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Sample records for alcohols reaction products

  1. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  3. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10301 - Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane, glycidol, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of fatty alcohols... Substances § 721.10301 Reaction products of fatty alcohols, (aminoethylaminopropyl) dialkoxymethylsilane... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by... methacrylate-dye reaction product listed under this section into commerce shall submit to the Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3127 - Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction... Vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate-dye reaction products. (a) Identity. The color additives are formed by reacting the dyes, either alone or in combination, with a vinyl alcohol/methyl methacrylate copolymer,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  6. An experimental kinetic study and products research of the reactions of O3 with a series of unsaturated alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Sanping; Tong, Shengrui; Ge, Maofa

    2016-11-01

    The gas-phase reactions of unsaturated alcohols with O3 were investigated in FEP Teflon film chamber at 298 K and 760 torr of atmosphere pressure. The rate constants of the reactions of C6-C8 alkenols with O3 were determined using both the absolute and the relative rate method, and the measured values were (5.96 ± 0.35) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (5.12 ± 0.30) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol, and (5.66 ± 0.52) × 10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for (Z)-3-octen-1-ol, respectively. The gas-phase products of these reactions mentioned above were detected using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrum (PTR-MS). HOCH2CH2CHO, CH2CH2CHO, HCHO and CH3CHO were identified as the main gas products for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. HOCH2CH2CHO and CH3(CH2)2CHO dominated the gaseous products for (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol. And for (Z)-3-octen-1-ol, CH3(CH2)3CHO, CH3(CH2)2CHO and HOCH2CH2CHO were the main gaseous products. The SOA yields were monitored at the same time, which were 0.184 ± 0.013, 0.213 ± 0.017, 0.232 ± 0.021 for (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol and (Z)-3-octen-1-ol, respectively. The possible reaction mechanisms were proposed and discussed. The kinetic data presented here has been used to estimate their atmosphere lifetimes and the reaction reactivity. The atmosphere implication of these reactions has also been discussed.

  7. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  8. Manganese-Mediated Coupling Reaction of Vinylarenes and Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Wang, Yan-Jing; Lan, Xing-Wang; Xing, Yalan; Li, Yi-He; Wen, Jia-Long

    2015-01-01

    Alcohols and alkenes are the most abundant and commonly used organic building blocks in the large-scale chemical synthesis. Herein, this is the first time to report a novel and operationally simple coupling reaction of vinylarenes and aliphatic alcohols catalyzed by manganese in the presence of TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). This coupling reaction provides the oxyalkylated products of vinylarenes with good regioselectivity and accomplishes with the principles of step-economies. A possible reaction mechanism has also been proposed. PMID:26470633

  9. Selective surface reactions of single crystal metal carbides: alkene production from short chain alcohols on titanium carbide and vanadium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenard, Rebecca L.; Fernández-Torres, Luis C.; Kim, Byung-Il; Perry, Scott S.; Frantz, Peter; Didziulis, Stephen V.

    2002-08-01

    The adsorption and reaction of ethanol and 2-propanol on the (1 0 0) surface of single crystal vanadium carbide (VC) and titanium carbide (TiC) have been studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. A mixture of molecular and dissociative adsorption is observed at cryogenic temperatures on both of the carbide surfaces. Dissociative adsorption of the short chain alcohols leads to the formation of an alkoxy intermediate at 153 K on both VC(1 0 0) and TiC(1 0 0). With increasing temperature, the alkoxy intermediate selectively reacts with the carbide surfaces to produce an alkene. A comparison of TPD intensities indicates that dissociative adsorption occurs to a greater extent on TiC; however, the reaction yield for dehydration of the alkoxy surface species is ˜20% greater on VC(1 0 0) as compared to TiC(1 0 0). Specific isotopic labeling studies of the ethanol reaction identify γ-hydride elimination as a key step in alkene formation on VC(1 0 0). This pattern of reactivity on metal carbide surfaces significantly differs from the decomposition reactions, producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, or the β-hydride elimination reactions, producing an aldehyde and hydrogen, that are observed on most transition metal surfaces.

  10. Dehydrative cross-coupling reactions of allylic alcohols with olefins.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-08-25

    The direct dehydrative activation of allylic alcohols and subsequent cross-coupling with alkenes by using palladium catalyst containing a phosphoramidite ligand is described. The activation of the allyl alcohol does not require stoichiometric additives, thus allowing clean, waste-free reactions. The scope is demonstrated by application of the protocol to a series allylic alcohols and vinyl arenes, leading to variety of 1,4-diene products. Based on kinetic studies, a mechanism is proposed that involves a palladium hydride species that activates the allyl alcohol to form the allyl intermediate.

  11. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation.

    PubMed

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F

    2016-06-15

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the α-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the β-O reaction. The catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  12. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; Crowley, Michael F.

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of the $\\alpha$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $\\beta$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.

  13. Coupling and Reactions of 5-Hydroxyconiferyl Alcohol in Lignin Formation

    DOE PAGES

    Elder, Thomas; Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T.; ...

    2016-05-28

    The catechol alcohols, caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, may be incorporated into lignin either naturally or through genetic manipulation. Due to the presence of o-OH groups, these compounds form benzodioxanes, a departure from the interunit connections found in lignins derived from the cinnamyl alcohols. In nature, lignins composed of caffeyl and 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol are linear homopolymers and, as such, may have properties that make them amenable for use in value-added products, such as lignin-based carbon fibers. In the current work, results from density functional theory calculations for the reactions of 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, taking stereochemistry into account, are reported. Dehydrogenation and quinone methide formation are found to be thermodynamically favored for 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol, over coniferyl alcohol. The comparative energetics of the rearomatization reactions suggest that the formation of the benzodioxane linkage is under kinetic control. Ring-opening reactions of the benzodioxane groups show that the bond dissociation enthalpy of themore » $$\\alpha$$-O cleavage reaction is lower than that of the $$\\beta$$-O reaction. In conclusion, the catechol lignins represent a novel form of the polymer that may offer new opportunities for bioproducts and genetic targets.« less

  14. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  15. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  16. Mechanism of the reactions of alcohols with o-benzynes.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Patrick H; Niu, Dawen; Wang, Tao; Haj, Moriana K; Cramer, Christopher J; Hoye, Thomas R

    2014-10-01

    We have studied reactions of secondary and primary alcohols with benzynes generated by the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction. These alcohols undergo competitive addition vs dihydrogen transfer to produce aryl ethers vs reduced benzenoid products, respectively. During the latter process, an equivalent amount of oxidized ketone (or aldehyde) is formed. Using deuterium labeling studies, we determined that (i) it is the carbinol C-H and adjacent O-H hydrogen atoms that are transferred during this process and (ii) the mechanism is consistent with a hydride-like transfer of the C-H. Substrates bearing an internal trap attached to the reactive, HDDA-derived benzyne intermediate were used to probe the kinetic order of the alcohol trapping agent in the H2-transfer as well as in the alcohol addition process. The H2-transfer reaction is first order in alcohol. Our results are suggestive of a concerted H2-transfer process, which is further supported by density functional theory (DFT) computational studies and results of a kinetic isotope effect experiment. In contrast, alcohol addition to the benzyne is second order in alcohol, a previously unrecognized phenomenon. Additional DFT studies were used to further probe the mechanistic aspects of the alcohol addition process.

  17. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  18. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  19. Fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1982-11-16

    An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  20. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  1. Specificity of maltase to maltose in three different directions of reaction: hydrolytic, vanillyl alcohol glucoside and vanillyl alcohol isomaltoside synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Veličković, Dušan; Milosavić, Nenad; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Vanillyl alcohol glucoside is very attractive molecule due to its very powerful physiological activity. In this article, a detailed kinetic study of transglucosylation of vanillyl alcohol was performed. It was demonstrated that this reaction is very efficient (selectivity factor is 149) and occurred by a ping-pong mechanism with inhibition by glucose acceptor. At low concentration of vanillyl alcohol one additional transglucosylation product was detected. Its structure was determined to be α-isomaltoside of vanillyl alcohol, indicating that vanillyl alcohol glucoside is a product of the first transglucosylation reaction and a substrate for second, so the whole reaction mechanism was proposed. It was demonstrated that the rate of isomaltoside synthesis is two orders of magnitude smaller than glucoside synthesis, and that maltase has interestingly high K(m) value to maltose when vanillyl alcohol glucoside is second transglucosylation substrate.

  2. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  3. Fatty alcohols production by oleaginous yeast.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Gibert, Jordi; Suárez, Beatriz; Lara, Armando; Ronchel, Carmen; Adrio, José L

    2015-11-01

    We have engineered Rhodosporidium toruloides to produce fatty alcohols by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. Production of fatty alcohols in flasks was achieved in different fermentation media at titers ranging from 0.2 to 2 g/L. In many of the conditions tested, more than 80 % of fatty alcohols were secreted into the cultivation broth. Through fed-batch fermentation in 7 L bioreactors, over 8 g/L of C(16)-C(18) fatty alcohols were produced using sucrose as the substrate. This is the highest titer ever reported on microbial production of fatty alcohols to date.

  4. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  5. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  6. Dual stereoselectivity in the dialkylzinc reaction using (-)-beta-pinene derived amino alcohol chiral auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Binder, Caitlin M; Bautista, April; Zaidlewicz, Marek; Krzemiński, Marek P; Oliver, Allen; Singaram, Bakthan

    2009-03-20

    (+)-Nopinone, prepared from naturally occurring (-)-beta-pinene, was converted to the two regioisomeric amino alcohols 3-MAP and 2-MAP in very good yield and excellent isomeric purity. Amino alcohol 3-MAP was synthesized by converting (+)-nopinone to the corresponding alpha-ketooxime. This was reduced to the primary amino alcohol and was converted to the morpholino group through a simple substitution reaction. 3-MAP was characterized by X-ray crystallography, which displayed the rigidity of the pinane framework. Amino alcohol 2-MAP was prepared from its trans isomer 2, which in turn was synthesized via hydroboration/oxidation of the morpholine enamine of (+)-nopinone. Two-dimensional NMR was used to characterize amino alcohol 2-MAP, and NOE was used to confirm its relative stereochemistry. These amino alcohols were employed as chiral auxiliaries in the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde to obtain near-quantitative asymmetric induction in the products. The use of 3-MAP yielded (S)-phenylpropanol in 99% ee, and its regioisomer 2-MAP gave the opposite enantiomer, (R)-phenylpropanol, also in 99% ee. Other aromatic, aliphatic, and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes were implemented in this method, affording secondary alcohols in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Amino alcohols 2-MAP and 3-MAP were also found to be useful in the dimethylzinc addition reaction, both catalyzing the addition to benzaldehyde with nearly quantitative ee. Regioisomeric amino alcohols 2-MAP and 3-MAP, even though they were prepared from one enantiomer of nopinone, provide antipodal enantiofacial selectivity in the dialkylzinc addition reaction. This circumvents the necessity to synthesize amino alcohols derived from (-)-nopinone, which in turn requires the unnatural (+)-beta-pinene. Possible mechanistic insights are offered to explain the dual stereoselectivity observed in the diethylzinc addition reaction involving regioisomeric, pseudo-enantiomeric amino alcohols 3-MAP and 2-MAP.

  7. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  8. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  9. Metabolic engineering for higher alcohol production.

    PubMed

    Nozzi, Nicole E; Desai, Shuchi H; Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-09-01

    Engineering microbial hosts for the production of higher alcohols looks to combine the benefits of renewable biological production with the useful chemical properties of larger alcohols. In this review we outline the array of metabolic engineering strategies employed for the efficient diversion of carbon flux from native biosynthetic pathways to the overproduction of a target alcohol. Strategies for pathway design from amino acid biosynthesis through 2-keto acids, from isoprenoid biosynthesis through pyrophosphate intermediates, from fatty acid biosynthesis and degradation by tailoring chain length specificity, and the use and expansion of natural solvent production pathways will be covered.

  10. Energy conservation in alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Standiford, F.C.; Weimer, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Explains how substantial energy savings can be achieved by integrating the distillation system into the slop concentrating evaporator of a fermentation plant. Presents diagram of a fully integrated system. Advantages of a combined system include considerable improvement in the energy balance of a fuel alcohol plant; concentration of alcohol in the feed becomes much less important; improvement in the recovery of alcohol in the feed; and it enables simpler stripping of alcohol from the fermented liquor. Such systems will reduce the net extra heat required for distillation from one-half to one-third that normally needed. The energy required for slop evaporation is slightly less than normally needed by a highly efficient vapor compression evaporator operating alone.

  11. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  12. Immobilized yeast for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-03

    Construction of a pilot alcohol plant has been completed in Japan to test a new idea in fermentation that could cut the time required from three or four days to several hours. According to developers, the key is an unidentified radiation-cured polymer that is used to immobilize yeast, permitting the process to run continuously.

  13. Hydrogen-bond-assisted activation of allylic alcohols for palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gumrukcu, Yasemin; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-03-01

    We report direct activation of allylic alcohols using a hydrogen-bond-assisted palladium catalyst and use this for alkylation and amination reactions. The novel catalyst comprises a palladium complex based on a functionalized monodentate phosphoramidite ligand in combination with urea additives and affords linear alkylated and aminated allylic products selectively. Detailed kinetic analysis show that oxidative addition of the allyl alcohol is the rate-determining step, which is facilitated by hydrogen bonds between the alcohol, the ligand functional group, and the additional urea additive.

  14. Fluorinated alcohol-mediated [4 + 3] cycloaddition reaction of indolyl alcohols with cyclopentadiene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Lubin; Hao, Zhihui; Xiao, Jian

    2016-12-07

    This paper describes an efficient [4 + 3] cycloaddition reaction of 3-indolylmethanols with cyclopentadiene in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), which is catalyst-free and inexpensive, and offers mild reaction conditions, wide substrate scope and convenient workup. This methodology provides the first catalyst- and additive-free [4 + 3] cycloaddition reactions of indolyl alcohols, offering a green and efficient method for the synthesis of cyclohepta[b]indole derivatives.

  15. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Cyntia M; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John M; Baldenius, Kai; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick B

    2016-09-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed for reactions containing 10 mM alcohol and up to 280 mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1853-1861. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  17. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  18. A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC-MS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.

    1999-06-01

    We have adapted the dehydration of 2-methyl-2-propanol to a "puzzle" approach for use in our second-semester chemistry major organic laboratory. The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 °C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.

  19. Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

  20. Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene Particles Using Alcohol as Reaction Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Shin, Cheol Hwan; Han, Sujin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization using alcohol as reaction medium to prepare colloidal clusters of the latex beads. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTC) were used as dispersion stabilizer and comonomer, respectively. The particle size could be controlled by adjusting the reactant compositions such as the amount of stabilizer, comonomer, and water in the reactant mixture. The size and monodispersity of the polymeric particles could be also controlled by changing the reaction medium with different alcohols other than ethanol or adjusting the polymerization temperature. The synthesized particles could be self-organized inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets by evaporation-driven self-assembly to produce colloidal clusters of the polymeric nanospheres.

  1. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  2. Inhibition by ethanol, acetaldehyde and trifluoroethanol of reactions catalysed by yeast and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, C J; Dickinson, F M

    1978-01-01

    1. Produced inhibition by ethanol of the acetaldehyde-NADH reaction, catalysed by the alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast and horse liver, was studied at 25 degrees C and pH 6-9. 2. The results with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase are generally consistent with the preferred-pathway mechanism proposed previously [Dickenson & Dickinson (1975) Biochem. J. 147, 303-311]. The observed hyperbolic inhibition by ethanol of the maximum rate of acetaldehyde reduction confirms the existence of the alternative pathway involving an enzyme-ethanol complex. 3. The maximum rate of acetaldehyde reduction with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase is also subject to hyperbolic inhibition by ethanol. 4. The measured inhibition constants for ethanol provide some of the information required in the determination of the dissociation constant for ethanol from the active ternary complex. 5. Product inhibition by acetaldehyde of the ethanol-NAD+ reaction with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was examined briefly. The results are consistent with the proposed mechanism. However, the nature of the inhibition of the maximum rate cannot be determined within the accessible range of experimental conditions. 6. Inhibition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by trifluoroethanol was studied at 25 degrees C and pH 6-10. The inhibition was competitive with respect to ethanol in the ethanol-NAD+ reaction. Estimates were made of the dissociation constant for trifluoroethanol from the enzyme-NAD+-trifluoroethanol complex in the range pH6-10. PMID:208509

  3. Measuring Social Reactions to Female Survivors of Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assault: The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol (SRQ-A)

    PubMed Central

    Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    For women who disclose sexual assault, social reactions can affect post-assault adjustment (Ullman, 2000). Approximately half of sexual assaults of adult women involve alcohol use (Abbey et al., 2004). Experimental studies indicate that people put more blame on women who were drinking before the assault, yet no studies have assessed how often actual survivors receive social reactions specific to their alcohol use. This study presents a new measure to assess alcohol-specific social reactions for survivors of sexual assault (The Social Reactions Questionnaire –Alcohol, SRQ-A). Factor analyses of a large community sample indicated that women often receive both positive and negative alcohol-specific reactions when disclosing assault. Discriminant validity confirmed that such reactions are distinct from other types of assault-related social reactions. Against predictions, alcohol-specific reactions were not associated with depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, binge drinking, or intoxication. However, in support of hypotheses, alcohol-specific reactions were related to increased characterological self-blame and alcohol problems. Notably, such reactions had both positive and negative relationships with self-blame, indicating a potential avenue for intervention. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:25253018

  4. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  5. Process for the continuous production of fermentation alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Bu'lock, J.D.

    1982-11-02

    A process is disclosed for the continuous production of fermentation alcohol, by effecting fermentation of a continuous or substantially continuous supply of the liquid substrate by a dense suspension of a suitable micro-organism in a reaction column wherein the suspension is maintained in a well mixed state. The mixture passes from the upper region of the reaction column into a degassing zone where less turbulent conditions readily permit degassing of the mixture, causing part of the degassed mixture to flow into a settling zone wherein quiescent conditions permit the biomass to settle out. The settled biomass is returned to the bottom of the reaction column to assist in the continuation of the fermentation process. Gases evolving from the top of the reaction column and from the tops of the degassing and settling zones are removed. At least a portion of the evolved gases are reintroduced into the bottom of the reaction column to maintain the well mixed state therein, and clarified liquor containing alcohol is removed from the top of the settling zone.

  6. Ligand-Substitution Reactions of the Tellurium Compound AS-101 in Physiological Aqueous and Alcoholic Solutions.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Alon; Albeck, Michael; Sredni, Benjamin; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-11-07

    Since its first crystallization, the aqueous structure of the tellurium-containing experimental drug AS-101 has never been studied. We show that, under the aqueous conditions in which it is administered, AS-101 is subjected to an immediate ligand-substitution reaction with water, yielding a stable hydrolyzed oxide anion product that is identified, for the first time, to be TeOCl3(-). Studying the structure of AS-101 in propylene glycol (PG), an alcoholic solvent often used for the topical and oral administration of AS-101, revealed the same phenomenon of ligand-substitution reaction between the alcoholic ligands. Upon exposure to water, the PG-substituted product is also hydrolyzed to the same tellurium(IV) oxide form, TeOCl3(-).

  7. Facile nucleophilic fluorination reactions using tert-alcohols as a reaction medium: significantly enhanced reactivity of alkali metal fluorides and improved selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2008-02-01

    Although protic solvents are generally not preferred for nucleophilic displacement reactions because of their partial positive charge and hydrogen-bonding capacity that solvate the nucleophile and reduce its reactivity, we recently reported a remarkably beneficial effect of using tertiary alcohols as a reaction media for nucleophilic fluorination with alkali metal fluorides, as well as fluorine-18 radiolabeling with [18F]fluoride ion for the preparation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In this work, we investigate further the influence of the tert-alcohol reaction medium for nucleophilic fluorination with alkali metal fluorides by studying various interactions among tert-alcohols, the alkali metal fluoride (CsF), and the sulfonyloxy substrate. Factors such as hydrogen bonding between CsF and the tert-alcohol solvent, the formation of a tert-alcohol solvated fluoride, and hydrogen bonding between the sulfonate leaving group and the tert-alcohol appear to contribute to the dramatic increase in the rate of the nucleophilic fluorination reaction in the absence of any kind of catalyst. We found that fluorination of 1-(2-mesyloxyethyl)naphthalene (5) and N-5-bromopentanoyl-3,4-dimethoxyaniline (8) with Bu(4)N(+)F(-) in a tert-alcohol afforded the corresponding fluoro products in much higher yield than obtained by the conventional methods using dipolar aprotic solvents. The protic medium also suppresses formation of byproducts, such as alkenes, ethers, and cyclic adducts.

  8. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  9. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  10. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  11. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  12. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  13. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  14. Immediate reactions to rubber products.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T; Wahl, R

    1992-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of contact urticaria (CU) and systemic reactions to rubber products. Thirty-one patients are presented: most were atopic (20/31) and women (26/31); 71% worked in the medical field; 32.2% (10/31) showed signs of hand dermatitis. In 28 patients (90.3%), rub and/or prick tests with liquid latex in different dilutions and with latex gloves led to an immediate type of positive reaction. The allergen(s) appear in part to be water soluble: 20 of 28 patients (71.4%) revealed positive test reactions to an aqueous glove extract. In two patients, urticarial test reactions to tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), mercapto mix, and p-phenylenediamine (PPD mix) were considered as possible contributing factors of CU. Cornstarch was negative in all patients (scratch). Sixteen of 27 sera (59.2%) showed radioallergosorbent (RAST) class 0 using latex allergen disks. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacoyl-amide (SDS-PAGE) determined protein bands of less than or equal to 14 kD (not allergen specific) and approx 28 kD. The Western blot detected the 28 kD protein as allergen in the sera of three patients. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) proved no protein bands. Immunoprinting performed with sera of five patients presented allergen bands in a pH range between 3.8 and 4.55. This shows the radio staining (immunoprint) is more sensitive than is the Coomassie blue staining. Although three sera showed RAST class 0, immunoblotting detected allergen bands. In this case the immunoblot appears to be more sensitive than the RAST. A cross reactivity between latex and banana could not be established. Alternative gloves are Neolon (neoprene) or Elastyren (styrene-butadiene polymer).

  15. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    PubMed

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  16. Catalytic reaction of 3-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol with alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, S.G.; Avetisyan, K.G.; Matnishyan, A.A.

    1987-01-10

    The cyclic ketal 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-bis(3-phenyl-2-propynyloxy)-1,4-dioxane was obtained by the reaction of 3-phenyl-2-propyn-1=ol with propargyl alcohol in the presence of the HgO-BF/sub 3/ O(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/ catalytic system. The transformation of 3-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol and its ethers in methanol and ethanol by the action of the above-mentioned catalytic system leads to 1-phenyl-3-alkoxy-1-propanone, 1-phenyl-1,1,3-trialkoxypropane, and 1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one. The intermediate organomercury compound, which is the product from regioselective addition of mercuric oxide and the saturated alcohol at the triple bond, was isolated. Its protodemercuration led to the above-mentioned linear products. The formation of the cyclic ketal is presumably due to the preferred formation of mercury bis-hydroxypropargylide.

  17. Distillation and rectification in the production of water free alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    De Luzuriaga, E.R.

    1980-12-01

    The operation of a modern alcohol distillery using waste molasses as its prime material in the manufacture of anhydrous alcohol is described. The VMC distillery uses the azeotropic non-pressure process using benzene as the dehydrant. Scheduled production is 30,000 G.L., water free alcohol daily but 41,500 G.L., of water free alcohol has been produced indicating that the VMC dehydrating column can produce its expected capacity.

  18. Economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production within a biomass system

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Flaim, S.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of agricultural alcohol production in the United States is discussed. The beverage fermentation processes are compared and contrasted with the wet milling of corn, and alternative agricultural products for alcohol production are discussed. Alcohol costs for different fermentation methods and for various agricultural crops (corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, etc.) are presented, along with a brief discussion of US government policy implications. (JMT)

  19. Alcohol co-production from tree crops

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, M.; Folger, G.; Milne, T.

    1982-06-01

    A concept for the sustainable production of alcohol from fermentable substrates produced on an annual basis by the reproductive organs (pods, fruits, nuts, berries, etc.) of tree crops is presented. The advantages of tree-crop systems include suitability for use on marginal land, potential productivity equivalent to row crops, minimal maintenance and energy-input requirements, environmental compatibility, and the possibility of co-product production. Honeylocust, mesquite, and persimmon are examined as potential US tree-crop species. Other species not previously considered, including osage orange and breadfruit, are suggested as tree-crop candidates for North America and the tropical developing world, respectively. Fermentation of tree-crop organs and the economics of tree-crop systems are also discussed. Currently the greatest area of uncertainty lies in actual pod or fruit yields one can expect from large tree farms under real life conditions. However, ballpark ethanol yield estimates of from 880 to 3470 l hectare/sup -1/ (94 to 400 gal acre/sup -1/) justify further consideration of tree crop systems.

  20. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  1. Gasoline-aided production of alcohol and fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-04-10

    Gasoline aids production of alcohol and fuel in a solvent extraction and recovery process. Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  2. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  3. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  4. Regioselective Hydration of an Alkene and Analysis of the Alcohol Product by Remote Access NMR: A Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maureen E.; Johnson, Sara L.; Masterson, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    A two-part demonstration was conducted in our first-semester organic chemistry course designed to introduce students to the formation of alcohols, regioselective reactions, and analysis of organic products by NMR analysis. This demonstration utilized the oxymercuration-demercuration sequence to prepare an alcohol from an alkene in a Markovnikov…

  5. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  6. Cyclopentadienone Oxidation Reaction Kinetics and Thermochemistry for the Alcohols, Hydroperoxides, and Vinylic, Alkoxy, and Alkylperoxy Radicals.

