specific reactions were related to increased characterological self-blame and alcohol problems. Notably, such reactions had both positive and negative relationships with self-blame, indicating a potential avenue for intervention. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:25253018

  18. Fatty alcohols production by oleaginous yeast.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Gibert, Jordi; Suárez, Beatriz; Lara, Armando; Ronchel, Carmen; Adrio, José L

    2015-11-01

    We have engineered Rhodosporidium toruloides to produce fatty alcohols by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. Production of fatty alcohols in flasks was achieved in different fermentation media at titers ranging from 0.2 to 2 g/L. In many of the conditions tested, more than 80 % of fatty alcohols were secreted into the cultivation broth. Through fed-batch fermentation in 7 L bioreactors, over 8 g/L of C(16)-C(18) fatty alcohols were produced using sucrose as the substrate. This is the highest titer ever reported on microbial production of fatty alcohols to date. PMID:26318028

  19. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  20. Young Adult's Immediate Reaction to a Personal Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Harned, Ilene; Riley, William

    2004-01-01

    Following an emergency medical transport for alcohol overdose, first-year college students were asked to complete a survey assessing their reactions to the transport experience, their assessment of why they required this emergency response, and plans for future personal alcohol consumption. Transported students who responded to a baseline survey…

  1. Reaction times of young alcohol-impaired drivers.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Zoi; Karlaftis, Matthew G; Yannis, George

    2013-12-01

    Young individuals who drive under the influence of alcohol have a higher relative risk of crash involvement; as such, the literature has extensively investigated the factors affecting such involvement through both post-accident surveys and simulator experiments. The effects of differentiated breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) on young driver behavior, however, have been largely unaddressed, mainly as a result of the difficulty in collecting the necessary data. We explore young driver behavior under the influence of alcohol using a driving simulator experiment where 49 participants were subjected to a common pre-defined dose of alcohol consumption. Comparing reaction times before and after consumption allows for interesting insights and suggestions regarding policy interventions. As expected, the results indicate that increased reaction times before consuming alcohol strongly affect post-consumption reaction times, while increased BrAC levels prolong reaction times; a 10% increase in BrAC levels results in a 2% increase in reaction time. Interestingly, individuals with faster alcohol absorption times perform better regardless of absolute BrAC level, while recent meals lead to higher reaction times and regular exercising to lower. PMID:23332180

  2. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  3. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors. PMID:12745410

  4. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Cyntia M; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John M; Baldenius, Kai; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick B

    2016-09-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed for reactions containing 10 mM alcohol and up to 280 mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1853-1861. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26915048

  5. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  6. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  7. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Werpy, Todd A; Zacher, Alan H

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  8. Conversion of isoamyl alcohol over acid catalysts: Reaction dependence on nature of active centers

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, G.P.; Murthy, R.S.; Krishnan, V.

    1997-02-01

    Acid catalysts are known to catalyze the dehydration of alcohols. In addition some oxide catalysts with basic properties have also been shown to play an important role in such dehydration reactions. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols to olefins has been studied in detail using alumina silica-alumina and zeolite catalysts. The olefin products further undergo isomerization in presence of acidic sites. The reaction of isoamyl alcohol on catalytic surfaces has not been investigated in greater detail. The dehydration of isoamyl alcohol is of considerable interest in fine chemicals. Isoamyl alcohol may also undergo dehydrogenation as observed in the case of n-butanol. The scope of the present work is to identify the nature of the active sites selective for dehydration and dehydrogenation of isoamyl alcohol and to modify the active sites to promote isomerization of dehydrated products. Four catalytic surfaces on which the acidic strength can be varied, as well as selectively suppressed, are chosen for this study. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Production technologies for reduced alcoholic wines.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Blackman, John W; Agboola, Samson O

    2012-01-01

    The production and sale of alcohol-reduced wines, and the lowering of ethanol concentration in wines with alcohol levels greater than acceptable for a specific wine style, poses a number of technical and marketing challenges. Several engineering solutions and wine production strategies that focus upon pre- or postfermentation technologies have been described and patented for production of wines with lower ethanol concentrations than would naturally arise through normal fermentation and wine production techniques. However, consumer perception and acceptance of the sensory quality of wines manufactured by techniques that utilize thermal distillation for alcohol removal is generally unfavorable. This negative perception from consumers has focused attention on nonthermal production processes and the development or selection of specific yeast strains with downregulated or modified gene expression for alcohol production. The information presented in this review will allow winemakers to assess the relative technical merits of each of the technologies described and make decisions regarding implementation of novel winemaking techniques for reducing ethanol concentration in wine. PMID:22260123

  10. Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

  11. Adsorption and Reaction of C1-C3 Alcohols over CeOx(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    D Mullins; S Senanayake; T Chen

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub x}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

  12. Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene Particles Using Alcohol as Reaction Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Shin, Cheol Hwan; Han, Sujin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization using alcohol as reaction medium to prepare colloidal clusters of the latex beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC) were used as dispersion stabilizer and comonomer, respectively. The particle size could be controlled by adjusting the reactant compositions such as the amount of stabilizer, comonomer, and water in the reactant mixture. The size and monodispersity of the polymeric particles could be also controlled by changing the reaction medium with different alcohols other than ethanol or adjusting the polymerization temperature. The synthesized particles could be self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporation-driven self-assembly to produce colloidal clusters of the polymeric nanospheres.

  13. Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene Particles Using Alcohol as Reaction Medium.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Sang; Shin, Cheol Hwan; Han, Sujin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization using alcohol as reaction medium to prepare colloidal clusters of the latex beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC) were used as dispersion stabilizer and comonomer, respectively. The particle size could be controlled by adjusting the reactant compositions such as the amount of stabilizer, comonomer, and water in the reactant mixture. The size and monodispersity of the polymeric particles could be also controlled by changing the reaction medium with different alcohols other than ethanol or adjusting the polymerization temperature. The synthesized particles could be self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporation-driven self-assembly to produce colloidal clusters of the polymeric nanospheres. PMID:26831684

  14. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  15. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  16. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  17. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  18. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  19. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  20. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  1. Alcohol Fuel Production for Vocational Students: Secondary, Postsecondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Paul; Burkhalter, Wayne

    In order to help bring about the potential for alcohol production by the farming community, Navarro College (Texas) has developed this curriculum for secondary and postsecondary levels in alcohol fuel production. The alcohol fuel curriculum consists of five modules for use in practical hands-on vocational programs. The curriculum is designed to…

  2. Carrying out thermodynamic calculations and definition of the main reactions of decomposition of vapours of ethyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechin, A. I.; Kyrmakova, O. S.; Ivanova, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamic opportunities of course of chemical reactions of decomposition of the vapors of ethyl alcohol necessary at development of devices where these reactions will take place are considered. The entalpiyny method of calculation of constants of balance of probable chemical reactions is given in the Excel editor. Independent reactions of process of oxidation are defined. By result of thermodynamic calculation of each reaction schedules of dependence of a constant of balance on environment temperature from which follows are constructed that one reactions proceed until the end of aside formation of the final products, and others are improbable or impossible. The analysis of the received results shows that reactions of oxidation will successfully proceed in the established directions, and for an intensification of process of decomposition it is necessary to provide a supply of some energy which quantity will be sufficient for oxidation of vapors of ethyl alcohol. Results of calculations showed good convergence with programs of thermodynamic calculations like "Aster - 4" and "TERRA".

  3. Distillation and rectification in the production of water free alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    De Luzuriaga, E.R.

    1980-12-01

    The operation of a modern alcohol distillery using waste molasses as its prime material in the manufacture of anhydrous alcohol is described. The VMC distillery uses the azeotropic non-pressure process using benzene as the dehydrant. Scheduled production is 30,000 G.L., water free alcohol daily but 41,500 G.L., of water free alcohol has been produced indicating that the VMC dehydrating column can produce its expected capacity.

  4. Catalytic reaction of 3-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol with alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, S.G.; Avetisyan, K.G.; Matnishyan, A.A.

    1987-01-10

    The cyclic ketal 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-bis(3-phenyl-2-propynyloxy)-1,4-dioxane was obtained by the reaction of 3-phenyl-2-propyn-1=ol with propargyl alcohol in the presence of the HgO-BF/sub 3/ O(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/ catalytic system. The transformation of 3-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol and its ethers in methanol and ethanol by the action of the above-mentioned catalytic system leads to 1-phenyl-3-alkoxy-1-propanone, 1-phenyl-1,1,3-trialkoxypropane, and 1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one. The intermediate organomercury compound, which is the product from regioselective addition of mercuric oxide and the saturated alcohol at the triple bond, was isolated. Its protodemercuration led to the above-mentioned linear products. The formation of the cyclic ketal is presumably due to the preferred formation of mercury bis-hydroxypropargylide.

  5. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  6. Atmospheric chemistry of enols: a theoretical study of the vinyl alcohol + OH + O(2) reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    So, Sui; Wille, Uta; da Silva, Gabriel

    2014-06-17

    Enols are emerging as trace atmospheric components that may play a significant role in the formation of organic acids in the atmosphere. We have investigated the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) initiated oxidation chemistry of the simplest enol, vinyl alcohol (ethenol, CH2═CHOH), using quantum chemical calculations and energy-grained master equation simulations. A lifetime of around 4 h was determined for vinyl alcohol in the presence of tropospheric levels of (•)OH. The reaction proceeds by (•)OH addition at both the α (66%) and β (33%) carbons of the π-system, yielding the C-centered radicals (•)CH2CH(OH)2, and HOCH2C(•)HOH, respectively. Subsequent trapping by O2 leads to the respective peroxyl radicals. About 90% of the chemically activated population of the major peroxyl radical adduct (•)O2CH2CH(OH)2 is predicted to undergo fragmentation to produce formic acid and formaldehyde, with regeneration of (•)OH. The minor peroxyl radical HOCH2C(OO(•))HOH is even less stable and undergoes almost exclusive HO2(•) elimination to form glycolaldehyde (HOCH2CHO). Formation of the latter has not been proposed before in the oxidation of vinyl alcohol. A kinetic mechanism for use in atmospheric modeling is provided, featuring phenomenological rate coefficients for formation of the three main product channels ((•)O2CH2CH(OH)2 [8%]; HC(O)OH + HCHO + (•)OH [56%]; HOCH2CHO + HO2(•) [37%]). Our study supports previous findings that vinyl alcohol should be rapidly removed from the atmosphere by reaction with (•)OH and O2 with glycolaldehyde being identified as a previously unconsidered product. Most importantly, it is shown that direct chemically activated reactions can lead to (•)OH and HO2(•) (HOx) recycling. PMID:24844308

  7. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  8. Alcohol co-production from tree crops

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M.; Folger, G.; Milne, T.

    1982-06-01

    A concept for the sustainable production of alcohol from fermentable substrates produced on an annual basis by the reproductive organs (pods, fruits, nuts, berries, etc.) of tree crops is presented. The advantages of tree-crop systems include suitability for use on marginal land, potential productivity equivalent to row crops, minimal maintenance and energy-input requirements, environmental compatibility, and the possibility of co-product production. Honeylocust, mesquite, and persimmon are examined as potential US tree-crop species. Other species not previously considered, including osage orange and breadfruit, are suggested as tree-crop candidates for North America and the tropical developing world, respectively. Fermentation of tree-crop organs and the economics of tree-crop systems are also discussed. Currently the greatest area of uncertainty lies in actual pod or fruit yields one can expect from large tree farms under real life conditions. However, ballpark ethanol yield estimates of from 880 to 3470 l hectare/sup -1/ (94 to 400 gal acre/sup -1/) justify further consideration of tree crop systems.

  9. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  10. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  11. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols. PMID:26723007

  12. Studies on the oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H 2O 2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in alcohol-water medium by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liang, Huiling; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Xiwen; Shen, Hanxi

    2006-03-01

    An oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H 2O 2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry in the alcohol(methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and isopropanol)-water mutual solubility system. Compared with the enzymatic-catalyzed reaction in the water medium, the fluorescence intensities of the product weakened, even extinguished. Because the addition of alcohols made the conformation of HRP change, the catalytic reaction shifted to the side of polymerization and the polymer (A nH 2, n ≥ 3) exhibited no fluorescence. The four alcohols cannot deactivate HRP. Moreover isopropanol activated HRP remarkably.

  13. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  14. SIFT studies of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+ with a series of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    1997-11-01

    We report the results of a selected ion flow tube (SIFT) study of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+ with some 17 alcohols ranging in complexity from methanol to octanol and menthol, and including some structural isomers. This study was carried out in order to extend the database (i.e. rate coefficients and product ions of appropriate ion/molecule reactions) required for the SIFT method of trace gas analysis which utilises the aforementioned ions for chemical ionisation. The H3O+ reactions proceed via exothermic proton transfer, which we assume to proceed at the collisional rate. Thus all of the 51 reactions (except two) occur at or close to the collisional rate. Only in a minority of these proton transfer reactions is the protonated parent molecule the single ion product; rather it is seen that the protonation of most of these alcohols by H3O+ is followed by the ejection of an H2O molecule from the excited product ion thus leaving the appropriate hydrocarbon ion. The NO+ reactions proceed largely via the processes of hydride ion transfer producing the appropriate carboxy ion (and HNO), and hydroxide ion transfer producing the appropriate hydrocarbon ion (and HNO2). The O2+ reactions proceed via charge transfer, the large majority of the reactions resulting in more than one product ion, which are mostly hydrocarbon fragment ions but in a few cases carboxy ions are formed. The product ions for the reactions of the various structural isomers are sometimes different, and this offers a way of distinguishing between the isomeric forms of some alcohols.

  15. Regioselective Hydration of an Alkene and Analysis of the Alcohol Product by Remote Access NMR: A Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maureen E.; Johnson, Sara L.; Masterson, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    A two-part demonstration was conducted in our first-semester organic chemistry course designed to introduce students to the formation of alcohols, regioselective reactions, and analysis of organic products by NMR analysis. This demonstration utilized the oxymercuration-demercuration sequence to prepare an alcohol from an alkene in a Markovnikov…

  16. Adsorption and Reaction of C(1)-C(3) Alcohols over CeO(x)(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Chen, Tsung-Liang

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub X}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

  17. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  18. Cyclopentadienone Oxidation Reaction Kinetics and Thermochemistry for the Alcohols, Hydroperoxides, and Vinylic, Alkoxy, and Alkylperoxy Radicals.

    PubMed

    Yommee, Suriyakit; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-01-28

    Cyclopentadienone has one carbonyl and two olefin groups resulting in 4n + 2 π-electrons in a cyclic five-membered ring structure. Thermochemical and kinetic parameters for the initial reactions of cyclopentadienone radicals with O2 and the thermochemical properties for cyclopentadienone-hydroperoxides, alcohols, and alkenyl, alkoxy, and peroxy radicals were determined by use of computational chemistry. The CBS-QB3 composite and B3LYP density functional theory methods were used to determine the enthalpies of formation (ΔfH°298) using the isodesmic reaction schemes with several work reactions for each species. Entropy and heat capacity, S°(T) and Cp°(T) (50 K ≤ T ≤ 5000 K) are determined using geometric parameters, internal rotor potentials, and frequencies from B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations. Standard enthalpies of formation are reported for parent molecules as cyclopentadienone, cyclopentadienone with alcohol, hydroperoxide substituents, and the cyclopentadienone-yl vinylic, alkoxy, and peroxy radicals corresponding to loss of a hydrogen atom from the carbon and oxygen sites. Entropy and heat capacity vs temperature also are reported for the parent molecules and for radicals. The thermochemical analysis shows The R(•) + O2 well depths are deep, on the order of 50 kcal mol(-1), and the R(•) + O2 reactions to RO + O (chain branching products) for cyclopentadienone-2-yl and cyclopentadienone-3-yl have unusually low reaction (ΔHrxn) enthalpies, some 20 or so kcal/mol below the entrance channels. Chemical activation kinetics using quantum RRK analysis for k(E) and master equation for falloff are used to show that significant chain branching as a function of temperature and pressure can occur when these vinylic radicals are formed. PMID:26784854

  19. Carbon-coated magnetic palladium: applications in partial oxidation of alcohols and coupling reactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic carbon supported Pd catalyst has been synthesized via in situ generation of nanoferrites and incorporation of carbon from renewable cellulose via calcination; catalyst can be used for oxidation of alcohols, amination reaction and arylation of aryl halides (cross coupli...

  20. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  1. Multicomponent versus domino reactions: One-pot free-radical synthesis of β-amino-ethers and β-amino-alcohols.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Bianca; Pastori, Nadia; Prosperini, Simona; Punta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Following an optimized multicomponent procedure, an aryl amine, a ketone, and a cyclic ether or an alcohol molecule are assembled in a one-pot synthesis by nucleophilic radical addition of ketyl radicals to ketimines generated in situ. The reaction occurs under mild conditions by mediation of the TiCl4/Zn/t-BuOOH system, leading to the formation of quaternary β-amino-ethers and -alcohols. The new reaction conditions guarantee good selectivity by preventing the formation of secondary products. The secondary products are possibly derived from a competitive domino reaction, which involves further oxidation of the ketyl radicals. PMID:25670994

  2. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1 mmol substrate, 10 mol % copper(I) iodide, 10 mol % 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1 mol % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  3. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-04-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1 mmol substrate, 10 mol % copper(I) iodide, 10 mol % 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1 mol % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  4. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  5. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

    2011-08-01

    Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

  7. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  8. PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC NITRATES FROM HYDROXYL AND NITRATE RADICAL REACTION WITH PROPYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the gas-phase production rates of alpha-nitratoacetone, propylene glycol dinitrate, 2-hydroxy propyl nitrate, and 2-nitrato propyl alcohol (2-NPA) in a C3H6/N2O5/air dark reaction and a C3H6/NOX/air irradiation are reported. The probable operative reaction mechani...

  9. [A disulfiram-alcohol reaction after inhalation of a salbutamol aerosol: a plausible interaction?].

    PubMed

    Choi, T; Neven, A; Al Hadithy, A F Y

    2016-01-01

    An asthmatic patient (male, aged 47) being treated for his alcohol dependence complained of experiencing mild symptoms of disulfiram-alcohol reaction after using of pressurised metered-dose inhaler containing ethanol. It has been reported in the literature that the disulfiram-alcohol reaction may occur after a patient has been exposed to only minimal amounts of ethanol. This is why, in daily practice, physicians are generally reluctant to prescribe preparations containing ethanol and why they usually switch patients to an alternative. However, close evaluation of the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic aspects of ethanol suggests that subjective disulfiram-alcohol reactions following the use of inhalers containing ethanol cannot be explained rationally from a clinical pharmacological perspective. PMID:27213641

  10. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  11. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Duvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Kliza, S.; Hayes, D.

    1982-11-01

    Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results indicate that this raw material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. (Refs. 15).

  12. Alcohol Fuel By-Product Utilization and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerboom, Jim

    Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…

  13. Palladium and gold nanotubes as oxygen reduction reaction and alcohol oxidation reaction catalysts in base.

    PubMed

    Alia, Shaun M; Duong, Kathlynne; Liu, Toby; Jensen, Kurt; Yan, Yushan

    2014-06-01

    Palladium (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) were synthesized by the galvanic displacement of silver nanowires. PdNTs and AuNTs have wall thicknesses of 6 nm, outer diameters of 60 nm, and lengths of 5-10 and 5-20 μm, respectively. Rotating disk electrode experiments showed that the PdNTs and AuNTs have higher area normalized activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than conventional nanoparticle catalysts. The PdNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 3.4, 2.2, and 3.7 times greater than that on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C), bulk polycrystalline palladium, and carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C), respectively. The AuNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 2.3, 9.0, and 2.0 times greater than that on carbon-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/C), bulk polycrystalline gold, and Pt/C, respectively. The PdNTs also had lower onset potentials than Pd/C and Pt/C for the oxidation of methanol (0.236 V), ethanol (0.215 V), and ethylene glycol (0.251 V). In comparison to Pt/C, the PdNTs and AuNTs further demonstrated improved alcohol tolerance during the ORR. PMID:24757078

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  15. Production of durene from alcohols and ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, P. E.; Yan, T. Y.

    1985-06-18

    Durene is recovered from a mixture rich in durene and containing hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline range by cooling the mixture to a point where crystallization occurs and separating the crystallized durene. The durene subsequently is washed with a wash fluid. The wash fluid which can be methanol, is returned to a process wherein it is converted to gasoline and durene. The separated mother liquor is added to the gasoline fraction. The original mixture of durene and gasoline is obtained by the catalytic conversion of alcohols and ethers.

  16. TESTING AND EVALUATION OF ON-FARM ALCOHOL PRODUCTION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is the most important of biomass derived fuels in the short term. The bulk of the production will come from large (20 to 600M gallons/year) units with the remainder being produced on-farm in small (less than 6,000 gallons/year) units. The on-farm production of alcohol pre...

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  18. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols. PMID:21902829

  19. Genotoxicity testing of Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, T

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of short-term genotoxicity tests such as the Ames assay, the mutagenicity of Maillard reaction products has been tested extensively. Some products have exhibited strong activity. For example, one of the earliest studies demonstrated some mutagenic activity in a dichloromethane extract of a D-glucose/ammonia Maillard model system. Many researchers have attempted to pinpoint the principal chemical(s) of mutagenicity of the Maillard products using various sugar-amino acid browning model systems over last two decades. However, no mutagenic individual Maillard product has been isolated and identified. Nitrite has been also used as a reactant in browning reaction model systems, primarily to investigate the formation of potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Recently some potent mutagens isolated from pyrolyzed amino acids or proteins have begun to receive attention as Maillard reaction products. PMID:2675034

  20. Production of alcohols from synthesis gases

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, E.; Le Page, J.F.; Sugier, A.

    1982-08-24

    Process for manufacturing a constituent for motor car gasoline from a synthesis gas containing essentially carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, comprising producing methanol and its higher homologs by treatment of said synthesis gas in a first catalytic reaction zone at 230/sup 0/-350/sup 0/C, cooling and condensing the effluent therefrom, separating from the liquid condensate a gas fraction, treating the latter at 240/sup 0/-300/sup 0/C in a second catalytic reaction zone to produce a liquid methanol fraction and admixing said methanol fraction with said liquid condensate to form said gasoline constituent.

  1. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  2. Bioengineering of microorganisms for C₃ to C₅ alcohols production.

    PubMed

    Mainguet, Samuel E; Liao, James C

    2010-12-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals is an absolute requirement for the sustainability of societies. This fact has been neglected during the past century as cheap and abundant, yet not renewable, sources of hydrocarbons were available. Since fossil fuel availability is decreasing, biological production of fuels and chemicals has been proposed to be a potential alternative to fossil sources. Higher alcohols (from C₃ to C₅) are useful substitutes for gasoline because of their high energy density and low hygroscopicity and are important feedstocks for other chemicals. Some Clostridia species are known to naturally ferment sugars to isopropanol and 1-butanol. However, other C₃ to C₅ alcohols are not produced in large quantities by natural microorganisms. A non-fermentative strategy to produce a broad range of higher alcohols has been devised using the ubiquitous keto acid biosynthetic pathways. This review provides a current overview of these different strategies. PMID:21154669

  3. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  4. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  5. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  6. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  7. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents[1]. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries) or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK). In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD) age: 61.5(4.4) years, 9 male) were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p < 0.001) compared to when participants were sober (156 ± 16 ms). Biceps femoris response times were significantly delayed from BACs of 0.035% onwards and were strongly associated with increasing levels of BAC (r = 0.6; p < 0.001). These delays had important behavioural consequences. Chances of hitting the obstacle were doubled with increased BACs. Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. Electrophilic activation of hydrogen peroxide: selective oxidation reactions in perfluorinated alcohol solvents.

