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Sample records for aldehyde aldehyde aldehyde

  1. Microbial Engineering for Aldehyde Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunjapur, Aditya M.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are a class of chemicals with many industrial uses. Several aldehydes are responsible for flavors and fragrances present in plants, but aldehydes are not known to accumulate in most natural microorganisms. In many cases, microbial production of aldehydes presents an attractive alternative to extraction from plants or chemical synthesis. During the past 2 decades, a variety of aldehyde biosynthetic enzymes have undergone detailed characterization. Although metabolic pathways that result in alcohol synthesis via aldehyde intermediates were long known, only recent investigations in model microbes such as Escherichia coli have succeeded in minimizing the rapid endogenous conversion of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols. Such efforts have provided a foundation for microbial aldehyde synthesis and broader utilization of aldehydes as intermediates for other synthetically challenging biochemical classes. However, aldehyde toxicity imposes a practical limit on achievable aldehyde titers and remains an issue of academic and commercial interest. In this minireview, we summarize published efforts of microbial engineering for aldehyde synthesis, with an emphasis on de novo synthesis, engineered aldehyde accumulation in E. coli, and the challenge of aldehyde toxicity. PMID:25576610

  2. Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robert L; Fahy, Gregory M

    2015-12-01

    We describe here a new cryobiological and neurobiological technique, aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation (ASC), which demonstrates the relevance and utility of advanced cryopreservation science for the neurobiological research community. ASC is a new brain-banking technique designed to facilitate neuroanatomic research such as connectomics research, and has the unique ability to combine stable long term ice-free sample storage with excellent anatomical resolution. To demonstrate the feasibility of ASC, we perfuse-fixed rabbit and pig brains with a glutaraldehyde-based fixative, then slowly perfused increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol over several hours in a manner similar to techniques used for whole organ cryopreservation. Once 65% w/v ethylene glycol was reached, we vitrified brains at -135 °C for indefinite long-term storage. Vitrified brains were rewarmed and the cryoprotectant removed either by perfusion or gradual diffusion from brain slices. We evaluated ASC-processed brains by electron microscopy of multiple regions across the whole brain and by Focused Ion Beam Milling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) imaging of selected brain volumes. Preservation was uniformly excellent: processes were easily traceable and synapses were crisp in both species. Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation has many advantages over other brain-banking techniques: chemicals are delivered via perfusion, which enables easy scaling to brains of any size; vitrification ensures that the ultrastructure of the brain will not degrade even over very long storage times; and the cryoprotectant can be removed, yielding a perfusable aldehyde-preserved brain which is suitable for a wide variety of brain assays. PMID:26408851

  3. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-11-05

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  4. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  5. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  6. Synthesis of 5'-Aldehyde Oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Lartia, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of oligonucleotide ending with an aldehyde functional group at their 5'-end (5'-AON) is possible for both DNA (5'-AODN) and RNA (5'-AORN) series irrespectively of the nature of the last nucleobase. The 5'-alcohol of on-support ODN is mildly oxidized under Moffat conditions. Transient protection of the resulting aldehyde by N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives allows cleavage, deprotection, and RP-HPLC purification of the protected 5'-AON. Finally, 5'-AON is deprotected by usual acetic acid treatment. In the aggregates, 5'-AON can be now synthesized and purified as routinely as non-modified ODNs, following procedures similar to the well-known "DMT-On" strategy. PMID:26967469

  7. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  8. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  9. Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

  10. DIFFERENTIATING THE TOXICITY OF CARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDES FROM NONCARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDES IN THE RAT NOSE USING CDNA ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differentiating the Toxicity of Carcinogenic Aldehydes from Noncarcinogenic Aldehydes in the Rat Nose Using cDNA Arrays.

    Formaldehyde is a widely used aldehyde in many industrial settings, the tanning process, household products, and is a contaminant in cigarette smoke. H...

  11. Gaseous aliphatic aldehydes in Chinese incense smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.M.; Wang, L.H. )

    1994-09-01

    Aliphatic aldehydes were found during the combustion of materials. Tobacco smoke contains aldehydes. Fire fighters were exposed to aldehydes when they conducted firefighting. Aldehydes in ambient air come mainly from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and from photochemical reaction. Most aldehydes in ambient air are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde were found in the atmosphere in Los Angeles. Burning Chinese incense for worshipping deities is a Chinese daily routine. It was suspected to be a factor causing nasopharynegeal cancer. Epidemiological studies correlated it with the high risk of childhood brain tumor and the high risk of childhood leukemia. Ames test identified the mutagenic effect of the smoke from burning Chinese incense. The smoke had bee proved to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic aldehydes. Suspicion about formaldehyde and other alphatic aldehydes was evoked, when a survey of indoor air pollution was conducted in Taipei city. This study determined the presence of aliphatic aldehydes in the smoke from burning Chinese incense under a controlled atmosphere. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  13. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  14. Emissions of odorous aldehydes from alkyd paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, John C. S.; Guo, Zhishi

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environ-mental chambers. It was found that, for each gram of alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of aldehydes (mainly hexanal) were emitted during the curing (drying) period. Since no measurable hexanal was found in the original paint, it is suspected that the aldehydes emitted were produced by autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the alkyd resins. The hexanal emission rate was simulated by a model assuming that the autoxidation process was controlled by a consecutive first-order reaction mechanism. Using the emission rate model, indoor air quality simulation indicated that the hexanal emissions can result in prolonged (several days) exposure risk to occupants. The occupant exposure to aldehydes emitted from alkyd paint also could cause sensory irritation and other health concerns.

  15. Toward aldehyde and alkane production by removing aldehyde reductase activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled the construction of novel biological routes to valuable chemicals using suitable microbial hosts. Aldehydes serve as chemical feedstocks in the synthesis of rubbers, plastics, and other larger molecules. Microbial production of alkanes is dependent on the formation of a fatty aldehyde intermediate which is converted to an alkane by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO). However, microbial hosts such as Escherichia coli are plagued by many highly active endogenous aldehyde reductases (ALRs) that convert aldehydes to alcohols, which greatly complicates strain engineering for aldehyde and alkane production. It has been shown that the endogenous ALR activity outcompetes the ADO enzyme for fatty aldehyde substrate. The large degree of ALR redundancy coupled with an incomplete database of ALRs represents a significant obstacle in engineering E. coli for either aldehyde or alkane production. In this study, we identified 44 ALR candidates encoded in the E. coli genome using bioinformatics tools, and undertook a comprehensive screening by measuring the ability of these enzymes to produce isobutanol. From the pool of 44 candidates, we found five new ALRs using this screening method (YahK, DkgA, GldA, YbbO, and YghA). Combined deletions of all 13 known ALRs resulted in a 90–99% reduction in endogenous ALR activity for a wide range of aldehyde substrates (C2–C12). Elucidation of the ALRs found in E. coli could guide one in reducing competing alcohol formation during alkane or aldehyde production. PMID:25108218

  16. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Sun, Lihan; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2010-01-01

    Numerous conditions promote oxidative stress, leading to the build-up of reactive aldehydes that cause cell damage and contribute to cardiac diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are important enzymes that eliminate toxic aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to non-reactive acids. The review will discuss evidence indicating a role for a specific ALDH enzyme, the mitochondrial ALDH2, in combating oxidative stress by reducing the cellular ‘aldehydic load’. Epidemiological studies in humans carrying an inactive ALDH2, genetic models in mice with altered ALDH2 levels, and small molecule activators of ALDH2 all highlight the role of ALDH2 in cardioprotection and suggest a promising new direction in cardiovascular research and the development of new treatments for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20558439

  17. Scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, S; Murakami, M; Takata, K; Morino, Y

    1986-04-15

    This paper describes an unexpectedly broad ligand specificity of a scavenger receptor of sinusoidal liver cells that is responsible for endocytic uptake of formaldehyde-treated bovine serum albumin (f-Alb). Binding of 125I-f-Alb to the isolated cells was effectively inhibited by bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with aliphatic aldehydes such as glycolaldehye, DL-glyceraldehyde, and propionaldehyde whereas albumin preparations modified by aromatic aldehydes such as pyridoxal, pyridoxal phosphate, salicylaldehyde, and benzaldehyde did not affect this binding process. Binding of 125I-glycolaldehyde-treated BSA to the cells exhibited a saturation kinetics with an apparent Kd = 3.3 micrograms of the ligand/ml. This binding process was inhibited by unlabeled f-Alb as well as by the antibody raised against the f-Alb receptor. Indeed, 125I-glycolaldehyde-treated BSA underwent a rapid plasma clearance (t1/2 approximately 2 min) which was markedly retarded by unlabeled f-Alb. Upon treatment by these aldehydes, other proteins such as ovalbumin, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and hemoglobin were also converted to active ligands for the f-Alb receptor, while no ligand activity was generated with gamma-globulin and RNase A. These results clearly show that the f-Alb receptor, originally described as being specific for f-Alb, exhibits a broad ligand specificity in terms of both aldehydes and proteins and, hence, should be described as a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins.

  18. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  19. Volatile aldehydes in libraries and archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenech, Ann; Strlič, Matija; Kralj Cigić, Irena; Levart, Alenka; Gibson, Lorraine T.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Ntanos, Konstantinos; Kolar, Jana; Cassar, May

    2010-06-01

    Volatile aldehydes are produced during degradation of paper-based materials. This may result in their accumulation in archival and library repositories. However, no systematic study has been performed so far. In the frame of this study, passive sampling was carried out at ten locations in four libraries and archives. Despite the very variable sampling locations, no major differences were found, although air-filtered repositories were found to have lower concentrations while a non-ventilated newspaper repository exhibited the highest concentrations of volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural and hexanal). Five employees in one institution were also provided with personal passive samplers to investigate employees' exposure to volatile aldehydes. All values were lower than the presently valid exposure limits. The concentration of volatile aldehydes, acetic acid, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in general was also compared with that of outdoor-generated pollutants. It was evident that inside the repository and particularly inside archival boxes, the concentration of VOCs and acetic acid was much higher than the concentration of outdoor-generated pollutants, which are otherwise more routinely studied in connection with heritage materials. This indicates that further work on the pro-degradative effect of VOCs on heritage materials is necessary and that monitoring of VOCs in heritage institutions should become more widespread.

  20. Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Thottumkara, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment demonstrating the feasibility of using water as a solvent for organic reactions which highlights the cost and environmental benefits of its use is presented. The experiment encourages students to think in terms of the reaction mechanism of the oxidation of aldehydes knowing that potassium persulfate is the active oxidant in Oxone…

  1. Aldehyde Reduction by Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Srivastava, Sanjay; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE); specifically the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). These assays can be performed using either liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method used here to study the reduction of a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 9-AA, by CYPs was adapted from the assay used to investigate 9-anthracene oxidation as reported by Marini et al. (Marini et al., 2003). For experiments measuring reduction of the endogenous aldehyde, 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH and the metabolites were separated by High Pressure Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), using an adaptation of the method of Srivastava et al. (Srivastava et al., 2010). For study of 9-AA and 4-HNE reduction, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in appropriate media, followed by quantification of metabolites through either spectrofluorimetry or analysis by HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay, respectively. Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC-mass spectrometric analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 function can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction reactions for CYP’s were not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These character of these reactions are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions. PMID:21553396

  2. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. Neurotoxicity of reactive aldehydes: the concept of "aldehyde load" as demonstrated by neuroprotection with hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paul L; Khan, M Amin; Kulow, Sarah R; Mahmood, Siddique A; Moskal, Joseph R

    2006-06-20

    The concept of "oxidative stress" has become a mainstay in the field of neurodegeneration but has failed to differentiate critical events from epiphenomena and sequalae. Furthermore, the translation of current concepts of neurodegenerative mechanisms into effective therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases has been meager and disappointing. A corollary of current concepts of "oxidative stress" is that of "aldehyde load". This relates to the production of reactive aldehydes that covalently modify proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates and activate apoptotic pathways. However, reactive aldehydes can also be generated by mechanisms other than "oxidative stress". We therefore hypothesized that agents that can chemically neutralize reactive aldehydes should demonstrate superior neuroprotective actions to those of free radical scavengers. To this end, we evaluated hydroxylamines as aldehyde-trapping agents in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration induced by the reactive aldehyde, 3-aminopropanal (3-AP), a product of polyamine oxidase metabolism of spermine and spermidine. In this model, the hydroxylamines N-benzylhydroxylamine, cyclohexylhydroxylamine and t-butylhydroxylamine were shown to protect, in a concentration-dependent manner, against 3-AP neurotoxicity. Additionally, a therapeutic window of 3 h was demonstrated for delayed administration of the hydroxylamines. In contrast, the free radical scavengers TEMPO and TEMPONE and the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid were ineffective in this model. Extending these tissue culture findings in vivo, we examined the actions of N-benzylhydroxylamine in the trimethyltin (TMT) rat model of hippocampal CA3 neurodegeneration. This model involves augmented polyamine metabolism resulting in the generation of reactive aldehydes that compromise mitochondrial integrity. In the rat TMT model, NBHA (50 mg/kg, sc, daily) provided 100% protection against neurodegeneration, as reflected by measurements of KCl-evoked glutamate

  10. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren–Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513–5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106–3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  11. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  12. One-Pot Amide Bond Formation from Aldehydes and Amines via a Photoorganocatalytic Activation of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Giorgos N; Kokotos, Christoforos G

    2016-08-19

    A mild, one-pot, and environmentally friendly synthesis of amides from aldehydes and amines is described. Initially, a photoorganocatalytic reaction of aldehydes with di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate leads to an intermediate carbonyl imide, which can react with a variety of amines to afford the desired amides. The initial visible light-mediated activation of a variety of monosubstituted or disubstituted aldehydes is usually fast, occurring in a few hours. Following the photocatalytic reaction, addition of the primary amine at room temperature or the secondary amine at elevated temperatures leads to the corresponding amide from moderate to excellent yields without epimerization. This methodology was applied in the synthesis of Moclobemide, a drug against depression and social anxiety. PMID:27227271

  13. A coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 enhances the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to cinnamic acids by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions was previously observed. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas have been shown to harbor specialized enzymes for converting coniferyl aldehyde but no comparable enzymes have been identified in S. cerevisiae. CALDH from Pseudomonas was expressed in S. cerevisiae. An acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald5) was also hypothesized to be actively involved in the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic growth conditions in S. cerevisiae. In a second S. cerevisiae strain, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD5) was deleted. A prototrophic control strain was also engineered. The engineered S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1.1mM coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic condition in bioreactors. The results confirmed that expression of CALDH increased endogenous conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae and ALD5 is actively involved with the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27070284

  14. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  15. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed

    Perozich, J; Nicholas, H; Wang, B C; Lindahl, R; Hempel, J

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Aldehyde Toxicity: A Chemical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are electrophilic compounds to which humans are pervasively exposed. Despite a significant health risk due to exposure, the mechanisms of aldehyde toxicity are poorly understood. This ambiguity is likely due to the structural diversity of aldehyde derivatives and corresponding differences in chemical reactions and biological targets. To gain mechanistic insight, we have used parameters based on the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory to profile the different aldehyde subclasses with respect to electronic character (softness, hardness), electrophilic reactivity (electrophilic index), and biological nucleophilic targets. Our analyses indicate that short chain aldehydes and longer chain saturated alkanals are hard electrophiles that cause toxicity by forming adducts with hard biological nucleophiles, e.g., primary nitrogen groups on lysine residues. In contrast, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives, alkenals, and the α-oxoaldehydes are soft electrophiles that preferentially react with soft nucleophilic thiolate groups on cysteine residues. The aldehydes can therefore be grouped into subclasses according to common electronic characteristics (softness/hardness) and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. As we will discuss, the toxic potencies of these subgroups are generally related to corresponding electrophilicities. For some aldehydes, however, predictions of toxicity based on electrophilicity are less accurate due to inherent physicochemical variables that limit target accessibility, e.g., steric hindrance and solubility. The unsaturated aldehydes are also members of the conjugated type-2 alkene chemical class that includes α,β-unsaturated amide, ketone, and ester derivatives. Type-2 alkenes are electrophiles of varying softness and electrophilicity that share a common mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, exposure to an environmental mixture of unsaturated carbonyl derivatives could cause “type-2 alkene toxicity” through additive interactions

  17. Molecular mechanisms of aldehyde toxicity: a chemical perspective.

    PubMed

    LoPachin, Richard M; Gavin, Terrence

    2014-07-21

    Aldehydes are electrophilic compounds to which humans are pervasively exposed. Despite a significant health risk due to exposure, the mechanisms of aldehyde toxicity are poorly understood. This ambiguity is likely due to the structural diversity of aldehyde derivatives and corresponding differences in chemical reactions and biological targets. To gain mechanistic insight, we have used parameters based on the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory to profile the different aldehyde subclasses with respect to electronic character (softness, hardness), electrophilic reactivity (electrophilic index), and biological nucleophilic targets. Our analyses indicate that short chain aldehydes and longer chain saturated alkanals are hard electrophiles that cause toxicity by forming adducts with hard biological nucleophiles, e.g., primary nitrogen groups on lysine residues. In contrast, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives, alkenals, and the α-oxoaldehydes are soft electrophiles that preferentially react with soft nucleophilic thiolate groups on cysteine residues. The aldehydes can therefore be grouped into subclasses according to common electronic characteristics (softness/hardness) and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. As we will discuss, the toxic potencies of these subgroups are generally related to corresponding electrophilicities. For some aldehydes, however, predictions of toxicity based on electrophilicity are less accurate due to inherent physicochemical variables that limit target accessibility, e.g., steric hindrance and solubility. The unsaturated aldehydes are also members of the conjugated type-2 alkene chemical class that includes α,β-unsaturated amide, ketone, and ester derivatives. Type-2 alkenes are electrophiles of varying softness and electrophilicity that share a common mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, exposure to an environmental mixture of unsaturated carbonyl derivatives could cause "type-2 alkene toxicity" through additive interactions

  18. Appearance of aldehydes in the surface layer of lake waters.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Agata; Nawrocki, Jacek; Szeląg-Wasielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results concerning the changes in the content of aldehydes in samples of lake water collected near the lake surface. The study of lake waters was undertaken to explain which physicochemical parameters of the environment have the greatest influence on the level of aldehydes, which of the aldehydes are most often met in surface water and in what concentrations. We observed that formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and acetone were commonly present in surface water samples, while semi-volatile and poorly soluble aldehydes such as nonanal and decanal were observed seasonally. The contents of total aldehydes varied in a wide range, from 55 to 670 μg/l, and the concentration of total organic carbon varied significantly from 3 to 18 mg /l, but there was no evident correlation between them in all of samples. The total content of aldehydes did not depend on the meteorological parameters such as air temperature, UV radiation and ozone concentration; however, it was noted that the level of carbonyl concentration is related to the period of intense precipitation: in the period of very low precipitations, the highest contents of total aldehydes were determined in all of the water samples, and in the periods of intense precipitations, the content of total aldehydes was drastically smaller.

  19. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  2. The Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The website http://www.aldh.org is a publicly available database for nomenclature and functional and molecular sequence information for members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily for animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. The site has organised gene-specific records. It provides synopses of ALDH gene records, marries trivial terms to correct nomenclature and links global accession identifiers with source data. Server-side alignment software characterises the integrity of each sequence relative to the latest genomic assembly and provides identifier-specific detail reports, including a graphical presentation of the transcript's exon - intron structure, its size, coding sequence, genomic strand and locus. Also included are a summary of substrates, inhibitors and enzyme kinetics. The site provides reference lists and is designed to facilitate data mining by interested investigators. PMID:20038501

  3. New tyrosinase inhibitors, (+)-catechin-aldehyde polycondensates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jin; Chung, Joo Eun; Kurisawa, Motoichi; Uyama, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    In this study, new tyrosinase inhibitors, (+)-catechin-aldehyde polycondensates, have been developed. Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a monophenol (monophenolase activity) and the oxidation of an o-diphenol (diphenolase activity). In the measurement of tyrosinase inhibition activity, (+)-catechin acted as substrate and cofactor of tyrosinase. On the other hand, the polycondensates inhibited the tyrosine hydroxylation and L-DOPA oxidation by chelation to the active site of tyrosinase. The UV-visible spectrum of a mixture of tyrosinase and the polycondensate exhibited a characteristic shoulder peak ascribed to the chelation of the polycondensate to the active site of tyrosinase. Furthermore, circular dichroism measurement showed a small red shift of the band due to the interaction between tyrosinase and the polycondensate. These data support that the polycondensate acts as an inhibitor of tyrosinase. PMID:15003008

  4. Reversible, partial inactivation of plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase by betaine aldehyde: mechanism and possible physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Zárate-Romero, Andrés; Murillo-Melo, Darío S; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Montiel, Carmina; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2016-04-01

    In plants, the last step in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) is the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BAL) catalysed by some aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 10 enzymes that exhibit betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity. Given the irreversibility of the reaction, the short-term regulation of these enzymes is of great physiological relevance to avoid adverse decreases in the NAD(+):NADH ratio. In the present study, we report that the Spinacia oleracea BADH (SoBADH) is reversibly and partially inactivated by BAL in the absence of NAD(+)in a time- and concentration-dependent mode. Crystallographic evidence indicates that the non-essential Cys(450)(SoBADH numbering) forms a thiohemiacetal with BAL, totally blocking the productive binding of the aldehyde. It is of interest that, in contrast to Cys(450), the catalytic cysteine (Cys(291)) did not react with BAL in the absence of NAD(+) The trimethylammonium group of BAL binds in the same position in the inactivating or productive modes. Accordingly, BAL does not inactivate the C(450)SSoBADH mutant and the degree of inactivation of the A(441)I and A(441)C mutants corresponds to their very different abilities to bind the trimethylammonium group. Cys(450)and the neighbouring residues that participate in stabilizing the thiohemiacetal are strictly conserved in plant ALDH10 enzymes with proven or predicted BADH activity, suggesting that inactivation by BAL is their common feature. Under osmotic stress conditions, this novel partial and reversible covalent regulatory mechanism may contribute to preventing NAD(+)exhaustion, while still permitting the synthesis of high amounts of GB and avoiding the accumulation of the toxic BAL.

  5. Possible role of alteration of aldehyde's scavenger enzymes during aging.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Vadim V; Dobaeva, Nataly M; Bozhkov, Anatoly I

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis in tissues is induced by different kind of signals including endogenous aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2, 3-nonenal. The accumulation rate of aldehydes in the cell is affected by conditions of oxidative stress. In the cell, aldehydes can be metabolized by various isoforms of aldehyde dehydrogenase, aldehyde reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. There is evidence suggesting that the catalytic properties of these enzymes change during ontogenesis, and that aging is accompanied by their reduced activities. These functional changes may contribute substantially to the alteration in the organism sensitivity to damaging action of stress factors during aging, to age-related modulation of the action of endogenous aldehydes as a signal for apoptosis, and finally, to the origin of diseases associated with aging. In this context, the stimulation of enzymes' expression, and the activation of the catalytic properties of enzymes responsible for catabolism of endogenous aldehydes could become a perspective direction in increasing the organism resistance to the action of damaging factors during aging.

  6. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  7. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  8. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  9. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  10. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  11. Molecular Structure and Reactivity in the Pyrolysis of Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sias, Eric; Cole, Sarah; Sowards, John; Warner, Brian; Wright, Emily; McCunn, Laura R.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of alkyl chain structure on pyrolysis mechanisms has been investigated in a series of aldehydes. Isovaleraldehyde, CH_3CH(CH_3)CH_2CHO, and pivaldehyde, (CH_3)_3CCHO, were subject to thermal decomposition in a resistively heated SiC tubular reactor at 800-1200 °C. Matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify pyrolysis products. Carbon monoxide and isobutene were major products from each of the aldehydes, which is consistent with what is known from previous studies of unbranched alkyl-chain aldehydes. Other products observed include vinyl alcohol, propene, acetylene, and ethylene, revealing complexities to be considered in the pyrolysis of large, branched-chain aldehydes.

  12. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  13. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.

    PubMed

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-02-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain

  14. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain

  15. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels.

  16. Kinetic properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G J; Dickinson, F M

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of the NAD+-dependent oxidation of aldehydes, catalysed by aldehyde dehydrogenase purified from sheep liver mitochondria, were studied in detail. Lag phases were observed in the assays, the length of which were dependent on the enzyme concentration. The measured rates after the lag phase was over were directly proportional to the enzyme concentration. If enzyme was preincubated with NAD+, the lag phase was eliminated. Double-reciprocal plots with aldehyde as the variable substrate were non-linear, showing marked substrate activation. With NAD+ as the variable substrate, double-reciprocal plots were linear, and apparently parallel. Double-reciprocal plots with enzyme modified with disulfiram (tetraethylthiuram disulphide) or iodoacetamide, such that at pH 8.0 the activity was decreased to 50% of the control value, showed no substrate activation, and the plots were linear. At pH 7.0, the kinetic parameters Vmax. and Km NAD+- for the oxidation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde by the native enzyme are almost identical. Formaldehyde and propionaldehyde show the same apparent maximum rate. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is able to catalyse the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters. This esterase activity was stimulated by both NAD+ and NADH, the maximum rate for the NAD+ stimulated esterase reaction being roughly equal to the maximum rate for the oxidation of aldehydes. The mechanistic implications of the above behaviour are discussed. PMID:217355

  17. Maternal aldehyde elimination during pregnancy preserves the fetal genome.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, Nina; Langevin, Frédéric; King, Gareth; de Wind, Niels; Crossan, Gerry P; Patel, Ketan J

    2014-09-18

    Maternal metabolism provides essential nutrients to enable embryonic development. However, both mother and embryo produce reactive metabolites that can damage DNA. Here we discover how the embryo is protected from these genotoxins. Pregnant mice lacking Aldh2, a key enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes, cannot support the development of embryos lacking the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway gene Fanca. Remarkably, transferring Aldh2(-/-)Fanca(-/-) embryos into wild-type mothers suppresses developmental defects and rescues embryonic lethality. These rescued neonates have severely depleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, indicating that despite intact maternal aldehyde catabolism, fetal Aldh2 is essential for hematopoiesis. Hence, maternal and fetal aldehyde detoxification protects the developing embryo from DNA damage. Failure of this genome preservation mechanism might explain why birth defects and bone marrow failure occur in Fanconi anemia, and may have implications for fetal well-being in the many women in Southeast Asia that are genetically deficient in ALDH2. PMID:25155611

  18. Polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with two aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Rieker, L. L.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A film forming polyvinyl alcohol resin is admixed, in aqueous solution, with a dialdehyde crosslinking agent which is capable of crosslinking the polyvinyl alcohol resin and a water soluble acid aldehyde containing a reactive aldehyde group capable of reacting with hydroxyl groups in the polyvinyl alcohol resin and an ionizable acid hydrogen atom. The dialdehyde is present in an amount sufficient to react with from 1 to 20% by weight of the theoretical amount required to react with all of the hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol. The amount of acid aldehyde is from 1 to 50% by weight, same basis, and is sufficient to reduce the pH of the aqueous admixture to 5 or less. The admixture is then formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet or film, and the shaped material is then heated to simultaneously dry and crosslink the article.

  19. RP-HPLC-fluorescence analysis of aliphatic aldehydes: application to aldehyde-generating enzymes HACL1 and SGPL1.

    PubMed

    Mezzar, Serena; de Schryver, Evelyn; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2014-03-01

    Long-chain aldehydes are commonly produced in various processes, such as peroxisomal α-oxidation of long-chain 3-methyl-branched and 2-hydroxy fatty acids and microsomal breakdown of phosphorylated sphingoid bases. The enzymes involved in the aldehyde-generating steps of these processes are 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1), respectively. In the present work, nonradioactive assays for these enzymes were developed employing the Hantzsch reaction. Tridecanal (C13-al) and heptadecanal (C17-al) were selected as model compounds and cyclohexane-1,3-dione as 1,3-diketone, and the fluorescent derivatives were analyzed by reversed phase (RP)-HPLC. Assay mixture composition, as well as pH and heating, were optimized for C13-al and C17-al. Under optimized conditions, these aldehydes could be quantified in picomolar range and different long-chain aldehyde derivatives were well resolved with a linear gradient elution by RP-HPLC. Aldehydes generated by recombinant enzymes could easily be detected via this method. Moreover, the assay allowed to document activity or deficiency in tissue homogenates and fibroblast lysates without an extraction step. In conclusion, a simple, quick, and cheap assay for the study of HACL1 and SGPL1 activities was developed, without relying on expensive mass spectrometric detectors or radioactive substrates.

  20. Direct β-Alkylation of Aldehydes via Photoredox Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Direct β-alkylation of saturated aldehydes has been accomplished by synergistically combining photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Photon-induced enamine oxidation provides an activated β-enaminyl radical intermediate, which readily combines with a wide range of Michael acceptors to produce β-alkyl aldehydes in a highly efficient manner. Furthermore, this redox-neutral, atom-economical C–H functionalization protocol can be achieved both inter- and intramolecularly. Mechanistic studies by various spectroscopic methods suggest that a reductive quenching pathway is operable. PMID:24754456

  1. Tunable Ether Production via Coupling of Aldehydes or Aldehyde/Alcohol over Hydrogen-Modified Gold Catalysts at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming; Brush, Adrian J; Dong, Guangbin; Mullins, C Buddie

    2012-09-01

    Ethers are an important group of organic compounds that are primarily prepared via homogeneous catalysis, which can lead to operational and environmental issues. Here we demonstrate the production of ethers via heterogeneous catalysis over H adatom-covered gold at temperatures lower than 250 K. Symmetrical ethers can be formed via a self-coupling reaction of corresponding aldehydes; for example, homocoupling of acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde yields diethyl ether and di-n-propyl ether, respectively. In addition, coupling reactions between alcohols and aldehydes, with different carbon chain lengths, are observed via the production of the corresponding unsymmetrical ethers. A reaction mechanism is proposed, suggesting that an alcohol-like intermediate via partial hydrogenation of aldehydes on the surface plays a key role in these reactions. These surface chemical reactions suggest possible heterogeneous routes to low-temperature production of ethers. PMID:26292142

  2. Aldehydic load and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 profile during the progression of post-myocardial infarction cardiomyopathy: benefits of Alda-1

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Katia M.S.; Bechara, Luiz R.G.; Lima, Vanessa M.; Ribeiro, Márcio A.C.; Campos, Juliane C.; Dourado, Paulo M.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Ferreira, Julio C.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives We previously demonstrated that reducing cardiac aldehydic load by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for metabolizing the major lipid peroxidation product, protects against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury and chronic heart failure. However, time-dependent changes in ALDH2 profile, aldehydic load and mitochondrial bioenergetics during progression of post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) cardiomyopathy is unknown and should be established to determine the optimal time window for drug treatment. Methods Here we characterized cardiac ALDH2 activity and expression, lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) adduct formation, glutathione pool and mitochondrial energy metabolism and H2O2 release during the 4 weeks after permanent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion in rats. Results We observed a sustained disruption of cardiac mitochondrial function during the progression of post-MI cardiomyopathy, characterized by >50% reduced mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and up to 2 fold increase in H2O2 release. Mitochondrial dysfunction was accompanied by accumulation of cardiac and circulating lipid peroxides and 4-HNE protein adducts and down-regulation of electron transport chain complexes I and V. Moreover, increased aldehydic load was associated with a 90% reduction in cardiac ALDH2 activity and increased glutathione pool. Further supporting an ALDH2 mechanism, sustained Alda-1 treatment (starting 24hrs after permanent LAD occlusion surgery) prevented aldehydic overload, mitochondrial dysfunction and improved ventricular function in post-MI cardiomyopathy rats. Conclusion Taken together, our findings demonstrate a disrupted mitochondrial metabolism along with an insufficient cardiac ALDH2-mediated aldehyde clearance during the progression of ventricular dysfunction, suggesting a potential therapeutic value of ALDH2 activators during the progression of post-myocardial infarction

  3. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  4. NHC-catalysed highly selective aerobic oxidation of nonactivated aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Möhlmann, Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Summary This publication describes a highly selective oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acids or esters. The reaction proceeds under metal-free conditions by using N-heterocyclic carbenes as organocatalysts in combination with environmentally friendly oxygen as the terminal oxidation agent. PMID:23616801

  5. Diastereoselective synthesis of substituted diaziridines from simple ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Alexander W; Dohmeier, Emma F; Moura-Letts, Gustavo

    2015-09-11

    Diastereopure substituted diaziridines from simple ketones, aldehydes and amines are here reported. These important chemical scaffolds are obtained in the presence of a weak inorganic base and hydroxylamine O-sulfonic acid (HOSA). This method introduces three stereocenters in one step to provide a wide variety of substituted diaziridines with high yields and diastereoselectivities.

  6. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section 721.5762 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762...

  7. A thermostable transketolase evolved for aliphatic aldehyde acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong; Saravanan, Thangavelu; Devamani, Titu; Charmantray, Franck; Hecquet, Laurence; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-11

    Directed evolution of the thermostable transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus based on a pH-based colorimetric screening of smart libraries yielded several mutants with up to 16-fold higher activity for aliphatic aldehydes and high enantioselectivity (>95% ee) in the asymmetric carboligation step. PMID:25415647

  8. Antibiotics from basidiomycetes. 26. Phlebiakauranol aldehyde an antifungal and cytotoxic metabolite from Punctularia atropurpurascens.

    PubMed

    Anke, H; Casser, I; Steglich, W; Pommer, E H

    1987-04-01

    Phlebiakauranol aldehyde and the corresponding alcohol were isolated from cultures of Punctularia atropurpurascens. The aldehyde but not the alcohol exhibited strong antifungal activity against several phytopathogens as well as antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Two acetylated derivatives prepared from the aldehyde showed only very weak antifungal and antibacterial and moderate cytotoxic activities. We therefore assume, that the aldehyde group together with the high number of hydroxyl groups are responsible for the biological activity of the compound.

  9. Functional Specialization of Maize Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenases1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2002-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) rf2a and rf2b genes both encode homotetrameric aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). The RF2A protein was shown previously to accumulate in the mitochondria. In vitro import experiments and ALDH assays on mitochondrial extracts from rf2a mutant plants established that the RF2B protein also accumulates in the mitochondria. RNA gel-blot analyses and immunohistolocation experiments revealed that these two proteins have only partially redundant expression patterns in organs and cell types. For example, RF2A, but not RF2B, accumulates to high levels in the tapetal cells of anthers. Kinetic analyses established that RF2A and RF2B have quite different substrate specificities; although RF2A can oxidize a broad range of aldehydes, including aliphatic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes, RF2B can oxidize only short-chain aliphatic aldehydes. These two enzymes also have different pH optima and responses to changes in substrate concentration. In addition, RF2A, but not RF2B or any other natural ALDHs, exhibits positive cooperativity. These functional specializations may explain why many species have two mitochondrial ALDHs. This study provides data that serve as a basis for identifying the physiological pathway by which the rf2a gene participates in normal anther development and the restoration of Texas cytoplasm-based male sterility. For example, the observations that Texas cytoplasm anthers do not accumulate elevated levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid peroxidation and the kinetic features of RF2A make it unlikely that rf2a restores fertility by preventing premature programmed cell death. PMID:12481049

  10. Derivatization Strategy for the Comprehensive Characterization of Endogenous Fatty Aldehydes Using HPLC-Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2016-08-01

    Fatty aldehydes are crucial substances that mediate a wide range of vital physiological functions, particularly lipid peroxidation. Fatty aldehydes such as acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are considered potential biomarkers of myocardial ischemia and dementia, but analytical techniques for fatty aldehydes are lacking. In the present study, a comprehensive characterization strategy with high sensitivity and facility for fatty aldehydes based on derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) was developed. The fatty aldehydes of a biosample were derivatized using 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine under mild and efficient reaction conditions at 37 °C for 15 min. The limit of detection (LOD) of the fatty aldehydes varied from 0.1 to 1 pg/mL, depending on the structures of these molecules. General MRM parameters were forged for the analysis of endogenous fatty aldehydes. "Heavy" derivatization reagents with 20 deuterium atoms were synthesized for both the discovery and comprehensive characterization of fatty aldehydes. More than 80 fatty aldehydes were detected in the biosamples. The new strategy was successfully implemented in global fatty aldehyde profiling of plasma and brain tissue of the bilateral common carotid artery (2VO) dementia rat model. Dozens of fatty aldehydes were significantly changed between the control and model groups. These findings further highlight the importance of endogenous fatty aldehydes. PMID:27397858

  11. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors [such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)] to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the...

  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) attenuates reactive aldehyde and oxidative stress induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Cantore, Miriam; Failli, Paola; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) is homologous to plant ALDH7B1 which protects against various forms of stress such as increased salinity, dehydration and treatment with oxidants or pesticides. Deleterious mutations in human ALDH7A1 are responsible for pyridoxine-dependent and folinic acid-responsive seizures. In previous studies, we have shown that human ALDH7A1 protects against hyperosmotic stress presumably through the generation of betaine, an important cellular osmolyte, formed from betaine aldehyde. Hyperosmotic stress is coupled to an increase in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO). In this study, cell viability assays revealed that stable expression of mitochondrial ALDH7A1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells provides significant protection against treatment with the LPO-derived aldehydes hexanal and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) implicating a protective function for the enzyme during oxidative stress. A significant increase in cell survival was also observed in CHO cells expressing either mitochondrial or cytosolic ALDH7A1 treated with increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or 4HNE, providing further evidence for anti-oxidant activity. In vitro enzyme activity assays indicate that human ALDH7A1 is sensitive to oxidation and that efficiency can be at least partially restored by incubating recombinant protein with the thiol reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol (BME). We also show that after reactivation with BME, recombinant ALDH7A1 is capable of metabolizing the reactive aldehyde 4HNE. In conclusion, ALDH7A1 mechanistically appears to provide cells protection through multiple pathways including the removal of toxic LPO-derived aldehydes in addition to osmolyte generation. PMID:21338592

  13. Aldehyde sources, metabolism, molecular toxicity mechanisms, and possible effects on human health.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Peter J; Siraki, Arno G; Shangari, Nandita

    2005-08-01

    Aldehydes are organic compounds that are widespread in nature. They can be formed endogenously by lipid peroxidation (LPO), carbohydrate or metabolism ascorbate autoxidation, amine oxidases, cytochrome P-450s, or myeloperoxidase-catalyzed metabolic activation. This review compares the reactivity of many aldehydes towards biomolecules particularly macromolecules. Furthermore, it includes not only aldehydes of environmental or occupational concerns but also dietary aldehydes and aldehydes formed endogenously by intermediary metabolism. Drugs that are aldehydes or form reactive aldehyde metabolites that cause side-effect toxicity are also included. The effects of these aldehydes on biological function, their contribution to human diseases, and the role of nucleic acid and protein carbonylation/oxidation in mutagenicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms, respectively, as well as carbonyl signal transduction and gene expression, are reviewed. Aldehyde metabolic activation and detoxication by metabolizing enzymes are also reviewed, as well as the toxicological and anticancer therapeutic effects of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. The human health risks from clinical and animal research studies are reviewed, including aldehydes as haptens in allergenic hypersensitivity diseases, respiratory allergies, and idiosyncratic drug toxicity; the potential carcinogenic risks of the carbonyl body burden; and the toxic effects of aldehydes in liver disease, embryo toxicity/teratogenicity, diabetes/hypertension, sclerosing peritonitis, cerebral ischemia/neurodegenerative diseases, and other aging-associated diseases.

  14. Nucleophilic Iododifluoromethylation of Aldehydes Using Bromine/Iodine Exchange.

    PubMed

    Levin, Vitalij V; Smirnov, Vladimir O; Struchkova, Marina I; Dilman, Alexander D

    2015-09-18

    A method for the iododifluoromethylation of aromatic aldehydes using (bromodifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane (Me3SiCF2Br) is described. The selective formation of the CF2I group is based on using sodium iodide, with the sodium serving as a scavenger of bromide and iodide serving as a nucleophile with respect to difluorocarbene. The primary CF2I-addition products can undergo HI-elimination or iodine/zinc exchange followed by allylation in a one-pot manner.

  15. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Cellular Responses to Oxidative/electrophilic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Ying, Chen; Jackson, Brian; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors like dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an ‘aldehyde scavenger’ during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Up-regulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation) and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that significantly contributes to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, underscoring the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23195683

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cellular responses to oxidative/electrophilic stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Chen, Ying; Jackson, Brian C; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single-celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors such as dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an "aldehyde scavenger" during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Upregulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity, and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation), and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane, and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that contributes significantly to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, highlighting the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23195683

  17. Phenazinium salt-catalyzed aerobic oxidative amidation of aromatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Leow, Dasheng

    2014-11-01

    Amides are prevalent in organic synthesis. Developing an efficient synthesis that avoids expensive oxidants and heating is highly desirable. Here the oxidative amidation of aromatic aldehydes is reported using an inexpensive metal-free visible light photocatalyst, phenazine ethosulfate, at low catalytic loading (1-2 mol %). The reaction proceeds at ambient temperature and uses air as the sole oxidant. The operationally easy procedure provides an economical, green, and mild alternative for the formation of amide bonds.

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cellular responses to oxidative/electrophilic stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Chen, Ying; Jackson, Brian C; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single-celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors such as dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an "aldehyde scavenger" during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Upregulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity, and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation), and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane, and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that contributes significantly to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, highlighting the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes.

  19. Enantioselective α-Benzylation of Aldehydes via Photoredox Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hui-Wen; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Grange, Rebecca L.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2011-01-01

    The first enantioselective aldehyde α-benzylation using electron-deficient aryl and heteroaryl substrates has been accomplished. The productive merger of a chiral imidazolidinone organocatalyst and a commercially available iridium photoredox catalyst in the presence of household fluorescent light directly affords the desired homobenzylic stereogenicity in good to excellent yield and enantioselectivity. The utility of this methodology has been demonstrated via rapid access to an enantioen-riched drug target for angiogenesis suppression. PMID:20831195

  20. Quantification of the electrophilic reactivities of aldehydes, imines, and enones.

    PubMed

    Appel, Roland; Mayr, Herbert

    2011-06-01

    The rates of the epoxidation reactions of aldehydes, of the aziridination reactions of aldimines, and of the cyclopropanation reactions of α,β-unsaturated ketones with aryl-stabilized dimethylsulfonium ylides have been determined photometrically in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). All of these sulfur ylide-mediated cyclization reactions as well as the addition reactions of stabilized carbanions to N-tosyl-activated aldimines have been shown to follow a second-order rate law, where the rate constants reflect the (initial) CC bond formation between nucleophile and electrophile. The derived second-order rate constants (log k(2)) have been combined with the known nucleophilicity parameters (N, s(N)) of the aryl-stabilized sulfur ylides 4a,b and of the acceptor-substituted carbanions 4c-h to calculate the electrophilicity parameters E of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes (1a-i), N-acceptor-substituted aromatic aldimines (2a-e), and α,β-unsaturated ketones (3a-f) according to the linear free-energy relationship log k(2) = s(N)(N + E) as defined in J. Am. Chem. Soc.2001, 123, 9500-9512. The data reported in this work provide the first quantitative comparison of the electrophilic reactivities of aldehydes, imines, and simple Michael acceptors in DMSO with carbocations and cationic metal-π complexes within our comprehensive electrophilicity scale. PMID:21553901

  1. γ-Unsaturated aldehydes as potential Lilial replacers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Martin; Mathys, Marion; Ehrensperger, Nadja; Büchel, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    A series of Claisen rearrangements was undertaken in order to find a replacement for Lilial (=3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanal), a high-tonnage perfumery ingredient with a lily-of-the-valley odour, which is a CMR2 material [1]. 5,7,7-Trimethyl-4-methyleneoctanal (10), the synthesis of which is described, became the main lead. It possesses an odour which is very close to that of Lilial but lacks its substantivity. Aldehydes with higher molecular weights than that of 10 were, therefore, synthesised in order to boost substantivity and to understand the structural requirements for a 'Lilial' odour. The aldehydes were obtained via Claisen rearrangements of 'exo-methylidene' vinyl ethers, allenyl vinyl ethers, or allenyl allyl ethers. Alternatively, coupling of terminal alkynes with allyl alcohols led to the desired aldehydes. Derivatives of 10 and their sila analogues were also synthesised. The olfactory properties of all synthesised molecules were evaluated for possible structure-odour relationships (SOR).

  2. Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe.

    PubMed

    Al Rashidi, M; Shihadeh, A; Saliba, N A

    2008-11-01

    Very little is known about the quality and quantity of toxicants yielded by the narghile, a subject of increasing importance as this method of tobacco smoking has become popular all over the world. This study is concerned with the identification and quantification of volatile aldehydes in the gas and particle phases of mainstream narghile smoke generated using a popular type of flavored ma'ssel tobacco mixture. These compounds were analyzed based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency compendium method TO-11A. Using a standardized smoking machine protocol consisting of 171 puffs, 2.6s puff duration and 17s inter puff interval, the average yields of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde and methacrolein were 630, 2520, 892, 403, and 106 microg/smoking session, respectively. The results showed that none of the aldehydes identified in this study are found in the particulate phase of the smoke, except for formaldehyde for which the partitioning coefficient was estimated as Kp = 3.3 x 10(-8) microg/m3. Given previously reported lung absorption fractions of circa 90% for volatile aldehydes, the yields measured in this study are sufficient to induce various diseases depending on the extent of exposure, and on the breathing patterns of the smokers. PMID:18834915

  3. Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Betterton, E.A.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1988-12-01

    The Henry's law constants of seven aldehydes have been determined as a function of temperature by bubble-column and by head-space techniques. The compounds were chosen for their potential importance in the polluted troposphere and to allow structure-reactivity patterns to be investigated. The results (at 25/degree/C) are as follows (in units of M atm/sup /minus/1/): chloral, 3.44 /times/ 10/sup 5/; glyoxal, greater than or equal to3 /times/ 10/sup 5/; methylglyoxal, 3.71 /times/ 10/sup 3/; formaldehyde, 2.97 /times/ 10/sup 3/; benzaldehyde, 3.74 /times/ 10/sup 1/; hydroxyacetaldehyde, 4.14 /times/ 10/sup 4/; acetaldehyde, 1.14 /times/ 10/sup 1/. A plot of Taft's parameter, ..sigma..sigma*, vs log H* (the apparent Henry's law constant) gives a straight line with a slope of 1.72. H* for formaldehyde is anomalously high, as expected, but the extremely high value for hydroxyacetaldehyde was unexpected and may indicate that ..cap alpha..-hydroxy-substituted aldehydes could have an usually high affinity for the aqueous phase. The intrinsic Henry's law constants, H, corrected for hydration, do not show a clear structure-reactivity pattern for this series of aldehydes.

  4. Structural and Kinetic Properties of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase NahF, a Broad Substrate Specificity Enzyme for Aldehyde Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Pereira, Mozart S; Costa, Débora M A; Guimarães, Samuel L; Araújo, Simara S; Hengge, Alvan C; Brandão, Tiago A S; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-09-27

    The salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (NahF) catalyzes the oxidation of salicylaldehyde to salicylate using NAD(+) as a cofactor, the last reaction of the upper degradation pathway of naphthalene in Pseudomonas putida G7. The naphthalene is an abundant and toxic compound in oil and has been used as a model for bioremediation studies. The steady-state kinetic parameters for oxidation of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by 6xHis-NahF are presented. The 6xHis-NahF catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes with large kcat/Km values close to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The active site of NahF is highly hydrophobic, and the enzyme shows higher specificity for less polar substrates than for polar substrates, e.g., acetaldehyde. The enzyme shows α/β folding with three well-defined domains: the oligomerization domain, which is responsible for the interlacement between the two monomers; the Rossmann-like fold domain, essential for nucleotide binding; and the catalytic domain. A salicylaldehyde molecule was observed in a deep pocket in the crystal structure of NahF where the catalytic C284 and E250 are present. Moreover, the residues G150, R157, W96, F99, F274, F279, and Y446 were thought to be important for catalysis and specificity for aromatic aldehydes. Understanding the molecular features responsible for NahF activity allows for comparisons with other aldehyde dehydrogenases and, together with structural information, provides the information needed for future mutational studies aimed to enhance its stability and specificity and further its use in biotechnological processes. PMID:27580341

  5. Structural and Kinetic Properties of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase NahF, a Broad Substrate Specificity Enzyme for Aldehyde Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Pereira, Mozart S; Costa, Débora M A; Guimarães, Samuel L; Araújo, Simara S; Hengge, Alvan C; Brandão, Tiago A S; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-09-27

    The salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (NahF) catalyzes the oxidation of salicylaldehyde to salicylate using NAD(+) as a cofactor, the last reaction of the upper degradation pathway of naphthalene in Pseudomonas putida G7. The naphthalene is an abundant and toxic compound in oil and has been used as a model for bioremediation studies. The steady-state kinetic parameters for oxidation of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by 6xHis-NahF are presented. The 6xHis-NahF catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes with large kcat/Km values close to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The active site of NahF is highly hydrophobic, and the enzyme shows higher specificity for less polar substrates than for polar substrates, e.g., acetaldehyde. The enzyme shows α/β folding with three well-defined domains: the oligomerization domain, which is responsible for the interlacement between the two monomers; the Rossmann-like fold domain, essential for nucleotide binding; and the catalytic domain. A salicylaldehyde molecule was observed in a deep pocket in the crystal structure of NahF where the catalytic C284 and E250 are present. Moreover, the residues G150, R157, W96, F99, F274, F279, and Y446 were thought to be important for catalysis and specificity for aromatic aldehydes. Understanding the molecular features responsible for NahF activity allows for comparisons with other aldehyde dehydrogenases and, together with structural information, provides the information needed for future mutational studies aimed to enhance its stability and specificity and further its use in biotechnological processes.