    PubMed

    Yommee, Suriyakit; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-01-28

    Cyclopentadienone has one carbonyl and two olefin groups resulting in 4n + 2 π-electrons in a cyclic five-membered ring structure. Thermochemical and kinetic parameters for the initial reactions of cyclopentadienone radicals with O2 and the thermochemical properties for cyclopentadienone-hydroperoxides, alcohols, and alkenyl, alkoxy, and peroxy radicals were determined by use of computational chemistry. The CBS-QB3 composite and B3LYP density functional theory methods were used to determine the enthalpies of formation (ΔfH°298) using the isodesmic reaction schemes with several work reactions for each species. Entropy and heat capacity, S°(T) and Cp°(T) (50 K ≤ T ≤ 5000 K) are determined using geometric parameters, internal rotor potentials, and frequencies from B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations. Standard enthalpies of formation are reported for parent molecules as cyclopentadienone, cyclopentadienone with alcohol, hydroperoxide substituents, and the cyclopentadienone-yl vinylic, alkoxy, and peroxy radicals corresponding to loss of a hydrogen atom from the carbon and oxygen sites. Entropy and heat capacity vs temperature also are reported for the parent molecules and for radicals. The thermochemical analysis shows The R(•) + O2 well depths are deep, on the order of 50 kcal mol(-1), and the R(•) + O2 reactions to RO + O (chain branching products) for cyclopentadienone-2-yl and cyclopentadienone-3-yl have unusually low reaction (ΔHrxn) enthalpies, some 20 or so kcal/mol below the entrance channels. Chemical activation kinetics using quantum RRK analysis for k(E) and master equation for falloff are used to show that significant chain branching as a function of temperature and pressure can occur when these vinylic radicals are formed.

  7. Biodiesel production from triolein and short chain alcohols through biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Salis, Andrea; Pinna, Marcella; Monduzzi, Maura; Solinas, Vincenzo

    2005-09-29

    Oleic acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) were synthesised by biocatalysis in solvent-free conditions. Different commercial immobilised lipases, namely Candida antarctica B, Rizhomucor miehei, and Pseudomonas cepacia, were tested towards the reaction between triolein and butanol to produce butyl oleate. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase resulted to be the most active enzyme reaching 100% of conversion after 6h. Different operative conditions such as reaction temperature, water activity, and reagent stoichiometric ratio were investigated and optimised. These conditions were then used to investigate the effect of linear and branched short chain alcohols. Methanol and 2-butanol were the worst alcohols: the former, probably, due to its low miscibility with the oil and the latter because secondary alcohols usually are less reactive than primary alcohols. Conversely, linear and branched primary alcohols with short alkyl chains (C(2)--C(4)) showed high reaction rate and conversion. A mixture of linear and branched short chain alcohols that mimics the residual of ethanol distillation (fusel oil) was successfully used for oleic acid ester synthesis. These compounds are important in biodiesel mixtures since they improve low temperature properties.

  8. Carbon-coated magnetic palladium: applications in partial oxidation of alcohols and coupling reactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic carbon supported Pd catalyst has been synthesized via in situ generation of nanoferrites and incorporation of carbon from renewable cellulose via calcination; catalyst can be used for oxidation of alcohols, amination reaction and arylation of aryl halides (cross coupli...

  9. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  10. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  11. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  12. Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

    2011-08-01

    Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

  13. Energy distribution among reaction products. IV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maylotte, D. H.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Use of an infrared chemiluminescence technique, called 'Method II,' or the 'method of arrested relaxation' to measure the distribution of energy among products of the Cl + HI and Cl + DI reactions. Preliminary results are also given for the Br + HI and Cl + HBr reactions. Instead of measuring vibrational relaxation, Method II attempts to arrest vibrational and rotational relaxation by the rapid removal of excited products at a cold surface.

  14. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  15. Endogenous alcohol production by intestinal fermentation in sudden infant death.

    PubMed

    Geertinger, P; Bodenhoff, J; Helweg-Larsen, K; Lund, A

    1982-01-01

    In some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the intestinal flora was found to be dominated by Candida albicans. Microbiologic investigations of the various organs showed the occasional presence of different Candida species, but not in the form of massive growth as in sepsis. There is no basis to assume that the activity of yeasts, first of all of Candida albicans, is a contributory factor in the occurrence of SIDS. Candida albicans was shown to produce alcohol from glucose at a rate of maximally 1 mg of alcohol per gram of intestinal content per hour. It is concluded that the intestinal production of alcohol in vivo from cases showing a Candida albicans dominated intestinal flora will not be able to surpass the normal alcohol metabolizing capacity of the liver. Thus, measurable concentrations of alcohol in the blood from such cases cannot be expected.

  16. Furfuryl alcohol polymerization in H-Y confined spaces: reaction mechanism and structure of carbocationic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Bertarione, S; Bonino, F; Cesano, F; Damin, A; Scarano, D; Zecchina, A

    2008-03-06

    The acid-catalyzed polymerization and resinification, in the 300-673 K interval, of furfuryl alcohol adsorbed in the framework of a protonic Y zeolite is studied by means of FTIR, Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopies. The idea is that restricted spaces can impose a constraint to the growth of the oligomeric chains, therefore moderating the formation of conjugated sequences responsible for the color of the products and allowing their observation by means of spectroscopic techniques. The detailed study of the evolution of UV-vis, FTIR, and Raman spectra upon dosed amount, contact time, and temperature has allowed the spectroscopic features of some of the single species, either neutral and positively charged (carbocationic intermediates), to be singled out and assigned to understand the mechanism of initiation. The vibrational assignments have been confirmed by computer simulations on model compounds and compared with the results of the mechanistic description of the reaction mechanism made in the past (Choura, et al. Macromolecules 1996, 29, 3839-3850). The spectroscopic methods have been applied in a large temperature range in order to follow also the formation of more complex products into the pores, associated with longer conjugated sequences, gradually filling the open spaces of the zeolite. For samples contacted with furfuryl alcohol at 673 K, this methodology gives information also on the incipient carbonization process, leading to the formation of a carbonaceous replica phase inside the internal porosity of the zeolite.

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  18. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  19. Alcohol and Drugs in Schools: Teachers' Reactions to the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Willert, H. Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    Although schools are places for learning and growth, they are also places where students engage in alcohol and drug use. This study showed that most teachers were aware of drugs in their schools, but did not regard drug use as an interference in their own classrooms. Many teachers were knowledgeable about their schools' drug policy, but did not…

  20. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Duvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Kliza, S.; Hayes, D.

    1982-11-01

    Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results indicate that this raw material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. (Refs. 15).

  1. Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene with alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Katrina; Alrifai, Oday; Boutin, Rebecca; Haner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadiene derivatives using alcohol nucleophiles were investigated. The optimal conditions were found to be 10 mol % PdCl2(CH3CN)2 in methanol, offering yields up to 92%. The reaction was successful using primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol nucleophiles and was compatible with a variety of substituents on cyclopropanated oxabenzonorbornadiene. With unsymmetrical C1-substituted cyclopropanated 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes, the regioselectivity of the reaction was excellent, forming only one regioisomer in all cases. PMID:27829926

  2. Alcohol Fuel By-Product Utilization and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerboom, Jim

    Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…

  3. Palladium and gold nanotubes as oxygen reduction reaction and alcohol oxidation reaction catalysts in base.

    PubMed

    Alia, Shaun M; Duong, Kathlynne; Liu, Toby; Jensen, Kurt; Yan, Yushan

    2014-06-01

    Palladium (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) were synthesized by the galvanic displacement of silver nanowires. PdNTs and AuNTs have wall thicknesses of 6 nm, outer diameters of 60 nm, and lengths of 5-10 and 5-20 μm, respectively. Rotating disk electrode experiments showed that the PdNTs and AuNTs have higher area normalized activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than conventional nanoparticle catalysts. The PdNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 3.4, 2.2, and 3.7 times greater than that on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C), bulk polycrystalline palladium, and carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C), respectively. The AuNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 2.3, 9.0, and 2.0 times greater than that on carbon-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/C), bulk polycrystalline gold, and Pt/C, respectively. The PdNTs also had lower onset potentials than Pd/C and Pt/C for the oxidation of methanol (0.236 V), ethanol (0.215 V), and ethylene glycol (0.251 V). In comparison to Pt/C, the PdNTs and AuNTs further demonstrated improved alcohol tolerance during the ORR.

  4. Zymomonas mobilis mutants with an increased rate of alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Y.A.; Ingram, L.O.

    1987-07-01

    Two new derivatives of Zymomonas mobilis CP4 were isolated from enrichment cultures after 18 months of serial transfer. These new strains were selected for the ability to grow and produce ethanol rapidly on transfer into fresh broth containing ethanol and allyl alcohol. Ethanol production by these strains was examined in batch fermentations under three sets of conditions. Both new derivatives were found to be superior to the parent strain CP4 with respect to the speed and completeness of glucose conversion to ethanol. The best of these, strain YO2, produced 9.5% ethanol (by weight; 11.9% by volume) after 17.4 h compared with 31.8 h for the parent strain CP4. The addition of 1 mM magnesium sulfate improved ethanol production in all three strains. Two factors contributed to the decrease in fermentation time required by the mutants: more rapid growth with minimal lag on subculturing and the retention of higher rates of ethanol production as fermentation proceeded. Alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes were altered in both new strains and no longer catalyzed the oxidation of allyl alcohol into the toxic product acrolein. This loss of allyl alcohol-oxidizing capacity is proposed as a primary factor contributing to increased allyl alcohol resistance, although it is likely that other mutations affecting glycolysis also contribute to the improvement in ethanol production.

  5. Optimization of fermentation conditions for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, L.; Geiger, E.

    1984-12-01

    The quantitative effects of carbohydrate levels, degree of initial saccharification, glucoamylase dosage, temperature, and fermentation time were investigated using a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. With Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4126, it was found that the use of a partially saccharified starch substrate markedly increased yields and attainable alcohol levels. Balancing the degree of initial saccharification with the level of glucoamylase used to complete hydrolysis was found necessary to obtain optimum yields. The temperature optimum was found to be 36 degrees C. The regression equations obtained were used to model the fermentation in order to determine optimum fermentation conditions. 11 references.

  6. 77 FR 35747 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices dated, September 17, 1993 (58 FR 48705). DATES... Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A Qualified Products List of Evidential Breath Measurement Devices comprised...

  7. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  8. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-09-02

    Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.

  9. Fatty alcohol production in Lipomyces starkeyi and Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; ...

    2016-10-24

    Current biological pathways to produce biofuel intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels are not cost effective. Previously, oleaginous yeasts have been investigated primarily for lipid production. However, yeasts store neutral lipids intracellularly making recovery difficult and expensive. In addition, once recovered from the cells, lipids are difficult to blend directly with the existing fuels without upgrading. We have, therefore, begun to investigate secreted fatty acid-derived products which can be easily recovered and upgraded to fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrate the production of fatty alcohols by the oleaginous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi, throughmore » expression of the fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene from Marinobactor aquaeolei VT8. This strategy resulted in the production of 167 and 770 mg/L of fatty alcohols in shake flask from Y. lipolytica and L starkeyi, respectively. When using a dodecane overlay during fermentation, 92 and 99% of total fatty alcohols produced by Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, respectively, were extracted into the dodecane phase, which compares favorably to the 3 and 50% recovered, respectively, without the dodecane layer. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length, saturated fatty alcohols, i.e., hexadecanol (C16:0) and octadecanol (C18:0), were predominant and accounted for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the oleaginous yeasts, Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, can serve as platform organisms for the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts.« less

  10. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols. PMID:21902829

  11. Relative reactivity of alkenyl alcohols in the palladium-catalyzed redox-relay Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Margaret J; Cheng, Bin; Buckley, Benjamin R; Xu, Liping; Wiest, Olaf; Sigman, Matthew S

    2015-09-16

    The relative rates of alkenyl alcohols in the Pd-catalyzed redox-relay Heck reaction were measured in order to examine the effect of their steric and electronic properties on the rate-determining step. Competition experiments between an allylic alkenyl alcohol and two substrates with differing chain lengths revealed that the allylic alcohol reacts 3-4 times faster in either case. Competition between di- and trisubstituted alkenyl alcohols provided an interesting scenario, in which the disubstituted alkene was consumed first followed by reaction of the trisubstituted alkene. Consistent with this observation, the transition structures for the migratory insertion of the aryl group into the di- and trisubstituted alkenes were calculated with a lower barrier for the former. An internal competition between a substrate containing two alcohols with differing chain lengths demonstrated the catalyst's preference for migrating towards the closest alcohol. Additionally, it was observed that increasing the electron density in the arene boronic acid promotes a faster reaction, which correlates with Hammett σp values to give a ρ of -0.87.

  12. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  13. Trotter products and reaction-diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Emil

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a class of generalized diffusion-reaction equations of the form , where A is a pseudodifferential operator which generates a Feller semigroup. Using the Trotter product formula we give a corresponding discrete time integro-difference equation for numerical solutions.

  14. Bioengineering of microorganisms for C₃ to C₅ alcohols production.

    PubMed

    Mainguet, Samuel E; Liao, James C

    2010-12-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals is an absolute requirement for the sustainability of societies. This fact has been neglected during the past century as cheap and abundant, yet not renewable, sources of hydrocarbons were available. Since fossil fuel availability is decreasing, biological production of fuels and chemicals has been proposed to be a potential alternative to fossil sources. Higher alcohols (from C₃ to C₅) are useful substitutes for gasoline because of their high energy density and low hygroscopicity and are important feedstocks for other chemicals. Some Clostridia species are known to naturally ferment sugars to isopropanol and 1-butanol. However, other C₃ to C₅ alcohols are not produced in large quantities by natural microorganisms. A non-fermentative strategy to produce a broad range of higher alcohols has been devised using the ubiquitous keto acid biosynthetic pathways. This review provides a current overview of these different strategies.

  15. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  16. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  17. Microbial production of 2-chloro-alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol and its adsorptive recovery.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa; Adachi; Matsuno

    2000-08-01

    An adsorptive process was combined with yeast-mediated production of chiral 2-chloro-alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol (o-Cl-1-PA) for effective product recovery and reuse of the reaction medium. Low temperature was suitable for long-term reactor operation, and continuous production using a shallow-bed reactor was achieved for at least 22 days while maintaining a high conversion. The appropriate size of the adsorption column for product recovery from the reactor effluent was estimated through measurement of breakthrough curves of o-Cl-1-PA in a packed bed of the resin at various adsorbate concentrations and feed flow rates. Using the adsorption column, 98% of the product and the residual substrate were recovered from the reactor effluent, and the effluent from the adsorption column was successfully reused as the reaction medium after microfiltration to save the medium consumption.

  18. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of the catalytic reaction between alcohols and dimethyl carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koledina, K. F.; Koledin, S. N.; Shchadneva, N. A.; Gubaidullin, I. M.

    2017-03-01

    The mechanism of the reaction between alcohols and dimethyl carbonate, catalyzed by dicobalt octacarbonyl Co2(CO)8, is studied by means of mathematical modeling. Kinetic models for possible schemes of chemical transformations are constructed at different initial concentrations of the catalyst. Based on a comparative analysis of activation energies of possible stages of chemical transformations, possible reaction pathways are determined and an appropriate mechanism is selected.

  20. Reaction-driven surface restructuring and selectivity control in allylic alcohol catalytic aerobic oxidation over Pd.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adam F; Ellis, Christine V; Naughton, James N; Newton, Mark A; Parlett, Christopher M A; Wilson, Karen

    2011-04-20

    Synchronous, time-resolved DRIFTS/MS/XAS cycling studies of the vapor-phase selective aerobic oxidation of crotyl alcohol over nanoparticulate Pd have revealed surface oxide as the desired catalytically active phase, with dynamic, reaction-induced Pd redox processes controlling selective versus combustion pathways.

  1. Kinetics of the reaction of diethylene glycol bis-chloroformate with allyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, N.N.; Shtoda, N.F.; Dzumedzei, N.V.

    1988-10-01

    The kinetics of diethylene glycol bis-chloroformate solvolysis by excess allyl alcohol in toluene and carbon tetrachloride has been studied. Under conditions of a pseudofirst order reaction with respect to diethylene glycol bis-chloroformate the activation parameters confirm an addition-detachment mechanism.

  2. Catalytic Friedel-Crafts Reactions of Highly Electronically Deactivated Benzylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Vuk D; Richmond, Edward; Wolf, Eléna; Moran, Joseph

    2017-03-06

    Highly electronically deactivated benzylic alcohols, including those with a CF3 group adjacent to the OH-bearing carbon, undergo dehydrative Friedel-Crafts reactions upon exposure to catalytic Brønsted acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) solvent. Titration and kinetic experiments support the involvement of higher order solvent/acid clusters in catalysis.

  3. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  4. Alcohol production from fermentation of sweet potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; O'Neal, H.P.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ethanol production characteristics of sweet potatoes. Ethanol yields were as high as 137 liters per tonne of feedstock using procedures developed for grain. Major problems encountered were low ethanol concentrations in the beer and poor stillage dewatering properties.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Efficient isomerization of glucose to fructose over zeolites in consecutive reactions in alcohol and aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel; Paniagua, Marta; Melero, Juan A; Riisager, Anders

    2013-04-10

    Isomerization reactions of glucose were catalyzed by different types of commercial zeolites in methanol and water in two reaction steps. The most active catalyst was zeolite Y, which was found to be more active than the zeolites beta, ZSM-5, and mordenite. The novel reaction pathway involves glucose isomerization to fructose and subsequent reaction with methanol to form methyl fructoside (step 1), followed by hydrolysis to re-form fructose after water addition (step 2). NMR analysis with (13)C-labeled sugars confirmed this reaction pathway. Conversion of glucose for 1 h at 120 °C with H-USY (Si/Al = 6) gave a remarkable 55% yield of fructose after the second reaction step. A main advantage of applying alcohol media and a catalyst that combines Brønsted and Lewis acid sites is that glucose is isomerized to fructose at low temperatures, while direct conversion to industrially important chemicals like alkyl levulinates is viable at higher temperatures.

  8. Dual platinum and pyrrolidine catalysis in the direct alkylation of allylic alcohols: selective synthesis of monoallylation products.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Ryozo; Lin, Lu; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Mashima, Kazushi; Ohshima, Takashi

    2014-04-22

    A dual platinum- and pyrrolidine-catalyzed direct allylic alkylation of allylic alcohols with various active methylene compounds to produce products with high monoallylation selectivity was developed. The use of pyrrolidine and acetic acid was essential, not only for preventing undesirable side reactions, but also for obtaining high monoallylation selectivity.

  9. Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization of the Aldehyde-Alcohol Redox-coupling Reaction in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Fukagawa, Takashi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yamano, Yumiko; Wada, Akimori; Kawamura, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study suggested the presence of a novel cone-specific redox reaction that generates 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol in the carp retina. This reaction is unique in that 1) both 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal were required to produce 11-cis-retinal; 2) together with 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinol was produced at a 1:1 ratio; and 3) the addition of enzyme cofactors such as NADP(H) was not necessary. This reaction is probably part of the reactions in a cone-specific retinoid cycle required for cone visual pigment regeneration with the use of 11-cis-retinol supplied from Müller cells. In this study, using purified carp cone membrane preparations, we first confirmed that the reaction is a redox-coupling reaction between retinals and retinols. We further examined the substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction. Oxidation was specific for 11-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinol. In contrast, reduction showed low specificity: many aldehydes, including all-trans-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, and 13-cis-retinals and even benzaldehyde, supported the reaction. On the basis of kinetic studies of this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction), we found that formation of a ternary complex of a retinol, an aldehyde, and a postulated enzyme seemed to be necessary, which suggested the presence of both the retinol- and aldehyde-binding sites in this enzyme. A subcellular fractionation study showed that the activity is present almost exclusively in the cone inner segment. These results suggest the presence of an effective production mechanism of 11-cis-retinal in the cone inner segment to regenerate visual pigment. PMID:24217249

  10. Enhanced alcohol production through on-line extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.Y.; Robinson, F.M.; Lee, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to overcome the inhibitory effects of desired end products produced by microorganisms during fermentation. It is demonstrated that online removal of toxic end product(s) by selected extractants such as higher alcohols and activated carbon can be achieved in the ethanol fermentation. Rapid fermentation using a high concentration of yeast cells has been proven to be capable of producing 135 g ethanol/L in eight hours. Theoretically, repeated rapid fermentation could be achieved if the viability of these yeast cells could be maintained at a high level through online ethanol extraction.

  11. Feasibility study for production of anhydrous alcohol from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of establishing a facility to produce fuel grade alcohol from corn to be located within an existing soybean processing plant in Mexico, Missouri has been studied. The alcohol producing industries, technical literature, various available process technologies, and industry consultants were surveyed. A process consisting of dry milling corn, continuous cooking, batch fermentation and azeotropic distillation was selected as the most suitable technique for the MFA's venture. It was determined that a production rate of 6288 bushels of corn per day yielding 5,200,000 gallons per year of fuel grade ethanol plus the capability to up grade an additional 500,000 gallons per year of low grade alcohol from off-site production facilities was the best design for the space and facilities available within the existing Mexico, Missouri soybean plant while economically utilizing existing buildings and plant area to the best advantage. A factored estimate of expected capital costs for the gasohol demonstration plant was made based on surveys of the plant site and furnished plant drawings, approximate prices for major items of process equipment and estimated construction and erection costs. This cost, with a plus or minus 20% accuracy, was determined to be $8,852,000.00. Revenues were estimated based on the selling price of 200 proof fuel grade alcohol and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A number of cases were reviewed to demonstrate the sensitivity of plant operating income to various prices for corn, alcohol and DDGS and to assess the effect of inflation over the useful life of the plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  12. Fuel alcohol: report and analysis of plant conversion potential to fuel alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    An analysis is made of the national potential to convert and/or to retrofit existing plants to process their present feedstock into fuel alcohol in lieu of their originally designed final product. Categories of plants examined are distilleries, breweries, corn wet milling, beet and cane sugar mills, wineries, cheese whey, and other food processing. Outline descriptions are developed for a base-case plant in each of the industries found to be a viable contributor to a fuel alcohol program. These base-case plants are illustrative of plant size, estimated capital costs of conversion, operating costs, labor estimates for daily operation, and estimated time schedules for comparison purposes. The facilities described as convertible could begin making alcohol by 1982, with a total of 581 million gallons of ethanol identified by 1985 and an additional 300 million gallons being possible. Thus with current production, these additional volumes can largely meet the President's 1982 ethanol goal, and can contribute greatly to the 1985 goal. A glossary is included.

  13. Fuel alcohol production from whey and grain mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shahani, K.M.; Friend, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fermentation of sweet whey and acid whey into alcohol is discussed. The fermentation efficiency of Kluyvermyces and Saccharomyces is compared. Costs for producing ethanol from dried whey powder is determined. Ethanol production by Kluyvermyces frazilis with various types of whey in a 20% reduced grain system is described. Results indicate that up to 24% of the grain requirements can be replaced with the whey with no apparent loss in fermentation efficiency. (DMC)

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  15. Acid-Promoted Reaction of Trifluoromethylated Allyl Alcohols with Arenes. Stereoselective Synthesis of CF3-Alkenes and CF3-Indanes.

    PubMed

    Kazakova, Anna N; Iakovenko, Roman O; Boyarskaya, Irina A; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Vasilyev, Aleksander V

    2015-10-02

    Reaction of 4-aryl-1,1,1-trifluorobut-3-en-2-ols [CF3-allyl alcohols, ArCH═CHCH(OH)CF3] with arenes under activation with anhydrous FeCl3 or FSO3H was studied. We found that the transformation led to trifluoromethylated alkenes [Ar(Ar')CHCH═CHCF3] or 1-trifluoromethylated indanes (CF3-indanes). The formation of these two types of reaction products strongly depends on the nucleophilicity of the starting arene and the electrophilicity of cationic intermediates generated from CF3-allyl alcohols under reaction conditions. Benzene, anisole, veratrole, and ortho-xylene lead exclusively to CF3-alkenes with an E-configuration. More π-donating polymethylated arenes (pseudocumene, mesitylene) afford only CF3-indanes with a predominantly cis-orientation of substituents at positions 1 and 3 of the indane ring. Meta- and para-xylenes show an intermediate behavior; they may form both CF3-alkenes and/or CF3-indanes. The mechanisms of the investigated transformations are discussed.

  16. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  17. Spectroscopic analyses of the biofuels-critical phytochemical coniferyl alcohol and its enzyme-catalyzed oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Achyuthan, Komandoor Elayavalli; Adams, Paul David; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Singh, Anup Kumar

    2009-11-23

    Lignin composition (monolignol types of coniferyl, sinapyl or p-coumaryl alcohol) is causally related to biomass recalcitrance. We describe multiwavelength (220, 228, 240, 250, 260, 290, 295, 300, 310 or 320 nm) absorption spectroscopy of coniferyl alcohol and its laccase- or peroxidase-catalyzed products during real time kinetic, pseudokinetic and endpoint analyses, in optical turn on or turn off modes, under acidic or basic conditions. Reactions in microwell plates and 100 microL volumes demonstrated assay miniaturization and high throughput screening capabilities. Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts along with hyperchromicity or hypochromicity accompanied enzymatic oxidations by laccase or peroxidase. The limits of detection and quantitation of coniferyl alcohol averaged 2.4 and 7.1 muM respectively, with linear trend lines over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Coniferyl alcohol oxidation was evident within 10 minutes or with 0.01 microg/mL laccase and 2 minutes or 0.001 microg/mL peroxidase. Detection limit improved to 1.0 microM coniferyl alcohol with Km of 978.7 +/- 150.7 microM when examined at 260 nm following 30 minutes oxidation with 1.0 microg/mL laccase. Our assays utilized the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of coniferyl alcohol or its oxidation products for enabling detection, without requiring chemical synthesis or modification of the substrate or product(s). These studies facilitate lignin compositional analyses and augment pretreatment strategies for reducing biomass recalcitrance.