    PubMed

    Neimann, K; Neumann, R

    2000-09-01

    [reaction; see text] The catalytic electrophilic activation of hydrogen peroxide with transition metal compounds toward reaction with nucleophiles is a matter of very significant research and practical interest. We have now found that use of perfluorinated alcoholic solvents such as 1,1, 1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol in the absence of catalysts allowed electrophilic activation of hydrogen peroxide toward epoxidation of alkenes and the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones. PMID:10964384

  11. Roles of acetone and diacetone alcohol in coordination and dissociation reactions of uranyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George; Van Stipdonk, Michael J; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Gibson, John K; de Jong, Wibe A

    2012-12-01

    Combined collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry experiments with DFT and MP2 calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structures and energetics of dissociation reactions of uranyl species containing acetone and diacetone alcohol ligands. It is shown that solutions containing diacetone alcohol ligands can produce species with more than five oxygen atoms available for coordination. Calculations confirm that complexes with up to four diacetone alcohol ligands can be energetically stable but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Water elimination reactions of diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to have two coordination-dependent reaction channels, through formation of mesityl oxide ligands or formation of alkoxide and protonated mesityl oxide species. The present results provide an explanation for the implausible observation of "[UO(2)(ACO)(6,7,8)](2+)" in and observed water-elimination reactions from purportedly uranyl-acetone complexes (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). PMID:23146003

  12. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. PMID:24792191

  13. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  14. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  15. REACTION PRODUCTS FROM THE CHLORINATION OF SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical treatment of natural waters, in particular the use of chlorine as a biocide, modifies the chemistry of these waters in ways that are not fully understood. The research described in this report examined both inorganic and organic reaction products from the chlorination of...

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  17. Silver(I)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Propargylic Alcohols, Carbon Dioxide and Monohydric Alcohols: Thermodynamically Feasible Access to β-Oxopropyl Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Song, Qing-Wen; Xie, Jia-Ning; Ma, Ran; He, Liang-Nian

    2016-07-20

    A silver(I)-catalyzed three-component reaction of propargylic alcohols, CO2 , and monohydric alcohols was successfully developed for the synthesis of β-oxopropyl carbonates. As such, a series of β-oxopropyl carbonates were exclusively produced in excellent yields (up to 98 %), even under atmospheric pressure of CO2 . The silver catalyst works efficiently for both the carboxylative cyclization of propargylic alcohols with CO2 and subsequent transesterification of α-alkylidene cyclic carbonates with monohydric alcohols; thus this tandem process performs smoothly under mild conditions. This work provides a versatile and thermodynamically favorable approach to dissymmetric dialkyl carbonates. PMID:27237704

  18. Model analysis for enhancement of enzyme-catalyzed alcohol oxidation by solvent extraction of product

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Toshitatsu; Morooka, Shigeharu

    1995-07-01

    Enzymatic oxidation of ethanol and butanol was conducted with alcohol oxidase in a one-phase system of water and a two-phase system of water and toluene. The conversion of the reaction in the two-phase system was higher than that in the one-phase system. The inhibition of the enzyme was relieved in the two-phase system by extracting the aldehyde product into the organic phase. The dissolved oxygen concentration in the water phase also affected the reaction rate. A kinetic model of the reaction was developed by considering both the inhibition of enzyme activity and the dissolved oxygen concentration. Parameters used in the model were evaluated experimentally. The reaction rate calculated using the model was in good agreement with the data.

  19. SN1 reactions in supercritical carbon dioxide in the presence of alcohols: the role of preferential solvation.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Abad, Thais; Martínez-Ferrer, Jaime; Acerete, Rafael; Asensio, Gregorio; Mello, Rossella; González-Núñez, María Elena

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol () inhibits SN1 reactions of alkyl halides in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and gives no ethers as products. The unexpected behaviour of alcohols in the reaction of alkyl halides with 1,3-dimethoxybenzene () in scCO2 under different conditions is rationalised in terms of Brønsted and Lewis acid-base equilibria of reagents, intermediates, additives and products in a singular solvent characterised by: (i) the strong quadrupole and Lewis acid character of carbon dioxide, which hinders SN2 paths by strongly solvating basic solutes; (ii) the weak Lewis base character of carbon dioxide, which prevents it from behaving as a proton sink; (iii) the compressible nature of scCO2, which enhances the impact of preferential solvation on carbon dioxide availability for the solvent-demanding rate determining step. PMID:27303826

  20. Nitrosobenzene as a hydrogen acceptor in rhodium catalysed dehydrogenation reactions of alcohols: synthesis of aldehydes and azoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Annen, Samuel P; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2012-12-14

    Acids, esters and amides have to date been the only isolated products from the dehydrogenation of primary alcohols with [Rh(trop(2)N)(L)] (trop = 5-H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5yl) type complexes. With the reported method the available product family is finally to aldehydes. Using nitrosobenzene as a hydrogen acceptor the aldehydes could be isolated in up to 96% yield with substrate to catalyst ratios of up to 1000. Nitrosobenzene was found to be reductively coupled to azoxybenzene under the reaction conditions. Several symmetrically substituted azoxybenzene derivatives could be isolated in generally high yields after 2 to 4 h reaction time using a low catalyst loading. PMID:23032195

  1. Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization of the Aldehyde-Alcohol Redox-coupling Reaction in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Fukagawa, Takashi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yamano, Yumiko; Wada, Akimori; Kawamura, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study suggested the presence of a novel cone-specific redox reaction that generates 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol in the carp retina. This reaction is unique in that 1) both 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal were required to produce 11-cis-retinal; 2) together with 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinol was produced at a 1:1 ratio; and 3) the addition of enzyme cofactors such as NADP(H) was not necessary. This reaction is probably part of the reactions in a cone-specific retinoid cycle required for cone visual pigment regeneration with the use of 11-cis-retinol supplied from Müller cells. In this study, using purified carp cone membrane preparations, we first confirmed that the reaction is a redox-coupling reaction between retinals and retinols. We further examined the substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction. Oxidation was specific for 11-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinol. In contrast, reduction showed low specificity: many aldehydes, including all-trans-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, and 13-cis-retinals and even benzaldehyde, supported the reaction. On the basis of kinetic studies of this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction), we found that formation of a ternary complex of a retinol, an aldehyde, and a postulated enzyme seemed to be necessary, which suggested the presence of both the retinol- and aldehyde-binding sites in this enzyme. A subcellular fractionation study showed that the activity is present almost exclusively in the cone inner segment. These results suggest the presence of an effective production mechanism of 11-cis-retinal in the cone inner segment to regenerate visual pigment. PMID:24217249

  2. Feasibility study for production of anhydrous alcohol from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of establishing a facility to produce fuel grade alcohol from corn to be located within an existing soybean processing plant in Mexico, Missouri has been studied. The alcohol producing industries, technical literature, various available process technologies, and industry consultants were surveyed. A process consisting of dry milling corn, continuous cooking, batch fermentation and azeotropic distillation was selected as the most suitable technique for the MFA's venture. It was determined that a production rate of 6288 bushels of corn per day yielding 5,200,000 gallons per year of fuel grade ethanol plus the capability to up grade an additional 500,000 gallons per year of low grade alcohol from off-site production facilities was the best design for the space and facilities available within the existing Mexico, Missouri soybean plant while economically utilizing existing buildings and plant area to the best advantage. A factored estimate of expected capital costs for the gasohol demonstration plant was made based on surveys of the plant site and furnished plant drawings, approximate prices for major items of process equipment and estimated construction and erection costs. This cost, with a plus or minus 20% accuracy, was determined to be $8,852,000.00. Revenues were estimated based on the selling price of 200 proof fuel grade alcohol and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A number of cases were reviewed to demonstrate the sensitivity of plant operating income to various prices for corn, alcohol and DDGS and to assess the effect of inflation over the useful life of the plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Production by the Transesterification Reaction of Soybean Oil Using Immobilized Lipase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Otávio L.; Bevilaqua, Juliana V.; Leal, Márcia C. M. R.; Freire, Denise M. G.; Langone, Marta A. P.

    The enzymatic alcoholysis of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using a commercial, immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), enzyme concentration, molar ratio of alcohol to soybean oil, solvent, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best conditions were obtained in a solvent-free system with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50°C, and enzyme concentration of 7.0% (w/w). Three-step batch ethanolysis was most effective for the production of biodiesel. Ethyl esters yield was about 60% after 4 h of reaction.

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. [Possible ways of regulating detoxifying processes in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction with pantothenic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Chernikevich, I P; Dorofeev, B F; Moĭseenok, A G

    1993-01-01

    Oxidation of derivatives and precursors of pantothenic acid was studied in alcohol dehydrogenase reactions. Despite the presence of free hydroxymethyl groups in a number of pantothenic acid derivatives only panthenol with Km = 8 x 10(-3) M was shown to serve as a substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase from horse liver tissue (EC 1.1.1.1) Pantethine, sodium phosphopantothenate, CoA and acetyl-CoA decreased the rate of ethanol oxidation, where pantethine and sodium phosphopantothenate were competitive inhibitors, while CoA and acetyl-CoA inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively Ki = 1.2 x 10(-2) M, 2.1 x 10(-2) M, 4.4 x 10(-4) M and 5.1 x 10(-4) M, respectively. Metabolic precursors, which were different from pantothenic acid in their structure, were not involved in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. Possible regulation of alcohol intoxication using derivatives and precursors of vitamin B3 is discussed. PMID:8511887

  6. Acid-Promoted Reaction of Trifluoromethylated Allyl Alcohols with Arenes. Stereoselective Synthesis of CF3-Alkenes and CF3-Indanes.

    PubMed

    Kazakova, Anna N; Iakovenko, Roman O; Boyarskaya, Irina A; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Vasilyev, Aleksander V

    2015-10-01

    Reaction of 4-aryl-1,1,1-trifluorobut-3-en-2-ols [CF3-allyl alcohols, ArCH═CHCH(OH)CF3] with arenes under activation with anhydrous FeCl3 or FSO3H was studied. We found that the transformation led to trifluoromethylated alkenes [Ar(Ar')CHCH═CHCF3] or 1-trifluoromethylated indanes (CF3-indanes). The formation of these two types of reaction products strongly depends on the nucleophilicity of the starting arene and the electrophilicity of cationic intermediates generated from CF3-allyl alcohols under reaction conditions. Benzene, anisole, veratrole, and ortho-xylene lead exclusively to CF3-alkenes with an E-configuration. More π-donating polymethylated arenes (pseudocumene, mesitylene) afford only CF3-indanes with a predominantly cis-orientation of substituents at positions 1 and 3 of the indane ring. Meta- and para-xylenes show an intermediate behavior; they may form both CF3-alkenes and/or CF3-indanes. The mechanisms of the investigated transformations are discussed. PMID:26334780

  7. Roles of Acetone and Diacetone Alcohol in Coordination and Dissociation Reactions of Uranyl Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.; Gibson, John K.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2012-12-03

    Combined collision-induced dissociation mass-spectrometry experiments and DFT calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structure of "hypercoordinated" species and the energetics of water-elimination reactions of uranyl acetone complexes observed in earlier work (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). It is shown that the "hypercoordinated" species contain diacetone alcohol ligands bonded in either bidentate or monodentate fashion, which are indistinguishable from (acetone)2 in mass spectrometry. Calculations confirm that four diacetone ligands can form stable complexes, but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to form mesityl oxide ligands and alkoxide species through the elimination of water, providing an explanation for the observed water-elimination reactions.

  8. Ethyl-alcohol-fuel production from the Jerusalem artichoke. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The project objective is to evaluate the commercial feasibility for production of fuel alcohol by fermentation of the carbohydrates in the tops of the Jerusalem artichoke. The maximum top biomass yields of the mammoth French white variety of Jerusalem artichoke was obtained at 119 days after plant emergence and maximum fresh weight of the tops was 31.6 tons per acre. During rapid growth the fresh stalks had 2% to 4% carbohydrate. After the plant reached a maximum height of 168 inches, and started to bud the stalk had a maximum of 4% carbohydrate. During blossoming the stalk carbohydrates rapidly translocated to the tuber. Single versus multiple cuttings demonstrated the maximum carbohydrate was obtained with a single harvest of the mature plants immediately following bud formation. The total carbohydrate yield from the top biomass was 1.26 tons per acre. The equivalent yield of fermentation alcohol is 180.6 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. The tuber yield at both Mesa and Toppenish, WA, was 14 to 15 tons of fresh tubers with 18% total carbohydrates. The carbohydrate yield was 2.52 tons per acre. This is equivalent to a yield of 360 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. Commercial scale fuel alcohol equipment was used to hammer mill and batch ferment tops and tubers. The steps for commercial processing of the biomass tops and tubers was discussed including extracting and fermentation of the carbohydrates to ethanol and their concentration by distillation and dehydration by molecular sieves to anhydrous fuel alcohol. The use of molecular sieves reduced the energy for dehydration of 95% ethanol to 5000 Btu per gallon. The economic feasibility and energy requirement for commercial processing was discussed.

  9. Spectroscopic Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferyl Alcohol and Its Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation Products

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Adams, Paul; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Anup

    2011-07-13

    Lignin composition (monolignol types of coniferyl, sinapyl or p-coumaryl alcohol) is causally related to biomass recalcitrance. We describe multiwavelength (220, 228, 240, 250, 260, 290, 295, 300, 310 or 320 nm) absorption spectroscopy of coniferyl alcohol and its laccase- or peroxidase-catalyzed products during real time kinetic, pseudo-kinetic and endpoint analyses, in optical turn on or turn off modes, under acidic or basic conditions. Reactions in microwell plates and 100 mu L volumes demonstrated assay miniaturization and high throughput screening capabilities. Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts along with hyperchromicity or hypochromicity accompanied enzymatic oxidations by laccase or peroxidase. The limits of detection and quantitation of coniferyl alcohol averaged 2.4 and 7.1 mu M respectively, with linear trend lines over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Coniferyl alcohol oxidation was evident within 10 minutes or with 0.01 mu g/mL laccase and 2 minutes or 0.001 mu g/mL peroxidase. Detection limit improved to 1.0 mu M coniferyl alcohol with Km of 978.7 +/- 150.7 mu M when examined at 260 nm following 30 minutes oxidation with 1.0 mu g/mL laccase. Our assays utilized the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of coniferyl alcohol or its oxidation products for enabling detection, without requiring chemical synthesis or modification of the substrate or product(s). These studies facilitate lignin compositional analyses and augment pretreatment strategies for reducing biomass recalcitrance.

  10. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  11. Alcohol fuels: Production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Alcohol fuels: Production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. From allylic alcohols to aldols through a new nickel-mediated tandem reaction: synthetic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Cuperly, David; Petrignet, Julien; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2006-04-12

    Nickel hydride type complexes have been successfully developed as catalysts for the tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of allylic alcohols with aldehydes. Optimization of the reaction conditions has shown that a cocatalyst, such as MgBr2, has a very positive effect on the kinetics of the reaction and in the yields of aldols. Under such optimized conditions {[NiHCl(dppe)] + MgBr(2) at 3-5 mol %)}, this reaction affords the aldols in good to excellent yields. It is a full-atom-economy-type reaction that occurs under mild conditions. Furthermore, it has a broad scope for the allylic alcohols and it is compatible with a wide range of aldehydes, including very bulky derivatives. The reaction is completely regioselective, but it exhibits a low stereoselectivity, except for allylic alcohols with a bulky substituent at the carbinol center. The use of chiral nonracemic catalysts was not successful, affording only racemic compounds. However, it was possible to use asymmetric synthesis for the preparation of optically active aldols. Various mechanistic studies have been performed using, for instance, a deuterated alcohol or a deuterated catalyst. They gave strong support to a mechanism involving first a transition-metal-mediated isomerization of the allylic alcohol into the free enol, followed by the addition of the latter intermediate onto the aldehyde in an "hydroxyl-carbonyl-ene" type reaction. These results confirm that allylic alcohols can be considered as new and useful partners in the development of the aldol reaction. PMID:16506253

  14. Characterization of the products formed by the reaction of trichlorocyanuric acid with 2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, P Mark L; Barnett, Julie S

    2009-11-01

    We report a recent investigation into the death of a cat that was initially thought to involve intentionally burning the animal via the use of an ignitable liquid. The exposure of the animal to flame was ruled out. Instead, forensic investigation revealed the intentional mixing together of a common outdoor swimming pool chlorinator, trichlorocyanuric acid (TCCA), and 2-propanol (aka, isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol). The reaction of these two chemicals resulted in the formation of cyanuric acid residue, hydrochloric acid, and the evolution of a significant volume of chlorine gas. Further alpha-chlorination side reactions also occurred between 2-propanol and TCCA to produce a variety of chlorinated 2-propanone species that were detected on the submitted evidence. The identification of the products of both the main reaction and the side reactions allowed the authors to determine what chemicals were originally mixed together by the culprit. PMID:19818110

  15. Rapid Covalent Modification of Silicon Oxide Surfaces through Microwave-Assisted Reactions with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Austin W H; Gates, Byron D

    2016-07-26

    We demonstrate the method of a rapid covalent modification of silicon oxide surfaces with alcohol-containing compounds with assistance by microwave reactions. Alcohol-containing compounds are prevalent reagents in the laboratory, which are also relatively easy to handle because of their stability against exposure to atmospheric moisture. The condensation of these alcohols with the surfaces of silicon oxides is often hindered by slow reaction kinetics. Microwave radiation effectively accelerates this condensation reaction by heating the substrates and/or solvents. A variety of substrates were modified in this demonstration, such as silicon oxide films of various thicknesses, glass substrates such as microscope slides (soda lime), and quartz. The monolayers prepared through this strategy demonstrated the successful formation of covalent surface modifications of silicon oxides with water contact angles of up to 110° and typical hysteresis values of 2° or less. An evaluation of the hydrolytic stability of these monolayers demonstrated their excellent stability under acidic conditions. The techniques introduced in this article were successfully applied to tune the surface chemistry of silicon oxides to achieve hydrophobic, oleophobic, and/or charged surfaces. PMID:27396288

  16. Reactions of perfluoro-1-alkylcycloalkenes with alcohols and properties of vinyl ethers formed

    SciTech Connect

    Snegirev, V.F.; Makarov, K.N.

    1986-12-10

    Perfluoro-1-alkylcycloalkenes react with alcohols to form products of vinyl and allyl substitution. Alkyl perfluorocycloakenyl ethers readily alkylate the fluoride ion and triethylamine, and by the action of SbF/sub 5/ convert into ..cap alpha.., ..beta..-unsaturated perfluoro ketones. When allyl perfluorocycloalkenyl ethers are heated, they isomerize into the corresponding ..cap alpha..-allylperfluorocycloalkanones.

  17. 27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic products coming... AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26.1 Alcoholic products... taxes on taxable alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the...

  18. 27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic products coming... AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26.1 Alcoholic products... taxes on taxable alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the...

  19. 27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic products coming... AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26.1 Alcoholic products... taxes on taxable alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the...

  20. 27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic products coming... AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26.1 Alcoholic products... taxes on taxable alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the...

  1. Dose-related effect of alcohol on mismatch negativity and reaction time performance.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, I P; Pekkonen, E; Alho, K; Sinclair, J D; Sillanaukee, P; Näätänen, R

    1995-01-01

    In a recent study, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related potential, elicited by occasional frequency changes in a repetitive tone, was strongly attenuated by a low dosage of alcohol. We investigated the phenomenon in nine subjects with two different dosages of ethanol (0.35 and 0.55 g/kg), and with two magnitudes of frequency changes (5% and 10%), in a single-blind, placebo-controlled paradigm. Ethanol had no observable effect on the N1 and P2 deflections, nor on the reaction time to frequency changes measured in a separate session. However, the MMN was attenuated after administration of the larger dosage of alcohol, suggesting impaired preconscious processing of stimulus features outside the scope of attention. The results support the view according to which the automatic functions of human information processing are more sensitive than the controlled functions to the detrimental effects of alcohol. The fact that the MMN suppression was stronger when stimulus deviation was smaller indicates that at relatively low blood alcohol concentrations the detection of small deviations is especially hampered. PMID:8590608

  2. Production of fuel alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke tops

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to demonstrate fuel alcohol production in New Mexico using the Jerusalem artichoke and local resources. This final report summarizes progress made during the course of the project. The planting and cultivation of the tubers are described as well as the construction of the ethanol plant. During the grinding of the tubers, the Bowie gear pump failed and a larger Mayo pump was purchased. Results indicate that Jerusalem artichokes will grow well in this area of New Mexico; water requirements are about the same as for corn and cultivation is only necessary until plant height is 18 inches. (DMC)

  3. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  4. Radical cascade reaction of alkynes with N-fluoroarylsulfonimides and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangfan; Li, Yan; Han, Jingjie; Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Cascade reactions initiated by radical addition to alkynes are synthetically very attractive because they enable access to highly complex molecular skeletons in only few synthetic steps under usually mild conditions. Here we report a general radical cascade reaction of alkynes, N-fluoroarylsulfonimides and alcohols, enabling the efficient synthesis of important α-amino-α-aryl ketones from readily available starting materials via a single operation. During this process, the highly regioselective nitrogen-centred radical addition to internal and terminal alkynes generating vinyl radicals and the next explicit migration of aryl group from the nitrogen source lead the following efficient desulfonylation, oxygenation, and semi-pinacol rearrangement. In addition, the semi-pinacol rearrangement precursors, α-alkyloxyl-α,α-diaryl imines, could also be efficiently obtained under milder conditions. This methodology might open a new entry for designing intermolecular radical cascade reaction of alkynes. PMID:25901840

  5. Benzyl alcohol oxidation in supercritical carbon dioxide: spectroscopic insight into phase behaviour and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Caravati, Matteo; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-01-21

    Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with molecular oxygen over an alumina-supported palladium catalyst was performed with high rate at about 95% selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor showed that the pressure has a strong influence on the reaction rate. A marked increase of the rate (turnover frequency) from 900 h(-1) to 1800 h(-1) was observed when increasing the pressure from 140 to 150 bar. Video monitoring of the bulk fluid phase behavior and the simultaneous investigation by transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy at two positions of the view cell showed that the sharp increase in activity is correlated to a transition from a biphasic to a monophasic reaction mixture. In the single phase region, both oxygen and benzyl alcohol are dissolved in the supercritical CO2 phase, which leads to a reduction of the mass transport resistances (both in the external fluid film and in the catalyst pores) and thus to the high reaction rate measured in the catalytic experiments. The phase transition could be effectively and easily monitored by transmission and ATR-IR spectroscopy despite the small concentration of the dense liquid like phase. Deposition of the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst on the ATR-crystal at the bottom of the view cell allowed to gain insight into the chemical changes and mass transfer processes occurring in the solid/liquid interface region during reaction. Analyzing the shift of the upsilon2 bending mode of CO2 gave information on the fluid composition in and outside the catalyst pores. Moreover, the catalytic reaction could be investigated in situ in this spectroscopic batch reactor cell by monitoring simultaneously the reaction progress, the phase behaviour and the catalytic interface. PMID:19785149

  6. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  7. Examining a social reaction model in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    The prototype willingness model (PWM; Gerrard et al., 2008) is a modified dual-processing model designed to improve the predictive value of existing health risk behavior by suggesting that there are two pathways to health risk behaviors: a reasoned path that is mediated by behavioral intention and a social reaction path that is mediated by behavioral willingness. Although there is evidence supporting the social reaction path to risk behavior among adolescents, most of this work has focused on specific components of the pathway such as prototypes or willingness rather than looking at the entire social reaction pathway as a whole. As such, the primary goal of the present study was to determine whether the social reaction pathway has acceptable fit for a sample of adolescents using a longitudinal design. Results from 835 adolescents support the social reaction pathway of the PWM model when applied to adolescent alcohol use. Specifically, prototypes, perceived vulnerability, and norms predicted willingness to drink, which in turn predicted drinking behavior (drinks per week and peak number of drinks) over a period of 12months. As such, these findings suggest that the social reaction pathway of the PWM is applicable to adolescent drinkers, meaning that adolescent drinking behavior is based on a less planned and socially based decision process. PMID:27155242

  8. (100) facets of γ-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T≤473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ≥ 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated γ-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on γ-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  9. Economic analysis of alcohol production in Thailand and its implication on trade with Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Netayaraks, P.