  6. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis; Xiang, Quanju; Li, Xi; Liu, Na; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors (such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the reduction enzymes involved in this reaction remain largely unknown. In this study, we reported that an uncharacterized open reading frame PICST_72153 (putative GRE2) from S. stipitis was highly induced in response to furfural and HMF stresses. Overexpression of this gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improved yeast tolerance to furfural and HMF. GRE2 was identified as an aldehyde reductase which can reduce furfural to FM with either NADH or NADPH as the co-factor and reduce HMF to FDM with NADPH as the co-factor. This enzyme can also reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that it is a member of the subclass "intermediate" of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Although GRE2 from S. stipitis is similar to GRE2 from S. cerevisiae in a three-dimensional structure, some differences were predicted. GRE2 from S. stipitis forms loops at D133-E137 and T143-N145 locations with two α-helices at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations, different GRE2 from S. cerevisiae with an α-helix at D133-E137 and a β-sheet at T143-N145 locations, and two loops at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations. This research provided guidelines for the study of other SDR enzymes from S. stipitis and other yeasts on tolerant mechanisms to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27003269

  7. New scavenger resin for the reversible linking and monoprotection of functionalized aromatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Ruijter, Eelco; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2004-10-28

    [reaction: see text] Polymer-supported benzylhydrazines were synthesized using poly(ethylene glycol) acrylamide (PEGA) resin. They can be used to scavenge electrophiles reactive with hydrazine. Especially aromatic aldehydes can be captured selectively, monoprotected, and reversibly linked in the presence of other functional groups, including electrophilic ones. Various reactions can be performed on these protectively linked aldehydes, which afterward can be released either with full restoration of the aldehyde function or, alternatively, with simultaneous conversion.

  8. Ionic liquid-supported aldehyde: a highly efficient scavenger for primary amines.

    PubMed

    Muthayala, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Novel aldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids have been synthesized and used as scavengers for primary amines in the synthesis of secondary amines. The yields of secondary amines are high (82-90%) with high purity. The advantages of the protocol over that with a polymer-supported aldehyde scavenger are the shorter reaction time, the homogeneous reaction medium, the high level of loading of the aldehyde group, easy monitoring of reaction, and characterization of intermediates.

  9. Ni-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Direct Transformation of Aldehydes to Esters and Amides

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Aaron M.; Dong, Vy M.

    2015-01-01

    By exploring a new mode of Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling, we have developed a protocol to transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides directly. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. We present mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C–H bond. PMID:25424967

  10. Nickel-catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling: direct transformation of aldehydes into esters and amides.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Aaron M; Dong, Vy M

    2015-01-19

    By exploring a new mode of nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling, a method to directly transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides has been developed. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. Mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C-H bond is also presented. PMID:25424967

  11. Betaine aldehyde, betaine, and choline levels in rat livers during ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chern, M K; Gage, D A; Pietruszko, R

    2000-12-01

    Betaine aldehyde levels were determined in rat livers following 4 weeks of ethanol feeding, employing the Lieber-De Carli liquid diet. The results showed that the levels of betaine aldehyde are unaffected by alcohol feeding to rats. These levels in both experimental and control animals were found to be quite low, 5.5 nmol/g liver. Betaine aldehyde levels have not been determined previously in mammalian liver because of methodological difficulties. This investigation employed fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy to determine the levels of betaine aldehyde, betaine, and choline. The decrease in betaine levels following ethanol administration confirmed the results of other investigators. Choline levels determined during this investigation were lower than previously reported. The reason for starting this investigation was the fact that the enzyme that catalyzes betaine aldehyde dehydrogenation to betaine, which is distributed in both mitochondria and the cytoplasm, was found to also metabolize acetaldehyde with K(m) and V(max) values lower than those for betaine aldehyde. Thus, it appeared likely that the metabolism of acetaldehyde during ethanol metabolism might inhibit betaine aldehyde conversion to betaine and thereby result in decreased betaine levels (Barak et al., Alcohol 13: 395-398, 1996). The fact that betaine aldehyde levels in alcohol-fed animals were similar to those in controls demonstrates that competition between acetaldehyde and betaine aldehyde for the same enzyme does not occur. This complete lack of competition suggests that betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial matrix may totally metabolize betaine aldehyde to betaine without any involvement of cytoplasmic betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. PMID:11077045

  12. Development of soluble ester-linked aldehyde polymers for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beaudette, Patrick; Rossi, Nicholas A A; Huesgen, Pitter F; Yu, Xifei; Shenoi, Rajesh A; Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2011-09-01

    High molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) was selected for development as a soluble polymer support for the targeted selection and release of primary-amine containing peptides from a complex mixture. HPG has been functionalized with ester-linked aldehyde groups that can bind primary-amine containing peptides via a reductive alkylation reaction. Once bound, the high molecular weight of the polymer facilitates separation from a complex peptide mixture by employing either a 30 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane or precipitation in acetonitrile. Following the removal of unbound peptides and reagents, subsequent hydrolysis of the ester linker releases the bound peptide into solution for analysis by mass spectrometry. Released peptides retain the linker moiety and are therefore characteristically mass-shifted. Four water-soluble cleavable aldehyde polymers (CAP1, CAP2, CAP3, and CAP4) ranging in types of linker groups, length of the linker groups, have been prepared and characterized, each demonstrating the ability to selectively enrich and sequence primary-amine peptides from a complex human proteome containing blocked (dimethylated amine) and unblocked (primary amine) peptides. The polymers have very low nonspecific peptide-binding properties while possessing significantly more reactive groups per milligram of the support than commercially available resins. The polymers exhibit a range of reactivities and binding capacities that depend on the type of linker group between the aldehyde group and the polymer. Using various linker structures, we also probed the mechanism of the observed dehydration of hydrolyzed peptides during matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis.

  13. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  14. Bioreduction of aldehydes and ketones using Manihot species.

    PubMed

    Machado, Luciana L; Souza, João Sammy N; de Mattos, Marcos Carlos; Sakata, Solange K; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Lemos, Telma L G

    2006-08-01

    Biocatalysis constitutes an important tool in organic synthesis, especially for the preparation of chiral molecules of biological interest. A series of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and two ketones were reduced using plant cell preparations from Manihot esculenta and Manihot dulcis roots. The reduced products were typically obtained in excellent yields (80-96%), and with excellent enantiomeric excess (94-98%), except for vanillin. Esters, a nitrile, and an amide were also examined, but were not reduced. Preliminary conversion rate studies are reported. This is the first attempt to perform the biotransformation of carbonyl compounds using Manihot species. PMID:16603212

  15. Some properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G J; Dickinson, F M

    1977-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria was purified to homogeneity as judged by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels, and by sedimentation-equilibrium experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 198000 and a subunit size of 48000, indicating that the molecule is a tetramer. Fluorescence and spectrophotometric titrations indicate that each subunit can bind 1 molecule of NADH. Enzymic activity is completely blocked by reaction of 4mol of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate)/mol of enzyme. Excess of disulfiram or iodoacetamide decreases activity to only 50% of the control value, and only two thiol groups per molecule are apparently modified by these reagents. PMID:194582

  16. [Activity of aldehyde scavenger enzymes in the heart of rats of different age during immobilized stress].

    PubMed

    Grabovetskaia, E R; Davydov, V V

    2009-01-01

    This study was made to determine the activity of aldehyde scavenger enzymes in the heart's postmitochondrial fraction of rats of different age during immobilization stress. Our study demonstrated, that immobilization of 1.5-, 2- and 12-month rats was accompanied by inhibiting activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase. At the same time we observed an increase in glutathione transferase activity in immobilized 1.5-month-old rats and that in reductase activity in 24-month-old rats. The revealed changes can lead to a decrease in the rate of endogenous aldehyde utilization in the heart during stress at puberty.

  17. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rescues myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury: role of autophagy paradox and toxic aldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Heng; Guo, Rui; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Aims The present study was designed to examine the mechanism involved in mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-induced cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury with a focus on autophagy. Methods Wild-type (WT), ALDH2 overexpression, and knockout (KO) mice (n = 4–6 for each index measured) were subjected to I/R, and myocardial function was assessed using echocardiographic, Langendroff, and edge-detection systems. Western blotting was used to evaluate AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, autophagy, and the AMPK/Akt upstream signalling LKB1 and PTEN. Results ALDH2 overexpression and KO significantly attenuated and accentuated, respectively, infarct size, factional shortening, and recovery of post-ischaemic left ventricular function following I/R as well as hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Autophagy was induced during ischaemia and remained elevated during reperfusion. ALDH2 significantly promoted autophagy during ischaemia, which was accompanied by AMPK activation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. On the contrary, ALDH2 overtly inhibited autophagy during reperfusion accompanied by the activation of Akt and mTOR. Inhibition and induction of autophagy mitigated ALDH2-induced protection against cell death in hypoxia and reoxygenation, respectively. In addition, levels of the endogenous toxic aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) were elevated by ischaemia and reperfusion, which was abrogated by ALDH2. Furthermore, ALDH2 ablated 4-HNE-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction and protein damage, whereas 4-HNE directly decreased pan and phosphorylated LKB1 and PTEN expression. Conclusion Our data suggest a myocardial protective effect of ALDH2 against I/R injury possibly through detoxification of toxic aldehyde and a differential regulation of autophagy through AMPK- and Akt-mTOR signalling during ischaemia and reperfusion, respectively. PMID:20705694

  19. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 in stem cells and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human genome contains 19 putatively functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, which encode enzymes critical for detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates through NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation. ALDH1 has three main isotypes, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, and is a marker of normal tissue stem cells (SC) and cancer stem cells (CSC), where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. Experiments with murine and human cells indicate that ALDH1 activity, predominantly attributed to isotype ALDH1A1, is tissue- and cancer-specific. High ALDH1 activity and ALDH1A1 overexpression are associated with poor cancer prognosis, though high ALDH1 and ALDH1A1 levels do not always correlate with highly malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome. In cancer therapy, ALDH1A1 provides a useful therapeutic CSC target in tissue types that normally do not express high levels of ALDH1A1, including breast, lung, esophagus, colon and stomach. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key ALDH isozyme linked to SC populations and an important contributor to CSC function in cancers, and we outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. PMID:26783961

  20. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly. PMID:10995371

  1. Modulation of therapy-induced senescence by reactive lipid aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Flor, A C; Doshi, A P; Kron, S J

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding points to unrepairable chromosomal damage as the critical determinant of accelerated senescence in cancer cells treated with radiation or chemotherapy. Nonetheless, the potent senescence inducer etoposide not only targets topoisomerase II to induce DNA damage but also produces abundant free radicals, increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Toward examining roles for DNA damage and oxidative stress in therapy-induced senescence, we developed a quantitative flow cytometric senescence assay and screened 36 redox-active agents as enhancers of an otherwise ineffective dose of radiation. While senescence failed to correlate with total ROS, the radiation enhancers, etoposide and the other effective topoisomerase inhibitors each produced high levels of lipid peroxidation. The reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product, was sufficient to induce senescence in irradiated cells. In turn, sequestering aldehydes with hydralazine blocked effects of etoposide and other senescence inducers. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation potentiates DNA damage from radiation and chemotherapy to drive therapy-induced senescence. PMID:27453792

  2. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins

    PubMed Central

    Varrella, Stefano; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G.; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  3. Direct electrochemistry of the Desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Correia dos Santos, Margarida M; Sousa, Patrícia M P; Gonçalves, M Lurdes S; Romão, M João; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

    2004-04-01

    This work reports on the direct electrochemistry of the Desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase (DgAOR), a molybdenum enzyme of the xanthine oxidase family that contains three redox-active cofactors: two [2Fe-2S] centers and a molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor. The voltammetric behavior of the enzyme was analyzed at gold and carbon (pyrolytic graphite and glassy carbon) electrodes. Two different strategies were used: one with the molecules confined to the electrode surface and a second with DgAOR in solution. In all of the cases studied, electron transfer took place, although different redox reactions were responsible for the voltammetric signal. From a thorough analysis of the voltammetric responses and the structural properties of the molecular surface of DgAOR, the redox reaction at the carbon electrodes could be assigned to the reduction of the more exposed iron cluster, [2Fe-2S] II, whereas reduction of the molybdopterin cofactor occurs at the gold electrode. Voltammetric results in the presence of aldehydes are also reported and discussed.

  4. Residual Particle Sizes of Evaporating Droplets: Ammonium Sulfate and Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, N.; Galloway, M. M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    The reactions of carbonyls like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde, with ammonium salts have been proposed as significant sources of atmospheric organic aerosol. Aerosol containing these compounds was generated in the laboratory using the Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG). The particles were completely dried before they were measured using a SMPS system. The nonvolatile fraction of the resulting aerosol was measured. The drying times were varied between two and twenty minutes, and for ammonium sulfate and glyoxal reactions, minimum residual particle sizes were reached after 3.5 minutes. Reactions of glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal with ammonium sulfate appeared to have lower non-volatile fractions remaining at higher starting concentrations, suggesting that a constant 'excess volume,' likely water, was present in the residual particles that could not be evaporated even after 20 minutes of drying. These excess volumes were not observed in our previous experiments with aldehydes but no ammonium sulfate present. At the highest concentrations tested (100 uM), non-volatile fractions of aldehydes present in residual particles were 16 (±17) %, 41 (±28) %, and 17(±32) % for glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal, respectively.

  5. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. ||; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  6. Spotting optimization for oligo microarrays on aldehyde-glass.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Erica D; Reppert, Amy E; Rowlen, Kathy L; Kuck, Laura R

    2005-06-15

    Low-density microarrays that utilize short oligos (<100 nt) for capture are highly attractive for use in diagnostic applications, yet these experiments require strict quality control and meticulous reproducibility. However, a survey of current literature indicates vast inconsistencies in the spotting and processing procedures. In this study, spotting and processing protocols were optimized for aldehyde-functionalized glass substrates. Figures of merit were developed for quantitative comparison of spot quality and reproducibility. Experimental variables examined included oligo concentration in the spotting buffer, composition of the spotting buffer, postspotting "curing" conditions, and postspotting wash conditions. Optimized conditions included the use of 3-4 microM oligo in a 3x standard saline citrate/0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate/0.001% (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonia]-1-propane sulfonate) spotting buffer, 24-h postspotting reaction at 100% relative humidity, and a four-step wash procedure. Evaluation of six types of aldehyde-functionalized glass substrates indicated that those manufactured by CEL Associates, Inc. yield the highest oligo coverage.

  7. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins.

    PubMed

    Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Susan; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  8. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  9. A specific affinity reagent to distinguish aldehyde dehydrogenases and oxidases. Enzymes catalyzing aldehyde oxidation in an adult moth

    SciTech Connect

    Tasayco, M.L.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-02-25

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and oxidase (AO) enzymes from the tissue extracts of male and female tobacco budworm moth (Heliothis virescens) were identified after electrophoretic protein separation. AO activity was visualized using formazan- or horseradish peroxidase-mediated staining coupled to the AO-catalyzed oxidation of benzaldehyde. A set of six soluble AO enzymes with isoelectric points from pI 4.6 to 5.3 were detected primarily in the antennal extracts. Partially purified antennal AO enzymes also oxidized both (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, the two major pheromone components of this moth. ALDH activity was detected using a tritium-labeled affinity reagent based on a known irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme. This labeled vinyl ketone, (3H)(Z)-1,11-hexadecadien-3-one, was synthesized and used to covalently modify the soluble ALDH enzymes from tissue extracts. Molecular subunits of potential ALDH enzymes were visualized in the fluorescence autoradiograms of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated proteins of the antenna, head, and leg tissues. Covalent modification of these protein subunits decreased specifically in the presence of excess pheromone aldehyde or benzaldehyde. Labeled vinyl ketones are thus novel tools for the identification of molecular subunits of ALDH enzymes.

  10. Acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity: the role of the acyclovir aldehyde metabolite.

    PubMed

    Gunness, Patrina; Aleksa, Katarina; Bend, John; Koren, Gideon

    2011-11-01

    For decades, acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity was believed to be secondary to crystalluria. Clinical evidence of nephrotoxicity in the absence of crystalluria suggests that acyclovir induces direct insult to renal tubular cells. We postulated that acyclovir is metabolized by the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzyme to acyclovir aldehyde, which is metabolized by the aldehyde dehydrognase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme to 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine (CMMG). We hypothesized that acyclovir aldehyde plays a role in acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity. Human renal proximal tubular (HK-2) cells were used as our in vitro model. Western blot and enzymes activities assays were performed to determine whether the HK-2 cells express ADH and ALDH2 isozymes, respectively. Cytotoxicity (measured as a function of cell viability) assays were conducted to determine (1) whether the acyclovir aldehyde plays a role in acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity and (2) whether CMMG induces cell death. A colorimetric assay was performed to determine whether acyclovir was metabolized to an aldehyde in vitro. Our results illustrated that (1) HK-2 cells express ADH and ALDH2 isozymes, (2) 4-methylpyrazole rendered significant protection against cell death, (3) CMMG does not induce cell death, and (4) acyclovir was metabolized to an aldehyde in tubular cells. These data indicate that acyclovir aldehyde is produced in HK-2 cells and that inhibition of its production by 4-methylpyrazole offers significant protection from cell death in vitro, suggesting that acyclovir aldehyde may cause the direct renal tubular insult associated with acyclovir.

  11. Metal-Free Direct Oxidation of Aldehydes to Esters Using TCCA.

    PubMed

    Gaspa, Silvia; Porcheddu, Andrea; De Luca, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    Aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes are simply converted into esters by an efficient oxidative esterification carried out under mild conditions. The aldehydes are converted in situ into their corresponding acyl chlorides, which are then reacted with primary and secondary aliphatic, benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols and phenols. A variety of esters are obtained in high yields.

  12. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, S C; Menne, T

    1996-03-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch tests and 6-week graded use tests with 0.02, 0.1 and 0.8% cinnamic aldehyde in ethanol was studied in a group of cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive eczema patients. The minimum effect level demonstrated was 0.02% cinnamic aldehyde on patch testing and 0.1% cinnamic aldehyde on use testing, which are allowed usage concentrations in different kind of cosmetics. 72% (13/18) developed eczema in the use test performed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde on healthy upper arm skin. 6 of the 13 use-test-positive subjects (46%) reacted later than day 7, indicating that the standard exposure period of 7 days in use testing may not be sufficient, if low concentrations or volatile substances are used. A significant correlation between patch test sensitivity and the outcome of use testing was found (1,<0.001), which should be considered in designing future use test studies and advising patients. Detailed exposure information is needed to evaluate more fully the consequences of cinnamic aldehyde sensitivity.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Aldehyde-Degrading Strain Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Ren, Chong; Shan, Xiexie

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8, a deep-sea strain isolated from the South China Sea, has the ability to degrade aldehydes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which could provide fundamental molecular information on the aldehydes-degrading mechanism. PMID:27081145

  14. Peptide-catalyzed 1,4-addition reactions of aldehydes to nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Robert; Arakawa, Yukihiro; Duschmalé, Jörg; Wiesner, Markus; Wennemers, Helma

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate addition reactions of aldehydes to nitroolefins provide synthetically useful gamma-nitroaldehydes. Here we summarize our research on peptide-catalyzed conjugate addition reactions of aldehydes to differently substituted nitroolefins. We show that peptides of the general type Pro-Pro-Xaa (Xaa = acidic amino acid) are not only highly active, robust and stereoselective catalysts but have also remarkable chemoselectivities.

  15. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-08-26

    The first example of homogeneous copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes is reported. This method utilizes atmospheric oxygen as the sole oxidant, proceeds under extremely mild aqueous conditions, and covers a wide range of various functionalized aldehydes. Chromatography is generally not necessary for product purification. PMID:27505714

  16. Cu-NHC-TEMPO catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolong; Xia, Qinqin; Zhang, Yuejiao; Chen, Congyan; Chen, Wanzhi

    2013-09-01

    Imidazolium salts bearing TEMPO groups react with commercially available copper powder affording Cu-NHC complexes. The in situ generated Cu-NHC-TEMPO complexes are quite efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols into aldehydes. The catalyst is easily available, and various primary alcohols were selectively converted to aldehydes in excellent yields. PMID:23944937

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Aldehyde-Degrading Strain Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Ren, Chong; Shan, Xiexie; Zeng, Runying

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas axialensisACH-L-8, a deep-sea strain isolated from the South China Sea, has the ability to degrade aldehydes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which could provide fundamental molecular information on the aldehydes-degrading mechanism.

  18. Chromatographic approaches for determination of low-molecular mass aldehydes in bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Tessini, Catherine; Müller, Niels; Mardones, Claudia; Meier, Dietrich; Berg, Alex; von Baer, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    HPLC-UV and GC/MS determination of aldehydes in bio-oil were evaluated. HPLC-UV preceded by derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine allows separation and detection of bio-oil aldehydes, but the derivatization affected the bio-oil stability reducing their quantitative applicability. GC/MS determination of aldehydes was reached by derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Two approaches for this reaction were evaluated. The first: "in solution derivatization and head space extraction" and the second: "on fiber derivatization SPME", the latter through an automatic procedure. Both sample treatments allows the quantification of most important aliphatic aldehydes in bio-oil, being the SPME approach more efficient. The aldehyde concentrations in bio-oil were ~2% formaldehyde, ~!0.1% acetaldehyde and ~0.05% propionaldehyde.

  19. Synthesis of bio-based aldehyde from seaweed polysaccharide and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kholiya, Faisal; Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Meena, Ramavatar

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of bio-based aldehyde namely dialdehyde-carboxymethylagarose (DCMA) using carboxymethyagarose (CMA). Further reaction parameters (i.e. reaction temperature, pH and periodate concentration) were optimized to achieve maximum aldehyde content and product yield. The synthesis of DCMA was confirmed by employing FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TGA, DSC, EA and GPC techniques. To investigate the aldehyde functionality, DCMA was allowed to interact with BSA and obtained results were found to be comparable with that of synthetic aldehyde (Formaldehyde). Further interaction of DCMA with BSA was confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, fluorescent spectroscopy, CD and DLS analysis. Results of this study revealed that bio-based aldehyde behaves like formaldehyde. This study adds value to abundant marine biopolymers and opens the new research area for polymer researchers. PMID:27312639

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenases: From eye crystallins to metabolic disease and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliou, Vasilis; Thompson, David C.; Smith, Clay; Fujita, Mayumi; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is composed of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. To date, 24 ALDH gene families have been identified in the eukaryotic genome. In addition to aldehyde metabolizing capacity, ALDHs have additional catalytic (e.g. esterase and reductase) and non-catalytic activities. The latter include functioning as structural elements in the eye (crystallins) and as binding molecules to endobiotics and xenobiotics. Mutations in human ALDH genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases. Most recently ALDH polymorphisms have been associated with gout and osteoporosis. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. This article serves as a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the ALDH superfamily and the contribution of ALDHs to various physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23159885

  1. [Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene fragment from mung bean Vigna radiata using the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A G; Bubiakina, V V; Tatarinova, T D; Zelenin, S M

    1998-01-01

    Two degenerate oligonucleotide sequence primers and polymerase chain reactions on total DNA have been utilized to clone on 651--bp gene fragment coding the central part of amino acid sequence of an earlier unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from mung bean. The deduced partial amino acid sequence for this aldehyde dehydrogenase shows about 65% sequence identity to ALDHs of Vibrio cholerae Rhodococcus sp., Alcaligenes eutrophus and about 45% sequence identity to mammalian ALDHs 1 and 2, ALDHs of Aspergillus niger and A, nidulans, the betain aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach. Alignment of the mung bean aldehyde dehydrogenase partial amino acid sequence with the sequence of 16 NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases has demonstrated that all strictly conserved amino acid residues and all three conservative regions are identical. PMID:9778740

  2. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  3. Fatty Aldehydes in Cyanobacteria Are a Metabolically Flexible Precursor for a Diversity of Biofuel Products

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Brett K.; Carleton, Michael; Hickman, Jason W.; Miller, Cameron; Lawson, David; Budde, Mark; Warrener, Paul; Paredes, Angel; Mullapudi, Srinivas; Navarro, Patricia; Cross, Fred; Roberts, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe how pathway engineering can be used to convert a single intermediate derived from lipid biosynthesis, fatty aldehydes, into a variety of biofuel precursors including alkanes, free fatty acids and wax esters. In cyanobacteria, long-chain acyl-ACPs can be reduced to fatty aldehydes, and then decarbonylated to alkanes. We discovered a cyanobacteria class-3 aldehyde-dehydrogenase, AldE, that was necessary and sufficient to instead oxidize fatty aldehyde precursors into fatty acids. Overexpression of enzymes in this pathway resulted in production of 50 to 100 fold more fatty acids than alkanes, and the fatty acids were secreted from the cell. Co-expression of acyl-ACP reductase, an alcohol-dehydrogenase and a wax-ester-synthase resulted in a third fate for fatty aldehydes: conversion to wax esters, which accumulated as intracellular lipid bodies. Conversion of acyl-ACP to fatty acids using endogenous cyanobacterial enzymes may allow biofuel production without transgenesis. PMID:23505484

  4. Multicomponent reactions of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Bykova, Tetiana; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2016-01-21

    This paper reports the preparation of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes prepared from a Birch reduction of benzoic acid, worked up with a methyl iodide quench. The resultant methylcyclohexadiene carboxylic acid was reduced to the alcohol, protected as an ether and then a sequence of functional group manipulations carried out to introduce four fluorines. The cyclohexadienyl ring was then epoxidised and the C-O bonds sequentially converted through deoxyfluorination reactions to two sets of isomers of all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane isomers. The blocking methyl group renders the ring safe to hydrogen fluoride elimination. Deprotection of the benzylic ether and then oxidation gave aldehydes which were then used in Ugi and Passerini multicomponent reactions, allowing this facially polarised cyclohexane to be incorporated into peptidic structural motifs. PMID:26646211

  5. Possible prebiotic catalysts formed from adenine and aldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, J.; Dumas, L.; Décout, J.-L.; Maurel, M.-C.

    2000-09-01

    Careful examination of the present metabolism and in vitro selection of various catalytic RNAs strongly support the "RNA World" hypothesis of the origin of life. However, in this scenario, the difficult prebiotic synthesis of ribose and consequently of nucleotides remain a major problem. In order to overcome this problem and obtain nucleoside analogs, we are investigating reactions of the nucleic acid base, adenine 1, with different aldehydes under presumably prebiotic conditions. In the reaction of adenine and pyruvaldehyde 2 in water, we report here the formation in high yield of two isomeric products. These compounds possessing alcohols functions as nucleosides result from condensation of two molecules of pyruvaldehyde on the 6-amino group of one adenine molecule. Their catalytic activities in the model hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylesters appeared interesting in the search of prebiotic catalysts.

  6. Studies on organic indole-3-aldehyde single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Ravi, G.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    Indole-3-aldehyde (IA) is a new organic nonlinear material for which its solubility in methanol and acetone was found out using the apparatus fabricated by the authors. In order to get the good-quality crystals, methods of evaporation of solvent at room temperature and slow cooling of saturated solution at boiling temperature were adopted. Simulated lattice parameter values were found out using experimentally known " d" values. The etching and mechanical strength studies on different planes of the crystal were carried out. Decomposition temperature, weight loss and different functional bond frequencies associated with the crystal were also found out from differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, respectively.

  7. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  8. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity promotes survival of human muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Elise; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Notarnicola, Cécile; Rouger, Karl; Serratrice, Nicolas; Bonnieu, Anne; Gay, Stéphanie; Bacou, Francis; Duret, Cédric; Carnac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that efficiently detoxify aldehydic products generated by reactive oxygen species and might therefore participate in cell survival. Because ALDH activity has been used to identify normal and malignant cells with stem cell properties, we asked whether human myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) could be identified and isolated based on their levels of ALDH activity. Human muscle explant-derived cells were incubated with ALDEFLUOR, a fluorescent substrate for ALDH, and we determined by flow cytometry the level of enzyme activity. We found that ALDH activity positively correlated with the myoblast-CD56+ fraction in those cells, but, we also observed heterogeneity of ALDH activity levels within CD56-purified myoblasts. Using lentiviral mediated expression of shRNA we demonstrated that ALDH activity was associated with expression of Aldh1a1 protein. Surprisingly, ALDH activity and Aldh1a1 expression levels were very low in mouse, rat, rabbit and non-human primate myoblasts. Using different approaches, from pharmacological inhibition of ALDH activity by diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of class I ALDH, to cell fractionation by flow cytometry using the ALDEFLUOR assay, we characterized human myoblasts expressing low or high levels of ALDH. We correlated high ALDH activity ex vivo to resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxic effect and in vivo to improved cell viability when human myoblasts were transplanted into host muscle of immune deficient scid mice. Therefore detection of ALDH activity, as a purification strategy, could allow non-toxic and efficient isolation of a fraction of human myoblasts resistant to cytotoxic damage. PMID:19840193

  9. [Effects of panthenol and carnitine on aldehyde metabolic enzymes in rats with tetrachloromethane-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Satanovskaia, V I; Pron'ko, P S; Gaĭshmanova, A V; Miskevich, D A

    2009-01-01

    Tetrachloromethane (2 g/kg, intragastric) produced a decrease in the activity of NAD- and NADH- dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases with high Km for aldehydes in rat liver. Panthenol and L-carnitine administered separately normalized the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases, while a combination of the drugs did not produce any significant effect. PMID:19441727

  10. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.E.; Finnerty, W.R.

    1985-12-01

    The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: (i) a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9 fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and (ii) a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N.

  11. α,β-Unsaturated aldehyde of hyaluronan--Synthesis, analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Radovan; Šedová, Petra; Basarabová, Ivana; Moravcová, Martina; Wolfová, Lucie; Bobula, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2015-12-10

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) modified with an aldehyde group (HA-CHO or HA-aldehyde) has been extensively used for various biomedical applications. The main advantage of the aldehyde moieties is the ability to react with a wide range of amino compounds under physiological conditions. Reactions of aldehydes with primary amines in water are reversible and equilibrium is thoroughly shifted towards starting aldehyde and amine. This work presents an unique modification of HA: α,β-unsaturated aldehyde of HA (4,5-anhydro-6(GlcNAc)-oxo HA or ΔHA-CHO), which allows the primary amines to be attached to HA more effectively in comparison to the saturated HA-CHO. Higher hydrolytic stability is caused by the conjugation of imine with an adjacent --C=C-- double bond. Two strategies for the preparation of unsaturated HA-aldehyde were developed and chemical structures were studied in details. Cross-linked materials prepared from this precursor are biocompatible and suitable for applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:26428127

  12. Dark Hydrazone Fluorescence Labeling Agents Enable Imaging of Cellular Aldehydic Load.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Lik Hang; Saxena, Nivedita S; Park, Hyun Shin; Weinberg, Kenneth; Kool, Eric T

    2016-08-19

    Aldehydes are key intermediates in many cellular processes, from endogenous metabolic pathways like glycolysis to undesired exogenously induced processes such as lipid peroxidation and DNA interstrand cross-linking. Alkyl aldehydes are well documented to be cytotoxic, affecting the functions of DNA and protein, and their levels are tightly regulated by the oxidative enzyme ALDH2. Mutations in this enzyme are associated with cardiac damage, diseases such as Fanconi anemia (FA), and cancer. Many attempts have been made to identify and quantify the overall level of these alkyl aldehydes inside cells, yet there are few practical methods available to detect and monitor these volatile aldehydes in real time. Here, we describe a multicolor fluorogenic hydrazone transfer ("DarkZone") system to label alkyl aldehydes, yielding up to 30-fold light-up response in vitro. A cell-permeant DarkZone dye design was applied to detect small-molecule aldehydes in the cellular environment. The new dye design also enabled the monitoring of cellular acetaldehyde production from ethanol over time by flow cytometry, demonstrating the utility of the DarkZone dyes for measuring and imaging the aldehydic load related to human disease. PMID:27326450

  13. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  14. Antimony(v) cations for the selective catalytic transformation of aldehydes into symmetric ethers, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, and 1,3,5-trioxanes.

    PubMed

    Arias Ugarte, Renzo; Devarajan, Deepa; Mushinski, Ryan M; Hudnall, Todd W

    2016-07-01

    1-Diphenylphosphinonaphthyl-8-triphenylstibonium triflate ([][OTf]) was prepared in excellent yield by treating 1-lithio-8-diphenylphosphinonaphthalene with dibromotriphenylstiborane followed by halide abstraction with AgOTf. This antimony(v) cation was found to be stable toward oxygen and water, and exhibited exceptional Lewis acidity. The Lewis acidity of [][OTf] was exploited in the catalytic reductive coupling of a variety of aldehydes into symmetric ethers of type in good to excellent yields under mild conditions using Et3SiH as the reductant. Additionally, [][OTf] was found to selectively catalyze the Aldol condensation reaction to afford α-β unsaturated aldehydes () when aldehydes with 2 α-hydrogen atoms were used. Finally, [][OTf] catalyzed the cyclotrimerization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to afford the industrially-useful 1,3,5 trioxanes () in good yields, and with great selectivity. This phosphine-stibonium motif represents one of the first catalytic systems of its kind that is able to catalyze these reactions with aldehydes in a controlled, efficient manner. The mechanism of these processes has been explored both experimentally and theoretically. In all cases the Lewis acidic nature of the antimony(v) cation was found to promote these reactions. PMID:27326797

  15. A SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex as a highly efficient catalyst for allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Sheets, Matthew

    2006-07-01

    An air- and moisture-stable SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex was synthesized and found to catalyze the nucleophilic allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin. The allylation of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to give the corresponding homoallyl alcohols was performed at room temperature to 60 degrees C in yields ranging from 50% (for typical aliphatic aldehydes) to up to 97% (for aromatic aldehydes) using 5 x 10(-3) to 1 mol % of the Pd catalyst. NMR spectroscopic study indicated that a sigma-allylpalladium intermediate was formed and possibly functions as the nucleophilic species that undergoes addition to the aldehydes. PMID:16808533

  16. A SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex as a highly efficient catalyst for allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Sheets, Matthew

    2006-07-01

    An air- and moisture-stable SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex was synthesized and found to catalyze the nucleophilic allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin. The allylation of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to give the corresponding homoallyl alcohols was performed at room temperature to 60 degrees C in yields ranging from 50% (for typical aliphatic aldehydes) to up to 97% (for aromatic aldehydes) using 5 x 10(-3) to 1 mol % of the Pd catalyst. NMR spectroscopic study indicated that a sigma-allylpalladium intermediate was formed and possibly functions as the nucleophilic species that undergoes addition to the aldehydes.

  17. Zinc-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling of Terminal Alkynes with Aldehydes: Access to Ynones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shan; Zeng, Li; Liu, Yichang; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-21

    Because of the lack of redox ability, zinc has seldom been used as a catalyst in dehydrogenative cross-coupling reactions. Herein, a novel zinc-catalyzed dehydrogenative C(sp(2) )H/C(sp)H cross-coupling of terminal alkynes with aldehydes was developed, and provides a simple way to access ynones from readily available materials under mild reaction conditions. Good reaction selectivity can be achieved with a 1:1 ratio of terminal alkyne and aldehyde. Various terminal alkynes and aldehydes are suitable in this transformation. PMID:26564779

  18. Direct Access to β-Fluorinated Aldehydes by Nitrite-Modified Wacker Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Crystal K; Ziegler, Daniel T; Carr, Brian; Wickens, Zachary K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-07-11

    An aldehyde-selective Wacker-type oxidation of allylic fluorides proceeds with a nitrite catalyst. The method represents a direct route to prepare β-fluorinated aldehydes. Allylic fluorides bearing a variety of functional groups are transformed in high yield and very high regioselectivity. Additionally, the unpurified aldehyde products serve as versatile intermediates, thus enabling access to a diverse array of fluorinated building blocks. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggest that inductive effects have a strong influence on the rate and regioselectivity of the oxidation. PMID:27225538

  19. Direct Access to β-Fluorinated Aldehydes by Nitrite-Modified Wacker Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Crystal K; Ziegler, Daniel T; Carr, Brian; Wickens, Zachary K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-07-11

    An aldehyde-selective Wacker-type oxidation of allylic fluorides proceeds with a nitrite catalyst. The method represents a direct route to prepare β-fluorinated aldehydes. Allylic fluorides bearing a variety of functional groups are transformed in high yield and very high regioselectivity. Additionally, the unpurified aldehyde products serve as versatile intermediates, thus enabling access to a diverse array of fluorinated building blocks. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggest that inductive effects have a strong influence on the rate and regioselectivity of the oxidation.

  20. Transformations of several monoterpenoids in the presence of aldehydes in supercritical solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeev, V. I.; Sivcev, V. P.; Il'ina, I. V.; Korchagina, D. V.; Statsenko, O. B.; Volcho, K. P.; Salakhutdinov, N. F.

    2013-03-01

    The reactivity of verbenol epoxide and isopulegol in supercritical solvents in the presence of aromatic aldehydes was studied using a flow type reactor and a heterogeneous catalyst (Al2O3) or no catalyst. The intramolecular transformations or interactions of reagents with the solvent prevailed in all cases; the yield of the products of intermolecular reactions of terpenoids with aldehydes was up to 1%. The aldehydes did not interact with verbenol epoxide but produced a considerable effect on the distribution of its isomerization products.

  1. Aldehydes from n-6 fatty acid peroxidation. Effects on aminophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, M; Bernoud-Hubac, N; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Lagarde, M

    2002-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-nonenal (4-HNE) is a major by-product of n-6 fatty acid peroxidation. It has been described to covalently bind biomolecules expressing primary amine, especially the Lys residues in proteins. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are well-described macromolecules to be modified by 4-HNE, making them available to scavenger receptors on macrophages. Those macrophages then become foam cells and play an active role in atherogenesis. This paper reports on the covalent binding of 4-HNE to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a major aminophospholipid in biological membranes. In contrast, phosphatidylserine (PS) is virtually not modified by 4-HNE. One stable adduct, the Michael adduct PE/4-HNE is a poor substrate of secreted phospholipase A(2) and is not cleaved by phospholipase D. Plasmalogen PE, an important subclass of PE, is covalently modified by 4-HNE as well, but appears to be further degraded on its sn-1 position, the alkenyl chain, which might alter the antioxidant potential of the molecule. An aldehyde homologous to 4-HNE has been characterized as a breakdown product of 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HpETE) and named 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienal (4-HDDE). This compound as well as 4-HNE was detected in human plasma. Finally, 4-HDDE appears almost 3-fold more active than 4-HNE to make covalent adducts with PE. We conclude that 4-HNE and 4-HDDE are two biologically relevant markers of n-6 fatty acid peroxidation that may alter the phospholipid-dependent cell signaling.

  2. Mechanisms of alcohol liver damage: aldehydes, scavenger receptors, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Duryee, Michael J; Willis, Monte S; Freeman, Thomas L; Kuszynski, Charles A; Tuma, Dean J; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2004-09-01

    While most of the investigations into the causative events in the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have been focused on multiple factors, increasing interest has centered around the possible role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of ALD. This is because many of the clinical features of ALD suggest that immune effector mechanisms may be contributing to liver tissue damage, as evidenced by the detection of circulating autoantibodies, and the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphoid cells in the livers of patients with ALD. One mechanism that has been associated with the development of autoimmune responses is the modification (haptenation or adduction) of liver proteins with aldehydes or other products of oxidative stress. This is because it has been shown that these adducted proteins can induce specific immune responses, to the adduct, the adduct plus protein (conformational antigens), as well as the unmodified parts of the protein. More importantly, it is possible to demonstrate that adducted self-proteins can induce reactivity to the normal self-protein and thereby induce autoimmune responses. Therefore, it is the purpose of this manuscript to outline the mechanism(s) by which these modified self proteins can induce autoimmune reactivity, and thus play a role in the development and/or progression of ALD.

  3. Weak chemiluminescence of bilirubin and its stimulation by aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Usa, M; Kobayashi, M; Agatsuma, S; Inaba, H

    1992-01-01

    Bilirubin in an alkaline solution exhibits a weak chemiluminescence (CL) under aerobic conditions. This spontaneous CL was markedly enhanced by the addition of various aldehydes. The fluorescent emission spectrum of bilirubin, excited by weak intensity light at 350 nm, coincided with its CL emission spectrum (peak at 670 nm). CL emission from bilirubin was not quenched by active oxygen scavengers. This suggests that triplet oxygen reacts with bilirubin, and forms an oxygenated intermediate (hydroperoxide) as a primary emitter (oxidative scission of tetrapyrrole bonds in bilirubin is not involved in this CL). The Ehrlich reaction (test for monopyrroles) and hydrolsulphite reaction (test for dipyrroles) on the CL reaction mixture and unreacted bilirubin showed no differences. When the CL was initiated by singlet oxygen, rather than superoxide anion, monopyrrole, was detected in the reaction products by gel chromatography. The inhibitory effect of a scavenger of singlet oxygen on CL was eliminated in the presence of formaldehyde. Therefore, triplet carbonyl, formed by singlet oxygen through the dioxetane structure in bilirubin, is not an emitter. The reaction mechanism of bilirubin CL and the formation of a hydroperoxide intermediate is discussed in relation to the chemical structure of luciferin molecules from bioluminescent organisms.

  4. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  5. Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsu-Sheng; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Kitakawa, Kyoko; Ogawa, Masanori; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2009-11-01

    Acetaldehyde is an intermediate of ethanol oxidation. It covalently binds to DNA, and is known as a carcinogen. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an important enzyme that oxidizes acetaldehyde. Approximately 45% of Chinese and Japanese individuals have the inactive ALDH2 genotypes (ALDH2*2/*2 and ALDH2*1/*2), and Aldh2 knockout mice appear to be a valid animal model for humans with inactive ALDH2. This review gives an overview of published studies on Aldh2 knockout mice, which were treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde. According to these studies, it was found that Aldh2 -/- mice (Aldh2 knockout mice) are more susceptible to ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced toxicity than Aldh2 +/+ mice (wild type mice). When mice were fed with ethanol, the mortality was increased. When they were exposed to atmospheres containing acetaldehyde, the Aldh2 -/- mice showed more severe toxic symptoms, like weight loss and higher blood acetaldehyde levels, as compared with the Aldh2 +/+ mice. Thus, ethanol and acetaldehyde treatment affects Aldh2 knockout mice more than wild type mice. Based on these findings, it is suggested that ethanol consumption and acetaldehyde inhalation are inferred to pose a higher risk to ALDH2-inactive humans. These results also support that ALDH2-deficient humans who habitually consume alcohol have a higher rate of cancer than humans with functional ALDH2. PMID:19874182

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase induction in arsenic-exposed rat bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment. Many human cancers, including urothelial carcinoma (UC), show a dose-dependent relationship with arsenic exposure in the south-west coast of Taiwan (also known as the blackfoot disease (BFD) areas). However, the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-mediated UC carcinogenesis has not yet been defined. In vivo study, the rat bladder epithelium were exposed with arsenic for 48 h. The proteins were extracted from untreated and arsenic-treated rat bladder cells and utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Selected peptides were extracted from the gel and identified by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) Ultima-Micromass spectra. The significantly difference expression of proteins in arsenic-treated groups as compared with untreated groups was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting. We found that thirteen proteins were down-regulated and nine proteins were up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder cells when compared with untreated groups. The IHC and western blotting results confirmed that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein was up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder epithelium. Expression of ALDH protein was significantly higher in UC patients from BFD areas than those from non-BFD areas using IHC (p=0.018). In conclusion, the ALDH protein expression could be used as molecular markers for arsenic-induced transformation.

  7. Studies of the condensation of sulfones with ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Garst, Michael E; Dolby, Lloyd J; Esfandiari, Shervin; Okrent, Rachel A; Avey, Alfred A

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] The condensation of ketones or aldehydes with sulfones was shown to give a variety of products. Condensation of 2-methylcyclohexanone with dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide as base gave useful yields of 1,2-dimethylenecyclohexane. Under the same conditions, cycloheptanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and 2-butanone were converted to dienes. Remarkably, these reaction conditions converted acetophenone into p-terphenyl (10%) and (E)-1,4-diphenyl-3-penten-1-one (44%). Propiophenone was converted to 2'-methyl-p-terphenyl (61%). Using alpha-tetralone produced 1-methynaphthalene and naphthalene. No reaction took place with beta-tetralone. Using diethyl sulfone with alpha-tetralone lead to pure naphthalene. Condensation of isobutyraldehyde and dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide gave isoprene in low yield. Using benzaldehyde and benzyl phenyl sulfone in N,N-dimethylacetamide gave 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene, N,N-dimethylcinnamide, and a complex condensation product. Only 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene was obtained when the solvent was THF. PMID:16408963

  8. metal ion interactions of picoline-2-aldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Leggett, D J; McBryde, W A

    The reactions of picoline-2-aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (PATS) with silver, mercury, iron(II) and cobalt have been investigated in various environments. The compositions of the complexes have been investigated by continuous variation and molar ratio methods. Stability constants have been evaluated by means of SCOGS and a new program SQUAD. The formation constants, measured at 25 degrees and 0.10M ionic strength were as follows: Ag(PATS), logbeta(101) = 13.40; HgH(PATS), log beta(1110) = 23.6; HgH(2)(PATS)(2), log beta(1220) = 42.1; HgH(2)(PATS)(EDTA), log beta = 44.0; FeH(3)(PATS)(3), log beta(133) = 44.9; FeH(2)(PATS)(3), log beta(123) = 41.7; FeH(PATS)(3), log beta(113) = 38.4; Fe(PATS)(3), log beta(103) = 34.2. A tentative value for a cobalt complex is also suggested. A computer program, suitable for calculation of optimum conditions for a chemical analysis is also introduced and its use is illustrated for the silver-PATS-EDTA system.

  9. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  10. Sodium borohydride removes aldehyde inhibitors for enhancing biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    To enhance biohydrogen production from glucose and xylose in the presence of aldehyde inhibitors, reducing agent (i.e., sodium borohydride) was in situ added for effective detoxification. The detoxification efficiencies of furfural (96.7%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 91.7%) with 30mM NaBH4 were much higher than those of vanillin (77.3%) and syringaldehyde (69.3%). Biohydrogen fermentation was completely inhibited without detoxification, probably because of the consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by inhibitors reduction (R-CHO+2NADH→R-CH2OH+2NAD(+)). Addition of 30mM NaBH4 provided the reducing power necessary for inhibitors reduction (4R-CHO+NaBH4+2H2O→4R-CH2OH+NaBO2). The recovered reducing power in fermentation resulted in 99.3% recovery of the hydrogen yield and 64.6% recovery of peak production rate. Metabolite production and carbon conversion after detoxification significantly increased to 63.7mM and 81.9%, respectively.

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase induction in arsenic-exposed rat bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment. Many human cancers, including urothelial carcinoma (UC), show a dose-dependent relationship with arsenic exposure in the south-west coast of Taiwan (also known as the blackfoot disease (BFD) areas). However, the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-mediated UC carcinogenesis has not yet been defined. In vivo study, the rat bladder epithelium were exposed with arsenic for 48 h. The proteins were extracted from untreated and arsenic-treated rat bladder cells and utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Selected peptides were extracted from the gel and identified by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) Ultima-Micromass spectra. The significantly difference expression of proteins in arsenic-treated groups as compared with untreated groups was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting. We found that thirteen proteins were down-regulated and nine proteins were up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder cells when compared with untreated groups. The IHC and western blotting results confirmed that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein was up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder epithelium. Expression of ALDH protein was significantly higher in UC patients from BFD areas than those from non-BFD areas using IHC (p=0.018). In conclusion, the ALDH protein expression could be used as molecular markers for arsenic-induced transformation. PMID:26482281

  12. Reaction of aminals of conjugated omega-dimethylamino aldehydes with indandione

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnaya, Zh.A.; Stytsenko, T.S.; Gusev, D.G.; Prokof'ev, E.P.

    1987-01-20

    Conjugated omega-dimethylamino ..beta..-diketones with two to five double bonds and trimethylidyne- and pentamethylidyneoxanine salts are formed in the condensation of animals of conjugated ..beta..-dimethylamino aldehydes with indandione.

  13. A general and efficient aldehyde decarbonylation reaction by using a palladium catalyst.

    PubMed

    Modak, Atanu; Deb, Arghya; Patra, Tuhin; Rana, Sujoy; Maity, Soham; Maiti, Debabrata

    2012-05-01

    A facile decarbonylation reaction of aldehydes has been developed by employing Pd(OAc)(2). A wide variety of substrates are decarbonylated, without using any exogenous ligand for palladium as well as CO-scavenger.

  14. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Hydrogen Production in the Ketonization of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Lina M; Renz, Michael; Corma, Avelino

    2016-09-01

    Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2 ). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal oxide surface in the absence of noble metals. PMID:27539722

  15. Nanogels based on alginic aldehyde and gelatin by inverse miniemulsion technique: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Anil Kumar, P R; Raj, Deepa K; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-03-30

    Nanogels were developed from alginic aldehyde and gelatin by an inverse miniemulsion technique. Stable inverse miniemulsions were prepared by sonication of noncontinuous aqueous phase (mixture of alginic aldehyde and gelatin) in a continuous organic phase (Span 20 dissolved in cyclohexane). Cross-linking occurred between alginic aldehyde (AA) and gelatin (gel) in the presence of borax by Schiff's base reaction during the formation of inverse miniemulsion. The effects of surfactant (Span 20) concentration, volume of the aqueous phase and AA/gel weight ratio on the size of the alginic aldehyde-gelatin (AA-gel) nanoparticles were studied. Nanogels were characterized by DLS, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, SEM and TEM. DLS, TEM and SEM studies demonstrated nanosize and spherical morphology of the nanogels. Hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility analyses of the nanogels proved their nontoxicity. The results indicated the potential of the present nanogel system as a candidate for drug- and gene-delivery applications.