  18. Spectroscopic Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferyl Alcohol and Its Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation Products

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Adams, Paul; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Anup

    2011-07-13

    Lignin composition (monolignol types of coniferyl, sinapyl or p-coumaryl alcohol) is causally related to biomass recalcitrance. We describe multiwavelength (220, 228, 240, 250, 260, 290, 295, 300, 310 or 320 nm) absorption spectroscopy of coniferyl alcohol and its laccase- or peroxidase-catalyzed products during real time kinetic, pseudo-kinetic and endpoint analyses, in optical turn on or turn off modes, under acidic or basic conditions. Reactions in microwell plates and 100 mu L volumes demonstrated assay miniaturization and high throughput screening capabilities. Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts along with hyperchromicity or hypochromicity accompanied enzymatic oxidations by laccase or peroxidase. The limits of detection and quantitation of coniferyl alcohol averaged 2.4 and 7.1 mu M respectively, with linear trend lines over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Coniferyl alcohol oxidation was evident within 10 minutes or with 0.01 mu g/mL laccase and 2 minutes or 0.001 mu g/mL peroxidase. Detection limit improved to 1.0 mu M coniferyl alcohol with Km of 978.7 +/- 150.7 mu M when examined at 260 nm following 30 minutes oxidation with 1.0 mu g/mL laccase. Our assays utilized the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of coniferyl alcohol or its oxidation products for enabling detection, without requiring chemical synthesis or modification of the substrate or product(s). These studies facilitate lignin compositional analyses and augment pretreatment strategies for reducing biomass recalcitrance.

  19. Roles of Acetone and Diacetone Alcohol in Coordination and Dissociation Reactions of Uranyl Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Daniel; Schoendorff, George E.; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.; Gibson, John K.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2012-12-03

    Combined collision-induced dissociation mass-spectrometry experiments and DFT calculations were employed to elucidate the molecular structure of "hypercoordinated" species and the energetics of water-elimination reactions of uranyl acetone complexes observed in earlier work (Rios, D.; Rutkowski, P. X.; Van Stipdonk, M. J.; Gibson, J. K. Inorg. Chem. 2011, 50, 4781). It is shown that the "hypercoordinated" species contain diacetone alcohol ligands bonded in either bidentate or monodentate fashion, which are indistinguishable from (acetone)2 in mass spectrometry. Calculations confirm that four diacetone ligands can form stable complexes, but that the effective number of atoms coordinating with uranium in the equatorial plane does not exceed five. Diacetone alcohol ligands are shown to form mesityl oxide ligands and alkoxide species through the elimination of water, providing an explanation for the observed water-elimination reactions.

  20. Alcohol fuels: Production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Alcohol fuels: Production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Ethyl-alcohol-fuel production from the Jerusalem artichoke. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The project objective is to evaluate the commercial feasibility for production of fuel alcohol by fermentation of the carbohydrates in the tops of the Jerusalem artichoke. The maximum top biomass yields of the mammoth French white variety of Jerusalem artichoke was obtained at 119 days after plant emergence and maximum fresh weight of the tops was 31.6 tons per acre. During rapid growth the fresh stalks had 2% to 4% carbohydrate. After the plant reached a maximum height of 168 inches, and started to bud the stalk had a maximum of 4% carbohydrate. During blossoming the stalk carbohydrates rapidly translocated to the tuber. Single versus multiple cuttings demonstrated the maximum carbohydrate was obtained with a single harvest of the mature plants immediately following bud formation. The total carbohydrate yield from the top biomass was 1.26 tons per acre. The equivalent yield of fermentation alcohol is 180.6 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. The tuber yield at both Mesa and Toppenish, WA, was 14 to 15 tons of fresh tubers with 18% total carbohydrates. The carbohydrate yield was 2.52 tons per acre. This is equivalent to a yield of 360 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. Commercial scale fuel alcohol equipment was used to hammer mill and batch ferment tops and tubers. The steps for commercial processing of the biomass tops and tubers was discussed including extracting and fermentation of the carbohydrates to ethanol and their concentration by distillation and dehydration by molecular sieves to anhydrous fuel alcohol. The use of molecular sieves reduced the energy for dehydration of 95% ethanol to 5000 Btu per gallon. The economic feasibility and energy requirement for commercial processing was discussed.

  3. Process for the continuous fermentation of aqueous slurries for the production of alcohol and yeast biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsemagen, B.; Faust, U.; Hofer, N.; Prave, P.

    1982-08-24

    A continuous process is disclosed for the production of alcohol and yeast biomass by reaction in a uniform fermenting mixture of a sugarbearing, aqueous slurry, starter yeast, yeast nutrients and an oxygen-bearing gas. The yeast is a flocculating, bottom yeast, the portion of the wort which remains after separation of the alcohol-bearing medium therefrom, is recycled to the fermenting mixture, the oxygen-bearing gas is dispersed homogeneously throughout the fermenting mixture, and is introduced to maintain a mean-free oxygen concentration not greater than 1 ppm in the aqueous phase, and the process is controlled to maintain the measurable free sugar concentration in the fermenting mixture at a level which does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight, and to maintain the active yeast concentration in the fermenting mixture between 100 and 110 percent of the specific degree of fermentation.

  4. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  5. Production of pesticide metabolites by oxidative reactions.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, E

    1982-08-01

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system catalyzes a wide variety of oxidations of pesticide chemicals and related compounds. These reactions include epoxidation and aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, O-, N- and S-dealkylation, N-oxidation, oxidative deamination, S-oxidation, P-oxidation, desulfuration and ester cleavage and may result in either detoxication or activation of the pesticide. The current status of such reactions, relative to the production, in vivo, of biologically active intermediates in pesticide metabolism is summarized. More recently we have shown that the FAD-containing monooxygenase of mammalian liver (E.C.1.14.13.8), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme of broad specificity formerly known as an amine oxidase, is involved in a variety of pesticide oxidations. These include sulfoxidation of organophosphorus insecticides such as phorate and disulfoton, oxidative desulfuration of phosphonate insecticides such as fonofos and oxidation at the phosphorus atom in such compounds as the cotton defoliant, folex. The relative importance of the FAD-containing monooxygenase vis-a-vis the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system is discussed, based on in vitro studies on purified enzymes.

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  7. Weir plate stripping column for alcohol production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.D.; Sharpe, S.

    1984-01-01

    This project consisted of the design, construction and test of a new concept for an alcohol stripping column. The concept involved the use of a series of dams and weirs in an inclined tube to produce the effects of plates in a conventional column. A secondary objective was to test the use of plastic as a construction material. It was felt that the concept would lead to a low cost system that would have application in small farm systems for the production of alcohol fuel. It was also felt that the stability of the system would be ideal for systems that would use solar power for a heat source. A plastic stripping tower containing 25 plates was tested on a beer from fermented corn meal. The column produced 140 proof alcohol, and in general, worked as expected. The relative low proof of the output and the lack of a steep gradient along the tube, indicated that the column is not as efficient as conventional columns. The test indicated that CPVC plastic could be used in the construction of a column; however, sealing problems and its cost make it questionable that the use of this type material would lead to a lower cost column. 7 figures.

  8. Breeding an amylolytic yeast strain for alcoholic beverage production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Chung; Chang, Rei-Chu; Dent, Der-Feng; Hsieh, Pao-Chuan

    2011-03-01

    A starch-utilizing, yeast-like fusant was successfully created from fused protoplasts of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Monascus anka, and the feasibility of using this fusant as a new strain for alcoholic beverage development was reported. The new fusant utilized various carbon sources more efficiently than its parent cells did. Rice koji prepared separately by cultivating the fusant and its parental strains on rice was compared to explore the effect of yeast strain on the production of α-amylase, glucoamylase, and acid protease that are crucial in wine making using cereal grains. It was found that the fusant produced greater levels of the above-mentioned enzymes than its parental strain does. Consequently, the usage of this fusant in the alcoholic fermentation of polished rice was found to reduce approximately 50% consumption of added glucoamylase than when its parental strain was used. Besides, at the end of fermentation, the fusant yeast resulted in a mash with distribution of flavor components very different from that produced by its parental strains. Thus, the fusant can be used as a new yeast strain for creating novel alcoholic beverages.

  9. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  10. Production of fuel alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke tops

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to demonstrate fuel alcohol production in New Mexico using the Jerusalem artichoke and local resources. This final report summarizes progress made during the course of the project. The planting and cultivation of the tubers are described as well as the construction of the ethanol plant. During the grinding of the tubers, the Bowie gear pump failed and a larger Mayo pump was purchased. Results indicate that Jerusalem artichokes will grow well in this area of New Mexico; water requirements are about the same as for corn and cultivation is only necessary until plant height is 18 inches. (DMC)

  11. Bismuth as a modifier of Au Pd catalyst: Enhancing selectivity in alcohol oxidation by suppressing parallel reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Bi has been widely employed as a modifier for Pd and Pt based catalyst mainly in order to improve selectivity. We found that when Bi was added to the bimetallic system AuPd, the effect on activity in alcohol oxidation mainly depends on the amount of Bi regardless its position, being negligible when Bi was 0.1 wt% and detectably negative when the amount was increased to 3 wt%. However, the selectivity of the reactions notably varied only when Bi was deposited on the surface of metal nanoparticles suppressing parallel reaction in both benzyl alcohol and glycerol oxidation. After a careful characterization of all the catalysts and additional catalytic tests, we concluded that the Bi influence on the activity of the catalysts could be ascribed to electronic effect whereas the one on selectivity mainly to a geometric modification. Moreover, the Bi-modified AuPd/AC catalyst showed possible application in the production of tartronic acid, a useful intermediate, from glycerol.

  12. Electroweak meson production reaction in the nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Toru

    2015-10-15

    We report on our recent study of the the neutrino-nucleon reaction in the nucleon resonance region. The dynamical reaction model of meson production reaction on the nucleon for the pion and photon induced reaction has been developed in order to investigate the spectrum of nucleon excited state. We have extended this model in order to describe the weak meson production reactions with the πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ and ππN final states. We also studied the role of the final state interaction in the photon and the neutrino induced pion production reaction on the deuteron around the Δ(1232) resonance region.

  13. Cofactors in allergic reactions to food: physical exercise and alcohol are the most important

    PubMed Central

    van Os‐Medendorp, Harmieke; Kruizinga, Astrid G.; Blom, W. Marty; Houben, Geert F.; Knulst, André C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Involvement of cofactors, like physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of several types of medication, are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. However, there is limited evidence on how often cofactors play a role in food allergic reactions. The study aimed to get more insight into the frequency of exposure to cofactors and how often cofactors are associated with more severe symptoms in food allergic patients. Methods A questionnaire was completed by patients visiting the Allergology outpatient clinic. Patients with food allergy were included. Outcome measures were the frequency of medication use of medication groups that might act as cofactor and the frequency that physical exercise, alcohol consumption and use of analgesics are associated with more severe food allergic symptoms. Results Four hundred ninety‐six patients were included in the study. The frequency with which patients used one or more types of medication that might act as cofactors was 7.7%: antacids/acid neutralizing medication (5%), NSAIDs (2%), beta blockers (0.6%), angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (0.6%), and angiotensin receptor blockers (0.2%). Of all patients, 13% reported more severe symptoms to food after involvement of one or more of the cofactors: physical exercise (10%), alcohol consumption (5%), and use of analgesics (0.6%). Sixty‐five percent did not know if these cofactors caused more severe symptoms; 22% reported that these cofactors had no effect. Conclusions Only a small percentage of patients (7.7%) used medication that might aggravate food allergic reactions. Physical exercise and alcohol consumption were the most frequently reported cofactors, but occurring still in only 10% or less. PMID:27980774

  14. (100) facets of γ-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on γ-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T≤473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ≥ 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated γ-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of γ-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on γ-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

  15. Economic analysis of alcohol production in Thailand and its implication on trade with Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Netayaraks, P.

    1983-01-01

    This research examined the economic feasibility of alcohol production from cassava, sugarcane, and sweet sorghum in 1981 and 1986, and evaluated the economic impact of alcohol production on agriculture output, prices and trade with Japan. Alcohol production from molasses and cassava would be competitive at current energy price levels. Sugarcane, in contrast, would be competitive only if energy prices are increased by 20%, but cassava would still be the preferred choice. The possibility of using cassava or sugarcane as energy feedstocks depends on specific location. Cassava would be used to produce alcohol in the northeast, while energy feedstocks for alcohol production in the central and eastern regions would be either cassava or sugarcane. Energy demand for alcohol as a blended fuel (20% alcohol and 80% gasoline) could be met if energy prices increase 5% above present levels. Complete substitution of alcohol for gasoline (pure fuel) would be possible only if energy prices are increased by 30%. Alcohol exports would be economically possible only after fuel domestic demand had been met. The impact of alcohol production on domestic crop demand, exports and prices depends on the potential alcohol demand and varies by crop.

  16. Atmospheric degradation of saturated alcohols: Room temperature rate coefficients for NO3 radical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Alberto; Salgado, Sagrario; Taccone, Raul; Martín, Pilar; Cabañas, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of NO3 radicals with a series of saturated alcohols are reported here using the relative rate technique. Experiments were performed using air as bath gas in a 50 L glass-pyrex reaction chamber at room temperature (298 ± 2) K with long-path FTIR spectroscopy used to monitor the reaction at atmospheric pressure (708 ± 8) Torr. The reference compounds used and their rate coefficients are: propanal kNO3 = (6.0 ± 0.6) × 10-15, methyl methacrylate kNO3 = (3.55 ± 0.62) × 10-15, acetaldehyde kNO3 = (2.62 ± 0.29) × 10-15 and propene kNO3 = (9.50 ± 1.9) × 10-15, in cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Rate coefficients obtained were (in units cm3 molecule-1 s-1): (1.87 ± 0.14) × 10-15, (2.39 ± 0.20) × 10-15, (2.28 ± 0.17) × 10-15, (1.80 ± 0.13) × 10-15 and (3.52 ± 0.19) × 10-15 for 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol and 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol respectively. Reactivity trend can be explained in terms of the different types of hydrogen inside the hydrocarbon chain. The reaction occurs by an initial H-atom abstraction mainly from C-H groups of the alcohols by the NO3 radical being NO3 more reactive towards an H atom attached to a tertiary carbon than that attached to a secondary or primary carbon. Reactivity trend is compared with their similar structural 2-butanol and with the corresponding alkanes. Atmospheric implications are also discussed calculating lifetimes of the saturated alcohols studied here due to the reaction with NO3 radicals in comparison to their reactions with the other major atmospheric oxidants.

  17. High Alcohol Concentration Products Associated With Poverty and State Alcohol Policies

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Xuan, Ziming; Aryal, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). Methods. In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. Results. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Conclusions. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed. PMID:26180984

  18. Energy distribution among reaction products. V.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anlauf, K. G.; Horne, D. S.; Macdonald, R. G.; Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of three reactions, one point of theoretical interest being the predicted correlation between barrier height and barrier location. The H + Br 2 reaction having a lower activation barrier than H + Cl 2, should have an earlier barrier, and hence a greater percentage attractive energy release and higher efficiency of vibrational excitation. Information is developed concerning the effect of isotopic substitution in the pair of reactions H + Cl 2 and D + Cl 2. The 'arrested relaxation' method was used. Essentially, the method involves reacting two diffuse reagent beams in a reaction vessel with background pressure less than 0.001 torr, and with walls cooled by liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  19. Effect of. gamma. -ray irradiation on alcohol production from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.W.; Cho, Y.K.; Ciegler, A.

    1983-11-01

    Cracked corn was irradiated with ..gamma.. rays at 0-100 Mrad and the effects of the irradiation on sugar yield, susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, yeast growth, and alcohol production were studied. Gamma irradiation at 50 Mrad or greater produced a considerable amount of reducing sugar but little glucose. At lower dosages, ..gamma.. irradiation significantly increased the susceptibility of corn starch to enzymatic hydrolysis, but dosages of 50 Mrad or greater decomposed the starch molecules as indicated by the reduction in iodine uptake. About 12.5% reducing sugar was produced by amylase treatment of uncooked, irradiated corn. This amount exceeded the level of sugar produced from cooked (gelatinized) corn by the same enzyme treatment. The yeast numbers in submerged cultivation were lower on a corn substrate that was irradiated at 50 Mrad or greater compared to that on an unirradiated control. About the same level of alcohol was produced on uncooked, irradiated (10/sup 5/ - 10/sup 6/ rad) corn as from cooked (121 degrees C for 30 min) corn. Therefore, the conventional cooking process for gelatinization of starch prior to its saccharification can be eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation also eliminated the necessity of sterilization of the medium and reduced the viscosity of high levels of substrate in the fermentation broth. (Refs. 10).

  20. In(III)-catalyzed tandem reaction of chromone-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols with amines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen; Liu, Yuliang; Zeng, Hao; Liu, Li; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yongjun

    2011-01-07

    The reaction of chromone-derived cyclic Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols with amines catalyzed by In(OTf)(3) in a one pot process was developed for the convenient and efficient synthesis of 2-substituted-3-aminomethylenechromans. The tandem allylic amination/chromen ring-opening/Michael cyclization reactions were involved in this protocol.

  1. Investigating the nature of palladium chain-walking in the enantioselective redox-relay Heck reaction of alkenyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Margaret J; Xu, Li-Ping; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wu, Yun-Dong; Wiest, Olaf; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-12-19

    The mechanism of the redox-relay Heck reaction was investigated using deuterium-labeled substrates. Results support a pathway through a low energy palladium-alkyl intermediate that immediately precedes product formation, ruling out a tautomerization mechanism. DFT calculations of the relevant transition structures at the M06/LAN2DZ+f/6-31+G* level of theory show that the former pathway is favored by 5.8 kcal/mol. Palladium chain-walking toward the alcohol, following successive β-hydride eliminations and migratory insertions, is also supported in this study. The stereochemistry of deuterium labels is determined, lending support that the catalyst remains bound to the substrate during the relay process and that both cis- and trans-alkenes form from β-hydride elimination.

  2. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    in the case, than the same volume of ethanol-water mixture can be prepared. The renewal of alcohol, the alcohol-water mixture is then passed through the catalytic reformer into a preheater. The exhaust gas contains a relatively large number of carbon monoxide, which would spoil the fuel cell, so the carbon monoxide concentration to a high and a low temperature water-gas reaction is reduced. This increases the hydrogen production. The last step of the carbon monoxide content to eliminate preferential oxidation. The alcohol reforming catalyst for the precious metals spread most of what arose from high activity and stability. However, the precious metals are very expensive, so a non-precious metal catalysts is the design and development of objective activity and stability which reaches the precious metal catalysts of. Using the new reaction catalysts opportunities are created, which are smaller than the activation energy than the non-catalytic process. The basic objective of the technological developments more active at lower temperatures, the selective target product, long-life, low cost design catalysts.

  3. Rotational spectral studies of O(1D) insertion reactions with methane and ethylene: Methanol and vinyl alcohol in a supersonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Wehres, Nadine; DePrince, Bridget Alligood; Roy, Althea A. M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    We report a new apparatus for millimeter/submillimeter spectroscopic studies of O(1D) insertion reactions to produce molecules of astrophysical interest. This study focuses on the insertion of O(1D) into methane to form methanol, and the insertion of O(1D) into ethylene to form vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH). The O(1D) was produced via laser photodissociation of O3 in a fused silica tube and mixed with a hydrocarbon before a supersonic expansion. Direct absorption millimeter/submillimeter spectroscopy was used to monitor the products. The methanol study was used as an experimental benchmark, while the vinyl alcohol study extended rotational spectroscopic measurements to higher frequencies. Observed products from both insertion reactions included, but were not limited to, H2CO, HO2, and CH3O. Methanol and vinyl alcohol were only produced in detectable quantities when the fused silica tube was included, indicating that collisions before the expansion are required for production and stabilization of the O(1D) insertion products.

  4. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J.-M.

    2012-12-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostics and also chemical analysis. The arc is formed between two electrodes made of graphite. We first present results on plasma-steam reforming of alcohols and bio-oils mixed in water. The outlet gas compositions are given from various alcohols and-bio-oils obtained at different experimental conditions. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a direct plasma treatment of wood (beech) at laboratory scale. One of the electrodes is surrounded by wood. The final part of the paper is a general discussion about efficiencies and comparisons of plasma treatments presented. The results obtained are discussed by considering the steam reforming reactions and the water gas shift reaction.

  5. A novel one-pot and one-step microwave-assisted cyclization-methylation reaction of amino alcohols and acetylated derivatives with dimethyl carbonate and TBAC.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Guerrero, Leticia; Rivero, Ignacio A

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for the synthesis of 4-substituted-3-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones from amino alcohols catalyzed by a ionic liquid was developed. This novel one-pot and one-step cyclization-methylation reaction represents an easier and faster method than any other reported protocols that can be used to obtain the desired products in good yields and high purity. Applying microwave irradiation at 130°C in the presence of TBAC, dimethyl carbonate acts simultaneously as carbonylating and methylating agent and surprisingly promotes an in situ basic trans esterification when a N-acetylated amino alcohol is used as starting material. Furthermore, dimethyl carbonate worked better than diethyl carbonate in performing this reaction.

  6. A Novel One-Pot and One-Step Microwave-Assisted Cyclization-Methylation Reaction of Amino Alcohols and Acetylated Derivatives with Dimethyl Carbonate and TBAC

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Terán, Adrián; Guerrero, Leticia; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient microwave-assisted methodology for the synthesis of 4-substituted-3-methyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones from amino alcohols catalyzed by a ionic liquid was developed. This novel one-pot and one-step cyclization-methylation reaction represents an easier and faster method than any other reported protocols that can be used to obtain the desired products in good yields and high purity. Applying microwave irradiation at 130°C in the presence of TBAC, dimethyl carbonate acts simultaneously as carbonylating and methylating agent and surprisingly promotes an in situ basic trans esterification when a N-acetylated amino alcohol is used as starting material. Furthermore, dimethyl carbonate worked better than diethyl carbonate in performing this reaction. PMID:25692177

  7. Optimization of fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway for selectively enhanced production of C12/14 and C16/18 fatty alcohols in engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the increasing stress from oil price and environmental pollution, aroused attention has been paid to the microbial production of chemicals from renewable sources. The C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols are important feedstocks for the production of surfactants and detergents, which are widely used in the most respected consumer detergents, cleaning products and personal care products worldwide. Though bioproduction of fatty alcohols has been carried out in engineered E. coli, several key problems have not been solved in earlier studies, such as the quite low production of C16/18 alcohol, the lack of optimization of the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, and the uncharacterized performance of the engineered strains in scaled-up system. Results We improved the fatty alcohol production by systematically optimizing the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, mainly targeting three key steps from fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) to fatty alcohols, which are sequentially catalyzed by thioesterase, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase and fatty acyl-CoA reductase. By coexpression of thioesterase gene BTE, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene acr1, 210.1 mg/L C12/14 alcohol was obtained. A further optimization of expression level of BTE, fadD and acr1 increased the C12/14 alcohol production to 449.2 mg/L, accounting for 75.0% of the total fatty alcohol production (598.6 mg/L). In addition, by coexpression of thioesterase gene ‘tesA, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene FAR, 101.5 mg/L C16/18 alcohol was obtained, with C16/18 alcohol accounting for 89.2% of the total fatty alcohol production. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on selective production of C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols by microbial fermentation. This work achieved high-specificity production of both C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols. The encouraging 598.6 mg/L of fatty alcohols represents the highest titer reported so far. In

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  9. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  10. Some economic implications of the utilization of alcohol for the production of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The production rate of ethanol per unit of land was examined for different crops and the order of magnitude of the costs was calculated. Alcohol production programs in Brazil, Thailand and Sudan are described.

  11. Genetic approaches to improvement of alcohol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    A single spontaneous mutant of Z. mobilis was isolated which was capable of feeble growth on mannitol as the sole carbohydrate source. Several months of continuous culture, including addition of a mutagen to a chemostat, led to the isolation of a sequential series of mutants, each with improved growth rates on mannitol. Metabolism of mannitol is oxygen-dependent, resulting in limited production of ethanol and increased production of lactic acid. The conversion of mannitol to fructose is apparently via an altered alcohol dehydrogenase. Analogously, for development of another mutant series, very limited growth of Z. mobilis has been obtained on raffinose after extended incubation in shake flasks. Z. mobilis containing the lactose operon fails to grow on lactose. A single plasmid carrying both the lactose and galactose operons was constructed and introduced into Z. mobilis CP4.45, followed by mutation to yield a culture with slow growth on lactose. Z. mobilis SB6 is capable of producing 0.25% ethanol from 5% lactose in 15 days.

  12. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed. PMID:19742208

  13. Additive Effects of Alcohols, Their Acidic By-Products, and Temperature on the Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M de F; Lee, H; Collins-Thompson, D L

    1990-02-01

    The effects of alcohols on the growth and fermentation of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus were investigated at both 30 and 35 degrees C. Addition of alcohols to the culture medium decreased both the growth rate and the final cell yield in a dose-dependent manner, and this decrease was more severe at 35 degrees C. The concentration for 50% growth rate inhibition decreased as the chain length of the alcohol increased. In fermentations using a high initial cell density, production of acids was always observed when the medium was supplemented with alcohols. Supplementation of the culture medium with a short-chain alcohol plus the corresponding acid was shown to exert an additive deleterious effect on fermentation, and this effect increased with temperature. Production of acids was associated with the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in cell extracts.

  14. Meson Production in p+d Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimala, W.; Betigeri, M.; Bojowald, J.; Budzanowski, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Ernst, J.; Freindl, L.; Frekers, D.; Garske, W.; Grewer, K.; Hamacher, A.; Ilieva, J.; Jarczyk, L.; Kilian, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Kolev, D.; Kutsarova, T.; Lieb, J.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Nann, H.; Pentchev, L.; Plendl, H. S.; Protic, D.; Razen, B.; von Rossen, P.; Roy, B.; Siudak, R.; Smyrski, J.; Strzalkowski, A.; Tsenov, R.; Zwoll, K.

    2000-10-01

    Differential cross sections of the pd→ 3H π +/ 3He π 0 reactions were measured simultaneously at three beam momenta: 750 MeV/c, 800 MeV/c and 850 MeV/c. The differential cross section of the pd→ 3He η was measured at 1675 MeV/c beam momentum. All measurements cover a wide angular range in the CM system. The experiments were performed at the COSY accelerator in Juelich, Germany, by means of high purity Germanium Wall detector together with the magnetic spectrometer BIG KARL. Estimated cross sections were compared with the predictions of simple theoretical models. In case of isospin symmetric pd→ 3H π +/ 3He π 0 reactions, the average cross section ratio was estimated.