    1983-01-01

    This research examined the economic feasibility of alcohol production from cassava, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum in 1981 and 1986, and evaluated the economic impact of alcohol production on agriculture output, prices and trade with Japan. Alcohol production from molasses and cassava would be competitive at current energy price levels. Sugarcane, in contrast, would be competitive only if energy prices are increased by 20%, but cassava would still be the preferred choice. The possibility of using cassava or sugarcane as energy feedstocks depends on specific location. Cassava would be used to produce alcohol in the northeast, while energy feedstocks for alcohol production in the central and eastern regions would be either cassava or sugarcane. Energy demand for alcohol as a blended fuel (20% alcohol and 80% gasoline) could be met if energy prices increase 5% above present levels. Complete substitution of alcohol for gasoline (pure fuel) would be possible only if energy prices are increased by 30%. Alcohol exports would be economically possible only after fuel domestic demand had been met. The impact of alcohol production on domestic crop demand, exports and prices depends on the potential alcohol demand and varies by crop.

  10. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes. PMID:7161848

  11. Reactions of uranium hexafluoride photolysis products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, John L.; Laguna, Glenn; Greiner, N. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper confirms that the ultraviolet photolysis reactions of UF6 in the B band spectral region is simple bond cleavage to UF5 and F. The photolysis products may either recombine to UF6 or the UF5 may dimerize, and ultimately polymerize, to solid UF5 particles. We use four methods to set an upper limit for the rate constant for recombination of kr<2.0×10-12cm3 molecule-1 s-1. We measure the rate constant for UF5 dimerization to be kd=(1.0±0.2)×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The principal method employed in these studies is the use of diode lasers to monitor, in real time, the changes in density of the species UF6 and UF5 after laser photolysis of the UF6 gas sample.

  12. Effect of. gamma. -ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-11-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with ..gamma.. rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, ..gamma.. irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10).

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Investigating the Nature of Palladium Chain-Walking in the Enantioselective Redox-Relay Heck Reaction of Alkenyl Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of the redox-relay Heck reaction was investigated using deuterium-labeled substrates. Results support a pathway through a low energy palladium–alkyl intermediate that immediately precedes product formation, ruling out a tautomerization mechanism. DFT calculations of the relevant transition structures at the M06/LAN2DZ+f/6-31+G* level of theory show that the former pathway is favored by 5.8 kcal/mol. Palladium chain-walking toward the alcohol, following successive β-hydride eliminations and migratory insertions, is also supported in this study. The stereochemistry of deuterium labels is determined, lending support that the catalyst remains bound to the substrate during the relay process and that both cis- and trans-alkenes form from β-hydride elimination. PMID:25186804

  15. Thermodynamically Favorable Synthesis of 2-Oxazolidinones through Silver-Catalyzed Reaction of Propargylic Alcohols, CO2, and 2-Aminoethanols.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Mei-Yan; Zhang, Kan; Liu, Ping; Xun, Jia-Yao; He, Liang-Nian

    2016-08-23

    Development of catalytic routes to incorporate CO2 into carbonyl compounds at mild conditions remains attractive and challenging. Herein, a one-pot three-component cascade reaction of terminal propargylic alcohols, CO2 , and 2-aminoethanols through Ag(I) -based catalysis is reported for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds through C-O/C-N bond formation. This thermodynamically favorable route can be ingeniously regulated to afford a wide range of 2-oxazolidinones along with concurrent production of α-hydroxyl ketone derivatives in excellent yields and selectivity. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that such a process proceeds through successive formation of α-alkylidene cyclic carbonate, β-oxopropylcarbamate, and 2-oxazolidinones. PMID:27380740

  16. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Toru

    2015-10-15

    We report on our recent study of the the neutrino-nucleon reaction in the nucleon resonance region. The dynamical reaction model of meson production reaction on the nucleon for the pion and photon induced reaction has been developed in order to investigate the spectrum of nucleon excited state. We have extended this model in order to describe the weak meson production reactions with the πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ and ππN final states. We also studied the role of the final state interaction in the photon and the neutrino induced pion production reaction on the deuteron around the Δ(1232) resonance region.

  17. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    in the case, than the same volume of ethanol-water mixture can be prepared. The renewal of alcohol, the alcohol-water mixture is then passed through the catalytic reformer into a preheater. The exhaust gas contains a relatively large number of carbon monoxide, which would spoil the fuel cell, so the carbon monoxide concentration to a high and a low temperature water-gas reaction is reduced. This increases the hydrogen production. The last step of the carbon monoxide content to eliminate preferential oxidation. The alcohol reforming catalyst for the precious metals spread most of what arose from high activity and stability. However, the precious metals are very expensive, so a non-precious metal catalysts is the design and development of objective activity and stability which reaches the precious metal catalysts of. Using the new reaction catalysts opportunities are created, which are smaller than the activation energy than the non-catalytic process. The basic objective of the technological developments more active at lower temperatures, the selective target product, long-life, low cost design catalysts.

  18. Rotational spectral studies of O(1D) insertion reactions with methane and ethylene: Methanol and vinyl alcohol in a supersonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Wehres, Nadine; DePrince, Bridget Alligood; Roy, Althea A. M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    We report a new apparatus for millimeter/submillimeter spectroscopic studies of O(1D) insertion reactions to produce molecules of astrophysical interest. This study focuses on the insertion of O(1D) into methane to form methanol, and the insertion of O(1D) into ethylene to form vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH). The O(1D) was produced via laser photodissociation of O3 in a fused silica tube and mixed with a hydrocarbon before a supersonic expansion. Direct absorption millimeter/submillimeter spectroscopy was used to monitor the products. The methanol study was used as an experimental benchmark, while the vinyl alcohol study extended rotational spectroscopic measurements to higher frequencies. Observed products from both insertion reactions included, but were not limited to, H2CO, HO2, and CH3O. Methanol and vinyl alcohol were only produced in detectable quantities when the fused silica tube was included, indicating that collisions before the expansion are required for production and stabilization of the O(1D) insertion products.

  19. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J.-M.

    2012-12-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostics and also chemical analysis. The arc is formed between two electrodes made of graphite. We first present results on plasma-steam reforming of alcohols and bio-oils mixed in water. The outlet gas compositions are given from various alcohols and-bio-oils obtained at different experimental conditions. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a direct plasma treatment of wood (beech) at laboratory scale. One of the electrodes is surrounded by wood. The final part of the paper is a general discussion about efficiencies and comparisons of plasma treatments presented. The results obtained are discussed by considering the steam reforming reactions and the water gas shift reaction.

  20. A novel one-pot and one-step microwave-assisted cyclization-methylation reaction of amino alcohols and acetylated derivatives with dimethyl carbonate and TBAC.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Guerrero, Leticia; Rivero, Ignacio A

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for the synthesis of 4-substituted-3-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones from amino alcohols catalyzed by a ionic liquid was developed. This novel one-pot and one-step cyclization-methylation reaction represents an easier and faster method than any other reported protocols that can be used to obtain the desired products in good yields and high purity. Applying microwave irradiation at 130°C in the presence of TBAC, dimethyl carbonate acts simultaneously as carbonylating and methylating agent and surprisingly promotes an in situ basic trans esterification when a N-acetylated amino alcohol is used as starting material. Furthermore, dimethyl carbonate worked better than diethyl carbonate in performing this reaction. PMID:25692177

  1. A Novel One-Pot and One-Step Microwave-Assisted Cyclization-Methylation Reaction of Amino Alcohols and Acetylated Derivatives with Dimethyl Carbonate and TBAC

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Guerrero, Leticia; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for the synthesis of 4-substituted-3-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones from amino alcohols catalyzed by a ionic liquid was developed. This novel one-pot and one-step cyclization-methylation reaction represents an easier and faster method than any other reported protocols that can be used to obtain the desired products in good yields and high purity. Applying microwave irradiation at 130°C in the presence of TBAC, dimethyl carbonate acts simultaneously as carbonylating and methylating agent and surprisingly promotes an in situ basic trans esterification when a N-acetylated amino alcohol is used as starting material. Furthermore, dimethyl carbonate worked better than diethyl carbonate in performing this reaction. PMID:25692177

  2. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Huang, Wei-wei; Xu, Yong; Liu, Lu; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-02-01

    A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas, derived from the biomass gasification. The Cu1Co1Fe1Mo1Zn0.5-6%K catalyst exhibited a higher activity on the space-time yield of mixed alcohols, compared with the other Mo-based catalysts. The carbon conversion significantly increases with rising temperature below 340 °C, but the alcohol selectivity has an opposite trend. The maximum mixed alcohols yield derived from biomass gasification is 494.8 g/(kgcatal·h) with the C2+ (C2—C6 higher alcohols) alcohols of 80.4% under the tested conditions. The alcohol distributions are consistent with the Schulz-Flory plots, except methanol. In the alcohols products, the C2+ alcohols (higher alcohols) dominate with a weight ratio of 70%-85%. The Mo-based catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption/desorption. The clean bio-fules of mixed alcohols derived from bio-syngas with higher octane values could be used as transportation fuels or petrol additives.

  3. Identifying genes that impact on aroma profiles produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the production of higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-08-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, many volatile aroma compounds are formed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including esters, fatty acids, and higher alcohols. While the metabolic network that leads to the formation of these compounds is reasonably well mapped, surprisingly little is known about specific enzymes involved in specific reactions, the regulation of the network, and the physiological roles of individual pathways within the network. Furthermore, different yeast strains tend to produce significantly different aroma profiles. These differences are of tremendous biotechnological interest, since producers of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer are searching for means to diversify and improve their product range. Various factors such as the redox, energy, and nutritional balance of a cell have previously been suggested to directly or indirectly affect and regulate the network. To gain a better understanding of the regulations and physiological role of this network, we screened a subset of the EUROSCARF strain deletion library for genes that, when deleted, would impact most significantly on the aroma profile produced under fermentative conditions. The 10 genes whose deletion impacted most significantly on higher alcohol production were selected and further characterized to assess their mode of action within or on this metabolic network. This is the first description of a large-scale screening approach using aroma production as the primary selection criteria, and the data suggest that many of the identified genes indeed play central and direct roles within the aroma production network of S. cerevisiae. PMID:21547456

  4. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  5. Some economic implications of the utilization of alcohol for the production of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The production rate of ethanol per unit of land was examined for different crops and the order of magnitude of the costs was calculated. Alcohol production programs in Brazil, Thailand and Sudan are described.

  6. From a Sequential to a Concurrent Reaction in Aqueous Medium: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Allylic Alcohol Isomerization and Asymmetric Bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Liardo, Elisa; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2016-07-18

    The ruthenium-catalyzed redox isomerization of allylic alcohols was successfully coupled with the enantioselective enzymatic ketone reduction (mediated by KREDs) in a concurrent process in aqueous medium. The overall transformation, formally the asymmetric reduction of allylic alcohols, took place with excellent conversions and enantioselectivities, under mild reaction conditions, employing commercially and readily available catalytic systems, and without external coenzymes or cofactors. Optimization resulted in a multistep approach and a genuine cascade reaction where the metal catalyst and biocatalyst coexist from the beginning. PMID:27258838

  7. Suitability of the hydrocarbon-hydroxylating molybdenum-enzyme ethylbenzene dehydrogenase for industrial chiral alcohol production.

    PubMed

    Tataruch, M; Heider, J; Bryjak, J; Nowak, P; Knack, D; Czerniak, A; Liesiene, J; Szaleniec, M

    2014-12-20

    The molybdenum/iron-sulfur/heme protein ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EbDH) was successfully applied to catalyze enantiospecific hydroxylation of alkylaromatic and alkylheterocyclic compounds. The optimization of the synthetic procedure involves use of the enzyme in a crude purification state that saves significant preparation effort and is more stable than purified EbDH without exhibiting unwanted side reactions. Moreover, immobilization of the enzyme on a crystalline cellulose support and changes in reaction conditions were introduced in order to increase the amounts of product formed (anaerobic atmosphere, electrochemical electron acceptor recycling or utilization of ferricyanide as alternative electron acceptor in high concentrations). We report here on an extension of effective enzyme activity from 4h to more than 10 days and final product yields of up to 0.4-0.5g/l, which represent a decent starting point for further optimization. Therefore, we expect that the hydrocarbon-hydroxylation capabilities of EbDH may be developed into a new process of industrial production of chiral alcohols. PMID:24998764

  8. NMR Studies of Biomass and its Reaction Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass refers to biological material derived from living or recently living organisms, such as wood, agricultural products and wastes, and alcohol fuels. An increasingly popular R&D approach is to convert biomass into industrial polymers or chemicals. NMR is an excellent technique for the character...

  9. Kinetic and product composition study on the cellulose liquefaction in polyhydric alcohols.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Jingdan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Tiantian; Yang, Hongmin; Jiang, Jianchun; Jiang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-08-01

    The liquefaction process of cellulose in polyhydric alcohols (PEG 400 and glycerol) was studied by TG-FTIR. Three stages were observed during the solvolysis process and the main liquefaction stage could be further divided into two zones. The differences of liquefaction behavior of cellulose in the two solvents were compared, and the functional groups of volatiles produced by solvolysis were also evaluated. A step-wise procedure based on iso-conversional and Master-plots methods was used for the kinetic and mechanism analysis of the main liquefaction stage. The calculation results based on the kinetic model were in agreement with the experimental data of the conversion rate. The kinetic parameters and mechanism functions between cellulose liquefaction in PEG400 and in glycerol were quite different, which verified that solvolysis behavior and reaction process were seriously influenced by solvent species. Finally, the detailed types of volatiles and product distribution were measured by Py-GC-MS. PMID:27155797

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of novel branched sugar alcohols mediated by the transglycosylation reaction of pullulan-hydrolyzing amylase II (TVA II) cloned from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Yoichiro; Oh, Keimei; Kon, Misaki; Yamamoto, Eri; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Adachi, Takashi; Abe, Tomomi; Tamogami, Shigeru; Fukushima, Jun; Inamoto, Tamio; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2011-09-27

    Transglycosylation reactions are useful for preserving a specific sugar structure during the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides. We have previously reported a panosyl unit transglycosylation reaction by pullulan-hydrolyzing amylase II (TVA II) cloned from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 (Tonozuka et al., Carbohydr. Res., 1994, 261, 157-162). The acceptor specificity of the TVA II transglycosylation reaction was investigated using pullulan as the donor and sugar alcohols as the acceptor. TVA II transferred the α-panosyl unit to the C-1 hydroxyl group of meso-erythritol, C-1 and C-2 of xylitol, and C-1 and C-6 of d-sorbitol. TVA II differentiated between the sugar alcohols' hydroxyl groups to produce five novel non-reducing branched oligosaccharides, 1-O-α-panosylerythritol, 1-O-α-panosylxylitol, 2-O-α-panosylxylitol, 1-O-α-panosylsorbitol, and 6-O-α-panosylsorbitol. The Trp(356)→Ala mutant showed similar transglycosylation reactions; however, panose production by the mutant was 4.0-4.5-fold higher than that of the wild type. This suggests that Trp(356) is important for recognizing both water and the acceptor molecules in the transglycosylation and the hydrolysis reaction. PMID:21722879

  11. Production of C4 and C5 branched-chain alcohols by engineered Escherichia. coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jingliang; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xiao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Cuiyi; He, Minchao; Guo, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Higher alcohols, longer chain alcohols, contain more than 3 carbon atoms, showed close energy advantages as gasoline, and were considered as the next generation substitution for chemical fuels. Higher alcohol biosynthesis by native microorganisms mainly needs gene expression of heterologous keto acid decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenases. In the present study, branched-chain α-keto acid decarboxylase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CICC 6246 (Kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenases gene from Zymomonas mobilis CICC 41465 (AdhB) were transformed into Escherichia coli for higher alcohol production. SDS-PAGE results showed these two proteins were expressed in the recombinant strains. The resulting strain was incubated in LB medium at 37 °C in Erlenmeyer flasks and much more 3-methyl-1-butanol (104 mg/L) than isobutanol (24 mg/L) was produced. However, in 5 g/L glucose-containing medium, the production of two alcohols was similar, 156 and 161 mg/L for C4 (isobutanol) and C5 (3-methyl-1-butanol) alcohol, respectively. Effects of fermentation factors including temperature, glucose content, and α-keto acid on alcohol production were also investigated. The increase of glucose content and the adding of α-keto acids facilitated the production of C4 and C5 alcohols. The enzyme activities of pure Kivd on α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate were 26.77 and 21.24 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Due to its ability on decarboxylation of α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate, the recombinant E. coli strain showed potential application on isoamyl alcohol and isobutanol production. PMID:26350079

  12. Large-scale alcohol production from corn, grain sorghum, and crop residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, A.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The potential impacts that large-scale alcohol production from corn, grain sorghum, and crop residues may have on US agriculture in the year 2000 are investigated. A one-land-group interregional linear-programming model is used. The objective function is to minimize the cost of production in the agricultural sector, given specified crop demands and constrained resources. The impacts that levels of alcohol production, ranging from zero to 12 billion gallons, have at two projected levels of crop demands, two grain-to-alcohol conversion and two milling methods, wet and dry, rates are considered. The impacts that large-scale fuel alcohol production has on US agriculture are small. The major impacts that occur are the substitution of milling by-products, DDG, gluten feed, and gluten meal, for soybean meal in livestock feed rations. Production of 12 billion gallons of alcohol is estimated to be equivalent to an 18 percent increase in crop exports. Improving the grain-to-alcohol conversion rate from 2.6 to 3.0 gallons per bushels reduces the overall cost of agricultural production by $989 billion when 12 billion gallons of alcohol are produced.

  13. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action. PMID:26751438

  14. Sustainable synthesis of aldehydes, ketones or acids from neat alcohols using nitrogen dioxide gas, and related reactions.

    PubMed

    Naimi-Jamal, M Reza; Hamzeali, Hamideh; Mokhtari, Javad; Boy, Jürgen; Kaupp, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Benzylic alcohols are quantitatively oxidized by gaseous nitrogen dioxide to give pure aromatic aldehydes. The reaction gas mixtures are transformed to nitric acid, which renders the processes free of waste. The exothermic gas-liquid or gas-solid reactions profit from the solubility of nitrogen dioxide in the neat benzylic alcohols. The acid formed impedes further oxidation of the benzaldehydes. The neat isolated benzaldehydes and nitrogen dioxide quantitatively give the benzoic acids. Solid long-chain primary alcohols are directly and quantitatively oxidized with nitrogen dioxide gas to give the fatty acids in the solid state. The oxidations with ubiquitous nitrogen dioxide are extended to solid heterocyclic thioamides, which gives disulfides, and to diphenylamine, which gives tetraphenylhydrazine. These sustainable (green) specific oxidation procedures produce no dangerous residues from the oxidizing agent or from auxiliaries. PMID:19115303

  15. 77 FR 35747 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...) published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11624) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices dated, September 17, 1993 (58 FR 48705). DATES... Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A Qualified Products List of Evidential Breath Measurement Devices comprised...

  16. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... calibrating units for breath alcohol testers to Model Specifications for such devices (49 FR 48865) and to... found to conform to the 1994 amended Model Specifications (59 FR 67377) when tested at alcohol... Products List (CPL) published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2007 (72 FR 34747) for devices...

  17. Alcohol Fuels Production, Manpower, and Education: Where Do Two-Year Colleges Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James R.

    The Energy Communications Center (ECC) has sponsored a number of alcohol fuels activities designed to share information about alcohol fuels with two-year college faculty and administrators and to clarify the manpower and curriculum issues related to fuel production. This paper is the result of the last of these activities, a one-day meeting of…

  18. Cross-hetero-dehydrogenative coupling reaction of phosphites: a catalytic metal-free phosphorylation of amines and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Dhineshkumar, Jayaraman; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2013-12-01

    Phosphorylation of amines, alcohols, and sulfoximines are accomplished using molecular iodine as a catalyst and H2O2 as the sole oxidant under mild reaction conditions. This method provides an easy route for synthesizing a variety of phosphoramidates, phosphorus triesters and sulfoximine-derived phosphoramidates which are of biological importance. PMID:24219013

  19. Pd@[nBu₄][Br] as a Simple Catalytic System for N-Alkylation Reactions with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Cacciuttolo, Bastien; Pascu, Oana; Aymonier, Cyril; Pucheault, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles, simply and briefly generated in commercial and cheap onium salts using supercritical carbon dioxide, have been found to be an effective catalytic system for additive free N-alkylation reaction using alcohols via cascade oxidation/condensation/reduction steps. PMID:27517898

  20. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthsis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The WVU plug-flow microreactor system is now complete. Screening runs with this system will commence. Computer control is being installed in the second WVU unit. Additional hardware has been suggested for this system so that it can be used either to screen additional catalysts or to obtain kinetic data on selected catalyst samples. Synthetic preparations and characterizations of molybdenum-based sulfide and nitride catalysts are ongoing. Modelling studies are continuing satisfactorily. A more detailed model of the reaction kinetics, to account for individual alcohols rather than a lumped highter-alcohol, has been inserted into the model of a plug-flow reactor. A solution methodology to maximize the profitability of alcohol production, separation and blending has been developed. The temperatures, pressures, flowrates, and key component recoveries in the separation steps are the optimization variables. The probability of this process becoming economically feasible in the near future appears to be extremely small given the low return on capital investment associated with the production of alcohol from coal. If coal derived alcohols are to become alternative transportation fuels, then the capital cost associated with the process must be reduced, specifically the cost of the gasifiers, or significant changes need to be made in the composition of the mixed alcohol product. A methodology for performing Monte Carlo studies to determine quantitatively the uncertainties relevant to future decisions to build an alcohol-fuels plant is still being developed.