  16. Nanogels based on alginic aldehyde and gelatin by inverse miniemulsion technique: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Anil Kumar, P R; Raj, Deepa K; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-03-30

    Nanogels were developed from alginic aldehyde and gelatin by an inverse miniemulsion technique. Stable inverse miniemulsions were prepared by sonication of noncontinuous aqueous phase (mixture of alginic aldehyde and gelatin) in a continuous organic phase (Span 20 dissolved in cyclohexane). Cross-linking occurred between alginic aldehyde (AA) and gelatin (gel) in the presence of borax by Schiff's base reaction during the formation of inverse miniemulsion. The effects of surfactant (Span 20) concentration, volume of the aqueous phase and AA/gel weight ratio on the size of the alginic aldehyde-gelatin (AA-gel) nanoparticles were studied. Nanogels were characterized by DLS, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, SEM and TEM. DLS, TEM and SEM studies demonstrated nanosize and spherical morphology of the nanogels. Hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility analyses of the nanogels proved their nontoxicity. The results indicated the potential of the present nanogel system as a candidate for drug- and gene-delivery applications. PMID:25563951

  17. Copper catalyzed oxidative esterification of aldehydes with alkylbenzenes via cross dehydrogenative coupling.

    PubMed

    Rout, Saroj Kumar; Guin, Srimanta; Ghara, Krishna Kanta; Banerjee, Arghya; Patel, Bhisma K

    2012-08-01

    Copper(II) as the catalyst in a cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction has been demonstrated for the synthesis of benzylic esters using aldehydes and alkylbenzenes as coupling partners. PMID:22817825

  18. Substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of aldo-keto reductases with phospholipid aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Spite, Matthew; Baba, Shahid P; Ahmed, Yonis; Barski, Oleg A; Nijhawan, Kanchan; Petrash, J Mark; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2007-07-01

    Phospholipid oxidation generates several bioactive aldehydes that remain esterified to the glycerol backbone ('core' aldehydes). These aldehydes induce endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic factors and enhance monocyte-endothelium adhesion. They also serve as ligands of scavenger receptors for the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins or apoptotic cells. The biochemical pathways involved in phospholipid aldehyde metabolism, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have examined the efficacy of the three mammalian AKR (aldo-keto reductase) families in catalysing the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes. The model phospholipid aldehyde POVPC [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine] was efficiently reduced by members of the AKR1, but not by the AKR6 or the ARK7 family. In the AKR1 family, POVPC reductase activity was limited to AKR1A and B. No significant activity was observed with AKR1C enzymes. Among the active proteins, human AR (aldose reductase) (AKR1B1) showed the highest catalytic activity. The catalytic efficiency of human small intestinal AR (AKR1B10) was comparable with the murine AKR1B proteins 1B3 and 1B8. Among the murine proteins AKR1A4 and AKR1B7 showed appreciably lower catalytic activity as compared with 1B3 and 1B8. The human AKRs, 1B1 and 1B10, and the murine proteins, 1B3 and 1B8, also reduced C-7 and C-9 sn-2 aldehydes as well as POVPE [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine]. AKR1A4, B1, B7 and B8 catalysed the reduction of aldehydes generated in oxidized C(16:0-20:4) phosphatidylcholine with acyl, plasmenyl or alkyl linkage at the sn-1 position or C(16:0-20:4) phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. AKR1B1 displayed the highest activity with phosphatidic acids; AKR1A4 was more efficient with long-chain aldehydes such as 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl derivatives, whereas AKR1B8 preferred phosphatidylglycerol. These results suggest that proteins of the AKR1A and B families are

  19. Photoredox Activation for the Direct β-Arylation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Pirnot, Michael T.; Rankic, Danica A.; Martin, David B. C.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct β-activation of saturated aldehydes and ketones has long been an elusive transformation. We found that photoredox catalysis in combination with organocatalysis can lead to the transient generation of 5π-electron β-enaminyl radicals from ketones and aldehydes that rapidly couple with cyano-substituted aryl rings at the carbonyl β-position. This mode of activation is suitable for a broad range of carbonyl β-functionalization reactions and is amenable to enantioselective catalysis. PMID:23539600

  20. Metal-free oxidative decarbonylative coupling of aromatic aldehydes with arenes: direct access to biaryls.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ren-Jin; He, Qing; Yang, Luo

    2015-04-01

    A metal-free oxidative decarbonylative coupling of aromatic aldehydes with electron-rich or electron-deficient arenes to produce biaryl compounds was developed. This novel coupling was proposed to proceed via a non-chain radical homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) type mechanism, based on the substrate scope, ortho-regioselectivity, radical trapping experiments and DFT calculation studies. With the ready availability of aromatic aldehydes and arenes, metal-free conditions should make this coupling attractive for the biaryl synthesis.

  1. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptides. Histidine dipeptides are present in micromolar to millimolar range in the tissues of vertebrates, where they are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as pH buffering, metal chelation, oxidant and aldehyde scavenging. Histidine dipeptides such as carnosine form Michael adducts with lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes, and react with carbohydrate-derived oxo- and hydroxy- aldehydes forming products of unknown structure. Although these peptides react with electrophilic molecules at lower rate than glutathione, they can protect glutathione from modification by oxidant and they may be important for aldehyde quenching in glutathione-depleted cells or extracellular space where glutathione is scarce. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with carnosine has been shown to diminish ischemic injury, improve glucose control, ameliorate the development of complications in animal models of diabetes and obesity, promote wound healing and decrease atherosclerosis. The protective effects of carnosine have been linked to its anti-oxidant properties, it ability to promote glycolysis, detoxify reactive aldehydes and enhance histamine levels. Thus, treatment with carnosine and related histidine dipeptides may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with high carbonyl load. PMID:23313711

  2. Analysis of a panel of rapidly growing mycobacteria for resistance to aldehyde-based disinfectants.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Mary Ann; Gibbs, Sara; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; Burgess, Winona; Richardson, Kris; Kasperbauer, Shannon; Madinger, Nancy; Jackson, Mary

    2014-08-01

    After several accounts across the globe of mycobacteria outbreaks associated with medical procedures and aldehyde disinfectants resistance, we undertook an analysis of mycobacteria isolated from patients seen in a hospital in the United States between 1994 and 2008 to determine prevalence of resistance to aldehyde-based disinfectants. Out of the 117 clinical isolates screened, 6 isolates belonging to the emerging Mycobacterium abscessus group were found to display significant levels of resistance to glutaraldehyde and ortho-phthalaldehyde.

  3. Garner’s aldehyde as a versatile intermediate in the synthesis of enantiopure natural products

    PubMed Central

    Passiniemi, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since its introduction to the synthetic community in 1984, Garner’s aldehyde has gained substantial attention as a chiral intermediate for the synthesis of numerous amino alcohol derivatives. This review presents some of the most successful carbon chain elongation reactions, namely carbonyl alkylations and olefinations. The literature is reviewed with particular attention on understanding how to avoid the deleterious epimerization of the existing stereocenter in Garner’s aldehyde. PMID:24367429

  4. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. PMID:26703808

  5. Aldehyde-Resistant Mycobacteria Associated with the Use of Endoscope Reprocessing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Christopher W.; Fiorello, Anthony; Shaffer, Diana; Jackson, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics, but less is known about their ability to increase resistance to chemical disinfectants. This study randomly sampled three AERs in the USA using aldehydes for endoscope disinfection. Bacterial contamination was found post-disinfection in all AERs and some mycobacteria isolated demonstrated significant resistance to glutaraldehyde and OPA disinfectants. Bacteria can survive aldehyde-based disinfection and may pose a cross-contamination risk to patients. PMID:22325730

  6. DABO Boronate Promoted Conjugate Allylation of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes Using Copper(II) Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Roest, Pjotr C; Michel, Nicholas W M; Batey, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    The first catalytic method for the selective 1,4-conjugate allylation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is reported. The method employs an air-stable diethanolamine-complexed boronic acid (DABO boronate) as the allyl transfer reagent and promotes conjugate addition over 1,2-addition. A variety of aryl- and alkyl-substituted enals are tolerated, providing δ,ε-unsaturated aldehyde products in good yields and selectivities under mild conditions. PMID:27362535

  7. KAHA ligations that form aspartyl aldehyde residues as synthetic handles for protein modification and purification.

    PubMed

    Murar, Claudia E; Thuaud, Frédéric; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-12-31

    Aldehydes are widely recognized as valuable synthetic handles for the chemoselective manipulation of peptides and proteins. In this report, we show that peptides and small proteins containing the aspartic acid semialdehyde (Asa) side chain can be easily prepared by a chemoselective amide-forming ligation that results in the formation of the Asa residue at the ligation site. This strategy employs the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation in combination with a new isoxazolidine monomer that forms a side-chain aldehyde upon ligation. This monomer is easily prepared on a preparative scale by a catalytic, enantioselective approach and is readily introduced onto the N-terminus of a peptide segment by solid phase peptide synthesis. The ligated product can be further functionalized by bioorthogonal reactions between the aldehyde residue and alkoxyamines or hydrazides. We demonstrated that glucagon aldehyde, an unprotected 29-mer peptide prepared by KAHA ligation, can be site specifically and chemoselectively modified with biotin, dyes, aliphatic oximes, and hydroxylamines. We further describe a simple and high recovery one-step purification process based on the capture of a 29-mer glucagon aldehyde and a 76-mer ubiquitin aldehyde by an alkoxyamine-functionalized polyethylene glycol resin. The peptide or protein was released from the resin by addition of a hydroxylamine to provide the corresponding oximes.

  8. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  9. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  10. Introduction of aldehyde vs. carboxylic groups to cellulose nanofibers using laccase/TEMPO mediated oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jaušovec, Darja; Vogrinčič, Robert; Kokol, Vanja

    2015-02-13

    The chemo-enzymatic modification of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using laccase as biocatalysts and TEMPO or 4-Amino-TEMPO as mediators under mild aqueous conditions (pH 5, 30 °C) has been investigated to introduce surface active aldehyde groups. 4-Amino TEMPO turned out to be kinetically 0.5-times (50%) more active mediator, resulting to oxoammonium cation intermediacy generated and its in situ regeneration during the modification of CNFs. Accordingly, beside of around 750 mmol/kg terminally-located aldehydes, originated during CNFs isolation, the reaction resulted to about 140% increase of C6-located aldehydes at optimal conditions, without reducing CNFs crystallinity. While only the C6-aldehydes were wholly transformed into the carboxyls after additional post-treatment using NaOH according to the Cannizzaro reaction, the post-oxidation with air-oxygen in EtOH/water medium or NaClO2 resulted to no- or very small amounts of carboxyls created, respectively, at a simultaneous loss of all C6- and some terminal-aldehydes in the latter due to the formation of highly-resistant hemiacetal covalent linkages with available cellulose hydroxyls. The results indicated a new way of preparing and stabilizing highly reactive C6-aldehydes on cellulose, and their exploitation in the development of new nanocellulose-based materials.

  11. Release and Formation of Oxidation-Related Aldehydes during Wine Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mónica; Carrascón, Vanesa; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-01-27

    Twenty-four Spanish wines were subjected to five consecutive cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Free and bound forms of carbonyls were measured in the initial samples and after each saturation. Nonoxidized commercial wines contain important and sensory relevant amounts of oxidation-related carbonyls under the form of odorless bound forms. Models relating the contents in total aldehydes to the wine chemical composition suggest that fermentation can be a major origin for Strecker aldehydes: methional, phenylacetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, and isovaleraldehyde. Bound forms are further cleaved, releasing free aldehydes during the first steps of wine oxidation, as a consequence of equilibrium shifts caused by the depletion of SO2. At low levels of free SO2, de novo formation and aldehyde degradation are both observed. The relative importance of these phenomena depends on both the aldehyde and the wine. Models relating aldehyde formation rates to wine chemical composition suggest that amino acids are in most cases the most important precursors for de novo formation.

  12. [Fatty aldehydes of the plasmalogenic form of phosphatidylethanolamine in the vertebrate brain].

    PubMed

    Kruglova, E E

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made on the composition of fatty aldehydes of plasmalogen form of ethanolamine phospholipid in the brain of 28 fish species (13 cartilaginous and 15 teleost species, exhibiting different level of organization of the nervous system, marine and freshwater, dwelling in different habitats), as well as in the brain of other vertebrates. It was found that in all primitive species of cartilaginous fish high degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes is observed; in higher species the degree of unsaturation is much lower. The highest degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes was demonstrated for abyssal species of cartilaginous and teleost fishes. In warm-water species which dwell in the upper layers, unlike all other fishes investigated, almost all fatty aldehydes are saturated. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty aldehydes in fish brain depends on the entity of phylogenetic and ecological factors. Studies on other vertebrates show that in warm-blooded animals saturated fatty aldehydes predominate, whereas in cold-blooded-unsaturated ones are more abundant. PMID:314210

  13. Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L.O.; Martinez, A. |

    1999-10-05

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw-materials requires the hydrolysis of carbohydrate polymers into a fermentable syrup. During the hydrolysis of hemicellulose with dilute acid, a variety of toxic compounds are produced such as soluble aromatic aldehydes from lignin and furfural from pentose destruction. In this study, the authors have investigated the toxicity of representative aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethlyfurfural, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, and vanillin) as inhibitors of growth and ethanol production by ethanologenic derivatives of Escherichia coli B (strains K011 and LY01). Aromatic aldyhydes were at least twice as toxic as furfural of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a weight basis. The toxicities of all aldehydes (and ethanol) except furfural were additive when tested in binary combinations. In all cases, combinations with furfural were unexpectedly toxic. Although the potency of these aldehydes was directly related to hydrophobicity indicating a hydrophobic site of action, none caused sufficient membrane damage to allow the leakage of intracellular magnesium even when present at sixfold the concentrations required for growth inhibition. Of the aldehydes tested, only furfural strongly inhibited ethanol production in vitro. A comparison with published results for other microorganisms indicates that LY01 is equivalent or more resistant than other biocatalysts to the aldehydes examined in this study.

  14. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  15. Vascular Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Barbara S.; Gorren, Antonius C. F.; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Wenzl, M. Verena; Furdui, Cristina M.; Poole, Leslie B.; Mayer, Bernd; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the bioactivation of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) in blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation by nitric oxide (NO) or a related species. Because the mechanism of this reaction is still unclear we determined the three-dimensional structures of wild-type (WT) ALDH2 and of a triple mutant of the protein that exhibits low denitration activity (E268Q/C301S/C303S) in complex with GTN. The structure of the triple mutant showed that GTN binds to the active site via polar contacts to the oxyanion hole and to residues 268 and 301 as well as by van der Waals interactions to hydrophobic residues of the catalytic pocket. The structure of the GTN-soaked wild-type protein revealed a thionitrate adduct to Cys-302 as the first reaction intermediate, which was also found by mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. In addition, the MS data identified sulfinic acid as the irreversibly inactivated enzyme species. Assuming that the structures of the triple mutant and wild-type ALDH2 reflect binding of GTN to the catalytic site and the first reaction step, respectively, superposition of the two structures indicates that denitration of GTN is initiated by nucleophilic attack of Cys-302 at one of the terminal nitrate groups, resulting in formation of the observed thionitrate intermediate and release of 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate. Our results shed light on the molecular mechanism of the GTN denitration reaction and provide useful information on the structural requirements for high affinity binding of organic nitrates to the catalytic site of ALDH2. PMID:22988236

  16. Residues that influence coenzyme preference in the aldehyde dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    González-Segura, Lilian; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2015-06-01

    To find out the residues that influence the coenzyme preference of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), we reviewed, analyzed and correlated data from their known crystal structures and amino-acid sequences with their published kinetic parameters for NAD(P)(+). We found that the conformation of the Rossmann-fold loops participating in binding the adenosine ribose is very conserved among ALDHs, so that coenzyme specificity is mainly determined by the nature of the residue at position 195 (human ALDH2 numbering). Enzymes with glutamate or proline at 195 prefer NAD(+) because the side-chains of these residues electrostatically and/or sterically repel the 2'-phosphate group of NADP(+). But contrary to the conformational rigidity of proline, the conformational flexibility of glutamate may allow NADP(+)-binding in some enzymes by moving the carboxyl group away from the 2'-phosphate group, which is possible if a small neutral residue is located at position 224, and favored if the residue at position 53 interacts with Glu195 in a NADP(+)-compatible conformation. Of the residues found at position 195, only glutamate interacts with the NAD(+)-adenosine ribose; glutamine and histidine cannot since their side-chain points are opposite to the ribose, probably because the absence of the electrostatic attraction by the conserved nearby Lys192, or its electrostatic repulsion, respectively. The shorter side-chains of other residues-aspartate, serine, threonine, alanine, valine, leucine, or isoleucine-are distant from the ribose but leave room for binding the 2'-phosphate group. Generally, enzymes having a residue different from Glu bind NAD(+) with less affinity, but they can also bind NADP(+) even sometimes with higher affinity than NAD(+), as do enzymes containing Thr/Ser/Gln195. Coenzyme preference is a variable feature within many ALDH families, consistent with being mainly dependent on a single residue that apparently has no other structural or functional roles, and therefore can

  17. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  18. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle.

  19. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:14756315

  20. The Pivotal Role of Aldehyde Toxicity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Therapeutic Potential of Micronutrient Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Jurnak, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as by restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Genomic studies have not revealed dominant genetic errors common to all forms of ASD. So ASD is assumed to be a complex disorder due to mutations in hundreds of common variants. Other theories argue that spontaneous DNA mutations and/or environmental factors contribute to as much as 50% of ASD. In reviewing potential genetic linkages between autism and alcoholism, it became apparent that all theories of ASD are consistent with aldehyde toxicity, in which endogenous and exogenous aldehydes accumulate as a consequence of mutations in key enzymes. Aldehyde toxicity is characterized by cell-localized, micronutrient deficiencies in sulfur-containing antioxidants, thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6), folate, Zn2+, possibly Mg2+, and retinoic acid, causing oxidative stress and a cascade of metabolic disturbances. Aldehydes also react with selective cytosolic and membrane proteins in the cell of origin; then some types migrate to damage neighboring cells. Reactive aldehydes also form adducts with DNA, selectively mutating bases and inducing strand breakage. This article reviews the relevant genomic, biochemical, and nutritional literature, which supports the central hypothesis that most ASD symptoms are consistent with symptoms of aldehyde toxicity. The hypothesis represents a paradigm shift in thinking and has profound implications for clinical detection, treatment, and even prevention of ASD. Insight is offered as to which neurologically afflicted children might successfully be treated with micronutrients and which children are unlikely to be helped. The aldehyde toxicity hypothesis likely applies to other neurological disorders. PMID:27330305

  1. Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm.

    PubMed

    Choo, Young-Moo; Pelletier, Julien; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Leal, Walter S

    2013-01-01

    Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes--the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs). Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13-16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13-16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:23826341

  2. Determination of lipid ester ozonides and core aldehydes by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ravandi, A; Kuksis, A; Myher, J J; Marai, L

    1995-11-01

    Unsaturated triacylglycerols (TG) and choline (PC) and ethanolamine (PE) phosphatides of known structure were subjected to ozonization and reduction with triphenylphosphine to yield the corresponding lipid ester core aldehydes. Mono- and di-C9 aldehyde palmitoylglycerols were prepared from oleoyldipalmitoyl and oleoyllinoleoylpalmitoyl glycerols, respectively, while egg yolk PC and PE provided the mono-C5 and mono-C9 aldehydes of palmitoyl-and stearoyl glycerophospholipids. The aldehydes were isolated in the free form and as the dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) derivatives by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The intermediate ozonides, free aldehydes and hydrazones were identified by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line negative ion thermospray and normal phase HPLC with on-line positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The synthetic aldehydes were used as carriers during isolation from natural sources and as reference compounds in quantitative analyses.

  3. Isobutyraldehyde production from Escherichia coli by removing aldehyde reductase activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing global demand and reliance on petroleum-derived chemicals will necessitate alternative sources for chemical feedstocks. Currently, 99% of chemical feedstocks are derived from petroleum and natural gas. Renewable methods for producing important chemical feedstocks largely remain unaddressed. Synthetic biology enables the renewable production of various chemicals from microorganisms by constructing unique metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer Escherichia coli for the production of isobutyraldehyde, which can be readily converted to various hydrocarbons currently derived from petroleum such as isobutyric acid, acetal, oxime and imine using existing chemical catalysis. Isobutyraldehyde can be readily stripped from cultures during production, which reduces toxic effects of isobutyraldehyde. Results We adopted the isobutanol pathway previously constructed in E. coli, neglecting the last step in the pathway where isobutyraldehyde is converted to isobutanol. However, this strain still overwhelmingly produced isobutanol (1.5 g/L/OD600 (isobutanol) vs 0.14 g/L/OD600 (isobutyraldehyde)). Next, we deleted yqhD which encodes a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase known to be active toward isobutyraldehyde. This strain produced isobutanol and isobutyraldehyde at a near 1:1 ratio, indicating further native isobutyraldehyde reductase (IBR) activity in E. coli. To further eliminate isobutanol formation, we set out to identify and remove the remaining IBRs from the E. coli genome. We identified 7 annotated genes coding for IBRs that could be active toward isobutyraldehyde: adhP, eutG, yiaY, yjgB, betA, fucO, eutE. Individual deletions of the genes yielded only marginal improvements. Therefore, we sequentially deleted all seven of the genes and assessed production. The combined deletions greatly increased isobutyraldehyde production (1.5 g/L/OD600) and decreased isobutanol production (0.4 g/L/OD600). By assessing production by overexpression of each

  4. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  5. Charged tag founded in N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization for quantification of fatty aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjing; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuanqi; Qi, Wanshu; Guo, Yinlong

    2016-09-21

    N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization was developed for the derivatization of fatty aldehydes. Differing from common pre-charged reagents, non-charged pyridine and thionyl chloride were designed to add permanently charged tag on aldehydes. Pyridine was far less competitive than charged derivatives in ionization. Thionyl chloride in excess was quenched by deionized water, converting into less residual sulfur dioxide bubbles. Thus solutions could be tested directly by mass spectrometry without further post-treatments. Pyridine-d5 labeled fatty aldehydes were prepared as internal standards. Mixed derivatives were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analytical parameters including reaction yield, stability, precision, linearity, and detection limits (LODs < 0.3 pg mL(-1)) were carefully validated. This method facilitated the analysis low content (ng mL(-1)) levels of free aliphatic aldehydes (C6C18) in human thyroid carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissue with a simple pretreatment procedure. Content of long chain nonvolatile aldehydes (C10C18) remarkably increased in thyroid carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05). PMID:27590548

  6. Aldehydes in Artic Snow at Barrow (AK) during the Barrow 2009 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Domine, Florent; Beine, Harry; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Weibring, Petter; Walega, James; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Aldehydes (RCHO) are key reactive intermediates in hydrocarbon oxidation and in OH cycling. They are also emitted and taken up by the snowpack and a combination of both physical and photochemical processes are likely involved. Since the photolysis of aldehydes is a source of HOx radicals, these exchanges can modify the oxidative capacity of the overlying air. Formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methylglyoxal (MeCOCHO) concentrations were measured in over 250 snow samples collected during the Barrow 2009 campaign between late February and mid April 2009. Both continental and marine snowpacks were studied as well as frost flowers on sea ice. We found that HCHO was the most abundant aldehyde (1 to 9 µg/L), but significant concentrations of dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal were also measured for the first time in Arctic snow. Similar concentrations were measured for the continental and marine snowpacks but some frost flowers exhibited HCHO concentrations as high as 150 µg/L. Daily cycles in the surface snow were observed for HCHO and CH3CHO but also for the dicarbonyls and we concluded to a photochemical production of these species from organic precursors. Additional data such as gas phase concentrations for the measured aldehydes and snow physical properties (specific surface area, density …) will be used to discuss on the location of aldehydes in the snow. This is essential to identify and quantify the physical processes that occur during the exchange of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere.

  7. Toxicity of polyunsaturated aldehydes of diatoms to Indo-Pacific bioindicator organism Echinometra mathaei.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Davide; Gaion, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known suitability of early developmental stages of sea urchin as recommended model for pollutant toxicity testing, little is known about the sensitivity of Indo-Pacific species Echinometra mathaei to polyunsaturated aldehydes. In this study, the effect of three short chain aldehydes, 2,4-decadienal (DD), 2,4-octadienal (OD) and 2,4-heptadienal (HD), normally found in many diatoms, such as Skeletonema costatum, Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, was evaluated on larval development of E. mathaei embryos. Aldehydes affected larval development in a dose-dependent manner, in particular HD>OD>DD; the results of this study highlighted the higher sensitivity of this species toward aldehydes compared with data registered for other sea urchin species. In comparison with studies reported in the literature, contrasting results were observed during our tests; therefore, an increasing toxic effect was registered with decreasing the chain length of aldehydes. This work could provide new insights in the development of new toxicological assays toward most sensitive species. PMID:25945412

  8. Charged tag founded in N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization for quantification of fatty aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjing; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuanqi; Qi, Wanshu; Guo, Yinlong

    2016-09-21

    N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization was developed for the derivatization of fatty aldehydes. Differing from common pre-charged reagents, non-charged pyridine and thionyl chloride were designed to add permanently charged tag on aldehydes. Pyridine was far less competitive than charged derivatives in ionization. Thionyl chloride in excess was quenched by deionized water, converting into less residual sulfur dioxide bubbles. Thus solutions could be tested directly by mass spectrometry without further post-treatments. Pyridine-d5 labeled fatty aldehydes were prepared as internal standards. Mixed derivatives were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analytical parameters including reaction yield, stability, precision, linearity, and detection limits (LODs < 0.3 pg mL(-1)) were carefully validated. This method facilitated the analysis low content (ng mL(-1)) levels of free aliphatic aldehydes (C6C18) in human thyroid carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissue with a simple pretreatment procedure. Content of long chain nonvolatile aldehydes (C10C18) remarkably increased in thyroid carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05).

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of stress-related aldehydes to photosynthesis in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Mano, Jun'ichi; Miyatake, Fumitaka; Hiraoka, Eiji; Tamoi, Masahiro

    2009-09-01

    Aldehydes produced under various environmental stresses can cause cellular injury in plants, but their toxicology in photosynthesis has been scarcely investigated. We here evaluated their effects on photosynthetic reactions in chloroplasts isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Aldehydes that are known to stem from lipid peroxides inactivated the CO(2) photoreduction to various extents, while their corresponding alcohols and carboxylic acids did not affect photosynthesis. alpha,beta-Unsaturated aldehydes (2-alkenals) showed greater inactivation than the saturated aliphatic aldehydes. The oxygenated short aldehydes malondialdehyde, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde showed only weak toxicity to photosynthesis. Among tested 2-alkenals, 2-propenal (acrolein) was the most toxic, and then followed 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal and (E)-2-hexenal. While the CO(2)-photoreduction was inactivated, envelope intactness and photosynthetic electron transport activity (H(2)O --> ferredoxin) were only slightly affected. In the acrolein-treated chloroplasts, the Calvin cycle enzymes phosphoribulokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-bisphophatase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, aldolase, and Rubisco were irreversibly inactivated. Acrolein treatment caused a rapid drop of the glutathione pool, prior to the inactivation of photosynthesis. GSH exogenously added to chloroplasts suppressed the acrolein-induced inactivation of photosynthesis, but ascorbic acid did not show such a protective effect. Thus, lipid peroxide-derived 2-alkenals can inhibit photosynthesis by depleting GSH in chloroplasts and then inactivating multiple enzymes in the Calvin cycle.

  10. Brown Carbon Production in Aldehyde + Ammonium Sulfate Mixtures: Effects of Formaldehyde and Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powelson, M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of light-absorbing 'brown carbon,' or HULIS (humic- like substances), in atmospheric aerosol has an important impact on climate. However, the precursors responsible for brown carbon formation have not been identified. Several aldehydes present in clouds (methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, and acetaldehyde) have the potential to create brown products when reacted with ammonium sulfate or primary amines such as methylamine or glycine. The formation of light-absorbing products from these reactions was characterized as a function of cloud-relevant pH (from 3- 6) using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Of the different aldehydes teste, the largest production rates of light-absorbing compounds were observed in reactions of glycolaldehyde and methylglyoxal. Primary amines produced more light- absorbing products than ammonium sulfate at lower concentrations. The addition of formaldehyde to any reaction with other aldehydes decreased the formation of light-absorbing products, while the addition of a small amount (1:5 mole ratio) of glycine to aldehyde + ammonium sulfate reactions can increase the production of light-absorbing products. These results suggest that the presence of primary amines significantly influence atmospheric brown carbon production by aldehydes even when much greater quantities of ammonium sulfate are present.

  11. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    PubMed

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods.

  12. Development of QSARs for predicting the joint effects between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Kedong; Shi, Ping; Wang, Liansheng; Yu, Hongxia

    2003-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches are proposed in this study to predict the joint effects of mixture toxicity. The initial investigation studies the joint effects between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes to Photobacterium phosphoreum. Joint effects are found to result from the formation of a carbanion intermediate produced through the chemical interactions between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes. Further research indicates that the formation of carbanion intermediate is highly correlated with not only the charge of the carbon atom in the -CHO of aldehydes but also the charge of the carbon atom (C) in the carbochain of cyanogenic toxicants. The charge of the carbon atom in the -CHO of aldehydes is quantified by using the Hammett constant (sigma(p)), and then, sigma(p)-based QSAR models are proposed to describe the relationships between the joint effects and the chemical structures of the aldehydes. By using the charge of carbon atom (C) in the carbochain of cyanogenic toxicants, another QSAR model is proposed to describe the relationship between the joint effects and the chemical structures of cyanogenic toxicants.

  13. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  14. Highly enantioselective reductive cyclization of acetylenic aldehydes via rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jong Uk; Krische, Michael J

    2006-08-23

    Catalytic hydrogenation of acetylenic aldehydes 1a-12a using chirally modified cationic rhodium catalysts enables highly enantioselective reductive cyclization to afford cyclic allylic alcohols 1b-12b. Using an achiral hydrogenation catalyst, the chiral racemic acetylenic aldehydes 13a-15a engage in highly syn-diastereoselective reductive cyclizations to afford cyclic allylic alcohols 13b-15b. Ozonolysis of cyclization products 7b and 9b allows access to optically enriched alpha-hydroxy ketones 7c and 9c. Reductive cyclization of enyne 7a under a deuterium atmosphere provides the monodeuterated product deuterio-7b, consistent with a catalytic mechanism involving alkyne-carbonyl oxidative coupling followed by hydrogenolytic cleavage of the resulting oxametallacycle. These hydrogen-mediated transformations represent the first examples of the enantioselective reductive cyclization of acetylenic aldehydes. PMID:16910650

  15. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  16. Target-Specific Capture of Environmentally Relevant Gaseous Aldehydes and Carboxylic Acids with Functional Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, McKenzie L; Guerra, Fernanda D; Dhulekar, Jhilmil; Alexis, Frank; Whitehead, Daniel C

    2015-10-12

    Aldehyde and carboxylic acid volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present significant environmental concern due to their prevalence in the atmosphere. We developed biodegradable functional nanoparticles comprised of poly(d,l-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ethyleneimine) (PDLLA-PEG-PEI) block co-polymers that capture these VOCs by chemical reaction. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) preparation involved nanoprecipitation and surface functionalization with branched PEI. The PDLLA-PEG-PEI NPs were characterized by using TGA, IR, (1) H NMR, elemental analysis, and TEM. The materials feature 1°, 2°, and 3° amines on their surface, capable of capturing aldehydes and carboxylic acids from gaseous mixtures. Aldehydes were captured by a condensation reaction forming imines, whereas carboxylic acids were captured by acid/base reaction. These materials reacted selectively with target contaminants obviating off-target binding when challenged by other VOCs with orthogonal reactivity. The NPs outperformed conventional activated carbon sorbents.

  17. A molecularly defined iron-catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Wienhöfer, Gerrit; Westerhaus, Felix A; Junge, Kathrin; Ludwig, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2013-06-10

    A selective iron-based catalyst system for the hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to allylic alcohols is presented. Applying the defined iron-tetraphos complex [FeF(L)][BF4] (L = P(PhPPh2)3) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid a broad range of aldehydes are reduced in high yields using low catalyst loadings (0.05-1 mol %). Excellent chemoselectivity for the reduction of aldehydes in the presence of other reducible moieties, for example, ketones, olefins, esters, etc. is achieved. Based on the in situ detected hydride species [FeH(H2)(L)](+) a catalytic cycle is proposed that is supported by computational calculations. PMID:23649662

  18. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  19. Palladium and platinum catalyzed addition of allylstannanes to aldehydes and imines

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    1995-12-31

    The reaction of allylstannanes with aldehydes in THF was catalyzed by Pd(II) or Pt(II) complexes (10 mole %) either at room temperature or at reflux, giving the corresponding homoallyl alcohols in high to good yields. Among the catalysts examined, PtCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} gave the best result. Aromatic, aliphatic, and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes can be utilized and even cyclohexanone undergoes the allylation reaction. Allyl and methallyltributylstannane reacted very smoothly. Crotyltributylstannane also reacted with aldehydes to give the branched homoallyl alcohols in good yields, but the reaction speed was slower than that of allylstannane. Detailed mechanistic studies of the Pd(II) catalyzed allylation, using NMR spectra, revealed that bis-{pi}-allyl palladium 5 is a key intermediate for the catalytic cycle and it exhibits nucleophilic reactivity.

  20. A molecularly defined iron-catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Wienhöfer, Gerrit; Westerhaus, Felix A; Junge, Kathrin; Ludwig, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2013-06-10

    A selective iron-based catalyst system for the hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to allylic alcohols is presented. Applying the defined iron-tetraphos complex [FeF(L)][BF4] (L = P(PhPPh2)3) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid a broad range of aldehydes are reduced in high yields using low catalyst loadings (0.05-1 mol %). Excellent chemoselectivity for the reduction of aldehydes in the presence of other reducible moieties, for example, ketones, olefins, esters, etc. is achieved. Based on the in situ detected hydride species [FeH(H2)(L)](+) a catalytic cycle is proposed that is supported by computational calculations.

  1. Evolution of volatile aldehydes in Iberian ham matured under different processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín, L; Timón, M L; Petrón, M J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of the Iberian ham processing conditions in the evolution of volatile aldehydes, 35 hams were processed in two plants following different conditions of relative humidity and temperature. For this, free fatty acids, peroxide values and volatile aldehydes were quantified in the hams. The highest increases in free fatty acids were noted during the drying stage in both processing plants. The drying period also revealed the greatest increase in peroxide values, where the highest values were in those hams processed at higher temperatures. The temperature during post-salting and drying had a marked influence on the formation of volatile aldehydes, being responsible for the differences in volatile compounds of matured hams.

  2. Occupational Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in the U.S. Trucking Industry

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, M. E.; BLICHARZ, A. P.; HART, J. E.; LADEN, F.; GARSHICK, E.; SMITH, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is a complex chemical mixture that has been linked to lung cancer mortality in a number of epidemiologic studies. However, the dose–response relationship remains largely undefined, and the specific components responsible for carcinogenicity have not been identified. Although previous focus has been on the particulate phase, diesel exhaust includes a vapor phase of numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes that are either known or suspected carcinogens, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde. However, there are relatively few studies that quantify exposure to VOCs and aldehydes in diesel-heavy and other exhaust-related microenvironments. As part of a nationwide assessment of exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry, we collected measurements of VOCs and aldehydes at 15 different U.S. trucking terminals and in city truck drivers (with 6 repeat site visits), observing average shift concentrations in truck cabs and at multiple background and work area locations within each terminal. In this paper, we characterize occupational exposure to 18 different VOCs and aldehydes, as well as relationships with particulate mass (elemental carbon in PM < 1 μ m and PM2.5) across locations to determine source characteristics. Our results show that occupational exposure to VOCs and aldehydes varies significantly across the different sampling locations within each terminal, with significantly higher exposures noted in the work environments over background levels (p < 0.01). A structural equation model performed well in predicting terminal exposures to VOCs and aldehydes as a function of job, background levels, weather conditions, proximity to a major road, and geographic location (R2 = 0.2–0.4 work area; R2 = 0.5–0.9 background). PMID:17993162

  3. Ubiquitin-aldehyde: a general inhibitor of ubiquitin-recycling processes.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A; Rose, I A

    1987-01-01

    The generation and characterization of ubiquitin (Ub)-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of Ub-C-terminal hydrolase, has previously been reported. We now examine the action of this compound on the Ub-mediated proteolytic pathway using the system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. Addition of Ub-aldehyde was found to strongly inhibit breakdown of added 125I-labeled lysozyme, but inhibition was overcome by increasing concentrations of Ub. The following evidence shows the effect of Ub-aldehyde on protein breakdown to be indirectly caused by its interference with the recycling of Ub, leading to exhaustion of the supply of free Ub: Ub-aldehyde markedly increased the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates coincident with a much decreased rate of conjugate breakdown. release of Ub from isolated Ub-protein conjugates in the absence of ATP (and therefore not coupled to protein degradation) is markedly inhibited by Ub-aldehyde. On the other hand, the ATP-dependent degradation of the protein moiety of Ub conjugates, which is an integral part of the proteolytic process, is not inhibited by this agent. Direct measurement of levels of free Ub showed a rapid disappearance caused by the inhibitor. The Ub is found to be distributed in derivatives of a wide range of molecular weight classes. It thus seems that Ub-aldehyde, previously demonstrated to inhibit the hydrolysis of Ub conjugates of small molecules, also inhibits the activity of a series of enzymes that regenerate free Ub from adducts with proteins and intermediates in protein breakdown. Images PMID:3031653

  4. Synthesis of Discodermolide Subunits by S(E)2' Addition of Nonracemic Allenylstannanes to Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, James A.; Lu, Zhi-Hui; Johns, Brian A.

    1998-02-01

    Three subunits, 15, 29, and 34, of the immunosuppressant discodermolide were prepared starting from (S)-3-[(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]-2-methylpropanal ((S)-1) and the enantioenriched allenylstannanes (P)-2a, (P)-2b, and (P)-31. The route to 15 involved BF(3)-promoted addition of stannane (P)-2a to aldehyde (S)-1 which afforded the syn,syn-homopropargylic alcohol adduct 3 in 97% yield. The derived p-methoxybenzylidene acetal 5 was treated with Red-Al to effect cleavage of the pivalate and reduction of the double bond leading to the (E)-allylic alcohol 6. Sharpless epoxidation and subsequent addition of Me(2)CuCNLi(2) yielded the syn,syn,syn,anti stereopentad, diol 8. Protection of the secondary alcohol and oxidation of the primary gave aldehyde 12, which was treated with the alpha-bromo allylsilane 13 and CrCl(2), followed by NaH to effect elimination to the diene 15. A similar sequence was employed to prepare aldehyde 29. In this case aldehyde (S)-1 was converted to the anti,syn-homopropargylic alcohol 20 by treatment with the allenyl indium reagent formed in situ from allenylstannane (P)-2b and InBr(3). Epoxy alcohol 24, prepared from alcohol 20 by the above-described sequence, was reduced with Red-Al to afford diol 25. Protection of the secondary alcohol and oxidation of the primary completed the synthesis of 29. The anti,syn-homopropargylic alcohol 32 was obtained through addition of the allenic indium reagent, from allenylstannane (P)-31, to aldehyde (S)-1. Protection of the derived diol 33 as the p-methoxybenzylidene acetal afforded the third subunit, acetylene 34. Addition of the lithio derivative of 34 to aldehyde 29 gave alcohol 35 with the carbinyl stereochemistry needed for C7 of discodermolide as the major product.

  5. Yttrium (amidate) complexes for catalytic C-N bond formation. Rapid, room temperature amidation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jaclyn A; Schafer, Laurel L

    2012-07-14

    Yttrium (amidate) precatalysts are highly active for the mild amidation of aldehydes with amines. Reactions occur at room temperature within 5 min in up to 98% isolated yield. These rare-earth systems are effective for this transformation in the absence of supplementary heat, light, base, or oxidants. The reaction proceeds with functionalized amines and/or aldehydes. A comparison of various amidate precatalysts in combination with reaction monitoring suggests that the targeted amide products formed during the reaction promote the formation of alternative catalytically active amidate species in situ.

  6. Application of a Sequential Reaction Model to PANS and Aldehyde Measurements in Two Urban Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, James M.; Stroud, C.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Trainer, Michael; Hereid, D.; Williams, E. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Brune, W. H.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.

    2001-12-15

    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (= PAN, PPN, MPAN) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propanal, and methacrolein) were made at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1999 and Houston, Texas, in 2000. The data were interpreted with a sequential reaction model that included reaction of aldehydes with hydroxl radical and formation or loss of PANs mediated by peroxyacyl radicals. The comparison of the measured ratios with those predicted by the model showed disagreement for PAN/acetaldehyde and PPN/propanal in Nashville but agreement in Houston. These features are consistent with the relative importance of isoprene to PAN formation at each site.

  7. Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, Miyoshi; Mosley, S.P.; Barbero, L.J. )

    1992-10-01

    The growth of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was inhibited by terpene alcohols and the terpene aldehyde citral. The strongest activity was shown by citral. Nerol, geraniol, and citronellol also showed pronounced activity. Strong inhibition was linked to acyclic terpenes containing a primary alcohol or aldehyde function. Inhibition appeared to be taking place through the vapor phase rather than by diffusion through the agar medium from the terpene-treated paper disks used in the system. Inhibition through agar diffusion was shown by certain aged samples of terpene hydrocarbons but not by recently purchased samples.

  8. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  9. Immobilization of DNA via oligonucleotides containing an aldehyde or carboxylic acid group at the 5' terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Kremsky, J N; Wooters, J L; Dougherty, J P; Meyers, R E; Collins, M; Brown, E L

    1987-01-01

    A general method for the immobilization of DNA through its 5'-end has been developed. A synthetic oligonucleotide, modified at its 5'-end with an aldehyde or carboxylic acid, was attached to latex microspheres containing hydrazide residues. Using T4 polynucleotide ligase and an oligonucleotide splint, a single stranded 98mer was efficiently joined to the immobilized synthetic fragment. After impregnation of the latex microspheres with the fluorescent dye, Nile Red and attachment of an aldehyde 16mer, 5 X 10(5) bead-DNA conjugates could be detected with a conventional fluorimeter. Images PMID:3562241

  10. Peptide-Catalyzed Stereoselective Conjugate Addition Reactions of Aldehydes to Maleimide.

    PubMed

    Grünenfelder, Claudio E; Kisunzu, Jessica K; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-07-18

    The tripeptide H-dPro-Pro-Asn-NH2 is presented as a catalyst for asymmetric conjugate addition reactions of aldehydes to maleimide. The peptidic catalyst promotes the reaction between various aldehydes and unprotected maleimide with high stereoselectivities and yields. The obtained products were readily derivatized to the corresponding pyrrolidines, lactams, lactones, and peptide-like compounds. (1) H NMR spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational investigations provided insight into the conformational properties of H-dPro-Pro-Asn-NH2 and revealed the importance of hydrogen bonding between the peptide and maleimide for catalyzing the stereoselective C-C bond formation.

  11. Derivatization of vinyl aldehydes with anthrone prior to high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.E.; Danielson, N.D.

    1988-04-01

    Precolumn high-performance liquid chromatography derivatization of several vinyl aldehydes, specifically acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and methacrolein, has been studied by use of the reagent anthrone. After selective condensation of these ..cap alpha..- or ..beta..-unsaturated aldehydes to form fluorescent benzanthrone derivatives, separation of these compounds was facile on a 10-cm C-18 column. Although ultraviolet detection was possible, fluorescent detection proved more versatile and sensitive. Four liquor samples were subsequently assayed for acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Linearity for these compounds in alcoholic solutions ranged from 0.02 to at least 14 ppm with detection limits reaching down to 0.005 ppm.

  12. Retention of fluorescent probes during aldehyde-free anhydrous freeze-substitution.

    PubMed

    Hyde, G J; Davies, D S; Cole, L; Ashford, A E

    2003-05-01

    Fluorescent probes are widely used for microscopy of live-cell processes, but few such probes can also be used with classically fixed or otherwise immobilized material, and none has been used without aldehyde fixation, which can introduce artefacts of structure and probe localization. Here we show that the fluorescence patterns in fungal hyphae loaded with chloromethyl aminocoumarin (CMAC), and then anhydrously freeze-substituted, without any aldehyde fixation, are similar to those seen in living hyphae. Probe loss into the mounting medium (Spurr's resin) with CMAC and five other probes tested indicated that some unwanted solubilization of probe occurred during embedding, but nevertheless vacuoles could be imaged by their retention of probe.

  13. Enantioselective Multicomponent Condensation Reactions of Phenols, Aldehydes, and Boronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Keith S; Luan, Yi; Ramella, Daniele; Panek, James S; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Chiral diols and biphenols catalyze the multicomponent condensation reaction of phenols, aldehydes, and alkenyl or aryl boronates. The condensation products are formed in good yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds via an initial Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aldehyde and phenol to yield an ortho-quinone methide that undergoes an enantioselective boronate addition. A cyclization pathway was discovered while exploring the scope of the reaction that provides access to chiral 2,4-diaryl chroman products, the core of which is a structural motif found in natural products. PMID:26576776

  14. Fluorescence lifetime analysis and effect of magnesium ions on binding of NADH to human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) catalyzes oxidation of toxic aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Physiologic levels of Mg2+ ions influence ALDH1 activity in part by increasing NADH binding affinity to the enzyme thus reducing activity. By using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have resolved t...

  15. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerev...

  16. In vitro effects of aldehydes present in tobacco smoke on gene expression in human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Nuan P; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Vermeulen, Jolanda P; van Schooten, Frederik J; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2013-04-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of harmful components. A major class of chemicals found in tobacco smoke is formed by aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. The present study investigates the gene expression changes in human lung alveolar epithelial cells upon exposure to formaldehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde at sub-cytotoxic levels. We exposed A549 cells in vitro to aldehydes and non-aldehyde chemicals (nicotine, hydroquinone and 2,5-dimethylfuran) present in tobacco smoke and used microarrays to obtain a global view of the transcriptomic responses. We compared responses of the individual aldehydes with that of the non-aldehydes. We also studied the response of the aldehydes when present in a mixture at relative concentrations as present in cigarette smoke. Formaldehyde gave the strongest response; a total of 66 genes were more than 1.5-fold differentially expressed mostly involved in apoptosis and DNA damage related processes, followed by acetaldehyde (57 genes), hydroquinone (55 genes) and nicotine (8 genes). For acrolein and the mixture only one gene was upregulated involved in oxidative stress. No gene expression effect was found for exposure to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Overall, aldehyde responses are primarily indicative for genotoxicity and oxidative stress. These two toxicity mechanisms are linked to respiratory diseases such as cancer and COPD, respectively. The present findings could be important in providing further understanding of the role of aldehydes emitted from cigarette smoke in the onset of pulmonary diseases.

  17. Kinetics of forming aldehydes in frying oils and their distribution in French fries revealed by LC-MS-based chemometrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehydes are major secondary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) from heating vegetable oils and deep frying. The routes and reactions that generate aldehydes have been extensively investigated, but the sequences and kinetics of their formation in oils are poorly defined. In this study, a platform comb...

  18. In vitro effects of aldehydes present in tobacco smoke on gene expression in human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Nuan P; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Vermeulen, Jolanda P; van Schooten, Frederik J; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2013-04-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of harmful components. A major class of chemicals found in tobacco smoke is formed by aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. The present study investigates the gene expression changes in human lung alveolar epithelial cells upon exposure to formaldehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde at sub-cytotoxic levels. We exposed A549 cells in vitro to aldehydes and non-aldehyde chemicals (nicotine, hydroquinone and 2,5-dimethylfuran) present in tobacco smoke and used microarrays to obtain a global view of the transcriptomic responses. We compared responses of the individual aldehydes with that of the non-aldehydes. We also studied the response of the aldehydes when present in a mixture at relative concentrations as present in cigarette smoke. Formaldehyde gave the strongest response; a total of 66 genes were more than 1.5-fold differentially expressed mostly involved in apoptosis and DNA damage related processes, followed by acetaldehyde (57 genes), hydroquinone (55 genes) and nicotine (8 genes). For acrolein and the mixture only one gene was upregulated involved in oxidative stress. No gene expression effect was found for exposure to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Overall, aldehyde responses are primarily indicative for genotoxicity and oxidative stress. These two toxicity mechanisms are linked to respiratory diseases such as cancer and COPD, respectively. The present findings could be important in providing further understanding of the role of aldehydes emitted from cigarette smoke in the onset of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23416264

  19. Quantification of aldehyde terminated heparin by SEC-MALLS-UV for the surface functionalization of polycaprolactone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Steele, Terry W J; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Li, Min; Boujday, Souhir; Prawirasatya, Melissa; Neoh, Koon Gee; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-08-01

    A straight forward strategy of heparin surface grafting employs a terminal reactive-aldehyde group introduced through nitrous acid depolymerization. An advanced method that allows simultaneously monitoring of both heparin molar mass and monomer/aldehyde ratio by size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light scattering and UV-absorbance (SEC-MALLS-UV) has been developed to improve upon heparin surface grafting. Advancements over older methods allow quantitative characterization by direct (aldehyde absorbance) and indirect (Schiff-based absorbance) evaluation of terminal functional aldehydes. The indirect quantitation of functional aldehydes through labeling with aniline (and the formation of a Schiff-base) allows independent quantitation of both polymer mass and terminal functional groups with the applicable UV mass extinction coefficients determined. The protocol was subsequently used to synthesize an optimized heparin-aldehyde that had minimal polydispersity (PDI<2) and high reaction yields (yield >60% by mass). The 8 kDa weight averaged molar mass heparin-aldehyde was then grafted on polycaprolactone (PCL), a common implant material. This optimized heparin-aldehyde retained its antithrombin activity, assessed in freshly drawn blood or surface immobilized on PCL films. Anticoagulant activity was equal to or better than the 24 kDa unmodified heparin it was fragmented from. PMID:26052108

  20. Quantification of aldehyde terminated heparin by SEC-MALLS-UV for the surface functionalization of polycaprolactone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Steele, Terry W J; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Li, Min; Boujday, Souhir; Prawirasatya, Melissa; Neoh, Koon Gee; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-08-01

    A straight forward strategy of heparin surface grafting employs a terminal reactive-aldehyde group introduced through nitrous acid depolymerization. An advanced method that allows simultaneously monitoring of both heparin molar mass and monomer/aldehyde ratio by size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light scattering and UV-absorbance (SEC-MALLS-UV) has been developed to improve upon heparin surface grafting. Advancements over older methods allow quantitative characterization by direct (aldehyde absorbance) and indirect (Schiff-based absorbance) evaluation of terminal functional aldehydes. The indirect quantitation of functional aldehydes through labeling with aniline (and the formation of a Schiff-base) allows independent quantitation of both polymer mass and terminal functional groups with the applicable UV mass extinction coefficients determined. The protocol was subsequently used to synthesize an optimized heparin-aldehyde that had minimal polydispersity (PDI<2) and high reaction yields (yield >60% by mass). The 8 kDa weight averaged molar mass heparin-aldehyde was then grafted on polycaprolactone (PCL), a common implant material. This optimized heparin-aldehyde retained its antithrombin activity, assessed in freshly drawn blood or surface immobilized on PCL films. Anticoagulant activity was equal to or better than the 24 kDa unmodified heparin it was fragmented from.