  15. Production of radioactive nuclides in inverse reaction kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O. C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Young, A. R.

    2007-03-01

    Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.

  16. On-farm production of fuel-alcohol in Mid-America technical and economic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hohmann, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol fuel production is suggested as an alternative to high energy costs for the Mid-American farmer. The steps involved in producing alcohol from biomass are reviewed. Fermentation equipment and procedures are readily available. The utilization of by-products for animal feeds is discussed. Combustion characteristics and chemical properties of ethanol are reviewed. Estimates are made of costs involved in alcohol production in the mid-west region. Regional agricultural consumption of gasoline is estimated and 3 scenarios are developed. Benefits of on-farm fuel production are outlined. (DMC)

  17. Massive production of nanoparticles via mist reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2009-06-01

    A novel conceptual nanoparticle fabrication method is proposed in this paper. It can be easily implemented for the preparation of micro or nanoparticles through a reaction between mists with different specific chemical compounds produced by ultrasonic atomization technology. Ultrasonic atomization is an established technology that easily atomizes liquid to produce very small droplets-in the orders of tens to hundreds of micrometers. The results reveal that metal oxide nanoparticles, such as iron oxide can be massively produced via reactions between metal chlorides and sodium carbonate in an experimental set-up based on physical and chemical principles. The density of the nanoparticle distribution is also investigated and determined to be dependent on the amount of mist reacted and the collection time. Moreover, since the vibrational frequency of ultrasound can be adjusted, we can control the size of micro-droplets of reactants, hence producing particles of different dimensions. Given that the double mist reaction method is easily controllable, environmentally friendly and extremely low in cost, it can potentially become a significant method for making micro/nano particles in the newly emerging field of nanofabrication and integration.

  18. Modeling and optimising alcohol production by fermentation of dextrose-xylose mixed feed using a fluorosensor.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, S; Sailaja, D; Kalpana, N

    1997-01-01

    Dextrose with differing amounts of xylose (mixed substrate medium) has been fermented at 28 degree Celsius with sacchromyces cerevisiae (Baker's Yeast) as seeding. The progress of the reaction was recorded by measuring the fluorescent signal due to intracellular reduced nicotinamide adenine di nucleotide (NADH) present in the cells with a Dr. Ingold (Switzerland) fluorosensor which has an excitation wavelength of 360 nm and measurement wavelength of 450 nm. The concentration of xylose in the xylose-dextrose feed was varied from 0.7% to 5.0% by weight. The optimum concentration of xylose at which the production of alcohol was a maximum was found to be 3.4 percent xylose. The fluorescent voltage data for different concentration of xylose fitted a first order model with an average absolute deviation of less than one percent. Development of this model is useful in design of model predictive controllers.

  19. Kinetic and product composition study on the cellulose liquefaction in polyhydric alcohols.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Jingdan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Tiantian; Yang, Hongmin; Jiang, Jianchun; Jiang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-08-01

    The liquefaction process of cellulose in polyhydric alcohols (PEG 400 and glycerol) was studied by TG-FTIR. Three stages were observed during the solvolysis process and the main liquefaction stage could be further divided into two zones. The differences of liquefaction behavior of cellulose in the two solvents were compared, and the functional groups of volatiles produced by solvolysis were also evaluated. A step-wise procedure based on iso-conversional and Master-plots methods was used for the kinetic and mechanism analysis of the main liquefaction stage. The calculation results based on the kinetic model were in agreement with the experimental data of the conversion rate. The kinetic parameters and mechanism functions between cellulose liquefaction in PEG400 and in glycerol were quite different, which verified that solvolysis behavior and reaction process were seriously influenced by solvent species. Finally, the detailed types of volatiles and product distribution were measured by Py-GC-MS.

  20. Production of C4 and C5 branched-chain alcohols by engineered Escherichia. coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jingliang; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xiao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Cuiyi; He, Minchao; Guo, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Higher alcohols, longer chain alcohols, contain more than 3 carbon atoms, showed close energy advantages as gasoline, and were considered as the next generation substitution for chemical fuels. Higher alcohol biosynthesis by native microorganisms mainly needs gene expression of heterologous keto acid decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenases. In the present study, branched-chain α-keto acid decarboxylase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CICC 6246 (Kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenases gene from Zymomonas mobilis CICC 41465 (AdhB) were transformed into Escherichia coli for higher alcohol production. SDS-PAGE results showed these two proteins were expressed in the recombinant strains. The resulting strain was incubated in LB medium at 37 °C in Erlenmeyer flasks and much more 3-methyl-1-butanol (104 mg/L) than isobutanol (24 mg/L) was produced. However, in 5 g/L glucose-containing medium, the production of two alcohols was similar, 156 and 161 mg/L for C4 (isobutanol) and C5 (3-methyl-1-butanol) alcohol, respectively. Effects of fermentation factors including temperature, glucose content, and α-keto acid on alcohol production were also investigated. The increase of glucose content and the adding of α-keto acids facilitated the production of C4 and C5 alcohols. The enzyme activities of pure Kivd on α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate were 26.77 and 21.24 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Due to its ability on decarboxylation of α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate, the recombinant E. coli strain showed potential application on isoamyl alcohol and isobutanol production.

  1. Large-scale alcohol production from corn, grain sorghum, and crop residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, A.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The potential impacts that large-scale alcohol production from corn, grain sorghum, and crop residues may have on US agriculture in the year 2000 are investigated. A one-land-group interregional linear-programming model is used. The objective function is to minimize the cost of production in the agricultural sector, given specified crop demands and constrained resources. The impacts that levels of alcohol production, ranging from zero to 12 billion gallons, have at two projected levels of crop demands, two grain-to-alcohol conversion and two milling methods, wet and dry, rates are considered. The impacts that large-scale fuel alcohol production has on US agriculture are small. The major impacts that occur are the substitution of milling by-products, DDG, gluten feed, and gluten meal, for soybean meal in livestock feed rations. Production of 12 billion gallons of alcohol is estimated to be equivalent to an 18 percent increase in crop exports. Improving the grain-to-alcohol conversion rate from 2.6 to 3.0 gallons per bushels reduces the overall cost of agricultural production by $989 billion when 12 billion gallons of alcohol are produced.

  2. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-07

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action.

  3. Availability of tobacco and alcohol products in Los Angeles community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Corelli, Robin L; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-02-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists' Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products.

  4. Cross-hetero-dehydrogenative coupling reaction of phosphites: a catalytic metal-free phosphorylation of amines and alcohols.

    PubMed

    Dhineshkumar, Jayaraman; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2013-12-06

    Phosphorylation of amines, alcohols, and sulfoximines are accomplished using molecular iodine as a catalyst and H2O2 as the sole oxidant under mild reaction conditions. This method provides an easy route for synthesizing a variety of phosphoramidates, phosphorus triesters and sulfoximine-derived phosphoramidates which are of biological importance.

  5. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  6. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  7. Metabolic engineering of fatty alcohol production in transgenic hairy roots of Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni; Królicka, Aleksandra

    2016-12-12

    Biotechnological production of fatty alcohols, important raw materials in the chemical industry, has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. Fatty alcohols are formed by the reduction of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acyl-ACPs catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR). In this study, we introduced genes encoding FARs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtFAR5) and Simmondsia chinensis (ScFAR) into Crambe abyssinica hairy roots via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. The efficiency of the transformation ranged between 30 and 45%. The fatty alcohols were only detected in the transgenic hairy root lines expressing ScFAR gene. In all tested lines stearyl alcohol (18:0-OH), arachidyl alcohol (20:0-OH), and behenyl alcohol (22:0-OH) were produced. The content of 18:0-OH varied from 1 to 3% of total fatty acids and fatty alcohols, while the amount of either 20:0-OH and 22:0-OH did not exceed 2%. The transgenic hairy root lines produced from 0.98 to 2.59 nmol of fatty alcohols per mg of dry weight. Very low activity of ScFAR was detected in the microsomal fractions isolated from the selected hairy root lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty alcohol production in the hairy root cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;9999: 1-8. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols: A facile and stereoselective synthesis of α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Silong; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai

    2014-01-01

    A highly regioselective SN2' Mitsunobu reaction between Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) alcohols, azodicarboxylates, and triphenylphosphine is developed, which provides an easy access to α-alkylidene-β-hydrazino acid derivatives in high yields and good stereoselectivity. This reaction represents the first direct transformation of MBH alcohols into hydrazines.

  9. Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Meshbesher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

  10. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Zinc pyrithione in alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis: persistence of antimicrobial effects.

    PubMed

    Guthery, Eugene; Seal, Lawton A; Anderson, Edward L

    2005-02-01

    Alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis have a long history of safety and efficacy in the United States and abroad. However, alcohol alone lacks the required antimicrobial persistence to provide for the sustained periods of skin antisepsis desired in the clinical environment. Therefore, alcohol-based products must have a preservative agent such as iodine/iodophor compounds, chlorhexidine gluconate, or zinc pyrithione, to extend its antimicrobial effects. Iodine, iodophors, and chlorhexidine gluconate are well-characterized antimicrobials and preservatives. The thrust of our effort was to examine the characteristics of the lesser-known zinc pyrithione and to evaluate its utility as a preservative in the formulation of alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis. This work includes a literature review of current zinc pyrithione applications in drugs and cosmetics, a safety and toxicity evaluation, consideration of the proposed mechanisms of antimicrobial action, in vitro and in vivo efficacy data, and a discussion of the mechanisms that confer the desired antimicrobial persistence. In addition, alcohol-based, zinc pyrithione-preserved, commercially available products of skin antisepsis are compared with other commercially available antimicrobials used for skin antisepsis and with additional alcohol-based products with different preservatives. The authors' conclusion is that zinc pyrithione is not only a safe and effective antimicrobial but that its use in certain alcohol-based formulations results in antimicrobial efficacy exceeding that of iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate.

  12. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas.

  13. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  14. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of... contain no alcohol (0 percent). (f) For any OTC drug product intended for oral ingestion containing over...

  15. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of... contain no alcohol (0 percent). (f) For any OTC drug product intended for oral ingestion containing over...

  16. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of... contain no alcohol (0 percent). (f) For any OTC drug product intended for oral ingestion containing over...

  17. Alcohol fuels: production. September 1985-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 75 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  19. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  1. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  2. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  3. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  4. Continuous N-alkylation reactions of amino alcohols using γ-Al2O3 and supercritical CO2: unexpected formation of cyclic ureas and urethanes by reaction with CO2

    PubMed Central

    Streng, Emilia S; Lee, Darren S

    2017-01-01

    The use of γ-Al2O3 as a heterogeneous catalyst in scCO2 has been successfully applied to the amination of alcohols for the synthesis of N-alkylated heterocycles. The optimal reaction conditions (temperature and substrate flow rate) were determined using an automated self-optimising reactor, resulting in moderate to high yields of the target products. Carrying out the reaction in scCO2 was shown to be beneficial, as higher yields were obtained in the presence of CO2 than in its absence. A surprising discovery is that, in addition to cyclic amines, cyclic ureas and urethanes could be synthesised by incorporation of CO2 from the supercritical solvent into the product. PMID:28326142

  5. Kinetics, mechanisms and products of reactions of Criegee intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    The atmospheric ozonolysis of alkenes such as isoprene produces Criegee intermediates which are increasingly recognized as important contributors to oxidation chemistry in the Earth's troposphere. Stabilized Criegee intermediates are conveniently produced in the laboratory by ultraviolet photolysis of diiodoalkanes in the presence of O2, and can be detected by absorption spectroscopy using their strong electronic bands in the near ultraviolet region. We have used these techniques to study a wide range of reactions of Criegee intermediates, including their self-reactions, and reactions with carboxylic acids and various other trace atmospheric constituents. In collaboration with the Sandia National Laboratory group led by Drs C.A. Taatjes and D.L. Osborn, we have used photoionization and mass spectrometry methods, combined with electronic structure calculations, to characterize the products of several of these reactions. Our laboratory studies determine rate coefficients for the Criegee intermediate reactions, many of which prove to be fast. In the case of reactions with carboxylic acids, a correlation between the dipole moments of the reactants and the reaction rate coefficients suggests a dipole-capture controlled reaction and allows us to propose a structure-activity relationship to predict the rates of related processes. The contributions of these various Criegee intermediate reactions to the chemistry of the troposphere have been assessed using the STOCHEM-CRI global atmospheric chemistry model. This work was supported by NERC grant NE/K004905/1.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  19. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium crenatium for enhancing production of higher alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Su, Haifeng; Lin, Jiafu; Wang, GuangWei

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis approaches for the production of higher alcohols as a source of alternative fossil fuels have garnered increasing interest recently. However, there is little information available in the literature about using undirected whole-cell mutagenesis (UWCM) in vivo to improve higher alcohols production. In this study, for the first time, we approached this question from two aspects: first preferentially improving the capacity of expression host, and subsequently optimizing metabolic pathways using multiple genetic mutations to shift metabolic flux toward the biosynthetic pathway of target products to convert intermediate 2-keto acid compounds into diversified C4~C5 higher alcohols using UWCM in vivo, with the aim of improving the production. The results demonstrated the production of higher alcohols including isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol from glucose and duckweed under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) scheme were higher based on the two aspects compared with only the use of wild-type stain as expression host. These findings showed that the improvement via UWCM in vivo in the two aspects for expression host and metabolic flux can facilitate the increase of higher alcohols production before using gene editing technology. Our work demonstrates that a multi-faceted approach for the engineering of novel synthetic pathways in microorganisms for improving biofuel production is feasible. PMID:27996038

  20. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium crenatium for enhancing production of higher alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Haifeng; Lin, Jiafu; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-12-01

    Biosynthesis approaches for the production of higher alcohols as a source of alternative fossil fuels have garnered increasing interest recently. However, there is little information available in the literature about using undirected whole-cell mutagenesis (UWCM) in vivo to improve higher alcohols production. In this study, for the first time, we approached this question from two aspects: first preferentially improving the capacity of expression host, and subsequently optimizing metabolic pathways using multiple genetic mutations to shift metabolic flux toward the biosynthetic pathway of target products to convert intermediate 2-keto acid compounds into diversified C4~C5 higher alcohols using UWCM in vivo, with the aim of improving the production. The results demonstrated the production of higher alcohols including isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol from glucose and duckweed under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) scheme were higher based on the two aspects compared with only the use of wild-type stain as expression host. These findings showed that the improvement via UWCM in vivo in the two aspects for expression host and metabolic flux can facilitate the increase of higher alcohols production before using gene editing technology. Our work demonstrates that a multi-faceted approach for the engineering of novel synthetic pathways in microorganisms for improving biofuel production is feasible.

  1. A DFT study on the reaction pathways for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions between propargylic alcohols and alkenes or ketones catalyzed by thiolate-bridged diruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ken; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-05

    The reaction pathways of two types of the carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions catalyzed by thiolate-bridged diruthenium complexes have been investigated by density-functional-theory calculations. It is clarified that both carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions proceed through a ruthenium-allenylidene complex as a common reactive intermediate. The attack of pi electrons on propene or the vinyl alcohol on the ruthenium-allenylidene complex is the first step of the reaction pathways. The reaction pathways are different after the attack of nucleophiles on the ruthenium-alkynyl complex. In the reaction with propene, the carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction proceeds through a stepwise process, whereas in the reaction with vinyl alcohol, it proceeds through a concerted process. The interactions between the ruthenium-allenylidene complex and propene or vinyl alcohol have been investigated by applying a simple way of looking at orbital interactions.

  2. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols with use of montmorillonite catalysts as solid Brønsted acids.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Nakagiri, Nobuaki; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Ebitani, Kohki; Kaneda, Kiyotomi

    2007-08-03

    We have developed an environmentally benign synthetic approach to nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols that minimizes or eliminates the formation of byproducts, resulting in a highly atom-efficient chemical process. Proton- and metal-exchanged montmorillonites (H- and Mn+-mont) were prepared easily by treating Na+-mont with an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride or metal salt, respectively. The H-mont possessed outstanding catalytic activity for nucleophilic substitution reactions of a variety of alcohols with anilines, because the unique acidity of the H-mont catalyst effectively prevents the neutralization by the basic anilines. In addition, amides, indoles, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and allylsilane act as nucleophiles for the H-mont-catalyzed substitutions of alcohols, which allowed efficient formation of various C-N and C-C bonds. The solid H-mont was reusable without any appreciable loss in its catalytic activity and selectivity. Especially, an Al3+-mont showed high catalytic activity for the alpha-benzylation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with primary alcohols due to cooperative catalysis between a protonic acid site and a Lewis acidic Al3+ species in its interlayer spaces.

  3. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields.

  4. Di- and triheteroarylalkanes via self-condensation and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type reaction of heteroaryl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Seema; Ramasastry, S S V

    2013-12-14

    An efficient synthetic approach to diheteroarylmethanes and 1,3-diheteroarylpropenes has been developed via Yb(III)-catalyzed sequential self-condensation of 2-furfuryl (or 2-thienyl or 3-indolyl) alcohols followed by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type reaction and elimination of an aldehyde. This method offers a powerful entry and a potential alternative to the traditional synthesis of diheteroarylalkanes, which are precursors to the synthesis of several intriguing heteroaryls and more significantly, to the synthesis of biofuels.

  5. Efficient O‐Acylation of Alcohols and Phenol Using Cp2TiCl as a Reaction Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Durán‐Peña, María Jesús; Botubol‐Ares, José Manuel; Hanson, James R.; Hernández‐Galán, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for the conversion of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, and phenol, into the corresponding esters at room temperature. The method uses a titanium(III) species generated from a substoichiometric amount of titanocene dichloride together with manganese(0) as a reductant, as well as methylene diiodide. It involves a transesterification from an ethyl ester, or a reaction with an acyl chloride. A radical mechanism is proposed for these transformations. PMID:27840587

  6. Enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of 1,2-dihydropyridines with aldehydes using β-amino alcohol organocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kohari, Yoshihito; Okuyama, Yuko; Kwon, Eunsang; Furuyama, Taniyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Otuki, Teppei; Kumagai, Jun; Seki, Chigusa; Uwai, Koji; Dai, Gang; Iwasa, Tatsuo; Nakano, Hiroto

    2014-10-17

    The enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of 1,2-dihydropyridines with aldehydes using an easily prepared optically active β-amino alcohol catalyst was found to provide optically active isoquinuclidines, an efficient synthetic intermediate of pharmaceutically important compounds such as oseltamivir phosphate, with a satisfactory chemical yield and enantioselectivity (up to 96%, up to 98% ee). In addition, the obtained highly optically pure isoquinuclidine was easily converted to an optically active piperidine having four successive carbon centers.

  7. Hydrothermal energy: a source of energy for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    A small scale (1 gal/hr) biomass-to-alcohol still was built at the Raft River Geothermal Site to investigate difficulties in geothermal assisted biomass conversion. The unit was successfully operated, producing 95% (190 proof) ethanol from sugar beet juice. The unit was designed and built in less than eight weeks from surplus equipment using commercially available design information. This small-scale still demonstrated that 95% ethanol can be produced from sugar beet beer containing 8 to 10% alcohol using geothermal energy and present commercial technology. The geothermal resource provided both an energy source and process water. Recently, Bechtel National, Incorporated, of San Francisco, California completed a study to analyze the economic feasibility of producing ethanol from potatoes, wheat, and sugar beets using geothermal resources available in the Raft River Region of Idaho. The study concluded that a 20 million gallon per year facility can be built that will supply alcohol at $1.78 per gallon using geothermal energy. (MHR)

  8. Domino rhodium/palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of alcohols to acids by hydrogen transfer to inactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Trincado, Mónica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Vizza, Francesco; Bianchini, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    The combination of the d(8) Rh(I) diolefin amide [Rh(trop(2)N)(PPh(3))] (trop(2)N=bis(5-H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)amide) and a palladium heterogeneous catalyst results in the formation of a superior catalyst system for the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols. The overall process represents a mild and direct method for the synthesis of aromatic and heteroaromatic carboxylic acids for which inactivated olefins can be used as hydrogen acceptors. Allyl alcohols are also applicable to this coupling reaction and provide the corresponding saturated aliphatic carboxylic acids. This transformation has been found to be very efficient in the presence of silica-supported palladium nanoparticles. The dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol by the rhodium amide, [Rh]N, follows the well established mechanism of metal-ligand bifunctional catalysis. The resulting amino hydride complex, [RhH]NH, transfers a H(2) molecule to the Pd nanoparticles, which, in turn, deliver hydrogen to the inactivated alkene. Thus a domino catalytic reaction is developed which promotes the reaction R-CH(2)-OH+NaOH+2 alkene-->R-COONa+2 alkane.

  9. Regioselective monochloro substitution in carbohydrates and non-sugar alcohols via Mitsunobu reaction: applications in the synthesis of reboxetine.

    PubMed

    Dar, Abdul Rouf; Aga, Mushtaq A; Kumar, Brijesh; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Taneja, Subhash Chandra

    2013-09-28

    A regioselective high yielding monochloro substitution (chlorohydrin formation) via Mitsunobu reaction is reported. In carbohydrates and sterically hindered non-sugars, only the primary hydroxyl group is chlorinated, whereas in the non-sugar 1,2- and 1,3-alcohols, predominantly the secondary chloride substitution occurs. The versatile methodology provides indirect access to epoxides with the retention of configuration, as against conventional Mitsunobu reaction which generates epoxides with inversion. The methodology was successfully used as a key step in the synthesis of optically active diastereoisomers of the antidepressant drug reboxetine from (R)-2,3-O-cyclohexylidene-d-glyceraldehyde in ∼43% overall yields.

  10. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Youngquist, J. Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H.; Rose, Joshua P.; Raines, Thomas C.; Politz, Mark C.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Pfleger, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol / g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli. PMID:24141053

  11. Production of medium chain length fatty alcohols from glucose in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Youngquist, J Tyler; Schumacher, Martin H; Rose, Joshua P; Raines, Thomas C; Politz, Mark C; Copeland, Matthew F; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic engineering offers the opportunity to produce a wide range of commodity chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum or other non-renewable resources. Microbial synthesis of fatty alcohols is an attractive process because it can control the distribution of chain lengths and utilize low cost fermentation substrates. Specifically, primary alcohols with chain lengths of 12 to 14 carbons have many uses in the production of detergents, surfactants, and personal care products. The current challenge is to produce these compounds at titers and yields that would make them economically competitive. Here, we demonstrate a metabolic engineering strategy for producing fatty alcohols from glucose. To produce a high level of 1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol, an acyl-ACP thioesterase (BTE), an acyl-CoA ligase (FadD), and an acyl-CoA/aldehyde reductase (MAACR) were overexpressed in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Yields were improved by balancing expression levels of each gene, using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, and adding a solvent to the culture for extracting the product from cells. Using these strategies, a titer of over 1.6 g/L fatty alcohol with a yield of over 0.13 g fatty alcohol/g carbon source was achieved. These are the highest reported yield of fatty alcohols produced from glucose in E. coli.

  12. Various oils and detergents enhance the microbial production of farnesol and related prenyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2008-09-01

    The object of this research was improvement of prenyl alcohol production with squalene synthase-deficient mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031. On screening of many kinds of additives, we found that oils and detergents significantly enhanced the extracellular production of prenyl alcohols. Soybean oil showed the most prominent effect among the additives tested. Its effect was accelerated by a high concentration of glucose in the medium. The combination of these cultivation conditions led to the production of more than 28 mg/l of farnesol in the soluble fraction of the broth. The addition of these compounds to the medium was an effective method for large-scale production of prenyl alcohols with microorganisms.

  13. Ozone-cyclohexene reaction in air: quantitative analysis of particulate products and the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Tanonaka, T.; Weng, J.; Bandow, H.; Takagi, H.; Akimot, H.

    1985-10-01

    Both gaseous and particulate products of the cyclohexene-ozone reaction were analyzed. Major gaseous products were aldehydes that consist of adipaldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/CHO), glutaraldehyde (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO), and pentanal (CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/CHO). The sum of the primary yields of aldehydes reaches as high as 50%. In addition to aldehydes, formic acid, CO, and CO/sub 2/ were produced, but formaldehyde was not detected. Main particulate products were adipaldehyde, 6-oxohexanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), adipic acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/COOH), glutaraldehyde, 5-oxopentanoic acid (CHO(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH), and glutaric acid (HOOC(CH/sub 2/)/sub 3/COOH). All these compounds were analyzed quantitatively, and the fraction of initial cyclohexene converted to aerosol organic carbon was estimated to be 13 +/- 3% as the value extrapolated to a ppm concentration range of reactants. Although the reaction mechanism is in general explainable in terms of the Criegee mechanism, the reaction pathway to form formic acid is quite unique in this reaction system. The entire mechanism was discussed on the basis of the quantitative product analysis data.

  14. Energy distribution among reaction products. VII - H + F2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Sloan, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'arrested relaxation' variant of the IR chemiluminescence technique is used in a study of the distribution of vibrational, rotational and translational energies between the products of the reaction by which H + F2 yields HF + F. Diagrams are plotted and numerical values are obtained for the energy distribution rate constants.

  15. Mechanism of an Organoboron-Catalyzed Domino Reaction: Kinetic and Computational Studies of Borinic Acid-Catalyzed Regioselective Chloroacylation of 2,3-Epoxy Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Graham E; Tanveer, Kashif; Taylor, Mark S

    2017-01-20

    A mechanistic study of the borinic acid-catalyzed chloroacylation of 2,3-epoxy alcohols is presented. In this unusual mode of catalysis, the borinic acid activates the substrate toward sequential reactions with a nucleophile (epoxide ring-opening by chloride) and an electrophile (O-acylation of the resulting alkoxide). Reaction progress kinetic analysis of data obtained through in situ FTIR spectroscopy is consistent with a mechanism involving turnover-limiting acylation of a chlorohydrin-derived borinic ester. This proposal is further supported by investigations of the effects of aroyl chloride substitution on reaction rate. The kinetics experiments also shed light on the effects of chloride concentration on reaction rate and indicate that the catalyst is subject to inhibition by the product of the chloroacylation reaction. Computational modeling is employed to gain insight into the effects of the organoboron catalyst on the regioselectivities of the epoxide ring-opening and acylation steps. The density functional theory calculations provide a plausible pathway for selective chlorinolysis at C-3 and benzoylation at O-1, as is observed experimentally.