  1. Reactions of lignin peroxidase compounds I and II with veratryl alcohol. Transient-state kinetic characterization.

    PubMed

    Wariishi, H; Huang, J; Dunford, H B; Gold, M H

    1991-11-01

    Stopped-flow techniques were utilized to investigate the kinetics of the reaction of lignin peroxidase compounds I and II (LiPI and LiPII) with veratryl alcohol (VA). All rate data were collected from single turnover experiments under pseudo first-order conditions. The reaction of LiPI with VA strictly obeys second-order kinetics over the pH range 2.72-5.25 as demonstrated by linear plots of the pseudo first-order rate constants versus concentrations of VA. The second-order rate constants are strongly dependent on pH and range from 2.62 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 (pH 2.72) to 1.45 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 (pH 5.25). The reaction of LiPII and VA exhibits saturation behavior when the observed pseudo first-order rate constants are plotted against VA concentrations. The saturation phenomenon is quantitatively explained by the formation of a 1:1 LiPII-substrate complex. Results of kinetic and rapid scan spectral analyses exclude the formation of a LiPII-VA cation radical complex. The first-order dissociation rate constant and the equilibrium dissociation constant for the LiPII reaction are also pH dependent. Binding of VA to LiPII is controlled by a heme-linked ionizable group of pKa approximately 4.2. The pH profiles of the second-order rate constants for the LiPI reaction and of the first-order dissociation constants for the LiPII reaction both demonstrate two pKa values at approximately 3.0 and approximately 4.2. Protonated oxidized enzyme intermediates are most active, suggesting that only electron transfer, not proton uptake from the reducing substrate, occurs at the enzyme active site. These results are consistent with the one-electron oxidation of VA to an aryl cation radical by LiPI and LiPII. PMID:1939119

  2. Availability of tobacco and alcohol products in Los Angeles community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Corelli, Robin L; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-02-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists' Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  3. Availability of Tobacco and Alcohol Products in Los Angeles Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  4. Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Meshbesher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

  5. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  6. Reactions to alcohol-related marital violence. Effects of one's own abuse experience and alcohol problems on causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, B

    1983-07-01

    Differences in the amount of responsibility attributed to fictional abusing and abused spouses who were either intoxicated or sober by alcoholics with differences in spouse-abuse histories and other characteristics are discussed in terms of attribution theory and the just-world hypothesis. PMID:6632884

  7. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Brewing industry potential for the immediate and near-term production of fuel-grade ethyl alcohol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mulloney, J.A. Jr.

    1980-04-15

    The brewing industry is described as it relates to productive facilities and potential for fuel grade ethyl alcohol production. The brewing process is compared to the fuel grade ethyl alcohol process in a brewery. A description is given for retrofitting a brewery as a distilled spirits plant. The following are included: estimated capital requirements and alcohol costs, targets of opportunity, barriers and actions affecting brewery production of ethyl alcohol, suggested action programs, and recommended program activities. (MHR)

  9. Continuous Flow Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation Reactions Using a Heterogeneous Ru(OH)x/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ru(OH)x/Al2O3 is among the more versatile catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation and dehydrogenation of nitrogen heterocycles. Here, we describe the translation of batch reactions to a continuous-flow method that enables high steady-state conversion and single-pass yields in the oxidation of benzylic alcohols and dehydrogenation of indoline. A dilute source of O2 (8% in N2) was used to ensure that the reaction mixture, which employs toluene as the solvent, is nonflammable throughout the process. A packed bed reactor was operated isothermally in an up-flow orientation, allowing good liquid–solid contact. Deactivation of the catalyst during the reaction was modeled empirically, and this model was used to achieve high conversion and yield during extended operation in the aerobic oxidation of 2-thiophene methanol (99+% continuous yield over 72 h). PMID:25620869

  10. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas. PMID:16180408

  11. Alcohol fuels: production. September 1985-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 75 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  13. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  14. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  15. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  16. From allylic alcohols to aldols by using iron carbonyls as catalysts: computational study on a novel tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction.

    PubMed

    Branchadell, Vicenç; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2004-11-01

    The tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction between allyl alcohol and formaldehyde mediated by [Fe(CO)3] was studied with the density functional B3LYP method. Starting from the key [(enol)Fe(CO)3] complex, several reaction paths for the reaction with formaldehyde were explored. The results show that the most favorable reaction path involves first an enol/allyl alcohol ligand-exchange process followed by direct condensation of formaldehyde with the free enol. During this process, formation of the new C-C bond takes place simultaneously with a proton transfer between the enol and the aldehyde. Therefore, the role of [Fe(CO)3] is to catalyze the allyl alcohol to enol isomerization affording the free enol, which adds to the aldehyde in a carbonyl-ene type reaction. Similar results were obtained for the reaction between allyl alcohol and acetaldehyde. PMID:15472940

  17. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  18. Reaction rate and products for the reaction O/3P/ + H2CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J. S.; Barker, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of reaction kinetics of O + H2CO in a discharge-flow system using mass spectrometric detection of reactants and products is presented. It was performed under both oxygen-atom-rich and formaldehyde-rich conditions over the 296 to 437 K range, showing that the global bimolecular rate constant is in agreement with other studies. This study differs from others in that the reaction products can be observed, and a substantial yield of a primary reaction product was measured with a mass spectral peak at m/e=44. This suggests that the global reaction rate probably consists of combination, as well as of simple abstraction. For the combination, one hypothesis is that triplet dioxymethylene is formed which polymerizes to triplet formic acid; the vibrationally excited triplet formic acid may decompose to form several sets of products, including HCO + OH and HCO2 + H.

  19. Exploiting the reversibility of natural product glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Griffith, Byron R; Fu, Qiang; Albermann, Christoph; Fu, Xun; Lee, In-Kyoung; Li, Lingjun; Thorson, Jon S

    2006-09-01

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs), an essential class of ubiquitous enzymes, are generally perceived as unidirectional catalysts. In contrast, we report that four glycosyltransferases from two distinct natural product biosynthetic pathways-calicheamicin and vancomycin-readily catalyze reversible reactions, allowing sugars and aglycons to be exchanged with ease. As proof of the broader applicability of these new reactions, more than 70 differentially glycosylated calicheamicin and vancomycin variants are reported. This study suggests the reversibility of GT-catalyzed reactions may be general and useful for generating exotic nucleotide sugars, establishing in vitro GT activity in complex systems, and enhancing natural product diversity. PMID:16946071

  20. Household production of alcoholic beverages in early eighteenth-century Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Saracino, M E

    1985-05-01

    In light of the recent controversy concerning the applicability of the household economy model to early American history, this study examines the case of alcoholic beverages produced in the households of early-eighteenth-century Connecticut. All probate inventories from Hartford, New London and Fairfield counties for 1700, 1710, 1720, 1730 and 1740 (a total of 274 inventories) were examined with a checklist of items (e.g., hops, malt, cider presses and stills) crucial to the production of alcoholic beverages during that period. The presence of these beverages themselves was also noted. Of the inventories read, 133 (49%) suggested that beverage making took place in the household. The three counties sampled showed surprisingly little deviation in the percentages of inventories suggesting alcohol production and in the preferences for specific types of drinks. Of all inventories bearing references to alcohol production, beer brewing was indicated in 83% and cider in only 55%--despite the traditional opinion of cider's predominance. The independence of cider entries from the seasonal bias of the inventories was also demonstrated. These findings, insofar as they show the pervasiveness of alcohol production within the households inventoried, thus argue strongly for the validity of the household economy model. Some implications of this model for alcohol studies are also discussed. PMID:3892167

  1. Hydrothermal energy: a source of energy for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    A small scale (1 gal/hr) biomass-to-alcohol still was built at the Raft River Geothermal Site to investigate difficulties in geothermal assisted biomass conversion. The unit was successfully operated, producing 95% (190 proof) ethanol from sugar beet juice. The unit was designed and built in less than eight weeks from surplus equipment using commercially available design information. This small-scale still demonstrated that 95% ethanol can be produced from sugar beet beer containing 8 to 10% alcohol using geothermal energy and present commercial technology. The geothermal resource provided both an energy source and process water. Recently, Bechtel National, Incorporated, of San Francisco, California completed a study to analyze the economic feasibility of producing ethanol from potatoes, wheat, and sugar beets using geothermal resources available in the Raft River Region of Idaho. The study concluded that a 20 million gallon per year facility can be built that will supply alcohol at $1.78 per gallon using geothermal energy. (MHR)

  2. Synthesis of Allenyl Sulfones via a TBHP/TBAI-Mediated Reaction of Propargyl Alcohols with Sulfonyl Hydrazides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Hao, Wen-Juan; Wang, Shu-Liang; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guigen; Tu, Shu-Jiang

    2015-09-18

    A new TBHP/TBAI-mediated reaction of propargyl alcohols with sulfonyl hydrazides in the presence of HOAc has been established, in which a wide variety of allenyl sulfones were obtained in moderate to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies indicate that this transformation involves HOAc-promoted sulfonohydrazide intermediate formation, sequential C-O, C-N, and N-S bond cleavage, and C-S bond formation. Significantly, this sulfonohylation proceeds in a radical process and shows highly functional group compatibility and excellent regioselectivity, with a short reaction time and inexpensive reagents. PMID:26280445

  3. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of oximes with allylic alcohols: synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meifang; Chen, Pengquan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-01-01

    We describe herein a palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of O-acetyl ketoximes and allylic alcohols to synthesise pyridines. This protocol allows the robust synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones in good to excellent yields with tolerance of various functional groups under mild conditions. The reaction is supposed to go through an oxidative addition of oximes to palladium(0) complexes, generating an alkylideneamino-palladium(II) species, which is utilized as a key intermediate to capture the nonbiased alkenes for carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:26496814

  4. Kinetic study of the gas phase reactions of a series of alcohols with the NO3 radical.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alberto; Salgado, M Sagrario; Martín, M Pilar; Martínez, Ernesto; Cabañas, Beatriz

    2012-10-25

    The rate coefficients for the reaction of NO(3) radical with 2-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanol, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol were determined using relative rate technique in a 50 L glass pyrex photoreactor using in situ FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and a pressure of 350-670 Torr. The rate coefficient for the reaction of 2-methyl-2-butanol with NO(3) radical was also determined using, in this case, GC/MS. The rate coefficients calculated (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were (2.51 ± 0.42) × 10(-15), (3.06 ± 0.52) × 10(-15), (2.67 ± 0.3) × 10(-15), and (1.57 ± 0.16) × 10(-15), respectively. Results indicate that the reaction occurs by an initial H-abstraction of the alcohols by the NO(3) radical and that NO(3) is more reactive toward a H atom attached to a tertiary carbon than that attached to a secondary or primary carbon. Results are also discussed as related to their homologous structural alkanes and in comparison with the reactivity of other atmospheric oxidants. Atmospheric relevance of the considered reactions is evaluated, concluding that they are potential ozone generators, they have no significant influence on global warming, and the dominant atmospheric loss process for these alcohols is their daytime reaction with OH radicals. PMID:23030849

  5. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Youngquist, J. Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H.; Rose, Joshua P.; Raines, Thomas C.; Politz, Mark C.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol / g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli. PMID:24141053

  6. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  7. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  8. Kinetics, mechanisms and products of reactions of Criegee intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    The atmospheric ozonolysis of alkenes such as isoprene produces Criegee intermediates which are increasingly recognized as important contributors to oxidation chemistry in the Earth's troposphere. Stabilized Criegee intermediates are conveniently produced in the laboratory by ultraviolet photolysis of diiodoalkanes in the presence of O2, and can be detected by absorption spectroscopy using their strong electronic bands in the near ultraviolet region. We have used these techniques to study a wide range of reactions of Criegee intermediates, including their self-reactions, and reactions with carboxylic acids and various other trace atmospheric constituents. In collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory group led by Drs C.A. Taatjes and D.L. Osborn, we have used photoionization and mass spectrometry methods, combined with electronic structure calculations, to characterize the products of several of these reactions. Our laboratory studies determine rate coefficients for the Criegee intermediate reactions, many of which prove to be fast. In the case of reactions with carboxylic acids, a correlation between the dipole moments of the reactants and the reaction rate coefficients suggests a dipole-capture controlled reaction and allows us to propose a structure-activity relationship to predict the rates of related processes. The contributions of these various Criegee intermediate reactions to the chemistry of the troposphere have been assessed using the STOCHEM-CRI global atmospheric chemistry model. This work was supported by NERC grant NE/K004905/1.

  9. Studies on production of alcoholic beverages from some tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Mishra, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    The varieties of alcoholic beverages from watermelon; watermelon-banana and watermelon-pineapple mixtures were produced by using monoculture and mixed culture fermentation techniques. Three yeast species, namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kleochera apicalata, Torulospora delbruckii and four bacterial species Leuconostoc oenos, Lactobacillus Sp, Micrococcus luteus and Streptococcus lactis were identified during the study. The daily succession of these organisms in the various fermenting samples differed in cell mass and occurrence due to their different growth conditions and factors present. A higher bacterial load (3.9 ± 0.2-4.4 ± 0.3) log (cfu) ml(-1) than yeast (2.8 ± 00-4.6 ± 0.4) log (cfu) ml(-1) counts was observed in the mixed culture fermentation, while in the monoculture fermentation, a higher yeast load (4.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.2) log (cfu) ml(-1) than bacterial loads (2.7 ± 0.1-4.1 ± 0.3) log (cfu) ml(-1) counts was recovered. The results obtained from the present study indicated that monoculture-fermented beverages were of better quality as compared to the mixed culture fermented ones. The monoculture-fermented beverage from watermelon-pineapple mixture was ranked as the best alcoholic beverage based on sensory evaluation score. PMID:22815578

  10. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  11. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3–C10 alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Lamsen, Edna N.; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-01-01

    The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher-chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol) are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel. PMID:22701113

  12. Hydrogen production from alcohol reforming in a microwave ‘tornado’-type plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarova, E.; Bundaleska, N.; Dias, F. M.; Tsyganov, D.; Saavedra, R.; Ferreira, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation of microwave plasma-assisted reforming of different alcohols is presented. A microwave (2.45 GHz) ‘tornado’-type plasma with a high-speed tangential gas injection (swirl) at atmospheric pressure is applied to decompose alcohol molecules, namely methanol, ethanol and propanol, and to produce hydrogen-rich gas. The reforming efficiency is investigated both in Ar and Ar+ water vapor plasma environments. The hydrogen yield dependence on the partial alcohol flux is analyzed. Mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to detect the outlet gas products from the decomposition process. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and solid carbon are the main decomposition by-products. A significant increase in the hydrogen production rate is observed with the addition of a small amount of water. Furthermore, optical emission spectroscopy is applied to detect the radiation emitted by the plasma and to estimate the gas temperature and electron density.

  13. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  14. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  15. Hydrogenolysis of cellulose to C4-C7 alcohols over bi-functional CuO-MO/Al2O3 (M=Ce, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn) catalysts coupled with methanol reforming reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Gu, Fangna; Xu, Guangwen; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2013-06-01

    This work demonstrates the efficient hydrogenolysis of cellulose to C4-C7 alcohols and gas products (reaction 1) by coupling it with the reforming reaction of methanol (reaction 2) over bi-functional CuO-based catalysts. In this process, the CuO-based catalysts catalyze both the reactions 1 and 2, and the in situ regenerated H2 in the reaction 2 is used for the reaction 1. A series of CuO-MO/Al2O3 (M=Ce, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn) catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method. Among these catalysts, CuO-ZnO/Al2O3 exhibited the highest activity to generate a high cellulose conversion of 88% and a high C4-C7 alcohols content above 95% in the liquid products. The CuO-ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was stable under the reaction conditions and reusable after 4 runs. This work provides a cost-effective route to convert abundant renewable cellulose to liquid fuels. PMID:23591118

  16. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination.

    PubMed

    Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahualá, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as "possibly carcinogenic" and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  17. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces hepatic TNFα production and inflammation in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Kirpich, Irina; Ma, Zhenhua; Wang, Cuiling; Zhang, Min; Suttles, Jill; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2013-09-01

    The therapeutic effects of probiotic treatment in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have been studied in both patients and experimental animal models. Although the precise mechanisms of the pathogenesis of ALD are not fully understood, gut-derived endotoxin has been postulated to play a crucial role in hepatic inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that probiotic therapy reduces circulating endotoxin derived from intestinal gram-negative bacteria in ALD. In this study, we investigated the effects of probiotics on hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production and inflammation in response to chronic alcohol ingestion. Mice were fed Lieber DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% alcohol for 8weeks, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was supplemented in the last 2 weeks. Eight-week alcohol feeding caused a significant increase in hepatic inflammation as shown by histological assessment and hepatic tissue myeloperoxidase activity assay. Two weeks of LGG supplementation reduced hepatic inflammation and liver injury and markedly reduced TNFα expression. Alcohol feeding increased hepatic mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and CYP2E1 and decreased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression. LGG supplementation attenuated these changes. Using human peripheral blood monocytes-derived macrophages, we also demonstrated that incubation with ethanol primes both lipopolysaccharide- and flagellin-induced TNFα production, and LGG culture supernatant reduced this induction in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LGG treatment also significantly decreased alcohol-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. In conclusion, probiotic LGG treatment reduced alcohol-induced hepatic inflammation by attenuation of TNFα production via inhibition of TLR4- and TLR5-mediated endotoxin activation. PMID:23618528

  18. [Treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis with a new acid-resistant pancreatin product].

    PubMed

    Kempelen, I; Szilárd, M

    1995-09-17

    The authors summarised pathophysiology and therapy possibility of the chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. They introduce a new product of pancreatin use for treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this prospective study was to asses the efficacy of this new drug in the treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. The treatment was carried out by new pancreatin product containing 10,000 FIP U lipase, 9000 FIP U amylase, and 500 FIP E protease. During the study 30 patients--suffering from alcoholic pancreatitis--were treated. They received, two tablets three times daily in a period of two weeks. The following parameters were observed and compared before and after the period of treatment: complaints of the patients, the characteristics of the stool (daily weight, frequency, fat contents, consistency) the change of the body weight and degree of abdominal pain. These parameters were compared using a score-system, before and after the period of treatment. The authors could analyse the data of 21 patients. It was proved that there was a significant decrease in frequency, daily weight and fat contents of the stool and in abdominal pain. There was not significant change in the body weight. The authors concluded that this new product is a good pancreatin preparation which is useful and suitable for effective treatment of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, if the patient keeps abstinence. PMID:7566938

  19. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... using any of these products. Some types of food may also cause adverse drug reactions. For example, grapefruit and grapefruit juice, as well as alcohol and caffeine, may affect how drugs work. Every time your doctor ... interactions with any foods or beverages. What about medicines I've used ...

  20. Acid-catalyzed reactions of hexanal on sulfuric acid particles: Identification of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Rebecca M.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Kincaid, Kristi; Beaver, Melinda R.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    While it is well established that organics compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass, the mechanisms through which organics are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols are not well understood. Acid-catalyzed reactions of compounds with carbonyl groups have recently been suggested as important pathways for transfer of volatile organics into acidic aerosols. In the present study, we use the aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to probe the uptake of gas-phase hexanal into ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols. While both deliquesced and dry non-acidic ammonium sulfate aerosols showed no organic uptake, the acidic aerosols took up substantial amounts of organic material when exposed to hexanal vapor. Further, we used 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and GC-MS to identify the products of the acid-catalyzed reaction of hexanal in acidic aerosols. Both aldol condensation and hemiacetal products were identified, with the dominant reaction products dependent upon the initial acid concentration of the aerosol. The aldol condensation product was formed only at initial concentrations of 75-96 wt% sulfuric acid in water. The hemiacetal was produced at all sulfuric acid concentrations studied, 30-96 wt% sulfuric acid in water. Aerosols up to 88.4 wt% organic/11.1 wt% H 2SO 4/0.5 wt% water were produced via these two dimerization reaction pathways. The UV-VIS spectrum of the isolated aldol condensation product, 2-butyl 2-octenal, extends into the visible region, suggesting these reactions may impact aerosol optical properties as well as aerosol composition. In contrast to previous suggestions, no polymerization of hexanal or its products was observed at any sulfuric acid concentration studied, from 30 to 96 wt% in water.

  1. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei: A search for new production reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2008-09-15

    Nuclear reactions leading to the formation of new superheavy (SH) elements and isotopes are discussed in the paper. 'Cold' and 'hot' synthesis, fusion of fission fragments, transfer reactions, and reactions with radioactive ion beams are analyzed along with their abilities and limitations. If the possibility of increasing the beam intensity and the detection efficiency (by a total of one order of magnitude) is found, then several isotopes of new elements with Z=120-124 could be synthesized in fusion reactions of titanium, chromium, and iron beams with actinide targets. The use of light- and medium-mass neutron-rich radioactive beams may help us fill the gap between the SH nuclei produced in the hot fusion reactions and the mainland. In these reactions, we may really approach the 'island of stability.' Such a possibility is also provided by the multinucleon transfer processes in low-energy damped collisions of heavy actinide nuclei. The production of SH elements in fusion reactions with accelerated fission fragments looks less encouraging.

  2. Alcohol and single-cell protein production by Kluyveromyces in concentrated whey permeates with reduced ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, M.M.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    Five Kluyveromyces yeasts were grown in concentrated whey permeates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to produce single-cell protein and ethanol. K. fragilis NRRL Y2415 produced the highest yield of alcohol, 9.1%, and K. bulgaricus ATCC 1605 gave the highest yield of biomass, 13.5 mg/mL. High ash, apparently through Na and K effects, inhibited production of biomass and alcohol. A 0.77% ash was optimum. Lactose utilization was more rapid under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and urea supplementation were without effect on yeast growth or were slightly inhibitory. A 1% peptone inclusion gave the highest biomass yield with minimum alcohol production.

  3. The health policy implications of international trade in alcohol and tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Powell, M

    1989-10-01

    The aim of national alcohol and tobacco preventive health policy is to reduce consumption in order to reduce harm. However, the level of domestic consumption depends upon the interaction of international demand and supply and the development of international trade policy. Trade policy may conflict with or act as a constraint on the implementation of preventive health policy. Trends in alcohol and tobacco trade and developments in international trade policy affecting these products are examined in this paper in relation to health policy goals. Economic models of the links between trade flows, quantities consumed and health effects are then outlined as a preliminary step towards identifying the complex interaction between alcohol and tobacco trade and production, consumption, health and welfare. It is shown that consideration of the economic trade links are an important factor in the development of international and domestic health policy. PMID:2819273

  4. Partner Pressure, Victimization History, and Alcohol: Women's Condom-Decision Abdication Mediated by Mood and Anticipated Negative Partner Reaction.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Staples, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Highly intoxicated versus sober women were evaluated using multi-group path analyses to test the hypothesis that sexual victimization history would interact with partner pressure to forgo condom use, resulting in greater condom-decision abdication-letting the man decide whether or not to use a condom. After beverage administration, community women (n = 408) projected themselves into a scenario depicting a male partner exerting high or low pressure for unprotected sex. Mood, anticipated negative reactions from the partner, and condom-decision abdication were assessed. In both control and alcohol models, high pressure increased anticipated negative partner reaction, and positive mood was associated with increased abdication. In the alcohol model, victimization predicted abdication via anticipated negative partner reaction, and pressure decreased positive mood and abdication. In the control model, under high pressure, victimization history severity was positively associated with abdication. Findings implicate condom-decision abdication as an important construct in understanding how women's sexual victimization histories may exert sustained impact on sexual interactions. PMID:26340952

  5. Fission-product SiC reaction in HTGR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, F.

    1981-07-13

    The primary barrier to release of fission product from any of the fuel types into the primary circuit of the HTGR are the coatings on the fuel particles. Both pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings are very effective in retaining fission gases under normal operating conditions. One of the possible performance limitations which has been observed in irradiation tests of TRISO fuel is chemical interaction of the SiC layer with fission products. This reaction reduces the thickness of the SiC layer in TRISO particles and can lead to release of fission products from the particles if the SiC layer is completely penetrated. The experimental section of this report describes the results of work at General Atomic concerning the reaction of fission products with silicon carbide. The discussion section describes data obtained by various laboratories and includes (1) a description of the fission products which have been found to react with SiC; (2) a description of the kinetics of silicon carbide thinning caused by fission product reaction during out-of-pile thermal gradient heating and the application of these kinetics to in-pile irradiation; and (3) a comparison of silicon carbide thinning in LEU and HEU fuels.