  1. Progress in the preparation of peptide aldehydes via polymer supported IBX oxidation and scavenging by threonyl resin.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Gerhard; Thern, Bernd; Mader, Oliver; Rademann, Jörg; Jung, Günther

    2005-03-01

    Peptide aldehydes are of interest due to their inhibitory properties toward numerous classes of proteolytic enzymes such as caspases or the proteasome. A novel access to peptide aldehydes is described using a combination of solid phase peptide synthesis with polymer-assisted solution phase synthesis based on the oxidation of peptide alcohols with a mild and selective polymer-bound IBX derivative. The oxidation is followed by selective purification via scavenging the peptide aldehyde in a capture-release procedure using threonine attached to an aminomethyl resin. Peptide aldehydes are obtained in excellent purity and satisfying yield. The optical integrity of the C-terminal residue is conserved in a high degree. The procedures are compatible with the use of common side-chain protecting groups. The potential for using the method in parallel approaches is very advantageous. A small collection of new and known peptide aldehydes has been tested for inhibitory activity against caspases 1 and 3.

  2. Intermediate role of α-keto acids in the formation of Strecker aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Delgado, Rosa M; Zamora, Rosario

    2013-11-15

    The ability of α-keto acids to covert amino acids into Strecker aldehydes was investigated in an attempt to both identify new pathways for Strecker degradation, and analyse the role of α-keto acids as intermediate compounds in the formation of Strecker aldehydes by oxidised lipids. The results obtained indicated that phenylalanine was converted into phenylacetaldehyde to a significant extent by all α-keto acids assayed; glyoxylic acid being the most reactive α-keto acid for this reaction. It has been proposed that the reaction occurs by formation of an imine between the keto group of the α-keto acid, and the amino group of the amino acid. This then undergoes an electronic rearrangement with the loss of carbon dioxide to produce a new imine. This final imine is the origin of both the Strecker aldehyde and the amino acid from which the α-keto acid is derived. When glycine was incubated in the presence of 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, the amino acid was converted into glyoxylic acid, and this α-keto acid was then able to convert phenylalanine into phenylacetaldehyde. All these results suggest that Strecker aldehydes can be produced by amino acid degradation initiated by different reactive carbonyl compounds, included those coming from amino acids and proteins. In addition, α-keto acids may act as intermediates for the Strecker degradation of amino acids by oxidised lipids.

  3. Actin Cys374 as a nucleophilic target of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Gamberoni, Luca; Giustarini, Daniela; Colombo, Roberto; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2007-03-01

    We have recently shown that actin can be modified by the Michael addition of 4-hydroxynonenal to Cys374. Here, we have exposed purified actin at increasing acrolein concentrations and have identified the sites of acrolein addition using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Acrolein reacted with Cys374, His87, His173, and, minimally, His40. Cys374 adduction by both 4-hydroxynonenal and acrolein negligibly affected the polymerization of aldehyde-modified (carbonylated) actin, as shown by fluorescence measurements. Differently, acrolein binding at histidine residues, when Cys374 was completely saturated, inhibited polymerization in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular modeling analyses indicated that structural distortions of the ATP-binding site, induced by four acrolein-Michael adducts, could explain the changes in the polymerization process. Aldehyde binding to Cys374 does not alter significantly actin polymerization because this residue is located in a very flexible region, whose covalent modifications do not alter the protein folding. These data demonstrate that Cys374 represents the primary target site of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde addition to actin in vitro. As Cys374 is a preferential target for various oxidative/nitrosative modifications, and actin is one of the main carbonylated proteins in vivo, these findings also suggest that the highly reactive Cys374 could serve as a carbonyl scavenger of reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and other electrophilic lipids.

  4. Two-Carbon Homologation of Ketones to 3-Methyl Unsaturated Aldehydes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The usual scheme of two-carbon homologation of ketones to 3-methyl unsaturated aldehydes by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensations with phosphonate esters, such as triethyl-2-phosphonoacetate, involves three steps. The phosphonate condensation step results in extension of the carbon chain by two carb...

  5. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  6. Laboratory evaluation of an aldehyde scrubber system specifically for the detection of acrolein.

    PubMed

    Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Akiyama, Kenichi; Shimono, Akio; Kitasaka, Kazuya; Shimajiri, Hatsumi; Sugihara, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of an aldehyde scrubber system to resolve isobaric aldehyde/alkene interferences in a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) by selectively removing the aldehydes from the gas mixture without loss of quantitative information for the alkene components. The aldehyde scrubber system uses a bisulfite solution, which scrubs carbonyl compounds from the gas stream by forming water-soluble carbonyl bisulfite addition products, and has been evaluated using a synthetic mixture of acrolein and isoprene. Trapping efficiencies of acrolein exceeded 97%, whereas the transmission efficiency of isoprene was better than 92%. Quantification of the PTR-MS response to acrolein was validated through an intercomparison study that included two derivatization methods, dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and O-(4-cyano-2-ethoxybenzyl)hydroxylamine (CNET), and a spectroscopic method using a quantum cascade laser infrared absorption spectroscopy (QCL) instrument. Finally, using cigarette smoke as a complex matrix, the acrolein content was assessed using the scrubber and compared with direct QCL-based detection. PMID:18069460

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Gross, Eric R.; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P.; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R2=0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was also beneficial when given even after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians’ apparent lower pain tolerance. PMID:25163478

  8. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 protects gastric mucosa cells against DNA damage caused by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yantao; Gao, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Yinan; Jiang, Yannan; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Chen, Xuehua; Yang, Qiumeng; Su, Liping; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Lishun; Yu, Yingyan

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily and is involved with the metabolic processing of aldehydes. ALDH2 plays a cytoprotective role by removing aldehydes produced during normal metabolism. We examined the cytoprotective role of ALDH2 specifically in gastric mucosa cells. Overexpression of ALDH2 increased the viability of gastric mucosa cells treated with H2O2, while knockdown of ALDH2 had an opposite effect. Moreover, overexpression of ALDH2 protected gastric mucosa cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342, and TUNEL assays. Consistently, ALDH2 knockdown had an opposite effect. Additionally, DNA damage was ameliorated in ALDH2-overexpressing gastric mucosa cells treated with H2O2. We further identified that this cytoprotective role of ALDH2 was mediated by metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Consistently, 4-HNE mimicked the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in gastric mucosa cells. Treatment with 4-HNE increased levels of DNA damage in ALDH2-knockdown GES-1 cells, while overexpression of ALDH2 decreased 4-HNE-induced DNA damage. These findings suggest that ALDH2 can protect gastric mucosa cells against DNA damage caused by oxidative stress by reducing levels of 4-HNE.

  9. A HIGHLY STEREOSELECTIVE, NOVEL COUPLING REACTION BETWEEN ALKYNES WITH ALDEHYDES. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of indium triflate or gallium chloride, a novel coupling between internal alkynes and aldehydes occurred to give unsaturated ketones and [4+1] annulation products.


    Graphical Abstrac...

  10. Modification of growth of neuroblastoma cells in syngeneic mice by aldehyde-treated neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, L; Diamond, L; Revoltella, R

    1976-06-01

    Pretreatment of syngeneic strain A mice with aldehyde-fixed neuroblastoma cells (clone NB6R) almost completely protected the mice against challenge with viable NB6R cells. In contrast, tumor growth was enhanced in mice treated with fixed cells after challenge with viable cells.

  11. Aroma chemicals: Reference sources for perfume and flavour ingredients with special reference to cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Collins, F W; Mitchell, J C

    1975-01-01

    Bibliographic sources for the complex subject of aroma chemicals are reviewed. The references are not comprehensive but are those which we found to be of value in finding out some of the opportunities for contact with a sensitizing chemical compound, cinnamic aldehyde.

  12. Enzymatic conversion of atmospheric aldehydes into alcohol in a phospholipid polymer film.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoki; Watari, Akihiro; Tada, Tomoko; Asada, Tomoko; Kunugi, Shigeru; Lee, Yin-Fai; Yamada, Satoshi; Shuto, Kenshiro; Sakaki, Shujiro

    2009-02-01

    We developed a unique method for converting atmospheric aldehyde into alcohol using formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida (PFDH) doped in a polymer film. A film of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB), which has a chemical structure similar to that of a biological membrane, was employed for its biocompatibility. A water-incorporated polymer film entrapping PFDH and its cofactor NAD(+) was obtained by drying a buffered solution of PMB, PFDH, and NAD(+). The aldehydes in the air were absorbed into the polymer film and then enzymatically oxidized by PFDH doped in the PMB film. Interestingly, alcohol and carboxylic acid were produced by the enzymatic reaction, indicating that PFDH catalyzes dismutation of aldehyde in the PMB film. Importantly, a PFDH-PMB film catalyzes aldehyde degradation without consuming the nucleotide cofactor, thereby allowing repeated use of the film. The activity of PFDH in the PMB film was higher than that in other common water-soluble polymers, suggesting that the hydrational state in a phospholipid polymer matrix is suitable for enzymatic activity.

  13. Analysis of endogenous aldehydes in human urine by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2016-03-11

    Endogenous aldehydes (EAs) generated during oxidative stress and cell processes are associated with many pathogenic and toxicogenic processes. The aim of this research was to develop a solvent-free and automated analytical method for the determination of EAs in human urine using a static headspace generator sampler coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Twelve significant EAs used as markers of different biochemical and physiological processes, namely short- and medium-chain alkanals, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyl aldehydes have been selected as target analytes. Human urine samples (no dilution is required) were derivatized with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine in alkaline medium (hydrogen carbonate-carbonate buffer, pH 10.3). The HS-GC-MS method developed renders an efficient tool for the sensitive and precise determination of EAs in human urine with limits of detection from 1 to 15ng/L and relative standard deviations, (RSDs) from 6.0 to 7.9%. Average recoveries by enriching urine samples ranged between 92 and 95%. Aldehydes were readily determined at 0.005-50μg/L levels in human urine from healthy subjects, smokers and diabetic adults.

  14. The acid free asymmetric intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes in fluorinated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2012-04-11

    The acid free asymmetric intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes with alcohols has been discovered using trifluoroethanol as solvent. This unprecedented system affords the enantioenriched functionalized primary alcohols (after NaBH(4) reduction) in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities with wide substrate scope in the absence of any acid additive.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Ruta graveolens L. extract on guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Pirouzpanah, Saieed; Saieed, Pirouzpanah; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Reza, Rashidi Mohammad; Delazar, Abbas; Abbas, Delazar; Razavieh, Seyyed-Vali; Seyyedvali, Razavieh; Hamidi, Aliasghar; Aliasghar, Hamidi

    2006-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plant with various biological properties. In the present study, the effects of R. graveolens extract on aldehyde oxidase, a molybdenum hydroxylase, are investigated. Aldehyde oxidase was partially purified from liver homogenates of mature male guinea pigs by heat treatment and ammonium sulphate precipitation. The total extract was obtained by macerating the aerial parts of R. graveolens in MeOH 70% and the effect of this extract on the enzyme activity was assayed using phenanthridine, vanillin and benzaldehyde as substrates. Quercetin and its glycoside form, rutin were isolated, purified and identified from the extract and their inhibitory effects on the enzyme were investigated. R. graveolens extract exhibited a high inhibition on aldehyde oxidase activity (89-96%) at 100 microg/ml which was comparable with 10 microM of menadione, a specific potent inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effect of extract against the oxidation of benzaldehyde, vanillin and phenanthridine were 10.4, 10.1, 43.2 microg/ml, respectively. Both quercetin and rutin at 10 microM caused 70-96% and 27-52% inhibition on the enzyme activity, respectively. Quercetin was more potent inhibitor than rutin, but both flavonols exerted their inhibitory effects mostly in a linear mixed-type.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Halavaty, Andrei S; Rich, Rebecca L; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R; Myszka, David G; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F; Anderson, Wayne F

    2015-05-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD(+), NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.

  17. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  18. Fast determination of aldehyde preservatives by miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chen, Fang; Ge, Jinyuan; Tong, Fanghong; Deng, Zhaoyue; Shen, Fengwu; Gu, Qianxia; Ye, Jiannong; Chu, Qingcui

    2014-02-01

    A novel miniaturized CE with amperometric detection (mini-CE-AD) method has been developed for fast determination of aliphatic aldehyde preservatives, namely formaldehyde and glyoxal, in commodities. After derivatization with an electroactive compound 2-thiobarbituric acid, these two nonelectroactive aldehydes were converted to electroactive adducts, therefore detectable by mini-CE-AD approach. Under the optimum conditions, two aldehydes can be well-separated with the coexisting interferents as well as their homologs (acetaldehyde and methyl-glyoxal), and the LODs (S/N = 3) were achieved at nanogram-per-milliliter level (1.64-2.80 ng/mL) based on the online enrichment method of transient moving chemical reaction boundary. The proposed method has been applied for the analyses of above aldehyde preservatives in different real commodity samples including skincare products, baby lotion, and toothpaste, and the average recoveries were in the range of 94-105%, which should find a wide range of analytical applications as an alternative to conventional and microchip CE approaches.

  19. Dual Lewis Acid/Lewis Base Catalyzed Acylcyanation of Aldehydes: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Laurell Nash, Anna; Hertzberg, Robin; Wen, Ye-Qian; Dahlgren, Björn; Brinck, Tore; Moberg, Christina

    2016-03-01

    A mechanistic investigation, which included a Hammett correlation analysis, evaluation of the effect of variation of catalyst composition, and low-temperature NMR spectroscopy studies, of the Lewis acid-Lewis base catalyzed addition of acetyl cyanide to prochiral aldehydes provides support for a reaction route that involves Lewis base activation of the acyl cyanide with formation of a potent acylating agent and cyanide ion. The cyanide ion adds to the carbonyl group of the Lewis acid activated aldehyde. O-Acylation by the acylated Lewis base to form the final cyanohydrin ester occurs prior to decomplexation from titanium. For less reactive aldehydes, the addition of cyanide is the rate-determining step, whereas, for more reactive, electron-deficient aldehydes, cyanide addition is rapid and reversible and is followed by rate-limiting acylation. The resting state of the catalyst lies outside the catalytic cycle and is believed to be a monomeric titanium complex with two alcoholate ligands, which only slowly converts into the product.

  20. Nepetanal and nepetanoate: a new diterpene aldehyde and a benzene derivative ester from Nepeta juncea.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Farman Ullah; Devkota, Krishna Prasad; Shah, M Raza; Anwar, Saeed

    2009-07-01

    One new tricyclic clerodane type diterpene aldehyde nepetanal (1) and one new benzene derivative nepetanoate (2) have been isolated from a plant Nepeta juncea together with two known compounds oleanolic acid (3) and ursolic acid (4). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of modern spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data.

  1. A general palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of chromenones from salicylic aldehydes and benzyl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Cute CO! An interesting and straightforward procedure for the carbonylative synthesis of chromenones from readily available salicylic aldehydes and benzyl chlorides has been developed (see scheme; DPPP = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane). In the presence of a palladium catalyst, various coumarins were produced in good to excellent yields.

  2. Ultrasound assisted direct oxidative esterification of aldehydes and alcohols using graphite oxide and Oxone.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Zonoubi, Somayeh; Molaee Tavana, Mahdieh; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    A sonochemical procedure for direct oxidative esterification of aldehydes and alcohols using graphite oxide and Oxone in an alcoholic solvent is described. Mild reaction conditions, short reaction times, cost-effectiveness, and facile isolation of the products make the present system as a practical method. PMID:24929791

  3. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R.; Myszka, David G.; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD+, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:25945581

  4. APPLICATION OF MULTISPECTRAL TECHNIQUES TO THE PRECISE IDENTIFICATION OF ALDEHYDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    By using gas chromatography coupled with low- and high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry, low- and high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, eight straight-chain aldehydes were identified in a water sample taken...

  5. Two new irregular acyclic sesquiterpenes aldehydes from Santolina corsica essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Bernard; Tomi, Félix; Richomme, Pascal; Casanova, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Two isomeric irregular sesquiterpene aldehydes, namely 3,9-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-2(E),7(E),9-decatrienal and 3,9-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-2(Z),7(E),9-decatrienal, were isolated from the essential oil of Santolina corsica and their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  7. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  8. A new device for formaldehyde and total aldehydes real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sassine, Maria; Picquet-Varrault, Bénédicte; Perraudin, Emilie; Chiappini, Laura; Doussin, Jean François; George, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A new sensitive technique for the quantification of formaldehyde (HCHO) and total aldehydes has been developed in order to monitor these compounds, which are known to be involved in air quality issues and to have health impacts. Our approach is based on a colorimetric method where aldehydes are initially stripped from the air into a scrubbing solution by means of a turning coil sampler tube and then derivatised with 3-methylbenzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone in acid media (pH = -0.5). Hence, colourless aldehydes are transformed into blue dyes that are detected by UV-visible spectroscopy at 630 nm. Liquid core waveguide LCW Teflon® AF-2400 tube was used as innovative optical cells providing a HCHO detection limit of 4 pptv for 100 cm optical path with a time resolution of 15 min. This instrument showed good correlation with commonly used techniques for aldehydes analysis such as DNPH derivatisation chromatographic techniques with off-line and on-line samplers, and DOAS techniques (with deviation below 6%) for both indoor and outdoor conditions. This instrument is associated with simplicity and low cost, which is a prerequisite for indoor monitoring. PMID:23892614

  9. One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eunyoung; Hong, Bomi; De Castro, Kathlia A; Lim, Minkyung; Rhee, Hakjune

    2007-12-01

    One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using various aldehydes by Pd/C catalyst in aqueous 2-propanol solvent with ammonium formate as in situ hydrogen donor is illustrated. The reaction proceeded smoothly and selectively with excellent yield at room temperature. Our protocol presents a facile, economical, and environmentally benign alternative for reductive amination.

  10. Analysis of carbonaceous biomarkers with the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system: aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Amanda M; Tjin, Caroline Chandra; Huang, Grace L; Benhabib, Merwan; Chiesl, Thomas N; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    A microchip CE method is developed for the analysis of two oxidized forms of carbon, aldehydes and ketones, with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA). Fluorescent derivitization is achieved in ∼ 15 min by hydrazone formation with Cascade Blue hydrazide in 30 mM borate pH 5-6. The microchip CE separation and analysis method is optimized via separation in 30 mM borate buffer, pH 9.5, at 20°C. A carbonyl standard consisting of ten aldehydes and ketones found in extraterrestrial matter is successfully separated; the resulting LOD depends on the reactivity of the compound and range from 70 pM for formaldehyde to 2 μM for benzophenone. To explore the utility of this method for analyzing complex samples, analyses of several fermented beverages are conducted, identifying ten aldehydes and ketones ranging from 30 nM to 5 mM. A Martian regolith simulant sample, consisting of a basalt matrix spiked with soluble ions and acetone, is designed and analyzed, but acetone is found to have a limited detectable lifetime under simulant Martian conditions. This work establishes the capability of the MOA for studying aldehydes and ketones, a critical class of oxidized organic molecules of interest in planetary and in terrestrial environmental and health studies. PMID:20967779

  11. Campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis: a possible mechanism for the formation of specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnt, A.; Iinuma, Y.; Mutzel, A.; Böge, O.; Claeys, M.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis was performed to investigate pathways leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) marker compounds. Campholenic aldehyde, a known α-pinene oxidation product, is suggested to be a key intermediate in the formation of terpenylic acid upon α-pinene ozonolysis. It was reacted with ozone in the presence and absence of an OH radical scavenger leading to SOA formation with a yield of 0.75 and 0.8, respectively. The resulting oxidation products in the gas and particle phases were investigated employing a denuder/filter sampling combination. Gas-phase oxidation products bearing a carbonyl group, which were collected by the denuder, were derivatised with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) followed by Liquid Chromatography/negative ion Electrospray Ionisation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry analysis and were compared to the gas-phase compounds detected by online Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry. Particle-phase products were also analysed, directly or after DNPH derivatisation, to derive information about specific compounds leading to SOA formation. Among the detected compounds, the aldehydic precursor of terpenylic acid was identified and its presence was confirmed in ambient aerosol samples from the DNPH derivatisation, accurate mass data, and MS2 and MS3 fragmentation studies. Furthermore, the present investigation sheds light on a reaction pathway leading to the formation of terpenylic acid, involving α-pinene, α-pinene oxide, campholenic aldehyde, and terpenylic aldehyde. Additionally, the formation of diaterpenylic acid acetate could be connected to campholenic aldehyde oxidation. The present study also provides insights into the source of other highly functionalised oxidation products (e.g. m/z 201, C9H14O5 and m/z 215, C10H16O5), which have been observed in ambient aerosol samples and smog chamber-generated monoterpene SOA. The m/z 201 and 215 compounds were tentatively identified as a

  12. Campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis: a mechanism leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnt, A.; Iinuma, Y.; Mutzel, A.; Böge, O.; Claeys, M.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis was performed to investigate pathways leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) marker compounds. Campholenic aldehyde, a known α-pinene oxidation product, is suggested to be a key intermediate in the formation of terpenylic acid upon α-pinene ozonolysis. It was reacted with ozone in the presence and absence of an OH radical scavenger, leading to SOA formation with a yield of 0.75 and 0.8, respectively. The resulting oxidation products in the gas and particle phases were investigated employing a denuder/filter sampling combination. Gas-phase oxidation products bearing a carbonyl group, which were collected by the denuder, were derivatised by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) followed by liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and were compared to the gas-phase compounds detected by online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Particle-phase products were also analysed, directly or after DNPH derivatisation, to derive information about specific compounds leading to SOA formation. Among the detected compounds, the aldehydic precursor of terpenylic acid was identified and its presence was confirmed in ambient aerosol samples from the DNPH derivatisation, accurate mass data, and additional mass spectrometry (MS2 and MS3 fragmentation studies). Furthermore, the present investigation sheds light on a reaction pathway leading to the formation of terpenylic acid, involving α-pinene, α-pinene oxide, campholenic aldehyde, and terpenylic aldehyde. Additionally, the formation of diaterpenylic acid acetate could be connected to campholenic aldehyde oxidation. The present study also provides insights into the source of other highly functionalised oxidation products (e.g. m / z 201, C9H14O5 and m / z 215, C10H16O5), which have been observed in ambient aerosol samples and smog chamber-generated monoterpene SOA. The m / z 201 and 215

  13. Critical role of aldehydes in cigarette smoke-induced acute airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking (CS) is the most important risk factor for COPD, which is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. We hypothesize, that highly reactive aldehydes are critical for CS-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to CS, water filtered CS (WF-CS) or air for 5 days. Levels of total particulate matter (TPM) and aldehydes in CS and WF-CS were measured. Six hours after the last exposure, inflammatory cells and cytokine levels were measured in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, Beas-2b bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to CS extract (CSE) or WF-CS extract (WF-CSE) in the absence or presence of the aldehyde acrolein and IL-8 production was measured after 24 hrs. Results Compared to CS, in WF-CS strongly decreased (CS; 271.1 ± 41.5 μM, WF-CS; 58.5 ± 8.2 μM) levels of aldehydes were present whereas levels of TPM were only slightly reduced (CS; 20.78 ± 0.59 mg, WF-CS; 16.38 ± 0.36 mg). The numbers of mononuclear cells in BALF (p<0.01) and lung tissue (p<0.01) were significantly increased in the CS- and WF-CS-exposed mice compared to air control mice. Interestingly, the numbers of neutrophils (p<0.001) in BALF and neutrophils and eosinophils (p<0.05) in lung tissue were significantly increased in the CS-exposed but not in WF-CS-exposed mice as compared to air control mice. Levels of the neutrophil and eosinophil chemoattractants KC, MCP-1, MIP-1α and IL-5 were all significantly increased in lung tissue from CS-exposed mice compared to both WF-CS-exposed and air control mice. Interestingly, depletion of aldehydes in WF-CS extract significantly reduced IL-8 production in Beas-2b as compared to CSE, which could be restored by the aldehyde acrolein. Conclusion Aldehydes present in CS play a critical role in inflammatory cytokine production and neutrophilic- but not mononuclear airway inflammation. PMID:23594194

  14. Asymmetric functional organozinc additions to aldehydes catalyzed by 1,1'-bi-2-naphthols (BINOLs).

    PubMed

    Pu, Lin

    2014-05-20

    Chiral alcohols are ubiquitous in organic structures. One efficient method to generate chiral alcohols is the catalytic asymmetric addition of a carbon nucleophile to a carbonyl compound since this process produces a C-C bond and a chiral center simultaneously. In comparison with the carbon nucleophiles such as an organolithium or a Grignard reagent, an organozinc reagent possesses the advantages of functional group tolerance and more mild reaction conditions. Catalytic asymmetric reactions of aldehydes with arylzincs, vinylzincs, and alkynylzincs to generate functional chiral alcohols are discussed in this Account. Our laboratory has developed a series of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL)-based chiral catalysts for the asymmetric organozinc addition to aldehydes. It is found that the 3,3'-dianisyl-substituted BINOLs are not only highly enantioselective for the alkylzinc addition to aldehydes, but also highly enantioselective for the diphenylzinc addition to aldehydes. A one-step synthesis has been achieved to incorporate Lewis basic amine groups into the 3,3'-positions of the partially hydrogenated H8BINOL. These H8BINOL-amine compounds have become more generally enantioselective and efficient catalysts for the diphenylzinc addition to aldehydes to produce various types of chiral benzylic alcohols. The application of the H8BINOL-amine catalysts is expanded by using in situ generated diarylzinc reagents from the reaction of aryl iodides with ZnEt2, which still gives high enantioselectivity and good catalytic activity. Such a H8BINOL-amine compound is further found to catalyze the highly enantioselective addition of vinylzincs, in situ generated from the treatment of vinyl iodides with ZnEt2, to aldehydes to give the synthetically very useful chiral allylic alcohols. We have discovered that the unfunctionalized BINOL in combination with ZnEt2 and Ti(O(i)Pr)4 can catalyze the terminal alkyne addition to aldehydes to produce chiral propargylic alcohols of high synthetic

  15. Increased uptake of alpha-hydroxy aldehyde-modified low density lipoprotein by macrophage scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, M; Heinecke, J W; Chait, A

    2000-07-01

    Reactive aldehydes can be formed during the oxidation of lipids, glucose, and amino acids and during the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modified with malondialdehyde are taken up by scavenger receptors on macrophages. In the current studies we determined whether alpha-hydroxy aldehydes also modify LDL to a form recognized by macrophage scavenger receptors. LDL modified by incubation with glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, erythrose, arabinose, or glucose (alpha-hydroxy aldehydes that possess two, three, four, five, and six carbon atoms, respectively) exhibited decreased free amino groups and increased mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. The lower the molecular weight of the aldehyde used for LDL modification, the more rapid and extensive was the derivatization of free amino groups. Approximately 50-75% of free lysine groups in LDL were modified after incubation with glyceraldehyde, glycolaldehyde, or erythrose for 24-48 h. Less extensive reductions in free amino groups were observed when LDL was incubated with arabinose or glucose, even at high concentration for up to 5 days. LDL modified with glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde labeled with (125)I was degraded more extensively by human monocyte-derived macrophages than was (125)I-labeled native LDL. Conversely, LDL modified with (125)I-labeled erythrose, arabinose, or glucose was degraded less rapidly than (125)I-labeled native LDL. Competition for the degradation of LDL modified with (125)I-labeled glyceraldehyde was nearly complete with acetyl-, glycolaldehyde-, and glyceraldehyde-modified LDL, fucoidin, and advanced glycation end product-modified bovine serum albumin, and absent with unlabeled native LDL. These results suggest that short-chain alpha-hydroxy aldehydes react with amino groups on LDL to yield moieties that are important determinants of recognition by macrophage scavenger receptors.

  16. The C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase determines the substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Barski, O A; Gabbay, K H; Bohren, K M

    1996-11-12

    Human aldehyde reductase has a preference for carboxyl group-containing negatively charged substrates. It belongs to the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase superfamily whose members are in part distinguished by unique C-terminal loops. To probe the role of the C-terminal loops in determining substrate specificities in these enzymes, two arginine residues, Arg308 and Arg311, located in the C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase, and not found in any other C-terminal loop, were replaced with alanine residues. The catalytic efficiency of the R311A mutant for aldehydes containing a carboxyl group is reduced 150-250-fold in comparison to that of the wild-type enzyme, while substrates not containing a negative charge are unaffected. The R311A mutant is also significantly less sensitive to inhibition by dicarboxylic acids, indicating that Arg311 interacts with one of the carboxyl groups. The inhibition pattern indicates that the other carboxyl group binds to the anion binding site formed by Tyr49, His112, and the nicotinamide moiety of NADP+. The correlation between inhibitor potency and the length of the dicarboxylic acid molecules suggests a distance of approximately 10 A between the amino group of Arg311 and the anion binding site in the aldehyde reductase molecule. The sensitivity of inhibition of the R311A mutant by several commercially available aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) was variable, with tolrestat and zopolrestat becoming more potent inhibitors (30- and 5-fold, respectively), while others remained the same or became less potent. The catalytic properties, substrate specificity, and susceptibility to inhibition of the R308A mutant remained similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. The data provide direct evidence for C-terminal loop participation in determining substrate and inhibitor specificity of aldo-keto reductases and specifically identifies Arg311 as the basis for the carboxyl-containing substrate preference of aldehyde reductase. PMID:8916913

  17. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  18. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    PubMed

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes. PMID:25734422

  19. Aldehydes in Artic Snow at Barrow (AK) during the Barrow 2009 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barret, M.; Houdier, S.; Gallet, J.; Domine, F.; Beine, H. J.; Jacobi, H.

    2009-12-01

    Aldehydes (RCHO) are key reactive intermediates in hydrocarbon oxidation and in OH cycling. They are also emitted and taken up by the snowpack and a combination of both physical and photochemical processes are likely involved. Since the photolysis of aldehydes is a source of HOx radicals, these exchanges can modify the oxidative capacity of the overlying air. Formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methylglyoxal (MeCOCHO) concentrations were measured in over 250 snow samples collected during the Barrow 2009 campaign between late February and mid April 2009. Both continental and marine snowpacks were studied as well as frost flowers on sea ice. We found that HCHO was the most abundant aldehyde (1 to 9 µg L-1), but significant concentrations of dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal (up to 4.5 and 2.7 µg L-1, respectively) were also measured for the first time in Arctic snow. Similar concentrations were measured for the continental and marine snowpacks but some frost flowers exhibited HCHO concentrations as high as 150 µg L-1. Surface snow being in closer interaction with the atmosphere, it was monitored with a higher time resolution in order to investigate photochemical processes. Daily cycles were thus observed in the snow for HCHO and CH3CHO but also for the dicarbonyls and we concluded to a photochemical production of these species within the snow. Additional data such as gas phase concentrations for the measured aldehydes and snow physical properties (specific surface area, density …) will be used to discuss on the location of aldehydes in the snow. This is essential to identify and quantify the physical processes that occur during the exchange of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere.

  20. Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 7A1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) is part of lysine catabolism and catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of α-aminoadipate semialdehyde to α-aminoadipate. Herein, we describe a structural study of human ALDH7A1 focused on substrate recognition. Five crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering data are reported, including the first crystal structure of any ALDH7 family member complexed with α-aminoadipate. The product binds with the ε-carboxylate in the oxyanion hole, the aliphatic chain packed into an aromatic box, and the distal end of the product anchored by electrostatic interactions with five conserved residues. This binding mode resembles that of glutamate bound to the proline catabolic enzyme ALDH4A1. Analysis of ALDH7A1 and ALDH4A1 structures suggests key interactions that underlie substrate discrimination. Structures of apo ALDH7A1 reveal dramatic conformational differences from the product complex. Product binding is associated with a 16 Å movement of the C-terminus into the active site, which stabilizes the active conformation of the aldehyde substrate anchor loop. The fact that the C-terminus is part of the active site was hitherto unknown. Interestingly, the C-terminus and aldehyde anchor loop are disordered in a new tetragonal crystal form of the apoenzyme, implying that these parts of the enzyme are highly flexible. Our results suggest that the active site of ALDH7A1 is disassembled when the aldehyde site is vacant, and the C-terminus is a mobile element that forms quaternary structural interactions that aid aldehyde binding. These results are relevant to the c.1512delG genetic deletion associated with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, which alters the C-terminus of ALDH7A1. PMID:26260980

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  2. The effects of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases on disorders of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Clay; Gasparetto, Maura; Jordan, Craig; Pollyea, Daniel A; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoiesis involves the orderly production of millions of blood cells per second from a small number of essential bone marrow cells termed hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Ethanol suppresses normal hematopoiesis resulting in leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and may also predispose to the development of diseases such as myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute leukemia. Currently the exact mechanisms by which ethanol perturbs hematopoiesis are unclear. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene family plays a major role in the metabolism of reactive aldehydes derived from ethanol in the liver and other organs. At least one of the ALDH isoforms, ALDH1A1, is expressed at high levels in HSCs in humans, mice, and other organisms. Recent data indicate that ALDH1A1 and possibly other ALDH isoforms may metabolize reactive aldehydes in HSCs and other hematopoietic cells as they do in the liver and elsewhere. In addition, loss of these ALDHs leads to perturbation of a variety of cell processes that may predispose HSCs to disorders in growth and leukemic transformation. From these findings, we suggest a hypothesis that the cytopenias and possible increased risk of MDS and acute leukemia in heavy alcohol users is due to polymorphisms in genes responsible for metabolism of alcohol derived reactive aldehydes and repair of their DNA adducts in HSCs and other hematopoietic cells. In the article, we will summarize the biological properties of hematopoietic cells and diseases related to ethanol consumption, discuss molecular characteristics of ethanol metabolism, and describe a model to explain how ethanol derived reactive aldehydes may promote HSC damage. PMID:25427917

  3. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3-8), the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  4. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOxphotooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Wood, Andrew J.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried outgenome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species—including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  6. Biosynthesis of fatty acid derived aldehydes is induced upon mechanical wounding and its products show fungicidal activities in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kenji; Minami, Akari; Hornung, Ellen; Shibata, Hidetoshi; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Ahnert, Volker; Kindl, Helmut; Kajiwara, Tadahiko; Feussner, Ivo

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-HPL) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form C9- or C6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. In order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-HPL, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-HPL expression was developmentally regulated and high in the hypocotyls, female flowers and mature fruits. However, its transcript as well as its activity was only induced by mechanical wounding in mature leaves. To analyze the biosynthesis of HPL-derived aldehydes in more detail we isolated and characterized the yet missing 9-lipoxygenase (LOX) that is mainly expressed in hypocotyls, cotyledons and flowers and that may provide HPL with fatty acid 9-hydroperoxides as substrates. As in the case with C6-aldehydes in most plant species, C9-aldehydes were also formed rapidly after disruption of the tissues. C9-aldehydes had fungicidal activities against fungal pathogens, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum. Because the concentration needed to cause toxic effect on the pathogens was almost equivalent to that found in disrupted tissues, the C9-aldehydes thus formed could be helpful to sterilize the wounds since they are less volatile in comparison to C6-aldehydes. PMID:16497344

  7. Effects of aldehydes and methods of cross-linking on properties of calcium alginate microspheres prepared by emulsification.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul W S

    2002-03-01

    Calcium alginate microspheres were prepared by an emulsification method and cross-linked with various aldehydes using different methods. Methanal and pentanedial produced low aggregation of microspheres while octanal and octadecanal produced the opposite effect. The latter two aldehydes displaced very little calcium ions from the alginate microspheres, indicating that the aggregation was due to the tackiness imparted by the aldehydes to the microsphere surface. Higuchi's model was not applicable to the drug release from microspheres in this study. The microspheres treated with methanal or pentanedial showed comparable dissolution T75% values which were significantly higher than that of the control. In contrast, octanal and octadecanal produced microspheres with lower dissolution T75% values. The drug contents of the microspheres treated with aldehydes were significantly lower than that of the control. There was insignificant interaction between the aldehydes and the drug. However, the aldehydes were found to impart acidity to the aqueous solution to varying extents, resulting in varying drug loss from the microspheres. The properties of the microspheres were also markedly affected by the method of incorporating the aldehyde. Soaking the microspheres in methanal solution produced microspheres with marked aggregation and low drug content. PMID:11808537

  8. Effects of aldehydes and methods of cross-linking on properties of calcium alginate microspheres prepared by emulsification.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul W S

    2002-03-01

    Calcium alginate microspheres were prepared by an emulsification method and cross-linked with various aldehydes using different methods. Methanal and pentanedial produced low aggregation of microspheres while octanal and octadecanal produced the opposite effect. The latter two aldehydes displaced very little calcium ions from the alginate microspheres, indicating that the aggregation was due to the tackiness imparted by the aldehydes to the microsphere surface. Higuchi's model was not applicable to the drug release from microspheres in this study. The microspheres treated with methanal or pentanedial showed comparable dissolution T75% values which were significantly higher than that of the control. In contrast, octanal and octadecanal produced microspheres with lower dissolution T75% values. The drug contents of the microspheres treated with aldehydes were significantly lower than that of the control. There was insignificant interaction between the aldehydes and the drug. However, the aldehydes were found to impart acidity to the aqueous solution to varying extents, resulting in varying drug loss from the microspheres. The properties of the microspheres were also markedly affected by the method of incorporating the aldehyde. Soaking the microspheres in methanal solution produced microspheres with marked aggregation and low drug content.

  9. Reductions of aldehydes and ketones with a readily available N-heterocyclic carbene borane and acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Vladimir; Pan, Xiangcheng

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acetic acid promotes the reduction of aldehydes and ketones by the readily available N-heterocyclic carbene borane, 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene borane. Aldehydes are reduced over 1–24 h at room temperature with 1 equiv of acetic acid and 0.5 equiv of the NHC-borane. Ketone reductions are slower but can be accelerated by using 5 equiv of acetic acid. Aldehydes can be selectively reduced in the presence of ketones. On a small scale, products are isolated by evaporation of the reaction mixture and direct chromatography. PMID:23616812

  10. Correlation of loss of activity of human aldehyde dehydrogenase with reaction of bromoacetophenone with glutamic acid-268 and cysteine-302 residues. Partial-sites reactivity of aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Abriola, D P; MacKerell, A D; Pietruszko, R

    1990-01-01

    Bromoacetophenone (2-bromo-1-phenylethanone) has been characterized as an affinity reagent for human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) [MacKerell, MacWright & Pietruszko (1986) Biochemistry 25, 5182-5189], and has been shown to react specifically with the Glu-268 residue [Abriola, Fields, Stein, MacKerell & Pietruszko (1987) Biochemistry 26, 5679-5684] with an apparent inactivation stoichiometry of two molecules of bromoacetophenone per molecule of enzyme. The specificity of bromoacetophenone for reaction with Glu-268, however, is not absolute, owing to the extreme reactivity of this reagent. When bromo[14C]acetophenone was used to label the human cytoplasmic E1 isoenzyme radioactively and tryptic fragmentation was carried out, peptides besides that containing Glu-268 were found to have reacted with reagent. These peptides were purified by h.p.l.c. and analysed by sequencing and scintillation counting to quantify radioactive label in the material from each cycle of sequencing. Reaction of bromoacetophenone with the aldehyde dehydrogenase molecule during enzyme activity loss occurs with two residues, Glu-268 and Cys-302. The activity loss, however, appears to be proportional to incorporation of label at Glu-268. The large part of incorporation of label at Cys-302 occurs after the activity loss is essentially complete. With both Glu-268 and Cys-302, however, the incorporation of label stops after one molecule of bromoacetophenone has reacted with each residue. Reaction with other residues continues after activity loss is complete. PMID:1968743

  11. Gas phase fragmentation of eta2 coordinated aldehydes in [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-: aldehyde structure dictates the nature of the products.

    PubMed

    Waters, Tom; Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2009-09-28

    The gas phase fragmentation reactions of eta2 coordinated aldehydes in [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]-, which have previously been shown to play a role in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, were examined using a combination of isotope labelling experiments and collision induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The experimental data were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The types of fragmentation reactions observed depend on the nature of the R group. When R = H, the dominant fragmentation channel involves formation of [VO2H2]-via loss of CO. Minor losses of H2 and CH2O are also observed. When R = Me, loss of H2 is observed to give rise to an ion at m/z 125 corresponding to the formula [V, O3, C2, H2]-. DFT calculations on the [VO2(eta2-OCHR)]- and their CID reaction products have identified minimum energy structures for all reactants and products involved. DFT calculations also provided insights into key intermediates on the potential energy surface associated with these fragmentation reactions, including: [(H2)VO2(CO)]- in the case of R = H; and [HVO2(eta1-OCHCH2)]- in the case of R = Me. The results presented provide insights into potential side reactions occurring during catalysis of alcohols over vanadium oxides, for instance, the over-oxidation of methanol to carbon monoxide. PMID:19727457

  12. Enantio- and diastereodivergent dual catalysis: α-allylation of branched aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Simon; Sarlah, David; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2013-05-31

    An important challenge in asymmetric synthesis is the development of fully stereodivergent strategies to access the full complement of stereoisomers of products bearing multiple stereocenters. In the ideal case, where four products are possible, applying distinct catalysts to the same set of starting materials under identical conditions would in a single step afford any given stereoisomer. Herein, we describe the realization of this concept in a fully stereodivergent dual-catalytic synthesis of γ,δ-unsaturated aldehydes bearing vicinal quaternary/tertiary stereogenic centers. The reaction is enabled by chiral iridium and amine catalysts, which activate the allylic alcohol and aldehyde substrates, respectively. Each catalyst exerts high local stereocontrol irrespective of the other's inherent preference. PMID:23723229

  13. Aldehyde-mannan antigen complexes target the MHC class I antigen-presentation pathway.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, V; Pietersz, G A; Gordon, S; Martinez-Pomares, L; McKenzie, I F

    2000-06-01

    Antigens such as MUC1 coupled to oxidized mannan lead to rapid and efficient MHC class I presentation to CD8+ cells and a preferential T1 response; after reduction there is class II presentation and a T2 immune response. We now show that the selective advantage of the oxidized mannan-MUC1 is due to the presence of aldehydes and not Schiff bases, and that oxidized mannan-MUC1 binds to the mannose and not scavenger receptors and is internalized and presented by MHC class I molecules 1,000 times more efficiently than when reduced. After internalization there is rapid access to the class I pathway via endosomes but not lysosomes, proteasomal processing and transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and cell surface. Aldehydes cause rapid entry into the class I pathway, and can therefore direct the subsequent immune response.

  14. Discovery of a novel class of covalent inhibitor for aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Mary; Chen, Che-Hong; Kimble-Hill, Ann; Parajuli, Bibek; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Kim, Jeewon; Dria, Karl; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2012-10-23

    Human aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a family of 17 homologous enzymes that metabolize different biogenic and exogenic aldehydes. To date, there are relatively few general ALDH inhibitors that can be used to probe the contribution of this class of enzymes to particular metabolic pathways. Here, we report the discovery of a general class of ALDH inhibitors with a common mechanism of action. The combined data from kinetic studies, mass spectrometric measurements, and crystallographic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors undergo an enzyme-mediated {beta}-elimination reaction generating a vinyl ketone intermediate that covalently modifies the active site cysteine residue present in these enzymes. The studies described here can provide the basis for rational approach to design ALDH isoenzyme-specific inhibitors as research tools and perhaps as drugs, to address diseases such as cancer where increased ALDH activity is associated with a cellular phenotype.

  15. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-01

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes. PMID:26752344

  16. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  17. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ke; Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2014-12-01

    The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the Csbnd C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the Cdbnd O and Csbnd OH bonds.

  18. Reconstitution of Formylglycine-generating Enzyme with Copper(II) for Aldehyde Tag Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Patrick G.; Jones, Lesley C.; Drake, Penelope M.; Barfield, Robyn M.; Bañas, Stefanie; de Hart, Gregory W.; Baker, Jeanne; Rabuka, David

    2015-01-01

    To further our aim of synthesizing aldehyde-tagged proteins for research and biotechnology applications, we developed methods for recombinant production of aerobic formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) in good yield. We then optimized the FGE biocatalytic reaction conditions for conversion of cysteine to formylglycine in aldehyde tags on intact monoclonal antibodies. During the development of these conditions, we discovered that pretreating FGE with copper(II) is required for high turnover rates and yields. After further investigation, we confirmed that both aerobic prokaryotic (Streptomyces coelicolor) and eukaryotic (Homo sapiens) FGEs contain a copper cofactor. The complete kinetic parameters for both forms of FGE are described, along with a proposed mechanism for FGE catalysis that accounts for the copper-dependent activity. PMID:25931126

  19. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-01

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes.

  20. Quantitative Fluorescent Labeling of Aldehyde-Tagged Proteins for Single-Molecule Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinghua; Jung, Yonil; Lin, Li-Jung; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Cong; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Ha, Taekjip

    2012-01-01

    A major hurdle for molecular mechanistic studies of many proteins is the lack of a general method for fluorescent labeling with high efficiency, specificity, and speed. By incorporating an aldehyde motif genetically into a protein and improving the labeling kinetics substantially under mild conditions, we achieved fast, site-specific labeling of a protein with ~100% efficiency while maintaining the biological function. We demonstrate that an aldehyde-tagged protein can be specifically labeled in cell extracts without protein purification and then can be used in single-molecule pull-down analysis. We further show the unique power of our method in a series of single-molecule studies on the transient interactions and switching between two quantitatively labeled DNA polymerases on their processivity factor. PMID:22466795

  1. Titanocene(III)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Secondary Amides, Aldehydes, and Electrophilic Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; He, Jiang; Li, Heng-Hui; Wang, Ao; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Ai-E; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    An umpolung Mannich-type reaction of secondary amides, aliphatic aldehydes, and electrophilic alkenes has been disclosed. This reaction features the one-pot formation of C-N and C-C bonds by a titanocene-catalyzed radical coupling of the condensation products, from secondary amides and aldehydes, with electrophilic alkenes. N-substituted γ-amido-acid derivatives and γ-amido ketones can be efficiently prepared by the current method. Extension to the reaction between ketoamides and electrophilic alkenes allows rapid assembly of piperidine skeletons with α-amino quaternary carbon centers. Its synthetic utility has been demonstrated by a facile construction of the tricyclic core of marine alkaloids such as cylindricine C and polycitorol A.

  2. Enantio- and diastereodivergent dual catalysis: α-allylation of branched aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Simon; Sarlah, David; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2013-05-31

    An important challenge in asymmetric synthesis is the development of fully stereodivergent strategies to access the full complement of stereoisomers of products bearing multiple stereocenters. In the ideal case, where four products are possible, applying distinct catalysts to the same set of starting materials under identical conditions would in a single step afford any given stereoisomer. Herein, we describe the realization of this concept in a fully stereodivergent dual-catalytic synthesis of γ,δ-unsaturated aldehydes bearing vicinal quaternary/tertiary stereogenic centers. The reaction is enabled by chiral iridium and amine catalysts, which activate the allylic alcohol and aldehyde substrates, respectively. Each catalyst exerts high local stereocontrol irrespective of the other's inherent preference.

  3. Generation of thiols by biotransformation of cysteine-aldehyde conjugates with baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Ba, Tuong; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Fay, Laurent B; Bel Rhlid, Rachid

    2003-06-01

    Baker's yeast was shown to catalyze the transformation of cysteine-furfural conjugate into 2-furfurylthiol. The biotransformation's yield and kinetics were influenced by the reaction parameters such as pH, incubation mode (aerobic and anaerobic), and substrate concentration. 2-Furfurylthiol was obtained in an optimal 37% yield when cysteine-furfural conjugate at a 20 mM concentration was anaerobically incubated with whole cell baker's yeast at pH 8.0 and 30 degrees C. Similarly to 2-furfurylthiol, 5-methyl-2-furfurylthiol (11%), benzylthiol (8%), 2-thiophenemethanethiol (22%), 3-methyl-2-thiophenemethanethiol (3%), and 2-pyrrolemethanethiol (6%) were obtained from the corresponding cysteine-aldehyde conjugates by incubation with baker's yeast. This work indicates the versatile bioconversion capacity of baker's yeast for the generation of thiols from cysteine-aldehyde conjugates. Thanks to its food-grade character, baker's yeast provides a biochemical tool to produce thiols, which can be used as flavorings in foods and beverages.

  4. Practical methylenation reaction for aldehydes and ketones using new Julia-type reagents.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kaori; Kobayashi, Takahisa; Uchida, Nariaki

    2015-05-15

    A new Julia-type methylenation reagent, 1-methyl-2-(methylsulfonyl)benzimidazole (1e), reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of either NaHMDS (-55 °C to rt) or t-BuOK (rt, 1 h) in DMF to give the corresponding terminal alkenes in high yields. The byproducts are easily removed, and the reaction conditions are mild and practical.

  5. Effects of aliphatic aldehydes on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Tomoyasu; Kozutsumi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ruka; Sato, Yoshio; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of 16 aliphatic aldehydes with 3-10 carbons on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum were examined. When P. expansum spores were inoculated into apple juice broth, some alkenals, including 2-propenal, (E)-2-butenal, (E)-2-pentenal, and (E)-2-hexenal, inhibited fungal growth and patulin production. Their minimal inhibitory concentrations were 5, 50, 80, and 80 µg/mL respectively. Vital staining indicated that these alkenals killed mycelia within 4 h. Treatment of the spores with these aldehydes also resulted in rapid loss of germination ability, within 0.5-2 d. On the other hand, aliphatic aldehydes with 8-10 carbons significantly enhanced patulin production without affecting fungal growth: 300 µg/mL of octanal and 100 µg/mL of (E)-2-octenal increased the patulin concentrations in the culture broth by as much as 8.6- and 7.8-fold as compared to that of the control culture respectively. The expression of the genes involved in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum was investigated in mycelia cultured in apple juice broth containing 300 µg/mL of octanal for 3.5, 5, and 7 d. Transcription of the msas gene, encoding 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase, which catalyzed the first step in the patulin biosynthetic pathway was remarkably high in the 3.5-d and 5-d-old cultures as compared with the control. However, octanal did not any increase the transcription of the msas in the 7-d-old culture or that of the other two genes, IDH and the peab1, in culture. Thus the enhanced patulin accumulation with supplementation with these aldehydes is attributable to the increased amount of the msas transcript.

  6. Electrophoretic characterization of aldehyde-fixed red blood cells, kidney cells, lynphocytes and chamber coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Ground-based electrokinetic data on the electrophoresis flight experiment to be flown on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project experiment MA-011 are stipulated. Aldehyde-fixed red blood cells, embryonic kidney cells and lymphocytes were evaluated by analytical particle electrophoresis. The results which aided in the interpretation of the final analysis of the MA-011 experiment are documented. The electrophoresis chamber surface modifications, the buffer, and the material used in the column system are also discussed.

  7. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylation of Chiral β-Stereogenic Alcohols: Bypassing Discrete Formation of Epimerizable Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Daniel C.; Dechert-Schmitt, Anne-Marie R.; Krische, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclometallated π-allyliridium 3,4-dinitro-C,O-benzoate complex modified by (R)- or (S)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP promotes the transfer hydrogenative coupling of allyl acetate to β-stereogenic alcohols with good to excellent levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity to furnish homoallylic alcohols. Remote electronic effects of the C,O-benzoate of the catalyst play a critical role in suppressing epimerization of the transient α-stereogenic aldehyde. PMID:23231774

  8. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  9. Copper-catalyst-controlled site-selective allenylation of ketones and aldehydes with propargyl boronates.

    PubMed

    Fandrick, Keith R; Ogikubo, Junichi; Fandrick, Daniel R; Patel, Nitinchandra D; Saha, Jaideep; Lee, Heewon; Ma, Shengli; Grinberg, Nelu; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2013-03-15

    A practical and highly site-selective copper-PhBPE-catalyst-controlled allenylation with propargyl boronates has been developed. The methodology has shown to be tolerant of diverse ketones and aldehydes providing the allenyl adducts in high selectivity. The BPE ligand and boronate substituents were shown to direct the site selectivity for which either propargyl or allenyl adducts can be acquired in high selectivity. A model is proposed that explains the origin of the site selectivity. PMID:23438081

  10. Nitrous oxide activation by a cobalt(ii) complex for aldehyde oxidation under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Corona, Teresa; Company, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a waste gas produced in many industrial processes with an important environmental impact. Thus, its application as an oxidant is highly desirable because it produces innocuous N2 as a by-product. In this work we report a new cobalt(ii) complex that reacts with N2O under mild conditions and the catalytic application of this system to carry out the oxidation of aldehydes. PMID:27445004

  11. Aqueous DMSO Mediated Conversion of (2-(Arylsulfonyl)vinyl)iodonium Salts to Aldehydes and Vinyl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Eman; Moran, Wesley J

    2016-01-01

    Vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts are useful compounds in organic synthesis but they are under-utilized and their chemistry is under-developed. Herein is described the solvolysis of some vinyl(phenyl)iodonium salts, bearing an arylsulfonyl group, in aqueous DMSO leading to aldehyde formation. This unusual process is selective and operates under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the addition of aqueous HCl and DMSO to these vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts allows their facile conversion to vinyl chlorides. PMID:27537866

  12. Synthesis of Tetrahydronaphthyridines from Aldehydes and HARP Reagents via Radical Pictet-Spengler Reactions.

    PubMed

    Jackl, Moritz K; Kreituss, Imants; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-15

    The combination of aldehydes with newly designed HARP (halogen amine radical protocol) reagents gives access to α-substituted tetrahydronaphthyridines. By using different HARP reagents, various regioisomeric structures can be prepared in a single operation. These products, which are of high value in medicinal chemistry, are formed in a predictable manner via a formal Pictet-Spengler reaction of electron-poor pyridines that would not participate in the corresponding polar reactions. PMID:27026179

  13. Nitrous oxide activation by a cobalt(ii) complex for aldehyde oxidation under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Corona, Teresa; Company, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a waste gas produced in many industrial processes with an important environmental impact. Thus, its application as an oxidant is highly desirable because it produces innocuous N2 as a by-product. In this work we report a new cobalt(ii) complex that reacts with N2O under mild conditions and the catalytic application of this system to carry out the oxidation of aldehydes.

  14. Coenzyme A-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, R T; Chen, J S

    1990-01-01

    Acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde are substrates for alcohol dehydrogenase in the production of ethanol and 1-butanol by solvent-producing clostridia. A coenzyme A (CoA)-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which also converts acyl-CoA to aldehyde and CoA, has been purified under anaerobic conditions from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592. The ALDH showed a native molecular weight (Mr) of 100,000 and a subunit Mr of 55,000, suggesting that ALDH is dimeric. Purified ALDH contained no alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Activities measured with acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde as alternative substrates were copurified, indicating that the same ALDH can catalyze the formation of both aldehydes for ethanol and butanol production. Based on the Km and Vmax values for acetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA, ALDH was more effective for the production of butyraldehyde than for acetaldehyde. ALDH could use either NAD(H) or NADP(H) as the coenzyme, but the Km for NAD(H) was much lower than that for NADP(H). Kinetic data suggest a ping-pong mechanism for the reaction. ALDH was more stable in Tris buffer than in phosphate buffer. The apparent optimum pH was between 6.5 and 7 for the forward reaction (the physiological direction; aldehyde forming), and it was 9.5 or higher for the reverse reaction (acyl-CoA forming). The ratio of NAD(H)/NADP(H)-linked activities increased with decreasing pH. ALDH was O2 sensitive, but it could be protected against O2 inactivation by dithiothreitol. The O2-inactivated enzyme could be reactivated by incubating the enzyme with CoA in the presence or absence of dithiothreitol prior to assay. Images PMID:2275527

  15. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 reveals mechanisms of tolerance and detoxification of phenolic aldehyde inhibitors from lignocellulose pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Phenolic aldehydes generated from lignocellulose pretreatment exhibited severe toxic inhibitions on microbial growth and fermentation. Numerous tolerance studies against furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), acetate, and ethanol were reported, but studies on inhibition of phenol...

  17. A gatekeeper helix determines the substrate specificity of Sjögren–Larsson Syndrome enzyme fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Markus A.; Zander, Ulrich; Fuchs, Julian E.; Kreutz, Christoph; Watschinger, Katrin; Mueller, Thomas; Golderer, Georg; Liedl, Klaus R.; Ralser, Markus; Kräutler, Bernhard; Werner, Ernst R.; Marquez, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for membrane-bound fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) lead to toxic accumulation of lipid species and development of the Sjögren–Larsson Syndrome (SLS), a rare disorder characterized by skin defects and mental retardation. Here, we present the crystallographic structure of human FALDH, the first model of a membrane-associated aldehyde dehydrogenase. The dimeric FALDH displays a previously unrecognized element in its C-terminal region, a ‘gatekeeper’ helix, which extends over the adjacent subunit, controlling the access to the substrate cavity and helping orientate both substrate cavities towards the membrane surface for efficient substrate transit between membranes and catalytic site. Activity assays demonstrate that the gatekeeper helix is important for directing the substrate specificity of FALDH towards long-chain fatty aldehydes. The gatekeeper feature is conserved across membrane-associated aldehyde dehydrogenases. Finally, we provide insight into the previously elusive molecular basis of SLS-causing mutations. PMID:25047030

  18. An insight into the mechanism of the aerobic oxidation of aldehydes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, O; Chiappe, C; Fogagnolo, M; Giovannini, P P; Massi, A; Pomelli, C S; Ragno, D

    2014-02-25

    N-Heterocyclic carbene catalysis for the aerobic oxidation and esterification of aromatic aldehydes was monitored by ESI-MS (MS/MS) and the key intermediates were intercepted and characterized using the charge-tag strategy. PMID:24413829

  19. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenhove, Lauren D; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Weinberg, Kenneth I

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment depends on the ability to metabolize exogenously and endogenously generated toxins, and to repair cellular damage caused by such toxins. Reactive aldehydes have been demonstrated to cause specific genotoxic injury, namely DNA interstrand cross-links. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of a 19 isoenzyme ALDH family with different substrate specificities, subcellular localization, and patterns of expression. ALDH2 is localized in mitochondria and is essential for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby placing it directly downstream of ethanol metabolism. Deficiency in ALDH2 expression and function are caused by a single nucleotide substitution and resulting amino acid change, called ALDH2*2. This genetic polymorphism affects 35-45% of East Asians (about ~560 million people), and causes the well-known Asian flushing syndrome, which results in disulfiram-like reactions after ethanol consumption. Recently, the ALDH2*2 genotype has been found to be associated with marrow failure, with both an increased risk of sporadic aplastic anemia and more rapid progression of Fanconi anemia. This review discusses the unexpected interrelationship between aldehydes, ALDH2 and hematopoietic stem cell biology, and in particular its relationship to Fanconi anemia. PMID:27650066

  20. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Stress Response Induced by Diatom Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  1. Lung morphometry changes in prevention of airway remodeling by protocatechuic aldehyde in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiankai; Ma, Mulan; Qin, Dongyun; Huang, Jianping; Cui, Xiaojun; Wu, Yongfu; Yang, Huiling; Fu, Hui; Liao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling can lead to irreversible airflow obstruction and persistent airway hyper-responsiveness, which is the pathological basis of refractory asthma. To investigate the preventive effect of protocatechuic aldehyde on airway remodeling in asthmatic mice by lung morphometry methods. BALB/c mice were used to establish model of airway remodeling by ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for eosinophils (EOS) count and detection of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon (IFN-γ) content. The left lung pathological sections were performed HE, AB-PAS and Masson staining. The epithelial lamina thickness of the left main bronchus (Re), the smooth muscle layer thickness (Rm), the number of goblet cells and goblet cell area percentage (%Ac) and gas side of the road and vascular collagen deposition (%Aco, %Avc) situation were measured. Protocatechuic aldehyde gavage made the reduction of BALF EOS count. IL-4 and IL-13 levels also decreased, while the IFN-γ level increased. The left main bronchus Re, Rm, goblet cell count, Ac% and Aco% and Avc% reduced. Protocatechuic aldehyde can significantly control airway inflammation and prevent airway remodeling. PMID:26221226

  2. Preparation and characterisation of gelatin-gum arabic aldehyde nanogels via inverse miniemulsion technique.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin-gum arabic aldehyde nanogels designed by a nanoreactor concept using inverse miniemulsion technique were reported. Stable separate miniemulsions were prepared from gelatin (Gel) and gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). These emulsions were intermixed under sonication to obtain cross-linked nanogels. During fusion, cross-linking occurred between aldehyde groups of GAA and amino groups of gelatin. The concentration of the surfactant and weight fraction of water in the inverse miniemulsion was optimised so as to yield nanogels with controlled particle size. Properties of the nanogels were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and XRD. Surface morphology of the nanogels was established by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM and particle size analysis confirmed that nanogels possess spherical morphology with an average diameter of 151 ± 6 nm. Hemolysis property of the nanogels was examined and the results indicated that the nanogels were hemocompatible. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the nanogels towards MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay and the nanogels showed nontoxic behaviour towards the cells. All these studies confirm that these nanogels are potential candidates in applications such as drug and gene delivery.

  3. Aldehydes and sugars from evolved precometary ice analogs: importance of ices in astrochemical and prebiotic evolution.

    PubMed

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Meinert, Cornelia; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Nahon, Laurent; Buhse, Thomas; d'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-01-27

    Evolved interstellar ices observed in dense protostellar molecular clouds may arguably be considered as part of precometary materials that will later fall on primitive telluric planets, bringing a wealth of complex organic compounds. In our laboratory, experiments reproducing the photo/thermochemical evolution of these ices are routinely performed. Following previous amino acid identifications in the resulting room temperature organic residues, we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected 10 aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde--two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment. The presence of ammonia in water and methanol ice mixtures appears essential for the recovery of these aldehydes in the refractory organic residue at room temperature, although these products are free of nitrogen. We finally point out the importance of detecting aldehydes and sugars in extraterrestrial environments, in the gas phase of hot molecular clouds, and, more importantly, in comets and in primitive meteorites that have most probably seeded the Earth with organic material as early as 4.2 billion years ago. PMID:25583475

  4. 'Dopamine-first' mechanism enables the rational engineering of the norcoclaurine synthase aldehyde activity profile.

    PubMed

    Lichman, Benjamin R; Gershater, Markus C; Lamming, Eleanor D; Pesnot, Thomas; Sula, Altin; Keep, Nicholas H; Hailes, Helen C; Ward, John M

    2015-03-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) (EC 4.2.1.78) catalyzes the Pictet-Spengler condensation of dopamine and an aldehyde, forming a substituted (S)-tetrahydroisoquinoline, a pharmaceutically important moiety. This unique activity has led to NCS being used for both in vitro biocatalysis and in vivo recombinant metabolism. Future engineering of NCS activity to enable the synthesis of diverse tetrahydroisoquinolines is dependent on an understanding of the NCS mechanism and kinetics. We assess two proposed mechanisms for NCS activity: (a) one based on the holo X-ray crystal structure and (b) the 'dopamine-first' mechanism based on computational docking. Thalictrum flavum NCS variant activities support the dopamine-first mechanism. Suppression of the non-enzymatic background reaction reveals novel kinetic parameters for NCS, showing it to act with low catalytic efficiency. This kinetic behaviour can account for the ineffectiveness of recombinant NCS in in vivo systems, and also suggests NCS may have an in planta role as a metabolic gatekeeper. The amino acid substitution L76A, situated in the proposed aldehyde binding site, results in the alteration of the enzyme's aldehyde activity profile. This both verifies the dopamine-first mechanism and demonstrates the potential for the rational engineering of NCS activity. PMID:25620686

  5. Aldehydes and sugars from evolved precometary ice analogs: importance of ices in astrochemical and prebiotic evolution.

    PubMed

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Meinert, Cornelia; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Nahon, Laurent; Buhse, Thomas; d'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-01-27

    Evolved interstellar ices observed in dense protostellar molecular clouds may arguably be considered as part of precometary materials that will later fall on primitive telluric planets, bringing a wealth of complex organic compounds. In our laboratory, experiments reproducing the photo/thermochemical evolution of these ices are routinely performed. Following previous amino acid identifications in the resulting room temperature organic residues, we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected 10 aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde--two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment. The presence of ammonia in water and methanol ice mixtures appears essential for the recovery of these aldehydes in the refractory organic residue at room temperature, although these products are free of nitrogen. We finally point out the importance of detecting aldehydes and sugars in extraterrestrial environments, in the gas phase of hot molecular clouds, and, more importantly, in comets and in primitive meteorites that have most probably seeded the Earth with organic material as early as 4.2 billion years ago.

  6. Iron(III)-catalyzed cyclization of alkynyl aldehyde acetals: experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongyu; Yang, Qin; Li, Dongpo; Dong, Jinhua; Yu, Zhengkun; Li, Yuxue

    2010-08-01

    FeCl(3)6 H(2)O- and FeBr(3)-catalyzed Prins cyclization/halogenation of alkynyl aldehyde acetals has been realized with acetyl chloride or bromide as halogen source in dichloromethane to afford 2-(1-halobenzylidene or alkylidene)-substituted five-membered carbo- and heterocycles, and thus provides an alternative route for vinylic C-Cl and C-Br bond formation. Five- to eight-membered cyclic enones were efficiently synthesized by FeCl(3)6.H(2)O-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of alkynyl aldehyde acetals in acetone under mild conditions. An oxocarbonium species generated in situ is proposed to initiate the reaction, and the target products are formed via vinylogous carbenium cation and oxete intermediates according to DFT calculations. Intermolecular reactions of alkynes and aldehyde acetals were also investigated with 20-40 mol% FeCl(3)6.H(2)O catalyst, and produced alpha,beta-unsaturated enones and chlorinated indene derivatives. The present protocol has applications in the synthesis of carbo-, oxa- and azacycles. PMID:20583061

  7. Aldehydes and sugars from evolved precometary ice analogs: Importance of ices in astrochemical and prebiotic evolution

    PubMed Central

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Meinert, Cornelia; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Nahon, Laurent; Buhse, Thomas; d’Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolved interstellar ices observed in dense protostellar molecular clouds may arguably be considered as part of precometary materials that will later fall on primitive telluric planets, bringing a wealth of complex organic compounds. In our laboratory, experiments reproducing the photo/thermochemical evolution of these ices are routinely performed. Following previous amino acid identifications in the resulting room temperature organic residues, we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected 10 aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde—two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment. The presence of ammonia in water and methanol ice mixtures appears essential for the recovery of these aldehydes in the refractory organic residue at room temperature, although these products are free of nitrogen. We finally point out the importance of detecting aldehydes and sugars in extraterrestrial environments, in the gas phase of hot molecular clouds, and, more importantly, in comets and in primitive meteorites that have most probably seeded the Earth with organic material as early as 4.2 billion years ago. PMID:25583475

  8. Characterization of Two Distinct Structural Classes of Selective Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Cynthia A.; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acid. Alterations in ALDH1A1 activity are associated with such diverse diseases as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, obesity, and cataracts. Inhibitors of ALDH1A1 could aid in illuminating the role of this enzyme in disease processes. However, there are no commercially available selective inhibitors for ALDH1A1. Here we characterize two distinct chemical classes of inhibitors that are selective for human ALDH1A1 compared to eight other ALDH isoenzymes. The prototypical members of each structural class, CM026 and CM037, exhibit sub-micromolar inhibition constants, but have different mechanisms of inhibition. The crystal structures of these compounds bound to ALDH1A1 demonstrate that they bind within the aldehyde binding pocket of ALDH1A1 and exploit the presence of a unique Glycine residue to achieve their selectivity. These two novel and selective ALDH1A1 inhibitors may serve as chemical tools to better understand the contributions of ALDH1A1 to normal biology and to disease states. PMID:25634381

  9. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects.

  10. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bilgihan, K.; Bilgihan, A.; Turkozkan, N.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The free radical balance of the eye may be changed by excimer laser keratectomy. Previous studies have demonstrated that excimer laser keratectomy increases the corneal temperature, decreases the superoxide dismutase activity of the aqueous, and induces lipid peroxidation in the superficial corneal stroma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are known to play an important role in corneal metabolism, particularly in detoxification of aldehydes, which are generated from free radical reactions.
METHODS—In three groups of guinea pigs mechanical corneal de-epithelialisation was performed in group I, superficial corneal photoablation in group II, and deep corneal photoablation in group III, and the corneal ALDH and GST activities measured after 48 hours.
RESULTS—The mean ALDH and GST activities of group I and II showed no differences compared with the controls (p>0.05). The corneal ALDH activities were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) and GST activities increased (p<0.05) in group III.
CONCLUSION—These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea.

 Keywords: excimer laser keratectomy; aldehyde dehydrogenase; glutathione S-transferase PMID:9602629

  11. ‘Dopamine-first’ mechanism enables the rational engineering of the norcoclaurine synthase aldehyde activity profile

    PubMed Central

    Lichman, Benjamin R; Gershater, Markus C; Lamming, Eleanor D; Pesnot, Thomas; Sula, Altin; Keep, Nicholas H; Hailes, Helen C; Ward, John M

    2015-01-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) (EC 4.2.1.78) catalyzes the Pictet–Spengler condensation of dopamine and an aldehyde, forming a substituted (S)-tetrahydroisoquinoline, a pharmaceutically important moiety. This unique activity has led to NCS being used for both in vitro biocatalysis and in vivo recombinant metabolism. Future engineering of NCS activity to enable the synthesis of diverse tetrahydroisoquinolines is dependent on an understanding of the NCS mechanism and kinetics. We assess two proposed mechanisms for NCS activity: (a) one based on the holo X-ray crystal structure and (b) the ‘dopamine-first’ mechanism based on computational docking. Thalictrum flavum NCS variant activities support the dopamine-first mechanism. Suppression of the non-enzymatic background reaction reveals novel kinetic parameters for NCS, showing it to act with low catalytic efficiency. This kinetic behaviour can account for the ineffectiveness of recombinant NCS in in vivo systems, and also suggests NCS may have an in planta role as a metabolic gatekeeper. The amino acid substitution L76A, situated in the proposed aldehyde binding site, results in the alteration of the enzyme's aldehyde activity profile. This both verifies the dopamine-first mechanism and demonstrates the potential for the rational engineering of NCS activity. PMID:25620686

  12. Sources of formaldehyde, other aldehydes and terpenes in a new manufactured house.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, A T; Beal, D; McIlvaine, J E R

    2002-12-01

    Formaldehyde, less volatile aldehydes, and terpene hydrocarbons are generally the predominant air contaminants in new manufactured and site-built houses. This study was conducted to identify the major sources of these compounds in a typically constructed, new manufactured house and to evaluate several source reduction practices. Specimens of materials used within the house were collected. These were individually pre-conditioned for 19 +/- 4 days, and tested for emissions of formaldehyde and other target compounds using small-scale chambers. Several cabinetry materials, passage doors, and the plywood subfloor were the predominant sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes. The plywood subfloor was the predominant terpene source. Whole-house emission rates for combined materials were predicted based on the emission factors and the corresponding material quantities. These predicted rates were compared with whole-house emission rates derived from measurements made at the house 3 months after its installation. For 10 of 14 target compounds including formaldehyde, the predicted and derived rates were within a factor of two. Four emission barriers applied to plywood were shown to reduce emission factors for formaldehyde, hexanal, and other aldehydes.

  13. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  14. Evidence that Additions of Grignard Reagents to Aliphatic Aldehydes Do Not Involve Single-Electron-Transfer Processes.

    PubMed

    Otte, Douglas A L; Woerpel, K A

    2015-08-01

    Addition of allylmagnesium reagents to an aliphatic aldehyde bearing a radical clock gave only addition products and no evidence of ring-opened products that would suggest single-electron-transfer reactions. The analogous Barbier reaction also did not provide evidence for a single-electron-transfer mechanism in the addition step. Other Grignard reagents (methyl-, vinyl-, t-Bu-, and triphenylmethylmagnesium halides) also do not appear to add to an alkyl aldehyde by a single-electron-transfer mechanism. PMID:26214553

  15. Asymmetric trifluoromethylation of aromatic aldehydes by cooperative catalysis with (IPr)CuF and quinidine-derived quaternary ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoxiang; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qi; Chen, Fu-Xue

    2012-12-21

    A general enantioselective trifluoromethylation of aldehydes has been developed using (IPr)CuF and quinidine-derived quaternary ammonium salt as the cooperative catalyst. Thus, a wide range of aromatic aldehydes have been converted to the corresponding products in up to 92% yield and 81% ee at 2 mol% of catalyst loading. The greatly enhanced activity and enantioselectivity result from the initiative generation of active [(IPr)CuCF(3)] as well as additional coordination activation of other copper species. PMID:23085678

  16. Aerobic Copper-Promoted Radical-Type Cleavage of Coordinated Cyanide Anion: Nitrogen Transfer to Aldehydes To Form Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Luo, Yi; Lei, Aiwen; You, Jingsong

    2016-03-01

    We have disclosed for the first time the copper-promoted C≡N triple bond cleavage of coordinated cyanide anion under a dioxygen atmosphere, which enables a nitrogen transfer to various aldehydes. Mechanistic study of this unprecedented transformation suggests that the single electron-transfer process could be involved in the overall course. This protocol provides a new cleavage pattern for the cyanide ion and would eventually lead to a more useful synthetic pathway to nitriles from aldehydes. PMID:26907853

  17. Kinetics of Forming Aldehydes in Frying Oils and Their Distribution in French Fries Revealed by LC-MS-Based Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Csallany, A Saari; Kerr, Brian J; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the kinetics of aldehyde formation in heated frying oils was characterized by 2-hydrazinoquinoline derivatization, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The aldehydes contributing to time-dependent separation of heated soybean oil (HSO) in a PCA model were grouped by the HCA into three clusters (A1, A2, and B) on the basis of their kinetics and fatty acid precursors. The increases of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the A2-to-B ratio in HSO were well-correlated with the duration of thermal stress. Chemometric and quantitative analysis of three frying oils (soybean, corn, and canola oils) and French fry extracts further supported the associations between aldehyde profiles and fatty acid precursors and also revealed that the concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, acrolein, and the A2-to-B ratio in French fry extracts were more comparable to their values in the frying oils than other unsaturated aldehydes. All of these results suggest the roles of specific aldehydes or aldehyde clusters as novel markers of the lipid oxidation status for frying oils or fried foods.

  18. Kinetics of Forming Aldehydes in Frying Oils and Their Distribution in French Fries Revealed by LC-MS-Based Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Csallany, A Saari; Kerr, Brian J; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the kinetics of aldehyde formation in heated frying oils was characterized by 2-hydrazinoquinoline derivatization, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The aldehydes contributing to time-dependent separation of heated soybean oil (HSO) in a PCA model were grouped by the HCA into three clusters (A1, A2, and B) on the basis of their kinetics and fatty acid precursors. The increases of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the A2-to-B ratio in HSO were well-correlated with the duration of thermal stress. Chemometric and quantitative analysis of three frying oils (soybean, corn, and canola oils) and French fry extracts further supported the associations between aldehyde profiles and fatty acid precursors and also revealed that the concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, acrolein, and the A2-to-B ratio in French fry extracts were more comparable to their values in the frying oils than other unsaturated aldehydes. All of these results suggest the roles of specific aldehydes or aldehyde clusters as novel markers of the lipid oxidation status for frying oils or fried foods. PMID:27128101

  19. Alkane biosynthesis by decarbonylation of aldehyde catalyzed by a microsomal preparation from Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M W; Kolattukudy, P E

    1991-06-01

    The final step in the synthesis of n-hydrocarbons in an animal and a higher plant involves enzymatic decarbonylation of aldehydes to the corresponding alkanes by loss of the carbonyl carbon. Whether such a novel reaction is involved in hydrocarbon synthesis in the colonial microalga, Botryococcus braunii, which is known to produce unusually high levels (up to 32% of dry weight) of n-C27, C29, and C31 alka-dienes and -trienes, was investigated. Dithioerythritol severely inhibited the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into these hydrocarbons with accumulation of the label in the aldehyde fraction in the B. braunii cells. Microsomal preparations of the alga synthesized alkane from fatty acid and aldehyde in the absence of O2. Conversion of fatty acid to alkane required CoA, ATP, and NADH, whereas conversion of aldehyde to alkane did not require the addition of cofactors. That the alkane synthesis involves a decarbonylation was shown by the production of CO and heptadecane from octadecanal. CO was identified by adsorption to RhCl[(C6H6)3P]3. The decarbonylase had a pH optimum at 7.0, an apparent Km of 65 microM, a Vmax of 1.36 nmol/min/mg and was inhibited by the metal chelators EDTA, O-phenanthroline and 8-hydroxyquinoline. It was stimulated nearly threefold by 2 mM ascorbate and inhibited by the presence of O2. A partial (28%) retention of the aldehydic hydrogen of [1-3H]octadecanal in the heptadecane was observed; the remaining 3H was lost to H2O. The microsomal preparation also catalyzed the oxidation of 14CO to 14CO2, with a pH optimum of 7.0. This accounts for the nonstoichiometry of CO to heptadecane observed. In vivo studies with 14CO showed that the label was incorporated into metabolic products. This metabolic conversion of CO, not found in the previously examined hydrocarbon synthesizing systems, may be necessary for organisms that produce large amounts of hydrocarbons such as the present alga. The mechanism of the decarbonylation and the nature of the

  20. Distinct Roles of Jasmonates and Aldehydes in Plant-Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chehab, E. Wassim; Kaspi, Roy; Savchenko, Tatyana; Rowe, Heather; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Kliebenstein, Dan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2008-01-01

    Background Many inducible plant-defense responses are activated by jasmonates (JAs), C6-aldehydes, and their corresponding derivatives, produced by the two main competing branches of the oxylipin pathway, the allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) branches, respectively. In addition to competition for substrates, these branch-pathway-derived metabolites have substantial overlap in regulation of gene expression. Past experiments to define the role of C6-aldehydes in plant defense responses were biased towards the exogenous application of the synthetic metabolites or the use of genetic manipulation of HPL expression levels in plant genotypes with intact ability to produce the competing AOS-derived metabolites. To uncouple the roles of the C6-aldehydes and jasmonates in mediating direct and indirect plant-defense responses, we generated Arabidopsis genotypes lacking either one or both of these metabolites. These genotypes were subsequently challenged with a phloem-feeding insect (aphids: Myzus persicae), an insect herbivore (leafminers: Liriomyza trifolii), and two different necrotrophic fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola). We also characterized the volatiles emitted by these plants upon aphid infestation or mechanical wounding and identified hexenyl acetate as the predominant compound in these volatile blends. Subsequently, we examined the signaling role of this compound in attracting the parasitoid wasp (Aphidius colemani), a natural enemy of aphids. Principal Findings This study conclusively establishes that jasmonates and C6-aldehydes play distinct roles in plant defense responses. The jasmonates are indispensable metabolites in mediating the activation of direct plant-defense responses, whereas the C6-aldehyes are not. On the other hand, hexenyl acetate, an acetylated C6-aldehyde, is the predominant wound-inducible volatile signal that mediates indirect defense responses by directing tritrophic (plant

  1. Rate constants for aqueous-phase reactions of hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) with aldehydes and ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.M.; Allen, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A wide variety of aldehydes and ketones are formed in the troposphere by the gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons. These compounds are expected to readily partition into cloud, fog, and aquated aerosol drops where they can participate in a variety of aqueous-phase reactions. It has been previously demonstrated by other researchers that aqueous-phase photochemical reactions involving aromatic aldehydes and ketones may lead to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidant for S(IV) and is also an {center_dot}OH precursor. Aldehydes and ketones may also participate in other aqueous-phase reactions within atmospheric water drops including reactions with {center_dot}OH. Rate constants for reactions involving {center_dot}OH in aqueous solutions have been reported for only a limited number of tropospheric aldehydes and ketones. The authors have measured the rate constants for aqueous-phase reactions of {center_dot}OH with several tropospheric aldehydes and ketones by the technique of competition kinetics. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by continuous illumination at 313 nm of an aqueous acidified solution containing Fe(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}, an {center_dot}OH scavenger, the aldehyde or ketone whose rate constant was to be measured, and a standard for which the rate constant for reaction with {center_dot}OH is well known. Nitrobenzene was used as the standard in all experiments. Loss of the aldehyde or ketone and the standard were monitored by HPLC. Losses attributable to direct photolysis and dark reactions were minimal.

  2. Identification of long chain specific aldehyde reductase and its use in enhanced fatty alcohol production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Zia; Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-09-01

    Long chain fatty alcohols have wide application in chemical industries and transportation sector. There is no direct natural reservoir for long chain fatty alcohol production, thus many groups explored metabolic engineering approaches for its microbial production. Escherichia coli has been the major microbial platform for this effort, however, terminal endogenous enzyme responsible for converting fatty aldehydes of chain length C14-C18 to corresponding fatty alcohols is still been elusive. Through our in silico analysis we selected 35 endogenous enzymes of E. coli having potential of converting long chain fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols and studied their role under in vivo condition. We found that deletion of ybbO gene, which encodes NADP(+) dependent aldehyde reductase, led to >90% reduction in long chain fatty alcohol production. This feature was found to be strain transcending and reinstalling ybbO gene via plasmid retained the ability of mutant to produce long chain fatty alcohols. Enzyme kinetic study revealed that YbbO has wide substrate specificity ranging from C6 to C18 aldehyde, with maximum affinity and efficiency for C18 and C16 chain length aldehyde, respectively. Along with endogenous production of fatty aldehyde via optimized heterologous expression of cyanobaterial acyl-ACP reductase (AAR), YbbO overexpression resulted in 169mg/L of long chain fatty alcohols. Further engineering involving modulation of fatty acid as well as of phospholipid biosynthesis pathway improved fatty alcohol production by 60%. Finally, the engineered strain produced 1989mg/L of long chain fatty alcohol in bioreactor under fed-batch cultivation condition. Our study shows for the first time a predominant role of a single enzyme in production of long chain fatty alcohols from fatty aldehydes as well as of modulation of phospholipid pathway in increasing the fatty alcohol production.

  3. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24h LD(50) values of 7 and 20 microM for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 microM of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24h LD(50) of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 microM of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24h LD(50) of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 microM zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 microM copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed. PMID:15927283

  4. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jaewoong; Liu, Z Lewis

    2015-04-01

    The aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of an intermediate subfamily within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily that clarified mechanisms of in situ detoxification of 2-furaldehyde and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) are common among tolerant candidate genes identified for lignocellulose-to-advanced biofuels conversion. This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde-inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co-factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a characteristic catalytic triad, Ser, Tyr and Lys; a conserved catalytic motif of Tyr-X-X-X-Lys; and a cofactor-binding sequence motif, Gly-X-X-Gly-X-X-Ala, near the N-terminus that are shared by Ydr541cp, Ygl039wp, Yol151wp/GRE2 and Ari1p. Findings of aldehyde reductase genes contribute to the yeast gene annotation and aids development of the next-generation biocatalyst for advanced biofuels production. PMID:25656103

  5. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jaewoong; Liu, Z Lewis

    2015-04-01

    The aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of an intermediate subfamily within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily that clarified mechanisms of in situ detoxification of 2-furaldehyde and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) are common among tolerant candidate genes identified for lignocellulose-to-advanced biofuels conversion. This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde-inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co-factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a characteristic catalytic triad, Ser, Tyr and Lys; a conserved catalytic motif of Tyr-X-X-X-Lys; and a cofactor-binding sequence motif, Gly-X-X-Gly-X-X-Ala, near the N-terminus that are shared by Ydr541cp, Ygl039wp, Yol151wp/GRE2 and Ari1p. Findings of aldehyde reductase genes contribute to the yeast gene annotation and aids development of the next-generation biocatalyst for advanced biofuels production.

  6. Chemical-chemical interaction between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes: a mechanism-based QSAR approach to assess toxicological joint effects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Wei, D; Wang, X; Yin, K; Zhao, D

    2004-04-01

    A QSAR approach was proposed to assess toxicological joint effects based on the mechanism of chemical-chemical interactions between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes. It has been observed that the chemical-chemical interaction between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes resulted in the formation of carbanion intermediates, and therefore this interaction led to different toxicological joint effects between cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes. Analysis of this chemical-chemical interaction showed that the formation of carbanion intermediate highly depended on the charge of the carbon atom in the -CHO of aldehydes and this of the carbon atom (C*) in the carbochain of cyanogenic toxicant. By using the Hammett Constant (sigma(p)) to measure the charge of carbon atom in the -CHO of aldehydes, a mechanism-based QSAR approach (M = 0.316 - 4.386sigma(p) with r2 = 0.933, SE = 0.082, F = 55.389, p = 0.002, M = sum of toxic units) was proposed to assess the toxicological joint effects between alpha-hydroxy-isobutyronitrile and individual aliphatic aldehydes. Another one (M = 0.978 - 0.720sigma(p) with r2 = 0.852, SE = 0.152, F = 40.148, p = 0.0001) was also proposed to assess the toxicological joint effects between alpha-hydroxy-isobutyronitrile and individual aromatic aldehydes. Lastly, by using the charge of carbon atom (C*) in the carbochain of cyanogenic toxicant, a mechanism-based QSAR model (M = -0.161 - 7.721C* with r2 = 0.847, SE = 0.227, F = 27.657, p = 0.003) was derived to assess toxicological joint effects between p-nitrobenzaldehyde and cyanogenic toxicants.

  7. Temporary silicon connection strategies in intramolecular allylation of aldehydes with allylsilanes.

    PubMed

    Beignet, Julien; Jervis, Peter J; Cox, Liam R

    2008-07-18

    Three gamma-(amino)silyl-substituted allylsilanes 14a-c have been prepared in three steps from the corresponding dialkyldichlorosilane. The aminosilyl group has been used to link this allylsilane nucleophile to a series of beta-hydroxy aldehydes through a silyl ether temporary connection. The size of the alkyl substituents at the silyl ether tether governs the outcome of the reaction on exposure to acid. Thus, treatment of aldehyde (E)-9aa, which contains a dimethylsilyl ether connection between the aldehyde and allylsilane, with a range of Lewis and Brønsted acid activators provides an (E)-diene product. The mechanism of formation of this undesired product is discussed. Systems containing a sterically more bulky diethylsilyl ether connection react differently: thus in the presence of TMSOTf and a Brønsted acid scavenger, intramolecular allylation proceeds smoothly to provide two out of the possible four diastereoisomeric oxasilacycles, 23 (major) and 21 (minor). A diene product again accounts for the remaining mass balance in the reaction. This side product can be completely suppressed by using a sterically even more bulky diisopropylsilyl ether connection in the cyclization precursor, although this is now at the expense of a slight erosion in the 1,3-stereoinduction in the allylation products. The sense of 1,3-stereoinduction observed in these intramolecular allylations has been rationalized by using an electrostatic argument, which can also explain the stereochemical outcome of a number of related reactions. Levels of 1,4-stereoinduction in the intramolecular allylation are more modest but can be significantly improved in some cases by using a tethered (Z)-allylsilane in place of its (E)-stereoisomer. Oxidation of the major diastereoisomeric allylation product 23 under Tamao-Kumada conditions provides an entry into stereodefined 1,2-anti-2,4-syn triols 28.

  8. Betaine Accumulation and Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Spinach Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Mei; Moreau, Robert A.; Yu, Charles; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Spinach leaf discs accumulated betaine when exposed to a mannitol solution of −20 bars. The accumulation was 12 micromoles per gram original fresh weight in a 24-hour period. Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) was assayed in various subcellular fractions prepared from spinach leaves, and it was found only in the soluble fraction. This cytosolic enzyme was purified 175-fold, and its properties were studied. The enzyme was relatively specific for betaine aldehyde as the substrate with an apparent Km value of 2.08 × 10−4 molar. It also exerted activity on other aldehyde analogs tested, but with lower Vmax and higher Km values. The enzyme was relatively specific for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as the coenzyme, having an apparent Km value of 9.46 × 10−6 molar; lower activities were observed when nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide were tested as electron acceptors. The activity was enhanced by dithiothreitol and inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, and the inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was partially reversed by the subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. The activity was inhibited by high concentrations of NaCl and, to a lesser extent, proline. The equilibrium of the enzymic reaction was strongly in favor of betaine formation. The in vitro activity of the enzyme under optimal assay conditions was high enough to account for the amount of betaine accumulated under water stress conditions. The enzyme activity was the same in unstressed leaves and in leaves that had been water stressed for 24 hours. PMID:16661818

  9. Stereodivergent α-allylation of linear aldehydes with dual iridium and amine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Simon; Schafroth, Michael A; Sarlah, David; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-02-26

    We describe the fully stereodivergent, dual catalytic α-allylation of linear aldehydes. The reaction proceeds via direct iridium-catalyzed substitution of racemic allylic alcohols with enamines generated in situ. The use of an Ir(P,olefin) complex and a diarylsilyl prolinol ether as catalysts in the presence of dimethylhydrogen phosphate as the promoter proved to be crucial for achieving high enantio- and diastereoselectivity (>99% ee, up to >20:1 dr). The utility of the method is demonstrated in a concise enantioselective synthesis of the antidepressant (-)-paroxetine. PMID:24506196

  10. Revisiting the reaction between diaminomaleonitrile and aromatic aldehydes: a green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Augusto; Ríos-Motta, Jaime; León, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The reaction between diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and aldehydes and the resulting monoimines are well known. Since the standard reaction conditions involve the use of toxic solvents (typically methanol), we have sought to apply green chemistry principles to this reaction by either using water as the solvent without any catalysts or employing "solvent-free" conditions. The monoimines derived from DAMN are of interest as precursors for obtaining different heterocyclic systems and linear polymers. The methodologies used have significant advantages with regards to cost and environmental considerations. PMID:18007392

  11. Selenium Catalyzed Oxidation of Aldehydes: Green Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids and Esters.

    PubMed

    Sancineto, Luca; Tidei, Caterina; Bagnoli, Luana; Marini, Francesca; Lenardão, Eder J; Santi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a selenium-containing catalyst in water is here reported as a new ecofriendly protocol for the synthesis of variously functionalized carboxylic acids and esters. The method affords the desired products in good to excellent yields under very mild conditions starting directly from commercially available aldehydes. Using benzaldehyde as a prototype the gram scale synthesis of benzoic acid is described, in which the aqueous medium and the catalyst could be recycled at last five times while achieving an 87% overall yield.

  12. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  13. Structure of products of the condensation of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated aldehydes with dimedone

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchenko, O.I.; Pushkareva, K.S.; Zheldubovskaya, G.A.; Komarov, N.V. Berkova, G.A.

    1987-10-10

    ..cap alpha..,..beta..-Acetylenic aldehydes and cinnamaldehyde in reaction with dimedone give the corresponding unsaturated bis(dimedonyl)methanes. In the case of acrolein and crotonaldehyde intramolecular cyclization occurs with the participation of hydroxyl of the dimedone fragment and the double bond with the formation of pyran systems. The PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487C (80 MHz) and Tesla BS-467C (60 MHz) spectrometers in chloroform-d, pyridine-d/sub 5/, and trifluoroacetic acid solutions. Internal standards HMDS and methylene chloride.

  14. Iron/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Ambient Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianyue; Shang, SenSen; Li, Guosong; Ren, Lanhui; Lv, Ying; Gao, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    We report a new Fe(NO3)3·9H2O/9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-N-oxyl catalyst system that enables efficient aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system exhibits excellent activity and selectivity for primary aliphatic alcohol oxidation. This procedure can also be scaled up. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that C-H bond cleavage is the rate-determining step and that cationic species are involved in the reaction. PMID:26859251

  15. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  16. Partial reversal of the acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde oxidation reactions catalysed by aldehyde dehydrogenases from sheep liver.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G J; Dickinson, F M

    1978-01-01

    In the presence of acetic anhydride or butyric anhydride, liver aldehyde dehydrogenases catalyse the oxidation of NADH at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. The maximum velocities and Michaelis constants for NADH at saturating anhydride concentrations are independent of which anhydride is used, the values being V'max. = 12 min-1 and Km for NADH = 9 micrometer for the mitochondrial enzyme and V'max = 25 min-1 and Km for NADH = 20 micrometer for the cytoplasmic enzyme. Substitution of [4A-2H]NADH for NADH resulted in 2-fold and 4-fold decreases in rate for the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes respectively. PMID:217349

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Reaction of Trifluoromethylketones with Aldehydes via a Copper Difluoroenolate.

    PubMed

    Doi, Ryohei; Ohashi, Masato; Ogoshi, Sensuke

    2016-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed reaction of easily accessible α,α,α-trifluoromethylketones with various aldehydes affords difluoro-methylene compounds in the presence of diboron and NaOtBu. The key process of the reaction is the formation of a copper difluoroenolate by 1,2-addition of a borylcopper intermediate to α,α,α-trifluoromethylketones and subsequent β-fluoride elimination. Mechanistic studies including the isolation and characterization of a possible anionic copper alkoxide intermediate are also described. PMID:26514445

  18. Stereodivergent α-allylation of linear aldehydes with dual iridium and amine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Simon; Schafroth, Michael A; Sarlah, David; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-02-26

    We describe the fully stereodivergent, dual catalytic α-allylation of linear aldehydes. The reaction proceeds via direct iridium-catalyzed substitution of racemic allylic alcohols with enamines generated in situ. The use of an Ir(P,olefin) complex and a diarylsilyl prolinol ether as catalysts in the presence of dimethylhydrogen phosphate as the promoter proved to be crucial for achieving high enantio- and diastereoselectivity (>99% ee, up to >20:1 dr). The utility of the method is demonstrated in a concise enantioselective synthesis of the antidepressant (-)-paroxetine.

  19. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E.; Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 5-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  20. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2A6 by aldehydes: structure and activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Kandagatla, Suneel K; Mack, Todd; Simpson, Sean; Sollenberger, Jill; Helton, Eric; Raner, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to probe active site structure and dynamics of human cytochrome P4502E1 and P4502A6 using a series of related short chain fatty aldehydes. Binding efficiency of the aldehydes was monitored via their ability to inhibit the binding and activation of the probe substrates p-nitrophenol (2E1) and coumarin (2A6). Oxidation of the aldehydes was observed in reactions with individually expressed 2E1, but not 2A6, suggesting alternate binding modes. For saturated aldehydes the optimum chain length for inhibition of 2E1 was 9 carbons (KI=7.8 ± 0.3 μM), whereas for 2A6 heptanal was most potent (KI=15.8 ± 1.1 μM). A double bond in the 2-position of the aldehyde significantly decreased the observed KI relative to the corresponding saturated compound in most cases. A clear difference in the effect of the double bond was observed between the two isoforms. With 2E1, the double bond appeared to remove steric constraints on aldehyde binding with KI values for the 5-12 carbon compounds ranging between 2.6 ± 0.1 μM and 12.8 ± 0.5 μM, whereas steric effects remained the dominant factor in the binding of the unsaturated aldehydes to 2A6 (observed KI values between 7.0 ± 0.5 μM and >1000 μM). The aldehyde function was essential for effective inhibition, as the corresponding carboxylic acids had very little effect on enzyme activity over the same range of concentrations, and branching at the 3-position of the aldehydes increased the corresponding KI value in all cases examined. The results suggest that a conjugated π-system may be a key structural determinant in the binding of these compounds to both enzymes, and may also be an important feature for the expansion of the active site volume in 2E1.

  1. Inhibition of human Cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2A6 by aldehydes: Structure and activity relationships

    PubMed Central

    Kandagatla, Suneel K.; Mack, Todd; Simpson, Sean; Sollenberger, Jill; Helton, Eric; Raner, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to probe active site structure and dynamics of human cytochrome P4502E1 and P4502A6 using a series of related short chain fatty aldehydes. Binding efficiency of the aldehydes was monitored via their ability to inhibit the binding and activation of the probe substrates p-nitrophenol (2E1) and coumarin (2A6). Oxidation of the aldehydes was observed in reactions with individually expressed 2E1, but not 2A6, suggesting alternate binding modes. For saturated aldehydes the optimum chain length for inhibition of 2E1 was 9 carbons (KI=7.8 ±0.3 μM), whereas for 2A6 heptanal was most potent (KI=15.8 ±1.1 μM). A double bond in the 2-position of the aldehyde significantly decreased the observed KI relative to the corresponding saturated compound in most cases. A clear difference in the effect of the double bond was observed between the two isoforms. With 2E1, the double bond appeared to remove steric constraints on aldehyde binding with KI values for the 5–12 carbon compounds ranging between 2.6 ± 0.1 μM and 12.8± 0.5 μM, whereas steric effects remained the dominant factor in the binding of the unsaturated aldehydes to 2A6 (observed KI values between 7.0± 0.5 μM and >1000 μM). The aldehyde function was essential for effective inhibition, as the corresponding carboxylic acids had very little effect on enzyme activity over the same range of concentrations, and branching at the 3-position of the aldehydes increased the corresponding KI value in all cases examined. The results suggest that a conjugated π-system may be a key structural determinant in the binding of these compounds to both enzymes, and may also be an important feature for the expansion of the active site volume in 2E1. PMID:24924949

  2. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Sobreira, Tiago J P; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification.

  3. Aminosilica materials as adsorbents for the selective removal of aldehydes and ketones from simulated bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Drese, Jeffrey H; Talley, Anne D; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-21

    The fast pyrolysis of biomass is a potential route to the production of liquid biorenewable fuel sources. However, degradation of the bio-oil mixtures due to reaction of oxygenates, such as aldehydes and ketones, reduces the stability of the liquids and can impact long-term storage and shipping. Herein, solid aminosilica adsorbents are described for the selective adsorptive removal of reactive aldehyde and ketone species. Three aminosilica adsorbents are prepared through the reaction of amine-containing silanes with pore-expanded mesoporous silica. A fourth aminosilica adsorbent is prepared through the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine from pore-expanded mesoporous silica. Adsorption experiments with a representative mixture of bio-oil model compounds are presented using each adsorbent at room temperature and 45 °C. The adsorbent comprising only primary amines adsorbs the largest amount of aldehydes and ketones. The overall reactivity of this adsorbent increases with increasing temperature. Additional aldehyde screening experiments show that the reactivity of aldehydes with aminosilicas varies depending on their chemical functionality. Initial attempts to regenerate an aminosilica adsorbent by acid hydrolysis show that they can be at least partially regenerated for further use. PMID:21246749

  4. Proteomics Guided Discovery of Flavopeptins: Anti-Proliferative Aldehydes Synthesized by a Reductase Domain-Containing Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunqiu; McClure, Ryan A.; Zheng, Yupeng; Thomson, Regan J.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the importance of proteases in regulating cellular processes, the development of protease inhibitors has garnered great attention. Peptide-based aldehydes are a class of compounds that exhibit inhibitory activities against various proteases and proteasomes in the context of anti-proliferative treatments for cancer and other diseases. More than a dozen peptide-based natural products containing aldehydes have been discovered such as chymostatin, leupeptin, and fellutamide; however, the biosynthetic origin of the aldehyde functionality has yet to be elucidated. Herein we describe the discovery of a new group of lipopeptide aldehydes, the flavopeptins, and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway arising from an orphan gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. NRRL-F6652, a close relative of Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331. This research was initiated using a proteomics approach that screens for expressed enzymes involved in secondary metabolism in microorganisms. Flavopeptins are synthesized through a nonribosomal peptide synthetase containing a terminal NAD(P)H dependent reductase domain likely for the reductive release of the peptide with a C-terminal aldehyde. Solid phase peptide synthesis of several flavopeptin species and derivatives enabled structural verification and subsequent screening of biological activity. Flavopeptins exhibited submicromolar inhibition activities against cysteine proteases such as papain and calpain as well as the human 20S proteasome. They also showed anti-proliferative activities against multiple myeloma and lymphoma cell lines. PMID:23763305

  5. Alda-1 is an agonist and chemical chaperone for the common human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variant

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Miller, Samantha; Younus, Hina; Vanam, Ram; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    In approximately one billion people, a point mutation inactivates a key detoxifying enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). This mitochondrial enzyme metabolizes toxic biogenic and environmental aldehydes, including the endogenously produced 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and the environmental pollutant, acrolein. ALDH2 also bioactivates nitroglycerin, but it is best known for its role in ethanol metabolism. The accumulation of acetaldehyde following the consumption of even a single alcoholic beverage leads to the Asian Alcohol-induced Flushing Syndrome in ALDH2*2 homozygotes. The ALDH2*2 allele is semi-dominant and heterozygotic individuals exhibit a similar, but not as severe phenotype. We recently identified a small molecule, Alda-1, which activates wild-type ALDH2 and restores near wild-type activity to ALDH2*2. The structures of Alda-1 bound to ALDH2 and ALDH2*2 reveal how Alda-1 activates the wild-type enzyme and how it restores the activity of ALDH2*2 by acting as a structural chaperone. PMID:20062057

  6. The four aldehyde oxidases of Drosophila melanogaster have different gene expression patterns and enzyme substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Dambowsky, Miriam; Bolis, Marco; Georgiou, Marina L; Garattini, Enrico; Missirlis, Fanis; Leimkühler, Silke

    2014-06-15

    In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, four genes coding for aldehyde oxidases (AOX1-4) were identified on chromosome 3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOX gene cluster evolved via independent duplication events in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. The functional role and the substrate specificity of the distinct Drosophila AOX enzymes is unknown. Two loss-of-function mutant alleles in this gene region, low pyridoxal oxidase (Po(lpo)) and aldehyde oxidase-1 (Aldox-1(n1)) are associated with a phenotype characterized by undetectable AOX enzymatic activity. However, the genes involved and the corresponding mutations have not yet been identified. In this study we characterized the activities, substrate specificities and expression profiles of the four AOX enzymes in D. melanogaster. We show that the Po(lpo)-associated phenotype is the consequence of a structural alteration of the AOX1 gene. We identified an 11-bp deletion in the Po(lpo) allele, resulting in a frame-shift event, which removes the molybdenum cofactor domain of the encoded enzyme. Furthermore, we show that AOX2 activity is detectable only during metamorphosis and characterize a Minos-AOX2 insertion in this developmental gene that disrupts its activity. We demonstrate that the Aldox-1(n1) phenotype maps to the AOX3 gene and AOX4 activity is not detectable in our assays.

  7. The four aldehyde oxidases of Drosophila melanogaster have different gene expression patterns and enzyme substrate specificities

    PubMed Central

    Marelja, Zvonimir; Dambowsky, Miriam; Bolis, Marco; Georgiou, Marina L.; Garattini, Enrico; Missirlis, Fanis; Leimkühler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, four genes coding for aldehyde oxidases (AOX1–4) were identified on chromosome 3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AOX gene cluster evolved via independent duplication events in the vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. The functional role and the substrate specificity of the distinct Drosophila AOX enzymes is unknown. Two loss-of-function mutant alleles in this gene region, low pyridoxal oxidase (Polpo) and aldehyde oxidase-1 (Aldox-1n1) are associated with a phenotype characterized by undetectable AOX enzymatic activity. However, the genes involved and the corresponding mutations have not yet been identified. In this study we characterized the activities, substrate specificities and expression profiles of the four AOX enzymes in D. melanogaster. We show that the Polpo-associated phenotype is the consequence of a structural alteration of the AOX1 gene. We identified an 11-bp deletion in the Polpo allele, resulting in a frame-shift event, which removes the molybdenum cofactor domain of the encoded enzyme. Furthermore, we show that AOX2 activity is detectable only during metamorphosis and characterize a Minos-AOX2 insertion in this developmental gene that disrupts its activity. We demonstrate that the Aldox-1n1 phenotype maps to the AOX3 gene and AOX4 activity is not detectable in our assays. PMID:24737760

  8. Preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde-gelatin nanogels.

    PubMed

    P R, Sarika; James, Nirmala Rachel; P R, Anil Kumar; Raj, Deepa K

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenol exhibits chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities towards cancer. In order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, curcumin is encapsulated in alginate aldehyde-gelatin (Alg Ald-Gel) nanogels. Alginate aldehyde-gelatin nanogels are prepared by inverse miniemulsion technique. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded nanogels are evaluated by, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Curcumin loaded nanogels show hydrodynamic diameter of 431±8nm and a zeta potential of -36±4mV. The prepared nanogels exhibit an encapsulation efficiency of 72±2%. In vitro drug release studies show a controlled release of curcumin from nanogels over a period of 48h. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the nanogels are evaluated. Bare nanogels are cytocompatible and curcumin loaded nanogels induce anticancer activity towards MCF-7 cells. In vitro cellular uptake of the curcumin loaded nanogels using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirms the uptake of nanogels in MCF-7 cells. Hence, the developed nanogel system can be a suitable candidate for curcumin delivery to cancer cells. PMID:27524019

  9. Molybdenum Incorporation in Tungsten Aldehyde Oxidoreductase Enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sevcenco, Ana-Maria; Bevers, Loes E.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Krijger, Gerard C.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is not incorporated in the active site of these enzymes. Application of the radioisotope 99Mo in metal isotope native radioautography in gel electrophoresis (MIRAGE) technology to P. furiosus shows that molybdenum can in fact be incorporated in all five AOR enzymes. Mo(V) signals characteristic for molybdopterin were observed in formaldehyde oxidoreductase (FOR) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-monitored redox titrations. Our finding that the aldehyde oxidation activity of FOR and WOR5 (W-containing oxidoreductase 5) correlates only with the residual tungsten content suggests that the Mo-containing AORs are most likely inactive. An observed W/Mo antagonism is indicative of tungstate-dependent negative feedback of the expression of the tungstate/molybdate ABC transporter. An intracellular selection mechanism for tungstate and molybdate processing has to be present, since tungsten was found to be preferentially incorporated into the AORs even under conditions with comparable intracellular concentrations of tungstate and molybdate. Under the employed growth conditions of starch as the main carbon source in a rich medium, no tungsten- and/or molybdenum-associated proteins are detected in P. furiosus other than the high-affinity transporter, the proteins of the metallopterin insertion machinery, and the five W-AORs. PMID:20562313

  10. Emissions of acrolein and other aldehydes from biodiesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Okamoto, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles. For the 2008 vehicle, only soy biodiesel and CARB ULSD fuels were tested. The research objective was to compare aldehyde emission rates between (1) the test fuels, (2) the drive cycles, and (3) the engine technologies. The results showed that soy biodiesel had the highest acrolein emission rates while the renewable diesel showed the lowest. The drive cycle also affected emission rates with the cruise drive cycle having lower emissions than the urban drive cycle. Lastly, the newer vehicle with the diesel particulate filter had greatly reduced carbonyl emissions compared to the other vehicles, thus demonstrating that the engine technology had a greater influence on emission rates than the fuels. PMID:22746209

  11. BTES and aldehydes analysis in PET-bottled water in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Al Rayes, L; Saliba, C O; Ghanem, A; Randon, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene (BTES), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde in Lebanese polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-bottled water. Aldehydes were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (HPLC/UV-vis) after 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation and solid phase extraction (SPE) concentration, whereas headspace trap gas chromatograph-flame ionisation detector (GC/FID) was used for BTES determination. Both methods were validated according to the NF XP 90-210 and showed good linearity ranging from 3 (limit of quantification [LOQ]) to 15 µg L⁻¹ for BTES and from 20 (LOQ) to 900 µg L⁻¹ for aldehydes. No quantified contamination with BTES, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde was determined in all analysed fresh Lebanese PET-bottled waters. Formaldehyde was quantified in 3 of the 15 samples at concentrations lower than the maximum contaminant level set by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organisation. The samples' exposure to sunlight during 5 months increases the migration of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Similar migration increase was observed when the samples were incubated at 40°C during 10 days.

  12. Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Ethyl 3-METHYL-3-PHENYLGLYCIDATE (strawberry Aldehyde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Steven T.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Suenram, Richard D.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2009-06-01

    Strawberry aldehyde (C_{12} O_3 H_{14}), a common artificial flavoring compound, has two non-interconvertible conformational families defined by the relative stereochemistry around its epoxide carbons. In one family, referred to as the trans because the two large substituents (a phenyl ring and an ethyl ester) are on opposite sides of the epoxide ring, these two substituents are unable to interact with each other. However, in the cis family, there is a long-range interaction that is difficult to accurately capture in electronic structure calculations. Three trans and two cis conformations have been assigned by broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, along with the C-13 isotopomers in natural abundance for one conformer from each of the families. The agreement of the rotational constants, relative dipole moments, and relative energies between theory and experiment is excellent, even at relatively crude levels of theory, for the trans family, but is quite poor for the cis conformers. In addition, due to the reactivity of strawberry aldehyde and the high temperature to which it must be heated to yield a suitable vapor pressure, several decomposition products have been assigned, and more, as of yet unassigned, are likely to be present. This project demonstrates some of the challenges in performing large-molecule rotational spectroscopy.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Suaeda corniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, F W; Wang, M L; Guo, C; Wang, N; Li, X W; Chen, H; Dong, Y Y; Chen, X F; Wang, Z M; Li, H Y

    2016-01-01

    Glycine betaine is an important quaternary ammonium compound that is produced in response to several abiotic stresses in many organisms. The synthesis of glycine betaine requires the catalysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), which can convert betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine in plants, especially in halotolerant plants. In this study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of BADH from Suaeda corniculata (ScBADH) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Next, we analyzed the expression profile of ScBADH using real-time PCR. The results showed that ScBADH expression was induced in the roots, stems, and leaves of S. corniculata seedlings under salt and drought stress. Next, ScBADH was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, resulting in the transgenic plants exhibiting enhanced tolerance over wild-type plants under salt and drought stress. We then analyzed the levels of glycine betaine and proline, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, during salt stress in WT and transgenic Arabidopsis. The results indicated that overexpression of ScBADH produced more glycine betaine and proline, and increased SOD activity under NaCl treatment. Our results suggest that ScBADH might be a positive regulator in plants during the response to NaCl. PMID:27420939

  14. Cross-linking connectivity in bone collagen fibrils: the COOH-terminal locus of free aldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otsubo, K.; Katz, E. P.; Mechanic, G. L.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of the chemical state of the 16c residue of the alpha 1 chain of bone collagen were performed on samples from fetal (4-6-month embryo) and mature (2-3 year old) bovine animals. All of this residue could be accounted for in terms of three chemical states, in relative amounts which depended upon the age of the animal. Most of the residue was incorporated into either bifunctional or trifunctional cross-links. Some of it, however, was present as free aldehyde, and the content increased with maturation. This was established by isolating and characterizing the aldehyde-containing peptides generated by tryptic digestion of NaB3H4-reduced mature bone collagen. We have concluded that the connectivity of COOH-terminal cross-linking in bone collagen fibrils changes with maturation in the following way: at first, each 16c residue in each of the two alpha 1 chains of the collagen molecule is incorporated into a sheet-like pattern of intermolecular iminium cross-links, which stabilizes the young, nonmineralized fibril as a whole. In time, some of these labile cross-links maturate into pyridinoline while others dissociate back to their precursor form. The latter is likely due to changes in the molecular packing brought about by the mineralization of the collagen fibrils. The resultant reduction in cross-linking connectivity may provide a mechanism for enhancing certain mechanical characteristics of the skeleton of a mature animal.

  15. Structure and mechanism of action of the hydroxy aryl aldehyde class of IRE1 endoribonuclease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Mario; Duffy, Nicole M.; Talukdar, Manisha; Thevakumaran, Nero; Chiovitti, David; Canny, Marella D.; Lee, Kenneth; Kurinov, Igor; Uehling, David; Al-awar, Rima; Poda, Gennadiy; Prakesch, Michael; Wilson, Brian; Tam, Victor; Schweitzer, Colleen; Toro, Andras; Lucas, Julie L.; Vuga, Danka; Lehmann, Lynn; Durocher, Daniel; Zeng, Qingping; Patterson, John B.; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response and its dysfunction is linked to multiple diseases. The stress transducer IRE1α is a transmembrane kinase endoribonuclease (RNase) that cleaves mRNA substrates to re-establish ER homeostasis. Aromatic ring systems containing hydroxy-aldehyde moieties, termed hydroxy aryl aldehydes (HAA), selectively inhibit IRE1α RNase and thus represent a novel chemical series for therapeutic development. We solved crystal structures of murine IRE1α in complex with three HAA inhibitors. HAA inhibitors engage a shallow pocket at the RNase active site through pi-stacking interactions with His910 and Phe889, an essential Schiff base with Lys907 and a H-bond with Tyr892. Structure activity studies and mutational analysis of contact residues define the optimal chemical space of inhibitors and validate the inhibitor binding site. These studies lay the foundation for understanding both the biochemical and cellular functions of IRE1α using small molecule inhibitors and suggest new avenues for inhibitor design. PMID:25164867

  16. The subcellular distribution and properties of aldehyde dehydrogenases in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Tottmar, S. O. C.; Pettersson, H.; Kiessling, K.-H.

    1973-01-01

    1. Kinetic experiments suggested the possible existence of at least two different NAD+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases in rat liver. Distribution studies showed that one enzyme, designated enzyme I, was exclusively localized in the mitochondria and that another enzyme, designated enzyme II, was localized in both the mitochondria and the microsomal fraction. 2. A NADP+-dependent enzyme was also found in the mitochondria and the microsomal fraction and it is suggested that this enzyme is identical with enzyme II. 3. The Km for acetaldehyde was apparently less than 10μm for enzyme I and 0.9–1.7mm for enzyme II. The Km for NAD+ was similar for both enzymes (20–30μm). The Km for NADP+ was 2–3mm and for acetaldehyde 0.5–0.7mm for the NADP+-dependent activity. 4. The NAD+-dependent enzymes show pH optima between 9 and 10. The highest activity was found in pyrophosphate buffer for both enzymes. In phosphate buffer there was a striking difference in activity between the two enzymes. Compared with the activity in pyrophosphate buffer, the activity of enzyme II was uninfluenced, whereas the activity of enzyme I was very low. 5. The results are compared with those of earlier investigations on the distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase and with the results from purified enzymes from different sources. PMID:4149764

  17. Alda-1 is an agonist and chemical chaperone for the common human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variant

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Miller, Samantha; Younus, Hina; Vanam, Ram; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2010-04-19

    In approximately one billion people, a point mutation inactivates a key detoxifying enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). This mitochondrial enzyme metabolizes toxic biogenic and environmental aldehydes, including the endogenously produced 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and the environmental pollutant acrolein, and also bioactivates nitroglycerin. ALDH2 is best known, however, for its role in ethanol metabolism. The accumulation of acetaldehyde following the consumption of even a single alcoholic beverage leads to the Asian alcohol-induced flushing syndrome in ALDH2*2 homozygotes. The ALDH2*2 allele is semidominant, and heterozygotic individuals show a similar but less severe phenotype. We recently identified a small molecule, Alda-1, that activates wild-type ALDH2 and restores near-wild-type activity to ALDH2*2. The structures of Alda-1 bound to ALDH2 and ALDH2*2 reveal how Alda-1 activates the wild-type enzyme and how it restores the activity of ALDH2*2 by acting as a structural chaperone.

  18. The role lipid aldehydes and ALEs in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of blindness in people of working age in developed countries. The retinal vasculature is central to the development of diabetic retinopathy, but there is accumulating evidence that neuroretinal dysfunction and degeneration also contributes to the aetiology and progression of this disease. The precise mechanisms through which diabetes causes neuroretinal dysfunction and degeneration remain to be fully established, but recent evidence from our own group has suggested that lipid aldehyde generation and the formation of advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) plays a key contributory role. In the present talk, I will outline our recent data suggesting that the progressive and selective accumulation of the acrolein-derived ALE, FDP-lysine, in retinal Müller glial cells during diabetes is involved in the pathogenesis of neuroretinal dysfunction during diabetic retinopathy. More recent unpublished data will also be presented suggesting that FDP-lysine accumulation in the diabetic retina may occur primarily through a mechanism involving the downregulation of aldehyde detoxification enzymes. Current studies examining potential therapeutic strategies for preventing ALE accumulation in the diabetic retina will also be briefly discussed.

  19. Organic acids and aldehydes in throughfall and dew in a Japanese pine forest.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Miyake, Takayuki; Kimura, Nobuhito; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed low molecular weight organic acids and aldehydes in throughfall under pine forest, and organic acids in dew on chemically inert surfaces and pine needle surfaces at urban- and mountain-facing sites of pine forest in western Japan. Low molecular weight organic acids and aldehydes accounted for less than 5% of the dissolved organic carbon in throughfall at both sites. Formaldehyde at both sites and formate at the mountain-facing site were found at significantly lower concentrations in throughfall than in rainfall, which may be explained by the degradation and/or retention of these components by the pine canopy as the incident precipitation passed through it. The oxalate concentration in throughfall was significantly higher than those in rainfall at both sites, suggesting that oxalate was derived from leaching from the pine foliage. At both sites, organic acid concentrations were higher in dew on the pine needles than in throughfall or dew on chemically inert surfaces. This could be due to the long contact time of dew on pine needles, during which leached substances from pine needles and dry deposits accumulated on their surfaces can dissolve into the small volume of dew. The role of enhanced concentrations of oxalate in an aqueous phase on the plant surfaces (e.g., dew) is discussed in relation to hydroxyl radical formation via the photo-Fenton reaction.

  20. Aqueous phase hydration and hydrate acidity of perfluoroalkyl and n:2 fluorotelomer aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    The SPARC software program and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the aqueous phase hydration equilibrium constants (Khyd) of perfluoroalkyl aldehydes (PFAlds) and n:2 fluorotelomer aldehydes (FTAlds). Both classes are degradation products of known industrial compounds and environmental contaminants such as fluorotelomer alcohols, iodides, acrylates, phosphate esters, and other derivatives, as well as hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Prior studies have generally failed to consider the hydration, and subsequent potential hydrate acidity, of these compounds, resulting in incomplete and erroneous predictions as to their environmental behavior. In the current work, DFT calculations suggest that all PFAlds will be dominantly present as the hydrated form in aqueous solution. Both SPARC and DFT calculations suggest that FTAlds will not likely be substantially hydrated in aquatic systems or in vivo. PFAld hydrates are expected to have pKa values in the range of phenols (ca. 9 to 10), whereas n:2 FTAld hydrates are expected to have pKa values ca. 2 to 3 units higher (ca. 12 to 13). In order to avoid spurious modeling predictions and a fundamental misunderstanding of their fate, the molecular and/or dissociated hydrate forms of PFAlds and FTAlds need to be explicitly considered in environmental, toxicological, and waste treatment investigations. The results of the current study will facilitate a more complete examination of the environmental fate of PFAlds and FTAlds. PMID:26980678

  1. Genomic organization and expression of the human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (FALDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.R.; Markova, N.G.; Compton, J.G.

    1997-01-15

    Mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) gene cause Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) - a disease characterized by mental retardation, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. To facilitate mutation analysis in SLS and to study the pathogenesis of FALDH deficiency, we have determined the structural organization and characterized expression of the FALDH (proposed designation ALDH10) gene. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning about 30.5 kb. A TATA-less promoter is associated with the major transcription initiation site found to be 258 hp upstream of the ATG codon. The G4C-rich sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site encompassed regulatory elements that interacted with proteins in HeLa nuclear extracts and were able to promote transcription in vitro. FALDH is widely expressed as three transcripts of 2, 3.8, and 4.0 kb, which originate from multiple polyadenylation signals in the 3{prime} UTR. An alternatively spliced mRNA was detected that contains an extra exon and encodes an enzyme that is likely to have altered membrane-binding properties. The FALDH gene lies only 50-85 kb from ALDH3, an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene that has homologous sequence and intron/exon structure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Evaluation of Rhesus Monkey and Guinea Pig Hepatic Cytosol Fractions as Models for Human Aldehyde Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Choughule, Kanika V.; Barr, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a cytosolic enzyme expressed across a wide range of species, including guinea pig and rhesus monkey. These species are believed to be the best preclinical models for studying human AOX-mediated metabolism. We compared AOX activity in rhesus monkeys, guinea pigs, and humans using phthalazine and N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridone-4-carboxamide (DACA) as substrates and raloxifene as an inhibitor. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed for phthalazine oxidation in rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human liver cytosol, whereas substrate inhibition was seen with DACA oxidase activity in all three livers. Raloxifene inhibited phthalazine and DACA oxidase activity uncompetitively in guinea pig, whereas mixed-mode inhibition was seen in rhesus monkey. Our analysis of the primary sequence alignment of rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human aldehyde oxidase isoform 1 (AOX1) along with homology modeling has led to the identification of several amino acid residue differences within the active site and substrate entrance channel of AOX1. We speculate that some of these residues might be responsible for the differences observed in activity. Overall, our data indicate that rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs would overestimate intrinsic clearance in humans and would be unsuitable to use as animal models. Our study also showed that AOX metabolism in species is substrate-dependent and no single animal model can be reliably used to predict every drug response in humans. PMID:23918666

  3. Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Protection against Ultraviolet Damage and Maintenance of Transparency for Vision

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Koppaka, Vindhya; Jester, James V.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes catalyze the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes to their corresponding acids. Some members of the ALDH superfamily of enzymes are abundantly expressed in the mammalian cornea and lens in a taxon-specific manner. Considered to be corneal and lens crystallins, they confer protective and transparent properties upon these ocular tissues. ALDH3A1 is highly expressed in the cornea of most mammals, with the exception of rabbit that expresses exclusively ALDH1A1 in the cornea. ALDH1A1 is present in both the cornea and lens of several animal species. As a result of their catalytic and non-catalytic functions, ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1 proteins protect inner ocular tissues from ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen-induced damage. In addition, these corneal crystallins contribute to cellular transparency in corneal stromal keratocytes, supporting a structural role of these ALDH proteins. A putative regulatory function of ALDH3A1 on corneal cell proliferation has also been proposed. Finally, the three retinaldehye dehydrogenases cooperatively mediate retinoic acid signaling during the eye development. PMID:23098688

  4. Emissions of acrolein and other aldehydes from biodiesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Okamoto, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles. For the 2008 vehicle, only soy biodiesel and CARB ULSD fuels were tested. The research objective was to compare aldehyde emission rates between (1) the test fuels, (2) the drive cycles, and (3) the engine technologies. The results showed that soy biodiesel had the highest acrolein emission rates while the renewable diesel showed the lowest. The drive cycle also affected emission rates with the cruise drive cycle having lower emissions than the urban drive cycle. Lastly, the newer vehicle with the diesel particulate filter had greatly reduced carbonyl emissions compared to the other vehicles, thus demonstrating that the engine technology had a greater influence on emission rates than the fuels.

  5. Reactive oxygen species and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as second messengers in signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Henry Jay

    2010-08-01

    Signaling by H(2)O(2), alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and related chemical species, is thought to differ from signaling by other second messengers because the oxidants and other electrophiles can readily undergo nonenzymatic reactions and are therefore classified as "reactive." This brief review will describe how and when the chemistry of signaling is similar or differs from classic second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, or posttranslational signaling, such as farnesylation or ubiquitination. The chemistry of cysteine provides a common factor that underlies signaling by H(2)O(2) and HNE. Nonetheless, as H(2)O(2) and HNE are rapidly metabolized in vivo, spatial considerations are extremely important in their actions. Therefore, the locations of sources of H(2)O(2) and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, the NADPH oxidases, mitochondria, membrane lipids, and redox cycling toxicants, as well as their targets, are key factors. The activation of the JNK pathway by HNE and endogenously generated H(2)O(2) illustrates these principles.

  6. Potential polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under two tidal regimes.

    PubMed

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell⁻¹. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  7. Absorption Reveals and Hydrogen Addition Explains New Interstellar Aldehydes: Propenal and Propanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Remijan, A.; Mollendal, H.

    2004-01-01

    New interstellar molecules propenal (CH2CHCHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO) have been detected largely in absorption toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of rotational transitions observed with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) operating in the range of 18 GHz (lambda approximately 1.7 cm) to 26 GHz (lambda approximately 1.2 cm). The GBT was also used to observe the previously reported interstellar aldehyde propynal (HC2CHO) in Sagittarius B2(N) which is known for large molecules believed to form on interstellar grains. The presence of these three interstellar aldehydes toward Sagittarius B2(N) strongly suggests that simple hydrogen addition on interstellar grains accounts for successively larger molecular species: from propynal to propenal and from propenal to propanal. Energy sources within Sagittarius B2(N) likely permit the hydrogen addition reactions on grain surfaces to proceed. This work demonstrates that successive hydrogen addition is probably an important chemistry route in the formation of a number of complex interstellar molecules. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO).

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Gene Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valverde, Francisco J.; Robles-Bolivar, Paula; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Gachomo, Emma W.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling. PMID:27755582

  9. Heredity mode of genetic polymorphism in aldehyde oxidase activity in Donryu strain rats.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Itoh, K; Abe, H; Tanaka, Y

    2008-01-01

    Donryu strain rats show genetic polymorphisms in the aldehyde oxidase gene, resulting in the phenotypic expression of ultrarapid metabolizers with homozygous nucleotide sequences (337G, 2604C), extensive metabolizers with heterozygous nucleotide sequences (377G/A, 2604C/T), and poor metabolizers with homozygous nucleotide sequences (377A, 2604T). In the mating experiments the ratio of the number of ultrarapid metabolizers, extensive metabolizers, and poor metabolizers rats in the F1 generation from the heterozygous F0 extensive metabolizers male and female rats was roughly 0.6 : 1.5 : 1, and the ratio converged to approximately 1 : 2 : 1 in the F2 generation from the heterozygous F1 extensive metabolizers male and female rats. On the contrary, all the F2 generation from homozygous F1 ultrarapid metabolizers male and female rats or from homozygous F1 poor metabolizers male and female rats had the ultrarapid metabolizers or the poor metabolizers genotypes and phenotypes. The genotypes completely agreed with the phenotypes in all individuals of F0, F1, and F2 generations. The results indicate that the genetic polymorphism of aldehyde oxidase in Donryu strain rats obeys Mendelian heredity. The reason for a low ratio of the ultrarapid metabolizers rats in the commercially available Donryu strain rats - not more than several per cent - compared with the ratio expected from the Mendelian rule is unknown.

  10. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  11. Enhanced detection of aldehydes in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil by means of band selective NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugo, Giacomo; Rotondo, Archimede; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Enrico; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    High resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for comprehensive food analyses and especially for Extra-Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs). We use the NMR technique to study the spectral region of aldehydes (8-10 ppm) for EVOOs coming from the south part of Italy. We perform novel experiments by using mono and bidimensional band selective spin-echo pulse sequences and identify four structural classes of aldehydes in EVOOs. For the first time such species are identified in EVOOs without any chemical treatment; only dilution with CDCl3 is employed. This would allow the discrimination of different EVOOs for the aldehydes content increasing the potentiality of the NMR technique in the screening of metabolites for geographical characterization of EVOOs.

  12. Practical synthesis of enantiomerically pure beta2-amino acids via proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yonggui; English, Emily P; Pomerantz, William C; Horne, W Seth; Joyce, Leo A; Alexander, Lane R; Fleming, William S; Hopkins, Elizabeth A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2007-05-01

    Proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes using a chiral iminium ion, generated from a readily prepared precursor, provides alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes with 85:15 to 90:10 dr. The alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes can be reduced to beta-substituted-gamma-amino alcohols, the major diastereomer of which can be isolated via crystallization or column chromatography. The amino alcohols are efficiently transformed to protected beta2-amino acids, which are valuable building blocks for beta-peptides, natural products, and other interesting molecules. Because conditions for the aminomethylation and subsequent reactions are mild, beta2-amino acid derivatives with protected functional groups in the side chain, such as beta2-homoglutamic acid, beta2-homotyrosine, and beta2-homolysine, can be prepared in this way. The synthetic route is short, and purifications are simple; therefore, this method enables the preparation of protected beta2-amino acids in useful quantities.

  13. Mild and efficient strategy for site-selective aldehyde modification of glycosaminoglycans: tailoring hydrogels with tunable release of growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujiang; Oommen, Oommen P; Yan, Hongji; Varghese, Oommen P

    2013-07-01

    Aldehydes have been used as an important bioorthogonal chemical reporter for conjugation of large polymers and bioactive substances. However, generating aldehyde functionality on carbohydrate-based biopolymers without changing its native chemical structure has always persisted as a challenging task. The common methods employed to achieve this require harsh reaction conditions, which often compromise the structural integrity and biological function of these sensitive molecules. Here we report a mild and simple method to graft aldehydes groups on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a site-selective manner without compromising the structural integrity of the biopolymer. This regio-selective modification was achieved by conjugating the amino-glycerol moiety on the carboxylate residue of the polymer, which allowed selective cleavage of pendent diol groups without interfering with the C2-C3 diol groups of the native glucopyranose residue. Kinetic evaluation of this reaction demonstrated significant differences in second-order reaction rate for periodate oxidation (by four-orders of magnitude) between the two types of vicinal diols. We employed this chemistry to develop aldehyde modifications of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs such as hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin (HP), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). We further utilized these aldehyde grafted GAGs to tailor extracellular matrix mimetic injectable hydrogels and evaluated its rheological properties. The composition of the hydrogels was also found to modulate release of therapeutic protein such as FGF-2, demonstrating controlled release (60%) for over 14 days. In short, our result clearly demonstrates a versatile strategy to graft aldehyde groups on sensitive biopolymers under mild conditions that could be applied for various bioconjugation and biomedical applications such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:23721079

  14. Mild and efficient strategy for site-selective aldehyde modification of glycosaminoglycans: tailoring hydrogels with tunable release of growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujiang; Oommen, Oommen P; Yan, Hongji; Varghese, Oommen P

    2013-07-01

    Aldehydes have been used as an important bioorthogonal chemical reporter for conjugation of large polymers and bioactive substances. However, generating aldehyde functionality on carbohydrate-based biopolymers without changing its native chemical structure has always persisted as a challenging task. The common methods employed to achieve this require harsh reaction conditions, which often compromise the structural integrity and biological function of these sensitive molecules. Here we report a mild and simple method to graft aldehydes groups on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a site-selective manner without compromising the structural integrity of the biopolymer. This regio-selective modification was achieved by conjugating the amino-glycerol moiety on the carboxylate residue of the polymer, which allowed selective cleavage of pendent diol groups without interfering with the C2-C3 diol groups of the native glucopyranose residue. Kinetic evaluation of this reaction demonstrated significant differences in second-order reaction rate for periodate oxidation (by four-orders of magnitude) between the two types of vicinal diols. We employed this chemistry to develop aldehyde modifications of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs such as hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin (HP), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). We further utilized these aldehyde grafted GAGs to tailor extracellular matrix mimetic injectable hydrogels and evaluated its rheological properties. The composition of the hydrogels was also found to modulate release of therapeutic protein such as FGF-2, demonstrating controlled release (60%) for over 14 days. In short, our result clearly demonstrates a versatile strategy to graft aldehyde groups on sensitive biopolymers under mild conditions that could be applied for various bioconjugation and biomedical applications such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine.

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of the dimethyl acetals of. beta. ,. gamma. -unsaturated aldehydes from alkyl trans-2-methoxypropyl ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Kulinkovich, O.G.; Tishchenko, I.G.; Sorokin, V.L.

    1986-01-10

    trans-(2-Methoxycyclopropyl)carbinols were obtained in the form of equimolar mixtures of diastereomers by the reaction of the respective alkyl trans-2-methoxy-cyclopropyl ketones with lithium aluminum hydride or organometallic compounds. Methanolysis of the products in an acidic medium leads to high yields of the dimethyl acetals of trans- and cis-..beta..,..gamma..-unsaturated aldehydes, in which the content of the trans isomer amounts to 55-70%. The dimethyl acetals of trans-..beta..-..gamma..-unsaturated aldehydes can be produced by this method with greater stereoselectivity by reduction in the degree of transformation of the initial carbinols.

  16. Fluoride-assisted activation of calcium carbide: a simple method for the ethynylation of aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Abolfazl; Seidel, Daniel; Miska, Andreas; Schreiner, Peter R

    2015-06-01

    The fluoride-assisted ethynylation of ketones and aldehydes is described using commercially available calcium carbide with typically 5 mol % of TBAF·3H2O as the catalyst in DMSO. Activation of calcium carbide by fluoride is thought to generate an acetylide "ate"-complex that readily adds to carbonyl groups. Aliphatic aldehydes and ketones generally provide high yields, whereas aromatic carbonyls afford propargylic alcohols with moderate to good yields. The use of calcium carbide as a safe acetylide ion source along with economic amounts of TBAF·3H2O make this procedure a cheap and operationally simple method for the preparation of propargylic alcohols.

  17. The utility of phenol-aldehyde cross linking resins in polymer modified asphalt - the Butaphalt (tm) process

    SciTech Connect

    Krivohlavek, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    The use of Phenol-Aldehyde cross linking or vulcanizing resin is well known in the rubber and plastics industry. Previous to our work little (if any) understanding of the utility of these compounds in polymer modified asphalt (or bitumen) was known. This presentation will hopefully enlighten practitioners of the art of asphalt modification on this subject. This art is commercially known as the Butaphalt(tm) Process. Of initial interest is the mechanism of reaction of Phenol-Aldehyde cross linking resins. As the quantitative analysis of such a mechanism in asphalt would likely need years of effort to resolve, we will look at possible mechanisms in a rubber system.

  18. Characterization of the Aldehydes and Their Transformations Induced by UV Irradiation and Air Exposure of White Guanxi Honey Pummelo (Citrus Grandis (L.) Osbeck) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Li Jun; Hong, Peng; Chen, Feng; Sun, Hao; Yang, Yuan Fan; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Gao Ling; Wu, Li Ming; Ni, Hui

    2016-06-22

    Aldehydes are key aroma contributors of citrus essential oils. White Guanxi honey pummelo essential oil (WPEO) was investigated in its aldehyde constituents and their transformations induced by UV irradiation and air exposure by GC-MS, GC-O, and sensory evaluation. Nine aldehydes, i.e., octanal, nonanal, citronellal, decanal, trans-citral, cis-citral, perilla aldehyde, dodecanal, and dodecenal, were detected in WPEO. After treatment, the content of citronellal increased, but the concentrations of other aldehydes decreased. The aliphatic aldehydes were transformed to organic acids. Citral was transformed to neric acid, geranic acid, and cyclocitral. Aldehyde transformation caused a remarkable decrease in the minty, herbaceous, and lemon notes of WPEO. In fresh WPEO, β-myrcene, d-limonene, octanal, decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal had the highest odor dilution folds. After the treatment, the dilution folds of decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal decreased dramatically. This result provides information for the production and storage of aldehyde-containing products. PMID:27226192

  19. Determination of linear aliphatic aldehydes in heavy metal containing waters by high-performance liquid chromatography using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Liang; Wang, Po-Yen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Ku, Kuan-Hsuan; Yeh, Yun-Tai; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2009-09-01

    A simple and sensitive method is described for the determination of picomolar amounts of C(1)-C(9) linear aliphatic aldehydes in waters containing heavy metal ions. In this method, aldehydes were first derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) at optimized pH 1.8 for 30 min and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector at 365 nm. Factors affecting the derivatization reaction of aldehydes and DNPH were investigated. Cupric ion, an example of heavy metals, is a common oxidative reagent, which may oxidize DNPH and greatly interfere with the determination of aldehydes. EDTA was used to effectively mask the interferences by heavy metal ions. The method detection limits for direct injection of derivatized most aldehydes except formaldehyde were of the order of 7-28 nM. The detection limit can be further lowered by using off-line C(18) adsorption cartridge enrichment. The recoveries of C(1)-C(9) aldehydes were 93-115% with a relative standard deviation of 3.6-8.1% at the 0.1 microM level for aldehydes. The HPLC-DNPH method has been applied for determining aldehyde photoproducts from Cu(II)-amino acid complex systems. PMID:19643424

  20. Characterization of the Aldehydes and Their Transformations Induced by UV Irradiation and Air Exposure of White Guanxi Honey Pummelo (Citrus Grandis (L.) Osbeck) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Li Jun; Hong, Peng; Chen, Feng; Sun, Hao; Yang, Yuan Fan; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Gao Ling; Wu, Li Ming; Ni, Hui

    2016-06-22

    Aldehydes are key aroma contributors of citrus essential oils. White Guanxi honey pummelo essential oil (WPEO) was investigated in its aldehyde constituents and their transformations induced by UV irradiation and air exposure by GC-MS, GC-O, and sensory evaluation. Nine aldehydes, i.e., octanal, nonanal, citronellal, decanal, trans-citral, cis-citral, perilla aldehyde, dodecanal, and dodecenal, were detected in WPEO. After treatment, the content of citronellal increased, but the concentrations of other aldehydes decreased. The aliphatic aldehydes were transformed to organic acids. Citral was transformed to neric acid, geranic acid, and cyclocitral. Aldehyde transformation caused a remarkable decrease in the minty, herbaceous, and lemon notes of WPEO. In fresh WPEO, β-myrcene, d-limonene, octanal, decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal had the highest odor dilution folds. After the treatment, the dilution folds of decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal decreased dramatically. This result provides information for the production and storage of aldehyde-containing products.

  1. Theoretical structural study on the adsorption properties of aliphatic aldehydes on ZnO nanoclusters and graphene-like nanosheets systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebee, R.; Zamand, N.; Hosseini-nasr, A.; Kargar Razi, M.

    2014-05-01

    The structure optimizations for some aliphatic aldehydes adsorbed on ZnO nanoclusters, and graphene-like nanosheets were carried out using the B3LYP/LanL2DZ calculations and the adsorption energies were calculated. It was considered that adsorption of the examined aldehydes on the ZnO nanoclusters and graphene-like nanosheets occurred through carbonyl oxygens of aldehyde molecules with the surface Zn2+ ions of the central ring. Aldehydes with the general formula of R-COH (R denotes a branched or linear aliphatic chain with maximum of three carbon atoms) were considered. Also, Effects of chain length were investigated on the orientation of the aldehyde molecules with respect to the nanosheet and nanocluster surfaces. Findings revealed that the adsorption energy was decreased with enhancing chain length. However, the most negative adsorption energy was obtained for iso-butyraldehyde, as a branched aldehyde. Interaction of the aldehyde molecules with the surfaces of nanosheets were analyzed by means of DOS analysis and Bader's method. We hope the obtained results be helpful in identifying the mechanism of cyclotrimerization of aliphatic aldehydes on the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of salivary aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Almeida, M Inês G S; McCullough, Michael J; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-05-01

    A low cost, disposable and easy to use microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for simple and non-invasive determination of total aldehydes in saliva with a potential to be used in epidemiological studies to assess oral cancer risk. The μPAD is based on the colour reaction between aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and iron(III) to form an intense blue coloured formazan dye. The newly developed μPAD has a 3D design with two overlapping paper layers. The first layer comprises 15 circular detection zones (8 mm in diameter), each impregnated with 8 μL of MBTH, while the second layer contains 15 reagent zones (4 mm in diameter). Two μL of iron(III) chloride are added to each one of the second layer zones after the addition of sample to the detection zones in the first layer. All hydrophilic zones of the μPAD are defined by wax printing using a commercial wax printer. Due to the 2-step nature of the analytical reaction, the two paper layers are separated by a cellulose acetate interleaving sheet to allow for the reaction between the aldehydes in the saliva sample with MBTH to proceed first with the formation of an azine, followed by a blue coloured reaction between the azine and the oxidized by iron(III) form of MBTH, produced after the removal of the interleaving sheet. After obtaining a high resolution image of the detection side zone of the device using a flatbed scanner, the intensity of the blue colour within each detection zone is measured with Image J software. Under optimal conditions, the μPAD is characterised by a working range of 20.4-114.0 μM, limit of detection of 6.1 μM, and repeatability, expressed as RSD, of less than 12.7% (n = 5). There is no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the results obtained by the μPAD and the reference method (Student's t-test: 0.090 < 0.38). The optimized μPAD is stable for more than 41 days

  3. Use of secondary isotope effects and varying pH to investigate the mode of binding of inhibitory amino aldehydes by leucine aminopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.; MacNeela, J.; Wolfenden, R.

    1985-01-15

    Ki values for leucine aldehyde, a competitive inhibitor of leucine aminopeptidase, vary with pH in a manner compatible with the binding of uncharged inhibitors. The pH dependence of kcat/Km suggests likewise that the substrate leucine p-nitroanilide is productively bound as the uncharged species. Comparison of pKa values of the model compounds aminoacetone and aminoacetal indicates that the equilibrium constant for hydration of amino aldehydes is reduced by a factor of about 2 when a proton is lost from the alpha-ammonium group near pH 8. Effects of deuterium substitution at C-1 on equilibrium binding of leucine aldehyde were determined with immobilized enzymes and inhibitors doubly labeled with radioisotopes. The observed isotope effect (KD/KH) is approximately unity, suggesting that leucine aldehyde combines with the enzyme as an oxygen adduct, not as the intact aldehyde.

  4. Formation of linear aldehydes during surface water preozonization and their removal in water treatment in relation to mutagenic activity and sum parameters.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, F; Janssens, J; Van Dijck, H

    1985-12-01

    Low molecular weight aldehydes were formed during surface water preozonization, their levels showing a positive correlation with increasing ozone dose applied and with increasing water temperature. A strong negative correlation was observed between aldehyde levels and U.V. absorbance at 254 nm. Coagulation had no influence on the aldehydes present and the influence of rapid double layer filtration varied strongly with temperature: significant removals were only observed above 10 degrees C. Mutagenic activity generated by preozonization in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 shows an ozone dose depending relationship different from the formation of linear aldehydes. Its removal by coagulation is not effective but rapid double layer filtration reduces mutagenic activity to marginal levels. In this respect too no clear parallel can be drawn between the presence of low molecular weight aldehydes and mutagenic activity.

  5. O-4-Linked coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes in lignifying cell walls are the main targets of the Wiesner (phloroglucinol-HCl) reaction.

    PubMed

    Pomar, F; Merino, F; Barceló, A Ros

    2002-10-01

    The nature and specificity of the Wiesner test (phloroglucinol-HCl reagent) for the aromatic aldehyde fraction contained in lignins is studied. Phloroglucinol reacted in ethanol-hydrochloric acid with coniferyl aldehyde, sinapyl aldehyde, vanillin, and syringaldehyde to yield either pink pigments (in the case of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes) or red-brown pigments (in the case of hydroxybenzaldehydes). However, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and highly condensed dehydrogenation polymers derived from these cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes did not react with phloroglucinol in ethanol-hydrochloric acid. The differences in the reactivity of phloroglucinol with hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes and their dehydrogenation polymers may be explained by the fact that, in the latter, the unsubstituted (alpha,beta-unsaturated) cinnamaldehyde functional group, which is responsible for the dye reaction, is lost due to lateral chain cross-linking reactions involving the beta carbon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thioacidolysis analyses of phloroglucinol-positive lignifying plant cell walls belonging to the plant species Zinnia elegans L., Capsicum annuumvar. annuum, Populus albaL., and Pinus halepensisL. demonstrated the presence of 4- O-linked hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde end groups and 4- O-linked 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) end groups in lignins. However, given the relatively low abundance of 4- O-linked vanillin in lignifying cell walls and the low extinction coefficient of its red-brown phloroglucinol adduct, it is unlikely that vanillin contributes to a great extent to the phloroglucinol-positive stain reaction. These results suggest that the phloroglucinol-HCl pink stain of lignifying xylem cell walls actually reveals the 4- O-linked hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde structures contained in lignins. Histochemical studies showed that these aldehyde structures are assembled, as in the case of coniferyl aldehyde, during the early stages of xylem cell wall

  6. Comparative study of automotive, aircraft and biogenic emissions of aldehydes and aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, C S; Custodio, D; de Oliveira, R C S; Varandas, L S; Arbilla, G

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in three well characterized locations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: downtown, the idle and taxi way areas of the national airport and an urban forest, where the main emissions are from vehicular, aircraft and biogenic sources, respectively. Aldehydes and BTEX concentrations show a characteristic profile which may be attributed to the emission sources. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratios, in the early morning, were 1.39, 0.62 and 2.22 in downtown, airport and forest, respectively. Toluene/benzene ratios, for downtown, airport and forest areas, were 1.11, 1.82 and 1.06, respectively. The results show that the impact of the urban emissions on the forest is negligible as well as the impact of aircraft emissions over the urban area.

  7. Two-Step biocatalytic conversion of an ester to an aldehyde in reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Russell, A J

    1994-02-01

    Lipases from Candida cyclindracea (L-1754) and wheat germ (L-3001) have been used to hydrolyze esters to their corresponding alcohols and acids in reverse micelles. Alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (YADH) was subsequently used to reduce the alcohol products to aldehydes. Cofactor recycling in the redox reaction was achieved using a sacrificial cosubstrate, as described previously. Four surfactants (sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate, Nonidet P-40 with Triton X-35, polyoxyethylene, 10-cetyl-ether, polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate) were employed to determine the effect of amphiphile on ester hydrolysis and redox reaction rates separately. The effect of type of organic solvent, W(0) [(water]/[surfactant)], and substrate concentration on separte enzyme activity were also investigated. A brief investigation of a single phase, two-step reaction catalyzed by the combination of lipase and YADH in reverse micelles is also reported. The activities of the enzymes are significantly different when used together instead of independently. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Cinnamon spice and everything not nice: many features of intraoral allergy to cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, Megan; Li, Monica Kayi; Parsons, Laurie M

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an uncommonly reported entity. The most commonly implicated allergens are metals that are incorporated into dental appliances. Intraoral ACD to nonmetal allergens is even less frequently described. Cinnamic aldehyde is widely used as a flavoring agent in foods and dentifrices. However, intraoral ACD to cinnamon flavoring agents has only been sporadically reported. In these cases, a variety of sources have been implicated, including candy, chewing gum, mouthwash, lip sunscreen, cinnamon toast, volatile oils, and toothpaste. The clinical presentation of intraoral ACD reactions varies greatly, and as a result, clinicians often do not recognize the diagnosis. Furthermore, because patients are typically unable to provide a list of putative allergens, a high degree of clinical suspicion is required to make the correct diagnosis. We describe several patients with intraoral ACD caused by cinnamon and review the literature associated with this condition.

  9. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  10. Lewis Acidity of Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane: Aldehyde Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by a Neutral Silicon Compound

    DOE PAGES

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L.; Bergman, Robert G.; Tilley, T. Don

    2015-04-16

    Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane Si(cat(F)2 was prepared, and stoichiometric binding to Lewis bases was demonstrated with fluoride, triethylphosphine oxide, and N,N'-diisopropylbenzamide. The potent Lewis acidity of Si(cat(F)2 was suggested from catalytic hydrosilylation and silylcyanation reactions with aldehydes. Mechanistic studies of hydrosilylation using an optically active silane substrate, R-(+)-methyl-(1-naphthyl)phenylsilane, proceeded with predominant stereochemical retention at silicon, consistent with a carbonyl activation pathway. The enantiospecificity was dependent on solvent and salt effects, with increasing solvent polarity or addition of NBu4BAr(F)4 leading to a diminished enantiomeric ratio. The medium effects are consistent with an ionic mechanism, wherein hydride transfer occurs prior to silicon-oxygen bond formation.

  11. Novel aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone derivatives: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and molecular docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt, Tuncay; Tahtaci, Hakan; Subasi, Nuriye Tuna; Er, Mustafa; Ağar, Erbil

    2016-12-01

    In this study our purpose is that, synthesis and characterization of compounds containing the aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone groups and comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental results. The structures of all synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses techniques. The structure of compound (4) (C9H8N4O2S) was also elucidated by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the theoretical IR spectrum, 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shift values, frontier molecular orbital values (FMO) of these molecules were analyzed by using Becke-3- Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) method with LanL2DZ basis set. Finally, molecular docking studies were performed on synthesized compounds using the 4DKI beta-lactam protein structure to determine the potential binding mode of inhibitors.

  12. Inactivation of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase via-nitrosylation in ethanol-exposed rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes are critically important in the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thus preventing its accumulation after ethanol exposure. We previously reported that mitochondrial ALDH2 could be inactivated via -nitrosylation in ethanol-exposed rats. This study was aimed at investigating whether cytosolic ALDH1, with a relatively low- value (11–18 μM) for acetaldehyde, could be also inhibited in ethanol-exposed rats. Chronic or binge ethanol exposure significantly decreased ALDH1 activity, which was restored by addition of dithiothreitol. Immunoblot analysis with the anti--nitroso-Cys antibody showed one immunoreactive band in the immunoprecipiated ALDH1 only from ethanol-exposed rats, but not from pair-fed controls, suggesting -nitrosylation of ALDH1. Therefore inactivation of ALDH1 via -nitrosylation can result in accumulation of acetaldehyde upon ethanol exposure. PMID:17673211

  13. Benomyl, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, DOPAL, and the Catecholaldehyde Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is detoxified mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We find that the fungicide benomyl potently and rapidly inhibits ALDH and builds up DOPAL in vivo in mouse striatum and in vitro in PC12 cells and human cultured fibroblasts and glial cells. The in vivo results resemble those noted previously with knockouts of the genes encoding ALDH1A1 and 2, a mouse model of aging-related Parkinson’s disease (PD). Exposure to pesticides that inhibit ALDH may therefore increase PD risk via DOPAL buildup. This study lends support to the “catecholaldehyde hypothesis” that the autotoxic dopamine metabolite DOPAL plays a pathogenic role in PD. PMID:25045800

  14. Pepsin immobilization on an aldehyde-modified polymethacrylate monolith and its application for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenjuan; Yamauchi, Mika; Hasegawa, Urara; Noda, Masanori; Fukui, Kiichi; van der Vlies, André J; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Polymer-based monoliths with interconnected porous structure have attracted much attention as a high-performance stationary phase for online digestion liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system. In this study, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGM) monolith prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used as a solid support to covalently immobilize pepsin. The PGM monolith was modified with aminoacetal to yield an aldehyde-bearing (PGM-CHO) monolith. Pepsin was immobilized onto the PGM-CHO monolith via reductive amination. The immobilized pepsin showed better pH and thermal stability compared with free pepsin. Furthermore, the PGM-CHO monolith modified with pepsin was applied for online protein digestion followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. As a result, a larger number of peptides are reproducibly identified compared to those by polystyrene/divinylbenzene particle (POROS)-based online pepsin column.

  15. Lewis Acidity of Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane: Aldehyde Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by a Neutral Silicon Compound

    SciTech Connect

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L.; Bergman, Robert G.; Tilley, T. Don

    2015-04-16

    Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane Si(cat(F)2 was prepared, and stoichiometric binding to Lewis bases was demonstrated with fluoride, triethylphosphine oxide, and N,N'-diisopropylbenzamide. The potent Lewis acidity of Si(cat(F)2 was suggested from catalytic hydrosilylation and silylcyanation reactions with aldehydes. Mechanistic studies of hydrosilylation using an optically active silane substrate, R-(+)-methyl-(1-naphthyl)phenylsilane, proceeded with predominant stereochemical retention at silicon, consistent with a carbonyl activation pathway. The enantiospecificity was dependent on solvent and salt effects, with increasing solvent polarity or addition of NBu4BAr(F)4 leading to a diminished enantiomeric ratio. The medium effects are consistent with an ionic mechanism, wherein hydride transfer occurs prior to silicon-oxygen bond formation.

  16. A Personalized Medicine Approach for Asian Americans with the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2*2 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Eric R.; Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Small, Bryce A.; Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in heterozygotes. Furthermore, this variant is associated with a higher risk for several diseases affecting many organ systems, including a particularly high incidence relative to the general population of esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant, describe why this variant needs to be considered when selecting drug treatments, and suggest a personalized medicine approach for Asian American carriers of this variant. We also discuss future clinical and translational perspectives regarding ALDH2*2 research. PMID:25292432

  17. Sensitivity to alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde and alpha-amylcinnamic alcohol.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Haffley, P

    1983-01-01

    Sensitivity to alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde (alpha-AcAld) is apparently uncommon, but, like allergy to alpha-amylcinnamic alcohol (alpha-AcAlc), it often accompanies allergy to the perfume in Mycolog cream. Although alpha-AcAlc is a known ingredient, alpha-AcAld is not. However, gas-liquid chromatographic analysis shows alpha-AcAld to be present. Of fourteen persons sensitive to either chemical, ten reacted to both. Of these, one man and three women were markedly sensitive, and all three women had chronic recalcitrant vulvar eczema. That condition might have been the cause as well as the result of sensitization, but reexposure to a suspected product reproduced the eruption in both persons tested. Its use with other potent sensitizers, e.g., ethylenediamine, to treat irritations and chronic eczemas in an area of high absorption may partly explain development of allergy to a relatively weak sensitizer.

  18. GaCl3 -Mediated Reactions of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with Aromatic Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Denis D; Novikov, Roman A; Tomilov, Yury V

    2016-09-26

    A new strategy for cascade assembly of substituted indenes and polycyclic lactones based on reactions of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes and styrylmalonates with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of GaCl3 has been developed. The use of GaCl3 makes it possible to principally change the direction of the reaction known in this series of substrates and to perform the process in a multicomponent version. Generation of formal 1,2-zwitterionic intermediates owing to complexation of dicarboxylate groups with GaCl3 is the driving force of the reactions discovered. This method makes it possible to assemble indenylmalonates or indano[1',2':2,3]indano[2,1-b]furan-2-ones in one synthetic stage from readily available starting compounds with high regio- and diastereoselectivity. A mechanism of the reactions has been suggested using the (18) O label in benzaldehyde. PMID:27573178

  19. Biological Evaluation and 3D-QSAR Studies of Curcumin Analogues as Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Changyuan; Tang, Zhikai; He, Yan; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is reported as a biomarker for identifying some cancer stem cells, and down-regulation or inhibition of the enzyme can be effective in anti-drug resistance and a potent therapeutic for some tumours. In this paper, the inhibitory activity, mechanism mode, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship) of curcumin analogues (CAs) against ALDH1 were studied. Results demonstrated that curcumin and CAs possessed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1, and the CAs compound with ortho di-hydroxyl groups showed the most potent inhibitory activity. This study indicates that CAs may represent a new class of ALDH1 inhibitor. PMID:24840575

  20. Selective Catalytic Hydrogenations of Nitriles, Ketones, and Aldehydes by Well-Defined Manganese Pincer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Topf, Christoph; Fischer, Steffen; Jiao, Haijun; Spannenberg, Anke; Baumann, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-20

    Hydrogenations constitute fundamental processes in organic chemistry and allow for atom-efficient and clean functional group transformations. In fact, the selective reduction of nitriles, ketones, and aldehydes with molecular hydrogen permits access to a green synthesis of valuable amines and alcohols. Despite more than a century of developments in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, efforts toward the creation of new useful and broadly applicable catalyst systems are ongoing. Recently, Earth-abundant metals have attracted significant interest in this area. In the present study, we describe for the first time specific molecular-defined manganese complexes that allow for the hydrogenation of various polar functional groups. Under optimal conditions, we achieve good functional group tolerance, and industrially important substrates, e.g., for the flavor and fragrance industry, are selectively reduced. PMID:27219853

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition blocks mucosal fibrosis in human and mouse ocular scarring

    PubMed Central

    Ahadome, Sarah D.; Abraham, David J.; Rayapureddi, Suryanarayana; Saw, Valerie P.; Saban, Daniel R.; Calder, Virginia L.; Norman, Jill T.; Ponticos, Markella; Daniels, Julie T.; Dart, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a systemic mucosal scarring disease, commonly causing blindness, for which there is no antifibrotic therapy. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 (ALDH1) is upregulated in both ocular MMP (OMMP) conjunctiva and cultured fibroblasts. Application of the ALDH metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), to normal human conjunctival fibroblasts in vitro induced a diseased phenotype. Conversely, application of ALDH inhibitors, including disulfiram, to OMMP fibroblasts in vitro restored their functionality to that of normal controls. ALDH1 is also upregulated in the mucosa of the mouse model of scarring allergic eye disease (AED), used here as a surrogate for OMMP, in which topical application of disulfiram decreased fibrosis in vivo. These data suggest that progressive scarring in OMMP results from ALDH/RA fibroblast autoregulation, that the ALDH1 subfamily has a central role in immune-mediated ocular mucosal scarring, and that ALDH inhibition with disulfiram is a potential and readily translatable antifibrotic therapy.

  2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Has Cardioprotective Effects on Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury via Suppressing Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenqing; Wei, Shujian; Hao, Panpan; Xing, Junhui; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Wang, Jiali; Xu, Feng; Chen, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy, is excessively activated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The study investigated whether aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) exerted its cardioprotective effect by regulating mitophagy. Myocardial infarct size and apoptosis after I/R in rats were ameliorated by Alda-1, an ALDH2 activator, and aggravated by ALDH2 inhibition. Both in I/R rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation H9C2 cells, ALDH2 activation suppressed phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin expression, regulating mitophagy, by preventing 4-hydroxynonenal, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide accumulation. Furthermore, the effect was enhanced by ALDH2 inhibition. Thus, ALDH2 may protect hearts against I/R injury by suppressing PINK1/Parkin–dependent mitophagy. PMID:27148058

  3. Field validation of the dnph method for aldehydes and ketones. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, G.S.; Steger, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    A stationary source emission test method for selected aldehydes and ketones has been validated. The method employs a sampling train with impingers containing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to derivatize the analytes. The resulting hydrazones are recovered and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Nine analytes were studied; the method was validated for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetophenone and isophorone. Acrolein, menthyl ethyl ketone, menthyl isobutyl ketone, and quinone did not meet the validation criteria. The study employed the validation techniques described in EPA method 301, which uses train spiking to determine bias, and collocated sampling trains to determine precision. The studies were carried out at a plywood veneer dryer and a polyester manufacturing plant.

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition blocks mucosal fibrosis in human and mouse ocular scarring

    PubMed Central

    Ahadome, Sarah D.; Abraham, David J.; Rayapureddi, Suryanarayana; Saw, Valerie P.; Saban, Daniel R.; Calder, Virginia L.; Norman, Jill T.; Ponticos, Markella; Daniels, Julie T.; Dart, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a systemic mucosal scarring disease, commonly causing blindness, for which there is no antifibrotic therapy. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 (ALDH1) is upregulated in both ocular MMP (OMMP) conjunctiva and cultured fibroblasts. Application of the ALDH metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), to normal human conjunctival fibroblasts in vitro induced a diseased phenotype. Conversely, application of ALDH inhibitors, including disulfiram, to OMMP fibroblasts in vitro restored their functionality to that of normal controls. ALDH1 is also upregulated in the mucosa of the mouse model of scarring allergic eye disease (AED), used here as a surrogate for OMMP, in which topical application of disulfiram decreased fibrosis in vivo. These data suggest that progressive scarring in OMMP results from ALDH/RA fibroblast autoregulation, that the ALDH1 subfamily has a central role in immune-mediated ocular mucosal scarring, and that ALDH inhibition with disulfiram is a potential and readily translatable antifibrotic therapy. PMID:27699226

  5. Degradable and injectable poly(aldehyde guluronate) hydrogels for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Y; Alsberg, E; Mooney, D J

    2001-08-01

    Degradable and injectable hydrogels may be ideal for bone-tissue engineering, especially in the craniofacial region because of the ease of access for injection. Alginate hydrogels potentially could be used as injectable cell delivery vehicles, but they exhibit a limited range of mechanical properties and uncontrollable disintegration time. Therefore we synthesized new hydrogels, composed of poly(aldehyde guluronate) (PAG) and adipic acid dihydrazide, that have a wide range of mechanical stiffness and controllable degradation rate. MC3T3-E1 cells adhered and multiplied on PAG hydrogels in vitro. When primary rat calvarial osteoblasts were mixed with PAG hydrogels and subcutaneously injected into the backs of mice, mineralized bone tissues were formed 9 weeks following implantation. These hydrogels may find wide utility as an injectable delivery system for bone precursor cells as well as for other applications in tissue engineering. PMID:11340593

  6. Selective Catalytic Hydrogenations of Nitriles, Ketones, and Aldehydes by Well-Defined Manganese Pincer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Topf, Christoph; Fischer, Steffen; Jiao, Haijun; Spannenberg, Anke; Baumann, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-20

    Hydrogenations constitute fundamental processes in organic chemistry and allow for atom-efficient and clean functional group transformations. In fact, the selective reduction of nitriles, ketones, and aldehydes with molecular hydrogen permits access to a green synthesis of valuable amines and alcohols. Despite more than a century of developments in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, efforts toward the creation of new useful and broadly applicable catalyst systems are ongoing. Recently, Earth-abundant metals have attracted significant interest in this area. In the present study, we describe for the first time specific molecular-defined manganese complexes that allow for the hydrogenation of various polar functional groups. Under optimal conditions, we achieve good functional group tolerance, and industrially important substrates, e.g., for the flavor and fragrance industry, are selectively reduced.

  7. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels.

  8. Lewis Acidity of Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane: Aldehyde Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by a Neutral Silicon Compound.

    PubMed

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L; Bergman, Robert G; Tilley, T Don

    2015-04-29

    Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane Si(cat(F))2 was prepared, and stoichiometric binding to Lewis bases was demonstrated with fluoride, triethylphosphine oxide, and N,N'-diisopropylbenzamide. The potent Lewis acidity of Si(cat(F))2 was suggested from catalytic hydrosilylation and silylcyanation reactions with aldehydes. Mechanistic studies of hydrosilylation using an optically active silane substrate, R-(+)-methyl-(1-naphthyl)phenylsilane, proceeded with predominant stereochemical retention at silicon, consistent with a carbonyl activation pathway. The enantiospecificity was dependent on solvent and salt effects, with increasing solvent polarity or addition of NBu4BAr(F)4 leading to a diminished enantiomeric ratio. The medium effects are consistent with an ionic mechanism, wherein hydride transfer occurs prior to silicon-oxygen bond formation.

  9. Water chemical ionization mass spectrometry of aldehydes, ketones esters, and carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.

    1986-11-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI) of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds using water as the reagent gas provides intense pseudomolecular ions and class-specific fragmentation patterns that can be used to identify aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters. The length of ester acyl and alkyl groups can easily be determined on the basis of loss of alcohols from the protonated parent. Water CI provides for an approximately 200:1 selectivity of carbonyl species over alkanes. No reagent ions are detected above 55 amu, allowing species as small as acetone, propanal, acetic acid, and methyl formate to be identified. When deuterate water was used as the reagent, only the carboxylic acids and ..beta..-diketones showed significant H/D exchange. The use of water CI to identify carbonyl compounds in a wastewater from the supercritical water extraction of lignite coal, in lemon oil, and in whiskey volatiles is discussed.

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Ick; Ganesan, Subhashree; Luo, Sarah X; Wu, Yu-Wei; Park, Esther; Huang, Eric J; Chen, Lu; Ding, Jun B

    2015-10-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here, we show that GABA co-release in dopamine neurons does not use the conventional GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol (EtOH) at concentrations seen in blood alcohol after binge drinking, and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction.

  11. Enzymatic Chemoselective Aldehyde-Ketone Cross-Couplings through the Polarity Reversal of Methylacetoin.

    PubMed

    Bernacchia, Giovanni; Bortolini, Olga; De Bastiani, Morena; Lerin, Lindomar Alberto; Loschonsky, Sabrina; Massi, Alessandro; Müller, Michael; Giovannini, Pier Paolo

    2015-06-01

    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) dependent enzyme acetoin:dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase (Ao:DCPIP OR) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme shared close similarities with the acetylacetoin synthase (AAS) partially purified from Bacillus licheniformis suggesting that they could be the same enzyme. The product scope of the recombinant Ao:DCPIP OR was expanded to chiral tertiary α-hydroxy ketones through the rare aldehyde-ketone cross-carboligation reaction. Unprecedented is the use of methylacetoin as the acetyl anion donor in combination with a range of strongly to weakly activated ketones. In some cases, Ao:DCPIP OR produced the desired tertiary alcohols with stereochemistry opposite to that obtained with other ThDP-dependent enzymes. The combination of methylacetoin as acyl anion synthon and novel ThDP-dependent enzymes considerably expands the available range of C-C bond formations in asymmetric synthesis. PMID:25914187

  12. YqhD: a broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase with various applications in production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jarboe, Laura R

    2011-01-01

    The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is the diversion of valuable NADPH away from biosynthesis. This YqhD-mediated NADPH depletion provides sufficient burden to contribute to growth inhibition by furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, inhibitory contaminants of biomass hydrolysate. The structure of YqhD has been characterized, with identification of a Zn atom in the active site. Directed engineering efforts have improved utilization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADPH. Most recently, two independent projects have demonstrated regulation of yqhD by YqhC, where YqhC appears to function as an aldehyde sensor.

  13. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia. PMID:27366754

  14. An aldehyde group-based P-acid probe for selective fluorescence turn-on sensing of cysteine and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunlei; Wang, Xiu; Shen, Lei; Deng, Wenping; Liu, Haiyun; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-06-15

    A highly sensitive and selective turn on fluorescent probe P-acid-aldehyde (P-CHO) is developed for the determination of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy). The probe is designed and synthesized by incorporating the specific functional group aldehyde group for thiols into a stable π-conjugated material 4,4'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-phenylene) bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl) dibenzoic acid (P-acid). The probe fluorescence is quenched through donor photoinduced electron transfer (d-PET) between the fluorophore (P-acid) and the recognition group (aldehyde group). In the presence of thiols, Cys and Hcy can selectively react with aldehyde group of the probe because the inhibition of d-PET between fluorophore and recognition group. Therefore, a turn-on fluorescent sensor was established for the fluorescence recovery. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence response of probe is directly proportional to the concentration of Cys in the range of 4-95 NM L(-1), with a detection limit 3.0 nM. In addition, the sensing system exhibits good selectively toward Cys and Hcy in the presence of other amino acids. It has been successfully applied for bioimaging of Cys and Hcy in living cells with low cell toxicity.

  15. Catalytic asymmetric reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes: enantioselective synthesis of allylic alcohols and alpha-hydroxy ketones.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen M; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Jamison, Timothy F

    2003-03-26

    A highly enantioselective method for catalytic reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes is described. Allylic alcohols are afforded with complete E/Z selectivity, generally >95:5 regioselectivity, and in up to 96% ee. In conjunction with ozonolysis, this process is complementary to existing methods of enantioselective alpha-hydroxy ketone synthesis. PMID:12643701

  16. Targeted LC–MS derivatization for aldehydes and carboxylic acids with a new derivatization agent 4-APEBA

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Mark; Wijtmans, Maikel; Kretschmer, Ansgar; Kool, Jeroen; Lingeman, Henk; de Esch, Iwan J. P.; Irth, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    Based on the template of a recently introduced derivatization reagent for aldehydes, 4-(2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy)benzeneaminium dibromide (4-APC), a new derivatization agent was designed with additional features for the analysis and screening of biomarkers of lipid peroxidation. The new derivatization reagent, 4-(2-((4-bromophenethyl)dimethylammonio)ethoxy)benzenaminium dibromide (4-APEBA) contains a bromophenethyl group to incorporate an isotopic signature to the derivatives and to add additional fragmentation identifiers, collectively enhancing the abilities for detection and screening of unknown aldehydes. Derivatization can be achieved under mild conditions (pH 5.7, 10 °C). By changing the secondary reagent (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide instead of sodium cyanoborohydride), 4-APEBA is also applicable to the selective derivatization of carboxylic acids. Synthesis of the new label, exploration of the derivatization conditions, characterization of the fragmentation of the aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives in MS/MS, and preliminary applications of the labeling strategy for the analysis of aldehydes in urine and plasma are described. Figure Structure and MS/MS fragmentation spectrum of 4-APEBA reagents derivatized with octanoic acid Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-010-3575-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20238107

  17. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic dihydropyrans via organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reactions of enolizable aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Long; Yang, Kai-Chuan; Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-23

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reaction involving aqueous acetaldehyde has been discovered. The reaction, in which cyclic enones serve as dienes in the presence of readily available secondary amine catalysts, allows facile construction of optically active bicyclic dihydropyrans. Other typical enolizable aliphatic aldehydes can also serve as competent dienophiles in the reaction. PMID:27436351

  19. A USER'S GUIDE TO ALDEHYDE ANALYSIS USING PFBHA DERIVATIZATION AND GC/ECD DETECTION: AVOIDING THE PITFALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are of interest because they have been identified as by-products of drinking water disinfection, particularly ozonation. In order to monitor treatment practices, assess exposure to consumers, and control health risks that might be associated with this class of by-produ...

  20. Human exposure to airborne aldehydes in Chinese medicine clinics during moxibustion therapy and its impact on risks to health.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chao, How-Ran; Shih, Shun-I

    2015-01-01

    Many air toxicants, and especially aldehydes, are generated by moxibustion, which means burning Artemisia argyi. Our goal was to investigate indoor-air aldehyde emissions in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) during moxibustion to further evaluate the potential health risks, including cancer risk and non-cancer risk, to the medical staff and adult patients. First, the indoor-air-quality in 60 public sites, including 15 CMCs, was investigated. Four CMCs with frequent use of moxibustion were selected from the 15 CMCs to gather the indoor airborne aldehydes in the waiting and therapy rooms. The mean values of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the CMCs' indoor air were 654 and 4230 μg m(-3), respectively, in the therapy rooms, and 155 and 850 μg m(-3), respectively, in the waiting rooms. The average lifetime cancer risks (Rs) and non-cancer risks (hazard quotients: HQs) of airborne formaldehyde and acetaldehyde among the CMC medical staff exceeded the acceptable criteria (R < 1.00 × 10(-3) and HQ < 1.00) for occupational workers. The patients' Rs and HQs were also slightly higher than the critical values (R = 1.00 × 10(-6) and HQ = 1.00). Our results indicate that airborne aldehydes pose a significant threat to the health of medical staff, and slightly affected the patients' health, during moxibustion in the CMCs.

  1. Fish larval deformity caused by aldehydes and unknown byproducts in ozonated effluents from municipal wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiming; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Hongying; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    Ozonated secondary effluents (SEs) from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) have been found to cause developmental retardation of fish embryos. This study explored the potential cause of the embryo toxicity formed in ozonated SEs by exposing Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) (d-rR) embryos to ozonated SE from a MWTP in Tianjin, China. The increase of ozone dose from 0.26 to 0.96 mg O3/mg DOC0 (consumed ozone per initial DOC), which produced total aldehyde (mixture of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal) from 41.5 to 114.7 μg/L, resulted in an increase in the percentage of deformed larvae from 2.2% to 24.1%. Increases in larval deformity and embryo mortality were also observed in ozonated SEs from other MWTPs. The exposure experiment using the mixture aldehyde solution showed that the production of aldehydes could explain approximately 13.6% of larval deformity caused by ozonation of SEs. Pilot experimental results in Tianjin and Beijing, China showed that biofiltration as a post-treatment technology was effective in removing the aldehydes as well as reducing embryo toxicity caused by ozonation.

  2. Tuning the catalytic CO hydrogenation to straight- and long-chain aldehydes/alcohols and olefins/paraffins

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yizhi; Kruse, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic CO hydrogenation is one of the most versatile large-scale chemical syntheses leading to variable chemical feedstock. While traditionally mainly methanol and long-chain hydrocarbons are produced by CO hydrogenation, here we show that the same reaction can be tuned to produce long-chain n-aldehydes, 1-alcohols and olefins, as well as n-paraffins over potassium-promoted CoMn catalysts. The sum selectivity of aldehydes and alcohols is usually >50 wt% whereof up to ∼97% can be n-aldehydes. While the product slate contains ∼60% n-aldehydes at /pCO=0.5, a 65/35% slate of paraffins/alcohols is obtained at a ratio of 9. A linear Anderson–Schulz–Flory behaviour, independent of the /pCO ratio, is found for the sum of C4+ products. We advocate a synergistic interaction between a Mn5O8 oxide and a bulk Co2C phase, promoted by the presence of potassium, to be responsible for the unique product spectra in our studies. PMID:27708269

  3. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Arnold N

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia.

  4. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  5. Enantioselective α-alkenylation of aldehydes with boronic acids via the synergistic combination of copper(II) and amine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jason M; MacMillan, David W C

    2013-08-14

    The enantioselective α-alkenylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using boronic acids via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. The merger of two highly utilized and robust catalytic systems has allowed for the development of a mild and operationally trivial protocol for the direct formation of α-formyl olefins employing common building blocks for organic synthesis. PMID:23889497

  6. Tuning the catalytic CO hydrogenation to straight- and long-chain aldehydes/alcohols and olefins/paraffins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yizhi; Kruse, Norbert

    2016-10-01

    The catalytic CO hydrogenation is one of the most versatile large-scale chemical syntheses leading to variable chemical feedstock. While traditionally mainly methanol and long-chain hydrocarbons are produced by CO hydrogenation, here we show that the same reaction can be tuned to produce long-chain n-aldehydes, 1-alcohols and olefins, as well as n-paraffins over potassium-promoted CoMn catalysts. The sum selectivity of aldehydes and alcohols is usually >50 wt% whereof up to ~97% can be n-aldehydes. While the product slate contains ~60% n-aldehydes at /pCO=0.5, a 65/35% slate of paraffins/alcohols is obtained at a ratio of 9. A linear Anderson-Schulz-Flory behaviour, independent of the /pCO ratio, is found for the sum of C4+ products. We advocate a synergistic interaction between a Mn5O8 oxide and a bulk Co2C phase, promoted by the presence of potassium, to be responsible for the unique product spectra in our studies.

  7. Scope and mechanism of the highly stereoselective metal-mediated domino aldol reactions of enolates with aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Bernward; Panthöfer, Martin; Deiseroth, Hans-Jörg; Schlirf, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Summary A one-pot transformation, which involves the reaction of ketones with aldehydes in the presence of metal halides to furnish tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,4-diols in a highly diastereoselective manner, is investigated thoroughly by experiments and computations. The reaction was also successfully implemented on a flow micro reactor system. PMID:27340472

  8. Hydralazine as a selective probe inactivator of aldehyde oxidase in human hepatocytes: estimation of the contribution of aldehyde oxidase to metabolic clearance.

    PubMed

    Strelevitz, Timothy J; Orozco, Christine C; Obach, R Scott

    2012-07-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) metabolism could lead to significant underestimation of clearance in prediction of human pharmacokinetics as well as unanticipated exposure to AO-generated metabolites, if not accounted for early in drug research. We report a method using cryopreserved human hepatocytes and the time-dependent AO inhibitor hydralazine (K(I) = 83 ± 27 μM, k(inact) = 0.063 ± 0.007 min(-1)), which estimates the contribution of AO metabolism relative to total hepatic clearance. Using zaleplon as a probe substrate and simultaneously monitoring the AO-catalyzed formation of oxozaleplon and the CYP3A-catalyzed formation of desethyzaleplon in the presence of a range of hydralazine concentrations, it was determined that >90% inhibition of the AO activity with minimal effect on the CYP3A activity could be achieved with 25 to 50 μM hydralazine. This method was used to estimate the fraction metabolized due to AO [f(m(AO))] for six compounds with clearance attributed to AO along with four other drugs not metabolized by AO. The f(m(AO)) values for the AO substrates ranged between 0.49 and 0.83. Differences in estimated f(m(AO)) between two batches of pooled human hepatocytes suggest that sensitivity to hydralazine varies slightly with hepatocyte preparations. Substrates with a CYP2D6 contribution to clearance were affected by hydralazine to a minor extent, because of weak inhibition of this enzyme. Overall, these findings demonstrate that hydralazine, at a concentration of 25 to 50 μM, can be used in human hepatocyte incubations to estimate the contribution of AO to the hepatic clearance of drugs and other compounds.

  9. IN VITRO ORGANIC NITRATE BIOACTIVATION TO NITRIC OXIDE BY RECOMBINANT ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE 3A1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shunxin; Page, Nathaniel A.; Fung, Sun Mi; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2013-01-01

    Organic nitrates (ORNs) are commonly used anti-ischemic and anti-anginal agents, which serve as an exogenous source of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Recently, both mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 (ALDH1A1) have been shown to exhibit the ability to selectively bioactivate various ORNs in vitro. The objective of the present research was to examine the potential role of ALDH3A1, another major cytosolic isoform of ALDH, in the in vitro bioactivation of various ORNs, and to estimate the enzyme kinetic parameters toward ORNs through mechanistic modeling. The extent of bioactivation was assayed by exposing recombinant ALDH3A1 to various concentrations of ORNs, and measuring the concentration-time profiles of released NO via a NO-specific electrode. Metabolite formation kinetics was monitored for nitroglycerin (NTG) using LC/MS/MS. Our results showed that ALDH3A1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in C57BL/6 mouse aortic, cardiac, and hepatic tissues, and it was able to release NO from several ORNs, including NTG, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), isosorbide-2-mononitrate (IS-2-MN), and nicorandil with similar Vmax (0.175 – 0.503 nmol/min/mg of ALDH3A1), and Km values of 4.01, 46.5, 818 and 5.75 × 103 μM respectively. However, activation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) by ALDH3A1 was undetectable in vitro. ALDH3A1 was also shown to denitrate NTG, producing primarily glyceryl 1, 2-dinitrate (1, 2-GDN) in preference to glyceryl 1, 3-dinitrate (1, 3-GDN). Therefore, ALDH3A1 may contribute to the bioactivation of ORNs in vivo. PMID:24126018

  10. Purification and characterization of two distinct aldehyde-oxidizing enzymes from the liver of black seabream.

    PubMed

    Fong, Wing-Ping; Cheng, Christopher H K; Tang, Wai-Kwan

    2003-02-01

    Two aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) were purified from the liver of black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli). Chromatography of the liver homogenate on an alpha-cyanocinnamate-Sepharose affinity column results in two activity peaks using acetaldehyde as the substrate. The eluate was subjected to another affinity chromatography on p-hydroxyacetophenone-Sepharose. The final preparation showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with a subunit M.W. of 56,000. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the first 29 residues followed by blastp analysis on the NCBI database revealed this protein as ALDH-2, as it exhibited 69% identity with human mitochondrial ALDH-2. Chromatography of the alpha-cyanocinnamate-Sepharose column flow-through fractions on Affi-gel Blue agarose yielded another ALDH. The purified protein, with a subunit M.W. of 57,500, was identified as antiquitin (turgor ALDH) by its first 18 N-terminal amino acid residues, which showed 83% identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of human antiquitin. Kinetically, both ALDHs showed maximal activity at pH around 8.5-9.0. They differed, however, in their catalytic efficiency towards the oxidation of acetaldehyde. Antiquitin had much lower affinity towards acetaldehyde; the Km value being approximately 220-fold higher than that of ALDH-2. The Vmax of antiquitin was only approximately 12% of ALDH-2. Antiquitin is believed to be involved in the regulation of cellular turgor pressure. However, all previous studies on antiquitin have been confined to the nucleotide level and the protein has never been isolated from any source. The development of an effective purification procedure and the demonstration that this protein is an enzyme with aldehyde-oxidizing activity would be highly valuable for further investigations on the physiological significance of this evolutionarily conserved protein. PMID:12604200

  11. Effects of Alda-1, an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Agonist, on Hypoglycemic Neuronal Death.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuhiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Tsujita, Mika; Kanazawa, Masato; Toriyabe, Masafumi; Koyama, Misaki; Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE) is caused by a lack of glucose availability to neuronal cells, and no neuroprotective drugs have been developed as yet. Studies on the pathogenesis of HE and the development of new neuroprotective drugs have been conducted using animal models such as the hypoglycemic coma model and non-coma hypoglycemia model. However, both models have inherent problems, and establishment of animal models that mimic clinical situations is desirable. In this study, we first developed a short-term hypoglycemic coma model in which rats could be maintained in an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) state for 2 min and subsequent hyperglycemia without requiring anti-seizure drugs and an artificial ventilation. This condition caused the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a cytotoxic aldehyde, in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and a marked increase in neuronal death as evaluated by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining. We also investigated whether N-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide (Alda-1), a small-molecule agonist of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, could attenuate 4-HNE levels and reduce hypoglycemic neuronal death. After confirming that EEG recordings remained isoelectric for 2 min, Alda-1 (8.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) was administered intravenously with glucose to maintain a blood glucose level of 250 to 270 mg/dL. Fewer 4-HNE and FJB-positive cells were observed in the cerebral cortex of Alda-1-treated rats than in DMSO-treated rats 24 h after glucose administration (P = 0.002 and P = 0.020). Thus, activation of the ALDH2 pathway could be a molecular target for HE treatment, and Alda-1 is a potentially neuroprotective agent that exerts a beneficial effect on neurons when intravenously administered simultaneously with glucose. PMID:26083658

  12. The Distribution of Astronomical Aldehydes - the Case for Extended Emission of Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Andrew; Loomis, Ryan; Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Corby, Joanna F.; Remijan, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of new broadband spectral line interferometric observations, we can now begin to fully characterize the spectra and distribution of complex organic molecules that have been largely ignored since their original detections using single dish telescopes. First detected in 1973, acetaldehyde (CH_3CHO) has been detected in numerous sources including TMC-1, Sgr B2(N) and Orion KL (Gottlieb et al 1973; Mathews et al. 1984; Johansson et al. 1991); yet its distribution within these sources is still not well known. Unlike a number of other molecules observed in these regions, acetaldehyde is not observed to be concentrated in hot core regions toward Sgr B2(N), but to have an extended distribution, a trait shared by other aldehydes (Hollis et al. 2001; Chengalur and Kanekar, 2003). An extended distribution may indicate formation through gas phase ion molecule reactions, or that the distribution is a result of non-thermal processes liberating the molecule off grain surfaces. Meanwhile, a compact distribution may indicate warm grain surface chemistry with subsequent desorption by thermal processes. Spatial maps will also help determine abundance correlations with other related molecules such as formic acid, aiding in the investigation of formation routes. In this talk, we present multiple transition maps of acetaldehyde toward Orion KL using both CARMA and the ALMA Band 6 Science Verification data which show evidence of an extended distribution of acetaldehyde, suggesting a similar formation chemistry in Orion KL as suggested by Chengular and Kanekar (2003) towards Sgr B2(N). In addition, spatial correlations to other molecules in the region will be shown, possibly suggesting a common formation chemistry for some aldehydes.

  13. Purification, characterization, and properties of an aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Rosazza, J P

    1997-06-01

    An aryl aldehyde oxidoreductase from Nocardia sp. strain NRRL 5646 was purified 196-fold by a combination of Mono-Q, Reactive Green 19 agarose affinity, and hydroxyapatite chromatographies. The purified enzyme runs as a single band of 140 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass was estimated to be 163 +/- 3.8 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that this enzyme is a monomeric protein. The binding of the enzyme to Reactive Green 19 agarose was Mg2+ dependent. The binding capacity was estimated to be about 0.2 mg of Reactive Green agarose per ml in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. This enzyme can catalyze the reduction of a wide range of aryl carboxylic acids, including substituted benzoic acids, phenyl-substituted aliphatic acids, heterocyclic carboxylic acids, and polyaromatic ring carboxylic acids, to produce the corresponding aldehydes. The Km values for benzoate, ATP, and NADPH were determined to be 645 +/- 75, 29.3 +/- 3.1, and 57.3 +/- 12.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax was determined to be 0.902 +/- 0.04 micromol/min/mg of protein. Km values for (S)-(+)-alpha-methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)-benzeneacetic acid (ibuprofen) and its (R)-(-) isomer were determined to be 155 +/- 18 and 34.5 +/- 2.5 microM, respectively. The Vmax for the (S)-(+) and (R)-(-) isomers were 1.33 and 0.15 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. Anthranilic acid is a competitive inhibitor with benzoic acid as a substrate, with a Ki of 261 +/- 30 microM. The N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of a 76-kDa peptide from limited alpha-chymotrypsin digestion were determined.

  14. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. PMID:25909656

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 defines and protects a nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoxiang; Yu, Jia; Ding, Jinhui; Xie, Chengsong; Sun, Lixin; Rudenko, Iakov; Zheng, Wang; Sastry, Namratha; Luo, Jing; Rudow, Gay; Troncoso, Juan C.; Cai, Huaibin

    2014-01-01

    Subpopulations of dopaminergic (DA) neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) display a differential vulnerability to loss in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, it is not clear why these subsets are preferentially selected in PD-associated neurodegeneration. In rodent SNpc, DA neurons can be divided into two subpopulations based on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1). Here, we have shown that, in α-synuclein transgenic mice, a murine model of PD-related disease, DA neurodegeneration occurs mainly in a dorsomedial ALDH1A1-negative subpopulation that is also prone to cytotoxic aggregation of α-synuclein. Notably, the topographic ALDH1A1 pattern observed in α-synuclein transgenic mice was conserved in human SNpc. Postmortem evaluation of brains of patients with PD revealed a severe reduction of ALDH1A1 expression and neurodegeneration in the ventral ALDH1A1-positive DA subpopulations. ALDH1A1 expression was also suppressed in α-synuclein transgenic mice. Deletion of Aldh1a1 exacerbated α-synuclein–mediated DA neurodegeneration and α-synuclein aggregation, whereas Aldh1a1-null and control DA neurons were comparably susceptible to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium–, glutamate-, or camptothecin-induced cell death. ALDH1A1 overexpression appeared to preferentially protect against α-synuclein–mediated DA neurodegeneration but did not rescue α-synuclein–induced loss of cortical neurons. Together, our findings suggest that ALDH1A1 protects subpopulations of SNpc DA neurons by preventing the accumulation of dopamine aldehyde intermediates and formation of cytotoxic α-synuclein oligomers. PMID:24865427

  16. Site-directed mutagenesis of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suggests three distinct pathways of nitroglycerin biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Wenzl, M Verena; Beretta, Matteo; Griesberger, Martina; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C F

    2011-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying reduction of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO) by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), we generated mutants of the enzyme lacking the cysteines adjacent to reactive Cys302 (C301S and C303S), the glutamate that participates as a general base in aldehyde oxidation (E268Q) or combinations of these residues. The mutants were characterized regarding acetaldehyde dehydrogenation, GTN-triggered enzyme inactivation, GTN denitration, NO formation, and soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Lack of the cysteines did not affect dehydrogenase activity but impeded GTN denitration, aggravated GTN-induced enzyme inactivation, and increased NO formation. A triple mutant lacking the cysteines and Glu268 catalyzed sustained formation of superstoichiometric amounts of NO and exhibited slower rates of inactivation. These results suggest three alternative pathways for the reaction of ALDH2 with GTN, all involving formation of a thionitrate/sulfenyl nitrite intermediate at Cys302 as the initial step. In the first pathway, which predominates in the wild-type enzyme and reflects clearance-based GTN denitration, the thionitrate apparently reacts with one of the adjacent cysteine residues to yield nitrite and a protein disulfide. The predominant reaction catalyzed by the single and double cysteine mutants requires Glu268 and results in irreversible enzyme inactivation. Finally, combined lack of the cysteines and Glu268 shifts the reaction toward formation of the free NO radical, presumably through homolytic cleavage of the sulfenyl nitrite intermediate. Although the latter reaction accounts for less than 10% of total turnover of GTN metabolism catalyzed by wild-type ALDH2, it is most likely essential for vascular GTN bioactivation.

  17. Structure and evolution of vertebrate aldehyde oxidases: from gene duplication to gene suppression.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Mami; Bolis, Marco; Fratelli, Maddalena; Barzago, Maria Monica; Pattini, Linda; Perretta, Gemma; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) and xanthine dehydrogenases (XDHs) belong to the family of molybdo-flavoenzymes. Although AOXs are not identifiable in fungi, these enzymes are represented in certain protists and the majority of plants and vertebrates. The physiological functions and substrates of AOXs are unknown. Nevertheless, AOXs are major drug metabolizing enzymes, oxidizing a wide range of aromatic aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds of medical/toxicological importance. Using genome sequencing data, we predict the structures of AOX genes and pseudogenes, reconstructing their evolution. Fishes are the most primitive organisms with an AOX gene (AOXα), originating from the duplication of an ancestral XDH. Further evolution of fishes resulted in the duplication of AOXα into AOXβ and successive pseudogenization of AOXα. AOXβ is maintained in amphibians and it is the likely precursors of reptilian, avian, and mammalian AOX1. Amphibian AOXγ is a duplication of AOXβ and the likely ancestor of reptilian and avian AOX2, which, in turn, gave rise to mammalian AOX3L1. Subsequent gene duplications generated the two mammalian genes, AOX3 and AOX4. The evolution of mammalian AOX genes is dominated by pseudogenization and deletion events. Our analysis is relevant from a structural point of view, as it provides information on the residues characterizing the three domains of each mammalian AOX isoenzyme. We cloned the cDNAs encoding the AOX proteins of guinea pig and cynomolgus monkeys, two unique species as to the evolution of this enzyme family. We identify chimeric RNAs from the human AOX3 and AOX3L1 pseudogenes with potential to encode a novel microRNA.

  18. Parallel Functional Changes in Independent Testis-Specific Duplicates of Aldehyde dehydrogenase in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mahul; Fry, James D.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of duplicates, originating from ubiquitously expressed genes, acquire testis-biased expression. Identifying the underlying cause of this observation requires determining whether the duplicates have altered functions relative to the parental genes. Typically, statistical methods are used to test for positive selection, signature of which in protein sequence of duplicates implies functional divergence. When assumptions are violated, however, such tests can lead to false inference of positive selection. More convincing evidence for naturally selected functional changes would be the occurrence of structural changes with similar functional consequences in independent duplicates of the same gene. We investigated two testis-specific duplicates of the broadly expressed enzyme gene Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) that arose in different Drosophila lineages. The duplicates show a typical pattern of accelerated amino acid substitutions relative to their broadly expressed paralogs, with statistical evidence for positive selection in both cases. Importantly, in both duplicates, width of the entrance to the substrate binding site, known a priori to influence substrate specificity, and otherwise conserved throughout the genus Drosophila, has been reduced, resulting in narrowing of the entrance. Protein structure modeling suggests that the reduction of the size of the enzyme’s substrate entry channel, which is likely to shift substrate specificity toward smaller aldehydes, is accounted for by the positively selected parallel substitutions in one duplicate but not the other. Evolution of the testis-specific duplicates was accompanied by reduction in expression of the ancestral Aldh in males, supporting the hypothesis that the duplicates may have helped resolve intralocus sexual conflict over Aldh function. PMID:25564519

  19. Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J.; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M.; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability. PMID:24633248

  20. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  1. Changes in the inducibility of a hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase by various effectors.

    PubMed

    Vasiliou, V; Marselos, M

    1989-01-01

    A hepatic soluble aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), inducible by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was studied in Wistar rats in connection with substances known to affect drug metabolism or aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, such as phenobarbital (PB), disulfiram (DS), beta-diethylaminoethyl diphenylpropylacetate (SKF 525A) and calcium cyanamide (CC). 3-Methylcholanthrene (MC) was given as a model inducer of ALDH (100 mg/kg, i.p., as a single dose) and the animals were killed after 3 days. Pretreatment with PB (1 g/l drinking water, for 2 weeks) enhanced the inducing effect of MC. On the contrary, pretreatment with DS (100 mg/kg, i.p., daily x 4) reduced by 70% the expected increase in ALDH activity. Neither SKF 525A (25 mg/kg, i.p., daily x 4), nor CC (5 mg/kg, i.p., daily x 4) could affect the action of the inducer. At the above doses, basal ALDH activity was inhibited by DS (30%) and CC (70%), but was not affected at all by PB or SKF 525A. The results were somewhat different when the various effectors tested were administered to animals already treated with MC (20 mg/kg, i.p., daily x 6). In this case, DS did not affect the already induced ALDH activity. On the contrary, CC was still an effective inhibitor. Unexpectedly, post-treatment with SKF 525A further enhanced the initial induction brought about by MC. Our findings show that substances affecting microsomal drug metabolism can interfere with the process of ALDH induction by MC. The additive result of PB pretreatment is probably due to the enhanced accumulation of an active metabolite of MC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Eun Jig

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.

  3. Parallel functional changes in independent testis-specific duplicates of Aldehyde dehydrogenase in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mahul; Fry, James D

    2015-04-01

    A large proportion of duplicates, originating from ubiquitously expressed genes, acquire testis-biased expression. Identifying the underlying cause of this observation requires determining whether the duplicates have altered functions relative to the parental genes. Typically, statistical methods are used to test for positive selection, signature of which in protein sequence of duplicates implies functional divergence. When assumptions are violated, however, such tests can lead to false inference of positive selection. More convincing evidence for naturally selected functional changes would be the occurrence of structural changes with similar functional consequences in independent duplicates of the same gene. We investigated two testis-specific duplicates of the broadly expressed enzyme gene Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) that arose in different Drosophila lineages. The duplicates show a typical pattern of accelerated amino acid substitutions relative to their broadly expressed paralogs, with statistical evidence for positive selection in both cases. Importantly, in both duplicates, width of the entrance to the substrate binding site, known a priori to influence substrate specificity, and otherwise conserved throughout the genus Drosophila, has been reduced, resulting in narrowing of the entrance. Protein structure modeling suggests that the reduction of the size of the enzyme's substrate entry channel, which is likely to shift substrate specificity toward smaller aldehydes, is accounted for by the positively selected parallel substitutions in one duplicate but not the other. Evolution of the testis-specific duplicates was accompanied by reduction in expression of the ancestral Aldh in males, supporting the hypothesis that the duplicates may have helped resolve intralocus sexual conflict over Aldh function.

  4. Potential polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under two tidal regimes.

    PubMed

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell⁻¹. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability. PMID:24633248

  5. Effects of Alda-1, an Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Agonist, on Hypoglycemic Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Tetsuhiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Tsujita, Mika; Kanazawa, Masato; Toriyabe, Masafumi; Koyama, Misaki; Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Shimohata, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE) is caused by a lack of glucose availability to neuronal cells, and no neuroprotective drugs have been developed as yet. Studies on the pathogenesis of HE and the development of new neuroprotective drugs have been conducted using animal models such as the hypoglycemic coma model and non-coma hypoglycemia model. However, both models have inherent problems, and establishment of animal models that mimic clinical situations is desirable. In this study, we first developed a short-term hypoglycemic coma model in which rats could be maintained in an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) state for 2 min and subsequent hyperglycemia without requiring anti-seizure drugs and an artificial ventilation. This condition caused the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a cytotoxic aldehyde, in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and a marked increase in neuronal death as evaluated by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining. We also investigated whether N-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-ylmethyl)-2,6-dichlorobenzamide (Alda-1), a small-molecule agonist of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, could attenuate 4-HNE levels and reduce hypoglycemic neuronal death. After confirming that EEG recordings remained isoelectric for 2 min, Alda-1 (8.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) was administered intravenously with glucose to maintain a blood glucose level of 250 to 270 mg/dL. Fewer 4-HNE and FJB-positive cells were observed in the cerebral cortex of Alda-1-treated rats than in DMSO-treated rats 24 h after glucose administration (P = 0.002 and P = 0.020). Thus, activation of the ALDH2 pathway could be a molecular target for HE treatment, and Alda-1 is a potentially neuroprotective agent that exerts a beneficial effect on neurons when intravenously administered simultaneously with glucose. PMID:26083658

  6. Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides and aldehydes during field campaigns : new results due to improvement of measurements techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, S.; Sowka, I.; Poulain, L.; Monod, A.; Wortham, H.

    2003-04-01

    Hydroperoxides and aldehydes are considered as atmospheric reservoirs of OH, HO_2 and RO_2 radicals and can reflect the oxidizing levels of the atmosphere. They are considered as important gas phase photo-oxidants present in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric role of these compounds can vary from one species to another, therefore it is essential to investigate their measurement and speciation in the atmosphere. Atmospheric measurements were realized during two different field campaigns in the Marseilles area (France). Hydroperoxides were trapped in aqueous phase, with a glass coil and analyzed by HPLC/fluorescence detector with post column derivatization. Aldehydes were trapped in a liquid phase containing 2-4 DNPH, with a mist chamber and analyzed by HPLC/UV. The analytical techniques provided individual separation and quantification of seven hydroperoxides (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, bis(hydroxymethyl) peroxide, 1-hydroxyethyl hydroperoxide, methyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide and peroxyacetic acid) and eleven volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, valeraldehyde and methylglyoxal). The first field campaign was part of the ESCOMPTE project (June 4th to July 16th 2001). During this campaign five different sampling sites, at low altitudes (<= 285 m), were investigated (maritime, urban, sub-industrial, biogenic and rural sites) and atmospheric measurements were realized during photochemical air pollution events. The second field campaign was part of the BOND project (July 2nd to July 14th 2002). Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides were carried out on one biogenic site, at altitude 690 m. The measurement system was improved allowing online sampling and analysis. During these field campaigns collection efficiencies were better than 96% for hydroperoxides, and from 78% to 96% for aldehydes. Detection limits were between 7,3× 10-3

  7. Development of an environment-friendly microextraction method for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in water.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Silva, Manuel; Gallego, Mercedes

    2013-06-19

    Aldehydes are produced in water disinfected primarily by ozone treatment, and are generally present in treated water below the limit of detection (<5 μg L(-1)) of commonly proposed methods. Formaldehyde is the most studied along with acetaldehyde due to their mutagenic character, and because it causes chromosomal aberrations. This paper reports the first miniaturised system for the simultaneous determination of thirteen aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic) which are selected based on their frequent or suspected presence in water, mainly as disinfection by-products (DBPs). The micro liquid-liquid extraction (MLLE) method is a miniaturisation of EPA Method 556.1 for carbonyl compounds that includes some innovations, such as performing the derivatising reaction in a strong acidic medium (pH 1.1), and the addition of magnesium sulphate to the aqueous layer as the heating agent, which allows to carry out the whole simultaneous derivatisation/microextraction process in only 1 min. Large-volume sample injection (50 μL) coupled to programmed temperature vaporiser-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is also used to improve both sensitivity and selectivity. The MLLE method demonstrated high extraction efficiency (96%) with low limits of detection, between 0.7 and 80 ng L(-1), and good precision (RSD below 10%, n=11). The proposed method was evaluated by determining aldehydes in water. Our study demonstrated that the selection of the target aldehydes was appropriate since all were found (at average concentrations from 8.0 to 1.4 μg L(-1) for aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, respectively) in swimming pool waters as DBPs. PMID:23746412

  8. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1B1: Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Mitochondrial Acetaldehyde-Metabolizing Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Chen, Ying; Brocker, Chad; Donald, Elizabeth; Jackson, Brian C.; Orlicky, David J.; Thompson, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol-induced damage is largely attributed to its toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde. Clearance of acetaldehyde is achieved by its oxidation, primarily catalyzed by the mitochondrial class II aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). ALDH1B1 is another mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that shares 75% peptide sequence homology with ALDH2. Recent population studies in whites suggest a role for ALDH1B1 in ethanol metabolism. However, to date, no formal documentation of the biochemical properties of ALDH1B1 has been forthcoming. In this current study, we cloned and expressed human recombinant ALDH1B1 in Sf9 insect cells. The resultant enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography to homogeneity. The kinetic properties of purified human ALDH1B1 were assessed using a wide range of aldehyde substrates. Human ALDH1B1 had an exclusive preference for NAD+ as the cofactor and was catalytically active toward short- and medium-chain aliphatic aldehydes, aromatic aldehydes, and the products of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde. Most importantly, human ALDH1B1 exhibited an apparent Km of 55 μM for acetaldehyde, making it the second low Km ALDH for metabolism of this substrate. The dehydrogenase activity of ALDH1B1 was sensitive to disulfiram inhibition, a feature also shared with ALDH2. The tissue distribution of ALDH1B1 in C57BL/6J mice and humans was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis. The highest expression occurred in the liver, followed by the intestinal tract, implying a potential physiological role for ALDH1B1 in these tissues. The current study is the first report on the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of human ALDH1B1 protein. PMID:20616185

  9. Development of an environment-friendly microextraction method for the determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in water.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Silva, Manuel; Gallego, Mercedes

    2013-06-19

    Aldehydes are produced in water disinfected primarily by ozone treatment, and are generally present in treated water below the limit of detection (<5 μg L(-1)) of commonly proposed methods. Formaldehyde is the most studied along with acetaldehyde due to their mutagenic character, and because it causes chromosomal aberrations. This paper reports the first miniaturised system for the simultaneous determination of thirteen aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic) which are selected based on their frequent or suspected presence in water, mainly as disinfection by-products (DBPs). The micro liquid-liquid extraction (MLLE) method is a miniaturisation of EPA Method 556.1 for carbonyl compounds that includes some innovations, such as performing the derivatising reaction in a strong acidic medium (pH 1.1), and the addition of magnesium sulphate to the aqueous layer as the heating agent, which allows to carry out the whole simultaneous derivatisation/microextraction process in only 1 min. Large-volume sample injection (50 μL) coupled to programmed temperature vaporiser-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is also used to improve both sensitivity and selectivity. The MLLE method demonstrated high extraction efficiency (96%) with low limits of detection, between 0.7 and 80 ng L(-1), and good precision (RSD below 10%, n=11). The proposed method was evaluated by determining aldehydes in water. Our study demonstrated that the selection of the target aldehydes was appropriate since all were found (at average concentrations from 8.0 to 1.4 μg L(-1) for aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, respectively) in swimming pool waters as DBPs.

  10. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Laura R.; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Clarke, David J.; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD+. This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26899032

  11. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft.

  12. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft. PMID:26376451

  13. KetoABNO/NOx Cocatalytic Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehydes to Carboxylic Acids and Access to α-Chiral Carboxylic Acids via Sequential Asymmetric Hydroformylation/Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Miles, Kelsey C; Abrams, M Leigh; Landis, Clark R; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-08-01

    A method for aerobic oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids has been developed using organic nitroxyl and NOx cocatalysts. KetoABNO (9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one N-oxyl) and NaNO2 were identified as the optimal nitroxyl and NOx sources, respectively. The mildness of the reaction conditions enables sequential asymmetric hydroformylation of alkenes/aerobic aldehyde oxidation to access α-chiral carboxylic acids without racemization. The scope, utility, and limitations of the oxidation method are further evaluated with a series of achiral aldehydes bearing diverse functional groups.

  14. Synthesis of 2-Acylphenol and Flavene Derivatives from the Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidative C–H Acylation of Phenols with Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanbin

    2015-01-01

    The cationic ruthenium hydride complex [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+BF4− has been found to be an effective catalyst for the oxidative C–H coupling reaction of phenols with aldehydes to give 2-acylphenol compounds. The coupling of phenols with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes selectively gives the flavene derivatives. The catalytic method mediates direct oxidative C–H coupling of phenol and aldehyde substrates without using any metal oxidants or forming wasteful byproducts. PMID:26167129

  15. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  16. n-Aldehydes (C6-C10) in snow samples collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieg, K.; Starokozhev, E.; Fries, E.; Sala, S.; Püttmann, W.

    2009-04-01

    C6-C10 n-aldehydes were analyzed in samples of freshly fallen snow collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE) 5 in February and March 2006. Sampling was carried out on the Sphinx platform. Headspace - solid phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantify n-aldehydes in melted snow samples. n-Hexanal was identified as the most abundant n-aldehyde (median concentration 1.324 µg L-1) followed by n-nonanal, n-decanal, n-octanal and n-heptanal (median concentrations 1.239, 0.863, 0.460 and 0.304 µg L-1, respectively). A wide range of concentrations of n-aldehydes was found in snow samples from Jungfraujoch, even for samples collected at the same time during the same snowfall event. According to their physical and chemical characteristics, n-aldehydes are expected to be primarily linked to aerosol particles in the atmosphere suggesting the uptake of n-aldehydes into snow via the particle phase. Particle scavenging can occur during snow formation in clouds. The high concentration variations of the n-aldehydes among the snow samples can be explained assuming that aerosol particles, which are loaded with n-aldehydes, are heterogeneously distributed throughout the snow samples. Higher median concentrations of all n-aldehydes were observed when air masses reached Jungfraujoch from the north-northwest in comparison to air masses arriving from the southeast-southwest. The sources of atmospheric n-aldehydes present at Jungfraujoch are most likely to be related to direct and indirect biogenic emissions. The presence of n-aldehydes as semivolatile constituents of direct biogenic emissions from vegetation has been reported previously in studies of Ciccioli et al. [1], Yokouchi et al. [2] and Kesselmeier and Staudt [3]. The distribution pattern of the n-aldehydes in emissions from vegetation largely matches with the n-aldehyde

  17. Activator Protein-1 Regulation of Murine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1a1

    PubMed Central

    Makia, N. L.; Amunom, I.; Falkner, K. C.; Conklin, D. J.; Surapureddi, S.; Goldstein, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1a1 is the major ALDH expressed in mouse liver and is an effective catalyst in metabolism of lipid aldehydes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a ≈2.5- to 3-fold induction of the hepatic ALDH1A1 mRNA in mice administered either acrolein (5 mg/kg acrolein p.o.) or butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) (0.45% in the diet) and of cytosolic NAD+-dependent ALDH activity. We observed ≈2-fold increases in ALDH1A1 mRNA levels in both Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(−/−) mice treated with BHA compared with controls, suggesting that BHA-induced expression is independent of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The levels of activator protein-1 (AP-1) mRNA and protein, as well as the amount of phosphorylated c-Jun were significantly increased in mouse liver or Hepa1c1c7 cells treated with either BHA or acrolein. With use of luciferase reporters containing the 5′-flanking sequence of Aldh1a1 (−1963/+27), overexpression of c-Jun resulted in an ≈4-fold induction in luciferase activity, suggesting that c-Jun transactivates the Aldh1a1 promoter as a homodimer and not as a c-Jun/c-Fos heterodimer. Promoter deletion and mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that the AP-1 site at position −758 and possibly −1069 relative to the transcription start site was responsible for c-Jun-mediated transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis with antibodies against c-Jun and c-Fos showed that c-Jun binds to the proximal AP-1 site at position −758 but not at −1069. Recruitment of c-Jun to this proximal AP-1 site by BHA was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, indicating that recruitment of c-Jun to the mouse Aldh1a1 gene promoter results in increased transcription. This mode of regulation of an ALDH has not been described before. PMID:22740640

  18. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  19. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases: structures of the human liver enzymes, functional properties and evolutionary aspects.

    PubMed

    Jörnvall, H; Hempel, J; von Bahr-Lindström, H; Höög, J O; Vallee, B L

    1987-01-01

    polyol dehydrogenases are encountered. The two isozymes of human aldehyde dehydrogenase also exhibit considerable differences, with only 68% structural identity. The results show an early divergence into isozymes before the man/horse species radiation. Cys-302 is a functionally important residue and is located in one of the regions with conserved hydrophobic properties. Other regions with large differences in hydropathic properties may explain the absence of cross-hybridizing isozyme forms of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase.

  20. Formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids in ozonated surface water and wastewater: a clear relationship with fluorescence changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Tang, Xiangyu; Kim, Jaeshin; Korshin, Gregory V

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids in ozonated surface water and municipal wastewater secondary effluent and addressed correlations between the generation of these compounds and concurrent changes of the fluorescence of natural/effluent organic matter (NOM/EfOM) substrates. Ozonation was effective in removing fluorophores in all excitation/emission matrix (EEM) regions, with those operationally assigned to humic- and protein-like species showing relatively higher reactivity than fulvic-like species. Examination of HO exposures and attendant changes of fluorescence-based parameters allows establishing strong linear relationships between formation of the aldehydes and carboxylic acids and the relative changes of integrated fluorescence (ΔIF/IF0). This demonstrates the feasibility of surrogate monitoring of the formation of biodegradable ozonation by-products via online measurements of water/wastewater EEM fluorescence.

  1. Nitrosobenzene as a hydrogen acceptor in rhodium catalysed dehydrogenation reactions of alcohols: synthesis of aldehydes and azoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Annen, Samuel P; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2012-12-14

    Acids, esters and amides have to date been the only isolated products from the dehydrogenation of primary alcohols with [Rh(trop(2)N)(L)] (trop = 5-H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5yl) type complexes. With the reported method the available product family is finally to aldehydes. Using nitrosobenzene as a hydrogen acceptor the aldehydes could be isolated in up to 96% yield with substrate to catalyst ratios of up to 1000. Nitrosobenzene was found to be reductively coupled to azoxybenzene under the reaction conditions. Several symmetrically substituted azoxybenzene derivatives could be isolated in generally high yields after 2 to 4 h reaction time using a low catalyst loading. PMID:23032195

  2. SnAP reagents for the one-step synthesis of medium-ring saturated N-heterocycles from aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Cam-Van T.; Luescher, Michael U.; Bode, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-01

    Interest in saturated N-heterocycles as scaffolds for the synthesis of bioactive molecules is increasing. Reliable and predictable synthetic methods for the preparation of these compounds, especially medium-sized rings, are limited. We describe the development of SnAP (Sn amino protocol) reagents for the transformation of aldehydes into seven-, eight- and nine-membered saturated N-heterocycles. This process occurs under mild, room-temperature conditions and offers exceptional substrate scope and functional-group tolerance. Air- and moisture-stable SnAP reagents are prepared on a multigram scale from inexpensive starting materials by simple reaction sequences. These new reagents and processes allow widely available aryl, heteroaryl and aliphatic aldehydes to be converted into diverse N-heterocycles, including diazepanes, oxazepanes, diazocanes, oxazocanes and hexahydrobenzoxazonines, by a single synthetic operation.

  3. Unusual coupling reactions of aldehydes and alkynes: a novel preparation of substituted phthalic acid derivatives by automated synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel; Neumann, Helfried; Gördes, Dirk; Klaus, Stefan; Jiao, Haijun; Spannenberg, Anke; Krüger, Thomas; Wendler, Christian; Thurow, Kerstin; Stoll, Norbert; Beller, Matthias

    2003-05-23

    Based upon a highly versatile multicomponent methodology, a new one-pot synthesis of substituted phthalic acid derivatives from alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes was developed. The reaction involves the intermediacy of an acetamidodiene species which undergoes Diels-Alder addition to diethyl acetylenedicarboxylate. The resultant acetamidocyclohexadiene is subject to elimination of acetamide under the reaction conditions to give rise to substituted diethyl phthalates in good yields. This domino condensation-cycloaddition-elimination sequence has been applied to a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the exploitation of parallelized and automated synthesis technology for the rapid screening of reaction conditions and compositions. Detailed studies revealed the catalytic role of the employed acetamide and the occurrence of a stereoselective 1,4-syn elimination pathway under standard conditions.

  4. Catalyzed formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones or aldehydes from propargylic acetates by a recoverable and recyclable nanocluster catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man-Bo; Tian, Shi-Kai; Wu, Zhikun

    2014-05-01

    An active, recoverable, and recyclable nanocluster catalyst, Au25(SR)18-, has been developed to catalyze the formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones or aldehydes from propargylic acetates. The catalytic process has been proposed to be initialized by an SN2' addition of OH-. Moreover, a dramatic solvent effect was observed, for which a rational explanation was provided.An active, recoverable, and recyclable nanocluster catalyst, Au25(SR)18-, has been developed to catalyze the formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones or aldehydes from propargylic acetates. The catalytic process has been proposed to be initialized by an SN2' addition of OH-. Moreover, a dramatic solvent effect was observed, for which a rational explanation was provided. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra of catalysts, characterization data, and copies of MS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00658e

  5. Trends in bond dissociation energies of alcohols and aldehydes computed with multireference averaged coupled-pair functional theory.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Victor B; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A

    2014-05-01

    As part of our ongoing investigation of the combustion chemistry of oxygenated molecules using multireference correlated wave function methods, we report bond dissociation energies (BDEs) in C1-C4 alcohols (from methanol to the four isomers of butanol) and C1-C4 aldehydes (from methanal to butanal). The BDEs are calculated with a multireference averaged coupled-pair functional-based scheme. We compare these multireference BDEs with those derived from experiment and single-reference methods. Trends in BDEs for the alcohols and aldehydes are rationalized by considering geometry relaxations of dissociated radical fragments, resonance stabilization, and hyperconjugation. Lastly, we discuss the conjectured association between bond strengths and rates of hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl radicals. In general, abstraction reaction rates are higher at sites where the C-H bond energies are lower (and vice versa). However, comparison with available rate data shows this inverse relationship between bond strengths and abstraction rates does not hold at all temperatures.

  6. Comparison of analytical techniques for the determination of aldehydes in test chambers.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Mentese, Sibel

    2008-11-01

    The level of carbonyl compounds in indoor air is crucial due to possible health effects and the high prevalence of their potential sources. Therefore, selecting a convenient and rapid analytical technique for the reliable detection of carbonyl compound concentrations is important. The acetyl acetone (acac) method is a widely used standard procedure for detecting gaseous formaldehyde. For measuring formaldehyde along with other carbonyl compounds, the DNPH-method is commonly applied. The recommended procedure for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is sampling on Tenax TA, followed by thermal desorption and GC/MS analysis. In this study, different analytical techniques for the quantification of formaldehyde, pentanal, and hexanal are critically compared. It was found that the acac- and DNPH-method are in very good agreement for formaldehyde. In contrast, the DNPH-method significantly underestimates indoor air concentrations of the higher aldehydes in comparison to sampling on Tenax TA, although both methods are strongly correlated. The reported results are part of the EURIMA-WKI study on levels of indoor air pollutants resulting from construction, building materials and interior decoration.

  7. Clicking Hydrazine and Aldehyde: The Way to Labeling of Viruses with Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zheng-Yuan; Lv, Cheng; Liu, An-An; Liu, Shu-Lin; Sun, En-Ze; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lei, Ai-Wen; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-22

    Real-time tracking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in living cells can help uncover virus infection mechanisms. Certainly, the indispensable prerequisite for virus-tracking is to label viruses with some bright and photostable beacons such as quantum dots (QDs) via an appropriate labeling strategy. Herein, we devise a convenient hydrazine-aldehyde based strategy to label viruses with QDs through the conjugation of 4-formylbenzoate (4FB) modified QDs to 6-hydrazinonicotinate acetone hydrazone (HyNic) modified viruses under mild conditions. On the basis of this strategy, viruses can be successfully labeled with QDs with high selectivity, stable conjugation, good reproducibility, high labeling efficiency of 92-93% and maximum retention of both fluorescence properties of QDs and infectivity of viruses, which is very meaningful to tracking and statistical analysis of virus infection processes. By further comparing with the most widely used labeling strategy based on the Biotin-SA system, this new strategy has advantages of both high labeling efficiency and good retention of virus infectivity, thus offering a promising alternative for virus-labeling. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of exposed amino groups on the surface of various viruses, this selective, efficient, reproducible and biofriendly strategy should have good universality for labeling both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses.

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of the safflower betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y B; Guan, L L; Xu, Y W; Shen, H; Wu, W

    2014-01-01

    In response to salinity or drought stress, many plants accumulate glycine betaine, which is a regulator of osmosis. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. Based on the conserved oligo amino acid residues of the published BADH genes from other higher plant species, a cDNA sequence, designated CtBADH, was isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) using a polymerase chain reaction approach. The clones were 1.7 kb on average, and contained an open reading frame predicting a polypeptide of 503 amino acids with 84.5% identity to that of Helianthus annuus. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a decapeptide, Val-Thr-Leu-Geu-Leu-Gly-Gly-Lys-Ser-Pro and Cys, which is essential for proper functioning of BADH. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CtBADH grouped with other dicotyledonous plant BADH genes, and subgrouped in the composite family. Prediction of secondary structure and subcellular localization suggested that the protein encoded by CtBADH contains 33 coils, 15 alpha helixes, and 21 beta strands, and most likely targets the chloroplast or mitochondria.

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a3 defines a subset of failing pancreatic β cells in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Fan, Jason; Kim, Young Jung R; Lee, Seung-Ah; Ishida, Emi; Blaner, William S; Accili, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells become dedifferentiated during diabetes progression. An impaired ability to select substrates for oxidative phosphorylation, or metabolic inflexibility, initiates progression from β-cell dysfunction to β-cell dedifferentiation. The identification of pathways involved in dedifferentiation may provide clues to its reversal. Here we isolate and functionally characterize failing β cells from various experimental models of diabetes and report a striking enrichment in the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoform A3 (ALDH(+)) as β cells become dedifferentiated. Flow-sorted ALDH(+) islet cells demonstrate impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, are depleted of Foxo1 and MafA, and include a Neurogenin3-positive subset. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrates that ALDH(+) cells are characterized by: (i) impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial complex I, IV and V; (ii) activated RICTOR; and (iii) progenitor cell markers. We propose that impaired mitochondrial function marks the progression from metabolic inflexibility to dedifferentiation in the natural history of β-cell failure. PMID:27572106

  10. Consideration of reactivity to acute fish toxicity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Aoki, Y; Shiraishi, H

    2012-01-01

    To understand the key factor for fish toxicity of 11 α,β-unsaturated carbonyl aldehydes and ketones, we used quantum chemical calculations to investigate their Michael reactions with methanethiol or glutathione. We used two reaction schemes, with and without an explicit water molecule (Scheme-1wat and Scheme-0wat, respectively), to account for the effects of a catalytic water molecule on the reaction pathway. We determined the energies of the reactants, transition states (TS), and products, as well as the activation energies of the reactions. The acute fish toxicities of nine of the carbonyl compounds were evaluated to correlate with their hydrophobicities; no correlation was observed for acrolein and crotonaldehyde. The most toxic compound, acrolein, had the lowest activation energy. The activation energy of the reaction could be estimated with Scheme-1wat but not with Scheme-0wat. The complexity of the reaction pathways of the compounds was reflected in the difficulty of the TS structure searches when Scheme-1wat was used with the polarizable continuum model. The theoretical estimations of activation energies of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with catalytic molecules or groups including hydrogen-bond networks may complement traditional tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicities of compounds that cannot be easily obtained experimentally. PMID:22150015

  11. Crystal structure of human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 complexed with NAD+ and retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Andrea; Li, Jianfeng; Donini, Stefano; Sobol, Robert W.; Rizzi, Menico; Garavaglia, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to the pleiotropic factor retinoic acid using NAD+. The level of ALDHs enzymatic activity has been used as a cancer stem cell marker and seems to correlate with tumour aggressiveness. Elevated ALDH1A3 expression in mesenchymal glioma stem cells highlights the potential of this isozyme as a prognosis marker and drug target. Here we report the first crystal structure of human ALDH1A3 complexed with NAD+ and the product all-trans retinoic acid (REA). The tetrameric ALDH1A3 folds into a three domain-based architecture highly conserved along the ALDHs family. The structural analysis revealed two different and coupled conformations for NAD+ and REA that we propose to represent two snapshots along the catalytic cycle. Indeed, the isoprenic moiety of REA points either toward the active site cysteine, or moves away adopting the product release conformation. Although ALDH1A3 shares high sequence identity with other members of the ALDH1A family, our structural analysis revealed few peculiar residues in the 1A3 isozyme active site. Our data provide information into the ALDH1As catalytic process and can be used for the structure-based design of selective inhibitors of potential medical interest. PMID:27759097

  12. High current density PQQ-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase bioanodes.

    PubMed

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Hickey, David P; Milton, Ross D; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Minteer, Shelley D

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we explore the bioelectrooxidation of ethanol using pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH and AldDH) enzymes for biofuel cell applications. The bioanode architectures were designed with both direct electron transfer (DET) and mediated electron transfer (MET) mechanisms employing high surface area materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT-decorated gold nanoparticles, along with different immobilization techniques. Three different polymeric matrices were tested (tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB)-modified Nafion; octyl-modified linear polyethyleneimine (C8-LPEI); and cellulose) in the DET studies. The modified Nafion membrane provided the best electrical communication between enzymes and the electrode surface, with catalytic currents as high as 16.8 ± 2.1 µA cm(-2). Then, a series of ferrocene redox polymers were evaluated for MET. The redox polymer 1,1'-dimethylferrocene-modified linear polyethyleneimine (FcMe2-C3-LPEI) provided the best electrochemical response. Using this polymer, the electrochemical assays conducted in the presence of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-Au indicated a Jmax of 781 ± 59 µA cm(-2) and 925 ± 68 µA cm(-2), respectively. Overall, from the results obtained here, DET using the PQQ-dependent ADH and AldDH still lacks high current density, while the bioanodes that operate via MET employing ferrocene-modified LPEI redox polymers show efficient energy conversion capability in ethanol/air biofuel cells.

  13. The changes in the volatile aldehydes formed during the deep-fat frying process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen; Lin, Derong; Shen, Qun; Saleh, Ahmed S M

    2015-12-01

    Volatile aldehydes (VAs) formed during soybean oil (SBO) heating, wheat dough (WD) frying, and chicken breast meat (CBM) frying processes were comparatively investigated by solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that relative amounts (RAs) of the most detected VAs were firstly increased to maximum values in oil samples collected at the second hour of the seventh day and the values were then decreased with the increase in the time of oil heating process (control). However, for food frying processes, the time needed for reaching maximum RAs of VAs was shorter and the values were decreased with the increase in frying time. Significant change in contents of the VAs was observed for oil samples fried with CBM due to the high contents of water, protein, and lipid content compared to oil samples fried with WD. Based on the obtained results, free radical reaction, particularly positional isomerization and cis-trans isomerization, was deduced to occur when WD or CBM was fried in SBO. The relatively high RAs of VAs formed during the deep-fat frying process presented certain invaluable measures for evaluating of frying oil and fried food quality and safety.

  14. Combinatorial application of two aldehyde oxidoreductases on isobutanol production in the presence of furfural.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Min; Jeon, Jong-Min; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Hun-Suk; Joo, Han-Byul; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyungmoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Furfural is a toxic by-product formulated from pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass. In order to utilize the lignocellulosic biomass on isobutanol production, inhibitory effect of the furfural on isobutanol production was investigated and combinatorial application of two oxidoreductases, FucO and YqhD, was suggested as an alternative strategy. Furfural decreased cell growth and isobutanol production when only YqhD or FucO was employed as an isobutyraldehyde oxidoreductase. However, combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD could overcome the inhibitory effect of furfural giving higher isobutanol production by 110% compared with overexpression of YqhD. The combinatorial oxidoreductases increased furfural detoxification rate 2.1-fold and also accelerated glucose consumption 1.4-fold. When it compares to another known system increasing furfural tolerance, membrane-bound transhydrogenase (pntAB), the combinatorial aldehyde oxidoreductases were better on cell growth and production. Thus, to control oxidoreductases is important to produce isobutanol using furfural-containing biomass and the combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD can be an alternative strategy.

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase variation enhances effect of pesticides associated with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, Arthur G.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether environmental and genetic alterations of neuronal aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes were associated with increased Parkinson disease (PD) risk in an epidemiologic study. Methods: A novel ex vivo assay was developed to identify pesticides that can inhibit neuronal ALDH activity. These were investigated for PD associations in a population-based case-control study, the Parkinson's Environment & Genes (PEG) Study. Common variants in the mitochondrial ALDH2 gene were genotyped to assess effect measure modification (statistical interaction) of the pesticide effects by genetic variation. Results: All of the metal-coordinating dithiocarbamates tested (e.g., maneb, ziram), 2 imidazoles (benomyl, triflumizole), 2 dicarboxymides (captan, folpet), and 1 organochlorine (dieldrin) inhibited ALDH activity, potentially via metabolic byproducts (e.g., carbon disulfide, thiophosgene). Fifteen screened pesticides did not inhibit ALDH. Exposures to ALDH-inhibiting pesticides were associated with 2- to 6-fold increases in PD risk; genetic variation in ALDH2 exacerbated PD risk in subjects exposed to ALDH-inhibiting pesticides. Conclusion: ALDH inhibition appears to be an important mechanism through which environmental toxicants contribute to PD pathogenesis, especially in genetically vulnerable individuals, suggesting several potential interventions to reduce PD occurrence or slow or reverse its progression. PMID:24491970

  16. Research on odor interaction between aldehyde compounds via a partial differential equation (PDE) model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Qu, Chen; Gu, Xingye; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-28

    In order to explore the odor interaction of binary odor mixtures, a series of odor intensity evaluation tests were performed using both individual components and binary mixtures of aldehydes. Based on the linear relation between the logarithm of odor activity value and odor intensity of individual substances, the relationship between concentrations of individual constituents and their joint odor intensity was investigated by employing a partial differential equation (PDE) model. The obtained results showed that the binary odor interaction was mainly influenced by the mixing ratio of two constituents, but not the concentration level of an odor sample. Besides, an extended PDE model was also proposed on the basis of the above experiments. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for several different binary odor mixtures, the extended PDE model was proved effective at odor intensity prediction. Furthermore, odorants of the same chemical group and similar odor type exhibited similar characteristics in the binary odor interaction. The overall results suggested that the PDE model is a more interpretable way of demonstrating the odor interactions of binary odor mixtures.

  17. Proteins modified by the lipid peroxidation aldehyde DODE in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Peter G.; Williams, Michelle V.; Brahmbatt, Viral; Dash, Ajit; Wishnok, John S.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (13-HPODE) degrades to 9,12-dioxo-10(E)-dodecenoic acid (DODE) which readily modifies proteins. This study identified the major proteins in MCF7 cells modified by DODE. To reduce false positives, three methods were use to identify DODE-modified proteins. First, cells were treated with a synthetically biotinylated 13-HPODE (13-HPODE-biotin). Modified proteins were enriched by neutravidin affinity and identified by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Second, cells were treated with native 13-HPODE. Protein-carbonyls were biotinylated with an aldehyde reactive probe (ARP) and modified proteins enriched by neutravidin affinity and identified by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Third, using a newly developed DODE antibody, DODE modified proteins were located by 2D-SDS-PAGE and Western blot and identified by in-gel digestion and LC-MS/MS. Analysis of the proteins characterized by all three methods revealed a significant overlap and identified 32 primary proteins modified by DODE in MCF7 cells. These results demonstrated the feasibility for the cellular formation of DODE protein-carbonyl adducts that may be future indicators of oxidative stress. PMID:20131800

  18. Leaf uptake of methyl ethyl ketone and croton aldehyde by Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Tobe, Seita; Shimizu, Sachie

    2013-05-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an abundant ketone in the urban atmosphere and croton aldehyde (CA) is a strong irritant to eye, nose, and throat. The use of plants able to absorb these compounds is one suggested mitigation method. In order to investigate this method, we determined the uptake rate of these compounds by leaves of two tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki. Using a flow-through chamber method, we found that these species were capable of absorbing both compounds. We also confirmed that the uptake rate of these compounds normalized to the fumigated concentration (AN) was higher at higher light intensities and that there was a linear relationship between AN and stomatal conductance (gS) for both tree species. In concentration-varying experiments, the uptake of MEK and CA seemed to be restricted by partitioning of MEK between leaf water and air. The ratio of the intercellular VOC concentration (Ci) to the fumigated concentration (Ca) for CA was zero, and the ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.76 for MEK. The more efficient CA uptake ability may be the result of higher partitioning of CA into leaf water. Our present and previous results also suggest that plant MEK uptake ability was different across plant species, depending on the VOC conversion speed inside leaves.

  19. Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: involvement of an aldehyde intermediate during C-26 amination.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Moriuchi, Yuka; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2013-05-01

    The C-26 amino group of steroidal alkaloids, such as tomatine, is introduced during an early step of their biosynthesis from cholesterol. In the present study, the mechanism of C-26 amination was reinvestigated by administering stable isotope labeled compounds, such as (26,26,26,27,27,27-(2)H6)cholesterol during biosynthesis of tomatine, solanine and solasonine. The chemical compositions of tomatine and solanine so obtained were analyzed by LC-MS after administering the d6-cholesterol to a tomato seedling and a potato shoot, respectively. The resulting spectra indicated that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during biosynthesis. Furthermore, administration of (6-(13)C(2)H3)mevalonate in combination with lovastatin to an eggplant seedling, followed by GC-MS analysis of solasodine after TMS derivatization established that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during solasonine biosynthesis. These findings are in contrast to an earlier observation that one hydrogen atom was lost from C-26 during tomatidine biosynthesis, and suggest that C-26 nitrogen atom addition involves an aldehyde intermediate. Thus, it is proposed that the C-26 amination reaction that occurs during steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis proceeds by way of a transamination mechanism.

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 is associated with cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rwei-Ling; Tan, Chun-Hsiang; Lu, Ying-Che; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter degradation has been proposed to cause the accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites. The metabolism of these metabolites involves aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). The Asian-specific single nucleotide polymorphism rs671 causes reduced enzyme activity. This study aims to explore whether Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with reduced ALDH2 activity owing to the rs671 polymorphism are at risk for neuropsychological impairments. A total of 139 PD patients were recruited. Each participant was assessed for medical characteristics and their ALDH2 genotype. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale and the Frontal Behavioral Inventory were used to measure neuropsychological functions. We found that the MMSE scores were significantly lower in patients with inactive ALDH2 (U = 1873.5, p = 0.02). The presence of cognitive impairments was significantly more frequent in the inactive ALDH2 group (46.0%) than in the active ALDH2 group (26.3%) (χ2 = 5.886, p = 0.01). The inactive group showed significant deterioration in hobbies and exhibited more severe “disorganization” and “hyper-sexuality” behaviours. The additive effects of the allele on the development of cognitive impairments in PD patients may be an important finding that provides further insight into the pathogenic mechanism of cognitive dysfunction in PD. PMID:27453488

  1. Potent inhibition of enterovirus D68 and human rhinoviruses by dipeptidyl aldehydes and α-ketoamides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Kankanamalage, Anushka C Galasiti; Damalanka, Vishnu C; Weerawarna, Pathum M; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen responsible for mild to severe respiratory infections that occur mostly in infants, children and teenagers. EV-D68, one of more than 100 non-polio enteroviruses, is acid-labile and biologically similar to human rhinoviruses (HRV) (originally classified as HRV87). However, there is no approved preventive or therapeutic measure against EV-D68, HRV, or other enteroviruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of series of dipeptidyl compounds against EV-D68 and HRV strains, and demonstrated that several peptidyl aldehyde and α-ketoamide peptidyl compounds are potent inhibitors of EV-D68 and HRV strains with high in-vitro therapeutic indices (>1000). One of the α-ketoamide compounds is shown to have favorable pharmacokinetics profiles, including a favorable oral bioavailability in rats. Recent successful development of α-ketoamide protease inhibitors against hepatitis C virus suggests these compounds may have a high potential for further optimization and development against emerging EV-D68, as well as HRV.

  2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Population of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells With High Myogenic Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Vauchez, Karine; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Schmid, Michel; Khattar, Patricia; Chapel, Alain; Catelain, Cyril; Lecourt, Séverine; Larghéro, Jérôme; Fiszman, Marc; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH) activity is one hallmark of human bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord blood (UCB), and peripheral blood (PB) primitive progenitors presenting high reconstitution capacities in vivo. In this study, we have identified ALDH+ cells within human skeletal muscles, and have analyzed their phenotypical and functional characteristics. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of human muscle tissue sections revealed rare endomysial cells. Flow cytometry analysis using the fluorescent substrate of ALDH, Aldefluor, identified brightly stained (ALDHbr) cells with low side scatter (SSClo), in enzymatically dissociated muscle biopsies, thereafter abbreviated as SMALD+ (for skeletal muscle ALDH+) cells. Phenotypical analysis discriminated two sub-populations according to CD34 expression: SMALD+/CD34− and SMALD+/CD34+ cells. These sub-populations did not initially express endothelial (CD31), hematopoietic (CD45), and myogenic (CD56) markers. Upon sorting, however, whereas SMALD+/CD34+ cells developed in vitro as a heterogeneous population of CD56− cells able to differentiate in adipoblasts, the SMALD+/CD34− fraction developed in vitro as a highly enriched population of CD56+ myoblasts able to form myotubes. Moreover, only the SMALD+/CD34− population maintained a strong myogenic potential in vivo upon intramuscular transplantation. Our results suggest that ALDH activity is a novel marker for a population of new human skeletal muscle progenitors presenting a potential for cell biology and cell therapy. PMID:19738599

  3. Aerosol yields and losses of aldehydes and amines from evaporating cloud droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haan, D. O.; Hawkins, L. N.; Rynaski, A. D.; Wood, S.

    2010-12-01

    In evaporating aqueous droplets, the alpha-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal can form oligomers and partly avoid loss to the gas phase. In clouds and aerosol, amines and ammonium salts react with volatile dicarbonyls to form semi-volatile imines, imidazoles and light-absorbing oligomer compounds. Particle size measurements during droplet evaporation experiments (both polydisperse and monodisperse) show that the fast production of semivolatile products is significant. Reactions of volatile methylamine with dicarbonyl compounds increase the resulting dry aerosol volumes, but do not change the fraction of dicarbonyls lost to the gas phase. Low volatility amines and ammonium sulfate, on the other hand, have reduced dry aerosol volumes in the presence of dicarbonyl compounds. The formation of semi-volatile products in these cases causes a net loss of aerosol material as non-volatile reactants are converted into semivolatile products. Thus, while these reactions provide a means for small aldehydes and amines to be converted into secondary organic aerosol (SOA), for low volatility amine and ammonia salts already in the condensed phase, these reactions do not significantly increase SOA mass. However, in both cases these reactions may be significant sources of “brown carbon,” light-absorbing compounds that increase the radiative forcing of clouds and aerosol.

  4. Drying of linseed oil paints: the effects of substrate on the emission of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Fjällström, P; Andersson, B; Nilsson, C

    2003-09-01

    The effect of substrate on the emission of aldehydes from linseed oil paint was investigated. Plates of glass, fiberboard, gypsum board, lime mortar and wood lath were painted, and then placed into emission chambers. Samples were collected every eighth hour over 10 days with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazin samplers. Analysis was performed with liquid chromatography/UV-detection and mass spectrometry. Paint applied on gypsum board gave the highest total amount of emitted carbonyls, and that on wood lath gave the least. Painted glass had the highest contribution of unsaturated species, and lime mortar, the lowest. Lime mortar also had the highest momentary levels of a single species, 443 nmol/h/m2 of propanal, while fiberboard peaked at only 123 nmol/h/m2 of propanal. In turn, the emission from the painted fiberboard had the slowest decline, and thus at the end of the experiment the highest levels. All substrates gave an emission that peaked within 16 h. PMID:12950591

  5. NOTCH-induced aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 deacetylation promotes breast cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Mo, Yan; Li, Meng-Tian; Zou, Shao-Wu; Cheng, Zhou-Li; Sun, Yi-Ping; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Lei, Qun-Ying

    2014-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is a marker commonly used to isolate stem cells, particularly breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we determined that ALDH1A1 activity is inhibited by acetylation of lysine 353 (K353) and that acetyltransferase P300/CBP–associated factor (PCAF) and deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) are responsible for regulating the acetylation state of ALDH1A1 K353. Evaluation of breast carcinoma tissues from patients revealed that cells with high ALDH1 activity have low ALDH1A1 acetylation and are capable of self-renewal. Acetylation of ALDH1A1 inhibited both the stem cell population and self-renewal properties in breast cancer. Moreover, NOTCH signaling activated ALDH1A1 through the induction of SIRT2, leading to ALDH1A1 deacetylation and enzymatic activation to promote breast CSCs. In breast cancer xenograft models, replacement of endogenous ALDH1A1 with an acetylation mimetic mutant inhibited tumorigenesis and tumor growth. Together, the results from our study reveal a function and mechanism of ALDH1A1 acetylation in regulating breast CSCs. PMID:25384215

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a3 defines a subset of failing pancreatic β cells in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Fan, Jason; Kim, Young Jung R.; Lee, Seung-Ah; Ishida, Emi; Blaner, William S.; Accili, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells become dedifferentiated during diabetes progression. An impaired ability to select substrates for oxidative phosphorylation, or metabolic inflexibility, initiates progression from β-cell dysfunction to β-cell dedifferentiation. The identification of pathways involved in dedifferentiation may provide clues to its reversal. Here we isolate and functionally characterize failing β cells from various experimental models of diabetes and report a striking enrichment in the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoform A3 (ALDH+) as β cells become dedifferentiated. Flow-sorted ALDH+ islet cells demonstrate impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion, are depleted of Foxo1 and MafA, and include a Neurogenin3-positive subset. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrates that ALDH+ cells are characterized by: (i) impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial complex I, IV and V; (ii) activated RICTOR; and (iii) progenitor cell markers. We propose that impaired mitochondrial function marks the progression from metabolic inflexibility to dedifferentiation in the natural history of β-cell failure. PMID:27572106

  7. Mechanism of the Stereoselective α-Alkylation of Aldehydes Driven by the Photochemical Activity of Enamines

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe our efforts to elucidate the key mechanistic aspects of the previously reported enantioselective photochemical α-alkylation of aldehydes with electron-poor organic halides. The chemistry exploits the potential of chiral enamines, key organocatalytic intermediates in thermal asymmetric processes, to directly participate in the photoexcitation of substrates either by forming a photoactive electron donor–acceptor complex or by directly reaching an electronically excited state upon light absorption. These photochemical mechanisms generate radicals from closed-shell precursors under mild conditions. At the same time, the ground-state chiral enamines provide effective stereochemical control over the enantioselective radical-trapping process. We use a combination of conventional photophysical investigations, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and kinetic studies to gain a better understanding of the factors governing these enantioselective photochemical catalytic processes. Measurements of the quantum yield reveal that a radical chain mechanism is operative, while reaction-profile analysis and rate-order assessment indicate the trapping of the carbon-centered radical by the enamine, to form the carbon–carbon bond, as rate-determining. Our kinetic studies unveil the existence of a delicate interplay between the light-triggered initiation step and the radical chain propagation manifold, both mediated by the chiral enamines. PMID:27267587

  8. Coniferyl Aldehyde Attenuates Radiation Enteropathy by Inhibiting Cell Death and Promoting Endothelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function. PMID:26029925

  9. Tuberculosis: finding a new potential antimycobacterium derivative in a aldehyde-arylhydrazone-oxoquinoline series.

    PubMed

    da C Santos, Fernanda; Castro, Helena C; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Abreu, Paula A; Batalha, Pedro N; Cunha, Anna C; Carvalho, Guilherme S L; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Medeiros, Cid A; Souza, Simone D; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria C B V

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which remains a serious public health problem. The emergence of resistant bacterial strains has continuously increased and new treatment options are currently in need. In this work, we identified a new potential aldehyde-arylhydrazone-oxoquinoline derivative (4e) with interesting chemical structural features that may be important for designing new anti-TB agents. This 1-ethyl-N'-[(1E)-(5-nitro-2-furyl)methylene]-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carbohydrazide (4e) presented an in vitro active profile against M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC = 6.25 μg/mL) better than other acylhydrazones described in the literature (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL) and close to other antitubercular agents currently on the market. The theoretical analysis showed the importance of several structural features that together with the 5-nitro-2-furyl group generated this active compound (4e). This new compound and the analysis of its molecular properties may be useful for designing new and more efficient antibacterial drugs.

  10. Self-assembly of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinolinate-based lanthanide complexes and NIR luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meiqi; Li, Hongfeng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembly reaction of 2-aldehyde-8-hydroxyquinoline, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and LnCl3ṡ6H2O affords a series of mononuclear lanthanide complexes Ce(baho)2·Et2O (1) (H2baho = 2,8-bis(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl))-1-aza-5-hydroxymethyl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane), Dy(nhm)2Cl·0.5H2O (2) and Ln(nhm)2Cl·0.5C6H14 (Ln = Ho (3), Er (4), Yb (5) and Hnhm = N-(2-(8-hydroxylquinolinyl)methylene)(trishydroxymethyl)methylamine. The crystal structures have been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, and the tetravalence of Ce in 1 has been proven by XPS. Interestingly, the positive charge of Ce4+ ion in 1 is neutralized by two deprotonated baho2- ligands, while two deprotonated nhm- ligands and one Cl- compensate the positive charge of Ln3+ ions in 2-5. Complex 5 exhibit essential NIR luminescence of Yb3+ ion with lifetime of 17.64 μs in solid and 9.96 μs in CH3OH solution.

  11. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1 mmol substrate, 10 mol % copper(I) iodide, 10 mol % 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1 mol % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  12. Chemoselective Oxidation of Benzyl, Amino, and Propargyl Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Mild Reaction Conditions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C B Rajashekar; Reddy, Sabbasani Rajasekhara; Naidu, Shivaji

    2015-04-01

    Catalytic oxidation reactions often suffer from drawbacks such as low yields and poor selectivity. Particularly, selective oxidation of alcohols becomes more difficult when a compound contains more than one oxidizable functional group. In order to deliver a methodology that addresses these issues, herein we report an efficient, aerobic, chemoselective and simplified approach to oxidize a broad range of benzyl and propargyl alcohols containing diverse functional groups to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Optimal yields were obtained at room temperature using 1 mmol substrate, 10 mol % copper(I) iodide, 10 mol % 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), and 1 mol % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in acetonitrile, under an oxygen balloon. The catalytic system can be applied even when sensitive and oxidizable groups such as alkynes, amines, and phenols are present; starting materials and products containing such groups were found to be stable under the developed conditions. PMID:25969806

  13. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-10-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine.

  14. Combinatorial application of two aldehyde oxidoreductases on isobutanol production in the presence of furfural.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Min; Jeon, Jong-Min; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Hun-Suk; Joo, Han-Byul; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyungmoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Furfural is a toxic by-product formulated from pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass. In order to utilize the lignocellulosic biomass on isobutanol production, inhibitory effect of the furfural on isobutanol production was investigated and combinatorial application of two oxidoreductases, FucO and YqhD, was suggested as an alternative strategy. Furfural decreased cell growth and isobutanol production when only YqhD or FucO was employed as an isobutyraldehyde oxidoreductase. However, combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD could overcome the inhibitory effect of furfural giving higher isobutanol production by 110% compared with overexpression of YqhD. The combinatorial oxidoreductases increased furfural detoxification rate 2.1-fold and also accelerated glucose consumption 1.4-fold. When it compares to another known system increasing furfural tolerance, membrane-bound transhydrogenase (pntAB), the combinatorial aldehyde oxidoreductases were better on cell growth and production. Thus, to control oxidoreductases is important to produce isobutanol using furfural-containing biomass and the combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD can be an alternative strategy. PMID:26660478

  15. The changes in the volatile aldehydes formed during the deep-fat frying process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen; Lin, Derong; Shen, Qun; Saleh, Ahmed S M

    2015-12-01

    Volatile aldehydes (VAs) formed during soybean oil (SBO) heating, wheat dough (WD) frying, and chicken breast meat (CBM) frying processes were comparatively investigated by solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that relative amounts (RAs) of the most detected VAs were firstly increased to maximum values in oil samples collected at the second hour of the seventh day and the values were then decreased with the increase in the time of oil heating process (control). However, for food frying processes, the time needed for reaching maximum RAs of VAs was shorter and the values were decreased with the increase in frying time. Significant change in contents of the VAs was observed for oil samples fried with CBM due to the high contents of water, protein, and lipid content compared to oil samples fried with WD. Based on the obtained results, free radical reaction, particularly positional isomerization and cis-trans isomerization, was deduced to occur when WD or CBM was fried in SBO. The relatively high RAs of VAs formed during the deep-fat frying process presented certain invaluable measures for evaluating of frying oil and fried food quality and safety. PMID:26604343

  16. Covalent Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase on Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Gen; Chi, Meng-Chun; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lin, Long-Liu

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis and use of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for the covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT). Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by an alkaline solution of divalent and trivalent iron ions, and they were subsequently treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) to obtain the aminosilane-coated nanoparticles. The functional group on the particle surface and the amino group of BlGGT was then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde as the coupling reagent. The loading capacity of the prepared nanoparticles for BlGGT was 34.2 mg/g support, corresponding to 52.4% recovery of the initial activity. Monographs of transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 15.1 ± 3.7 nm, and the covalent cross-linking of the enzyme did not significantly change their particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of BlGGT on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical and kinetic behaviors of immobilized BlGGT are mostly consistent with those of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme could be recycled ten times with 36.2% retention of the initial activity and had a comparable stability respective to free enzyme during the storage period of 30 days. Collectively, the straightforward synthesis of aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles and the efficiency of enzyme immobilization offer wide perspectives for the practical use of surface-bound BlGGT. PMID:23443161

  17. Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed bicyclization of o-alkynylanilines with aldehydes: ring-fused 1,2-dihydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Can; Ma, Shengming

    2014-12-01

    A Sc(OTf)3 -catalyzed cascade Prins-type cyclization reaction of o-alkynylanilines, bearing a hydroxy or amine functionality, with aldehydes affords 1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives having an extra fused ring efficiently under mild reaction conditions. It is interesting to observe the reversed reactivity in the highly selective formation of 1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives instead of the formation of the usually favored indole derivatives.

  18. Expressional studies of the aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene during myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kamli, Majid Rasool; Kim, Jihoe; Pokharel, Smritee; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Lee, Eun Ju; Choi, Inho

    2014-08-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), which catalyze the hydroxylation of heterocycles and oxidation of a wide variety of aldehydic compounds, have been present throughout evolution from bacteria to humans. While humans have only a single functional aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene, rodents are endowed with four AOXs; AOX1 and three aldehyde oxidase homologs (AOH1, AOH2 and AOH3). In continuation of our previous study conducted to identify genes differentially expressed during myogenesis using a microarray approach, we investigated AOX1 with respect to its role in myogenesis to conceptualize how it is regulated in C2C12 cells. The results obtained were validated by silencing of the AOX1 gene. Analysis of their fusion index revealed that formation of myotubes showed a marked reduction of up to 40% in AOX1kd cells. Expression of myogenin (MYOG), one of the marker genes used to study myogenesis, was also found to be reduced in AOX1kd cells. AOX1 is an enzyme of pharmacological and toxicological importance that metabolizes numerous xenobiotics to their respective carboxylic acids. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced as a by-product in this reaction is considered to be involved as a part of the signaling mechanism during differentiation. An observed reduction in the level of H2O2 among AOX1kd cells confirmed production of H2O2 in the reaction catalyzed by AOX1. Taken together, these findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H2O2.

  19. Toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamic aldehyde assessed using cultured human KB cells and yeast, Saccharomyces cervisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mochida, K.; Gomyoda, M.; Fujita, T.; Yamagata, K.

    1988-03-01

    The main components of mustard and cinnamon oils are allyl isothiocyante (AIT) and cinnamic aldehyde (CA), substances used as food additives. The acute toxicity of these substances has been noted in rats (Jenner et al. 1964) and it is desirable to obtain information on the toxic effects of these compounds in vitro systems. The authors report the toxicity of AIT and CA on human KB cells and Saccharomyces cervisiae cultivated in culture systems.

  20. Acid-mediated coupling of γ-hydroxybutenolides and aldehydes: Synthesis of a new class of spirocyclic ketal-lactones

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Alberto; Murelli, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf), γ-methyl-γ-hydroxybutenolide reacts with aromatic aldehydes to generate a new class of stereochemically rich spirocyclic ketal-lactones in good yields and with excellent stereoselectivities. We believe that this process takes place through the in situ generation of protoanemonin followed by a Prins reaction. Herein, we describe this discovery, along with substrate scope and preliminary mechanistic studies. PMID:23335822