  16. Pion production in high-energy neutrino reactions with nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosel, U.

    2015-06-01

    Background: A quantitative understanding of neutrino interactions with nuclei is needed for precision era neutrino long baseline experiments (MINOS, NOvA, DUNE) which all use nuclear targets. Pion production is the dominant reaction channel at the energies of these experiments. Purpose: Investigate the influence of nuclear effects on neutrino-induced pion production cross sections and compare predictions for pion-production with available data. Method: The Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) model is used for the description of all incoherent channels in neutrino-nucleus reactions. Results: Differential cross sections for charged and neutral pion production for the MINER ν A neutrino and antineutrino flux are calculated. An estimate for the coherent cross section is obtained from a comparison of data with theoretical results for incoherent cross sections. The invariant mass (W ) distribution of the Δ resonances produced is analyzed. Conclusions: Final state interactions affect the pion kinetic energy spectra significantly. The data for charged pion production at MINER ν A are compatible with the results of calculations using elementary data taken from an old Argonne National Laboratory experiment. Remaining differences for charged pion production can be attributed to coherent production; the data for antineutrino induced neutral pion production, where no coherent contribution is present, are reproduced quite well. The analysis of W distributions shows that sharp cuts on experimentally reconstructed invariant masses lead to shape distortions of the true W distributions for nuclear targets.

  17. Hydrogen production from methane through catalytic partial oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freni, S.; Calogero, G.; Cavallaro, S.

    This paper reviews recent developments in syn-gas production processes used for partial methane oxidation with and/or without steam. In particular, we examined different process charts (fixed bed, fluidised bed, membrane, etc.), kinds of catalysts (powders, foams, monoliths, etc.) and catalytically active phases (Ni, Pt, Rh, etc.). The explanation of the various suggested technical solutions accounted for the reaction mechanism that may selectively lead to calibrated mixtures of CO and H 2 or to the unwanted formation of products of total oxidation (CO 2 and H 2O) and pyrolysis (coke). Moreover, the new classes of catalysts allow the use of small reactors to treat large amounts of methane (monoliths) or separate hydrogen in situ from the other reaction products (membrane). This leads to higher conversions and selectivity than could have been expected thermodynamically. Although catalysts based on Rh are extremely expensive, they can be used to minimise H 2O formation by maximising H 2 yield.

  18. Disruption of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene improved glycerol use and dihydroxyacetone productivity in Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Kitamoto, Dai; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans is an industrial form of fermentation, but some problems exist related to microbial DHA production. For example, glycerol inhibits DHA production and affects its biological activity. G. oxydans produces both DHA and glyceric acid (GA) from glycerol simultaneously, and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase and membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenases are involved in the two reactions, respectively. We discovered that the G. oxydans mutant DeltaadhA, in which the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene (adhA) was disrupted, significantly improved its ability to grow in a higher concentration of glycerol and to produce DHA compared to a wild-type strain. DeltaadhA grew on 220 g/l of initial glycerol and produced 125 g/l of DHA during a 3-d incubation, whereas the wild-type did not. Resting DeltaadhA cells converted 230 g/l of glycerol aqueous solution to 139.7 g/l of DHA during a 3-d incubation. The inhibitory effect of glycerate sodium salt on DeltaadhA was investigated. An increase in the glycerate concentration at the beginning of growth resulted in decreases in both growth and DHA production.

  19. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-11-27

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities.

  20. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  1. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  2. Mechanistic insights into the rhenium-catalyzed alcohol-to-olefin dehydration reaction.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2013-09-23

    Rhenium-based complexes are powerful catalysts for the dehydration of various alcohols to the corresponding olefins. Here, we report on both experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies into the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols to olefins in general, and the methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to styrene in particular. The experimental and theoretical studies are in good agreement, both showing the involvement of several proton transfers, and of a carbenium ion intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  3. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  4. Taste-active maillard reaction products: the "tasty" world of nonvolatile maillard reaction products.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    This study was done to obtain greater insight into the structures and sensory activities of those tastants that are not present in foods per se, but are generated during food processing by Maillard-type reactions from carbohydrates and amino acids and thus remain unknown. In order to rank the tastants according to their relative taste impact and to identify the key tastants generated during thermal food processing, the so-called taste dilution analysis (TDA), which uses the human tongue as a biosensor for tastants, was applied to heated, intensely bitter tasting binary mixtures of glucose or xylose and proline or alanine, respectively. This screening technique led to the identification of previously unknown taste compounds, among which intensely bitter tastants such as quinizolate and homoquinizolate, a pungent-tasting pyranopyranone, cyclopentenone derivatives exhibiting a physiological cooling effect, as well as a taste-enhancing pyridinium betaine named alapyridaine will be presented.

  5. Dual Position Sensitive MWPC for tracking reaction products at VAMOS++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Lemasson, A.; Rejmund, M.; Fremont, G.; Pancin, J.; Navin, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Goupil, J.; Spitaels, C.; Jacquot, B.

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and performance of a Dual Position Sensitive Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (DPS-MWPC) used to measure the scattering angle, the interaction position on the target and the velocity of reaction products detected in the VAMOS++ magnetic spectrometer, are reported. The detector consists of a pair of position sensitive low pressure MWPCs and provides both fast timing signals, along with the two-dimensional position coordinates required to define the trajectory of the reaction products. A time-of-flight resolution of 305(11) ps (FWHM) was measured. The measured resolutions (FWHM) were 2.5(3) mrad and 560(70) μm for the scattering angle and the interaction point at the target respectively. The subsequent improvement of the Doppler correction of the energy of the γ-rays, detected in the γ-ray tracking array AGATA in coincidence with isotopically identified ions in VAMOS++, is also discussed.

  6. Alcohol and single-cell protein production by Kluyveromyces in concentrated whey permeates with reduced ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, M.M.; Kosikowski, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    Five Kluyveromyces yeasts were grown in concentrated whey permeates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to produce single-cell protein and ethanol. K. fragilis NRRL Y2415 produced the highest yield of alcohol, 9.1%, and K. bulgaricus ATCC 1605 gave the highest yield of biomass, 13.5 mg/mL. High ash, apparently through Na and K effects, inhibited production of biomass and alcohol. A 0.77% ash was optimum. Lactose utilization was more rapid under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and urea supplementation were without effect on yeast growth or were slightly inhibitory. A 1% peptone inclusion gave the highest biomass yield with minimum alcohol production.

  7. Alcohol production from cheese whey permeate using genetically modified flocculent yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Domingues, L; Lima, N; Teixeira, J A

    2001-03-05

    Alcoholic fermentation of cheese whey permeate was investigated using a recombinant flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing the LAC4 (coding for beta-galactosidase) and LAC12 (coding for lactose permease) genes of Kluyveromyces marxianus enabling for lactose metabolization. Data on yeast fermentation and growth on cheese whey permeate from a Portuguese dairy industry is presented. For cheese whey permeate having a lactose concentration of 50 gL(-1), total lactose consumption was observed with a conversion yield of ethanol close to the expected theoretical value. Using a continuously operating 5.5-L bioreactor, ethanol productivity near 10 g L(-1) h(-1) (corresponding to 0.45 h(-1) dilution rate) was obtained, which raises new perspectives for the economic feasibility of whey alcoholic fermentation. The use of 2-times concentrated cheese whey permeate, corresponding to 100 gL(-1) of lactose concentration, was also considered allowing for obtaining a fermentation product with 5% (w/v) alcohol.

  8. The impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Varela, Cristian

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of fermentable sugars into alcohol during fermentation is the key process in the production of all alcoholic beverages. However, microbial activity during fermentation is considerably more complex than merely producing ethanol, usually involving the action of a great diversity of yeasts and bacteria and the production of metabolites that affect the organoleptic properties of fermented beverages. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which are naturally present in un-inoculated, spontaneous fermentations, can provide a means for increasing aroma and flavour diversity in fermented beverages. This review will cover the impacts of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on volatile composition and sensory profile of beer, wine, spirits and other fermented beverages, and look at future opportunities involving yeast interactions and regionality in alcoholic beverages.

  9. [A systematic review of surgical hand antisepsis utilizing an alcohol preparation compared to traditional products].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Karen de Jesus; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko

    2012-12-01

    Surgical hand antisepsis aims at preventing surgical site infections, an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality and escalating hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of alcohol preparations with traditional surgical hand antisepsis products by means of a systematic review of the literature. Primary and secondary studies were included, considering the microbial count or surgical site infection rates as outcomes. The search was performed on the BVS Portal, PubMed, Ask and MEDLINE. Twenty-five studies were selected (two systematic reviews, nineteen experimental and four cohort studies). The alcohol preparations promoted a microbial reduction equal to and/or greater than traditional products in 17 studies, and a lesser reduction in four studies; similar surgical site infection rates were identified. Therefore, there is scientific evidence that support the safety of alcohol preparations for surgical hand antisepsis.

  10. Partner Pressure, Victimization History, and Alcohol: Women's Condom-Decision Abdication Mediated by Mood and Anticipated Negative Partner Reaction.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Staples, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Highly intoxicated versus sober women were evaluated using multi-group path analyses to test the hypothesis that sexual victimization history would interact with partner pressure to forgo condom use, resulting in greater condom-decision abdication-letting the man decide whether or not to use a condom. After beverage administration, community women (n = 408) projected themselves into a scenario depicting a male partner exerting high or low pressure for unprotected sex. Mood, anticipated negative reactions from the partner, and condom-decision abdication were assessed. In both control and alcohol models, high pressure increased anticipated negative partner reaction, and positive mood was associated with increased abdication. In the alcohol model, victimization predicted abdication via anticipated negative partner reaction, and pressure decreased positive mood and abdication. In the control model, under high pressure, victimization history severity was positively associated with abdication. Findings implicate condom-decision abdication as an important construct in understanding how women's sexual victimization histories may exert sustained impact on sexual interactions.

  11. Multi-strangeness production in hadron induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanos, T.; Moustakidis, Ch.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Lenske, H.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss in detail the formation and propagation of multi-strangeness particles in reactions induced by hadron beams relevant for the forthcoming experiments at FAIR. We focus the discussion on the production of the decuplet-particle Ω and study for the first time the production and propagation mechanism of this heavy hyperon inside hadronic environments. The transport calculations show the possibility of Ω-production in the forthcoming P ‾ANDA-experiment, which can be achieved with measurable probabilities using high-energy secondary Ξ-beams. We predict cross sections for Ω-production. The theoretical results are important in understanding the hyperon-nucleon and, in particular, the hyperon-hyperon interactions also in the high-strangeness sector. We emphasize the importance of our studies for the research plans at FAIR.

  12. Studies on the production of branched-chain alcohols in engineered Ralstonia eutropha

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Gai, CS; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-08-04

    Wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as an intracellular carbon storage material during nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. In this study, the excess carbon was redirected in engineered strains from PHB storage to the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can directly substitute for fossil-based fuels and be employed within the current infrastructure. Various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, were employed for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Production of these branched-chain alcohols was initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation in the engineered R. eutropha. One mutant strain not only produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture, but also was significantly more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity than wild-type R. eutropha. After the elimination of genes encoding three potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation was utilized to minimize the toxicity caused by isobutanol while supplying cells with sufficient nutrients. Under this semicontinuous flask cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis.

  13. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of higher alcohol synthesis products from syngas.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robert; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven

    2012-07-20

    An on-line gas chromatographic (GC) system has been developed for rapid and accurate product analysis in catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of H₂ and CO) to alcohols, so called "higher alcohol synthesis (HAS)". Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols is an interesting second step in the route of converting coal, natural gas and possibly biomass to liquid alcohol fuel and chemicals. The presented GC system and method are developed for analysis of the products formed from syngas using alkali promoted MoS₂ catalysts, however it is not limited to these types of catalysts. During higher alcohol synthesis not only the wanted short alcohols (∼C₂-C₅) are produced, but also a great number of other products in smaller or greater amounts, they are mainly short hydrocarbons (olefins, paraffins, branched, non-branched), aldehydes, esters and ketones as well as CO₂, H₂O. Trace amounts of sulfur-containing compounds can also be found in the product effluent when sulfur-containing catalysts are used and/or sulfur-containing syngas is feed. In the presented GC system, most of them can be separated and analyzed within 60 min without the use of cryogenic cooling. Previously, product analysis in "higher alcohol synthesis" has in most cases been carried out partly on-line and partly off-line, where the light gases (gases at room temp) are analyzed on-line and liquid products (liquid at room temp) are collected in a trap for later analysis off-line. This method suffers from many drawbacks compared to a complete on-line GC system. In this paper an on-line system using an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD), together with an Agilent 6890 with sulfur chemiluminescence dual plasma detector (SCD) is presented. A two-dimensional GC system with Deans switch (heart-cut) and two capillary columns (HP-FFAP and HP-Al₂O₃) was used for analysis of the organic products on the FIDs. Light

  14. Unsymmetrical Diarylmethanes by Ferroceniumboronic Acid Catalyzed Direct Friedel-Crafts Reactions with Deactivated Benzylic Alcohols: Enhanced Reactivity due to Ion-Pairing Effects.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaobin; Yakiwchuk, Joshua; Dansereau, Julien; McCubbin, J Adam; Hall, Dennis G

    2015-08-05

    The development of general and more atom-economical catalytic processes for Friedel-Crafts alkylations of unactivated arenes is an important objective of interest for the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Ferroceniumboronic acid hexafluoroantimonate salt (1) was identified as a superior air- and moisture-tolerant catalyst for direct Friedel-Crafts alkylations of a variety of slightly activated and neutral arenes with stable and readily available primary and secondary benzylic alcohols. Compared to the use of classical metal-catalyzed alkylations with toxic benzylic halides, this methodology employs exceptionally mild conditions to provide a wide variety of unsymmetrical diarylmethanes and other 1,1-diarylalkane products in high yield with good to high regioselectivity. The optimal method, using the bench-stable ferroceniumboronic acid salt 1 in hexafluoroisopropanol as cosolvent, displays a broader scope compared to previously reported catalysts for similar Friedel-Crafts reactions of benzylic alcohols, including other boronic acids such as 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorophenylboronic acid. The efficacy of the new boronic acid catalyst was confirmed by its ability to activate primary benzylic alcohols functionalized with destabilizing electron-withdrawing groups like halides, carboxyesters, and nitro substituents. Arene benzylation was demonstrated on a gram scale at up to 1 M concentration with catalyst recovery. Mechanistic studies point toward the importance of the ionic nature of the catalyst and suggest that factors other than the Lewis acidity (pKa) of the boronic acid are at play. A SN1 mechanism is proposed where ion exchange within the initial boronate anion affords a more reactive carbocation paired with the non-nucleophilic hexafluoroantimonate counteranion.

  15. Biofuel production from crude palm oil with supercritical alcohols: comparative LCA studies.

    PubMed

    Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Teeravitud, Sunsanee; Piumsomboon, Pornpote; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2012-09-01

    A recent life cycle assessment (LCA) reported that biodiesel production in supercritical alcohols (SCA) produces a higher environmental load than the homogeneous catalytic process because an enormous amount of energy is required to recover excess alcohol. However, the excess alcohol could be dramatically reduced by increasing the operating temperature to 400°C; although the product would have to be considered as an alternative biofuel instead of biodiesel. A comparative LCA of the biodiesel production in two SCA at 300°C (C-SCA) and novel biofuel production in the same two SCA at 400°C (N-SCA) is presented. It was clear that the N-SCA process produces a dramatically reduced environmental load over that of the C-SCA process due to a lower amount of excess alcohol being used. The N-SCA process could be improved in terms of its environmental impact by changing from fossil fuel to biomass-based fuels for the steam generation.

  16. Thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard: Analysis of in vitro biotransformation by mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases using nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Brimfield, A.A.; Hodgson, Ernest

    2006-06-15

    Thiodiglycol (2,2'-bis-hydroxyethylsulfide, TDG), the hydrolysis product of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, has been implicated in the toxicity of sulfur mustard through the inhibition of protein phosphatases in mouse liver cytosol. The absence of any inhibitory activity when TDG was present in assays of pure enzymes, however, led us to investigate the possibility for metabolic activation of TDG to inhibitory compound(s) by cytosolic enzymes. We have successfully shown that mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) rapidly oxidize TDG in vitro, but the classic spectrophotometric techniques for following this reaction provided no information on the identity of TDG intermediates and products. The use of proton NMR to monitor the oxidative reaction with structural confirmation by independent synthesis allowed us to establish the ultimate product, 2-hydroxyethylthioacetic acid, and to identify an intermediate equilibrium mixture consisting of 2-hydroxyethylthioacetaldehyde, 2-hydroxyethylthioacetaldehyde hydrate and the cyclic 1,4-oxathian-2-ol. The intermediate nature of this mixture was determined spectrophotometrically when it was shown to drive the production of NADH when added to ADH and NAD.

  17. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidation Reactions of Olefins, Alkanes, and Alcohols: Involvement of Oxo- and Peroxo Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Kristin; Junge, Kathrin; Bitterlich, Bianca; Beller, Matthias

    In this review, recent developments of iron-catalyzed oxidations of olefins (epoxidation), alkanes, arenes, and alcohols are summarized. Special focus is given on the ligand systems and the catalytic performance of the iron complexes. In addition, the mechanistic involvement of high-valent iron-oxo species is discussed.

  18. Reactions on Twitter to updated alcohol guidelines in the UK: a content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bignardi, Giacomo; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In January 2016, the 4 UK Chief Medical Officers released a public consultation regarding updated guidelines for low-risk alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess responses to the updated guidelines using comments made on Twitter. Methods Tweets containing the hashtag #alcoholguidelines made during 1 week following the announcement of the updated guidelines were retrieved using the Twitter Archiver tool. The source, sentiment and themes of the tweets were categorised using manual content analysis. Results A total of 3061 tweets was retrieved. 6 sources were identified, the most prominent being members of the public. Of 821 tweets expressing sentiment specifically towards the guidelines, 80% expressed a negative sentiment. 11 themes were identified, 3 of which were broadly supportive of the guidelines, 7 broadly unsupportive and 1 neutral. Overall, more tweets were unsupportive (49%) than supportive (44%). While the most common theme overall was sharing information, the most common in tweets from members of the public encouraged alcohol consumption (15%) or expressed disagreement with the guidelines (14%), reflecting reactance, resistance and misunderstanding. Conclusions This descriptive analysis revealed a number of themes present in unsupportive comments towards the updated UK alcohol guidelines among a largely proalcohol community. An understanding of these may help to tailor effective communication of alcohol and health-related policies, and could inform a more dynamic approach to health communication via social media. PMID:28246145

  19. Lignin biodegradation and the production of ethyl alcohol from cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    During the last few years our group has been engaged in developing a biochemical process for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethyl alcohol. Lignin is a barrier to complete cellulose saccharification in this process, but chemical and physical delignification steps are too expensive to be used at the present time. An enzymatic delignification process might be attractive for several reasons: little energy would be expected to be needed, enzymes could be recovered and reused, and useful chemicals might be produced from dissolved lignin. A number of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were examined for the ability to rapidly degrade lignocellulose in order to find an organism whcih produced an active lignin-degrading enzyme system. Chryosporium pruinosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum were found to be active lignocellulose degraders, and C. pruinosum was chosen for further study. Lignin and carbohydrate were degraded when the substrate remained moistened by, but not submerged in, the liquid medium. Attempts were made to demonstrate a cell-free lignin degrading system by both extraction and pressing of cultures grown on moist lignocellulose. Carbohydrate-degrading activity was found but not lignin-degrading activity. This led us to ask whether diffusible lignin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in this organism. The data indicate that the lignin degradation system, or one or more of its components, produced by this organism is either unstable, non-diffusible, or inactive at small distances (about 1 mm) from growing hyphae. At present, studies are being conducted using diffusion cultures to select mutants of C. pruinosum that do produce a diffusible lignin degradation system. We are also examining a number of mesophilic lignin-degrading molds for this ability.

  20. Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical alcohols: effects of the alcohol to oil molar ratios on the biofuel chemical composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Teeravitud, Sunsanee; Bunyakiat, Kunchana; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2011-11-01

    Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical methanol (SCM) and supercritical ethanol (SCE) at 400 °C and 15 MPa were evaluated. At the optimal alcohol to oil molar ratios of 12:1 and 18:1 for the SCM and SCE processes, respectively, the biofuel samples were synthesized in a 1.2-L reactor and the resulting biofuel was analyzed for the key properties including those for the diesel and biodiesel standard specifications. Biofuel samples derived from both the SCM and SCE processes could be used as an alternative fuel after slight improvement in their acid value and free glycerol content. The remarkable advantages of this novel process were: the additional fuel yield of approximately of 5% and 10% for SCM and SCE, respectively; the lower energy consumption for alcohol preheating, pumping and recovering than the biodiesel production with supercritical alcohols that use a high alcohol to oil molar ratio of 42:1.

  1. Silver(I) and copper(I) cocatalyzed tandem reaction of 2-alkynylbenzaldoximes with aldehydes or alcohols: approach to 4-carboxylated isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianbo; Yu, Xingxin

    2014-09-05

    A novel and efficient route for the preparation of 4-carboxylated isoquinolines via a Ag(I) and Cu(I) cocatalyzed tandem reaction of 2-alkynylbenzaldoximes with aldehydes or alcohols in moderate to good yields is described. The reaction proceeds smoothly to produce C-N and C-O bonds in a one-pot procedure with structural complexity and molecular diversity.

  2. Controllable stereoselective synthesis of trisubstituted alkenes by a catalytic three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, benzylic alcohols, and simple arenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Hua; Jin, Yin-Huan; Wang, Jie-Qi; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2009-08-21

    The acid-catalyzed three-component reaction of terminal alkynes, benzylic alcohols, and simple arenes provides convenient and atom-economic access to an array of both Z- and E-isomers of trisubstituted alkenes with excellent stereoselectivity by switching reaction temperature and acidic catalysts.

  3. Self-sustainable production of hydrogen, chemicals, and energy from renewable alcohols by electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bambagioni, Valentina; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Vizza, Francesco; Shen, Pei Kang

    2010-07-19

    The selective and simultaneous production of hydrogen and chemicals from renewable alcohols, such as ethanol, glycerol, and ethylene glycol, can be accomplished by means of electrolyzers in which the anode electrocatalyst is appropriately designed to promote the partial and selective oxidation of the alcohol. In the electrolyzers described herein, the production of 1 kg of hydrogen from aqueous ethanol occurs with one-third the amount of energy required by a traditional H(2)/O(2) electrolyzer, by virtue of the much lower oxidation potential of ethanol to acetate vs. water to oxygen in alkaline media (E(0)=0.10 V vs. 1.23 V). The self-sustainability of H(2) production is ensured by the simultaneous production of 25 kg of potassium acetate for every kg of H(2), if the promoting co-electrolyte is KOH.

  4. A study of switchgrass pyrolysis: Product variability and reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovee, Jonathan Matthew

    Samples of the same cultivar of cave-in-rock switchgrass were harvested from plots in Frankenmuth, Roger City, Cass County, and Grand Valley, Michigan. It was determined that variation exists, between locations, among the pyrolytic compounds which can lead to variability in bio-oil and increased processing costs at bio-refineries to make hydrocarbon fuels. Washed and extractives-free switchgrass samples, which contain a lower alkali and alkaline earth metals content than untreated samples, were shown to produce lower amounts of acids, esters, furans, ketones, phenolics, and saccharides and also larger amounts of aldehydes upon pyrolysis. Although the minerals catalyzed pyrolytic reactions, there was no evidence indicating their effect on reducing the production of anhydrosugars, specifically levoglucosan. To further link minerals present in the biomass to a catalytic pathway, mathematic models were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of the switchgrass. While the calculated activation energies of switchgrass, using the FWO and KAS methods, were 227.7 and 217.8 kJ/mol, correspondingly, it was concluded that the activation energies for the switchgrass hemicellulose and cellulose peaks were 115.5 and 158.2 kJ/mol, respectively, using a modified model-fitting method. The minerals that effect the production of small molecules and levoglucosan also have an observable catalytic effect on switchgrass reaction rate, which may be quantifiable through the use of reaction kinetics so as to determine activation energy.

  5. Production and decay of baryonic resonances in pion induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przygoda, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Pion induced reactions give unique opportunities for an unambiguous description of baryonic resonances and their coupling channels. A systematic energy scan and high precision data, in conjunction with a partial wave analysis, allow for the study of the excitation function of the various contributions. A review of available world data unravels strong need for modern facilities delivering measurements with a pion beam. Recently, HADES collaboration collected data in pion-induced reactions on light (12C) and heavy (74W) nuclei at a beam momentum of 1.7 GeV/c dedicated to strangeness production. It was followed by a systematic scan at four different pion beam momenta (0.656, 0.69, 0.748 and 0.8 GeV/c) in π- - p reaction in order to tackle the role of N(1520) resonance in conjunction with the intermediate ρ production. First results on exclusive channels with one pion (π- p) and two pions (nπ+π-, pπ-π0) in the final state are discussed.

  6. Iron-Catalyzed Allylic Amination Directly from Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Emayavaramban, Balakumar; Roy, Moumita; Sundararaju, Basker

    2016-03-14

    Allylic amination, directly from alcohols, has been demonstrated without any Lewis acid activators using an efficient and regiospecific molecular iron catalyst. Various amines and alcohols were employed and the reaction proceeded through the oxidation/reduction (redox) pathway. A direct one-step synthesis of common drugs, such as cinnarizine and nafetifine, was exhibited from cinnamyl alcohol that produced water as side product.