  6. Energy distribution among reaction products. VII - H + F2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Sloan, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'arrested relaxation' variant of the IR chemiluminescence technique is used in a study of the distribution of vibrational, rotational and translational energies between the products of the reaction by which H + F2 yields HF + F. Diagrams are plotted and numerical values are obtained for the energy distribution rate constants.

  7. CHLORINE DIOXIDE CHEMISTRY, REACTIONS, AND DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter contains two main sections-the first section describes the chemistry and reactions of chlorine dioxide, and the second describes the disinfection by-products (DBPs) of chlorine dioxide and their control. A short section on Research Needs completes this chapter. The...

  8. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  9. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingnan; Brigham, Christopher J; Gai, Claudia S; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2012-10-01

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. PMID:22864971

  10. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Gai, CS; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-08-04

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis.

  11. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of higher alcohol synthesis products from syngas.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robert; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven

    2012-07-20

    An on-line gas chromatographic (GC) system has been developed for rapid and accurate product analysis in catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of H₂ and CO) to alcohols, so called "higher alcohol synthesis (HAS)". Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols is an interesting second step in the route of converting coal, natural gas and possibly biomass to liquid alcohol fuel and chemicals. The presented GC system and method are developed for analysis of the products formed from syngas using alkali promoted MoS₂ catalysts, however it is not limited to these types of catalysts. During higher alcohol synthesis not only the wanted short alcohols (∼C₂-C₅) are produced, but also a great number of other products in smaller or greater amounts, they are mainly short hydrocarbons (olefins, paraffins, branched, non-branched), aldehydes, esters and ketones as well as CO₂, H₂O. Trace amounts of sulfur-containing compounds can also be found in the product effluent when sulfur-containing catalysts are used and/or sulfur-containing syngas is feed. In the presented GC system, most of them can be separated and analyzed within 60 min without the use of cryogenic cooling. Previously, product analysis in "higher alcohol synthesis" has in most cases been carried out partly on-line and partly off-line, where the light gases (gases at room temp) are analyzed on-line and liquid products (liquid at room temp) are collected in a trap for later analysis off-line. This method suffers from many drawbacks compared to a complete on-line GC system. In this paper an on-line system using an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD), together with an Agilent 6890 with sulfur chemiluminescence dual plasma detector (SCD) is presented. A two-dimensional GC system with Deans switch (heart-cut) and two capillary columns (HP-FFAP and HP-Al₂O₃) was used for analysis of the organic products on the FIDs. Light

  12. Biofuel production from crude palm oil with supercritical alcohols: comparative LCA studies.

    PubMed

    Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Teeravitud, Sunsanee; Piumsomboon, Pornpote; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2012-09-01

    A recent life cycle assessment (LCA) reported that biodiesel production in supercritical alcohols (SCA) produces a higher environmental load than the homogeneous catalytic process because an enormous amount of energy is required to recover excess alcohol. However, the excess alcohol could be dramatically reduced by increasing the operating temperature to 400°C; although the product would have to be considered as an alternative biofuel instead of biodiesel. A comparative LCA of the biodiesel production in two SCA at 300°C (C-SCA) and novel biofuel production in the same two SCA at 400°C (N-SCA) is presented. It was clear that the N-SCA process produces a dramatically reduced environmental load over that of the C-SCA process due to a lower amount of excess alcohol being used. The N-SCA process could be improved in terms of its environmental impact by changing from fossil fuel to biomass-based fuels for the steam generation. PMID:22776259

  13. Clocking Surface Reaction by In-Plane Product Rotation.

    PubMed

    Anggara, Kelvin; Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Chatterjee, Avisek; Cheng, Fang; Polanyi, John C

    2016-06-15

    Electron-induced reaction of physisorbed meta-diiodobenzene (mDIB) on Cu(110) at 4.6 K was studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and molecular dynamics theory. Single-electron dissociation of the first C-I bond led to in-plane rotation of an iodophenyl (IPh) intermediate, whose motion could be treated as a "clock" of the reaction dynamics. Alternative reaction mechanisms, successive and concerted, were observed giving different product distributions. In the successive mechanism, two electrons successively broke single C-I bonds; the first C-I bond breaking yielded IPh that rotated directionally by three different angles, with the second C-I bond breaking giving chemisorbed I atoms (#2) at three preferred locations corresponding to the C-I bond alignments in the prior rotated IPh configurations. In the concerted mechanism a single electron broke two C-I bonds, giving two chemisorbed I atoms; significantly these were found at angles corresponding to the C-I bond direction for unrotated mDIB. Molecular dynamics accounted for the difference in reaction outcomes between the successive and the concerted mechanisms in terms of the time required for the IPh to rotate in-plane; in successive reaction the time delay between first and second C-I bond-breaking events allowed the IPh to rotate, whereas in concerted reaction the computed delay between excitation and reaction (∼1 ps) was too short for molecular rotation before the second C-I bond broke. The dependence of the extent of motion at a surface on the delay between first and second bond breaking suggested a novel means to "clock" sub-picosecond dynamics by imaging the products arising from varying time delays between impacting pairs of electrons. PMID:27191189

  14. Surface-oxidized carbon black as a catalyst for the water oxidation and alcohol oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Suryanto, Bryan H R; Zhao, Chuan

    2016-05-11

    Carbon black (CB) is popularly used as a catalyst support for metal/metal oxide nanoparticles due to its large surface area, excellent conductivity and stability. Herein, we show that surface oxidized CB itself, after acidic treatment and electrochemical oxidation, exhibits significant catalytic activity for the electrochemical oxidation of water and alcohols. PMID:27097802

  15. Lignin biodegradation and the production of ethyl alcohol from cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    During the last few years our group has been engaged in developing a biochemical process for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethyl alcohol. Lignin is a barrier to complete cellulose saccharification in this process, but chemical and physical delignification steps are too expensive to be used at the present time. An enzymatic delignification process might be attractive for several reasons: little energy would be expected to be needed, enzymes could be recovered and reused, and useful chemicals might be produced from dissolved lignin. A number of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were examined for the ability to rapidly degrade lignocellulose in order to find an organism whcih produced an active lignin-degrading enzyme system. Chryosporium pruinosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum were found to be active lignocellulose degraders, and C. pruinosum was chosen for further study. Lignin and carbohydrate were degraded when the substrate remained moistened by, but not submerged in, the liquid medium. Attempts were made to demonstrate a cell-free lignin degrading system by both extraction and pressing of cultures grown on moist lignocellulose. Carbohydrate-degrading activity was found but not lignin-degrading activity. This led us to ask whether diffusible lignin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in this organism. The data indicate that the lignin degradation system, or one or more of its components, produced by this organism is either unstable, non-diffusible, or inactive at small distances (about 1 mm) from growing hyphae. At present, studies are being conducted using diffusion cultures to select mutants of C. pruinosum that do produce a diffusible lignin degradation system. We are also examining a number of mesophilic lignin-degrading molds for this ability.

  16. Metabolic transit and toxicity of Maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Finot, P A; Furniss, D E

    1989-01-01

    The feeding of Maillard reaction products (MRP) has been reported to lead to a variety of effects on metabolism which may be classed as "anti-nutritional" or "anti-physiological", depending on whether they are due to the loss of essential nutrients or to the presence of the MRP per se. This paper describes the sensitivity of essential nutrients in the "early" and "advanced" stages of the Maillard reaction, the metabolic transit of Amadori compounds, premelanoidins, melanoidins, hydroxymethyl-furfural, carboxymethyl-lysine, as well as the effects of MRP on pancreatic amylase and on urinary zinc excretion. PMID:2506565

  17. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  18. Thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard: Analysis of in vitro biotransformation by mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases using nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Brimfield, A.A.; Hodgson, Ernest

    2006-06-15

    Thiodiglycol (2,2'-bis-hydroxyethylsulfide, TDG), the hydrolysis product of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, has been implicated in the toxicity of sulfur mustard through the inhibition of protein phosphatases in mouse liver cytosol. The absence of any inhibitory activity when TDG was present in assays of pure enzymes, however, led us to investigate the possibility for metabolic activation of TDG to inhibitory compound(s) by cytosolic enzymes. We have successfully shown that mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) rapidly oxidize TDG in vitro, but the classic spectrophotometric techniques for following this reaction provided no information on the identity of TDG intermediates and products. The use of proton NMR to monitor the oxidative reaction with structural confirmation by independent synthesis allowed us to establish the ultimate product, 2-hydroxyethylthioacetic acid, and to identify an intermediate equilibrium mixture consisting of 2-hydroxyethylthioacetaldehyde, 2-hydroxyethylthioacetaldehyde hydrate and the cyclic 1,4-oxathian-2-ol. The intermediate nature of this mixture was determined spectrophotometrically when it was shown to drive the production of NADH when added to ADH and NAD.

  19. Maillard reaction products from chitosan-xylan ionic liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqiong; Ling, Yunzhi; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Yang; Zeng, Xianjie; Sun, Runcang

    2013-10-15

    A facile method is reported to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from chitosan and xylan in co-solvent ionic liquid. UV absorbance and fluorescence changes were regarded as indicators of the occurrence of Maillard reaction. FT-IR, NMR, XRD and TG were used to investigate the structure of chitosan-xylan conjugate. The results revealed that when chitosan reacted with xylan in ionic liquid, the hydrogen bonds in chitosan were destroyed, the facts resulted in the formation of chitosan-xylan MRPs. Moreover, when the mass ratio of chitosan to xylan was 1:1, the Maillard reaction proceeded easily. In addition, relatively high antioxidant property was also noted for the chitosan-xylan conjugate with mass ratio 1:1. So the obtained chitosan-xylan MRP is a promising antioxidant agent for food industry. PMID:23987419

  20. Identification of long chain specific aldehyde reductase and its use in enhanced fatty alcohol production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Zia; Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-09-01

    Long chain fatty alcohols have wide application in chemical industries and transportation sector. There is no direct natural reservoir for long chain fatty alcohol production, thus many groups explored metabolic engineering approaches for its microbial production. Escherichia coli has been the major microbial platform for this effort, however, terminal endogenous enzyme responsible for converting fatty aldehydes of chain length C14-C18 to corresponding fatty alcohols is still been elusive. Through our in silico analysis we selected 35 endogenous enzymes of E. coli having potential of converting long chain fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols and studied their role under in vivo condition. We found that deletion of ybbO gene, which encodes NADP(+) dependent aldehyde reductase, led to >90% reduction in long chain fatty alcohol production. This feature was found to be strain transcending and reinstalling ybbO gene via plasmid retained the ability of mutant to produce long chain fatty alcohols. Enzyme kinetic study revealed that YbbO has wide substrate specificity ranging from C6 to C18 aldehyde, with maximum affinity and efficiency for C18 and C16 chain length aldehyde, respectively. Along with endogenous production of fatty aldehyde via optimized heterologous expression of cyanobaterial acyl-ACP reductase (AAR), YbbO overexpression resulted in 169mg/L of long chain fatty alcohols. Further engineering involving modulation of fatty acid as well as of phospholipid biosynthesis pathway improved fatty alcohol production by 60%. Finally, the engineered strain produced 1989mg/L of long chain fatty alcohol in bioreactor under fed-batch cultivation condition. Our study shows for the first time a predominant role of a single enzyme in production of long chain fatty alcohols from fatty aldehydes as well as of modulation of phospholipid pathway in increasing the fatty alcohol production. PMID:27134112

  1. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  2. Alcohol production from Jerusalem artichoke using yeasts with inulinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraud, J.P.; Daurelles, J.; Galzy, P.

    1981-07-01

    The obtaining of a fermentable extract from Jerusalem artichoke is simple. Yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol with good profitability. This method makes it possible to obtain 25 to 65 hl ethanol/ha with by-products usable as feed. (Refs. 19).

  3. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  4. Reaction behavior of zircaloy with simulated fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, R.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation reported in this paper was prompted by the lack of information on the reaction behavior of Zircaloy on long-term exposure to fission product environments in the temperature range 573 - 973 K. Small Zircaloy-2 (Zircaloy-2 contains by weight 1.5% Sn; 0.15% Fe; 0.08% Cr; 0.05% Ni; rest Zr) strip specimens (ca. 25mm x 3mm x 0.75 mm thick) were exposed to various simulated fission product environments (Cs, I, Br, Cd, In, Sb, Sn, Se as vapor; all others as powders) for times to 5.4 Ms (1500 h) in the temperature range 673 - 973 K. The reaction behavior was characterized by scanning electron microscopy with an EDAX analyzer, optical metallography, and x-ray diffraction.

  5. Dual Position Sensitive MWPC for tracking reaction products at VAMOS++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Fremont, G.; Pancin, J.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Goupil, J.; Spitaels, C.; Jacquot, B.

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and performance of a Dual Position Sensitive Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (DPS-MWPC) used to measure the scattering angle, the interaction position on the target and the velocity of reaction products detected in the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer, are reported. The detector consists of a pair of position sensitive low pressure MWPCs and provides both fast timing signals, along with the two-dimensional position coordinates required to define the trajectory of the reaction products. A time-of-flight resolution of 305(11) ps (FWHM) was measured. The measured resolutions (FWHM) were 2.5(3) mrad and 560(70) μm for the scattering angle and the interaction point at the target respectively. The subsequent improvement of the Doppler correction of the energy of the γ-rays, detected in the γ-ray tracking array AGATA in coincidence with isotopically identified ions in VAMOS++, is also discussed.

  6. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress

    PubMed Central

    Colville, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss. PMID:23175670

  7. Evaluation of photon production data from neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation methods and procedures used for generating the photon production data in the current Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B, Version V) are reviewed. There are 42 materials in the General Purpose File of ENDF/B-V that contain data for prompt photon production. Almost all evaluations had substantial experimental data bases, but fewer than half of them employed any of the following evaluation methods. Only a few used theoretical techniques that are sophisticated enough to ensure internal consistency with other particle production data. Comments are made on four evaluation methods: the empirical formalism of Howerton et al., the Troubetzkoy model, the multiparticle Hauser-Feshbach/precompound model, and the Yost method. Critiques are also made on three procedures used for conserving photon energies in neutron capture reactions. The presence of photon production data in the file is useful for studying energy balance, since photon production generally accounts for a large portion of the reaction energy output. Problems found in energy balance checks are discussed. 9 figures, 1 table.

  8. Room-Temperature Reactivity Of Silicon Nanocrystals With Solvents: The Case Of Ketone And Hydrogen Production From Secondary Alcohols: Catalysis?

    PubMed

    El-Demellawi, Jehad K; Holt, Christopher R; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Al-Talla, Zeyad A; Saih, Youssef; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-07-01

    Although silicon nanoparticles dispersed in liquids are used in various applications ranging from biolabeling to hydrogen production, their reactivities with their solvents and their catalytic properties remain still unexplored. Here, we discovered that, because of their surface structures and mechanical strain, silicon nanoparticles react strongly with their solvents and may act as catalysts for the dehydrogenation, at room temperature, of secondary alcohols (e.g., isopropanol) into ketones and hydrogen. This catalytic reaction was monitored by gas chromatography, pH measurements, mass spectroscopy, and solid-state NMR. This discovery provides new understanding of the role played by silicon nanoparticles, and nanosilicon in general, in their reactivity in solvents in general, as well as being candidates in catalysis. PMID:26024366

  9. Enhanced production of fatty alcohols by engineering the TAGs synthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei Ning

    2015-02-01

    The production of fatty acid-derived chemicals has received a great deal of attention in recent years. In yeast cells, the main storage forms of fatty acids are TAGs. However, the conversion of TAGs into fatty acid derivatives suffers from a practical standpoint. Herein, a more direct strategy was applied to accumulate cellular fatty acyl-CoAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are the activated forms of fatty acids and used as important precursors for various converting enzymes. The dga1 gene was deleted to block the fatty acyl-CoAs dependent pathway of TAGs synthesis and a significant decrease in lipid content was observed. The FAR gene was cloned and overexpressed in the wild type strain and gene disrupted strain, to convert the fatty acyl-CoAs to the corresponding fatty acid derivatives. The metabolic engineered pathway resulted in enhanced production of fatty alcohols. Compared with the wild type strain with overexpressed FAR gene, the yield of fatty alcohols in the Δdga1 strain with FAR was dramatically increased: the intracellular fatty alcohols increased from 26 mg/L to 45 mg/L, while the extracellular fatty alcohols increased from 2.2 mg/L to 4.3 mg/L. By optimizing the culture medium with increased carbon concentration and limited nitrogen concentration, the fatty alcohols yield in the Δdga1 strain with FAR was further increased to 84 mg/L in cells and 14 mg/L secreted in broth. The results in this study demonstrated the feasibility of using the designed strategy to solve the bottleneck in utilizing TAGs for fatty acid derivatives production. PMID:25116045

  10. Improved alcohol production employing SSF with thermotolerant yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and the yeast fermentation of sugars to ethanol simultaneously in the same reactor. For the effective SSF process to produce ethanol from lignocellulose, it is required to remove the physical and chemical barrier around cellulose fibers and make cellulose more accessible to cellulose. Furthermore, it is preferred to have the compatible fermentation and saccharification conditions (e.g., temperature and pH). The process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass involves the steeping in ammonia solution to remove lignin followed by dilute acid (1%, w/w) hydrolysis of hemicellulose fraction. The ammonia steeping removes over 70% of lignin and consequently facilitates the removal of hemicellulose by dilute acid. Dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose yielding hydrolysate with sugar concentration of up to 8%. This fraction was used as substrate for ethanol production with xylose fermenting yeast strain. After lignin and hemicellulose were removed, the cellulose fraction was used as substrate in the SSF process for ethanol production. High yield of ethanol of over 60 g/L was produced by the thermotolerant yeast within 80 hours of SSF with a low enzyme loading of 8 IFPU/g cellulose.

  11. A selected ion flow tube study of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+- with some phenols, phenyl alcohols and cyclic carbonyl compounds in support of SIFT-MS and PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianshu; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2004-12-01

    We have carried out a selected ion flow tube (SIFT) study of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+- with the following 10 compounds: 2-hydroxyphenol, 2-, 3- and 4-methylphenol (o-, m- and p-cresol, respectively), 4-ethylphenol, 1-phenylmethanol (benzyl alcohol), 1- and 2-phenylethanol, 1,4-benzoquinone and cyclohexanone. The primary purpose of this work was to extend the kinetics database to allow these compounds (M), to be analysed in air by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The initial step in all the H3O+ reactions is exothermic proton transfer to produce MH+ ions, which are observed as the only products for seven of the ten reactions, but for the three aromatic alcohols, H2O molecule elimination occurred from the nascent MH+ ions producing the corresponding hydrocarbon ion. This is an essential point to recognise when exploiting proton transfer to analyse these compounds using SIFT-MS and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, PTR-MS. NO+ reacts with six of the compounds via non-dissociative charge transfer producing M+ ions and this is a valuable route to their analysis by SIFT-MS. In the case of the NO+/quinone reaction, adduct formation occurs giving NO+M product ions, whilst for the remaining three reactions two or more ion products were formed. All the O2+- reactions proceeded via charge transfer with multiple ion products in most cases. A sample analysis is carried out to indicate the value of simultaneous use of both H3O+ and NO+ precursor ions to analyse a mixture containing some of these compounds.

  12. Influence of heat shock on glycerol production in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Berovic, Marin; Pivec, Aleksandra; Kosmerl, Tatjana; Wondra, Mojmir; Celan, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    The influence of single and double heat shocks induced during the exponential growth phase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of cultivar Sauvignon Blanc grape must was examined. Rapid temperature changes from 18 degrees C to 34 degrees C have been applied. The effect of the duration of exposure to a high temperature has been analyzed. By the applications of a single heat shock and a double heat shock, up to 8.2 g l(-1) and 11.0 g l(-1) glycerol have been produced, respectively. To prevent the evaporation of fine wine bouquet compounds during the temperature changes, reflux coolers on the top of bioreactors have been employed. By using this method, glycerol production was increased by up to 65%. PMID:17368395

  13. Effect of UV and electrochemical surface treatments on the adsorption and reaction of linear alcohols on non-porous carbon fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbeck, S.; Ward, S.; Idriss, H.

    2013-04-01

    The adsorption properties of untreated, electrochemically treated and ultra-violet/ozone treated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibres were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on a series of linear alcohols as probes in order to understand its surface properties. Surface uptake was found to be sensitive to both the surface treatment and the nature of the adsorbates. Surface coverage increased with increasing alcohol chain due to the increase in their polarizability. It also increased with the level of surface oxygen of the fibres most likely because it facilitates the Osbnd H bond dissociation of the alcohol functional group. In addition, the desorption temperature (during TPD) tracked the surface oxygen levels (as determined from XPS O1s signal) suggesting increasing in the adsorption energy. The reactions of C1-C4 linear alcohols were also investigated on the surface of the fibre carbon. The main reaction was dehydrogenation to the corresponding aldehydes; the dehydration reaction to olefins was not observed. The dehydrogenation reaction was sensitive to the length of the alky chain. It was highest for methanol (to formaldehyde) and decreased with increasing the carbon number. Overall TPD of linear alcohols was shown to be a promising method for quantifying the level and strength of bonding occurring on carbon fibre surfaces.

  14. A study of switchgrass pyrolysis: Product variability and reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovee, Jonathan Matthew

    Samples of the same cultivar of cave-in-rock switchgrass were harvested from plots in Frankenmuth, Roger City, Cass County, and Grand Valley, Michigan. It was determined that variation exists, between locations, among the pyrolytic compounds which can lead to variability in bio-oil and increased processing costs at bio-refineries to make hydrocarbon fuels. Washed and extractives-free switchgrass samples, which contain a lower alkali and alkaline earth metals content than untreated samples, were shown to produce lower amounts of acids, esters, furans, ketones, phenolics, and saccharides and also larger amounts of aldehydes upon pyrolysis. Although the minerals catalyzed pyrolytic reactions, there was no evidence indicating their effect on reducing the production of anhydrosugars, specifically levoglucosan. To further link minerals present in the biomass to a catalytic pathway, mathematic models were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of the switchgrass. While the calculated activation energies of switchgrass, using the FWO and KAS methods, were 227.7 and 217.8 kJ/mol, correspondingly, it was concluded that the activation energies for the switchgrass hemicellulose and cellulose peaks were 115.5 and 158.2 kJ/mol, respectively, using a modified model-fitting method. The minerals that effect the production of small molecules and levoglucosan also have an observable catalytic effect on switchgrass reaction rate, which may be quantifiable through the use of reaction kinetics so as to determine activation energy.

  15. 27 CFR 26.1 - Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 26.1 Section 26.1 Alcohol, Tobacco... AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Scope of Regulations § 26.1 Alcoholic products coming into the United States from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This part, “Liquors and...