  7. Michael-type addition reactions for the in situ formation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Chiessi, Ester; Paradossi, Gaio

    2007-01-01

    Michael-type addition reactions offer the possibility to obtain in situ formation of polymeric hydrogels in the absence of a radical mechanism for the networking process. We explored such a synthetic route for obtaining a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based hydrogel as a potential biomaterial for applications in vitro-retinal replacement surgery. The presence of radicals in the reaction medium can represent a risk for in situ surgical treatment. To circumvent this problem we have applied nucleophilic addition to ad hoc modified PVA macromers. The gel formation has been studied with respect to the timing required in this surgery and in terms of the structural characteristics of the obtained network.

  8. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.

    2017-01-01

    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  9. Yeast's balancing act between ethanol and glycerol production in low-alcohol wines.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh D; Kroukamp, Heinrich; Williams, Thomas C; Paulsen, Ian T; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol is fundamental to the character of wine, yet too much can put a wine off-balance. A wine is regarded to be well balanced if its alcoholic strength, acidity, sweetness, fruitiness and tannin structure complement each other so that no single component dominates on the palate. Balancing a wine's positive fruit flavours with the optimal absolute and relative concentration of alcohol can be surprisingly difficult. Over the past three decades, consumers have increasingly demanded wine with richer and riper fruit flavour profiles. In response, grape and wine producers have extended harvest times to increase grape maturity and enhance the degree of fruit flavours and colour intensity. However, a higher degree of grape maturity results in increased grape sugar concentration, which in turn results in wines with elevated alcohol concentration. On average, the alcohol strength of red wines from many warm wine-producing regions globally rose by about 2% (v/v) during this period. Notwithstanding that many of these 'full-bodied, fruit-forward' wines are well balanced and sought after, there is also a significant consumer market segment that seeks lighter styles with less ethanol-derived 'hotness' on the palate. Consumer-focussed wine producers are developing and implementing several strategies in the vineyard and winery to reduce the alcohol concentration in wines produced from well-ripened grapes. In this context, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts have proven to be a pivotal strategy to reduce ethanol formation during the fermentation of grape musts with high sugar content (> 240 g l(-1) ). One of the approaches has been to develop 'low-alcohol' yeast strains which work by redirecting their carbon metabolism away from ethanol production to other metabolites, such as glycerol. This article reviews the current challenges of producing glycerol at the expense of ethanol. It also casts new light on yeast strain development programmes which, bolstered by synthetic

  10. TVA/DOE Integrated Onfarm Alcohol Production System Alternate Feedstock Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this Interagency research project is to study the feasibility of small-scale fuel alcohol production from agricultural crops. The project was conducted in three phases. Phase I included an assessment of the potential for fuel alcohol production from agricultural crops and design, construction, and startup operation of a 10-gallon-per-hour evaluation facility. Phase II included validation and optimization of the facility with a corn feedstock, modifications to the base unit to accommodate nongrain feedstocks, initial production and conversion evaluations of nongrain feedstocks, and preparation of a construction and operation manual. Phase III included further evaluations and refinement of processes and equipment for handling nongrain feedstocks, evaluation of stillage by-products as feeds, and development of agricultural systems for integrating alcohol production with other farm enterprises. This report provides: (1) a brief background of Phase I-III activities; (2) results of alternate feedstock choices, cultural trials, and testing results; (3) a description of the process for ethanol production from starch and sugar feedstocks; and (4) conversion procedures, sterilization requirements, and distillation methods for several feedstocks. 23 refs., 8 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  12. Identification of long chain specific aldehyde reductase and its use in enhanced fatty alcohol production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Zia; Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-09-01

    Long chain fatty alcohols have wide application in chemical industries and transportation sector. There is no direct natural reservoir for long chain fatty alcohol production, thus many groups explored metabolic engineering approaches for its microbial production. Escherichia coli has been the major microbial platform for this effort, however, terminal endogenous enzyme responsible for converting fatty aldehydes of chain length C14-C18 to corresponding fatty alcohols is still been elusive. Through our in silico analysis we selected 35 endogenous enzymes of E. coli having potential of converting long chain fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols and studied their role under in vivo condition. We found that deletion of ybbO gene, which encodes NADP(+) dependent aldehyde reductase, led to >90% reduction in long chain fatty alcohol production. This feature was found to be strain transcending and reinstalling ybbO gene via plasmid retained the ability of mutant to produce long chain fatty alcohols. Enzyme kinetic study revealed that YbbO has wide substrate specificity ranging from C6 to C18 aldehyde, with maximum affinity and efficiency for C18 and C16 chain length aldehyde, respectively. Along with endogenous production of fatty aldehyde via optimized heterologous expression of cyanobaterial acyl-ACP reductase (AAR), YbbO overexpression resulted in 169mg/L of long chain fatty alcohols. Further engineering involving modulation of fatty acid as well as of phospholipid biosynthesis pathway improved fatty alcohol production by 60%. Finally, the engineered strain produced 1989mg/L of long chain fatty alcohol in bioreactor under fed-batch cultivation condition. Our study shows for the first time a predominant role of a single enzyme in production of long chain fatty alcohols from fatty aldehydes as well as of modulation of phospholipid pathway in increasing the fatty alcohol production.

  13. Optimizing alcohol production from whey using computer technology.

    PubMed

    Zertuche, L; Zall, R R

    1985-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the major goal of optimizing the ethanol production from whey using computer technology. To reach this goal, a mathematical model that would describe the fermentation and that could be used for the optimization was developed. Kluyveromyces fragilis was the microorganism used to ferment the lactose in the whey into ethanol. Preliminary studies showed that K. fragilis produced about 90% of the theoretical ethanol yield when grown in whey-complemented media. However, when this yeast is grown in nonsupplemented whey media, it does not produce more than 32% of that yield. Comparative batch fermentations of lactose and whey-complemented media showed that whey possibly contains enhancing components for yeast growth and ethanol production. To obtain the mathematical model, the one-to-one effect of the process variables (lactose and yeast extract concentrations, air flowrate, pH, and dilution rate) on the ethanol production were first investigated. Experiments on the pH effect showed that a decrease in pH from 7 to 4 produced an increase in ethanol concentration from 16.5 to 26.5 g/L (50 g/L initial lactose). The results obtained from modeling of the continuous fermentation using the previously listed variables showed that air flowrate, pH, and dilution rate were the process variables that most influence the production of ethanol.

  14. Optimizing alcohol production from whey using computer technology. [Kluyveromyces fragilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zertuche, L.; Zall, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the major goal of optimizing the ethanol production from whey using computer technology. To reach this goal, a mathematical model that would describe the fermentation and that could be used for the optimization was developed. Kluyveromyces fragilis was the microorganism used to ferment the lactose in the whey into ethanol. Preliminary studies showed that K. fragilis produced about 90% of the theoretical ethanol yield when grown in whey-complemented media. However, when this yeast is grown in nonsupplemented whey media, it does not produce more than 32% of that yield. Comparative batch fermentations of lactose and whey-complemented media showed that whey possibly contains enhancing components for yeast growth and ethanol production. To obtain the mathematical model, the one-to-one effect of the process variables (lactose and yeast extract concentrations, air flow rate, pH, and dilution rate) on the ethanol production were first investigated. Experiments on the pH effect showed that a decrease in pH from 7 to 4 produced an increase in ethanol concentration from 16.5 to 26.5 g/L (50 g/L initial lactose). The results obtained from modeling of the continuous fermentation using the previously listed variables showed that air flow rate, pH, and dilution rate were the process variables that most influence the production of ethanol.

  15. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A +A→product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Kipriyanov, Alexander A.; Kipriyanov, Alexey A.

    2010-05-01

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A +A→product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  16. Manifestation of macroscopic correlations in elementary reaction kinetics. I. Irreversible reaction A+A-->product.

    PubMed

    Doktorov, Alexander B; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Kipriyanov, Alexey A

    2010-05-28

    Using an modern many-particle method for the derivation of non-Markovian binary kinetic equations, we have treated theoretically the applicability of the encounter theory (ET) (the prototype of the collision theory) concepts to the widely known diffusion assisted irreversible bulk reaction A+A-->product (for example, radical reaction) in dilute solutions. The method shows that the agreement with the ET is observed when the familiar integral ET is employed which in this method is just a step in the derivation of kinetic equations. It allows for two-particle correlations only, but fails to take account of correlation of reactant simultaneously with the partner of the encounter and the reactant in the bulk. However, the next step leading to the modified ET under transformation of equations to the regular form both extends the time range of the applicability of ET rate equation (as it was for reactions proceeding with one of the reactants in excess), and gives the equation of the generalized ET. In full agreement with physical considerations, this theory reveals macroscopic correlations induced by the encounters in the reservoir of free walks. This means that the encounters of reactants in solution are correlated on a rather large time interval of the reaction. Though any nonstationary (non-Markovian) effects manifest themselves rather weakly in the kinetics of the bimolecular reaction in question, just the existence of the revealed macroscopic correlations in the binary theory is of primary importance. In particular, it means that the well-known phenomena which are generally considered to be associated solely with correlation of particles on the encounter (for example, chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) may be induced by correlation in the reservoir of free random walks of radicals in solution.

  17. New Reaction Pathway Induced by Plasmon for Selective Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on BiOCl Possessing Oxygen Vacancies.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Qin, Feng; Yang, Zhiping; Cui, Ximin; Wang, Jianfang; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-03-08

    Selective organic transformation under mild conditions constitutes a challenge in green chemistry, especially for alcohol oxidation, which typically requires environmentally unfriendly oxidants. Here, we report a new plasmonic catalyst of Au supported on BiOCl containing oxygen vacancies. It photocatalyzes selective benzyl alcohol oxidation with O2 under visible light through synergistic action of plasmonic hot electrons and holes. Oxygen vacancies on BiOCl facilitate the trapping and transfer of plasmonic hot electrons to adsorbed O2, producing •O2(-) radicals, while plasmonic hot holes remaining on the Au surface mildly oxidize benzyl alcohol to corresponding carbon-centered radicals. The hypothesized concerted ring addition between these two radical species on the BiOCl surface highly favors the production of benzaldehyde along with an unexpected oxygen atom transfer from O2 to the product. The results and understanding acquired in this study, based on the full utilization of hot charge carriers in a plasmonic metal deposited on a rationally designed support, will contribute to the development of more active and/or selective plasmonic catalysts for a wide variety of organic transformations.

  18. Theoretical aspects of product formation from the NCO + NO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; He, Y. ); Melius, C.F. )

    1993-09-09

    The reaction of NCO with NO, an important elementary process involved in the reduction of NO[sub x] by HNCO, has been studied theoretically using the BAC-MP4 technique in conjunction with RRKM calculations. The computed molecular structures and thermochemical data for various intermediates and transition states suggest that the reaction takes place primarily via the singlet, ground electronic state OCNNO molecule according to the following mechanism; (step a) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] N[sub 2]O + CO; (step b) NCO + NO [leftrightarrow] [sup 1]OCNNO [yields] c-OCNNO[minus] N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2]. The formation of N[sub 2]O + CO occurs by the fragmentation of the singlet OCNNO intermediate step (a), whereas the production of N[sub 2] + CO[sub 2] by cyclization-fragmentation occurs via step b. The tight transition states leading to the formation of these products, coupled with the loose entrance channel, give rise to the experimentally observed strong negative temperature dependence which can be quantitatively accounted for by the results of RRKM calculations based on the BAC-MP4 data. The experimentally measured product branching ratio for channels a and b could be accounted for theoretically by lowering the calculated energy barrier for step a by 3.6 kcal/mol, corresponding to about 15% of the barrier height. 22 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Traditional alcohol production and use in three provinces in Vietnam: an ethnographic exploration of health benefits and risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly

  20. Acetaldehyde production capacity of salivary microflora in alcoholics during early recovery.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, P M; Joubert, G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether a relationship exists between the acetaldehyde production capacity of salivary microflora (sAPC) in recovering alcoholics, and craving, and/or resumption of drinking within 12 weeks after embarking on an abstinence-based treatment program. Serial sAPC measurements were determined by gas chromatography on spontaneous saliva samples of 30 male alcoholics on days 2, 4, 11, and 18 during a 21-day in-patient treatment program. Craving was measured simultaneously with the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. Outcome over 12 weeks was assessed by telephone interviews. There was no significant change in sAPC values from day 2 to day 18, while craving scores decreased markedly between day 2 to day 4. Sixteen participants remained abstinent for the full 12 weeks. Statistically significant differences were found between the sAPC values of the group that remained abstinent and the group that resumed drinking within 12 weeks. The highest sAPC value measured on day 2 had a strong predictive value for maintained abstinence at 12 weeks for beer-only drinkers or drinkers consuming less than 320 g of alcohol per week. The study is the first investigation into a potential relationship between the acetaldehyde production capacity of salivary microflora and early resumption of drinking in recovering alcoholics. The findings suggest that such a relationship indeed exists for beer-only drinkers, possibly linked to lower alcohol intake, and that it is unrelated to withdrawal craving. sAPC is proposed as a candidate biomarker with diagnostic and/or prognostic potential.

  1. Construction of Escherichia Coli Cell Factories for Production of Organic Acids and Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Zhu, Xinna; Tan, Zaigao; Zhang, Xueli; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    Production of bulk chemicals from renewable biomass has been proved to be sustainable and environmentally friendly. Escherichia coli is the most commonly used host strain for constructing cell factories for production of bulk chemicals since it has clear physiological and genetic characteristics, grows fast in minimal salts medium, uses a wide range of substrates, and can be genetically modified easily. With the development of metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology, a technology platform has been established to construct E. coli cell factories for bulk chemicals production. In this chapter, we will introduce this technology platform, as well as E. coli cell factories successfully constructed for production of organic acids and alcohols.

  2. Volatile fingerprints of seeds of four species indicate the involvement of alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions in seed deterioration during ageing and desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Colville, Louise; Bradley, Emma L; Lloyd, Antony S; Pritchard, Hugh W; Castle, Laurence; Kranner, Ilse

    2012-11-01

    The volatile compounds released by orthodox (desiccation-tolerant) seeds during ageing can be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Comparison of three legume species (Pisum sativum, Lathyrus pratensis, and Cytisus scoparius) during artificial ageing at 60% relative humidity and 50 °C revealed variation in the seed volatile fingerprint between species, although in all species the overall volatile concentration increased with storage period, and changes could be detected prior to the onset of viability loss. The volatile compounds are proposed to derive from three main sources: alcoholic fermentation, lipid peroxidation, and Maillard reactions. Lipid peroxidation was confirmed in P. sativum seeds through analysis of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Volatile production by ageing orthodox seeds was compared with that of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds of Quercus robur during desiccation. Many of the volatiles were common to both ageing orthodox seeds and desiccating recalcitrant seeds, with alcoholic fermentation forming the major source of volatiles. Finally, comparison was made between two methods of analysis; the first used a Tenax adsorbent to trap volatiles, whilst the second used solid phase microextraction to extract volatiles from the headspace of vials containing powdered seeds. Solid phase microextraction was found to be more sensitive, detecting a far greater number of compounds. Seed volatile analysis provides a non-invasive means of characterizing the processes involved in seed deterioration, and potentially identifying volatile marker compounds for the diagnosis of seed viability loss.

  3. Room-Temperature Reactivity Of Silicon Nanocrystals With Solvents: The Case Of Ketone And Hydrogen Production From Secondary Alcohols: Catalysis?

    PubMed

    El-Demellawi, Jehad K; Holt, Christopher R; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Al-Talla, Zeyad A; Saih, Youssef; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-07-01

    Although silicon nanoparticles dispersed in liquids are used in various applications ranging from biolabeling to hydrogen production, their reactivities with their solvents and their catalytic properties remain still unexplored. Here, we discovered that, because of their surface structures and mechanical strain, silicon nanoparticles react strongly with their solvents and may act as catalysts for the dehydrogenation, at room temperature, of secondary alcohols (e.g., isopropanol) into ketones and hydrogen. This catalytic reaction was monitored by gas chromatography, pH measurements, mass spectroscopy, and solid-state NMR. This discovery provides new understanding of the role played by silicon nanoparticles, and nanosilicon in general, in their reactivity in solvents in general, as well as being candidates in catalysis.

  4. Improved alcohol production employing SSF with thermotolerant yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and the yeast fermentation of sugars to ethanol simultaneously in the same reactor. For the effective SSF process to produce ethanol from lignocellulose, it is required to remove the physical and chemical barrier around cellulose fibers and make cellulose more accessible to cellulose. Furthermore, it is preferred to have the compatible fermentation and saccharification conditions (e.g., temperature and pH). The process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass involves the steeping in ammonia solution to remove lignin followed by dilute acid (1%, w/w) hydrolysis of hemicellulose fraction. The ammonia steeping removes over 70% of lignin and consequently facilitates the removal of hemicellulose by dilute acid. Dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose yielding hydrolysate with sugar concentration of up to 8%. This fraction was used as substrate for ethanol production with xylose fermenting yeast strain. After lignin and hemicellulose were removed, the cellulose fraction was used as substrate in the SSF process for ethanol production. High yield of ethanol of over 60 g/L was produced by the thermotolerant yeast within 80 hours of SSF with a low enzyme loading of 8 IFPU/g cellulose.

  5. Enhanced production of fatty alcohols by engineering the TAGs synthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei Ning

    2015-02-01

    The production of fatty acid-derived chemicals has received a great deal of attention in recent years. In yeast cells, the main storage forms of fatty acids are TAGs. However, the conversion of TAGs into fatty acid derivatives suffers from a practical standpoint. Herein, a more direct strategy was applied to accumulate cellular fatty acyl-CoAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are the activated forms of fatty acids and used as important precursors for various converting enzymes. The dga1 gene was deleted to block the fatty acyl-CoAs dependent pathway of TAGs synthesis and a significant decrease in lipid content was observed. The FAR gene was cloned and overexpressed in the wild type strain and gene disrupted strain, to convert the fatty acyl-CoAs to the corresponding fatty acid derivatives. The metabolic engineered pathway resulted in enhanced production of fatty alcohols. Compared with the wild type strain with overexpressed FAR gene, the yield of fatty alcohols in the Δdga1 strain with FAR was dramatically increased: the intracellular fatty alcohols increased from 26 mg/L to 45 mg/L, while the extracellular fatty alcohols increased from 2.2 mg/L to 4.3 mg/L. By optimizing the culture medium with increased carbon concentration and limited nitrogen concentration, the fatty alcohols yield in the Δdga1 strain with FAR was further increased to 84 mg/L in cells and 14 mg/L secreted in broth. The results in this study demonstrated the feasibility of using the designed strategy to solve the bottleneck in utilizing TAGs for fatty acid derivatives production.

  6. Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini Form a Stable Ethanol-Producing Consortium in a Commercial Alcohol Production Process▿

    PubMed Central

    Passoth, Volkmar; Blomqvist, Johanna; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The ethanol production process of a Swedish alcohol production plant was dominated by Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini, with a high number of lactic acid bacteria. The product quality, process productivity, and stability were high; thus, D. bruxellensis and L. vini can be regarded as commercial ethanol production organisms. PMID:17483277

  7. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-06-05

    This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H2O2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H2O2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H2O2 concentration were 7.0 and 8μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1UmL(-1) SBP in 30min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3UmL(-1) was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (KCAT) and catalytic efficiency (KCAT/KM) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via CC and CO coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment.

  8. Influence of heat shock on glycerol production in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Berovic, Marin; Pivec, Aleksandra; Kosmerl, Tatjana; Wondra, Mojmir; Celan, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    The influence of single and double heat shocks induced during the exponential growth phase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of cultivar Sauvignon Blanc grape must was examined. Rapid temperature changes from 18 degrees C to 34 degrees C have been applied. The effect of the duration of exposure to a high temperature has been analyzed. By the applications of a single heat shock and a double heat shock, up to 8.2 g l(-1) and 11.0 g l(-1) glycerol have been produced, respectively. To prevent the evaporation of fine wine bouquet compounds during the temperature changes, reflux coolers on the top of bioreactors have been employed. By using this method, glycerol production was increased by up to 65%.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  14. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  15. Alcohol production from sugar mixtures by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Neirinck, L.; Maleszka, R.; Schneider, H.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of P. tannophilus to produce ethanol from sugar mixtures was investigated. With mixtures simulating spent sulfite liquor and a hardboard mill effluent, yields of 76 to 84% of theoretical were obtained with a wild-type strain, which increased to 83 to 90% with a mutant selected for more rapid growth on D-galactose. A small but significant loss in yield was caused by the formation by both strains of acetate, xylitol and L-arabinitol. The loss was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 8.3% for the mutant and 7.1 to 12% for the wild-type. One conclusion drawn from these results was that the organism has the potential for use with a wide variety of hydrolysates, since the four sugars which could be efficiently fermented in the mixtures - D-mannose, D-xylose, D-glucose, and D-galactose - generally comprise more than 90% of those in polysaccharides from many biomass sources. The organism was also found to be capable of producing ethanol from, and surviving in, spent sulfite liquor. However, productivity decreased on recycling the cells, suggesting that strain improvement will be a necessary step in process development. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Effect of UV and electrochemical surface treatments on the adsorption and reaction of linear alcohols on non-porous carbon fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osbeck, S.; Ward, S.; Idriss, H.

    2013-04-01

    The adsorption properties of untreated, electrochemically treated and ultra-violet/ozone treated polyacrylonitrile based carbon fibres were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on a series of linear alcohols as probes in order to understand its surface properties. Surface uptake was found to be sensitive to both the surface treatment and the nature of the adsorbates. Surface coverage increased with increasing alcohol chain due to the increase in their polarizability. It also increased with the level of surface oxygen of the fibres most likely because it facilitates the Osbnd H bond dissociation of the alcohol functional group. In addition, the desorption temperature (during TPD) tracked the surface oxygen levels (as determined from XPS O1s signal) suggesting increasing in the adsorption energy. The reactions of C1-C4 linear alcohols were also investigated on the surface of the fibre carbon. The main reaction was dehydrogenation to the corresponding aldehydes; the dehydration reaction to olefins was not observed. The dehydrogenation reaction was sensitive to the length of the alky chain. It was highest for methanol (to formaldehyde) and decreased with increasing the carbon number. Overall TPD of linear alcohols was shown to be a promising method for quantifying the level and strength of bonding occurring on carbon fibre surfaces.

  17. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of...

  18. H + CD4 abstraction reaction dynamics: product energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenfang; Lendvay, György; Troya, Diego; Schatz, George C; Camden, Jon P; Bechtel, Hans A; Brown, Davida J A; Martin, Marion R; Zare, Richard N

    2006-03-09

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of the product energy partitioning associated with the H + CD4 (nu = 0) --> HD + CD3 reaction for the collision energy range 0.5-3.0 eV. The theoretical results are based on quasiclassical trajectories from (1) first principles direct dynamics calculations (B3LYP/6-31G), (2) an empirical surface developed by Espinosa-García [J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 116, 10664] (EG), and (3) two semiempirical surfaces (MSINDO and reparametrized MSINDO). We find that most of the energy appears in product translation at energies just above the reactive threshold; however, HD vibration and rotation become quite important at energies above 1 eV, each accounting for over 20% of the available energy above 1.5 eV, according to the B3LYP calculations. The barrier on the B3LYP surface, though being later than that on EG, predicts significantly higher HD vibrational excitation than EG. This deviation is contradictory to what would be expected on the basis of the Polanyi rules and derives from modest differences in the potential energy surfaces. The CD3 internal energy is generally quite low, and we present detailed rotational state distributions which show that the CD3 rotational distribution is largely independent of collision energy in the 0.75-1.95 eV range. The most populated rotational levels are N = 5 and 6 on B3LYP, with most of that excitation being associated with motion about the C2 axes, rather than C3 axis, of the CD3 product, in good agreement with the experimental results. Through our extensive studies in this and previous work concerning the scattering dynamics, we conclude that B3LYP/6-31G provides the best available description of the overall dynamics for the title reaction at relatively high collision energies.

  19. Use of geothermal heat to recover alcohol and other valuable products

    SciTech Connect

    La Mori, P.N.; Zahradnik, R.L.

    1982-11-02

    Method for the use of heat, especially ''waste heat'', from geothermal steam or brines for the manufacture of chemicals such as alcohol, which comprises, according to one embodiment, flashing the brine to produce steam, passing the steam to a turbine for electrical energy generation, and employing the steam from the turbine discharge and/or the flashed brine to provide some or all of the heat requirements for the fermentation distillation process for production of alcohols, e.g. (methanol and/or ethanol) from agricultural wastes. The method can also be utilized for the production by distillation and/or by industrial fermentation and/or by hydrolysis of other chemicals (such as furfural and acetone).

  20. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  3. Paramagnetic products of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, A.A.; Lisetskii, V.N.; Kulikov, N.F.; Savel'ev, G.G.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide in high-frequency discharges has been postulated to lead to NaNH and molecular nitrogen as reaction products. This article investigates these products via electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Data are given on reaction and ionization kinetics as well as on the electronic structure and hyperfine interaction of the products.

  4. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8085 - Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of substituted... Reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of substituted aromatic diol, formaldehyde and alkanolamine, propoxylated...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10494 - Reaction product of trimethylolpropane triacrylate and alkylene imine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of trimethylolpropane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10494 Reaction product of trimethylolpropane.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as reaction product of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10428 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. 721.10428 Section 721.10428 Protection of Environment..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10390 - Acetoacetanilide reaction product with multifunctional acrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10390 Acetoacetanilide reaction product with... chemical substance identified generically as acetoacetanilide reaction product with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9285 - Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of formalin (37... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9285 Reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12. (a) Chemical... as reaction products of formalin (37%) with amine C12 (PMN P-95-535) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  15. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10484 - Siloxanes and Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. 721.10484 Section 721.10484 Protection of... Silicones, Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica. (a) Chemical substance and..., Me vinyl, hydroxy-terminated, reaction products with -modified silica (PMN P-04-432; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10240 - Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10240 Olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with... substance identified generically as olefinic carbocycle, reaction products with alkoxysilane (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9485 - Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amidoamine reaction product (generic). 721.9485 Section 721.9485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... reaction product (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Dimer acid/polymerized rosin amidoamine reaction product...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). 721.10574 Section 721.10574 Protection of Environment... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reaction products with mixed metal oxides (PMN P-09-48) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9265 - Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9265 Reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and... substance identified generically as a reaction product of dichlorobenzidine and substituted alkylamide...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2582 - Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylene diamine... Reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as reaction product of alkylene diamine, MDl, substituted carbomonocyclic amine and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10358 - Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde reaction products with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10358 Formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine... identified generically as formaldehyde reaction products with aryl amine (PMN P-09-546) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2625 - Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkane-diol and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2625 Reaction product of alkane-diol and epichlorohydrin. (a) Chemical... as reaction product of alkanediol and epichlorohydrin (PMN P-89-760) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with...

  9. 78 FR 78748 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene-polypropylene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene... for residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products with polyethylene... permissible level for residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products...

  10. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of biodiesel from fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyi; Pan, Hong; Li, Xun

    2015-09-01

    Microbial production of biodiesel from renewable feedstock has attracted intensive attention. Biodiesel is known to be produced from short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs through the expression of wax ester synthase/fatty acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase that catalyzes the esterification of short-chain alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs. Here, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce various fatty alcohol acetate esters, which depend on the expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 that catalyzes the esterification of fatty alcohols and acetyl-CoA. The fatty acid biosynthetic pathways generate fatty acyl-ACPs, fatty acyl-CoAs, or fatty acids, which can be converted to fatty alcohols by fatty acyl-CoA reductase, fatty acyl-ACP reductase, or carboxylic acid reductase, respectively. This study showed the biosynthesis of biodiesel from three fatty acid biosynthetic pathway intermediates.

  11. Aqueous singlet oxygen reaction kinetics of furfuryl alcohol: effect of temperature, pH, and salt content.

    PubMed

    Appiani, Elena; Ossola, Rachele; Latch, Douglas E; Erickson, Paul R; McNeill, Kristopher

    2017-02-28

    The rate constant for the reaction between furfuryl alcohol (FFA) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) in aqueous solution was measured as a function of temperature, pH and salt content employing both steady-state photolysis (β value determination) and time-resolved singlet oxygen phosphorescence methods. The latter provided more precise and reproducible data. The reaction rate constant, krxn,FFA, had a relatively small temperature dependence, no pH dependence and showed a small increase in the presence of high salt concentrations (+19% with 1 M NaCl). A critical review of the available literature suggested that the widely used value of 1.2 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) is likely overestimated. Therefore, we recommend the use of 1.00 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for reactions performed in low ionic strength aqueous solutions (freshwater) at 22 °C. Furthermore, corrections are provided that should be applied when working at higher or lower temperatures, and/or at high salt concentrations (seawater).

  12. Carbon-supported palladium and ruthenium nanoparticles: application as catalysts in alcohol oxidation, cross-coupling and hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    García-Suárez, Eduardo J; Lara, Patricia; García, Ana B; Philippot, Karine

    2013-11-01

    In the last fifteen-years, the application of metal nanoparticles as catalysts in organic synthesis has received a renewed interest. Therefore, much attention is currently being paid to the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in order to achieve the control of their characteristics in terms of size, shape and surface chemistry. Besides this, the recyclability as well as the recovery from the reaction medium still remain the major drawbacks to widespread the use of nanoparticles in catalysis. To overcome these problems, the immobilization of metal nanoparticles on solid supports appears as a promising alternative. In that context, carbon materials offer several advantages as solid supports such as availability, relatively low cost, high mechanical strength, chemical stability, and a pore structure along with an attractive surface chemistry which allows easy modifications, such as its functionalization, to suit the nanoparticles immobilization needs. Among the transition metals Palladium and Ruthenium are widely employed as efficient catalysts in many reactions. Herein, the most recent advances, from recent papers and patents, in relation to the preparation of carbon-supported Pd or Ru nanoparticles systems as well as their application as catalysts in alcohol oxidation, cross-coupling or hydrogenation reactions, are reviewed.

  13. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  14. Yeasts associated with the production of Mexican alcoholic nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages.

    PubMed

    Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Moreno-Terrazas, Rubén; Arrizón-Gaviño, Javier; Herrera-Suárez, Teófilo; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne

    2008-11-01

    The great variety of agaves and their multiple uses have played an important role in the cultural identification of Mexico. They have been exploited in many ways for over 10,000 years, and one of these applications is the production of alcoholic nondistilled and distilled beverages. Most of the production processes of these Mexican beverages involve a complex fermentation in which bacteria (mainly lactic and acetic acid) and yeasts (non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) are present in stable mixed populations, or succeeding one another, and have a significant impact on the sensorial characteristics and nutritive value of the final product. This minireview focuses on several nondistilled and distilled Agave beverages, their production area, the Agave species used in their elaboration, the functional microbiota involved in the fermentation process, their fermentation products (when known), the biochemical changes of these unique fermentations, and their impact on the quality and sensorial characteristics of the product.

  15. The quaternisation reaction of phosphines and amines in aliphatic alcohols. A similarity analysis using the isokinetic, isosolvent and isoselective relationships.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Lidia M V; Calado, António R T; Reis, João Carlos R

    2004-05-07

    yield realistic values. The present similarity analysis shows that there are significant differences between the courses of these quaternisation reactions. On the basis of the experimentally determined isoparameter values, in liquid alcohols as solvent it is proposed that the reaction between triethylphosphine and iodoethane follows a classic bimolecular nucleophilic substitution pathway, whereas the desolvation of triethylamine molecules has to be taken into account to describe the mechanism of the original Menshutkin reaction.

  16. Chlorination of parabens: reaction kinetics and transformation product identification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qianhui; Ji, Feng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qiquan; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2016-11-01

    The reactivity and fate of parabens during chlorination were investigated in this work. Chlorination kinetics of methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), and butylparaben (BuP) were studied in the pH range of 4.0 to 11.0 at 25 ± 1 °C. Apparent rate constants (k app) of 9.65 × 10(-3) M(-0.614)·s(-1), 1.77 × 10(-2) M(-1.019)·s(-1), 2.98 × 10(-2) M(-0.851)·s(-1), and 1.76 × 10(-2) M(-0.860)·s(-1) for MeP, EtP, PrP, and BuP, respectively, were obtained at pH 7.0. The rate constants depended on the solution pH, temperature, and NH4(+) concentration. The maximum k app was obtained at pH 8.0, and the minimum value was obtained at pH 11.0. The reaction rate constants increased with increasing temperature. When NH4(+) was added to the solution, the reaction of parabens was inhibited due to the rapid formation of chloramines. Two main transformation products, 3-chloro-parabens and 3,5-dichloro-parabens, were identified by GC-MS and LCMS-IT-TOF, and a reaction pathway was proposed. Dichlorinated parabens accumulated in solution, which is a threat to human health and the aqueous environment.

  17. The alcohol-sensing behaviour of SnO2 nanorods prepared by a facile solid state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Ren, X. P.; Wan, W. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Li, Y. H.; Zhao, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    SnO2 nanorods with the range of 12-85 nm in diameter were fabricated by a facile solid state reaction in the medium of NaCl-KCl mixture at room temperature and calcined at 600, 680, 760 and 840 oC, respectively. The XRD, TEM and XPS were employed to characterize the structure and morphology of the SnO2 nanorods. The influence of the calcination temperature on the gas sensing behaviour of the SnO2 nanorods with different diameter was investigated. The result showed that all the sensors had good response to alcohol. The response of the gracile nanorods prepared at a low calcined temperature demonstrated significantly better than the thick nanorods prepared at a high calcined temperature. The mechanism was attributed to the nonstoichiometric ratio of Sn/O and larger surface area of the gracile nanorods to enhance the oxygen surface adsorption.

  18. Maillard reaction products as antimicrobial components for packaging films.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Carolin; Müller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Augner, Kerstin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2014-02-15

    Active packaging foils with incorporated antimicrobial agents release the active ingredient during food storage. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) show antimicrobial activity that is at least partially mediated by H2O2. De novo generation of H2O2 by an MRP fraction, extracted from a ribose/lysine Maillard reaction mixture by 85% ethanol, was monitored at three concentrations (1.6, 16.1, and 32.3g/L) and three temperatures (4, 25, and 37 °C) between 0 and 96 h, reaching a maximum of 335 μM H2O2 (32.3g/L, 37 °C, 96 h). The active MRP fraction (16.1g/L) completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli for 24h and was therefore incorporated in a polyvinyl acetate-based lacquer and dispersed onto a low-density polyethylene film. The coated film generated about 100 μM H2O2 and resulted in a log-reduction of >5 log-cycles against E. coli. Thus, MRPs can be considered as active ingredients for antimicrobial packaging materials.

  19. Reaction of thallium(III) salts with homoallylic alcohols: ring contraction vs. dimethoxylation.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Luiz F; Craveiro, Marcus V

    2005-11-30

    The oxidation of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl)-ethanol (1) with a variety of thallium(III) salts was investigated. An indan, formed by a ring contraction reaction, was obtained in good to moderate yields under a variety of reaction conditions: i) thallium triacetate (TTA) in aqueous AcOH; ii) thallium tris-trifluoroacetate (TTFA) in aqueous TFA; iii) TTFA in CH(2)Cl(2); iv) thallium tripropionate (TTP) in aqueous propionic acid and v) thallium tris-[(S)-(-)-triacetoxypropionate] in aqueous (S)-(-)-2-acetoxypropionic acid. On the other hand, the reaction of compound 1 with TTA in methanol led to a 2:1 mixture of the corresponding cis- and trans-dimethoxylated compounds, respectively. These compounds were formed by a thallium-promoted addition of methanol to the double bond.

  20. Lewis acid-water/alcohol complexes as hydrogen atom donors in radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Povie, Guillaume; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Water or low molecular weight alcohols are, due to their availability, low price and low toxicity ideal reagents for organic synthesis. Recently, it was reported that, despite the very strong BDE of the O-H bond, they can be used as hydrogen atom donors in place of expensive and/or toxic group 14 metal hydrides when boron and titanium(III) Lewis acids are present. This finding represents a considerable innovation and uncovers a new perspective on the paradigm of hydrogen atom transfers to radicals. We discuss here the influence of complex formation and other association processes on the efficacy of the hydrogen transfer step. A delicate balance between activation by complex formation and deactivation by further hydrogen bonding is operative.

  1. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  2. Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.

    1996-10-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process (SERP) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The key consequences of SERP are: (i) reformation reaction is carried out at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than that in a conventional SMR reactor (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (ii) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 98+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (iii) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The first phase of the program has focused on the development of a sorbent for CO{sub 2} which has (a) reversible CO{sub 2} capacity >0.3 mmol/g at low partial pressures of CO{sub 2} (0.1 - 1.0 atm) in the presence of excess steam (pH{sub 2}O/pCO{sub 2}>20) at 400-500{degrees}C and (b) fast sorption-desorption kinetics for CO{sub 2}, at 400-500{degrees}C. Several families of supported sorbents have been identified that meet the target CO{sub 2} capacity. A few of these sorbents have been tested under repeated sorption/desorption cycles and extended exposure to high pressure steam at 400-500{degrees}C. One sorbent has been scaled up to larger quantities (2-3 kg) and tested in the laboratory process equipment for sorption and desorption kinetics of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2}, sorption and desorption kinetics are desirably fast. This was a critical path item for the first phase of the program and now has been successfully demonstrated. A reactor has been designed that will allow nearly isothermal operation for SERP-SMR. This reactor was integrated into an overall process flow diagram for the SERP-SMR process.

  3. A Test of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Explain Parents' Reactions to Youths' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…

  4. Metabolic engineering of fatty acyl-ACP reductase-dependent pathway to improve fatty alcohol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Zhu, Fayin; Lu, Lei; Fu, Aisi; Lu, Jiankai; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-03-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of surfactants and cosmetic products. The production of fatty alcohols from sustainable resources using microbial fermentation could reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emission. However, the industrialization of this process has been hampered by the current low yield and productivity of this synthetic pathway. As a result of metabolic engineering strategies, an Escherichia coli mutant containing Synechococcus elongatus fatty acyl-ACP reductase showed improved yield and productivity. Proteomics analysis and in vitro enzymatic assays showed that endogenous E. coli AdhP is a major contributor to the reduction of fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols. Both in vitro and in vivo results clearly demonstrated that the activity and expression level of fatty acyl-CoA/ACP reductase is the rate-limiting step in the current protocol. In 2.5-L fed-batch fermentation with glycerol as the only carbon source, the most productive E. coli mutant produced 0.75 g/L fatty alcohols (0.02 g fatty alcohol/g glycerol) with a productivity of up to 0.06 g/L/h. This investigation establishes a promising synthetic pathway for industrial microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  5. The Potential of Photochemical Transition Metal Reactions in Prebiotic Organic Synthesis. I. Observed Conversion of Methanol into Ethylene Glycol as Possible Prototype for Sugar Alcohol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisch, John J.; Munson, Peter R.; Gitua, John N.

    2004-10-01

    Photochemical processes involving redox reactions between metal ions and organic substrates possess the versatile potential for having harnessed solar energy for prebiotic organic synthesis. The present study in our Laboratory has shown that ultraviolet irradiation of transition metal ions such as of Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Ti dissolved in primary or secondary alcohols causes photoreduction of the metal ions with the concomitant oxidation of the alcohol to aldehyde or ketone. An observed accompaniment of this novel `light' reaction has been the known `dark' pinacol reaction, whereby the carbonyl derivative underwent bimolecular coupling to the diol by the photogenerated reduced transition metal reagent. These tandem `light-dark' processes possess the potential for the stepwise synthesis of dimeric 1,2-diols from simpler alcohols under conditions that might have prevailed on the prebiotic earth. Experiments reported here have demonstrated that such a tandem `light-dark' conversion of methanol into ethylene glycol, via formaldehyde, does in fact occur, when nickel(II) acetylacetonate solutions in methanol undergo prolonged irradiation at 185-254 nm. Since ethylene glycol can be considered as the simplest sugar alcohol, these findings may provide novel insight into the prebiotic oligomerization of formaldehyde into higher sugar alcohols or even sugars.

  6. Preparation of amino alcohols condensed with carbohydrates: Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inhibitory effect on NO production.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Taís A; Reis, Elaine F C; Alves, Lívia L; Alves, Caio C S; Castro, Sandra B R; Dias, Alyria T; Taveira, Aline F; Le Hyaric, Mireille; Couri, Mara R C; Ferreira, Ana P; De Almeida, Mauro V

    2010-11-01

    This work reports the preparation of several amino alcohols condensed with d-arabinose, d-glucose, and d-galactose derivatives. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity and ability to decrease nitric oxide production in J774A.1 cells. Arabinofuranoside derivatives 5a, 5b and 5c showed a significant inhibition of nitric oxide production (>80% at 5 μg/mL), while the galactopyranoside derivative 8d showed a notable nitric oxide inhibitory activity (126% at 0.5 μg/mL).

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Connective tissue growth factor production by activated pancreatic stellate cells in mouse alcoholic chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Alyssa; Brigstock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is characterized by pancreatic necrosis, inflammation, and scarring, the latter of which is due to excessive collagen deposition by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). The aim of this study was to establish a model of ACP in mice, a species that is usually resistant to the toxic effects of alcohol, and to identify the cell type(s) responsible for production of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a pro-fibrotic molecule. C57Bl/6 male mice received intraperitoneal ethanol injections for three weeks against a background of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Peak blood alcohol levels remained consistently high in ethanol-treated mice as compared to control mice. In mice receiving ethanol plus cerulein, there was increased collagen deposition as compared to other treatment groups as well as increased frequency of α-smooth muscle actin and desmin-positive PSC which also demonstrated significantly enhanced CTGF protein production. Expression of mRNA for collagen α1(I), α-smooth muscle actin or CTGF were all increased and co-localized exclusively to activated PSC in ACP. Pancreatic expression of mRNA for key profibrotic markers were all increased in ACP. In conclusion, a mouse model of ACP has been developed that mimics key pathophysiological features of the disease in humans and which shows that activated PSC are the principal producers of collagen and CTGF. PSC-derived CTGF is thus a candidate therapeutic target in anti-fibrotic strategies for ACP. PMID:20368699

  9. Quasielastic production of polarized hyperons in antineutrino-nucleon reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, F.; Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the differential cross section as well as the longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of the final hyperon (Λ ,Σ ) produced in the antineutrino induced quasielastic charged current reactions on nucleon and nuclear targets. The nucleon-hyperon transition form factors are determined from the experimental data on quasielastic (Δ S =0 ) charged current (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering and the semileptonic decay of neutron and hyperons assuming G-invariance, T-invariance, and SU(3) symmetry. The vector transition form factors are obtained in terms of nucleon electromagnetic form factors for which various parametrizations available in the literature have been used. A dipole parametrization for the axial vector form factor and the pseudoscalar transition form factor derived in terms of the axial vector form factor assuming PCAC and GT relation extended to the strangeness sector has been used in numerical evaluations. The flux averaged cross section and polarization observables corresponding to the CERN Gargamelle experiment have been calculated for quasielastic hyperon production and found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. The numerical results for the flux averaged differential cross section d/σ d Q2 and longitudinal (perpendicular) polarization PL(Q2)(PP(Q2)) relevant for the antineutrino fluxes of MINER ν A , MicroBooNE, and T2K experiments have been presented. This will be useful in interpreting future experimental results on production cross sections and polarization observables from the experiments on the quasielastic production of hyperons induced by antineutrinos and exploring the possibility of determining the axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors in the strangeness sector.

  10. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    The development of processes to produce fullerenes and carbon nanotubes has largely been empirical. Fullerenes were first discovered in the soot produced by laser ablation of graphite [1]and then in the soot of electric arc evaporated carbon. Techniques and conditions for producing larger and larger quantities of fullerenes depended mainly on trial and error empirical variations of these processes, with attempts to scale them up by using larger electrodes and targets and higher power. Various concepts of how fullerenes and carbon nanotubes were formed were put forth, but very little was done based on chemical kinetics of the reactions. This was mainly due to the complex mixture of species and complex nature of conditions in the reactors. Temperatures in the reactors varied from several thousand degrees Kelvin down to near room temperature. There are hundreds of species possible, ranging from atomic carbon to large clusters of carbonaceous soot, and metallic catalyst atoms to metal clusters, to complexes of metals and carbon. Most of the chemical kinetics of the reactions and the thermodynamic properties of clusters and complexes have only been approximated. In addition, flow conditions in the reactors are transient or unsteady, and three dimensional, with steep spatial gradients of temperature and species concentrations. All these factors make computational simulations of reactors very complex and challenging. This article addresses the development of the chemical reaction involved in fullerene production and extends this to production of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation/oven process and by the electric arc evaporation process. In addition, the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process is discussed. The article is in several parts. The first one addresses the thermochemical aspects of modeling; and considers the development of chemical rate equations, estimates of reaction rates, and thermodynamic properties where they are available. The second part

  11. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10570 - Cyclic amine reaction product with acetophenone and formaldehyde acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclic amine reaction product with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10570 Cyclic amine reaction product... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cyclic amine reaction...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. Thermochemical properties and bond dissociation enthalpies of 3- to 5-member ring cyclic ether hydroperoxides, alcohols, and peroxy radicals: cyclic ether radical + (3)O(2) reaction thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Auzmendi-Murua, Itsaso; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2014-05-01

    The formation of cyclic ethers is a major product in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, and the oxidation of biomass derived alcohols. Cyclic ethers are formed in the initial reactions of alkyl radicals with dioxygen in combustion and precombustion processes that occur at moderate temperatures. They represent a significant part of the oxygenated pollutants found in the exhaust gases of engines. Cyclic ethers can also be formed from atmospheric reactions of olefins. Additionally, cyclic ethers have been linked to the formation of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. In combustion and thermal oxidation processes these cyclic ethers will form radicals that react with (3)O2 to form peroxy radicals. Density functional theory and higher level ab initio calculations are used to calculate thermochemical properties and bond dissociation enthalpies of 3 to 5 member ring cyclic ethers (oxirane, yC2O, oxetane, yC3O, and oxolane, yC4O), corresponding hydroperoxides, alcohols, hydroperoxy alkyl, and alkyl radicals which are formed in these oxidation reaction systems. Trends in carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation energies for the ring and hydroperoxide group relative to ring size and to distance from the ether group are determined. Bond dissociation energies are calculated for use in understanding effects of the ether oxygen in the cyclic ethers, their stability, and kinetic properties. Geometries, vibration frequencies, and enthalpies of formation, ΔH°f,298, are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G(2d,2p), the composite CBS-QB3, and G3MP2B3 methods. Entropy and heat capacities, S°(T) and Cp°(T) (5 K ≤ T ≤ 5000), are determined using geometric parameters and frequencies from the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations. The strong effects of ring strain on the bond dissociation energies in these peroxy systems are also of fundamental interest. Oxetane and oxolane exhibit a significant stabilization, 10 kcal mol(-1), lower ΔfH°298 when an oxygen group is on

  8. Ethanol production by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by expression of bacterial bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Lipscomb, Gina L; Nguyen, Diep M; Crowley, Alexander T; Schut, Gerrit J; Scott, Israel; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-02-14

    Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear. As acetyl-CoA is a key central metabolite that can be generated from a wide range of substrates, AdhE can serve as a single gene fuel module to produce ethanol through primary metabolic pathways. The focus here is on the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows by fermenting sugar to acetate, CO2 and H2 . Previously, by the heterologous expression of adhA from a thermophilic bacterium, P. furiosus was shown to produce ethanol by a novel mechanism from acetate, mediated by AdhA and the native enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR). In this study, the AOR gene was deleted from P. furiosus to evaluate ethanol production directly from acetyl-CoA by heterologous expression of the adhE gene from eight thermophilic bacteria. Only AdhEs from two Thermoanaerobacter strains showed significant activity in cell-free extracts of recombinant P. furiosus and supported ethanol production in vivo. In the AOR deletion background, the highest amount of ethanol (estimated 61% theoretical yield) was produced when adhE and adhA from Thermoanaerobacter were co-expressed.

  9. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  10. Conversion of allylic alcohols to stereodefined trisubstituted alkenes: a complementary process to the Claisen rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Belardi, Justin K; Micalizio, Glenn C

    2008-12-17

    A stereoselective method for the conversion of allylic alcohols to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes is presented. Overall, the reaction sequence described is stereochemically complementary to related Claisen rearrangement reactions--processes that typically deliver the stereoisomeric trisubstituted alkene containing products.

  11. Hypernuclear production by the (π+,K+) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, T.; Bandō, H.; Wünsch, R.; Žofka, J.

    1988-09-01

    The (π+,K+) strength functions (cross sections) are systematically calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation for the production of light-to-heavy hypernuclei: 12ΛC, 16ΛO, 28ΛSi, 40ΛCa, 56ΛFe, 90ΛZr (and 208ΛPb). The quasifree continuum effects are taken into account in the frameworks of the Kapur-Peierls method and also of the continuum shell model. The characteristic feature of the (π+,K+) reaction is to provide well-separated series of peaks with high spin corresponding to the bound and resonant Λ states, yielding information on deep-lying hyperon states in heavy nuclei as well. Reasons for this effectiveness are clarified and discussed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the recent experiments which further demonstrates that the average Λ nucleus well can be simulated by an appropriate Woods-Saxon type potential (V0~=-30 MeV) over a wide mass range of hypernuclei to a good approximation.

  12. Electrochemical device for converting carbon dioxide to a reaction product

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical device converts carbon dioxide to a reaction product. The device includes an anode and a cathode, each comprising a quantity of catalyst. The anode and cathode each has reactant introduced thereto. A polymer electrolyte membrane is interposed between the anode and the cathode. At least a portion of the cathode catalyst is directly exposed to gaseous carbon dioxide during electrolysis. The average current density at the membrane is at least 20 mA/cm.sup.2, measured as the area of the cathode gas diffusion layer that is covered by catalyst, and CO selectivity is at least 50% at a cell potential of 3.0 V. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane comprises a polymer in which a constituent monomer is (p-vinylbenzyl)-R, where R is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums and phosphoniums. In some embodiments, the polymer electrolyte membrane is a Helper Membrane comprising a polymer containing an imidazolium ligand, a pyridinium ligand, or a phosphonium ligand.

  13. Near threshold two meson production in hardonic fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Rainer

    1991-04-01

    An approved and funded exclusive COSY experiment is presented, which focuses on near threshold two meson production via the reactions p+d→3 He+π+π- and p+d→3 He+K+K-. It takes advantage of the high quality of the cooled external COSY beam and the existing spectrometer BIG KARL. The setup consists of a vertex wall and a scintillator cylinder and endcap covering a 4π solid angle. The large efficiency and high resolution of this detection method will yield precision data on the low energy (T<50 MeV) meson-meson interaction and probe into questions like the ABC-effect and KḲ molecule. The detector further allows a measurement of possible radiative φ (1020) decay, which will directly probe the strange quark content of the f0(975). Existing inclusive data as well as first results of a very recent `semi-exclusive' experiment performed at SATURNE will be also be presented.

  14. The effect of alcohol ingestion on the exercise-induced changes in fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products in man.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, W

    2000-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of ingesting a moderate dose of alcohol on plasminogen activator activity (t-PA), plasma fibrinogen (Fb), total degradation products (TDP) and the degradation products of fibrin (FbDP) and fibrinogen (FgDP) at rest and in response to exercise. Eleven male subjects performed two separate experimental trials at an exercise intensity corresponding to 70% maximal oxygen consumption for 35 min. Prior to trials, subjects were either given 0.5 g/kg alcohol in orange-flavoured drink or an equal volume of non-caloric non-alcoholic drink 45 min before exercise. Comparison of the levels of t-PA, Fb, TDP, FbDP, and FgDP at rest, before and 45 min after the ingestion of alcohol revealed no significant differences between alcohol and control experiments. Exercise resulted in a marked increase in t-PA, TDP, and FgDP, with no appreciable change in FbDP. Although plasma fibrinogen level showed significant decrease post-exercise when subjects ingested alcohol, this difference was small and its biological significance is questionable. While t-PA level increased similarly in response to exercise during alcohol and control trials, a significantly higher response of TDP was found during the control trial compared with alcohol trial. It was concluded that exercise with and without alcohol ingestion is followed by a substantial increase in t-PA, which coincided with an increase in TDP. The increase in TDP was mainly due to an increase in FgDP, but not to FbDP. These findings support the hypothesis that a significant fibrinogenolysis occurs in response to exercise, and moderate intoxication with alcohol prior to exercise reduced this response.