  16. Alcohol production from sugar mixtures by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Neirinck, L.; Maleszka, R.; Schneider, H.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of P. tannophilus to produce ethanol from sugar mixtures was investigated. With mixtures simulating spent sulfite liquor and a hardboard mill effluent, yields of 76 to 84% of theoretical were obtained with a wild-type strain, which increased to 83 to 90% with a mutant selected for more rapid growth on D-galactose. A small but significant loss in yield was caused by the formation by both strains of acetate, xylitol and L-arabinitol. The loss was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 8.3% for the mutant and 7.1 to 12% for the wild-type. One conclusion drawn from these results was that the organism has the potential for use with a wide variety of hydrolysates, since the four sugars which could be efficiently fermented in the mixtures - D-mannose, D-xylose, D-glucose, and D-galactose - generally comprise more than 90% of those in polysaccharides from many biomass sources. The organism was also found to be capable of producing ethanol from, and surviving in, spent sulfite liquor. However, productivity decreased on recycling the cells, suggesting that strain improvement will be a necessary step in process development. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  17. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extender and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory and equipment setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis. Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. During this time period, at WVU, we tried several methods to eliminate problems related to condensation of heavier products when reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. We have also obtained same preliminary results in our attempts to analyze quantitatively the temperature-programmed reduction spectra for C- supported Mo-based catalysts. We have completed the kinetic study for the sulfided Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. We have compared the results of methanol synthesis using the membrane reactor with those using a simple plug-flow reactor. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been completed. The results suggest that catalyst pretreatment under different reducing conditions yield different surface compositions and thus different catalytic reactivities.

  18. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of biodiesel from fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyi; Pan, Hong; Li, Xun

    2015-09-01

    Microbial production of biodiesel from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention. Biodiesel is known to be produced from short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs through the expression of wax ester synthase/fatty acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase that catalyzes the esterification of short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs. Here, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce various fatty alcohol acetate esters, which depend on the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 that catalyzes the esterification of fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA. The fatty acid biosynthetic pathways generate fatty acyl-ACPs, fatty acyl-CoAs, or fatty acids, which can be converted to fatty alcohols by fatty acyl-CoA reductase, fatty acyl-ACP reductase, or carboxylic acid reductase, respectively. This study showed the biosynthesis of biodiesel from three fatty acid biosynthetic pathway intermediates. PMID:26205521

  19. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A+A-->product.

    PubMed

    Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A

    2010-05-28

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+A-->product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution. PMID:20515095

  20. Petrodiesel-like straight chain alkane and fatty alcohol production by the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuewei; Dai, Xin; Guo, Hui; Geng, Shu; Wang, Gangyi

    2013-05-01

    This study was to investigate the composition and characteristics of long-straight chain alkane and fatty alcohols from the microalga Chlorella Sorokiniana 21, isolated from the coastal water of Pearl River Delta, China. Under the optimized aeration growth condition, this strain yielded up to 1.44 g L(-1) biomass and 24.90% extracts of dry weight. The major compounds of the extracts were identified to be alkanes (35.93%) and alcohols (53.73%). Of the extracts, long-straight chain alkanes accounted for 30.54% with heptadecane (21.13%) as a predominant component. Furthermore, a large amount of fatty alcohols (53.73%) were identified in the algal extracts with 29.09% of 3-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-nonanol. Thus, this algal species is a promising feedstock for the production of supplement for petrodiesel-like fuels and biochemicals used in the cosmetics and food industries. This study represents the first report of long-straight chain alkane and fatty alcohols from microalgae isolated from coastal water of the region. PMID:23567672

  1. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

  3. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  4. Reaction of alcohol radicals with cyclic disulfides. An optical and conductimetric pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert F.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Patel, Kantilal B.; Michael, Barry D.

    The disulfides lipoamide (LIPA) and oxidized dithiothreitol ( ox-DTT) react with methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and t-butanol radicals in aqueous solution at pH10.8 to form disulfide radical anions. Electron transfer rates range from ca 10 7 dm 3 mol -1s -1 for t-butanol radicals with LIPA to 3.6 × 10 8 dm 3 mol -1s -1 for methanol radicals with LIPA. The formations of the disulfide radical anions were followed by simultaneously monitoring absorption changes at 400 nm and changes in conductance with time. The electron transfer efficiencies are higher for LIPA than for ox-DTT increasing in the series t-butanol ≪isopropanol alcohols.

  5. Complete amino acid sequence and characterization of the reaction mechanism of a glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens).

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Ryoko; Kubota, Humie; Hosoki, Tomoko; Ikehara, Kenji; Tanaka, Mieko

    2002-02-15

    A glucosamine-induced novel alcohol dehydrogenase has been isolated from Agrobacterium radiobacter (tumefaciens) and its fundamental properties have been characterized. The enzyme catalyzes NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of aliphatic alcohols and amino alcohols. In this work, the complete amino acid sequence of the alcohol dehydrogenase was determined by PCR method using genomic DNA of A. radiobacter as template. The enzyme comprises 336 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 36 kDa. The primary structure of the enzyme demonstrates a high homology to structures of alcohol dehydrogenases from Shinorhizobium meliloti (83% identity, 90% positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65% identity, 76% positive). The two Zn(2+) ion binding sites, both the active site and another site that contributed to stabilization of the enzyme, are conserved in those enzymes. Sequences analysis of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family using a hypothetical phylogenetic tree indicates that these three enzymes form a new group distinct from other members of the Zn-containing long-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. The physicochemical properties of alcohol dehydrogenase from A. radiobacter were characterized as follows. (1) Stereospecificity of the hydride transfer from ethanol to NADH was categorized as pro-R type by NMR spectra of NADH formed in the enzymatic reaction using ethanol-D(6) was used as substrate. (2) Optimal pH for all alcohols with no amino group examined was pH 8.5 (of the C(2)-C(6) alcohols, n-amyl alcohol demonstrated the highest activity). Conversely, glucosaminitol was optimally dehydrogenated at pH 10.0. (3) The rate-determining step of the dehydrogenase for ethanol is deprotonation of the enzyme-NAD-Zn-OHCH(2)CH(3) complex to enzyme-NAD-Zn-O(-)CH(2)CH(3) complex and that for glucosaminitol is H(2)O addition to enzyme-Zn-NADH complex. PMID:11831851

  6. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  7. Production of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashnik, Stepan G.; Kerby, Leslie M.; Gudima, Konstantin K.; Sierk, Arnold J.

    2014-03-01

    Different reaction mechanisms contribute to the production of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions. Available models cannot accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the emission of LF is important formany applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets, radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The cascade-exciton model (CEM) and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM), as implemented in the CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators used in the Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6, describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to 4He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies. However, they do not predict high-energy tails for LF heavier than 4He. The standard versions of CEM and LAQGSM do not account for preequilibrium emission of LF larger than 4He. The aim of our work is to extend the preequilibrium model to include such processes. We do this by including the emission of fragments heavier than 4He at the preequilibrium stage, and using an improved version of the Fermi Break-up model, providing improved agreement with various experimental data.

  8. The Potential of Photochemical Transition Metal Reactions in Prebiotic Organic Synthesis. I. Observed Conversion of Methanol into Ethylene Glycol as Possible Prototype for Sugar Alcohol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisch, John J.; Munson, Peter R.; Gitua, John N.

    2004-10-01

    Photochemical processes involving redox reactions between metal ions and organic substrates possess the versatile potential for having harnessed solar energy for prebiotic organic synthesis. The present study in our Laboratory has shown that ultraviolet irradiation of transition metal ions such as of Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Ti dissolved in primary or secondary alcohols causes photoreduction of the metal ions with the concomitant oxidation of the alcohol to aldehyde or ketone. An observed accompaniment of this novel `light' reaction has been the known `dark' pinacol reaction, whereby the carbonyl derivative underwent bimolecular coupling to the diol by the photogenerated reduced transition metal reagent. These tandem `light-dark' processes possess the potential for the stepwise synthesis of dimeric 1,2-diols from simpler alcohols under conditions that might have prevailed on the prebiotic earth. Experiments reported here have demonstrated that such a tandem `light-dark' conversion of methanol into ethylene glycol, via formaldehyde, does in fact occur, when nickel(II) acetylacetonate solutions in methanol undergo prolonged irradiation at 185-254 nm. Since ethylene glycol can be considered as the simplest sugar alcohol, these findings may provide novel insight into the prebiotic oligomerization of formaldehyde into higher sugar alcohols or even sugars.

  9. A Test of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Explain Parents' Reactions to Youths' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…

  10. Hydrogen generation from alcohols catalyzed by ruthenium-triphenylphosphine complexes: multiple reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Bühl, Michael

    2010-06-16

    We report a comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) study of the mechanism of the methanol dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by [RuH(2)(H(2))(PPh(3))(3)]. Using the B97-D dispersion-corrected functional, four pathways have been fully characterized, which differ in the way the critical beta-hydrogen transfer step is brought about (e.g., by prior dissociation of one PPh(3) ligand). All these pathways are found to be competitive (DeltaG(++) = 27.0-32.1 kcal/mol at 150 degrees C) and strongly interlocked. The reaction can thus follow multiple reaction channels, a feature which is expected to be at the origin of the good kinetics of this system. Our results also point to the active role of PPh(3) ligands, which undergo significant conformational changes as the reaction occurs, and provide insights into the role of the base, which acts as a "co-catalyst" by facilitating proton transfers within active species. Activation barriers decrease on going from methanol to ethanol and 2-propanol substrates, in accord with experiment. PMID:20481632

  11. Reactions of superoxide with myeloperoxidase and its products.

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, Christine C; Kettle, Anthony J

    2004-10-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize chloride to hypochlorous acid. It also converts numerous substrates to reactive free radicals. When released by neutrophils, the enzyme operates in the presence of a flux of superoxide. We show that superoxide has a profound influence on oxidative reactions catalysed by MPO. It reacts directly with the enzyme to modulate production of hypochlorous acid. Within neutrophil phagosomes, where MPO functions to kill micro-organisms, it may be the preferred substrate for the enzyme. Superoxide also reacts rapidly with radicals generated by MPO, e.g. from tyrosine and tyrosyl peptides. Initial products are organic peroxides. These species are likely to be toxic and contribute to the pathophysiological actions of MPO. PMID:15507767

  12. Evaluation of potential reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of coniferyl alcohol a-linkages in lignin: a density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Heath D.; Mohamed, Mohamed Naseer Ali; Kubicki, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Five potential reaction mechanisms, each leading to the formation of an α-O-4-linked coniferyl alcohol dimer, and one scheme leading to the formation of a recently proposed free-radical coniferyl alcohol trimer were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These potential reaction mechanisms were evaluated using both the calculated Gibbs free energies, to predict the spontaneity of the constituent reactions, and the electron-density mapped Fukui function, to determine the most reactive sites of each intermediate species. The results indicate that each reaction in one of the six mechanisms is thermodynamically favorable to those in the other mechanisms; what is more, the Fukui function for each free radical intermediate corroborates with the thermochemical results for this mechanism. This mechanism proceeds via the formation of two distinct free-radical intermediates, which then react to produce the four α-O-4 stereoisomers.

  13. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H2O2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H2O2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H2O2 concentration were 7.0 and 8μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1UmL(-1) SBP in 30min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3UmL(-1) was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (KCAT) and catalytic efficiency (KCAT/KM) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via CC and CO coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment. PMID:26921508

  14. Problematic Internet Use, Excessive Alcohol Consumption, Their Comorbidity and Cardiovascular and Cortisol Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress in a Student Population

    PubMed Central

    Bibbey, Adam; Phillips, Anna C.; Ginty, Annie T.; Carroll, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Problematic Internet use and excessive alcohol consumption have been associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Further, low (blunted) cardiovascular and stress hormone (e.g. cortisol) reactions to acute psychological stress are a feature of individuals with a range of adverse health and behavioural characteristics, including dependencies such as tobacco and alcohol addiction. The present study extended this research by examining whether behavioural dependencies, namely problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, and their comorbidity would also be associated with blunted stress reactivity. Methods A large sample of university students (N = 2313) were screened using Internet and alcohol dependency questionnaires to select four groups for laboratory testing: comorbid Internet and alcohol dependence (N = 17), Internet dependence (N = 17), alcohol dependence (N = 28), and non-dependent controls (N = 26). Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising of mental arithmetic and public speaking tasks. Results Neither problematic Internet behaviour nor excessive alcohol consumption, either individually or in combination, were associated with blunted cardiovascular or cortisol stress reactions. Discussion It is possible that problematic Internet behaviour and excessive alcohol consumption in a student population were not related to physiological reactivity as they may not reflect ingrained addictions but rather an impulse control disorder and binging tendency. Conclusions The present results serve to indicate some of the limits of the developing hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity is a peripheral marker of the central motivational dysregulation in the brain underpinning a wide range of health and behavioural problems. PMID:26014670

  15. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10126 Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10126 Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  2. Selective production of two diastereomers of disaccharide sugar alcohol, mannosylerythritol by Pseudozyma yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol (ME) is the hydrophilic backbone of mannosylerythritol lipids as the most promising biosurfactants produced by different Pseudozyma yeasts, and has been receiving attention as a new sugar alcohol. Different Pseudozyma yeasts were examined for the sugar alcohol production using glucose as the sole carbon source. P. hubeiensis KM-59 highly produced a conventional type of ME, i.e., 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol (4-ME). Interestingly, P. tsukubaensis KM-160 produced a diastereomer of 4-ME, i.e., 1-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-erythritol (1-ME). In shake flask culture with 200 g/l of glucose, strain KM-59 produced 4-ME at a yield of 33.2 g/l (2.2 g/l/day of the productivity), while strain KM-160 produced 1-ME at 30.0 g/l (2.0 g/l/day). Moreover, the two strains were found to produce ME from glycerol; the maximum yields of 4-ME and 1-ME from 200 g/l of glycerol were 16.1 g/l (1.1 g/l/day) and 15.8 g/l (1.1 g/l/day), respectively. The production of 1-ME as the new diastereomer was further investigated in fed batch culture using a 5-l jar-fermenter. Compared to the flask culture, strain KM-160 gave three times higher productivity of 1-ME at 38.0 g/l (6.3 g/l/day) from glucose and at 31.1 g/l (3.5 g/l/day) from glycerol, respectively. This is the first report on the selective production of two diastereomers of ME, and should thus facilitate the functional development and application of the disaccharide sugar alcohol in the food and relative industries. PMID:24272368

  3. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  4. On the factors affecting product distribution in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of a lignin model compound vanillyl alcohol: experimental and computational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Maarit; Heinonen, Petri; Oivanen, Mikko; Karhunen, Pirkko; Kruus, Kristiina; Sipilä, Jussi

    2013-09-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multicopper oxidases, which can oxidize phenolic substrates by the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The phenolic substructures of lignin are also oxidized by laccases, resulting mainly in various polymerized products. Several model compound studies indicate that variations in the reaction media, such as the pH and the enzyme dosage used, have an impact on the observed product distribution of laccase promoted oxidation, but no detailed study has been reported to explain these results. In the present study, a monomeric lignin model compound, vanillyl alcohol, was oxidized in laccase-catalyzed reactions by varying the pH, enzyme dosage and temperature. The energies of all the observed products and potential intermediates were calculated by applying density functional theory (DFT) and the polarizable continuum solvation model (PCM). The observed predominant product at pH 4.5 to 7.5 was clearly the 5-5' dimer, although the thermodynamic product according to the calculated free energies was vanillin, the difference being 5.6 kcal mol(-1). The hydrogen bonding is shown to give an additional stabilizing effect on the transition state leading to the 5-5' dimer, but also a kinetic barrier reduces the formation of vanillin. Based on the calculated pKa-values of the proposed intermediates we suggest that the rearomatization reactions of the quinones formed in the radical reactions under mildly acidic and neutral conditions would preferentially occur through deprotonation rather than through protonation. PMID:23851662

  5. Novel approaches to the production of higher alcohols from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1994-- September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.W.

    1996-03-01

    Accomplishments for Task 2, liquid-phase, higher alcohol process with recycle of lower alcohols, are as follows: (1) a new reactor overhead system design has significantly improved retention of slurry oil during reactor operation at high temperature, ca. 375{degrees}C; (2) a series of ``blank`` (without catalyst) runs were made at 375{degrees}C to evaluate thermal stability of three potential slurry liquids, Drakeol{reg_sign}, Ethylflo{reg_sign} 180 and perhydrofluorene; and (3) the rate of methanol formation with the Cu/ZnO BASF S3-86 ``low temperature`` methanol synthesis catalyst was a strong function of stirrer speed at a ``standard`` set of operating conditions. This result suggest that the reaction rate is influenced or controlled by gas/liquid mass transfer, and may explain the previously-observed discrepancy between results from this laboratory and those from Air Products.

  6. Reaction products in mass spectrometry elucidated with infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Polfer, Nick C; Oomens, Jos

    2007-08-01

    Determining the structure and dynamics of large biologically relevant molecules is one of the key challenges facing biology. Although X-ray crystallography (XRD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) yield accurate structural information, they are of limited use when sample quantities are low. Mass spectrometry (MS) on the other hand has been very successful in analyzing biological molecules down to atto-mole quantities and has hence begun to challenge XRD and NMR as the key technology in the life sciences. This trend has been further assisted by the development of MS techniques that yield structural information on biomolecules. Of these techniques, collision-induced dissociation (CID) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) are among the most popular. Despite advances in applying these techniques, little direct experimental evidence had been available until recently to verify their proposed underlying reaction mechanisms. The possibility to record infrared spectra of mass-selected molecular ions has opened up a novel avenue in the structural characterization of ions and their reaction products. On account of its high pulse energies and wide wavelength tunability, the free electron laser for infrared experiments (FELIX) at FOM Rijnhuizen has been shown to be ideally suited to study trapped molecular ions with infrared photo-dissociation spectroscopy. In this paper, we review recent experiments in our laboratory on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of reaction products from CID and HDX, thereby corroborating some of the reaction mechanisms that have been proposed. In particular, it is shown that CID gives rise to linear fragment ion structures which have been proposed for some time, but also yields fully cyclical ring structures. These latter structures present a possible challenge for using tandem MS in the sequencing of peptides/proteins, as they can lead to a scrambling of the amino acid sequence information. In gas-phase HDX of an amino acid it is shown

  7. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10445 - 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn. residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10445 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with...) The chemical substance identified as 2-propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10445 - 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn. residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10445 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with...) The chemical substance identified as 2-propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of trimethylolpropane... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of trimethylolpropane... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. Link to an... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products of formalin (37... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment...

  14. Construction of Escherichia Coli Cell Factories for Production of Organic Acids and Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Zhu, Xinna; Tan, Zaigao; Zhang, Xueli; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    Production of bulk chemicals from renewable biomass has been proved to be sustainable and environmentally friendly. Escherichia coli is the most commonly used host strain for constructing cell factories for production of bulk chemicals since it has clear physiological and genetic characteristics, grows fast in minimal salts medium, uses a wide range of substrates, and can be genetically modified easily. With the development of metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology, a technology platform has been established to construct E. coli cell factories for bulk chemicals production. In this chapter, we will introduce this technology platform, as well as E. coli cell factories successfully constructed for production of organic acids and alcohols. PMID:25577396

  15. Microbial production of methylketones: properties of purified yeast secondary alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.N.; Hou, C.T.; Laskin, A.I.; Derelanko, P.

    1981-06-01

    Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH) was purified from extracts of a methanol-grown yeast, Pichia sp. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by ultracentrifugation and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified SADH has a molecular weight of 98,000 as determined by gel filtration and 102,000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium analysis. The sedimentation constant s/sub 20,w/ was 6.0. The subunit size of the SADH was 48,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that it consists of two subunits. The purified SADH contained two atoms of zinc per mole of enzyme protein. SADH catalyzed the oxidation of secondary alcohols. Primary alcohols (C/sub 1/ to C/sub 8/ tested) were not oxidized. The purified SADH and extracts of various yeasts and bacteria also catalyzed the reduction of methylketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols in the presence of reduced NAD/sup +/ as an electron donor. Both reactions (oxidation of secondary alcohols in the presence of NAD/sup +/ and reduction of methylketones in the presence of reduced NAD/sup +/) catalyzed by the purified SADH were inhibited by metal-chelating agents, thio reagent, and by antisera prepared against the purified enzyme. The apparent K/sub m/ values for NAD/sup +/, reduced NAD/sup +/, reduced NAD/sup +/, 2-butanol, and 2-butanone are 0.05, 0.1, 0.4, and 1 mM, respectively. The purified enzyme preferentially oxidized (-)-2-butanol and (-)-2-octanol, the rate of oxidation of (+)-2-butanol and (+)-2-octanol was 36% and 13% of that of 100% with (-)-2-butanol and (-)-2-octanol, respectively. The K/sub m/ values for (-)-2-butanol and (+)-2-butanol were 3.0 and 0.75 mM, respectively. Antisera prepared against purified Pichia SADH cross-reacted with the SADH derived from bacteria. This suggests difference in immunological properties between yeast and bacterial SADH.

  16. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:24128521

  17. In vivo effects of Maillard reaction products derived from biscuits.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Mariela; Rinaldi, Gustavo Juan; Lupano, Cecilia Elena

    2016-04-01

    The antioxidant activity, antihypertensive effect and prebiotic activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from biscuits were investigated in Wistar rats. Animals were fed the following diets for 6 weeks: control (AIN-93 diet); Asc-diet (AIN-93 diet with ascorbic acid in the drinking water); HT-B diet (containing high amount of MRP derived from biscuits) and LT-B diet (containing negligible amounts of biscuit MRP). Serum antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS), as well as lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were determined at the end of the experiment. Results showed that dietary MRP reduced the food efficiency, increased the antioxidant activity of serum, increased the ratio between lactic and total aerobic bacteria, increased water-holding capacity of faeces and reduced blood pressure, but did not reduce mineral absorption. Therefore, the biscuit MRP functional claims could be demonstrated by an in vivo study. PMID:26593484

  18. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) net petroleum gain; (2) net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end user.

  19. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  20. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Tina R.; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Landrø, Nils Inge; Bakketeig, Leiv S.; Grove, Jakob; Sværke, Claus; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT) and information processing time (IPT) in young children. Method Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60–64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R) was administered. Results Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1–4. Conclusion This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring. PMID:26382068

  1. A Quantitative Determination of Parameters Governing Reaction Products in Emulsion Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, Casey; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2010-03-01

    Investigation of reacting blends containing an aqueous latex base (Poly(Styrene-co-Butadiene), Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) and Poly(Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) respectively) and Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) as a crosslinking agent with a multifunctional isocyanate shows the formation of different chemical products using Time Resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The formation of functional groups that contribute to crosslinking (i.e. the urethane and urea linkages from the resultant urethane chemistry) is dependent upon the miscibility of the three reactive functional groups in the blends, namely, the water, the hydroxyl and the isocyanate groups. For the first time, using an internal standard, it is possible to determine the relative composition of the products formed in a quantitative fashion as well as the reaction kinetics. The differences in observed reactivity can be accounted for by different dispersion states of the reactive groups in the blend. Dispersion on the molecular level is governed by the miscibility of the components and therefore is different in each of the three systems depending on their latex base.

  2. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  3. A palladium-doped ceria@carbon core-sheath nanowire network: a promising catalyst support for alcohol electrooxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiang; Du, Chunyu; Sun, Yongrong; Du, Lei; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi

    2015-08-01

    A novel palladium-doped ceria and carbon core-sheath nanowire network (Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN) is synthesized by a template-free and surfactant-free solvothermal process, followed by high temperature carbonization. This hierarchical network serves as a new class of catalyst support to enhance the activity and durability of noble metal catalysts for alcohol oxidation reactions. Its supported Pd nanoparticles, Pd/(Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN), exhibit >9 fold increase in activity toward the ethanol oxidation over the state-of-the-art Pd/C catalyst, which is the highest among the reported Pd systems. Moreover, stability tests show a virtually unchanged activity after 1000 cycles. The high activity is mainly attributed to the superior oxygen-species releasing capability of Pd-doped CeO2 nanowires by accelerating the removal of the poisoning intermediate. The unique interconnected one-dimensional core-sheath structure is revealed to facilitate immobilization of the metal catalysts, leading to the improved durability. This core-sheath nanowire network opens up a new strategy for catalyst performance optimization for next-generation fuel cells.A novel palladium-doped ceria and carbon core-sheath nanowire network (Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN) is synthesized by a template-free and surfactant-free solvothermal process, followed by high temperature carbonization. This hierarchical network serves as a new class of catalyst support to enhance the activity and durability of noble metal catalysts for alcohol oxidation reactions. Its supported Pd nanoparticles, Pd/(Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN), exhibit >9 fold increase in activity toward the ethanol oxidation over the state-of-the-art Pd/C catalyst, which is the highest among the reported Pd systems. Moreover, stability tests show a virtually unchanged activity after 1000 cycles. The high activity is mainly attributed to the superior oxygen-species releasing capability of Pd-doped CeO2 nanowires by accelerating the removal of the poisoning intermediate. The unique

  4. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  5. Production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation and its utilization as automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol has an excellent future as a fuel, and its large-scale production from sugar-bearing feedstocks should definitely be a stabilizing factor in the economics of the international sugar industry. This article approaches the subject from the sugar industry viewpoint, with emphasis on the underdeveloped countries. The economic data presented here are only approximations so as to give some idea as to the order of magnitude of the capital and operating costs involved. All economic projections are based on conditions prevailing during the third quarter of 1979.

  6. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed. PMID:15054251

  7. Catalytic conversion of alcohols. 28. Product selectivities for 2-methylcyclohexanol conversion with metal oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbagh, H.A.; Hughes, C.G.; Davis, B.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Metal oxides exhibit a range of selectivities (dehydration percentage, alkene distribution and alcohol isomerization) for the conversion of a 2-methylcyclohexanol isomer. For many metal oxide catalysts, trans-2-methylcyclohexanol produces a predominance of the less stable 3-methylcyclohexene isomer. The grouping of metal oxides based on the production of the less stable alkene isomers from 2-octanol is similar to that for trans-2-methlycyclohexanol. It is proposed that the same catalytic properties determine the selectivity for both reactants: for smaller metal cations the product selectivity is determined by steric crowding in the transition state, and for the larger cations the product selectivity is determined by the basicity of the oxygen anion and the relative acidity of the {beta}-hydrogens that are eliminated to produce water.

  8. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  9. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described. PMID:7560056

  10. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research. PMID:8882838

  11. Mesoporous Carbon Supported Rh Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Production of C2+ Alcohol from Syngas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Tae-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Kim, Jeong-Rang; Ha, Kyoung-Su

    2016-02-01

    Uniform rhodium nanoparticles (NP) with three different particle sizes (1.9, 2.4, and 3.6 nm) were prepared via a polyol method with rhodium (III) acetylacetonate, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with different concentrations of sodium citrate. The prepared Rh nanoparticles were impregnated into the ordered mesoporous carbon supports with two different pore structures (2D hexagonal and 3D cubic). The prepared Rh nanoparticle-supported ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were introduced as catalysts for the CO hydrogenation of syngas to produce C2 higher alcohols. The characteristics of the Rh nanoparticle-supported ordered mesoporous carbons catalysts were analyzed through transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and N2 physisorption analysis. The catalytic tests of the catalyst were performed using a fixed-bed reactor. The results revealed that the catalysts exhibited the different catalytic activity and selectivity of higher alcohols, which could be attributed to the different OMC structures, the nanoparticle size of Rh, and aggregation of Rh nanoparticles during the reaction. PMID:27433718

  12. GALS - setup for production and study of multinucleon transfer reaction products: present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlyanoy, S.; Zagrebaev, V.; Kozulin, E.; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Fedosseev, V.; Bark, R.; Janas, Z.

    2016-06-01

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) - JINR, Dubna. GALS is planned to exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the "north-east" region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as 136Xe on 208Pb, are to be captured in a gas cell and selectively laser-ionized in a sextupole (quadrupole) ion guide extraction system.

  13. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  14. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 9, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Catalysts based on molybdenum are being prepared using four different approaches. These materials have been characterized by IR, XRD and single-crystal studies. Modeling studies are continuing satisfactorily. The overall efficiency of each base case has been calculated and tested as a screening method to select feasible technologies. A methodology to determine the effects and influences of process variable uncertainties on the performance of a design has been developed. Input variables in the model to be considered include the reaction product distribution, the operating temperatures of equipment (e.g., gasifiers, separators, etc.), and the estimates of the thermodynamic model used in the computer aided design simulation of the process. The efficiency of the process can be modeled by calculation of output variables such as the payback period or the energy efficiency of the plant. The result will be a range of expected operating conditions for the process and an indication of which variables` uncertainties are most likely to affect process operating conditions. The stream exiting the reactor consists of alcohols, esters and water. The separation block consists of a network of distillation columns which separate the various alcohols and water. The choice and order of separation, operating conditions, degree of separation and amount to be bypassed are the random variables to be optimized by simulated annealing. The value of the above variables controls the mix of the alcohol streams to be used as gasoline additives exiting the network of distillation column. The total profitability is the price obtained by selling the various blended products after accounting for the cost of production of various alcohols.

  15. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  10. Chemoselective O-acylation of hydroxyamino acids and amino alcohols under acidic reaction conditions: History, scope and applications.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Tor E

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids, whether natural, semisynthetic or synthetic, are among the most important and useful chiral building blocks available for organic chemical synthesis. In principle, they can function as inexpensive, chiral and densely functionalized starting materials. On the other hand, the use of amino acid starting materials routinely necessitates protective group chemistry, and in reality, large-scale preparations of even the simplest side-chain derivatives of many amino acids often become annoyingly strenuous due to the necessity of employing protecting groups, on one or more of the amino acid functionalities, during the synthetic sequence. However, in the case of hydroxyamino acids such as hydroxyproline, serine, threonine, tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), many O-acyl side-chain derivatives are directly accessible via a particularly expedient and scalable method not commonly applied until recently. Direct acylation of unprotected hydroxyamino acids with acyl halides or carboxylic anhydrides under appropriately acidic reaction conditions renders possible chemoselective O-acylation, furnishing the corresponding side-chain esters directly, on multigram-scale, in a single step, and without chromatographic purification. Assuming a certain degree of stability under acidic reaction conditions, the method is also applicable for a number of related compounds, such as various amino alcohols and the thiol-functional amino acid cysteine. While the basic methodology underlying this approach has been known for decades, it has evolved through recent developments connected to amino acid-derived chiral organocatalysts to become a more widely recognized procedure for large-scale preparation of many useful side-chain derivatives of hydroxyamino acids and related compounds. Such derivatives are useful in peptide chemistry and drug development, as amino acid amphiphiles for asymmetric catalysis, and as amino acid acrylic precursors for preparation of catalytically

  11. Chemoselective O-acylation of hydroxyamino acids and amino alcohols under acidic reaction conditions: History, scope and applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amino acids, whether natural, semisynthetic or synthetic, are among the most important and useful chiral building blocks available for organic chemical synthesis. In principle, they can function as inexpensive, chiral and densely functionalized starting materials. On the other hand, the use of amino acid starting materials routinely necessitates protective group chemistry, and in reality, large-scale preparations of even the simplest side-chain derivatives of many amino acids often become annoyingly strenuous due to the necessity of employing protecting groups, on one or more of the amino acid functionalities, during the synthetic sequence. However, in the case of hydroxyamino acids such as hydroxyproline, serine, threonine, tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), many O-acyl side-chain derivatives are directly accessible via a particularly expedient and scalable method not commonly applied until recently. Direct acylation of unprotected hydroxyamino acids with acyl halides or carboxylic anhydrides under appropriately acidic reaction conditions renders possible chemoselective O-acylation, furnishing the corresponding side-chain esters directly, on multigram-scale, in a single step, and without chromatographic purification. Assuming a certain degree of stability under acidic reaction conditions, the method is also applicable for a number of related compounds, such as various amino alcohols and the thiol-functional amino acid cysteine. While the basic methodology underlying this approach has been known for decades, it has evolved through recent developments connected to amino acid-derived chiral organocatalysts to become a more widely recognized procedure for large-scale preparation of many useful side-chain derivatives of hydroxyamino acids and related compounds. Such derivatives are useful in peptide chemistry and drug development, as amino acid amphiphiles for asymmetric catalysis, and as amino acid acrylic precursors for preparation of

  12. Local production of WHO-recommended alcohol-based handrubs: feasibility, advantages, barriers and costs

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Savage, Joanna; Kim, EunMi; Allegranzi, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reduction of health-care-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries is hampered by inadequate supplies of soap and water and the lack or high cost of alcohol-based handrubs (ABHs). Approach In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed and tested two formulations for ABHs that were suitable for production in health-care facilities. In 2011, the feasibility, advantages and costs of the local production of the two formulations – and the barriers to such production – were evaluated in an online survey. Local setting The survey included 34 health-care facilities and 5 private companies in 29 countries. Relevant changes Local production of one of the WHO formulations was feasible in every participating site. Twenty-one (54%) of the sites had replaced a previously used ABH with one of the WHO formulations. In 32 sites, the WHO formulation that had been produced was well tolerated and accepted by health-care workers. The WHO formulations were found to be less expensive than marketed ABHs. Barriers to local production included difficulty in identifying staff with adequate skills, the need for staff training, and constraints in ingredient and dispenser procurement. Lessons learnt The WHO formulations can be easily produced locally at low cost. They are well tolerated and accepted by health-care workers. Potential barriers to their local production – such as their smell and problems in the procurement of ingredients and dispensers and in performing quality control – require further investigation. PMID:24347736

  13. Alcohol hangover induces mitochondrial dysfunction and free radical production in mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Karadayian, A G; Bustamante, J; Czerniczyniec, A; Lombardi, P; Cutrera, R A; Lores-Arnaiz, S

    2015-09-24

    Alcohol hangover (AH) is defined as the temporary state after alcohol binge-like drinking, starting when ethanol (EtOH) is absent in plasma. Previous data indicate that AH induces mitochondrial dysfunction and free radical production in mouse brain cortex. The aim of this work was to study mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species production in mouse cerebellum at the onset of AH. Male mice received a single i.p. injection of EtOH (3.8g/kg BW) or saline solution. Mitochondrial function was evaluated 6h after injection (AH onset). At the onset of AH, malate-glutamate and succinate-supported state 4 oxygen uptake was 2.3 and 1.9-fold increased leading to a reduction in respiratory control of 55% and 48% respectively, as compared with controls. Decreases of 38% and 16% were found in Complex I-III and IV activities. Complex II-III activity was not affected by AH. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability changes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability were decreased by AH in cerebellum mitochondria. Together with this, AH induced a 25% increase in superoxide anion and a 92% increase in hydrogen peroxide production in cerebellum mitochondria. Related to nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein expression was 52% decreased by the hangover condition compared with control group. No differences were found in cerebellum NO production between control and treated mice. The present work demonstrates that the physiopathological state of AH involves mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse cerebellum showing the long-lasting effects of acute EtOH exposure in the central nervous system. PMID:26192095

  14. X (3872) production from reactions involving D and D* mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Torres, A.; Khemchandani, K. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.; Abreu, Luciano M.

    2015-07-01

    In this proceeding we show the results found for the cross sections of the processes D → πX(3872), *D → πX(3872) and *D* → πX(3872), information needed for calculations of the X (3872) abundance in heavy ion collisions. Our formalism is based on the generation of X(3872) from the interaction of the hadrons 0D*0 — c.c, D-D*+ — c.c and D-sD*+s — c.c. The evaluation of the cross section associated with processes having D* meson(s) involves an anomalous vertex, X*D*, which we have determined by considering triangular loops motivated by the molecular nature of X (3872). We find that the contribution of this vertex is important. Encouraged by this finding we estimate the X*D* coupling, which turns out to be 1.95 ± 0.22. We then use it to obtain the cross section for the reaction *D* → πX and find that the X*D* vertex is also relevant in this case. We also discuss the role of the charged components of X in the determination of the production cross sections.

  15. Production of unknown transactinides in asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2005-03-01

    Possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers 104-108 in asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions are studied for the first time. The optimal conditions for the synthesis are suggested in this type of reaction. The products of suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions.

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  17. Significance of melatonin in antioxidative defense system: reactions and products.

    PubMed

    Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Reiter, R J; Qi, W B; Karbownik, M; Calvo, J R

    2000-01-01

    Melatonin is a potent endogenous free radical scavenger, actions that are independent of its many receptor-mediated effects. In the last several years, hundreds of publications have confirmed that melatonin is a broad-spectrum antioxidant. Melatonin has been reported to scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (HO(.)), nitric oxide (NO(.)), peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), superoxide anion (O(2)(-).) and peroxyl radical (LOO(.)), although the validity of its ability to scavenge O(2)(-). and LOO(.) is debatable. Regardless of the radicals scavenged, melatonin prevents oxidative damage at the level of cells, tissues, organs and organisms. The antioxidative mechanisms of melatonin seem different from classical antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. As electron donors, classical antioxidants undergo redox cycling; thus, they have the potential to promote oxidation as well as prevent it. Melatonin, as an electron-rich molecule, may interact with free radicals via an additive reaction to form several stable end-products which are excreted in the urine. Melatonin does not undergo redox cycling and, thus, does not promote oxidation as shown under a variety of experimental conditions. From this point of view, melatonin can be considered a suicidal or terminal antioxidant which distinguishes it from the opportunistic antioxidants. Interestingly, the ability of melatonin to scavenge free radicals is not in a ratio of mole to mole. Indeed, one melatonin molecule scavenges two HO. Also, its secondary and tertiary metabolites, for example, N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine and 6-hydroxymelatonin, which are believed to be generated when melatonin interacts with free radicals, are also regarded as effective free radical scavengers. The continuous free radical scavenging potential of the original molecule (melatonin) and its metabolites may be defined as a

  18. Sporicidal effects of iodine-oxide thermite reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan; Blinkova, Alexandra; Chen, Tiffany

    2012-03-01

    Iodine pentoxide-aluminum thermite reactions have been driven by impacts at 1000 m/s on steel plates 3 mm or thicker. This reaction releases iodine gas that is known to be a sporicide. To test the impact reactions for sporicidal effects, reactions took place in closed chambers containing dried Bacillus subtilis spores. The reduction in colony-forming units was dependent on the exposure time; long exposure times resulted in a 105 decrease in germination rate. This was shown to be due to the gas exposure rather than the heat or turbulence. Sporicidal effectiveness was increased by adding neodymium and saran resin.

  19. Oxidative products from alcohol metabolism differentially modulate pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Zhong, Wei; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Wenliang; Sun, Xinguo; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2016-09-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a vital role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic steatohepatitis. The present study was to determine the role of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in modulating cytokine production. A rat model of alcohol consumption was used to determine alcohol-induced hepatic cytokine expression. Chronic alcohol exposure caused lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the livers of Wistar rats. The role of oxidative stress in regulating cell type-specific cytokine production was further dissected in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently upregulated TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and CINC-1 in Kupffer cells-SV40, whereas TNF-α dose-dependently induced CINC-1, IP-10, and MIP-2 expression in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells. An additive effect on cytokine production was observed in both Kupffer cells-SV40 and hepatocytes when combined hydrogen peroxide with LPS or TNF-α, respectively, which was associated with NF-κB activation and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Unexpectedly, an inhibitory effect of 4-hydroxynonenal on cytokine production was revealed in LPS-treated Kupffer cells-SV40. Mechanistic study showed that 4-hydroxynonenal significantly enhanced mRNA degradation of TNF-α, MCP-1, and MIP-1α, and decreased the protein levels of MCP-1 in LPS-stimulated Kupffer cells-SV40 through reducing the phosphorylation of mRNA binding proteins. This study suggests that Kupffer cells and hepatocytes express distinct pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in response to alcohol intoxication, and oxidative products (4-hydroxynonenal) differentially modulate pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production via NF-κB signaling, histone acetylation, and mRNA stability. PMID:27314544

  20. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  1. Silver(I)-catalyzed novel cascade cyclization reactions: incorporation of allenes into the isochromenes.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitin T; Pahadi, Nirmal K; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2005-11-25

    [reaction: see text] The silver(I)-catalyzed reaction of alkynones with alcohols represents a general tool for the synthesis of 1-allenyl isochromenes. The reaction most probably proceeds via the formation of benzopyrylium cation, which subsequently undergoes nucleophilic attack of an alcohol to give the annulation products. PMID:16292845

  2. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  3. Sporicidal Effects of Iodine-oxide Thermite Reaction Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan; Blinkova, Alexandra; Chen, Tiffany; InstituteAdvanced Tehnology Collaboration; Dept of Molecular Genetics; Microbiology-UT Austin Collaboration; Chemistry; Biochemistry-UT Austin Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    Iodine pentoxide-aluminum thermite reactions have been driven by impacts at 1000 m/s on steel plates 3 mm or thicker. The activation energy of this material reaction is 197 J/g. The reactivity is increased by reducing grain size. This reaction releases iodine gas that is known to be a sporicide. In order to test the impact reactions for sporicidal effects, reactions took place in closed chambers containing dried Bacillus subtilis spores. The reduction in colony-forming units was dependent on the exposure time; long exposure times resulted in a 105 decrease in germination rate. This was shown to be due to the gas exposure and not the heat or turbulence. Sporicidal effectiveness was increased by adding neodymium and saran resin. The sporicidal effect is very dependent on exposure time, ranging from about 90% kill for times on the order of a second to 99.99% for one-hour times.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose for alcohol production. Final report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, T.J.

    1981-09-15

    This report covers the initial phase of a whey-to-glucose-to-alcohol process via an immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor in series with a fermentor. The first stage takes pure lactose and its hydrolysis with a soluble enzyme system. This stage involves the development of an assay to assess conversion in the hydrolysis reaction and the selections of the best reaction conditions for the enzyme selected. For the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme, the best conditions are 45/sup 0/C and pH 6.5. Thus, this enzyme would be more applicable to sweet whey systems rather than to acid whey. In the range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/l enzyme concentration, increased conversion is seen with increased enzyme concentration; however, the economics need to be studied to determine the optimum enzyme level taking into account cost and yield considerations. Some substrate or product inhibition is seen and is especially apparent above 50 g/l substrate concentration. Inhibition needs to be studied in more detail. Stability seems to be a problem with the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme. This may lead to problems in the future immobilization. Alternate processing conditions may have to be determined giving stability considerations the highest priority. Alternate suppliers of lactase can also be investigated. Acid denaturation seems to be more reliable than heat denaturation. Whether buffer or water is used in enzyme reconstitution makes little short-term difference in conversion. However, there may be an effect on long-term stability. 33 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Maleic anhydride-polyether-polyamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1987-04-21

    A material is described having a use as a motor fuel additive for controlling engine octane requirement increase (ORI), controlling and reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide engine emissions, and having carburetor detergency properties. The material is the reaction product of maleic anhydride, a polyether polyamine, preferably a polyether diamine, and a hydrocarbyl polyamine, preferably an n-alkyl-alkylene diamine. A concentrate comprising the prescribed reaction product dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent is also described. Motor fuels containing the reaction product additive of the instant invention show improved ORI control and carburetor detergency in comparison with motor fuels without the reaction product additive.

  6. Optimization of honey-must preparation and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mead production.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Ferreira, A; Cosme, F; Barbosa, C; Falco, V; Inês, A; Mendes-Faia, A

    2010-11-15

    Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete. Despite of the use of starter cultures several problems still persist such as lack of uniformity of the final products, slow or premature fermentation arrest and the production of off-flavors by yeast. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize mead production through the use of an appropriate honey-must formulation to improve yeast performance alcoholic fermentation and thereby obtain a high quality product. Honey-must was centrifuged to reduce insoluble solids, pasteurized at 65°C for 10 min, and then subjected to different conditions: nitrogen supplementation and addition of organic acids. Although the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) reduced fermentation length, it did not guarantee the completeness of the fermentation process, suggesting that other factors could account for the reduced yeast activity in honey-must fermentations. Sixteen yeast-derived aroma compounds which contribute to the sensorial quality of mead were identified and quantified. Global analysis of aromatic profiles revealed that the total concentration of aroma compounds in meads was higher in those fermentations where DAP was added. A positive correlation between nitrogen availability and the levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated to the fruity character of fermented beverages, was observed whereas the presence of potassium tartrate and malic acid decreased, in general, their concentration. This study provides very useful information that can be used for improving mead quality. PMID:20937538

  7. Feasibility study for the production of ethyl alcohol and xanthan polymer from barley fermentation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    Feasibility study results indicate that the project meets most criteria for economic and technical viability. The final process selected will produce an aftertax discounted cash flow rate of return between 33 and 41%. This level of return will occur over the range of raw material, energy and product unit prices that are probable over the next decade. In a typical year, using present day costs, the plant will produce gross revenue of $11,531,000 against production costs of $6,836,000. Pretax cash flow will be $5,947,000. This appears adequate to service acceptable levels of debt required to finance the $12,521,000 anticipated construction cost. The first year total cost including an initial three-month working capital reserve will be $13,620,000. The plant is designed to produce three major products: ethyl alcohol, distiller's dried grains and solubles and xanthan polymer. The individual process steps chosen to produce these products have all been demonstrated at the commercial level at other facilities. A pilot program has been in operation for nine months at the RBI facility to develop fermentation and recovery data on the xanthan process and to provide samples for customer comment and evaluation.

  8. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages. PMID:25616436

  9. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products with... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction...

  13. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  14. Polumeric electrode coated with reaction product of cyclic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Maxfield, M.; Elsenbaumer, R.L.; Shacklette, L.W.

    1984-09-18

    Batteries are disclosed with electrodes, especially cathodes, having a conjugated backbone polymer such as polyacetylene as electroactive material and a coating. The coating is formed by reaction between the oxidized polymer and a pyrrole, thiophene, azulene, furan or aniline compound.

  15. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  16. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

  17. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. PMID:24432652

  18. An assessment of potential degradation products in the gas-phase reactions of alternative fluorocarbons in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niki, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric chemical transformations of alternative hydrofluorocarbons (HCF's) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) are governed by hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation processes, which are likely to be analogous to those known for alkanes and chloroalkanes. A schematic diagram is used to illustrate plausible reaction mechanisms for their atmospheric degradation, where R, R', and R'' denote the F- and/or Cl-substituted alkyl groups derived from HCF's and HCFC's subsequent th the initial H atom abstraction by HO radicals. At present, virtually no kinetic data exist for the majority of these reactions, particularly for those involving RO. Potential degradation intermediates and final products include a large variety of fluorine- and/or chlorine-containing carbonyls, acids, peroxy acids, alcohols, hydrogen peroxides, nitrates and peroxy nitrates, as summarized in the attached table. Probably atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds were also estimated. For some carbonyl and nitrate products shown in this table, there seem to be no significant gas-phase removal mechanisms. Further chemical kinetics and photochemical data are needed to quantitatively assess the atmospheric fate of HCF's and HCFC's, and of the degradation products postulated in this report.

  19. Product distribution for the reaction of HO2 with ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports the direct measurement of the reaction product HOCl from the reaction of H2O with ClO, and sets an upper limit for the possible product O3, using a discharge flow/mass spectrometry/resonance fluorescence apparatus. The upper limits of the reaction channel producing HCl + O3 are 1.5% at 298 K and 3.0% at 248 K. It is seen that the HCl production rate from the HO2 + ClO reaction could be as large as that from the Cl + CH4 reaction in the lower and middle stratosphere. Thus, this reaction may possibly increase the HCl production rate appreciably and thereby reduce the calculated O3 destruction by chlorofluoromethanes.

  20. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  1. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I) Design Policy. The borrower shall ensure or cause to be ensured that: (A) All project facilities...

  2. [Determination of low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Gai, Qingqing; Wu, Peng; Shi, Yulin; Bai, Yu; Long, Yinhua

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of low-carbon (C1-C8) alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was developed by gas chromatography. It included the optimization of separation conditions, the precision and accuracy of determination, and the use of correction factors of the analytes to ethanol for quantification. The aqueous products showed that the correlation coefficients for ethanol in different content ranges were above 0.99, which means it had good linear correlations. The spiked recoveries in the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were from 93.4% to 109.6%. The accuracy of the method can satisfy the requirement for the analysis of the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The results showed that the total mass fractions of the major low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes, ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were about 3%-12%, and the contents of ethanol were the highest (about 1.7%-7.3%). The largest share of the total proportion was n-alcohols, followed by isomeric alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the lowest. This method is simple, fast, and has great significance for the analysis of important components in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. PMID:25958675

  3. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  5. Dynamical Effects and Product Distributions in Simulated CN + Methane Reactions.

    PubMed

    Preston, Thomas J; Hornung, Balázs; Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Harvey, Jeremy N; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-07-14

    Dynamics of collisions between structured molecular species quickly become complex as molecules become large. Reactions of methane with halogen and oxygen atoms serve as model systems for polyatomic molecule chemical dynamics, and replacing the atomic reagent with a diatomic radical affords further insights. A new, full-dimensional potential energy surface for collisions between CN + CH4 to form HCN + CH3 is developed and then used to perform quasi-classical simulations of the reaction. Coupled-cluster energies serve as input to an empirical valence bonding (EVB) model, which provides an analytical function for the surface. Efficient sampling permits simulation of velocity-map ion images and exploration of dynamics over a range of collision energies. Reaction populates HCN vibration, and energy partitioning changes with collision energy. The reaction cross-section depends on the orientation of the diatomic CN radical. A two-dimensional extension of the cone of acceptance for an atom in the line-of-centers model appropriately describes its reactivity. The simulation results foster future experiments and diatomic extensions to existing atomic models of chemical collisions and reaction dynamics. PMID:26812395

  6. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10448 Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic)....

  7. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2582 Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic)....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2582 Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic)....

  13. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10448 Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic)....

  15. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8085 Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic)....

  17. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2582 Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic)....

  19. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8085 Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic)....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10484 Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2582 Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic)....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10484 Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8085 Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic)....

  4. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8085 Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic)....

  5. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8085 Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic)....

  8. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN P-09... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10679 Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2582 Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic)....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products...

  11. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  12. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  13. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C9-C15 branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  14. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C(9)-C(15) branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  15. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  16. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  17. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  18. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  19. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  20. Utility of spectral measurements of secondary reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.E.

    1986-02-01

    The spectra of 15 MeV protons and 14 MeV neutrons produced in the burnup of 0.8 MeV THe ions and 1 MeV tritons through the d(THe,p) and d(t,n) fusion reactions contain information on the velocity distributions of the energetic THe ions and tritons. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Enhancing Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: Reactions to Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.

    2005-01-01

    The present reaction responds to the three research-related core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist." I agree that too few of our studies are based on theories or models. Using the nomological network, I suggest how research ideas can more readily be depicted to allow model and theory testing. I…

  2. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke for gasoline additive. Proucavanje mogucnosti proizvodnje alkohola iz topinambura kao dodatka u benzin

    SciTech Connect

    Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.

  3. Estimating fatty alcohol contributions to the environment from laundry and personal care products using a market forensics approach.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen M; DeLeo, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Fatty alcohol-based surfactants are widely used in detergents and personal care products; they are typically disposed of down-the-drain and are degraded or removed during wastewater treatment. Analytical data had shown concentration and profile differences between regions of the United States. Market sales data were purchased relevant to the sampling dates. In combination with analysis of the fatty alcohol profiles in the top selling products, the influent profiles were reconstructed and compared to the whole U.S. sales data. The per capita usage rate for fatty alcohols through these 4000+ top selling products was 4.9 g per day, with 88% arising from liquid laundry detergents and hand dish detergents. This extrapolates to a national usage of 185,000 tonnes per year. There were significant differences in the purchasing habits of the inhabitants across the four regions sampled, although this had minimal impact on the fatty alcohol profile which was dominated by the C12 moiety. The U.S. market was also dominated by petrochemically-sourced chemicals. This market forensics approach using purchased sales data was able to extend our knowledge of the fate of these chemicals without a major (expensive) sampling and analytical campaign. PMID:24220601

  4. Studying Reaction Intermediates Formed at Graphenic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Sen Gupta, Soujit; Narayanan, Rahul; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2014-03-01

    We report in-situ production and detection of intermediates at graphenic surfaces, especially during alcohol oxidation. Alcohol oxidation to acid occurs on graphene oxide-coated paper surface, driven by an electrical potential, in a paper spray mass spectrometry experiment. As paper spray ionization is a fast process and the time scale matches with the reaction time scale, we were able to detect the intermediate, acetal. This is the first observation of acetal formed in surface oxidation. The process is not limited to alcohols and the reaction has been extended to aldehydes, amines, phosphenes, sugars, etc., where reaction products were detected instantaneously. By combining surface reactions with ambient ionization and mass spectrometry, we show that new insights into chemical reactions become feasible. We suggest that several other chemical transformations may be studied this way. This work opens up a new pathway for different industrially and energetically important reactions using different metal catalysts and modified substrate.

  5. The Phase Behavior Effect on the Reaction Engineering of Transesterification Reactions and Reactor Design for Continuous Biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csernica, Stephen N.

    transitions from two phases to a single phase, or pseudo-single phase. The transition to a single phase or pseudo-single phase is a function of the methanol content. Regardless, the maximum observed reaction rate occurs at the point of the phase transition, when the concentration of triglycerides in the methanol phase is largest. The phase transition occurs due to the accumulation of the primary product, biodiesel methyl esters. Through various experiments, it was determined that the rate of the triglyceride mass transfer into the methanol phase, as well as the solubility of triglycerides in methanol, increases with increasing methyl ester concentration. Thus, there exists some critical methyl ester concentration which favors the formation of a single or pseudo-single phase system. The effect of the by-product glycerol on the reaction kinetics was also investigated. It was determined that at low methanol to triglyceride molar ratios, glycerol acts to inhibit the reaction rate and limit the overall triglyceride conversion. This occurs because glycerol accumulates in the methanol phase, i.e. the primary reaction volume. When glycerol is at relatively high concentrations within the methanol phase, triglycerides become excluded from the reaction volume. This greatly reduces the reaction rate and limits the overall conversion. As the concentration of methanol is increased, glycerol becomes diluted and the inhibitory effects become dampened. Assuming pseudo-homogeneous phase behavior, a simple kinetic model incorporating the inhibitory effects of glycerol was proposed based on batch reactor data. The kinetic model was primarily used to theoretically compare the performance of different types of continuous flow reactors for continuous biodiesel production. It was determined that the inhibitory effects of glycerol result in the requirement of very large reactor volumes when using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The reactor volume can be greatly reduced using tubular style

  6. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

  7. Effect of an allophanic soil on humification reactions between catechol and glycine: Spectroscopic investigations of reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masami; Miura, Akitaka; Sasaki, Masahide; Izumo, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Adduction of amino acids to phenols is a possible humification reaction pathway [F.J. Stevenson, Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reaction, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1994, pp. 188-211; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Sci. Total Environ. 62 (1987) 435; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55 (1991) 1156; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 112 (2003) 31; M.C. Wang, P.M. Huang, Geoderma 124 (2005) 415]. To elucidate the reaction kinetics and products of abiotic humification, the effects of an allophanic soil on the adduction of amino acids to phenols were investigated using catechol (CT) and glycine (Gly) as a model phenol and amino acid, respectively. An aqueous solution containing CT and Gly (pH 7.0) in the presence of allophanic soil was incubated for 2 weeks, and the kinetics of the humification reactions were monitored by analysis of absorptivity at 600 nm ( E600). A mixture of CT and Gly in the absence of allophanic soil was used as a control. The E600 value increased markedly in the presence of allophanic soil. In addition, unreacted CT was detected in the control reaction mixture, but not in the allophane-containing reaction mixture. Under the sterilized conditions, absorbance at 600 nm for the control reaction mixture was significantly smaller than that for the allophanic soil-containing reaction mixture, which indicates there was no microbial participation during incubation. These results indicate that the allophanic soil effectively facilitated humification reactions between CT and Gly. The reaction mixtures were acidified and humic-like acid (HLA) was isolated as a precipitate. The elemental composition, acidic functional group contents, molecular weight, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C NMR, and 1H NMR spectra of the purified HLAs were analyzed. The results of these analyses indicate that the nitrogen atom of Gly binds to the aromatic carbon of CT in the HLA products.

  8. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 °C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 °C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar. PMID:26051497

  9. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-07-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field.

  10. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton’s second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:27377532

  11. Origin of Nanobubbles Electrochemically Formed in a Magnetic Field: Ionic Vacancy Production in Electrode Reaction.

    PubMed

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto; Oshikiri, Yoshinobu; Miura, Miki; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Mogi, Iwao; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    As a process complementing conventional electrode reactions, ionic vacancy production in electrode reaction was theoretically examined; whether reaction is anodic or cathodic, based on the momentum conservation by Newton's second law of motion, electron transfer necessarily leads to the emission of original embryo vacancies, and dielectric polarization endows to them the same electric charge as trans- ferred in the reaction. Then, the emitted embryo vacancies immediately receive the thermal relaxation of solution particles to develop steady-state vacancies. After the vacancy production, nanobubbles are created by the collision of the vacancies in a vertical magnetic field. PMID:27377532

  12. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Register on December 17, 2007 (72 FR 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices (58 FR 48705). DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2010. FOR... Administration (NHTSA) published the Standards for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A...

  13. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsies from alcoholics using a simplified and standardized amplification protocol.

    PubMed

    von Weizsäcker, F; Blum, H E; Wands, J R

    1994-05-01

    Sixty-seven formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded liver biopsies from HBsAg-negative alcoholics without previous blood transfusions or intravenous drug abuse were analyzed for the presence of low-level hepatitis B virus DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. To simplify and standardize the amplification procedure, aliquots of a complete polymerase chain reaction mix were prepared and frozen for storage; random samples were tested prior to analysis of clinical material. Freezing and storage of the aliquots did not affect the activity of Taq polymerase. One large batch of ready-to-use aliquots could thus be used as a standardized polymerase chain reaction kit for all experiments. The suitability of the extracted material for polymerase chain reaction analysis was tested in two ways. First, the absence of nonspecific polymerase chain reaction inhibitors was demonstrated in all samples by amplifying cloned hepatitis B virus DNA in the presence of extracted material. Second, the integrity of the extracted DNA was tested by amplifying a segment of the beta-globin gene. Twenty-three samples were beta-globin DNA positive and thus contained sufficient amounts of nondegraded DNA. These results emphasize the importance of testing both the absence of nonspecific inhibitors and DNA integrity in DNA samples extracted from fixed tissue. Among the 23 beta-globin positive samples, 12 had cirrhosis (52.1%). Two of these samples were hepatitis B virus DNA positive (8.7%); one of these cases had cirrhosis. Thus, even in the absence of common risk factors, the incidence of hepatitis B virus in this alcoholic population was increased compared to the general population. PMID:8071542

  14. Low Fermentation pH Is a Trigger to Alcohol Production, but a Killer to Chain Elongation.

    PubMed

    Ganigué, Ramon; Sánchez-Paredes, Patricia; Bañeras, Lluis; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Gasification of organic wastes coupled to syngas fermentation allows the recovery of carbon in the form of commodity chemicals, such as carboxylates and biofuels. Acetogenic bacteria ferment syngas to mainly two-carbon compounds, although a few strains can also synthesize four-, and six-carbon molecules. In general, longer carbon chain products have a higher biotechnological (and commercial) value due to their higher energy content and their lower water solubility. However, de-novo synthesis of medium-chain products from syngas is quite uncommon in acetogenic bacteria. An alternative to de-novo synthesis is bioproduction of short-chain products (C2 and C4), and their subsequent elongation to C4, C6, or C8 through reversed β-oxidation metabolism. This two-step synergistic approach has been successfully applied for the production of up to C8 compounds, although the accumulation of alcohols in these mixed cultures remained below detection limits. The present work investigates the production of higher alcohols from syngas by open mixed cultures (OMC). A syngas-fermenting community was enriched from sludge of an anaerobic digester for a period of 109 days in a lab-scale reactor. At the end of this period, stable production of ethanol and butanol was obtained. C6 compounds were only transiently produced at the beginning of the enrichment phase, during which Clostridium kluyveri, a bacterium able to carry out carbon chain elongation, was detected in the community. Further experiments showed pH as a critical parameter to maintain chain elongation activity in the co-culture. Production of C6 compounds was recovered by preventing fermentation pH to decrease below pH 4.5-5. Finally, experiments showed maximal production of C6 compounds (0.8 g/L) and alcohols (1.7 g/L of ethanol, 1.1 g/L of butanol, and 0.6 g/L of hexanol) at pH 4.8. In conclusion, low fermentation pH is critical for the production of alcohols, although detrimental to C. kluyveri. Fine control of fermentation

  15. Low Fermentation pH Is a Trigger to Alcohol Production, but a Killer to Chain Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Ganigué, Ramon; Sánchez-Paredes, Patricia; Bañeras, Lluis; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Gasification of organic wastes coupled to syngas fermentation allows the recovery of carbon in the form of commodity chemicals, such as carboxylates and biofuels. Acetogenic bacteria ferment syngas to mainly two-carbon compounds, although a few strains can also synthesize four-, and six-carbon molecules. In general, longer carbon chain products have a higher biotechnological (and commercial) value due to their higher energy content and their lower water solubility. However, de-novo synthesis of medium-chain products from syngas is quite uncommon in acetogenic bacteria. An alternative to de-novo synthesis is bioproduction of short-chain products (C2 and C4), and their subsequent elongation to C4, C6, or C8 through reversed β-oxidation metabolism. This two-step synergistic approach has been successfully applied for the production of up to C8 compounds, although the accumulation of alcohols in these mixed cultures remained below detection limits. The present work investigates the production of higher alcohols from syngas by open mixed cultures (OMC). A syngas-fermenting community was enriched from sludge of an anaerobic digester for a period of 109 days in a lab-scale reactor. At the end of this period, stable production of ethanol and butanol was obtained. C6 compounds were only transiently produced at the beginning of the enrichment phase, during which Clostridium kluyveri, a bacterium able to carry out carbon chain elongation, was detected in the community. Further experiments showed pH as a critical parameter to maintain chain elongation activity in the co-culture. Production of C6 compounds was recovered by preventing fermentation pH to decrease below pH 4.5–5. Finally, experiments showed maximal production of C6 compounds (0.8 g/L) and alcohols (1.7 g/L of ethanol, 1.1 g/L of butanol, and 0.6 g/L of hexanol) at pH 4.8. In conclusion, low fermentation pH is critical for the production of alcohols, although detrimental to C. kluyveri. Fine control of

  16. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    PubMed

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (<75 mg/L) nitrogen content, and four enological yeast strains, were used in cider fermentation. The aspartic acid, asparagine and glutamic acid amino acids were the majority in all the apple juices, representing 57.10% to 81.95%. These three amino acids provided a high consumption (>90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. PMID:25920613

  17. Impact of reaction products from building materials and furnishings on indoor air quality—A review of recent advances in indoor chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.

    The variety of chemical substances present in modern building products, household products and furnishings provides potential for chemical reactions in the material (case 1), on the material surface (case 2) and in the gas phase (case 3). Such "indoor chemistry" is known as one of the main reasons for primary and secondary emissions. The conditions of production often cause unwanted side reactions and a number of new compounds can be found in finished products. Elevated temperatures are responsible for the degradation of cellulose, decomposition of non-heat-resistant additives and other thermally induced reactions like Diels-Alder synthesis. Heterogeneous chemistry takes place on the surface of materials. Well-known examples are the formation of aliphatic aldehydes from the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids or the cleavage of photoinitiators under the influence of light. In case of composite flooring structures hydrolysis is one of the major pathways for the appearance of alcohols from esters. If different kinds of material are fixed together, emissions of new VOCs formed by inter-species reactions are possible. Other indoor air pollutants are formed by rearrangement of cleavage products or by metabolism. Compounds with -C dbnd C- bonds like terpenes, styrene, 4-phenylcyclohexene, etc. undergo gas phase reactions with O 3, NO x, OH and other reactive gases. It has been shown that such products derived from indoor-related reactions may have a negative impact on indoor air quality due to their low odor threshold or health-related properties. Therefore, the understanding of primary and secondary emissions and the chemical processes behind is essential for the evaluation of indoor air quality. This publication gives an overview on the current state of research and new findings regarding primary and secondary emissions from building products and furnishings.

  18. C-Propargylation Overrides O-Propargylation in Reactions of Propargyl Chloride with Primary Alcohols: Rhodium-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Woo, Sang Kook; Krische, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    The canonical SN 2 behavior displayed by alcohols and activated alkyl halides in basic media (O-alkylation) is superseded by a pathway leading to carbinol C-alkylation under the conditions of rhodium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Racemic and asymmetric propargylations are described. PMID:27321353

  19. The reaction of cobaloximes with hydrogen: Products and thermodynamics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Estes, Deven P.; Grills, David C.; Norton, Jack R.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, a cobalt hydride has been proposed as an intermediate in many reactions of the Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ system, but its observation has proven difficult. We have observed the UV–vis spectra of Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ (1) in CH₃CN under hydrogen pressures up to 70 atm. A Co(I) compound (6), with an exchangeable proton, is eventually formed. We have determined the bond dissociation free energy and pKa of the new O–H bond in 6 to be 50.5 kcal/mol and 13.4, respectively, in CH₃CN, matching previous reports.

  20. Reaction kinetics and product distributions in photoelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Hot electron reaction studies at p-InP/CH[sub 3]CN interface revealed essential/desirable features for redox systems used to investigate hot carriers in photoelectrocehmical cells. Reduction of dibromoethylbenzene (DBEB) in presence of metallocene couples is being studied using rotating rink disk electrodes of n-and p-InP disks and Pt rings. At highly doped p-InP electrodes, reduction of DBEB can be very efficient (>30%). A minielectrochemical cell was used to investigate electron transfer at nonilluminated n-WSe[sub 2]/dimethylferrocene[sup +/0] interfaces.

  1. Production of heavy actinides in incomplete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, N. V.; Cherepanov, E. A.; Iljinov, A. S.; Mebel, M. V.

    1994-10-01

    We present preliminary results of calculations by the phenomenological model of the estimated yield of some heavy actinide isotopes. It is assumed that these isotopes are produced as a result of multinucleon transfers followed by neutrons and charged particle emission A.S. Iljinov and E.A. Cherepanov (1980). The yield P(sub Z, N)(E*) of primary excited actinides is found using the model of N.V. Antonenko and R.V. Jolos (1991). Absolute cross-sections for different binary reaction channels are obtained by summing the cross-sections for all subchannels with an appreciable yield according to J. Wilczynski et al. (1980).

  2. Facile production of thermoelectric bismuth telluride thick films in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lei, C; Burton, M R; Nandhakumar, I S

    2016-06-01

    Bismuth telluride is currently the best performing thermoelectric material for room temperature operations in commercial thermoelectric devices. We report the reproducible and facile production of 600 micron thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) layers by low cost and room temperature pulsed and potentiostatic electrodeposition from a solution containing bismuth and tellurium dioxide in 2 M nitric acid onto nickel in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was added to the electrolyte to promote thick layer formation and its effect on the structure, morphology and composition of the electrodeposits was investigated by SEM and EDX. Well adherent, uniform, compact and stoichiometric n-type Bi2Te3 films with a high Seebeck coefficient of up to -200 μV K(-1) and a high electrical conductivity of up to 400 S cm(-1) resulting in a power factor of 1.6 × 10(-3) W m(-1) K(-2) at film growth rates of 100 μm h(-1) for potentiostatic electrodeposition were obtained. The films also exhibited a well defined hexagonal structure as determined by XRD. PMID:27166737

  3. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg(2+)-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C-O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface. PMID:27619990

  4. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  5. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  6. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  7. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  8. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  9. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  10. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  11. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E.

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  12. Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov Reactions for the Formation of Alkyl Halides and Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessley, Rita K.

    2000-06-01

    Early in sophomore-level organic chemistry students are introduced to reaction mechanisms, and it is at this stage when they tend to become convinced that memorization is the skill they need to hone in order to succeed. This paper describes how the early introduction of molecular modeling for the study of reaction mechanisms leading to alcohols from alkenes can increase students' involvement in their own learning and can effectively challenge their misapprehension about memorization. It describes the use of modeling to emphasize structure-reactivity relationships rather than focusing on reagents, and tries to show that the use of molecular modeling is well suited for classroom and laboratory use as well as to assist students' study. Particularly in an educational setting that stresses collaborative or interactive learning, the methodology described here can be rewarding for teachers and students alike.

  13. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  14. Optical model methods of predicting nuclide production from spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, C. R.; Townsend, L. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Quantum mechanical optical model methods for calculating isotope production cross sections from the spallation of heavy nuclei by high-energy protons are developed from a modified abrasion-ablation collision formalism. The abrasion step is treated quantum-mechanically as a knockout process which leaves the residual prefragment nucleus in an excited state. In ablation the prefragment deexcites to produce the final fragment. The excitation energies of the prefragments are estimated from a combination of liquid drop and frictional-spectator interaction considerations. Estimates of elemental and isotopic production cross sections are in good agreement with recently published cross section measurements.

  15. Miscible viscous fingering involving production of gel by chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsu, Yuichiro; Hoshino, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated miscible viscous fingering with chemical reactions producing gel. Here, two systems were employed. In one system, sodium polyacrylate (SPA) solution and aluminum ion (Al3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In another system, SPA solution and ferric ion (Fe3 +) solution were used as the more and less viscous liquids, respectively. In the case of Al3 +, displacement efficiency was smaller than that in the non-reactive case, whereas in the case of Fe3 +, the displacement efficiency was larger. We consider that the difference in change of the patterns in the two systems will be caused by the difference in the properties of the gels. Therefore, we have measured the rheological properties of the gels by means of a rheometer. We discuss relationship between the VF patterns and the rheological measurement.

  16. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM THE REACTION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is of biological significance and may be implicated in the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic. The course of the reaction in aqueous phase was monitored and an initial product, dimethylthioarsin...

  17. Reactions between beta-lactoglobulin and genipin: kinetics and characterization of the products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we present the first detailed report of the reaction kinetics studies and the characterization of the products from the endothermic reactions between beta-lactoglobulin and genipin. The effects of concentration, temperature, and pH were examined. In the temperature range studied, th...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction...

  20. Mapping Students' Conceptual Modes When Thinking about Chemical Reactions Used to Make a Desired Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, M. L.; Talanquer, V.

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this qualitative research study was to uncover major implicit assumptions that students with different levels of training in the discipline apply when thinking and making decisions about chemical reactions used to make a desired product. In particular, we elicited different ways of conceptualizing why chemical reactions happen…