  15. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  16. Multiple mechanisms in Pd(II)-catalyzed S(N)2' reactions of allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ghebreghiorgis, Thomas; Kirk, Brian H; Aponick, Aaron; Ess, Daniel H

    2013-08-02

    Density functional calculations and experiments were used to examine mechanisms of Pd(II) catalyzed intramolecular cyclization and dehydration in acyclic and bicyclic monoallylic diols, a formal S(N)2' reaction. In contrast to the previously proposed syn-oxypalladation mechanism for acyclic monoallylic diols, calculations and experiments strongly suggest that hydrogen bonding templates a hydroxyl group and Pd addition across the alkene and provides a low energy pathway via anti-addition (anti-oxypalladation) followed by intramolecular proton transfer and anti-elimination of water. This anti-addition, anti-elimination pathway also provides a simple rationale for the observed stereospecificity. For bicyclic monoallylic diol compounds, Pd(II) is capable of promoting either anti- or syn-addition. In addition, palladium chloride ligands can mediate proton transfer to promote dehydration when direct intramolecular proton transfer between diol groups is impossible.

  17. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Tina R.; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Landrø, Nils Inge; Bakketeig, Leiv S.; Grove, Jakob; Sværke, Claus; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT) and information processing time (IPT) in young children. Method Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60–64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R) was administered. Results Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1–4. Conclusion This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring. PMID:26382068

  18. Production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation and its utilization as automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol has an excellent future as a fuel, and its large-scale production from sugar-bearing feedstocks should definitely be a stabilizing factor in the economics of the international sugar industry. This article approaches the subject from the sugar industry viewpoint, with emphasis on the underdeveloped countries. The economic data presented here are only approximations so as to give some idea as to the order of magnitude of the capital and operating costs involved. All economic projections are based on conditions prevailing during the third quarter of 1979.

  19. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  20. A palladium-doped ceria@carbon core-sheath nanowire network: a promising catalyst support for alcohol electrooxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiang; Du, Chunyu; Sun, Yongrong; Du, Lei; Yin, Geping; Gao, Yunzhi

    2015-08-01

    A novel palladium-doped ceria and carbon core-sheath nanowire network (Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN) is synthesized by a template-free and surfactant-free solvothermal process, followed by high temperature carbonization. This hierarchical network serves as a new class of catalyst support to enhance the activity and durability of noble metal catalysts for alcohol oxidation reactions. Its supported Pd nanoparticles, Pd/(Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN), exhibit >9 fold increase in activity toward the ethanol oxidation over the state-of-the-art Pd/C catalyst, which is the highest among the reported Pd systems. Moreover, stability tests show a virtually unchanged activity after 1000 cycles. The high activity is mainly attributed to the superior oxygen-species releasing capability of Pd-doped CeO2 nanowires by accelerating the removal of the poisoning intermediate. The unique interconnected one-dimensional core-sheath structure is revealed to facilitate immobilization of the metal catalysts, leading to the improved durability. This core-sheath nanowire network opens up a new strategy for catalyst performance optimization for next-generation fuel cells.A novel palladium-doped ceria and carbon core-sheath nanowire network (Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN) is synthesized by a template-free and surfactant-free solvothermal process, followed by high temperature carbonization. This hierarchical network serves as a new class of catalyst support to enhance the activity and durability of noble metal catalysts for alcohol oxidation reactions. Its supported Pd nanoparticles, Pd/(Pd-CeO2@C CSNWN), exhibit >9 fold increase in activity toward the ethanol oxidation over the state-of-the-art Pd/C catalyst, which is the highest among the reported Pd systems. Moreover, stability tests show a virtually unchanged activity after 1000 cycles. The high activity is mainly attributed to the superior oxygen-species releasing capability of Pd-doped CeO2 nanowires by accelerating the removal of the poisoning intermediate. The unique

  1. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-09-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed microbial cultures with a headspace of 1.5 bar of hydrogen. Observed alcohol concentrations were 3.69+/-0.25 mM of ethanol, 8.08+/-0.85 mM of propanol and 3.66+/-0.05 mM of n-butanol. The conversion efficiency based on the electron balance was 55.1+/-5.6% with acetate as substrate, 50.3+/-4.7% with propionate and 46.7+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. Methane was the most predominant by-product in each batch experiment, 33.6+/-9.6% of VFA and hydrogen was converted to methane with acetate as substrate; which was 27.1+/-7.1% with propionate and 36.6+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. This VFAs reducing renewable fuel production process does not require carbohydrates like fermentable sugars, but uses biomass with high water content or low sugar content that is unsuitable as feedstock for current fermentation processes. This so-called low-grade biomass is abundantly present in many agricultural areas and is economically very attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels.

  2. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed.

  3. A COMBINED REACTION/PRODUCT RECOVERY PROCESS FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, J.F., Jr.; McFarlane, J.; Schuh, D.L.; Tsouris, C; Day, J.N.; Hullette, J.N.

    2009-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nu-Energie, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for the purpose of demonstrating and deploying a novel technology for the continuous synthesis and recovery of biodiesel from the transesterification of triglycerides. The focus of the work was the demonstration of a combination Couette reactor and centrifugal separator - an invention of ORNL researchers - that facilitates both product synthesis and recovery from reaction byproducts in the same apparatus. At present, transesterification of triglycerides to produce biodiesel is performed in batch-type reactors with an excess of a chemical catalyst, which is required to achieve high reactant conversions in reasonable reaction times (e.g., 1 hour). The need for long reactor residence times requires use of large reactors and ancillary equipment (e.g., feed and product tankage), and correspondingly large facilities, in order to obtain the economy of scale required to make the process economically viable. Hence, the goal of this CRADA was to demonstrate successful, extended operation of a laboratory-scale reactor/separator prototype to process typical industrial reactant materials, and to design, fabricate, and test a production-scale unit for deployment at the biodiesel production site. Because of its ease of operation, rapid attainment of steady state, high mass transfer and phase separation efficiencies, and compact size, a centrifugal contactor was chosen for intensification of the biodiesel production process. The unit was modified to increase the residence time from a few seconds to minutes*. For this application, liquid phases were introduced into the reactor as separate streams. One was composed of the methanol and base catalyst and the other was the soy oil used in the experiments. Following reaction in the mixing zone, the immiscible glycerine and methyl ester products were separated in the high speed rotor and collected from separate

  4. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  5. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  6. Gamma ray line production from cosmic ray spallation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma ray line intensities due to cosmic ray spallation reactions in clouds, the galactic disk and accreting binary pulsars are calculated. With the most favorable plausible assumptions, only a few lines may be detectable to the level of 0.0000001 per sq. cm per sec. The intensities are compared with those generated in nuclear excitation reactions.

  7. A comparison of memory for and attitudes about alcohol, cigarette, and other product advertisements in college students.

    PubMed

    Zinser, O; Freeman, J E; Ginnings, D K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitude ratings and recall scores of cigarette, alcohol, automobile, deodorant, jeans, soft drink, athletic shoe, breakfast cereal, and fast food restaurant advertisements. Male and female college students rated the advertisements of these product groups on a number of traits--adventurous, eye-catching, appealing, informative, believable, good times, recreational, effectiveness, romantic, athletic, buy product, and honesty. Drawing on their everyday experience, the students also were asked to recall as much about the advertisements from these product groups as they could. The results revealed that the rating and recall scores of the alcohol advertisements were significantly higher than those for the cigarette advertisements and among the highest of all of the advertisement groups. The female recall scores generally were significantly higher than the male recall scores. In contrast to the cigarette advertisements, the high scores of the alcohol advertisements were interpreted to be due in part to the wider distribution alcohol advertising has had. That alcohol advertising ranked among the highest of all of the advertising groups indicates that college students view alcohol advertising very favorably.

  8. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Polymerase of Rous Sarcoma Virus: Reaction Conditions and Analysis of the Reaction Product Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D. H. L.; Ruprecht, Ruth; Simpson, R. W.; Spiegelman, S.

    1971-01-01

    Reaction conditions for Rous sarcoma virus ribonucleic acid (RNA)-instructed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase activity are described whereby the viral RNA is relatively protected from endogenous or added nuclease activity. Three analyses of reaction product nucleic acids (3H-RNA, 32P-DNA) were compared, namely, gel electrophoresis, Cs2SO4 gradient centrifugation, and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. It was found that hydroxyapatite analysis could be misleading unless the state of the template RNA was monitored concomitantly with the DNA analysis. Gel electrophoresis and Cs2SO4 gradient centrifugation gave comparable results. It was concluded that analyses of the product of reverse transcriptase reactions should not only refer to the template RNA and product DNA species, but also be performed with virus or viral RNA which do not have or obtain nicks in the 60S RNA. Otherwise, interpretation of the results would have the ambiguity of potential artifacts caused by those degraded RNA molecules. PMID:4332143

  9. Radicals and molecular products from the gas-phase pyrolysis of lignin model compounds. Cinnamyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Xu, Meng-xia; Wu, Ang-jian; Pechagin, Mikhail; Asatryan, Rubik

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results on detection and identification of intermediate radicals and molecular products from gas-phase pyrolysis of cinnamyl alcohol (CnA), the simplest non-phenolic lignin model compound, over the temperature range of 400–800 °C are reported. The low temperature matrix isolation – electron paramagnetic resonance (LTMI-EPR) experiments along with the theoretical calculations, provided evidences on the generation of the intermediate carbon and oxygen centered as well as oxygen-linked, conjugated radicals. A mechanistic analysis is performed based on density functional theory to explain formation of the major products from CnA pyrolysis; cinnamaldehyde, indene, styrene, benzaldehyde, 1-propynyl benzene, and 2-propenyl benzene. The evaluated bond dissociation patterns and unimolecular decomposition pathways involve dehydrogenation, dehydration, 1,3-sigmatropic H-migration, 1,2-hydrogen shift, C—O and C—C bond cleavage processes. PMID:28344372

  10. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  16. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  17. Product distribution for the reaction of HO2 with ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reports the direct measurement of the reaction product HOCl from the reaction of H2O with ClO, and sets an upper limit for the possible product O3, using a discharge flow/mass spectrometry/resonance fluorescence apparatus. The upper limits of the reaction channel producing HCl + O3 are 1.5% at 298 K and 3.0% at 248 K. It is seen that the HCl production rate from the HO2 + ClO reaction could be as large as that from the Cl + CH4 reaction in the lower and middle stratosphere. Thus, this reaction may possibly increase the HCl production rate appreciably and thereby reduce the calculated O3 destruction by chlorofluoromethanes.

  18. Singlet oxygen production in the reaction of superoxide with organic peroxides.

    PubMed

    MacManus-Spencer, Laura A; Edhlund, Betsy L; McNeill, Kristopher

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] A selective chemiluminescent probe for singlet oxygen has been employed to detect and quantify singlet oxygen in the reactions of superoxide with organic peroxides. The production of singlet oxygen has been quantified in the reaction of superoxide with benzoyl peroxide (BP). No singlet oxygen was detected in the reactions of superoxide with cumyl peroxide, tert-butyl peroxide, or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. On the basis of these results and on the temperature dependence of the reaction, we proposed a mechanism for singlet oxygen formation in the reaction of superoxide with BP.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9300 - Reaction products of substituted hydroxy-alkanes and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomono- cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of substituted... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9300 Reaction products of... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10060 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10060 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  14. Fatty alcohol production in Lipomyces starkeyi and Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-24

    Current biological pathways to produce biofuel intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels are not cost effective. Previously, oleaginous yeasts have been investigated primarily for lipid production. However, yeasts store neutral lipids intracellularly making recovery difficult and expensive. In addition, once recovered from the cells, lipids are difficult to blend directly with the existing fuels without upgrading. We have, therefore, begun to investigate secreted fatty acid-derived products which can be easily recovered and upgraded to fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrate the production of fatty alcohols by the oleaginous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi, through expression of the fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene from Marinobactor aquaeolei VT8. This strategy resulted in the production of 167 and 770 mg/L of fatty alcohols in shake flask from Y. lipolytica and L starkeyi, respectively. When using a dodecane overlay during fermentation, 92 and 99% of total fatty alcohols produced by Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, respectively, were extracted into the dodecane phase, which compares favorably to the 3 and 50% recovered, respectively, without the dodecane layer. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length, saturated fatty alcohols, i.e., hexadecanol (C16:0) and octadecanol (C18:0), were predominant and accounted for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the oleaginous yeasts, Y. lipolytica and L. starkeyi, can serve as platform organisms for the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts.

  15. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  16. An assessment of potential degradation products in the gas-phase reactions of alternative fluorocarbons in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niki, Hiromi

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric chemical transformations of alternative hydrofluorocarbons (HCF's) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) are governed by hydroxyl radical initiated oxidation processes, which are likely to be analogous to those known for alkanes and chloroalkanes. A schematic diagram is used to illustrate plausible reaction mechanisms for their atmospheric degradation, where R, R', and R'' denote the F- and/or Cl-substituted alkyl groups derived from HCF's and HCFC's subsequent th the initial H atom abstraction by HO radicals. At present, virtually no kinetic data exist for the majority of these reactions, particularly for those involving RO. Potential degradation intermediates and final products include a large variety of fluorine- and/or chlorine-containing carbonyls, acids, peroxy acids, alcohols, hydrogen peroxides, nitrates and peroxy nitrates, as summarized in the attached table. Probably atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds were also estimated. For some carbonyl and nitrate products shown in this table, there seem to be no significant gas-phase removal mechanisms. Further chemical kinetics and photochemical data are needed to quantitatively assess the atmospheric fate of HCF's and HCFC's, and of the degradation products postulated in this report.

  17. Linked strategy for the production of fuels via formose reaction

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jin; Pan, Tao; Xu, Qing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Formose reaction converts formaldehyde to carbohydrates. We found that formose reaction can be used linking the biomass gasification with the aqueous-phase processing (APP) to produce liquid transportation fuel in three steps. First, formaldehyde from syn-gas was converted to triose. This was followed by aldol condensation and dehydration to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural (4-HMF). Finally, 4-HMF was hydrogenated to produce 2,4-dimethylfuran (2,4-DMF) or C9-C15 branched-chain alkanes as liquid transportation fuels. In the linked strategy, high energy-consuming pretreatment as well as expensive and polluting hydrolysis of biomass were omitted, but the high energy recovery of APP was inherited. In addition, the hexoketoses via formose reaction could be converted to HMFs directly without isomerization. A potential platform molecule 4-HMF was formed simultaneously in APP. PMID:23393625

  18. Inhibition of intracolonic acetaldehyde production and alcoholic fermentation in rats by ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Visapää, J P; Jokelainen, K; Nosova, T; Salaspuro, M

    1998-08-01

    Heavy drinking is associated with many gastrointestinal symptoms and diseases, such as rapid intestinal transit time, diarrhea, colon polyps, and colorectal cancer. Acetaldehyde produced from ethanol by intestinal microbes has recently been suggested to be one of the pathogenetic factors related to alcohol-associated gastrointestinal morbidity. Furthermore, acetaldehyde is absorbed from the colon into portal blood and may thus contribute to the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study was aimed to investigate the significance of gut aerobic flora in intracolonic acetaldehyde formation. For this study, 58 male Wistar rats (aged 9 to 11 weeks) were used. Half of the rats received ciprofloxacin for four consecutive days. Control rats (n = 29) received standard chow. On the fifth day of treatment, 1.5 g/kg body weight of ethanol was administered intraperitoneally to 19 rats receiving ciprofloxacin and 19 control rats. Ten ciprofloxacin-treated and 10 control rats received equal volumes of physiological saline intraperitoneally. Two hours after the injection of ethanol or saline, the samples of colonic contents and blood were obtained. Acetaldehyde and ethanol levels of the samples were determined by headspace gas chromatography. The intracolonic acetaldehyde level 2 hr after ethanol administration was 483+/-169 microM (maximum: 2.7 mM). High intracolonic acetaldehyde after ethanol injection was significantly reduced by ciprofloxacin treatment. After ciprofloxacin, intracolonic acetaldehyde levels before and after the injection of ethanol were 25+/-4.8 and 23+/-15 microM, respectively. Ciprofloxacin treatment resulted also in significantly higher blood (p < 0.005) and intracolonic (p < 0.0001) ethanol levels than in the control animals. Furthermore, ciprofloxacin treatment totally abolished the formation of endogenous ethanol in the large intestine. This study demonstrates that alcoholic fermentation and intracoIonic acetaldehyde production can be

  19. Comparison of Complementary Reactions in the Production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Sarah; Gregorich, Kenneth; Dragojevic, Irena; Ellison, Paul; Garcia, Mitch Andre; Gates, Jacklyn; Stavsetra, Liv; Ali, Mazhar; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-01-21

    The new reaction 208Pb(59Co,n)266Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7+5.2-3.3 pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of 266Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied 209Bi(58Fe,n)266Mt reaction.

  20. Comparison of complementary reactions in the production of Mt

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. L.; Dragojevic, I.; Ellison, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Nitsche, H.; Gregorich, K. E.; Dvorak, J.; Stavsetra, L.; Ali, M. N.

    2009-02-15

    The new reaction {sup 208}Pb({sup 59}Co,n){sup 266}Mt was studied using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. A cross section of 7.7{sub -3.3}{sup +5.2} pb was measured at a compound nucleus excitation energy of 14.9 MeV. The measured decay properties of {sup 266}Mt and its daughters correspond well with existing data. We compare this experimental result to transactinide compound nucleus formation model predictions, and the previously studied {sup 209}Bi({sup 58}Fe,n){sup 266}Mt reaction.

  1. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey lactose to glucose for alcohol production. Final report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasuna, T.J.

    1981-09-15

    This report covers the initial phase of a whey-to-glucose-to-alcohol process via an immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor in series with a fermentor. The first stage takes pure lactose and its hydrolysis with a soluble enzyme system. This stage involves the development of an assay to assess conversion in the hydrolysis reaction and the selections of the best reaction conditions for the enzyme selected. For the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme, the best conditions are 45/sup 0/C and pH 6.5. Thus, this enzyme would be more applicable to sweet whey systems rather than to acid whey. In the range of 1.0 to 3.0 g/l enzyme concentration, increased conversion is seen with increased enzyme concentration; however, the economics need to be studied to determine the optimum enzyme level taking into account cost and yield considerations. Some substrate or product inhibition is seen and is especially apparent above 50 g/l substrate concentration. Inhibition needs to be studied in more detail. Stability seems to be a problem with the Embiozyme Lactase enzyme. This may lead to problems in the future immobilization. Alternate processing conditions may have to be determined giving stability considerations the highest priority. Alternate suppliers of lactase can also be investigated. Acid denaturation seems to be more reliable than heat denaturation. Whether buffer or water is used in enzyme reconstitution makes little short-term difference in conversion. However, there may be an effect on long-term stability. 33 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. 48 CFR 829.202-70 - Tax exemptions for alcohol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions for alcohol... AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 829.202-70 Tax exemptions for alcohol... tax under the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) regulations (see 27 CFR 19.538 and...

  4. 48 CFR 829.202-70 - Tax exemptions for alcohol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions for alcohol... AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 829.202-70 Tax exemptions for alcohol... tax under the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) regulations (see 27 CFR 19.538 and...

  5. 48 CFR 829.202-70 - Tax exemptions for alcohol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions for alcohol... AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 829.202-70 Tax exemptions for alcohol... tax under the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) regulations (see 27 CFR 19.538 and...

  6. 48 CFR 829.202-70 - Tax exemptions for alcohol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions for alcohol... AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 829.202-70 Tax exemptions for alcohol... tax under the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) regulations (see 27 CFR 19.538 and...

  7. 48 CFR 829.202-70 - Tax exemptions for alcohol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax exemptions for alcohol... AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Federal Excise Taxes 829.202-70 Tax exemptions for alcohol... tax under the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) regulations (see 27 CFR 19.538 and...

  8. Tuning Lipase Reaction for Production of Fatty Acids from Oil.

    PubMed

    Odaneth, Annamma A; Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Bhat, Anuradha D; Lali, Arvind M

    2016-10-01

    Fats or oils are split partially or completely to obtain fatty acids that find wide applications in oleo-chemical industries. Lipase-mediated complete splitting (hydrolysis) of oils is a green process having great potential to replace the traditional methods of oil splitting. However, cost of lipases, mechanistic kinetic equilibrium and associated operational limitations prove to be deterrents for scale up of the enzymatic oil splitting process. In the present study, we demonstrate the use of immobilised 1,3-regioselective lipase (HyLIP) for complete hydrolysis of oil in monophasic reaction medium. Incorporation of a polar organic solvent (tert-butanol, 1:5, v/v) homogenises the oil-water mixture and contributes positively towards complete hydrolysis. The monophasic oil hydrolysis reaction with optimised water concentration (0.05 %, v/v) gave Free Fatty Acid (FFA) yield of 88 % (HyLIP and Novozym-435) and 66 % (TLIM and RMIM). Smart reaction engineering and modification of the reaction intermediates to favourable substrate lead to ∼99 % degree of hydrolysis of triglycerides with ∼90 % FFA yield using 1,3-regioselective lipase. The present work becomes basic platform for developing technologies for synthesis of fatty acids, monoglycerides, diglycerides and glycerol.

  9. Utility of spectral measurements of secondary reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.E.

    1986-02-01

    The spectra of 15 MeV protons and 14 MeV neutrons produced in the burnup of 0.8 MeV THe ions and 1 MeV tritons through the d(THe,p) and d(t,n) fusion reactions contain information on the velocity distributions of the energetic THe ions and tritons. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Optimization of honey-must preparation and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mead production.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Ferreira, A; Cosme, F; Barbosa, C; Falco, V; Inês, A; Mendes-Faia, A

    2010-11-15

    Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete. Despite of the use of starter cultures several problems still persist such as lack of uniformity of the final products, slow or premature fermentation arrest and the production of off-flavors by yeast. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize mead production through the use of an appropriate honey-must formulation to improve yeast performance alcoholic fermentation and thereby obtain a high quality product. Honey-must was centrifuged to reduce insoluble solids, pasteurized at 65°C for 10 min, and then subjected to different conditions: nitrogen supplementation and addition of organic acids. Although the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) reduced fermentation length, it did not guarantee the completeness of the fermentation process, suggesting that other factors could account for the reduced yeast activity in honey-must fermentations. Sixteen yeast-derived aroma compounds which contribute to the sensorial quality of mead were identified and quantified. Global analysis of aromatic profiles revealed that the total concentration of aroma compounds in meads was higher in those fermentations where DAP was added. A positive correlation between nitrogen availability and the levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated to the fruity character of fermented beverages, was observed whereas the presence of potassium tartrate and malic acid decreased, in general, their concentration. This study provides very useful information that can be used for improving mead quality.

  11. Feasibility study for the production of ethyl alcohol and xanthan polymer from barley fermentation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    Feasibility study results indicate that the project meets most criteria for economic and technical viability. The final process selected will produce an aftertax discounted cash flow rate of return between 33 and 41%. This level of return will occur over the range of raw material, energy and product unit prices that are probable over the next decade. In a typical year, using present day costs, the plant will produce gross revenue of $11,531,000 against production costs of $6,836,000. Pretax cash flow will be $5,947,000. This appears adequate to service acceptable levels of debt required to finance the $12,521,000 anticipated construction cost. The first year total cost including an initial three-month working capital reserve will be $13,620,000. The plant is designed to produce three major products: ethyl alcohol, distiller's dried grains and solubles and xanthan polymer. The individual process steps chosen to produce these products have all been demonstrated at the commercial level at other facilities. A pilot program has been in operation for nine months at the RBI facility to develop fermentation and recovery data on the xanthan process and to provide samples for customer comment and evaluation.

  12. The Hydroxyl Radical Reaction Rate Constant and Products of Dimethyl Succinate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    reaction. Formic acid is believed to be a degradation product of the primary product, methyl glyoxylate (MG, CH3OC(=O)C(=O)H). Product formation...O)OH)) at a yield of only vi 2.17 ± 0.25%. Extensive efforts were used to identify other primary products but none were measured. Formic acid ...initiating the OH + DMS reaction. Formic acid is believed to be a degradation product of the primary product, methyl glyoxylate (MG, CH3OC(=O)C(=O)H

  13. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  14. Source test and evaluation report: alcohol facility for gasohol production. Final reportoct 78-feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, R.M.; Papai, M.P.; Mills, P.E.; Powers, T.J. III

    1982-04-01

    This study defines the requirements for environmental sampling and analysis of alcohol-producing facilities capable of supporting a Gasohol industry and applies these requirements to the environmental characterization of an alcohol plant. This document includes a conceptual design of a grain alcohol plant using a coal-fired boiler that is projected to be typical of future plants which will support a Gasohol industry. Environmental control options are also discussed based on a comparison of alcohol plant stream compositions with environmental regulations. The results of this study provide preliminary information on the environmental consequences of large-scale fermentation ethanol plants which will provide alcohol for Gasohol.

  15. Development of a biochemical process for production of alcohol fuel from peat. Final technical report, June 1, 1981-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P.F.; de Riel, S.R.; Heneghan, E.P.; Cheng, L.K.; Sanderson, J.E.

    1983-07-29

    This report relates progress in the development of a process for production of mixed alcohol fuel from peat. The process has four steps - pretreatment of peat to promote biodegradability, anaerobic fermentation to produce organic acids, electrolytic oxidation of organic acids to olefins, and hydration of the olefins to alcohols. Since production of alcohols by hydration of olefins is an acknowledged technology, the development program focuses on demonstrating technical feasibility of the other three steps. 70 references, 70 figures, 61 tables.

  16. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  17. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  18. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  19. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  20. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 °C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 °C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar.