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Sample records for aldehyde oxidase aox

  1. Expressional studies of the aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene during myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kamli, Majid Rasool; Kim, Jihoe; Pokharel, Smritee; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Lee, Eun Ju; Choi, Inho

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • AOX1 contributes to the formation of myotube. • Silencing of AOX1 reduces myotube formation. • AOX1 regulates MyoG gene expression. • AOX1 contributes to myogenesis via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), which catalyze the hydroxylation of heterocycles and oxidation of a wide variety of aldehydic compounds, have been present throughout evolution from bacteria to humans. While humans have only a single functional aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene, rodents are endowed with four AOXs; AOX1 and three aldehyde oxidase homologs (AOH1, AOH2 and AOH3). In continuation of our previous study conducted to identify genes differentially expressed during myogenesis using a microarray approach, we investigated AOX1 with respect to its role in myogenesis to conceptualize how it is regulated in C2C12 cells. The results obtained were validated by silencing of the AOX1 gene. Analysis of their fusion index revealed that formation of myotubes showed a marked reduction of up to 40% in AOX1{sub kd} cells. Expression of myogenin (MYOG), one of the marker genes used to study myogenesis, was also found to be reduced in AOX1{sub kd} cells. AOX1 is an enzyme of pharmacological and toxicological importance that metabolizes numerous xenobiotics to their respective carboxylic acids. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) produced as a by-product in this reaction is considered to be involved as a part of the signaling mechanism during differentiation. An observed reduction in the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} among AOX1{sub kd} cells confirmed production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the reaction catalyzed by AOX1. Taken together, these findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  2. Structure and function of mammalian aldehyde oxidases.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mineko; Romão, Maria João; Leimkühler, Silke; Bolis, Marco; Fratelli, Maddalena; Coelho, Catarina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian aldehyde oxidases (AOXs; EC1.2.3.1) are a group of conserved proteins belonging to the family of molybdo-flavoenzymes along with the structurally related xanthine dehydrogenase enzyme. AOXs are characterized by broad substrate specificity, oxidizing not only aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids, but also hydroxylating a series of heteroaromatic rings. The number of AOX isoenzymes expressed in different vertebrate species is variable. The two extremes are represented by humans, which express a single enzyme (AOX1) in many organs and mice or rats which are characterized by tissue-specific expression of four isoforms (AOX1, AOX2, AOX3, and AOX4). In vertebrates each AOX isoenzyme is the product of a distinct gene consisting of 35 highly conserved exons. The extant species-specific complement of AOX isoenzymes is the result of a complex evolutionary process consisting of a first phase characterized by a series of asynchronous gene duplications and a second phase where the pseudogenization and gene deletion events prevail. In the last few years remarkable advances in the elucidation of the structural characteristics and the catalytic mechanisms of mammalian AOXs have been made thanks to the successful crystallization of human AOX1 and mouse AOX3. Much less is known about the physiological function and physiological substrates of human AOX1 and other mammalian AOX isoenzymes, although the importance of these proteins in xenobiotic metabolism is fairly well established and their relevance in drug development is increasing. This review article provides an overview and a discussion of the current knowledge on mammalian AOX. PMID:26920149

  3. The First Mammalian Aldehyde Oxidase Crystal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Catarina; Mahro, Martin; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Ramos, Maria João; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are homodimeric proteins belonging to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. Each 150-kDa monomer contains a FAD redox cofactor, two spectroscopically distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and a molybdenum cofactor located within the protein active site. AOXs are characterized by broad range substrate specificity, oxidizing different aldehydes and aromatic N-heterocycles. Despite increasing recognition of its role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, the physiological function of the protein is still largely unknown. We have crystallized and solved the crystal structure of mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 to 2.9 Å. This is the first mammalian AOX whose structure has been solved. The structure provides important insights into the protein active center and further evidence on the catalytic differences characterizing AOX and xanthine oxidoreductase. The mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 three-dimensional structure combined with kinetic, mutagenesis data, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics studies make a decisive contribution to understand the molecular basis of its rather broad substrate specificity. PMID:23019336

  4. Identification and Characterization of an Antennae-Specific Aldehyde Oxidase from the Navel Orangeworm

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Young-Moo; Pelletier, Julien; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Leal, Walter S.

    2013-01-01

    Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes – the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs). Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13–16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13–16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:23826341

  5. Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Mahro, Martin; Brás, Natércia F.; Cerqueira, Nuno M. F. S. A.; Teutloff, Christian; Coelho, Catarina; Romão, Maria João; Leimkühler, Silke

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate factors that determine substrate specificity and activity of mammalian molybdo-flavoproteins we performed site directed mutagenesis of mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 (mAOX3). The sequence alignment of different aldehyde oxidase (AOX) isoforms identified variations in the active site of mAOX3 in comparison to other AOX proteins and xanthine oxidoreductases (XOR). Based on the structural alignment of mAOX3 and bovine XOR, differences in amino acid residues involved in substrate binding in XORs in comparison to AOXs were identified. We exchanged several residues in the active site to the ones found in other AOX homologues in mouse or to residues present in bovine XOR in order to examine their influence on substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. Additionally we analyzed the influence of the [2Fe-2S] domains of mAOX3 on its kinetic properties and cofactor saturation. We applied UV-VIS and EPR monitored redox-titrations to determine the redox potentials of wild type mAOX3 and mAOX3 variants containing the iron-sulfur centers of mAOX1. In addition, a combination of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations (MD) was used to investigate factors that modulate the substrate specificity and activity of wild type and AOX variants. The successful conversion of an AOX enzyme to an XOR enzyme was achieved exchanging eight residues in the active site of mAOX3. It was observed that the absence of the K889H exchange substantially decreased the activity of the enzyme towards all substrates analyzed, revealing that this residue has an important role in catalysis. PMID:24358164

  6. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  7. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  8. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.

    1986-05-29

    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  9. Arsenite oxidase aox genes from a metal-resistant beta-proteobacterium.

    PubMed

    Muller, Daniel; Lièvremont, Didier; Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Hubert, Jean-Claude; Lett, Marie-Claire

    2003-01-01

    The beta-proteobacterial strain ULPAs1, isolated from an arsenic-contaminated environment, is able to efficiently oxidize arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)]. Mutagenesis with a lacZ-based reporter transposon yielded two knockout derivatives deficient in arsenite oxidation. Sequence analysis of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions in the two mutants identified two adjacent open reading frames, named aoxA and aoxB, as well as a putative promoter upstream of the aoxA gene. Reverse transcription-PCR data indicated that these genes are organized in an operonic structure. The proteins encoded by aoxA and aoxB share 64 and 72% identity with the small Rieske subunit and the large subunit of the purified and crystallized arsenite oxidase of Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively (P. J. Ellis, T. Conrads, R. Hille, and P. Kuhn, Structure [Cambridge] 9:125-132, 2001). Importantly, almost all amino acids involved in cofactor interactions in both subunits of the A. faecalis enzyme were conserved in the corresponding sequences of strain ULPAs1. An additional Tat (twin-arginine translocation) signal peptide sequence was detected at the N terminus of the protein encoded by aoxA, strongly suggesting that the Tat pathway is involved in the translocation of the arsenite oxidase to its known periplasmic location. PMID:12486049

  10. Expression of the Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX) in Drosophila complements defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ayala, Daniel J M; Sanz, Alberto; Vartiainen, Suvi; Kemppainen, Kia K; Babusiak, Marek; Mustalahti, Eero; Costa, Rodolfo; Tuomela, Tea; Zeviani, Massimo; Chung, Jongkyeong; O'Dell, Kevin M C; Rustin, Pierre; Jacobs, Howard T

    2009-05-01

    Defects in mitochondrial OXPHOS are associated with diverse and mostly intractable human disorders. The single-subunit alternative oxidase (AOX) found in many eukaryotes, but not in arthropods or vertebrates, offers a potential bypass of the OXPHOS cytochrome chain under conditions of pathological OXPHOS inhibition. We have engineered Ciona intestinalis AOX for conditional expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous AOX expression produced no detrimental phenotype in wild-type flies. However, mitochondrial suspensions from AOX-expressing flies exhibited a significant cyanide-resistant substrate oxidation, and the flies were partially resistant to both cyanide and antimycin. AOX expression was able to complement the semilethality of partial knockdown of both cyclope (COXVIc) and the complex IV assembly factor Surf1. It also rescued the locomotor defect and excess mitochondrial ROS production of flies mutated in dj-1beta, a Drosophila homolog of the human Parkinson's disease gene DJ1. AOX appears to offer promise as a wide-spectrum therapeutic tool in OXPHOS disorders. PMID:19416715

  11. The Alternative Oxidase AOX Does Not Rescue the Phenotype of tko25t Mutant Flies

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Kia K.; Kemppainen, Esko; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2014-01-01

    A point mutation [technical knockout25t (tko25t)] in the Drosophila gene coding for mitoribosomal protein S12 generates a phenotype of developmental delay and bang sensitivity. tko25t has been intensively studied as an animal model for human mitochondrial diseases associated with deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis and consequent multiple respiratory chain defects. Transgenic expression in Drosophila of the alternative oxidase (AOX) derived from Ciona intestinalis has previously been shown to mitigate the toxicity of respiratory chain inhibitors and to rescue mutant and knockdown phenotypes associated with cytochrome oxidase deficiency. We therefore tested whether AOX expression could compensate the mutant phenotype of tko25t using the GeneSwitch system to activate expression at different times in development. The developmental delay of tko25t was not mitigated by expression of AOX throughout development. AOX expression for 1 d after eclosion, or continuously throughout development, had no effect on the bang sensitivity of tko25t adults, and continued expression in adults older than 30 d also produced no amelioration of the phenotype. In contrast, transgenic expression of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 was synthetically semi-lethal with tko25t and was lethal when combined with both AOX and tko25t. We conclude that AOX does not rescue tko25t and that the mutant phenotype is not solely due to limitations on electron flow in the respiratory chain, but rather to a more complex metabolic defect. The future therapeutic use of AOX in disorders of mitochondrial translation may thus be of limited value. PMID:25147191

  12. A PHARMACOGENETIC STUDY OF ALDEHYDE OXIDASE I IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH XK469

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Kim, Tae Won; Liu, Wanqing; Myers, Jamie L.; Mirkov, Snezana; Owzar, Kouros; Watson, Dorothy; Mulkey, Flora; Gamazon, Eric R.; Stock, Wendy; Undevia, Samir; Innocenti, Federico; Ratain, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    XK469 (NSC 697887) is a selective topoisomerase II β inhibitor eliminated mainly via aldehyde oxidase I (AOX1). We performed a candidate gene study to investigate whether AOX1 genetic variation contributes to interindividual variability in XK469 clearance. Forty-one AOX1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven liver expression quantitative trait loci were genotyped in Caucasian patients with advanced refractory solid tumors (n=59) and leukemia (n=33). We found a significant decrease in clearance (τ = −0.32, P = 0.003) in solid tumor patients with rs10931910, although it failed to replicate in the leukemia cohort (τ = 0.18, P = 0.20). Four other AOX1 SNPs were associated with clearance (P = 0.01-0.02) in only one of the two cohorts. Our study provides a starting point for future investigations on the functionality of AOX1 SNPs. However, variability in XK469 clearance cannot be attributed to polymorphisms in AOX1. PMID:24300566

  13. Optimization of the Expression of Human Aldehyde Oxidase for Investigations of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Foti, Alessandro; Hartmann, Tobias; Coelho, Catarina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Romão, Maria João; Leimkühler, Silke

    2016-08-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) is an enzyme with broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes as well as N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds. In humans, the enzyme's role in phase I drug metabolism has been established and its importance is now emerging. However, the true physiologic function of AOX1 in mammals is still unknown. Further, numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in human AOX1. SNPs are a major source of interindividual variability in the human population, and SNP-based amino acid exchanges in AOX1 reportedly modulate the catalytic function of the enzyme in either a positive or negative fashion. For the reliable analysis of the effect of amino acid exchanges in human proteins, the existence of reproducible expression systems for the production of active protein in ample amounts for kinetic, spectroscopic, and crystallographic studies is required. In our study we report an optimized expression system for hAOX1 in Escherichia coli using a codon-optimized construct. The codon-optimization resulted in an up to 15-fold increase of protein production and a simplified purification procedure. The optimized expression system was used to study three SNPs that result in amino acid changes C44W, G1269R, and S1271L. In addition, the crystal structure of the S1271L SNP was solved. We demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme can be used for future studies to exploit the role of AOX in drug metabolism, and for the identification and synthesis of new drugs targeting AOX when combined with crystallographic and modeling studies. PMID:26842593

  14. In silico and in vitro pharmacogenetics: aldehyde oxidase rapidly metabolizes a p38 kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Liu, H-H; Weller, P; Zheng, M; Tao, W; Wang, J; Liao, G; Monshouwer, M; Peltz, G

    2011-02-01

    The clinical development of a candidate p38 kinase inhibitor was terminated because of its unexpectedly rapid clearance in human subjects. Its short half-life and metabolic profile in human beings were vastly different from that in rats, dogs, and monkeys characterized during routine pre-clinical studies. Mice generated the predominant drug (4-hydroxylated) metabolite produced in human beings, which was not found in other species. The data from a murine in vitro drug biotransformation assay that used liver extracts from 14 inbred mouse strains were analyzed by haplotype-based computational genetic analysis. This led to the identification of aldehyde oxidase-1 (AOX1) as the enzyme responsible for the rapid metabolism of this drug. Specific enzyme inhibitors and expressed recombinant enzymes were used to confirm that AOX catalyzed the formation of the 4-hydroxylated drug metabolite in mouse and man. Genetic variation within Aox1 regulated the level of hepatic Aox1 mRNA, AOX1 protein, and enzyme activity among the inbred strains. Thus, computational murine pharmacogenetic analysis can facilitate the identification and characterization of drug metabolism pathways that are differentially utilized by humans and other species. PMID:20177421

  15. Regulation of the Alternative Oxidase Aox1 Gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Role of the Nitrogen Source on the Expression of a Reporter Gene under the Control of the Aox1 Promoter1

    PubMed Central

    Baurain, Denis; Dinant, Monique; Coosemans, Nadine; Matagne, René F.

    2003-01-01

    In higher plants, various developmental and environmental conditions enhance expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX), whereas its induction in fungi is mainly dependent on cytochrome pathway restriction and triggering by reactive oxygen species. The AOX of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is encoded by two different genes, the Aox1 gene being much more transcribed than Aox2. To analyze the transcriptional regulation of Aox1, we have fused its 1.4-kb promoter region to the promoterless arylsulfatase (Ars) reporter gene and measured ARS enzyme activities in transformants carrying the chimeric construct. We show that the Aox1 promoter is generally unresponsive to a number of known AOX inducers, including stress agents, respiratory inhibitors, and metabolites, possibly because the AOX activity is constitutively high in the alga. In contrast, the Aox1 expression is strongly dependent on the nitrogen source, being down-regulated by ammonium and stimulated by nitrate. Inactivation of nitrate reductase leads to a further increase of expression. The stimulation by nitrate also occurs at the AOX protein and respiratory levels. A deletion analysis of the Aox1 promoter region demonstrates that a short upstream segment (−253 to +59 with respect to the transcription start site) is sufficient to ensure gene expression and regulation, but that distal elements are required for full gene expression. The observed pattern of AOX regulation points to the possible interaction between chloroplast and mitochondria in relation to a potential increase of photogenerated ATP when nitrate is used as a nitrogen source. PMID:12644691

  16. NAD(+)-independent aldehyde oxidase catalyzes cofactor balanced 3-hydroxypropionic acid production in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Luo; Tian, Pingfang

    2014-11-01

    The limiting step for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in Klebsiella pneumoniae is the conversion of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) to 3-HP. This reaction is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Although NAD(+)-dependent ALDH overexpression facilitates 3-HP biosynthesis, ALDH activity decreases and 3-HP stops accumulation when NAD(+) is exhausted. Here, we show that an NAD(+)-independent aldehyde oxidase (AOX) from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 362 holds promise for cofactor-balanced 3-HP production in K. pneumoniae. The AOX coding gene, alod, was heterologously expressed in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and their respective crude cell extracts showed 38.1 U/mg and 16.6 U/mg activities toward propionaldehyde. The recombinant K. pneumoniae expressing alod showed 13.7 U/mg activity toward 3-HPA; K m and V max were 6.7 mM and 42 μM/min/mg, respectively. In shake-flask cultures, the recombinant K. pneumoniae strain produced 0.89 g 3-HP/l, twice that of the control. Moreover, it produced 3 g 3-HP/l during 24 h fed-batch cultivation in a 5 l bioreactor. The results indicate that AOX can efficiently convert 3-HPA into 3-HP. PMID:24980850

  17. Aldehyde oxidase 1 is highly abundant in hepatic steatosis and is downregulated by adiponectin and fenofibric acid in hepatocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeier, Markus; Weigert, Johanna; Schaeffler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas S.; Schmidl, Christian; Buettner, Roland; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Buechler, Christa . E-mail: christa.buechler@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2006-11-24

    Adiponectin protects the liver from steatosis caused by obesity or alcohol and therefore the influence of adiponectin on human hepatocytes was analyzed. GeneChip experiments indicated that recombinant adiponectin downregulates aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) expression and this was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot. AOX1 is a xenobiotic metabolizing protein and produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), that promote cell damage and fibrogenesis. Adiponectin and fenofibric acid activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR-{alpha}) and both suppress AOX1 protein and this is blocked by the PPAR-{alpha} antagonist RU486. Obesity is associated with low adiponectin, reduced hepatic PPAR-{alpha} activity and fatty liver, and AOX1 was found induced in the liver of rats on a high-fat diet when compared to controls. Free fatty acids and leptin, that are elevated in obesity, failed to upregulate AOX1 in vitro. The current data indicate that adiponectin reduces AOX1 by activating PPAR-{alpha} whereas fatty liver disease is associated with elevated hepatic AOX1. High AOX1 may be associated with higher ROS well described to induce fibrogenesis in liver tissue but may also influence drug metabolism and activity.

  18. Studies on the Mechanism of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Joshua F.

    2009-01-01

    DFT calculations support a concerted mechanism for xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase hydride displacement from the sp2 carbon of 6-substituted 4-quinazolinones. The variations in transition state structure show that C-O bond formation is nearly complete in the transition state and the transition state changes are anti-Hammond with the C-H and C-O bond lengths being more product-like for the faster reactions. The C-O bond length in the transition state is around 90% formed. However, the C-H bond is only about 80% broken. This leads to a very tetrahedral transition state with an O-C-N angle of 109 degrees. Thus, while the mechanism is concerted, the anti-bonding orbital of the C-H bond that is broken is not directly attacked by the nucleophile and instead hydride displacement occurs after almost complete tetrahedral transition state formation. In support of this the C=N bond is lengthened in the transition state indicating that attack on the electrophilic carbon occurs by addition to the C=N bond with negative charge increasing on the nitrogen. Differences in experimental reaction rates are accurately reproduced by these calculations, and tend to support this mechanism. PMID:18998731

  19. Studies on the mechanism of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Joshua F; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2008-12-01

    DFT calculations support a concerted mechanism for xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase hydride displacement from the sp(2) carbon of 6-substituted 4-quinazolinones. The variations in transition state structure show that C-O bond formation is nearly complete in the transition state and the transition state changes are anti-Hammond with the C-H and C-O bond lengths being more product-like for the faster reactions. The C-O bond length in the transition state is around 90% formed. However, the C-H bond is only about 80% broken. This leads to a very tetrahedral transition state with an O-C-N angle of 109 degrees. Thus, while the mechanism is concerted, the antibonding orbital of the C-H bond that is broken is not directly attacked by the nucleophile and instead hydride displacement occurs after almost complete tetrahedral transition state formation. In support of this the C=N bond is lengthened in the transition state indicating that attack on the electrophilic carbon occurs by addition to the C=N bond with negative charge increasing on the nitrogen. Differences in experimental reaction rates are accurately reproduced by these calculations and tend to support this mechanism. PMID:18998731

  20. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jinjia; Bai, Peng; Shi, Lei; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Mian; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Cai, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    The alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is the most powerful and commonly used promoter for driving protein expression. However, mechanisms regulating its transcriptional activity are unclear. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2Cys6-type methanol-induced transcription factor 1 (Mit1) and elucidated its roles in regulating PAOX1 activity in response to glycerol and methanol. Mit1 regulated the expression of many genes involved in methanol utilization pathway, including AOX1, but did not participate in peroxisome proliferation and transportation of peroxisomal proteins during methanol metabolism. Structural analysis of Mit1 by performing domain deletions confirmed its specific and critical role in the strict repression of PAOX1 in glycerol medium. Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated PAOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to PAOX1 at different sites and did not interact with each other. However, these factors cooperatively activated PAOX1 through a cascade. Mxr1 mainly functioned during carbon derepression, whereas Mit1 and Prm1 functioned during methanol induction, with Prm1 transmitting methanol signal to Mit1 by binding to the MIT1 promoter (PMIT1), thus increasingly expressing Mit1 and subsequently activating PAOX1. PMID:26828066

  1. Mit1 Transcription Factor Mediates Methanol Signaling and Regulates the Alcohol Oxidase 1 (AOX1) Promoter in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jinjia; Bai, Peng; Shi, Lei; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Mian; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing; Cai, Menghao

    2016-03-18

    The alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is the most powerful and commonly used promoter for driving protein expression. However, mechanisms regulating its transcriptional activity are unclear. Here, we identified a Zn(II)2Cys6-type methanol-induced transcription factor 1 (Mit1) and elucidated its roles in regulating PAOX1 activity in response to glycerol and methanol. Mit1 regulated the expression of many genes involved in methanol utilization pathway, including AOX1, but did not participate in peroxisome proliferation and transportation of peroxisomal proteins during methanol metabolism. Structural analysis of Mit1 by performing domain deletions confirmed its specific and critical role in the strict repression of PAOX1 in glycerol medium. Importantly, Mit1, Mxr1, and Prm1, which positively regulated PAOX1 in response to methanol, were bound to PAOX1 at different sites and did not interact with each other. However, these factors cooperatively activated PAOX1 through a cascade. Mxr1 mainly functioned during carbon derepression, whereas Mit1 and Prm1 functioned during methanol induction, with Prm1 transmitting methanol signal to Mit1 by binding to the MIT1 promoter (PMIT1), thus increasingly expressing Mit1 and subsequently activating PAOX1. PMID:26828066

  2. Nitric oxide mediated amelioration of arsenic toxicity which alters the alternative oxidase (Aox1) gene expression in Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Shalini; Dubey, Pragyan; Singh, Aradhana; Singh, A K

    2015-10-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key molecule in the signal transduction pathway of a biotic stress response has already been described. Recent studies indicate that it also participate in the signaling of abiotic stresses. In the present study, we showed the altered expression of stress responsive gene alternative oxidase (Aox1) in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic toxicity decreased the germination percentage, biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content whereas, arsenic toxicity enhanced the MDA content and proline content in a dose dependent manner. Other enzyme activities like catalase and superoxide dismutase increased with the increase in concentrations but it fell down at higher concentration of arsenic. Pretreatment of nitric oxide results in the enhanced expression of alternative oxidase which showed the adaptation of alternative pathway during the arsenic stress and it also enhances the growth ability and adaptability towards the arsenic stress. The results support the conclusion that nitric oxide ameliorates the arsenic toxicity not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by affecting other mechanism of detoxification. PMID:26036416

  3. Alcohol oxidase is a novel pathogenicity factor for Cladosporium fulvum, but aldehyde dehydrogenase is dispensable.

    PubMed

    Segers, G; Bradshaw, N; Archer, D; Blissett, K; Oliver, R P

    2001-03-01

    Cladosporiumfulvum is a mitosporic ascomycete pathogen of tomato. A study of fungal genes expressed during carbon starvation in vitro identified several genes that were up regulated during growth in planta. These included genes predicted to encode acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1) and alcohol oxidase (Aox1). An Aldh1 deletion mutant was constructed. This mutant lacked all detectable ALDH activity, had lost the ability to grow with ethanol as a carbon source, but was unaffected in pathogenicity. Aox1 expression was induced by carbon starvation and during the later stages of infection. The alcohol oxidase enzyme activity has broadly similar properties (Km values, substrate specificity, pH, and heat stability) to yeast enzymes. Antibodies raised to Hansenula polymorpha alcohol oxidase (AOX) detected antigens in Western blots of starved C. fulvum mycelium and infected plant material. Antigen reacting with the antibodies was localized to organelles resembling peroxisomes in starved mycelium and infected plants. Disruption mutants of Aox1 lacked detectable AOX activity and had markedly reduced pathogenicity as assayed by two different measures of fungal growth. These results identify alcohol oxidase as a novel pathogenicity factor and are discussed in relation to peroxisomal metabolism of fungal pathogens during growth in planta. PMID:11277434

  4. A Simple Litmus Test for Aldehyde Oxidase Metabolism of Heteroarenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of aromatic azaheterocyclic drugs can be affected by the activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO). Susceptibility to AO metabolism is difficult to predict computationally and can be complicated in vivo by differences between species. Here we report the use of bis(((difluoromethyl)sulfinyl)oxy)zinc (DFMS) as a source of CF2H radical for a rapid and inexpensive chemical “litmus test” for the early identification of heteroaromatic drug candidates that have a high probability of metabolism by AO. PMID:24472070

  5. The gymnosperm Pinus pinea contains both AOX gene subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2.

    PubMed

    Frederico, António Miguel; Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    The gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a typical Mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. Pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. The hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. However, P. pinea is unique in other various aspects. P. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other Pinus subgenera. Additionally, P. pinea has a highly recalcitrant behaviour in relation to standard conifer protocols for the induction of somatic embryogenesis or rooting. Because such types of cell reprogramming can be explained as a reaction of plant cells to external stress, it is of special interest to study sequence peculiarities in stress-inducible genes, such as the alternative oxidase (AOX). This is the first report containing molecular evidence for the existence of AOX in gymnosperms at the genetic level. P. pinea AOXs were isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach and three genes were identified. Two of the genes belong to the AOX1 subfamily and one belongs to the AOX2 subfamily. The existence of both AOX subfamilies in gymnosperms is reported here for the first time. This discovery supports the hypothesis that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies arose prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and indicates that the AOX2 is absent in monocots because of subsequent gene loss events. Polymorphic P. pinea AOX1 sequences from a selected genetic clone are presented indicating non-allelic, non-synonymous and synonymous translation products. PMID:19863755

  6. Identification of candidate aldehyde oxidases from the silkworm Bombyx mori potentially involved in antennal pheromone degradation.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Julien; Bozzolan, Françoise; Solvar, Marthe; François, Marie-Christine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2007-12-01

    Signal inactivation is a crucial step in the dynamic of olfactory process and involves various Odorant-Degrading Enzymes. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the best models for studying olfaction in insects, the involvement of an antennal-specific aldehyde oxidase in the degradation of the sex pheromone component bombykal has been demonstrated over the three past decades by biochemical studies. However, the corresponding enzyme has never been characterized at the molecular level. Bioinformatic screening of B. mori genome and molecular approaches have been used to isolate several candidate sequences of aldehyde oxidases. Two interesting antennal-expressed genes have been further characterized and their putative functions are discussed in regard to their respective expression pattern and to our knowledge on aldehyde oxidase properties. Interestingly, one gene appeared as specifically expressed in the antennae of B. mori and associated in males with the bombykal-sensitive sensilla, strongly suggesting that it could encode for the previously biochemically characterized enzyme. PMID:17904312

  7. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by the aldehyde oxidase inhibitor raloxifene: implications for identifying molybdopterin nitrite reductases.

    PubMed

    Weidert, E R; Schoenborn, S O; Cantu-Medellin, N; Choughule, K V; Jones, J P; Kelley, E E

    2014-02-15

    Sources of nitric oxide alternative to nitric oxide synthases are gaining significant traction as crucial mediators of vessel function under hypoxic inflammatory conditions. For example, capacity to catalyze the one electron reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to ·NO has been reported for hemoglobin, myoglobin and molybdopterin-containing enzymes including xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and aldehyde oxidase (AO). For XOR and AO, use of selective inhibition strategies is therefore crucial when attempting to assign relative contributions to nitrite-mediated ·NO formation in cells and tissue. To this end, XOR inhibition has been accomplished with application of classic pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors allo/oxypurinol or the newly FDA-approved XOR-specific inhibitor, Uloric® (febuxostat). Likewise, raloxifene, an estrogen receptor antagonist, has been identified as a potent (Ki=1.0 nM) inhibitor of AO. Herein, we characterize the inhibition kinetics of raloxifene for XOR and describe the resultant effects on inhibiting XO-catalyzed ·NO formation. Exposure of purified XO to raloxifene (PBS, pH 7.4) resulted in a dose-dependent (12.5-100 μM) inhibition of xanthine oxidation to uric acid. Dixon plot analysis revealed a competitive inhibition process with a Ki=13 μM. This inhibitory process was more effective under acidic pH; similar to values encountered under hypoxic/inflammatory conditions. In addition, raloxifene also inhibited anoxic XO-catalyzed reduction of NO2- to NO (EC50=64 μM). In contrast to having no effect on XO-catalyzed uric acid production, the AO inhibitor menadione demonstrated potent inhibition of XO-catalyzed NO2- reduction (EC50=60 nM); somewhat similar to the XO-specific inhibitor, febuxostat (EC50=4 nM). Importantly, febuxostat was found to be a very poor inhibitor of human AO (EC50=613 μM) suggesting its usefulness for validating XO-dependent contributions to NO2- reduction in biological systems. Combined, these data indicate care should be taken

  8. A specific affinity reagent to distinguish aldehyde dehydrogenases and oxidases. Enzymes catalyzing aldehyde oxidation in an adult moth

    SciTech Connect

    Tasayco, M.L.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-02-25

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and oxidase (AO) enzymes from the tissue extracts of male and female tobacco budworm moth (Heliothis virescens) were identified after electrophoretic protein separation. AO activity was visualized using formazan- or horseradish peroxidase-mediated staining coupled to the AO-catalyzed oxidation of benzaldehyde. A set of six soluble AO enzymes with isoelectric points from pI 4.6 to 5.3 were detected primarily in the antennal extracts. Partially purified antennal AO enzymes also oxidized both (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, the two major pheromone components of this moth. ALDH activity was detected using a tritium-labeled affinity reagent based on a known irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme. This labeled vinyl ketone, (3H)(Z)-1,11-hexadecadien-3-one, was synthesized and used to covalently modify the soluble ALDH enzymes from tissue extracts. Molecular subunits of potential ALDH enzymes were visualized in the fluorescence autoradiograms of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated proteins of the antenna, head, and leg tissues. Covalent modification of these protein subunits decreased specifically in the presence of excess pheromone aldehyde or benzaldehyde. Labeled vinyl ketones are thus novel tools for the identification of molecular subunits of ALDH enzymes.

  9. Purification and Properties of Flavin- and Molybdenum-Containing Aldehyde Oxidase from Coleoptiles of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, T.; Saito, E.; Ono, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Sato, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) that could oxidize indole-3-acetaldehyde into indole-3-acetic acid was purified approximately 2000-fold from coleoptiles of 3-d-old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme was about 300 kD as estimated by gel-filtration column chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme was composed of 150-kD subunits. It contained flavin adenine dinucleotide, iron, and molybdenum as prosthetic groups and had absorption peaks in the visible region (300-600 nm). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and metals in plant AO. Other aromatic aldehydes such as indole-3-aldehyde and benzaldehyde also served as good substrates, but N-methylnicotinamide, a good substrate for animal AO, was not oxidized. 2-Mercaptoethanol, p-chloromercu-ribenzoate, and iodoacetate partially inhibited the activity, but well-known inhibitors of animal AO, such as menadione and estradiol, caused no reduction in activity. These results indicate that, although maize AO is similar to animal enzymes in molecular mass and cofactor components, it differs in substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors. Immunoblotting analysis with mouse polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified maize AO showed that the enzyme was relatively rich in the apical region of maize coleoptiles. The possible role of this enzyme is discussed in relation to phytohormone biosynthesis in plants. PMID:12226218

  10. Inhibition of guinea pig aldehyde oxidase activity by different flavonoid compounds: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siah, Maryam; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Hadi; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO), a cytosolic molybdenum-containing hydroxylase, is predominantly active in liver and other tissues of mammalian species and involved in the metabolism of extensive range of aldehydes and nitrogen-containing compounds. A wide range of natural components including polyphenols are able to interfere with AO-catalyzed reactions. Polyphenols and flavonoids are one of the extensive secondary plant metabolites ubiquitously present in plants considered an important part of the human diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate inhibitory effect of selected phenolic compounds from three subclasses of aurone, flavanone and phenolic lactone compounds on the activity of AO, spectrophotometrically. AO enzyme was partially purified from liver of guinea pig. Then, inhibitory effects of 10 flavonoid compounds including 8 derivatives of 2-benzylidenebenzofuran-3(2H)-ones, as well as naringenin and ellagic acid on the activity of aldehyde oxidase were assessed compared with the specific inhibitor of AO, menadione. Among the phenolic compounds with inhibitory effects on the enzyme, ellagic acid (IC50=14.47 μM) was the most potent agent with higher inhibitory action than menadione (IC50=31.84 μM). The mechanisms by which flavonoid compounds inhibit AO activity have been also determined. The inhibitory process of the assessed compounds occurs via either a non-competitive or mixed mode. Although flavonoid compounds extensively present in the nature, mainly in dietary regimen, aurones with promising biological properties are not widely distributed in nature, so synthesis of aurone derivatives is of great importance. Additionally, aurones seem to provide a promising scaffold in medicinal chemistry for the skeleton of new developing drugs, so the results of the current study can be valuable in order to better understanding drug-food as well as drug-drug interaction and also appears to be worthwhile in drug development strategies. PMID:26722818

  11. Engineering the central pathways in Lactococcus lactis: functional expression of the phosphofructokinase (pfk) and alternative oxidase (aox1) genes from Aspergillus niger in Lactococcus lactis facilitates improved carbon conversion rates under oxidizing conditions.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria; Avramidis, Nicholaos

    2012-08-10

    The present work describes a novel central pathway engineering method that has been designed with the aim to increase the carbon conversion rates under oxidizing conditions in L. lactis fermentations. The nisin producer L. lactis ATCC11454 strain has been genetically engineered by cloning a truncated version of the phosphofructokinase gene (pfk13), along with the pkaC, encoding for the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and the alternative oxidase (aox1) genes of A. niger. Functional expression of the above genes resulted in enhanced PFK activity and the introduction of AOX activity and alternative respiration in the presence of a source of heme in the substrate, under fully aerobic growth conditions. The constructed strain is capable of fermenting high concentrations of glucose as was demonstrated in a series of glucostat fed-batch fermentations with glucose levels maintained at 55, 138 and 277 mM. The high maximum specific uptake rate of glucose of 1.8 mMs(-1)gCDW(-1) at 277 mM glucose is characteristic of the improved ability of the microorganism to handle elevated glucose concentrations under conditions otherwise causing severe reduction of PFK activity. The increased carbon flow through glycolysis led to increased protein synthesis that was reflected in increased biomass and nisin levels. The pfk 13-pkaC-aox1-transformant strain's fermentation at 277 mM glucose gave a final biomass concentration of 7.5 g/l and nisin activity of 14,000 IU/ml which is, compared to the parental strain's production levels at its optimal 55 mM glucose, increased by a factor of 2.34 for biomass and 4.37 for nisin. PMID:22759530

  12. A novel reaction mediated by human aldehyde oxidase: amide hydrolysis of GDC-0834.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Jasleen K; Wong, Susan; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Liu, Lichuan; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P; Halladay, Jason S

    2015-06-01

    GDC-0834, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor investigated as a potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, was previously reported to be extensively metabolized by amide hydrolysis such that no measurable levels of this compound were detected in human circulation after oral administration. In vitro studies in human liver cytosol determined that GDC-0834 (R)-N-(3-(6-(4-(1,4-dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl)phenylamino)-4-methyl-5-oxo- 4,5-dihydropyrazin-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b] thiophene-2-carboxamide) was rapidly hydrolyzed with a CLint of 0.511 ml/min per milligram of protein. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) and carboxylesterase (CES) were putatively identified as the enzymes responsible after cytosolic fractionation and mass spectrometry-proteomics analysis of the enzymatically active fractions. Results were confirmed by a series of kinetic experiments with inhibitors of AO, CES, and xanthine oxidase (XO), which implicated AO and CES, but not XO, as mediating GDC-0834 amide hydrolysis. Further supporting the interaction between GDC-0834 and AO, GDC-0834 was shown to be a potent reversible inhibitor of six known AO substrates with IC50 values ranging from 0.86 to 1.87 μM. Additionally, in silico modeling studies suggest that GDC-0834 is capable of binding in the active site of AO with the amide bond of GDC-0834 near the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo), orientated in such a way to enable potential nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl of the amide bond by the hydroxyl of MoCo. Together, the in vitro and in silico results suggest the involvement of AO in the amide hydrolysis of GDC-0834. PMID:25845827

  13. Evidence for free radical generation due to NADH oxidation by aldehyde oxidase during ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mira, L; Maia, L; Barreira, L; Manso, C F

    1995-04-01

    Several studies associate ethanol hepatic toxicity to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Ethanol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) originates acetaldehyde and NADH, with the subsequent increase of the NADH/NAD+ ratio. Some authors have suggested that the oxidation of acetaldehyde by aldehyde oxidase (AO) may be responsible for oxyradical generation during ethanol metabolism. In this study we demonstrated that AO acts not only upon acetaldehyde but also upon NADH, with superoxide anion radical (O2.-) formation. The apparent Km of NADH for AO was approximately 28 microM, a much smaller value than the one reported for acetaldehyde (1 mM). The NADH oxidation by AO promoted the O2.- generation and the ADP-Fe(3+)-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation in a NADH and AO concentration-dependent manner. If in these experiments NADH is substituted by ethanol, NAD+, and ADH, a higher level of lipid peroxidation will be obtained. To explain this observation a vicious cycle which increases the oxyradical production is suggested: ADH reduces NAD+ to NADH, which is oxidized by AO, generating reactive oxidative species plus NAD+ available again for reduction by ADH. From the studies which were done in the presence of some antioxidants it was observed that the addition of SOD and/or catalase did not inhibit lipid peroxidation, but these results do not exclude the participation of reactive oxygen species. Our studies indicate that the NADH oxidation by AO may play a role in ethanol-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, contributing to its hepatotoxicity. PMID:7726572

  14. Biotransformation of arsenite and bacterial aox activity in drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses: Arsenic contamination in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-01

    The potential arsenite bioteansformation activity of arsenic was investigated by examining bacterial arsenic arsenite-oxidizing gene such as aoxS, aoxR, aoxA, aoxB, aoxC, and aoxD in high arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from the surface water of floating houses. There is a biogeochemical cycle of activity involving arsenite oxidase aox system and the ars (arsenic resistance system) gene operon and aoxR leader gene activity in Alcaligenes faecalis SRR-11 and aoxS leader gene activity in Achromobacter xylosoxidans TSL-66. Batch experiments showed that SRR-11 and TSL-66 completely oxidized 1 mM of As (III) to As (V) within 35-40 h. The leaders of aoxS and aoxR are important for gene activity, and their effects in arsenic bioremediation and mobility in natural water has a significant ecological role because it allows arsenite oxidase in bacteria to control the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses. PMID:26219073

  15. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  16. Genetic engineering of AtAOX1a in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents oxidative damage and maintains redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Dalal, Ahan; Tetali, Sarada Devi; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to validate the physiological importance of Arabidopsis thaliana alternative oxidase 1a (AtAOX1a) in alleviating oxidative stress using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The AOX1a transformant (pYES2AtAOX1a) showed cyanide resistant and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)-sensitive respiration, indicating functional expression of AtAOX1a in S. cerevisiae. After exposure to oxidative stress, pYES2AtAOX1a showed better survival and a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) when compared to S. cerevisiae with empty vector (pYES2). Furthermore, pYES2AtAOX1a sustained growth by regulating GPX2 and/or TSA2, and cellular NAD (+)/NADH ratio. Thus, the expression of AtAOX1a in S. cerevisiae enhances its respiratory tolerance which, in turn, maintains cellular redox homeostasis and protects from oxidative damage. PMID:27239435

  17. In vitro oxidative metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine in human liver: insights into the role of the molybdoflavoenzymes aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Barnaba, Carlo; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2014-08-01

    Anticancer agent 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) has been in use since 1953 for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite being available for 60 years, several aspects of 6MP drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans are unknown. Molybdoflavoenzymes such as aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) have previously been implicated in the metabolism of this drug. In this study, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of 6MP to 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) in pooled human liver cytosol. We discovered that 6MP is metabolized to 6TUA through sequential metabolism via the 6-thioxanthine (6TX) intermediate. The role of human AO and XO in the metabolism of 6MP was established using the specific inhibitors raloxifene and febuxostat. Both AO and XO were involved in the metabolism of the 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO was responsible for the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA. These findings were further confirmed using purified human AO and Escherichia coli lysate containing expressed recombinant human XO. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), which belongs to the family of xanthine oxidoreductases and preferentially reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), was shown to contribute to the overall production of the 6TX intermediate as well as the final product 6TUA in the presence of NAD(+) in human liver cytosol. In conclusion, we present evidence that three enzymes, AO, XO, and XDH, contribute to the production of 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO and XDH are involved in the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA in pooled HLC. PMID:24824603

  18. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatment offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect from APAP

  19. Unsuspected Diversity of Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacteria as Revealed by Widespread Distribution of the aoxB Gene in Prokaryotes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich-Salmeron, Audrey; Cordi, Audrey; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Halter, David; Pagnout, Christophe; Abbaszadeh-fard, Elham; Montaut, Didier; Seby, Fabienne; Bertin, Philippe N.; Bauda, Pascale; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence

    2011-01-01

    In this study, new strains were isolated from an environment with elevated arsenic levels, Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (France), and the diversity of aoxB genes encoding the arsenite oxidase large subunit was investigated. The distribution of bacterial aoxB genes is wider than what was previously thought. AoxB subfamilies characterized by specific signatures were identified. An exhaustive analysis of AoxB sequences from this study and from public databases shows that horizontal gene transfer has likely played a role in the spreading of aoxB in prokaryotic communities. PMID:21571879

  20. Inhibition of Human Aldehyde Oxidase Activity by Diet-Derived Constituents: Structural Influence, Enzyme-Ligand Interactions, and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Barr, John T.; Jones, Jeffrey P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of interactions between diet-derived substances and conventional medications in humans is nascent. Most investigations have examined cytochrome P450–mediated interactions. Interactions mediated by other phase I enzymes are understudied. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a phase I hydroxylase that is gaining recognition in drug design and development programs. Taken together, a panel of structurally diverse phytoconstituents (n = 24) was screened for inhibitors of the AO-mediated oxidation of the probe substrate O6-benzylguanine. Based on the estimated IC50 (<100 μM), 17 constituents were advanced for Ki determination. Three constituents were described best by a competitive inhibition model, whereas 14 constituents were described best by a mixed-mode model. The latter model consists of two Ki terms, Kis and Kii, which ranged from 0.26–73 and 0.80–120 μM, respectively. Molecular modeling was used to glean mechanistic insight into AO inhibition. Docking studies indicated that the tested constituents bound within the AO active site and elucidated key enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling identified three structural descriptors that correlated with inhibition potency (r2 = 0.85), providing a framework for developing in silico models to predict the AO inhibitory activity of a xenobiotic based solely on chemical structure. Finally, a simple static model was used to assess potential clinically relevant AO-mediated dietary substance–drug interactions. Epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate, prominent constituents in green tea, were predicted to have moderate to high risk. Further characterization of this uncharted type of interaction is warranted, including dynamic modeling and, potentially, clinical evaluation. PMID:25326286

  1. Molecular cloning of the cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase: tissue distribution and regulation in vivo by testosterone.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaki, M; Demontis, S; Barzago, M M; Garattini, E; Terao, M

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase (AO), a molybdoflavoprotein, has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA is 4347 nt long and consists of an open reading frame predicting a polypeptide of 1333 amino acid residues, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 13 and 335 nt respectively. The apparent molecular mass of the translation product in vitro derived from the corresponding cRNA is consistent with that of the monomeric subunit of the AO holoenzyme. The cDNA codes for a catalytically active form of AO, as demonstrated by transient transfection experiments conducted in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell line. The deduced primary structure of the AO protein contains consensus sequences for two distinct 2Fe-2S redox centres and a molybdopterin-binding site. The amino acid sequence of the mouse AO has a high degree of similarity with the human and bovine counterparts, and a significant degree of relatedness to AO proteins of plant origin. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that hepatocytes, cardiocytes, lung endothelial or epithelial cells and oesophagus epithelial cells express high levels of AO mRNA. In the various tissues and organs considered, the level of AO mRNA expression is not strictly correlated with the amount of the corresponding protein, suggesting that the synthesis of the AO enzyme is under translational or post-translational control. In addition, we observed sex-related regulation of AO protein synthesis. In the liver of male animals, despite similar amounts of AO mRNA, the levels of the AO enzyme and corresponding polypeptide are significantly higher than those in female animals. Treatment of female mice with testosterone increases the amounts of AO mRNA and of the relative translation product to levels similar to those in male animals. PMID:10377246

  2. Inhibition of human aldehyde oxidase activity by diet-derived constituents: structural influence, enzyme-ligand interactions, and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of interactions between diet-derived substances and conventional medications in humans is nascent. Most investigations have examined cytochrome P450-mediated interactions. Interactions mediated by other phase I enzymes are understudied. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a phase I hydroxylase that is gaining recognition in drug design and development programs. Taken together, a panel of structurally diverse phytoconstituents (n = 24) was screened for inhibitors of the AO-mediated oxidation of the probe substrate O(6)-benzylguanine. Based on the estimated IC50 (<100 μM), 17 constituents were advanced for Ki determination. Three constituents were described best by a competitive inhibition model, whereas 14 constituents were described best by a mixed-mode model. The latter model consists of two Ki terms, Kis and Kii, which ranged from 0.26-73 and 0.80-120 μM, respectively. Molecular modeling was used to glean mechanistic insight into AO inhibition. Docking studies indicated that the tested constituents bound within the AO active site and elucidated key enzyme-inhibitor interactions. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling identified three structural descriptors that correlated with inhibition potency (r(2) = 0.85), providing a framework for developing in silico models to predict the AO inhibitory activity of a xenobiotic based solely on chemical structure. Finally, a simple static model was used to assess potential clinically relevant AO-mediated dietary substance-drug interactions. Epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate, prominent constituents in green tea, were predicted to have moderate to high risk. Further characterization of this uncharted type of interaction is warranted, including dynamic modeling and, potentially, clinical evaluation. PMID:25326286

  3. Intra and Inter-Spore Variability in Rhizophagus irregularis AOX Gene

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Amaia; Svensson, Jan; Lopez-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Pozo, María José; Nobre, Tânia; Schneider, Carolin; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are root-inhabiting fungi that form mutualistic symbioses with their host plants. AMF symbiosis improves nutrient uptake and buffers the plant against a diversity of stresses. Rhizophagus irregularis is one of the most widespread AMF species in the world, and its application in agricultural systems for yield improvement has increased over the last years. Still, from the inoculum production perspective, a lack of consistency of inoculum quality is referred to, which partially may be due to a high genetic variability of the fungus. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is an enzyme of the alternative respiratory chain already described in different taxa, including various fungi, which decreases the damage caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, virtually nothing is known on the involvement of AMF AOX on symbiosis establishment, as well on the existence of AOX variability that could affect AMF effectiveness and consequently plant performance. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of the AOX gene of R. irregularis (RiAOX), and show that it is highly expressed during early phases of the symbiosis with plant roots. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RiAOX sequence with ancient fungi, and multiple sequence alignment revealed the lack of several regulatory motifs which are present in plant AOX. The analysis of RiAOX polymorphisms in single spores of three different isolates showed a reduced variability in one spore relatively to a group of spores. A high number of polymorphisms occurred in introns; nevertheless, some putative amino acid changes resulting from non-synonymous variants were found, offering a basis for selective pressure to occur within the populations. Given the AOX relatedness with stress responses, differences in gene variants amongst R. irregularis isolates are likely to be related with its origin and environmental constraints and might have a potential impact on inoculum production. PMID:26540237

  4. Alternative oxidase in animals: unique characteristics and taxonomic distribution.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Allison E; Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Staples, James F

    2009-08-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX), a ubiquinol oxidase, introduces a branch point into the respiratory electron transport chain, bypassing complexes III and IV and resulting in cyanide-resistant respiration. Previously, AOX was thought to be limited to plants and some fungi and protists but recent work has demonstrated the presence of AOX in most kingdoms of life, including animals. In the present study we identified AOX in 28 animal species representing nine phyla. This expands the known taxonomic distribution of AOX in animals by 10 species and two phyla. Using bioinformatics we found AOX gene sequences in members of the animal phyla Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers designed to recognize conserved regions of animal AOX, we demonstrated that AOX genes are transcribed in several animals from different phyla. An analysis of full-length AOX sequences revealed an amino acid motif in the C-terminal region of the protein that is unique to animal AOXs. Animal AOX also lacks an N-terminal cysteine residue that is known to be important for AOX enzyme regulation in plants. We conclude that the presence of AOX is the ancestral state in animals and hypothesize that its absence in some lineages, including vertebrates, is due to gene loss events. PMID:19648408

  5. HPLC-UV method for evaluation of inhibitors of plasma amine oxidase using derivatization of an aliphatic aldehyde product with TRIS.

    PubMed

    Mergemeier, Kira; Lehr, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Plasma amine oxidase (PAO), which is also designated as semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), copper-containing amine oxidase 3 (AOC3), or vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), catalyzes the oxidative deamination of primary amines to aldehydes using copper and a quinone as cofactors. Because it participates in the transmigration of inflammatory cells through the blood vessels into the tissue, PAO is attributed an important role in inflammatory diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of this enzyme could lead to new therapeutics for the treatment of inflammation-related conditions. Assays for the evaluation of PAO inhibitors usually measure the conversion of benzylamine to benzaldehyde by UV spectroscopy. We have developed a test system with the new substrate 6-(5-phenyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)hexan-1-amine, monitoring the formation of the enzyme product 6-(5-phenyl-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)hexanal by reversed phase HPLC with UV detection. Since this compound only eluted with poor peak shape due to hydrate formation in the aqueous mobile phase, it was derivatized with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) under mild conditions to an oxazolidine prior HPLC analysis. The validation of the method revealed that the new substrate was bound with higher affinity to PAO and converted with higher velocity than the standard substrate benzylamine. PMID:27129976

  6. An alcohol oxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium with a distinct glycerol oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Linke, Diana; Lehnert, Nicole; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    An intracellular alcohol oxidase (AOX) was isolated from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pch), grown on l-lactate induction medium, and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The dimeric protein consisted of two identical 75kDa subunits. The open reading frame of 1,956bp resulted in a monomer consisting of 651 amino acids. The enzyme showed a pI at 5.4, a pH optimum of 9, a temperature optimum at 50°C, possessed putative conserved domains of the GMC superfamily, a FAD binding domain, and showed up to 86% homology to alcohol oxidase sequences of Gloeophyllum trabeum and Coprinopsis cinerea. As was shown for the first time for an AOX from a basidiomycete, not only methanol, but also lower primary alcohols and glycerol were accepted as substrates. An assay based on aldehyde dehydrogenase confirmed d-glyceraldehyde as the product of the reaction. A bioprocess based on this enzyme could alleviate the problems associated with the huge side-stream of glycerol occurring during the manufacture of biodiesel, yielding the green oxidant hydrogen peroxide. PMID:24910330

  7. Identification, expression, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidases in non-angiosperm plants.

    PubMed

    Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E

    2013-09-10

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. PMID:23664893

  8. Involvement of AOX and UCP pathways in the post-harvest ripening of papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M G; Mazorra, L M; Souza, A F; Silva, G M C; Correa, S F; Santos, W C; Saraiva, K D C; Teixeira, A J; Melo, D F; Silva, M G; Silva, M A P; Arrabaça, J D C; Costa, J H; Oliveira, J G

    2015-09-15

    Enhanced respiration during ripening in climacteric fruits is sometimes associated with an uncoupling between the ATP synthesis and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While the participation of two energy-dissipating systems, one of which is mediated by the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the other mediated by the uncoupling protein (UCP), has been linked to fruit ripening, the relation between the activation of both mitochondrial uncoupling systems with the transient increase of ethylene synthesis (ethylene peak) remains unclear. To elucidate this question, ethylene emission and the two uncoupling (AOX and UCP) pathways were monitored in harvested papaya fruit during the ripening, from green to fully yellow skin. The results confirmed the typical climacteric behavior for papaya fruit: an initial increase in endogenous ethylene emission which reaches a maximum (peak) in the intermediate ripening stage, before finally declining to a basal level in ripe fruit. Respiration of intact fruit also increased and achieved higher levels at the end of ripening. On the other hand, in purified mitochondria extracted from fruit pulp the total respiration and respiratory control decrease while an increase in the participation of AOX and UCP pathways was markedly evident during papaya ripening. There was an increase in the AOX capacity during the transition from green fruit to the intermediate stage that accompanied the transient ethylene peak, while the O2 consumption triggered by UCP activation increased by 80% from the beginning to end stage of fruit ripening. Expression analyses of AOX (AOX1 and 2) and UCP (UCP1-5) genes revealed that the increases in the AOX and UCP capacities were linked to a higher expression of AOX1 and UCP (mainly UCP1) genes, respectively. In silico promoter analyses of both genes showed the presence of ethylene-responsive cis-elements in UCP1 and UCP2 genes. Overall, the data suggest a differential activation of AOX and UCP pathways in regulation

  9. Peroxisomal Targeting, Import, and Assembly of Alcohol Oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, Hans R.; Russell, Kimberly A.; Vries, Yne de; Cregg, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol oxidase (AOX), the first enzyme in the yeast methanol utilization pathway is a homooctameric peroxisomal matrix protein. In peroxisome biogenesis-defective (pex) mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris, AOX fails to assemble into active octamers and instead forms inactive cytoplasmic aggregates. The apparent inability of AOX to assemble in the cytoplasm contrasts with other peroxisomal proteins that are able to oligomerize before import. To further investigate the import of AOX, we first identified its peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS). We found that sequences essential for targeting AOX are primarily located within the four COOH-terminal amino acids of the protein leucine-alanine-arginine-phenylalanine COOH (LARF). To examine whether AOX can oligomerize before import, we coexpressed AOX without its PTS along with wild-type AOX and determined whether the mutant AOX could be coimported into peroxisomes. To identify the mutant form of AOX, the COOH-terminal LARF sequence of the protein was replaced with a hemagglutinin epitope tag (AOX–HA). Coexpression of AOX–HA with wild-type AOX (AOX-WT) did not result in an increase in the proportion of AOX–HA present in octameric active AOX, suggesting that newly synthesized AOX–HA cannot oligomerize with AOX-WT in the cytoplasm. Thus, AOX cannot initiate oligomerization in the cytoplasm, but must first be targeted to the organelle before assembly begins. PMID:9396748

  10. Photosynthetic Performance and Fertility Are Repressed in GmAOX2b Antisense Soybean1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Simmonds, Daina; Day, David A.; Colmer, Timothy D.; Finnegan, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is a cyanide-resistant oxidase that provides an alternative outlet for electrons from the respiratory electron transport chain embedded in the inner membrane of plant mitochondria. Examination of soybean (Glycine max) plants carrying a GmAOX2b antisense gene showed AOX to have a central role in reproductive development and fecundity. In three independently transformed antisense lines, seed set was reduced by 16% to 43%, whereas ovule abortion increased by 1.2- to 1.7-fold when compared with nontransgenic transformation control plants. Reduced fecundity was associated with reductions in whole leaf cyanide-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration and net photosynthesis, but there was no change in total respiration in the dark. The frequency of potential fertilization events was reduced by at least one-third in the antisense plants as a likely consequence of prefertilization defects. Pistils of the antisense plants contained a higher proportion of immature-sized, nonfertile embryo sacs compared with nontransgenic control plants. Increased rates of pollen abortion in vivo and reduced rates of pollen germination in vitro suggested that the antisense gene compromised pollen development and function. Reciprocal crosses between antisense and nontransgenic plants revealed that pollen produced by antisense plants was less active in fertilization. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that AOX expression has an important role in determining normal gametophyte development and function. PMID:20097793

  11. Diiron centre mutations in Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase abolish enzymatic activity and prevent rescue of cytochrome oxidase deficiency in flies

    PubMed Central

    Andjelković, Ana; Oliveira, Marcos T.; Cannino, Giuseppe; Yalgin, Cagri; Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Dufour, Eric; Rustin, Pierre; Szibor, Marten; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase, AOX, carries out the non proton-motive re-oxidation of ubiquinol by oxygen in lower eukaryotes, plants and some animals. Here we created a modified version of AOX from Ciona instestinalis, carrying mutations at conserved residues predicted to be required for chelation of the diiron prosthetic group. The modified protein was stably expressed in mammalian cells or flies, but lacked enzymatic activity and was unable to rescue the phenotypes of flies knocked down for a subunit of cytochrome oxidase. The mutated AOX transgene is thus a potentially useful tool in studies of the physiological effects of AOX expression. PMID:26672986

  12. The flexible interrelation between AOX respiratory pathway and photosynthesis in rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hanqing; Li, Hongyu; Li, Xin; Duan, Jiangong; Liang, Houguo; Zhi, Dejuan; Ma, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Alternative respiratory pathway was investigated in rice seedlings grown under total darkness, light/dark cycle, or continuous light. The capacity of the alternative pathway was relatively higher in leaves that had longer light exposure. An analysis of rice AOX1 multigene family revealed that AOX1c, but not AOX1a and AOX1b, had a light-independent expression. The alternative oxidase (AOX) inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, 1mM), inhibited nearly 68% of the capacity of the alternative pathway in leaves grown under different light conditions. The plants grown under different light periods were treated with SHAM and then were exposed to illumination for 4h. The transition from dark to 4h of light stimulated the capacity of alternative pathway in etiolated rice seedlings and in those grown under light/dark cycle, whereas the capacity of the alternative pathway was constant in seedlings grown under continuous light with additional 4h of illumination. Etiolated leaves did not show any CO(2) fixation after 4h of illumination, and the increase in chlorophyll content was delayed by the SHAM pretreatment. When seedlings grown under light/dark cycle were moved from dark and exposed to 4h of light, increases in chlorophyll content and CO(2) fixation rate were reduced by SHAM. Although these parameters were stable in plants grown under continuous light, SHAM decreased CO(2) fixation rate but not the chlorophyll content. These results indicate that the role and regulation of AOX in light are determined by the developmental stage of plant photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:17408956

  13. Isolation and characterization of the human aldehyde oxidase gene: conservation of intron/exon boundaries with the xanthine oxidoreductase gene indicates a common origin.

    PubMed Central

    Terao, M; Kurosaki, M; Demontis, S; Zanotta, S; Garattini, E

    1998-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdo-flavo enzyme involved in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous N-heterocyclic compounds of pharmacological and toxicological importance. The enzyme is the product of a gene which is implicated in the aetio-pathogenesis of familial recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we report the cloning and structural characterization of the human AO gene. AO is a single copy gene approximately 85 kb long with 35 transcribed exons. The transcription-initiation site and the sequence of the 5'-flanking region, containing several putative regulatory elements, were determined. The 5'-flanking region contains a functional promoter, as assessed by appropriate reporter constructs in transient transfection experiments. Comparison of the AO gene structure shows conservation of the position and type of exon/intron junctions relative to those observed in the gene coding for another molybdo-flavoprotein, i.e. xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). As the two genes code for proteins with a high level of amino acid identity, our results strongly suggest that the AO and XOR genetic loci arose as the consequence of a duplication event. Southern blot analysis conducted on genomic DNA from various animal species with specific cDNA probes indicates that the AO gene is less conserved than the XOR gene during evolution. PMID:9601067

  14. The hemibiotrophic cacao pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa depends on a mitochondrial alternative oxidase for biotrophic development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-energy conserving ubiquinol oxidase found in most fungal genomes studied to date. With the development of fungicides containing cytochrome-dependent respiratory chain (CRC) inhibitors, a strong interest in studying AOX functions in phytopathogenic...

  15. Going Beyond Common Drug Metabolizing Enzymes: Case Studies of Biotransformation Involving Aldehyde Oxidase, γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, Cathepsin B, Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase, and ADP-Ribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peter W; Zhang, Donglu; Halladay, Jason S; Driscoll, James P; Khojasteh, S Cyrus

    2016-08-01

    The significant roles that cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes play in drug discovery cannot be ignored, and these enzyme systems are commonly examined during drug optimization using liver microsomes or hepatocytes. At the same time, other drug-metabolizing enzymes have a role in the metabolism of drugs and can lead to challenges in drug optimization that could be mitigated if the contributions of these enzymes were better understood. We present examples (mostly from Genentech) of five different non-P450 and non-UGT enzymes that contribute to the metabolic clearance or bioactivation of drugs and drug candidates. Aldehyde oxidase mediates a unique amide hydrolysis of GDC-0834 (N-[3-[6-[4-[(2R)-1,4-dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl]anilino]-4-methyl-5-oxopyrazin-2-yl]-2-methylphenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide), leading to high clearance of the drug. Likewise, the rodent-specific ribose conjugation by ADP-ribosyltransferase leads to high clearance of an interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase inhibitor. Metabolic reactions by flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) are easily mistaken for P450-mediated metabolism such as oxidative defluorination of 4-fluoro-N-methylaniline by FMO. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is involved in the initial hydrolysis of glutathione metabolites, leading to formation of proximate toxins and nephrotoxicity, as is observed with cisplatin in the clinic, or renal toxicity, as is observed with efavirenz in rodents. Finally, cathepsin B is a lysosomal enzyme that is highly expressed in human tumors and has been targeted to release potent cytotoxins, as in the case of brentuximab vedotin. These examples of non-P450- and non-UGT-mediated metabolism show that a more complete understanding of drug metabolizing enzymes allows for better insight into the fate of drugs and improved design strategies of molecules in drug discovery. PMID:27117704

  16. The participation of human hepatic P450 isoforms, flavin-containing monooxygenases and aldehyde oxidase in the biotransformation of the insecticide fenthion

    SciTech Connect

    Leoni, Claudia; Buratti, Franca M. Testai, Emanuela

    2008-12-01

    Although fenthion (FEN) is widely used as a broad spectrum insecticide on various crops in many countries, very scant data are available on its biotransformation in humans. In this study the in vitro human hepatic FEN biotransformation was characterized, identifying the relative contributions of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and/or flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs) by using single c-DNA expressed human enzymes, human liver microsomes and cytosol and CYP/FMO-specific inhibitors. Two major metabolites, FEN-sulfoxide and FEN-oxon (FOX), are formed by some CYPs although at very different levels, depending on the relative CYP hepatic content. Formation of further oxidation products and the reduction of FEN-sulfoxide back to FEN by the cytosolic aldehyde oxidase enzyme were ruled out. Comparing intrinsic clearance values, FOX formation seemed to be favored and at low FEN concentrations CYP2B6 and 1A2 are mainly involved in its formation. At higher levels, a more widespread CYP involvement was evident, as in the case of FEN-sulfoxide, although a higher efficiency of CYP2C family was suggested. Hepatic FMOs were able to catalyze only sulfoxide formation, but at low FEN concentrations hepatic FEN sulfoxidation is predominantly P450-driven. Indeed, the contribution of the hepatic isoforms FMO{sub 3} and FMO{sub 5} was generally negligible, although at high FEN concentrations FMO's showed activities comparable to the active CYPs, accounting for up to 30% of total sulfoxidation. Recombinant FMO{sub 1} showed the highest efficiency with respect to CYPs and the other FMOs, but it is not expressed in the adult human liver. This suggests that FMO{sub 1}-catalysed sulfoxidation may represent the major extra-hepatic pathway of FEN biotransformation.

  17. VX-509 (Decernotinib)-Mediated CYP3A Time-Dependent Inhibition: An Aldehyde Oxidase Metabolite as a Perpetrator of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Craig; Maltais, Francois; Laitinen, Leena; Liao, Shengkai; Tsao, Hong; Chakilam, Ananthsrinivas; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-08-01

    (R)-2-((2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methyl-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)butanamide (VX-509, decernotinib) is an oral Janus kinase 3 inhibitor that has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often receive multiple medications, such as statins and steroids, to manage the signs and symptoms of comorbidities, which increases the chances of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Mechanism-based inhibition is a subset of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and occurs when a molecule forms a reactive metabolite which irreversibly binds and inactivates drug-metabolizing enzymes, potentially increasing the systemic load to toxic concentrations. Traditionally, perpetrating compounds are screened using human liver microsomes (HLMs); however, this system may be inadequate when the precipitant is activated by a non-cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated pathway. Even though studies assessing competitive inhibition and TDI using HLM suggested a low risk for CYP3A4-mediated DDI in the clinic, VX-509 increased the area under the curve of midazolam, atorvastatin, and methyl-prednisolone by approximately 12.0-, 2.7-, and 4.3-fold, respectively. Metabolite identification studies using human liver cytosol indicated that VX-509 is converted to an oxidative metabolite, which is the perpetrator of the DDIs observed in the clinic. As opposed to HLM, hepatocytes contain the full complement of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and can be used to assess TDI arising from non-P450-mediated metabolic pathways. In the current study, we highlight the role of aldehyde oxidase in the formation of the hydroxyl-metabolite of VX-509, which is involved in clinically significant TDI-based DDIs and represents an additional example in which a system-dependent prediction of TDI would be evident. PMID:27298338

  18. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato. PMID:22915749

  19. Characterization of Citrus sinensis type 1 mitochondrial alternative oxidase and expression analysis in biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Daurelio, Lucas Damián; Checa, Susana Karina; Barrio, Jorgelina Morán; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena Graciela

    2010-02-01

    The higher plant mitochondrial electron transport chain contains an alternative pathway that ends with the AOX (alternative oxidase). The AOX proteins are encoded by a small gene family composed of two discrete gene subfamilies. Aox1 is present in both monocot and eudicot plants, whereas Aox2 is only present in eudicot plants. We isolated a genomic clone from Citrus sinensis containing the Aox1a gene. The orange Aox1a consists of four exons interrupted by three introns and its promoter harbours diverse putative stress-specific regulatory motifs including pathogen response elements. The role of the Aox1a gene was evaluated during the compatible interaction between C. sinensis and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and no induction of the Aox1a at the transcriptional level was observed. On the other hand, Aox1a was studied in orange plants during non-host interactions with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, which result in hypersensitive response. Both phytopathogens produced a strong induction of Aox1a, reaching a maximum at 8 h post-infiltration. Exogenous application of salicylic acid produced a slight increase in the steady-state level of Aox1a, whereas the application of fungi elicitors showed the highest induction. These results suggest that AOX1a plays a role during biotic stress in non-host plant pathogen interaction. PMID:19257856

  20. Simplified high-throughput screening of AOX1-expressed laccase enzyme in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kenzom, T; Srivastava, P; Mishra, S

    2015-11-15

    The heterologous protein expression in Pichia pastoris under the control of alcohol oxidase (AOX1)promoter comprises two steps, the growth and induction phases, which are time-consuming and technically demanding. Here, we describe an alternate method where expression is carried out directly in the methanol-containing medium. Using this method, we were successful in screening high-activity laccase clones from a library of laccase mutants generated by random mutagenesis. This simplified method not only saves time but also is highly efficient and can be used for screening a large number of clones. PMID:26299646

  1. Crystal Structure of Alcohol Oxidase from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Valerius, Oliver; Feussner, Ivo; Ficner, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    FAD-dependent alcohol oxidases (AOX) are key enzymes of methylotrophic organisms that can utilize lower primary alcohols as sole source of carbon and energy. Here we report the crystal structure analysis of the methanol oxidase AOX1 from Pichia pastoris. The crystallographic phase problem was solved by means of Molecular Replacement in combination with initial structure rebuilding using Rosetta model completion and relaxation against an averaged electron density map. The subunit arrangement of the homo-octameric AOX1 differs from that of octameric vanillyl alcohol oxidase and other dimeric or tetrameric alcohol oxidases, due to the insertion of two large protruding loop regions and an additional C-terminal extension in AOX1. In comparison to other alcohol oxidases, the active site cavity of AOX1 is significantly reduced in size, which could explain the observed preference for methanol as substrate. All AOX1 subunits of the structure reported here harbor a modified flavin adenine dinucleotide, which contains an arabityl chain instead of a ribityl chain attached to the isoalloxazine ring. PMID:26905908

  2. Crystal Structure of Alcohol Oxidase from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian; Neumann, Piotr; Valerius, Oliver; Feussner, Ivo; Ficner, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    FAD-dependent alcohol oxidases (AOX) are key enzymes of methylotrophic organisms that can utilize lower primary alcohols as sole source of carbon and energy. Here we report the crystal structure analysis of the methanol oxidase AOX1 from Pichia pastoris. The crystallographic phase problem was solved by means of Molecular Replacement in combination with initial structure rebuilding using Rosetta model completion and relaxation against an averaged electron density map. The subunit arrangement of the homo-octameric AOX1 differs from that of octameric vanillyl alcohol oxidase and other dimeric or tetrameric alcohol oxidases, due to the insertion of two large protruding loop regions and an additional C-terminal extension in AOX1. In comparison to other alcohol oxidases, the active site cavity of AOX1 is significantly reduced in size, which could explain the observed preference for methanol as substrate. All AOX1 subunits of the structure reported here harbor a modified flavin adenine dinucleotide, which contains an arabityl chain instead of a ribityl chain attached to the isoalloxazine ring. PMID:26905908

  3. Cucumber possesses a single terminal alternative oxidase gene that is upregulated by cold stress and in the mosaic (MSC) mitochondrial mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants alternative oxidase (AOX) is an important nuclear-encoded enzyme active in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, transferring electrons from ubiquinol to alternative oxidase instead of the cytochrome pathway to yield ubiquinone and water. AOX protects against unexpected inhibition of...

  4. Identification of a Gene for Pyruvate-Insensitive Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase Expressed in the Thermogenic Appendices in Arum maculatum1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kikukatsu; Ogata, Takafumi; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Elliott, Catherine; Albury, Mary S.; Moore, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Heat production in thermogenic plants has been attributed to a large increase in the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX acts as an alternative terminal oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, where it reduces molecular oxygen to water. In contrast to the mitochondrial terminal oxidase, cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is nonprotonmotive and thus allows the dramatic drop in free energy between ubiquinol and oxygen to be dissipated as heat. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based cloning, we reveal that, although at least seven cDNAs for AOX exist (AmAOX1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, -1e, -1f, and -1g) in Arum maculatum, the organ and developmental regulation for each is distinct. In particular, the expression of AmAOX1e transcripts appears to predominate in thermogenic appendices among the seven AmAOXs. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of AmAOX1e indicates that the ENV element found in almost all other AOX sequences, including AmAOX1a, -1b, -1c, -1d, and -1f, is substituted by QNT. The existence of a QNT motif in AmAOX1e was confirmed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of mitochondrial proteins from thermogenic appendices. Further functional analyses with mitochondria prepared using a yeast heterologous expression system demonstrated that AmAOX1e is insensitive to stimulation by pyruvate. These data suggest that a QNT type of pyruvate-insensitive AOX, AmAOX1e, plays a crucial role in stage- and organ-specific heat production in the appendices of A. maculatum. PMID:21988877

  5. Alternative oxidase involvement in Daucus carota somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Frederico, António Miguel; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; Imani, Jafargholi; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    Plant alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme involved in alternative respiration. The critical importance of the enzyme during acclimation upon stress of plant cells is not fully understood and is still an issue of intensive research and discussion. Recently, a role of AOX was suggested for the ability of plant cells to change easily its fate upon stress. In order to get new insights about AOX involvement in cell reprogramming, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and inhibitor studies were performed during cell redifferentiation and developmental stages of Daucus carota L. somatic embryogenesis. Transcript level analysis shows that D. carota AOX genes (DcAOX1a and DcAOX2a) are differentially expressed during somatic embryogenesis. DcAOX1a shows lower expression levels, being mainly down-regulated, whereas DcAOX2a presented a large up-regulation during initiation of the realization phase of somatic embryogenesis. However, when globular embryos start to develop, both genes are down-regulated, being this state transient for DcAOX2a. In addition, parallel studies were performed using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) in order to inhibit AOX activity during the realization phase of somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic cells growing in the presence of the inhibitor were unable to develop embryogenic structures and its growth rate was diminished. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent. The results obtained contribute to the hypothesis that AOX activity supports metabolic reorganization as an essential part of cell reprogramming and, thus, enables restructuring and de novo cell differentiation. PMID:19863756

  6. Unraveling the evolution and regulation of the alternative oxidase gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiao-jun; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-hui

    2015-11-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a diiron carboxylate protein present in all plants examined to date that couples the oxidation of ubiquinol with the reduction of oxygen to water. The predominant structure of AOX genes is four exons interrupted by three introns. In this study, by analyzing the genomic sequences of genes from different plant species, we deduced that intron/exon loss/gain and deletion of fragments are the major mechanisms responsible for the generation and evolution of AOX paralogous genes. Integrating gene duplication and structural information with expression profiles for various AOXs revealed that tandem duplication/block duplication contributed greatly to the generation and maintenance of the AOX gene family. Notably, the expression profiles based on public microarray database showed highly diverse expression patterns among AOX members in different developmental stages and tissues and that both orthologous and paralogous genes did not have the same expression profiles due to their divergence in regulatory regions. Comparative analysis of genes in six plant species under various perturbations indicated a large number of protein kinases, transcription factors and antioxidant enzymes are co-expressed with AOX. Of these, four sets of transcription factors--WRKY, NAC, bZIP and MYB--are likely involved in the regulating the differential responses of AOX1 genes to specific stresses. Furthermore, divergence of AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies in regulation might be the main reason for their differential stress responses. PMID:26438244

  7. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mitun; Goel, Manish; Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Dahiya, Ujjwal Ranjan; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-01-01

    The alcohol oxidase (AOx) cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 7829.5 min-1 mM-1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application. PMID:24752075

  8. Molecular Characterization and Expression of a Novel Alcohol Oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mitun; Goel, Manish; Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R.; Dahiya, Ujjwal Ranjan; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-01-01

    The alcohol oxidase (AOx) cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g−1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 7829.5 min−1 mM−1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application. PMID:24752075

  9. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54) of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III) in this microorganism. PMID:20167112

  10. A GmAOX2b antisense gene compromises vegetative growth and seed production in soybean.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Simmonds, Daina; Day, David A; Colmer, Timothy D; Finnegan, Patrick M

    2012-07-01

    The alternative oxidase mediates the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in plant mitochondria. In non-thermogenic plants, the role of alternative oxidase in plant growth and development is not well understood. Soybean (Glycine max) lines carrying a GmAOX2b antisense gene had compromised vegetative growth and reproductive performance under typical glasshouse growth conditions. The reduction in vegetative growth was demonstrated by reduction in shoot height, the number of leaves per plant and the green leaf area. Antisense plants also had decreased pod formation and seed to pod ratios, which together led to a reduction in the number and total mass of seed produced. The negative effects of the antisense gene on pod set, seed set, ovule availability and total seed mass were primarily confined to the branches, rather than the main stem. The preferential effect of alternative oxidase suppression in the branches is discussed in relation to the reproductive potential of soybean under stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that alternative oxidase provides the benefit of sustaining plant vegetative growth and reproductive capacity in soybean. PMID:22307678

  11. Molecular Evolution of Alternative Oxidase Proteins: A Phylogenetic and Structure Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Rosa; Salvi, Daniele; Brandi, Valentina; Angelini, Riccardo; Ascenzi, Paolo; Polticelli, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Alternative oxidases (AOXs) are mitochondrial cyanide-resistant membrane-bound metallo-proteins catalyzing the oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of oxygen to water bypassing two sites of proton pumping, thus dissipating a major part of redox energy into heat. Here, the structure of Arabidopsis thaliana AOX 1A has been modeled using the crystal structure of Trypanosoma brucei AOX as a template. Analysis of this model and multiple sequence alignment of members of the AOX family from all kingdoms of Life indicate that AOXs display a high degree of conservation of the catalytic core, which is formed by a four-α-helix bundle, hosting the di-iron catalytic site, and is flanked by two additional α-helices anchoring the protein to the membrane. Plant AOXs display a peculiar covalent dimerization mode due to the conservation in the N-terminal region of a Cys residue forming the inter-monomer disulfide bond. The multiple sequence alignment has also been used to infer a phylogenetic tree of AOXs whose analysis shows a polyphyletic origin for the AOXs found in Fungi and a monophyletic origin of the AOXs of Eubacteria, Mycetozoa, Euglenozoa, Metazoa, and Land Plants. This suggests that AOXs evolved from a common ancestral protein in each of these kingdoms. Within the Plant AOX clade, the AOXs of monocotyledon plants form two distinct clades which have unresolved relationships relative to the monophyletic clade of the AOXs of dicotyledonous plants. This reflects the sequence divergence of the N-terminal region, probably due to a low selective pressure for sequence conservation linked to the covalent homo-dimerization mode. PMID:27090422

  12. Alternative Oxidase: A Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathway to Maintain Metabolic and Signaling Homeostasis during Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance. PMID:23531539

  13. Alternative Oxidase Expression in the Mouse Enables Bypassing Cytochrome c Oxidase Blockade and Limits Mitochondrial ROS Overproduction

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Dufour, Eric; Rak, Malgorzata; Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Grandchamp, Nicolas; Csaba, Zsolt; Duvillié, Bertrand; Bénit, Paule; Gallego, Jorge; Gressens, Pierre; Sarkis, Chamsy; Jacobs, Howard T.; Rustin, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide-resistant non-phosphorylating respiration is known in mitochondria from plants, fungi, and microorganisms but is absent in mammals. It results from the activity of an alternative oxidase (AOX) that conveys electrons directly from the respiratory chain (RC) ubiquinol pool to oxygen. AOX thus provides a bypath that releases constraints on the cytochrome pathway and prevents the over-reduction of the ubiquinone pool, a major source of superoxide. RC dysfunctions and deleterious superoxide overproduction are recurrent themes in human pathologies, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to cancer, and may be instrumental in ageing. Thus, preventing RC blockade and excess superoxide production by means of AOX should be of considerable interest. However, because of its energy-dissipating properties, AOX might produce deleterious effects of its own in mammals. Here we show that AOX can be safely expressed in the mouse (MitAOX), with major physiological parameters being unaffected. It neither disrupted the activity of other RC components nor decreased oxidative phosphorylation in isolated mitochondria. It conferred cyanide-resistance to mitochondrial substrate oxidation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production upon RC blockade. Accordingly, AOX expression was able to support cyanide-resistant respiration by intact organs and to afford prolonged protection against a lethal concentration of gaseous cyanide in whole animals. Taken together, these results indicate that AOX expression in the mouse is innocuous and permits to overcome a RC blockade, while reducing associated oxidative insult. Therefore, the MitAOX mice represent a valuable tool in order to investigate the ability of AOX to counteract the panoply of mitochondrial-inherited diseases originating from oxidative phosphorylation defects. PMID:23300486

  14. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    PubMed

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. PMID:27080742

  15. Syncephalastrum racemosum amine oxidase with high catalytic efficiency toward ethanolamine and its application in ethanolamine determination.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Chonan, Keisuke; Murayama, Kazutaka; Sakasegawa, Shin-Ich; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Sugimori, Daisuke

    2016-05-01

    Our screening study yielded a copper amine oxidase (SrAOX) from Syncephalastrum racemosum, which showed much higher affinity and catalytic efficiency toward ethanolamine (EA) than any other amine oxidase (AOX). Following purification of the enzyme to electrophoretic homogeneity from a cell-free extract, the maximum activity toward EA was detected at pH 7.2-7.5 and 45 °C. The SrAOX complementary DNA (cDNA) was composed of a 2052-bp open reading frame encoding a 683-amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 77,162 Da. The enzyme functions as a homodimer. The deduced amino acid sequence of SrAOX showed 55.3 % identity to Rhizopus delemar AOX and contains two consensus sequences of Cu-AOX, NYDY, and HHQH, suggesting SrAOX is a type 1 Cu-AOX (i.e., a topaquinone enzyme). Structural homology modeling showed that residues (112)ML(113), (141)FADTWG(146) M158, and N318 are unique, and T144 possibly characterizes the substrate specificity of SrAOX. The recombinant enzyme (rSrAOX) was produced using Escherichia coli. Steady-state kinetic analysis of rSrAOX activity toward EA (pH 7.5 and 45 °C) gave K m and k cat values of 0.848 ± 0.009 mM and 9.11 ± 0.13 s(-1), respectively. The standard curves were linear between 0.1 and 2 mM EA, and 10 μg mL(-1)-2.5 mg mL(-1) (15 μM-3.6 mM) phosphatidylethanolamine using Streptomyces chromofuscus phospholipase D, respectively, was sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. PMID:26691518

  16. Mitochondrial terminal alternative oxidase and its enhancement by thermal stress in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Hopkinson, Brian M.; Schmidt, Gregory W.

    2014-06-01

    A terminal electron acceptor alternative to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX), is ubiquitous in higher plants and represented in nearly every algal taxon but is poorly documented in dinoflagellates. AOX competes for electrons with the conventional COX and has been hypothesized to function as a means of reducing oxidative stress in mitochondria, as well as a potential mechanism for ameliorating thermal and other physiological stressors. Here, the presence of an active AOX in cultured Symbiodinium was assayed by the response of oxygen consumption to the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and the COX inhibitor cyanide (CN). CN-insensitive, SHAM-sensitive oxygen consumption was found to account for a large portion (26 %) of Symbiodinium dark respiration and is consistent with high levels of AOX activity. This experimental evidence of the existence of a previously unreported terminal oxidase was further corroborated by analysis of publicly available Symbiodinium transcriptome data. The potential for enhanced AOX expression to play a compensatory role in mediating thermal stress was supported by inhibitor assays of cultured Symbiodinium at low (18 °C), moderate (26 °C), and high (32 °C) temperature conditions. Maximum capacity of the putative AOX pathway as a proportion of total dark oxygen consumption was found to increase from 26 % at 26 °C to 45 % and 53 % at 18 °C and 32 °C, respectively, when cells were acclimated to the treatment temperatures. Cells assayed at 18 and 32 °C without acclimation exhibited either the same or lower AOX capacity as controls, suggesting that the AOX protein is upregulated under temperature stress. The physiological implications for the presence of AOX in the coral/algal symbiosis and its potential role in response to many forms of biotic and abiotic stress, particularly oxidative stress, are discussed.

  17. Signals Regulating the Expression of the Nuclear Gene Encoding Alternative Oxidase of Plant Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vanlerberghe, G. C.; McLntosh, L.

    1996-06-01

    Suspension cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) were used to investigate signals regulating the expression of the nuclear gene Aox1 encoding the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein responsible for cyanide-resistant respiration in plants. We found that an increase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate citrate (either after its exogenous supply to cells or after inhibition of aconitase by monofluoroacetate) caused a rapid and dramatic increase in the steady-state level of Aox1 mRNA and AOX protein. This led to a large increase in the capacity for AOX respiration, defined as the amount of salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive O2 uptake by cells in the presence of potassium cyanide. The results indicate that citrate may be an important signal metabolite regulating Aox1 gene expression. A number of other treatments were also identified that rapidly induced the level of Aox1 mRNA and AOX capacity. These included short-term incubation of cells with 10 mM acetate, 2 [mu]M antimycin A, 5 mM H2O2, or 1 mM cysteine. For some of these treatments, induction of AOX occurred without an increase in cellular citrate level, indicating that other signals (possibly related to oxidative stress conditions) are also important in regulating Aox1 gene expression. The signals influencing Aox1 gene expression are discussed with regard to the potential function(s) of AOX to modulate tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism and/or to prevent the generation of active oxygen species by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. PMID:12226312

  18. Abscisic acid and aldehyde oxidase activity in maize ear leaf and grain relative to post-flowering photosynthetic capacity and grain-filling rate under different water/nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shujun; Zhang, Zongzheng; Ning, Tangyuan; Ren, Shizhong; Su, Licheng; Li, Zengjia

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated changes in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and grain ABA concentrations in two maize cultivars and analyzed the following relationships under different water/nitrogen treatments: leaf ABA concentrations and photosynthetic parameters; leaf ABA concentrations and grain ABA concentrations; leaf/grain ABA concentrations and grain-filling parameters; and aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) activities and ABA concentrations. The ear leaf average AO activities and ABA concentrations were lower in the controlled release urea treatments compared with the conventional urea treatments. The average AO activities in the grains were higher in the controlled release urea treatments, and the ABA concentrations were significantly increased at 11-30 DAF. The Pn and ABA concentrations in ear leaves were negatively correlated. And the Gmean were positively correlated with the grain ABA concentrations at 11-30 DAF and negatively correlated with the leaf ABA concentrations at 20 and 40-50 DAF. The grain ABA concentrations and leaf ABA concentrations were positively correlated. Thus, the Gmean were closely related to the AO activities and to the ear leaf and grain ABA concentrations. As compared to other treatments, the subsoiling and controlled release urea treatment promoted the uptake of water and nitrogen by maize, increased the photosynthetic capacity of the ear leaves, increased the grain-filling rate, and improved the movement of photosynthetic assimilates toward the developing grains. In the cultivar Z958, higher ABA concentrations in grains at 11-30 DAF and lower ABA concentrations in ear leaves during the late grain-filling stage, resulted in higher grain-filling rate and increased accumulation of photosynthetic products (relative to the cultivar D3). PMID:23770596

  19. Mitochondrial alternative oxidase is involved in both compatible and incompatible host-virus combinations in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Deng, Xing-Guang; Xu, Fei; Jian, Wei; Peng, Xing-Ji; Zhu, Tong; Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2015-10-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) functions in the resistance to biotic stress. However, the mechanisms of AOX in the systemic antiviral defense response and N (a typical resistance gene)-mediated resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are elusive. A chemical approach was undertaken to investigate the role of NbAOX in the systemic resistance to RNA viruses. Furthermore, we used a virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS)-based genetics approach to investigate the function of AOX in the N-mediated resistance to TMV. The inoculation of virus significantly increased the NbAOX transcript and protein levels and the cyanide-resistant respiration in the upper un-inoculated leaves. Pretreatment with potassium cyanide greatly increased the plant's systemic resistance, whereas the application of salicylhydroxamic acid significantly compromised the plant's systemic resistance. Additionally, in NbAOX1a-silenced N-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants, the inoculated leaf collapsed and the movement of TMV into the systemic tissue eventually led to the spreading of HR-PCD and the death of the whole plant. The hypersensitive response marker gene HIN1 was significantly increased in the NbAOX1a-silenced plants. Significant amounts of TMV-CP mRNA and protein were detected in the NbAOX1a-silenced plants but not in the control plants. Overall, evidence is provided that AOX plays important roles in both compatible and incompatible plant-virus combinations. PMID:26398788

  20. Physiological role of alternative oxidase (from yeasts to plants).

    PubMed

    Rogov, A G; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondria of all so far studied organisms, with the exception of Archaea, mammals, some yeasts, and protists, contain, along with the classical phosphorylating cytochrome pathway, a so-called cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) localized on the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, and electron transport through which is not coupled with ATP synthesis and energy accumulation. Mechanisms underlying plentiful functions of AOX in organisms at various levels of organization ranging from yeasts to plants are considered. First and foremost, AOX provides a chance of cell survival after inhibiting the terminal components of the main respiratory chain or losing the ability to synthesize these components. The vitally important role of AOX is obvious in thermogenesis of thermogenic plant organs where it becomes the only terminal oxidase with a very high activity, and the energy of substrate oxidation by this respiratory pathway is converted into heat, thus promoting evaporation of volatile substances attracting pollinating insects. AOX plays a fundamentally significant role in alleviating or preventing oxidative stress, thus ensuring the defense against a wide range of stresses and adverse environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature and light intensities, osmotic stress, drought, and attack by incompatible strains of bacterial pathogens, phytopathogens, or their elicitors. Participation of AOX in pathogen survival during its existence inside the host, in antivirus defense, as well as in metabolic rearrangements in plants during embryogenesis and cell differentiation is described. Examples are given to demonstrate that AOX might be an important tool to overcome the adverse aftereffects of restricted activity of the main respiratory chain in cells and whole animals. PMID:25869356

  1. Enhanced fatty acid accumulation in Isochrysis galbana by inhibition of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway under nitrogen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Litao; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the interrelation between the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway and fatty acid accumulation in marine microalga Isochrysis galbana. Under normal conditions, the activity of the AOX pathway was maintained at a low level in I. galbana. Compared with the normal condition, nitrogen deprivation significantly increased the AOX pathway activity and fatty acid accumulation. Under nitrogen deprivation, the inhibition of the AOX pathway by salicylhydroxamic acid caused the accumulation of reducing equivalents and the over-reduction of chloroplasts in I. galbana cells, leading to a decrease in the photosynthetic O2 evolution rate. The over-production of reducing equivalents due to the inhibition of the AOX pathway under nitrogen deprivation further enhanced the accumulation of fatty acids in I. galbana cells. PMID:27068057

  2. Structure of the trypanosome cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Tomoo; Kido, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Tsuge, Chiaki; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Gen; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Moore, Anthony L.; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In T. brucei, a parasite that causes human African sleeping sickness, AOX plays a critical role in the survival of the parasite in its bloodstream form. Because AOX is absent from mammals, this protein represents a unique and promising therapeutic target. Despite its bioenergetic and medical importance, however, structural features of any AOX are yet to be elucidated. Here we report crystal structures of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase in the absence and presence of ascofuranone derivatives. All structures reveal that the oxidase is a homodimer with the nonhaem diiron carboxylate active site buried within a four-helix bundle. Unusually, the active site is ligated solely by four glutamate residues in its oxidized inhibitor-free state; however, inhibitor binding induces the ligation of a histidine residue. A highly conserved Tyr220 is within 4 Å of the active site and is critical for catalytic activity. All structures also reveal that there are two hydrophobic cavities per monomer. Both inhibitors bind to one cavity within 4 Å and 5 Å of the active site and Tyr220, respectively. A second cavity interacts with the inhibitor-binding cavity at the diiron center. We suggest that both cavities bind ubiquinol and along with Tyr220 are required for the catalytic cycle for O2 reduction. PMID:23487766

  3. Structure of the trypanosome cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Tomoo; Kido, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Tsuge, Chiaki; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Gen; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Moore, Anthony L; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-19

    In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In T. brucei, a parasite that causes human African sleeping sickness, AOX plays a critical role in the survival of the parasite in its bloodstream form. Because AOX is absent from mammals, this protein represents a unique and promising therapeutic target. Despite its bioenergetic and medical importance, however, structural features of any AOX are yet to be elucidated. Here we report crystal structures of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase in the absence and presence of ascofuranone derivatives. All structures reveal that the oxidase is a homodimer with the nonhaem diiron carboxylate active site buried within a four-helix bundle. Unusually, the active site is ligated solely by four glutamate residues in its oxidized inhibitor-free state; however, inhibitor binding induces the ligation of a histidine residue. A highly conserved Tyr220 is within 4 Å of the active site and is critical for catalytic activity. All structures also reveal that there are two hydrophobic cavities per monomer. Both inhibitors bind to one cavity within 4 Å and 5 Å of the active site and Tyr220, respectively. A second cavity interacts with the inhibitor-binding cavity at the diiron center. We suggest that both cavities bind ubiquinol and along with Tyr220 are required for the catalytic cycle for O2 reduction. PMID:23487766

  4. Oxidation of AOX and organic compounds in pharmaceutical wastewater in RSM-optimized-Fenton system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yawei; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies in pharmaceutical wastewater treated by Fenton process under response surface methodology (RSM) optimized conditions were studied. High regression coefficient value R(2) (R(2) = 0.9680, 0.9040 for AOX and TOC removal efficiency, respectively) and low value coefficient of variation (2.21%, 2.04% for AOX and TOC, respectively) of the quadratic model indicated that the model was accurate in predicting the experimental results. The desirability function was used to optimize AOX and TOC removal efficiencies simultaneously. The optimal pH, Fe(2+) concentration, molar ratio of H2O2/Fe(2+) and reaction time were found to be 3.3, 19.05 mM, 20.16 and 2.2 h, respectively, and 91.78% AOX and 75.01% TOC were removed under these conditions, which was validated. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) results revealed that 28 out of 33 kinds of organic compounds, including 11 kinds of AOX were completely removed by the Fenton process while one new AOX compound, 4,5,6,7-tetrachlorophthalide, was produced which was the result of the carbonyl of 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-1,3-isobenzofurandione being attacked in the Fenton reaction. These results indicated that analysis of organics was important since new AOX compounds could be produced in Fenton process despite the value of AOX decreasing. PMID:27115846

  5. Expression of the alternative oxidase complements cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Dassa, Emmanuel P; Dufour, Eric; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Paupe, Vincent; Hakkaart, Gertjan A J; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, ranging from early onset devastating encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy, to neurological diseases in adulthood and in the elderly. No method of compensating successfully for COX deficiency has been reported so far. In vitro, COX-deficient human cells require additional glucose, pyruvate and uridine for normal growth and are specifically sensitive to oxidative stress. Here, we have tested whether the expression of a mitochondrially targeted, cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis could alleviate the metabolic abnormalities of COX-deficient human cells either from a patient harbouring a COX15 pathological mutation or rendered deficient by silencing the COX10 gene using shRNA. We demonstrate that the expression of the AOX, well-tolerated by the cells, compensates for both the growth defect and the pronounced oxidant-sensitivity of COX-deficient human cells. PMID:20049701

  6. Alternative oxidase pathway is involved in the exogenous SNP-elevated tolerance of Medicago truncatula to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Shuo-Xun; Pu, Xiao-Jun; Deng, Xing-Guang; Luo, Shi-Shuai; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) would enhance the tolerance of plants to stress conditions. Some evidences suggested that nitric oxide (NO) could induce the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX). In this study, Medicago truncatula (Medicago) was chosen to study the role of AOX in the SNP-elevated resistance to salt stress. Our results showed that the expression of AOX genes (especially AOX1 and AOX2b1) and cyanide-resistant respiration rate (Valt) could be significantly induced by salt stress. Exogenous application of SNP could further enhance the expression of AOX genes and Valt. Exogenous application of SNP could alleviate the oxidative damage and photosynthetic damage caused by salt stress. However, the stress resistance was significantly decreased in the plants which were pretreated with n-propyl gallate (nPG). More importantly, the damage in nPG-pretreated plants could not be alleviated by application of SNP. Further study showed that effects of nPG on the activities of antioxidant enzymes were minor. These results showed that AOX pathway played an important role in the SNP-elevated resistance of Medicago to salt stress. AOX could contribute to regulating the accumulation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and protect of photosystem, and we proposed that all these were depend on the ability of maintaining the homeostasis of redox state. PMID:26962709

  7. Characterization of oxidative phosphorylation in the colorless chlorophyte Polytomella sp. Its mitochondrial respiratory chain lacks a plant-like alternative oxidase.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; González-Halphen, Diego

    2002-07-01

    The presence of an alternative oxidase (AOX) in Polytomella sp., a colorless relative of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was explored. Oxygen uptake in Polytomella sp. mitochondria was inhibited by KCN (94%) or antimycin (96%), and the remaining cyanide-resistant respiration was not blocked by the AOX inhibitors salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or n-propylgallate. No stimulation of an AOX activity was found upon addition of either pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, or AMP, or by treatment with DTT. An antibody raised against C. reinhardtii AOX did not recognized any polypeptide band of Polytomella sp. mitochondria in Western blots. Also, PCR experiments and Southern blot analysis failed to identify an Aox gene in this colorless alga. Finally, KCN exposure of cell cultures failed to stimulate an AOX activity. Nevertheless, KCN exposure of Polytomella sp. cells induced diminished mitochondrial respiration (20%) and apparent changes in cytochrome c oxidase affinity towards cyanide. KCN-adapted cells exhibited a significant increase of a-type cytochromes, suggesting accumulation of inactive forms of cytochrome c oxidase. Another effect of KCN exposure was the reduction of the protein/fatty acid ratio of mitochondrial membranes, which may affect the observed respiratory activity. We conclude that Polytomella lacks a plant-like AOX, and that its corresponding gene was probably lost during the divergence of this colorless genus from its close photosynthetic relatives. PMID:12160990

  8. Structure of Alcohol Oxidase from Pichia pastoris by Cryo-Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vonck, Janet; Parcej, David N; Mills, Deryck J

    2016-01-01

    The first step in methanol metabolism in methylotrophic yeasts, the oxidation of methanol and higher alcohols with molecular oxygen to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, is catalysed by alcohol oxidase (AOX), a 600-kDa homo-octamer containing eight FAD cofactors. When these yeasts are grown with methanol as the carbon source, AOX forms large crystalline arrays in peroxisomes. We determined the structure of AOX by cryo-electron microscopy at a resolution of 3.4 Å. All residues of the 662-amino acid polypeptide as well as the FAD are well resolved. AOX shows high structural homology to other members of the GMC family of oxidoreductases, which share a conserved FAD binding domain, but have different substrate specificities. The preference of AOX for small alcohols is explained by the presence of conserved bulky aromatic residues near the active site. Compared to the other GMC enzymes, AOX contains a large number of amino acid inserts, the longest being 75 residues. These segments are found at the periphery of the monomer and make extensive inter-subunit contacts which are responsible for the very stable octamer. A short surface helix forms contacts between two octamers, explaining the tendency of AOX to form crystals in the peroxisomes. PMID:27458710

  9. Structure of Alcohol Oxidase from Pichia pastoris by Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vonck, Janet; Parcej, David N.; Mills, Deryck J.

    2016-01-01

    The first step in methanol metabolism in methylotrophic yeasts, the oxidation of methanol and higher alcohols with molecular oxygen to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, is catalysed by alcohol oxidase (AOX), a 600-kDa homo-octamer containing eight FAD cofactors. When these yeasts are grown with methanol as the carbon source, AOX forms large crystalline arrays in peroxisomes. We determined the structure of AOX by cryo-electron microscopy at a resolution of 3.4 Å. All residues of the 662-amino acid polypeptide as well as the FAD are well resolved. AOX shows high structural homology to other members of the GMC family of oxidoreductases, which share a conserved FAD binding domain, but have different substrate specificities. The preference of AOX for small alcohols is explained by the presence of conserved bulky aromatic residues near the active site. Compared to the other GMC enzymes, AOX contains a large number of amino acid inserts, the longest being 75 residues. These segments are found at the periphery of the monomer and make extensive inter-subunit contacts which are responsible for the very stable octamer. A short surface helix forms contacts between two octamers, explaining the tendency of AOX to form crystals in the peroxisomes. PMID:27458710

  10. ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a modulates the oxidative challenge during moderate Cd exposure in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    PubMed

    Keunen, Els; Schellingen, Kerim; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Remans, Tony; Colpaert, Jan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to unravel the functional significance of alternative oxidase1a (AOX1a) induction in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to cadmium (Cd) by comparing wild-type (WT) plants and aox1a knockout mutants. In the absence of AOX1a, differences in stress-responsive transcript and glutathione levels suggest an increased oxidative challenge during moderate (5 µM) and prolonged (72h) Cd exposure. Nevertheless, aox1a knockout leaves showed lower hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation as compared to the WT due to both acute (24h) and prolonged (72h) exposure to 5 µM Cd, but not to 10 µM Cd. Taken together, we propose a working model where AOX1a acts early in the response to Cd and activates or maintains a mitochondrial signalling pathway impacting on cellular antioxidative defence at the post-transcriptional level. This fine-tuning pathway is suggested to function during moderate (5 µM) Cd exposure while being overwhelmed during more severe (10 µM) Cd stress. Within this framework, ethylene is required - either directly or indirectly via NADPH oxidase isoform C - to fully induce AOX1 expression. In addition, reciprocal crosstalk between these components was demonstrated in leaves of A. thaliana plants exposed to Cd. PMID:25743159

  11. Expression of alternative oxidase in Drosophila ameliorates diverse phenotypes due to cytochrome oxidase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Kia K.; Rinne, Juho; Sriram, Ashwin; Lakanmaa, Matti; Zeb, Akbar; Tuomela, Tea; Popplestone, Anna; Singh, Satpal; Sanz, Alberto; Rustin, Pierre; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a significant factor in human disease, ranging from systemic disorders of childhood to cardiomyopathy, ischaemia and neurodegeneration. Cytochrome oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is a frequent target. Lower eukaryotes possess alternative respiratory-chain enzymes that provide non-proton-translocating bypasses for respiratory complexes I (single-subunit reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenases, e.g. Ndi1 from yeast) or III + IV [alternative oxidase (AOX)], under conditions of respiratory stress or overload. In previous studies, it was shown that transfer of yeast Ndi1 or Ciona intestinalis AOX to Drosophila was able to overcome the lethality produced by toxins or partial knockdown of complex I or IV. Here, we show that AOX can provide a complete or substantial rescue of a range of phenotypes induced by global or tissue-specific knockdown of different cIV subunits, including integral subunits required for catalysis, as well as peripheral subunits required for multimerization and assembly. AOX was also able to overcome the pupal lethality produced by muscle-specific knockdown of subunit CoVb, although the rescued flies were short lived and had a motility defect. cIV knockdown in neurons was not lethal during development but produced a rapidly progressing locomotor and seizure-sensitivity phenotype, which was substantially alleviated by AOX. Expression of Ndi1 exacerbated the neuronal phenotype produced by cIV knockdown. Ndi1 expressed in place of essential cI subunits produced a distinct residual phenotype of delayed development, bang sensitivity and male sterility. These findings confirm the potential utility of alternative respiratory chain enzymes as tools to combat mitochondrial disease, while indicating important limitations thereof. PMID:24293544

  12. Alcohol oxidase protein mediated in-situ synthesized and stabilized gold nanoparticles for developing amperometric alcohol biosensor.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Santhosh, Mallesh; Singh, Naveen K; Goswami, Pranab

    2015-07-15

    A simple one step method for the alcohol oxidases (AOx) protein mediated synthesis of gold nano-particles (AuNPs) in alkaline (pH 8.5) condition with simultaneous stabilization of the nanoparticles on the AOx protein surface under native environment has been developed. The formation of the AOx conjugated AuNPs was confirmed by advanced analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The significant increase in zeta potential (ζ) value of -57mV for the synthesized AOx-AuNPs conjugate from the AOx (pI 4.5) protein (ζ, -30mV) implied good stability of the in-situ synthesized nano-conjugate. The AOx-AuNPs conjugate showed steady stability in alkaline (upto pH 8.5) and NaCl (up to 10(-1)M) solutions. The efficiency (Kcat/Km) of the AuNP conjugated AOx was increased by 18% from the free enzyme confirming the activating role of the surface stabilized AuNPs for the enzyme. The AuNPs-AOx conjugate was encapsulated with polyaniline (PANI) synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline using H2O2 generated in-situ from the AOx catalysed oxidation of alcohol. The PANI encapsulated AuNPs-AOx assembly was stabilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by chitosan-Nafion mixture and then utilized the fabricated bioelectrode for detection of alcohol amperometrically using H2O2 as redox indicator at +0.6V. The constructed biosensor showed high operational stability (6.3% loss after 25 measurements), wide linear detection range of 10µM-4.7mM (R(2)=0.9731), high sensitivity of 68.3±0.35µAmM(-1) and low detection limit of 7±0.027µM for ethanol. The fabricated bioelectrode was successfully used for the selective determination of alcohol in beverage samples. PMID:25725464

  13. Sense or no-sense of the sum parameter for water soluble "adsorbable organic halogens" (AOX) and "absorbed organic halogens" (AOX-S18) for the assessment of organohalogens in sludges and sediments.

    PubMed

    Müller, German

    2003-07-01

    "AOX" is the abbreviation of the sum parameter for water soluble "adsorbable organic halogens" in which 'A' stands for adsorbable, 'O' for organic and 'X' for the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine. After the introduction of the AOX in 1976, this parameter has been correctly used for "real" AOX constituents (DDT and its metabolites, PCBs, etc.) but also misused for non-adsorbable adsorbed OX-compounds, mostly high molecular organohalogens in plants and even to inorganic compounds being neither organic nor adsorbable. The question of natural "Adsorbable Organic Halogens" (AOX) formed by living organisms and/or during natural abiogenic processes has been definitively solved by the known existence of already more than 3650 organohalogen compounds, amongst them the highly reactive, cancerogenic vinyl chloride (VC). The extension of the AOX to AOX-S18 for Sludges and Sediments, in which A stands for adsorbed (not for adsorbable) is questionable. It includes the most important water insoluble technical organochlorine product: polyvinyl chloride, PVC. In addition to organic halogens it also includes inorganic, mineralogenic halides, incorporated mainly in the crystal lattice of fine grained phyllosilicates, the typical clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and chlorite) which are main constituents of sediments and sedimentary rocks representing the major part of the sedimentary cover of the earth. Other phyllosilicates, biotite and muscovite, major constituents of granites and many metamorphic rocks (gneiss and mica schist) will also contribute to the AOX-S18 especially in soils as result of weathering processes. Since chlorine is incorporated into the mineral structure and, as a consequence, not soluble by the nitric acid analytical step (pH 0.5) of the S18 determination, it will account to the AOX-S18 in the final charcoal combustion step at temperatures >950 degrees C. After heavy rainfalls sewage sludge composition is strongly influenced by

  14. Improved AOX degradation in UV oxidative waste water treatment by dialysis with nanofiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Seiss, M; Gahr, A; Niessner, R

    2001-09-01

    In this article, the wastewater treatment by UV oxidation with and without preceding desalination is compared. The influence of different chloride concentrations on the TOC degradation and AOX concentration is analyzed. Nanofiltration membrane dialysis is used to separate the chloride ions from wastewater. It is demonstrated that a reduction of the chloride concentration leads to a faster TOC degradation compared to the treatment of non-desalinated wastewater. Furthermore, the additional formation of AOX during the process could be avoided in effect leading to a significant degradation of native AOX. PMID:11487122

  15. Isolation and characterization of mutated alcohol oxidases from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha with decreased affinity toward substrates and their use as selective elements of an amperometric biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Smutok, Oleh V; Ryabova, Olena B; Gayda, Galyna Z; Sibirny, Volodymyr A; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gonchar, Mykhailo V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2007-01-01

    Background Accurate, rapid, and economic on-line analysis of ethanol is very desirable. However, available biosensors achieve saturation at very low ethanol concentrations and thus demand the time and labour consuming procedure of sample dilution. Results Hansenula polymorpha (Pichia angusta) mutant strains resistant to allyl alcohol in methanol medium were selected. Such strains possessed decreased affinity of alcohol oxidase (AOX) towards methanol: the KM values for AOX of wild type and mutant strains CA2 and CA4 are shown to be 0.62, 2.48 and 1.10 mM, respectively, whereas Vmax values are increased or remain unaffected. The mutant AOX alleles from H. polymorpha mutants CA2 and CA4 were isolated and sequenced. Several point mutations in the AOX gene, mostly different between the two mutant alleles, have been identified. Mutant AOX forms were isolated and purified, and some of their biochemical properties were studied. An amperometric biosensor based on the mutated form of AOX from the strain CA2 was constructed and revealed an extended linear response to the target analytes, ethanol and formaldehyde, as compared to the sensor based on the native AOX. Conclusion The described selection methodology opens up the possibility of isolating modified forms of AOX with further decreased affinity toward substrates without reduction of the maximal velocity of reaction. It can help in creation of improved ethanol biosensors with a prolonged linear response towards ethanol in real samples of wines, beers or fermentation liquids. PMID:17567895

  16. Functional Coexpression of the Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase and Uncoupling Protein Underlies Thermoregulation in the Thermogenic Florets of Skunk Cabbage1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Kato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Yukie; Ito, Takanori; Morohashi, Miyuki; Ito, Yuka; Ichikawa, Megumi; Matsukawa, Kazushige; Kakizaki, Yusuke; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2008-01-01

    Two distinct mitochondrial energy dissipating systems, alternative oxidase (AOX) and uncoupling protein (UCP), have been implicated as crucial components of thermogenesis in plants and animals, respectively. To further clarify the physiological roles of AOX and UCP during homeothermic heat production in the thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), we identified the thermogenic cells and performed expression and functional analyses of these genes in this organism. Thermographic analysis combined with in situ hybridization revealed that the putative thermogenic cells surround the stamens in the florets of skunk cabbage and coexpress transcripts for SrAOX, encoding Symplocarpus AOX, and SrUCPb, encoding a novel UCP that lacks a fifth transmembrane segment. Mitochondria isolated from the thermogenic florets exhibited substantial linoleic acid (LA)-inducible uncoupling activities. Moreover, our results demonstrate that LA is capable of inhibiting the mitochondrial AOX pathway, whereas the proportion of pyruvate-stimulated AOX capacity was not significantly affected by LA. Intriguingly, the protein expression levels for SrAOX and SrUCPb were unaffected even when the ambient air temperatures increased from 10.3°C to 23.1°C or from 8.3°C to 24.9°C. Thus, our results suggest that functional coexpression of AOX and UCP underlies the molecular basis of heat production, and that posttranslational modifications of these proteins play a crucial role in regulating homeothermic heat production under conditions of natural ambient temperature fluctuations in skunk cabbage. PMID:18162588

  17. Nitric oxide induces the alternative oxidase pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings deprived of inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Beatriz; Moran, Jose F.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Gupta, Kapuganti J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate starvation compromises electron flow through the cytochrome pathway of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and plants commonly respond to phosphate deprivation by increasing flow through the alternative oxidase (AOX). To test whether this response is linked to the increase in nitric oxide (NO) production that also increases under phosphate starvation, Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown for 15 d on media containing either 0 or 1mM inorganic phosphate. The effects of the phosphate supply on growth, the production of NO, respiration, the AOX level and the production of superoxide were compared for wild-type (WT) seedlings and the nitrate reductase double mutant nia. Phosphate deprivation increased NO production in WT roots, and the AOX level and the capacity of the alternative pathway to consume electrons in WT seedlings; whereas the same treatment failed to stimulate NO production and AOX expression in the nia mutant, and the plants had an altered growth phenotype. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione rescued the growth phenotype of the nia mutants under phosphate deprivation to some extent, and it also increased the respiratory capacity of AOX. It is concluded that NO is required for the induction of the AOX pathway when seedlings are grown under phosphate-limiting conditions. PMID:26163703

  18. Expression of the alternative oxidase mitigates beta-amyloid production and toxicity in model systems.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A; Crowther, Damian C; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease. PMID:27094492

  19. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOXs) in solid residues from hazardous and clinical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Durmusoglu, Ertan; Bakoglu, Mithat; Karademir, Aykan; Kirli, Lale

    2006-01-01

    Trace concentrations of a variety of chemicals remain in solid residues following combustion even in properly designed and operated incinerators. In the present study, the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels of the solid residues, i.e., bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake, were investigated during a 82-day of continuous operation of a Hazardous and Clinical Waste Incinerator. The distribution of halogens in the waste input prior to the incineration was also determined. The AOX levels measured in bottom ash, fly ash and filter cake were in the range of 0.014-1.879, 0.012-0.263, and 0.004-0.062 mg-Cl(-)/kg, respectively. The AOX levels are significantly low in the fly ash and filter cake due to the post-combustion process in the incinerator. At the end of the 82 days, the total AOX output in the bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake were 571, 3.71, and 6.26 g, respectively. The partitioning of the total AOX in solid residues was 98.28, 0.64, and 1.08% for the bottom ash, fly ash and filter cake, respectively. This shows that the bottom ash is more contaminated with AOX than the other two residues. PMID:16835121

  20. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on alternative pathway respiration and induction of alternative oxidase gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Ma, Jun; Li, Hongyu; Jin, Han; Feng, Hanqing

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of H2S on plants are well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms reponsible for inhibition of plants by H2S are still not completely understood. We determined the effects of NaHS in the range of 0.5-10 mM on the growth of rice suspension culture cells, as well as on the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene. AOX is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (AP) and exists in plant mitochondria. The results showed that H2S treatment enhanced the AP activity. During the process of H2S treatment for 4 h, the AP activity increased dramatically and achieved the peak value at a concentration of 2 mM NaHS. Then it declined at higher concentrations of NaHS (5-10 mM) and maintained a steady level. The AOX1 gene transcript level also showed a similar change as the AP activity. Interestingly, different NaHS concentrations seemed to have different effects on the expression of AOX1a, AOX1b, and AOX1c. The induction of AOX expression by low concentrations of NaHS was inferred through a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent pathway. At the same time, rice cells grown in culture were very sensitive to H2S, different H2S concentrations induced an increase in the cell viability. These results indicate that the H2S-induced AOX induction might play a role in inhibiting the ROS production and have an influence on cell viability. PMID:20737915

  1. Changes of alternative oxidase activity, capacity and protein content in leaves of Cucumis sativus wild-type and MSC16 mutant grown under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ostaszewska, Monika; Galle, Alexander; Flexas, Jaume; Rychter, Anna M; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel

    2009-12-01

    In vitro studies demonstrated that alternative oxidase (AOX) is biochemically regulated by a sulfhydryl-disulfide system, interaction with alpha-ketoacids, ubiquinone pool redox state and protein content among others. However, there is still scarce information about the in vivo regulation of the AOX. Cucumis sativus wild-type (WT) and MSC16 mutant plants were grown under two different light intensities and were used to analyze the relationship between the amount of leaf AOX protein and its in vivo capacity and activity at night and day periods. WT and MSC16 plants presented lower total respiration (V(t)), cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) activity (v(cyt)) and alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) activity (v(alt)) when grown at low light (LL), although growth light intensity did not change the amount of cytochrome oxidase (COX) nor AOX protein. Changes of v(cyt) related to growing light conditions suggested a substrate availability and energy demand control. On the other hand, the total amount of AOX protein present in the tissue does not play a role in the regulation neither of the capacity nor of the activity of the AOP in vivo. Soluble carbohydrates were directly related to the activity of the AOP. However, although differences in soluble sugar contents mostly regulate the capacity of the AOP at different growth light intensities, additional regulatory mechanisms are necessary to fully explain the observed results. PMID:19493308

  2. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  3. L-amino acid oxidases with specificity for basic L-amino acids in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gau, Achim E; Heindl, Achim; Nodop, Anke; Kahmann, Uwe; Pistorius, Elfriede K

    2007-01-01

    The two closely related fresh water cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have previously been shown to constitutively express a FAD-containing L-amino acid oxidase with high specificity for basic L-amino acids (L-arginine being the best substrate). In this paper we show that such an enzyme is also present in the fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus cedrorum PCC 6908. In addition, an improved evaluation of the nucleotide/amino acid sequence of the L-amino acid oxidase of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 (encoded by the aoxA gene) with respect to the FAD-binding site and a translocation pathway signal sequence will be given. Moreover, the genome sequences of 24 cyanobacteria will be evaluated for the occurrence of an aoxA-similar gene. In the evaluated cyanobacteria 15 genes encoding an L-amino acid oxidase-similar protein will be found. PMID:17542496

  4. Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Wei; Yuan, Shu; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Ming; Ye, Hua-Xun; Guo, Hong-Qing; Lv, Xin; Yin, Yanhai; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Although mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play essential roles in high light stress tolerance, the effects of AOX on chlorophyll synthesis are unclear. Previous studies indicated that during greening, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in plants whose mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by knocking out nuclear encoded AOX gene. Here, we showed that this delay of chlorophyll accumulation was more significant under high light condition. Inhibition of cyanide-resistant respiration was also accompanied by the increase of plastid NADPH/NADP(+) ratio, especially under high light treatment which subsequently blocked the import of multiple plastidial proteins, such as some components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and malate/oxaloacetate shuttle components. Overexpression of AOX1a rescued the aox1a mutant phenotype, including the chlorophyll accumulation during greening and plastidial protein import. It thus suggests that light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by a metabolic signal, the AOX-derived plastidial NADPH/NADP(+) ratio change. Further, our results thus revealed a molecular mechanism of chloroplast-mitochondria interactions. PMID:25158995

  5. Stress-Induced Accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a Transcripts Coincides with Critical Time Point for Structural Biomass Prediction in Carrot Primary Cultures (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Campos, M Doroteia; Nogales, Amaia; Cardoso, Hélia G; Kumar, Sarma R; Nobre, Tânia; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS), this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a) during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21°C and 28°C), DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes' were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the genomic sequence of DcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize here the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1. PMID:26858746

  6. Stress-Induced Accumulation of DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a Transcripts Coincides with Critical Time Point for Structural Biomass Prediction in Carrot Primary Cultures (Daucus carota L.)

    PubMed Central

    Campos, M. Doroteia; Nogales, Amaia; Cardoso, Hélia G.; Kumar, Sarma R.; Nobre, Tânia; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Stress-adaptive cell plasticity in target tissues and cells for plant biomass growth is important for yield stability. In vitro systems with reproducible cell plasticity can help to identify relevant metabolic and molecular events during early cell reprogramming. In carrot, regulation of the central root meristem is a critical target for yield-determining secondary growth. Calorespirometry, a tool previously identified as promising for predictive growth phenotyping has been applied to measure the respiration rate in carrot meristem. In a carrot primary culture system (PCS), this tool allowed identifying an early peak related with structural biomass formation during lag phase of growth, around the 4th day of culture. In the present study, we report a dynamic and correlated expression of carrot AOX genes (DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a) during PCS lag phase and during exponential growth. Both genes showed an increase in transcript levels until 36 h after explant inoculation, and a subsequent down-regulation, before the initiation of exponential growth. In PCS growing at two different temperatures (21°C and 28°C), DcAOX1 was also found to be more expressed in the highest temperature. DcAOX genes’ were further explored in a plant pot experiment in response to chilling, which confirmed the early AOX transcript increase prior to the induction of a specific anti-freezing gene. Our findings point to DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a as being reasonable candidates for functional marker development related to early cell reprogramming. While the genomic sequence of DcAOX2a was previously described, we characterize here the complete genomic sequence of DcAOX1. PMID:26858746

  7. Microbial Engineering for Aldehyde Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunjapur, Aditya M.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are a class of chemicals with many industrial uses. Several aldehydes are responsible for flavors and fragrances present in plants, but aldehydes are not known to accumulate in most natural microorganisms. In many cases, microbial production of aldehydes presents an attractive alternative to extraction from plants or chemical synthesis. During the past 2 decades, a variety of aldehyde biosynthetic enzymes have undergone detailed characterization. Although metabolic pathways that result in alcohol synthesis via aldehyde intermediates were long known, only recent investigations in model microbes such as Escherichia coli have succeeded in minimizing the rapid endogenous conversion of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols. Such efforts have provided a foundation for microbial aldehyde synthesis and broader utilization of aldehydes as intermediates for other synthetically challenging biochemical classes. However, aldehyde toxicity imposes a practical limit on achievable aldehyde titers and remains an issue of academic and commercial interest. In this minireview, we summarize published efforts of microbial engineering for aldehyde synthesis, with an emphasis on de novo synthesis, engineered aldehyde accumulation in E. coli, and the challenge of aldehyde toxicity. PMID:25576610

  8. Neurotoxicity of reactive aldehydes: the concept of "aldehyde load" as demonstrated by neuroprotection with hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paul L; Khan, M Amin; Kulow, Sarah R; Mahmood, Siddique A; Moskal, Joseph R

    2006-06-20

    The concept of "oxidative stress" has become a mainstay in the field of neurodegeneration but has failed to differentiate critical events from epiphenomena and sequalae. Furthermore, the translation of current concepts of neurodegenerative mechanisms into effective therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases has been meager and disappointing. A corollary of current concepts of "oxidative stress" is that of "aldehyde load". This relates to the production of reactive aldehydes that covalently modify proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates and activate apoptotic pathways. However, reactive aldehydes can also be generated by mechanisms other than "oxidative stress". We therefore hypothesized that agents that can chemically neutralize reactive aldehydes should demonstrate superior neuroprotective actions to those of free radical scavengers. To this end, we evaluated hydroxylamines as aldehyde-trapping agents in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration induced by the reactive aldehyde, 3-aminopropanal (3-AP), a product of polyamine oxidase metabolism of spermine and spermidine. In this model, the hydroxylamines N-benzylhydroxylamine, cyclohexylhydroxylamine and t-butylhydroxylamine were shown to protect, in a concentration-dependent manner, against 3-AP neurotoxicity. Additionally, a therapeutic window of 3 h was demonstrated for delayed administration of the hydroxylamines. In contrast, the free radical scavengers TEMPO and TEMPONE and the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid were ineffective in this model. Extending these tissue culture findings in vivo, we examined the actions of N-benzylhydroxylamine in the trimethyltin (TMT) rat model of hippocampal CA3 neurodegeneration. This model involves augmented polyamine metabolism resulting in the generation of reactive aldehydes that compromise mitochondrial integrity. In the rat TMT model, NBHA (50 mg/kg, sc, daily) provided 100% protection against neurodegeneration, as reflected by measurements of KCl-evoked glutamate

  9. Alternative Oxidase Gene Family in Hypericum perforatum L.: Characterization and Expression at the Post-germinative Phase

    PubMed Central

    Velada, Isabel; Cardoso, Hélia G.; Ragonezi, Carla; Nogales, Amaia; Ferreira, Alexandre; Valadas, Vera; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is encoded in the nuclear genome being involved in plant response upon a diversity of environmental stresses and also in normal plant growth and development. Here we report the characterization of the AOX gene family of Hypericum perforatum L. Two AOX genes were identified, both with a structure of four exons (HpAOX1, acc. KU674355 and HpAOX2, acc. KU674356). High variability was found at the N-terminal region of the protein coincident with the high variability identified at the mitochondrial transit peptide. In silico analysis of regulatory elements located at intronic regions identified putative sequences coding for miRNA precursors and trace elements of a transposon. Simple sequence repeats were also identified. Additionally, the mRNA levels for the HpAOX1 and HpAOX2, along with the ones for the HpGAPA (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A subunit) and the HpCAT1 (catalase 1), were evaluated during the post-germinative development. Gene expression analysis was performed by RT-qPCR with accurate data normalization, pointing out HpHYP1 (chamba phenolic oxidative coupling protein 1) and HpH2A (histone 2A) as the most suitable reference genes (RGs) according to GeNorm algorithm. The HpAOX2 transcript demonstrated larger stability during the process with a slight down-regulation in its expression. Contrarily, HpAOX1 and HpGAPA (the corresponding protein is homolog to the chloroplast isoform involved in the photosynthetic carbon assimilation in other plant species) transcripts showed a marked increase, with a similar expression pattern between them, during the post-germinative development. On the other hand, the HpCAT1 (the corresponding protein is homolog to the major H2O2-scavenging enzyme in other plant species) transcripts showed an opposite behavior with a down-regulation during the process. In summary, our findings, although preliminary, highlight the importance to

  10. Alternative Oxidase Gene Family in Hypericum perforatum L.: Characterization and Expression at the Post-germinative Phase.

    PubMed

    Velada, Isabel; Cardoso, Hélia G; Ragonezi, Carla; Nogales, Amaia; Ferreira, Alexandre; Valadas, Vera; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is encoded in the nuclear genome being involved in plant response upon a diversity of environmental stresses and also in normal plant growth and development. Here we report the characterization of the AOX gene family of Hypericum perforatum L. Two AOX genes were identified, both with a structure of four exons (HpAOX1, acc. KU674355 and HpAOX2, acc. KU674356). High variability was found at the N-terminal region of the protein coincident with the high variability identified at the mitochondrial transit peptide. In silico analysis of regulatory elements located at intronic regions identified putative sequences coding for miRNA precursors and trace elements of a transposon. Simple sequence repeats were also identified. Additionally, the mRNA levels for the HpAOX1 and HpAOX2, along with the ones for the HpGAPA (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A subunit) and the HpCAT1 (catalase 1), were evaluated during the post-germinative development. Gene expression analysis was performed by RT-qPCR with accurate data normalization, pointing out HpHYP1 (chamba phenolic oxidative coupling protein 1) and HpH2A (histone 2A) as the most suitable reference genes (RGs) according to GeNorm algorithm. The HpAOX2 transcript demonstrated larger stability during the process with a slight down-regulation in its expression. Contrarily, HpAOX1 and HpGAPA (the corresponding protein is homolog to the chloroplast isoform involved in the photosynthetic carbon assimilation in other plant species) transcripts showed a marked increase, with a similar expression pattern between them, during the post-germinative development. On the other hand, the HpCAT1 (the corresponding protein is homolog to the major H2O2-scavenging enzyme in other plant species) transcripts showed an opposite behavior with a down-regulation during the process. In summary, our findings, although preliminary, highlight the importance to

  11. Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.

    PubMed

    Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR

  12. Direct electrochemistry of alcohol oxidase using multiwalled carbon nanotube as electroactive matrix for biosensor application.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhuri; Goswami, Pranab

    2013-02-01

    Rapid detection of alcohol is important in clinical diagnosis and fermentation industry. An octameric alcohol oxidase (AOx) (Mr 675 kDa) from Pichia pastoris, immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes-Nafion® (MWCNT-Nf) matrix and encapsulated with polyethylenimine (PEI) on gold electrode (AuE), showed a redox peak at 0.21V (vs. Ag/AgCl electrode at pH 7.5) for oxidation of alcohol. The electron transfer rate constant and surface coverage of the immobilized AOx were 1.69±0.15 s⁻¹ and 2.43×10⁻¹² mol cm⁻², respectively. Studies on response and kinetics of Au-MWCNT-Nf-AOx-PEI bioelectrodes for alcohol showed a linear response in the range of 8 μM-42 μM, response time of 55 s for steady state current, and detection limit of 5 μM. The bioelectrode retains ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored in potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.5 at 4 °C. The fabricated bioelectrode was found to exclude interference caused by the common electroactive species such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, lactic acid, glucose and urea. The bioelectrode also showed reliable response characteristics in blood serum samples. The findings of the investigation have established the direct electrochemistry of the AOx protein and its potential biosensor application for quantitative detection of alcohol in blood serum. PMID:23000393

  13. Fermentation and alternative oxidase contribute to the action of amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides.

    PubMed

    Zulet, Amaia; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Zabalza, Ana; van Dongen, Joost T; Royuela, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    Acetolactate synthase inhibitors (ALS-inhibitors) and glyphosate (GLP) are two classes of herbicide that act by the specific inhibition of an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of branched-chain or aromatic amino acids, respectively. The physiological effects that are detected after application of these two classes of herbicides are not fully understood in relation to the primary biochemical target inhibition, although they have been well documented. Interestingly, the two herbicides' toxicity includes some common physiological effects suggesting that they kill the treated plants by a similar pattern despite targeting different enzymes. The induction of aerobic ethanol fermentation and alternative oxidase (AOX) are two examples of these common effects. The objective of this work was to gain further insight into the role of fermentation and AOX induction in the toxic consequences of ALS-inhibitors and GLP. For this, Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout mutants of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1 and AOX1a were used. The results found in wild-type indicate that both GLP and ALS-inhibitors reduce ATP production by inducing fermentation and alternative respiration. The main physiological effects in the process of herbicide activity upon treated plants were accumulation of carbohydrates and total free amino acids. The effects of the herbicides on these parameters were less pronounced in mutants compared to wild-type plants. The role of fermentation and AOX regarding pyruvate availability is also discussed. PMID:25544587

  14. Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robert L; Fahy, Gregory M

    2015-12-01

    We describe here a new cryobiological and neurobiological technique, aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation (ASC), which demonstrates the relevance and utility of advanced cryopreservation science for the neurobiological research community. ASC is a new brain-banking technique designed to facilitate neuroanatomic research such as connectomics research, and has the unique ability to combine stable long term ice-free sample storage with excellent anatomical resolution. To demonstrate the feasibility of ASC, we perfuse-fixed rabbit and pig brains with a glutaraldehyde-based fixative, then slowly perfused increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol over several hours in a manner similar to techniques used for whole organ cryopreservation. Once 65% w/v ethylene glycol was reached, we vitrified brains at -135 °C for indefinite long-term storage. Vitrified brains were rewarmed and the cryoprotectant removed either by perfusion or gradual diffusion from brain slices. We evaluated ASC-processed brains by electron microscopy of multiple regions across the whole brain and by Focused Ion Beam Milling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) imaging of selected brain volumes. Preservation was uniformly excellent: processes were easily traceable and synapses were crisp in both species. Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation has many advantages over other brain-banking techniques: chemicals are delivered via perfusion, which enables easy scaling to brains of any size; vitrification ensures that the ultrastructure of the brain will not degrade even over very long storage times; and the cryoprotectant can be removed, yielding a perfusable aldehyde-preserved brain which is suitable for a wide variety of brain assays. PMID:26408851

  15. The substrate tolerance of alcohol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Pickl, Mathias; Fuchs, Michael; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Alcohols are a rich source of compounds from renewable sources, but they have to be activated in order to allow the modification of their carbon backbone. The latter can be achieved via oxidation to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. As an alternative to (thermodynamically disfavoured) nicotinamide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, alcohol oxidases make use of molecular oxygen but their application is under-represented in synthetic biotransformations. In this review, the mechanism of copper-containing and flavoprotein alcohol oxidases is discussed in view of their ability to accept electronically activated or non-activated alcohols and their propensity towards over-oxidation of aldehydes yielding carboxylic acids. In order to facilitate the selection of the optimal enzyme for a given biocatalytic application, the substrate tolerance of alcohol oxidases is compiled and discussed: Substrates are classified into groups (non-activated prim- and sec-alcohols; activated allylic, cinnamic and benzylic alcohols; hydroxy acids; sugar alcohols; nucleotide alcohols; sterols) together with suitable alcohol oxidases, their microbial source, relative activities and (stereo)selectivities. PMID:26153139

  16. The Pichia pastoris transmembrane protein GT1 is a glycerol transporter and relieves the repression of glycerol on AOX1 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chunjun; Wang, Songwei; Sun, Yang; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiuxia; Harvey, Linda; McNeil, Brian; Yang, Yankun; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-06-01

    Promoter of alcohol oxidase I (PAOX1) is the most efficient promoter involved in the regulation of recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). PAOX1 is tightly repressed by the presence of glycerol in the culture medium; thus, glycerol must be exhausted before methanol can be taken up by P. pastoris and the expression of the heterologous protein can be induced. In this study, a candidate glycerol transporter (GT1, GeneID: 8197545) was identified, and its role was confirmed by further studies (e.g. bioinformatics analysis, heterologous complementation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe)). When GT1 is co-expressed with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), it localizes to the membrane and S. pombe carrying gt1 but not the wild-type strain can grow on medium containing glycerol as the sole carbon source. The present study is the first to report that AOX1 in the X-33Δgt1 mutant can achieve constitutive expression in medium containing glycerol; thus, knocking down gt1 can eliminate the glycerol repression of PAOX1 in P. pastoris These results suggest that the glycerol transporter may participate in the process of PAOX1 inhibition in glycerol medium. PMID:27189360

  17. Xylanase and laccase based enzymatic kraft pulp bleaching reduces adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleach effluents: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abha; Thakur, Vasanta Vadde; Shrivastava, Anita; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mathur, Rajeev Mohan; Gupta, Rishi; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-10-01

    In present study, xylanase and laccase were produced in a cost-effective manner up to 10 kg substrate level and evaluated in elemental chlorine free bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Compared to the pulp pre-bleached with xylanase (15%) or laccase (25%) individually, the ClO2 savings were higher with sequential treatment of xylanase followed by laccase (35%) at laboratory scale. The sequential enzyme treatment when applied at pilot scale (50 kg pulp), resulted in improved pulp properties (50% reduced post color number, 15.71% increased tear index) and reduced AOX levels (34%) in bleach effluents. The decreased AOX level in effluents will help to meet AOX discharge limits, while improved pulp properties will be value addition to the paper. PMID:25036336

  18. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  19. MASS SPECTROMETRY OF FATTY ALDEHYDES

    PubMed Central

    Berdyshev, Evgeny V.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty aldehydes are important components of the cellular lipidome. Significant interest has been developed towards the analysis of the short chain α,β-unsaturated and hydroxylated aldehydes formed as a result of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Multiple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and subsequently liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approaches have been developed to identify and quantify short-chain as well as long-chain fatty aldehydes. Due to the ability to non-enzymaticaly form Schiff bases with amino groups of proteins, lipids, and with DNA guanidine, free aldehydes are viewed as a marker or metric of fatty acid oxidation and not the part of intracellular signaling pathways which has significantly limited the overall attention this group of molecules have received. This review provides an overview of current GC/MS and LC/MS approaches of fatty aldehyde analysis as well as discusses technical challenges standing in the way of free fatty aldehyde quantitation. PMID:21930240

  20. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  1. Enhanced Expression and Activation of the Alternative Oxidase during Infection of Arabidopsis with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Bert H.; Millenaar, Frank F.; Mulder, Lonneke; Van Loon, Leendert C.; Lambers, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Cyanide-resistant (“alternative”) respiration was studied in Arabidopsis during incompatible and compatible infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Total leaf respiration increased as the leaves became necrotic, as did the cyanide-resistant component that was sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid. Infiltration of leaves with an avirulent strain rapidly induced alternative oxidase (AOX) mRNA, whereas the increase was delayed in the compatible combination. The increase in mRNA correlated with the increase in AOX protein. Increased expression was confined to the infected leaves, in contrast to the pathogenesis-related protein-1, which was induced systemically. Virtually all of the AOX protein was in the reduced (high-activity) form. Using transgenic NahG and mutant npr1-1 and etr1-1 plants, we established that the rapid induction of the AOX was associated with necrosis and that ethylene, but not salicylic acid, was required for its induction. Increased pyruvate levels in the infected leaves suggested that increased substrate levels were respired through the alternative pathway; however, in the control leaves and the infected leaves, respiration was not inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid alone. Increased respiration appeared to be associated primarily with symptom expression rather than resistance reactions. PMID:10364404

  2. Involvement of an Alternative Oxidase in Oxidative Stress and Mycelium-to-Yeast Differentiation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Vicente P.; Dinamarco, Taisa M.; Soriani, Frederico M.; Tudella, Valéria G.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Curti, Carlos; Uyemura, Sérgio A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic human pathogenic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), which is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Differentiation from the mycelial to the yeast form (M-to-Y) is an essential step for the establishment of PCM. We evaluated the involvement of mitochondria and intracellular oxidative stress in M-to-Y differentiation. M-to-Y transition was delayed by the inhibition of mitochondrial complexes III and IV or alternative oxidase (AOX) and was blocked by the association of AOX with complex III or IV inhibitors. The expression of P. brasiliensis aox (Pbaox) was developmentally regulated through M-to-Y differentiation, wherein the highest levels were achieved in the first 24 h and during the yeast exponential growth phase; Pbaox was upregulated by oxidative stress. Pbaox was cloned, and its heterologous expression conferred cyanide-resistant respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli and reduced oxidative stress in S. cerevisiae cells. These results reinforce the role of PbAOX in intracellular redox balancing and demonstrate its involvement, as well as that of other components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, in the early stages of the M-to-Y differentiation of P. brasiliensis. PMID:21183691

  3. [Removal of AOX and Chroma in Biologically Treated Effluent of Chemical Dyestuff Wastewater with Nanoscale Ni/Fe].

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Can-can; Liu, Rui; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Lü-jun

    2016-02-15

    Nanoscale Ni/Fe was applied to biologically treated effluent of chemical dyestuff wastewater. The removal rates of absorbable organic halogens (AOX) and chroma were investigated at different Ni loadings (0-5%), initial wastewater pH (4.1-10.0), Ni/Fe dosage (1-5 g x L(-1)) and reaction time (0.5-96 h). The results showed that the removal rates of AOX and chroma firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of the Ni loading, while continuously increased with the decrease of the initial wastewater pH and the increase of Ni/Fe dosage. The optimal condition was Ni loading of 1%, initial wastewater pH of 4.1 and Ni/Fe dosage of 3 g x L(-1), under which 29.2% of AOX and 79.6% of chroma were removed after 24 h reaction, and 50.6% of AOX and 80.7% of chroma were removed after 96 h reaction. GC-MS analysis revealed that toxicants such as chlorinated anilines, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline and halogenated hydrocarbons were efficiently removed. PMID:27363157

  4. Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity in Xanthine Oxidase Family Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the 2-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function. PMID:25425163

  5. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2015-03-17

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  6. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  7. Unravelling the in vivo regulation and metabolic role of the alternative oxidase pathway in C3 species under photoinhibitory conditions.

    PubMed

    Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Schwahn, Kevin; Nikoloski, Zoran; Fernie, Alisdair R; Flexas, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) has been suggested to act as a sink for excess reducing power generated in the chloroplast under high-light (HL) stress and thus may reduce photoinhibition. The aim of this study was to compare different species to investigate the in vivo regulation and role of AOP under HL stress. The in vivo activities of AOP (νalt ) and the cytochrome oxidase pathway, chlorophyll fluorescence, metabolite profiles, alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount were determined in leaves of five C3 species under growth light and after HL treatment. Differences in respiration and metabolite levels were observed among species under growth light conditions. The HL response of νalt was highly species dependent, correlated with the AOP capacity and independent of AOX protein content. Nevertheless, significant correlations were observed between νalt , levels of key metabolites and photosynthetic parameters. The results show that the species-specific response of νalt is caused by the differential post-translational regulation of AOX. Significant correlations between respiration, metabolites and photosynthetic performance across species suggest that AOP may permit stress-related amino acid synthesis, whilst maintaining photosynthetic activity under HL stress. PMID:27321208

  8. A Functional Antagonistic Relationship between Auxin and Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling Regulates Alternative Oxidase1a Expression in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Aneta; Law, Simon R.; Narsai, Reena; Duncan, Owen; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Zhang, Botao; Van Aken, Olivier; Radomiljac, Jordan D.; van der Merwe, Margaretha; Yi, KeKe; Whelan, James

    2014-01-01

    The perception and integration of stress stimuli with that of mitochondrion function are important during periods of perturbed cellular homeostasis. In a continuous effort to delineate these mitochondrial/stress-interacting networks, forward genetic screens using the mitochondrial stress response marker alternative oxidase 1a (AOX1a) provide a useful molecular tool to identify and characterize regulators of mitochondrial stress signaling (referred to as regulators of alternative oxidase 1a [RAOs] components). In this study, we reveal that mutations in genes coding for proteins associated with auxin transport and distribution resulted in a greater induction of AOX1a in terms of magnitude and longevity. Three independent mutants for polarized auxin transport, rao3/big, rao4/pin-formed1, and rao5/multidrug-resistance1/abcb19, as well as the Myb transcription factor rao6/asymmetric leaves1 (that displays altered auxin patterns) were identified and resulted in an acute sensitivity toward mitochondrial dysfunction. Induction of the AOX1a reporter system could be inhibited by the application of auxin analogs or reciprocally potentiated by blocking auxin transport. Promoter activation studies with AOX1a::GUS and DR5::GUS lines further confirmed a clear antagonistic relationship between the spatial distribution of mitochondrial stress and auxin response kinetics, respectively. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that mitochondrial stress stimuli, such as antimycin A, caused a transient suppression of auxin signaling and conversely, that auxin treatment repressed a part of the response to antimycin A treatment, including AOX1a induction. We conclude that mitochondrial stress signaling and auxin signaling are reciprocally regulated, balancing growth and stress response(s). PMID:24820025

  9. Mitochondrial Alternative Oxidase Maintains Respiration and Preserves Photosynthetic Capacity during Moderate Drought in Nicotiana tabacum1[W

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Keshav; Wang, Jia; Martyn, Greg D.; Rahimy, Farkhunda; Vanlerberghe, Greg C.

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain includes an alternative oxidase (AOX) that is hypothesized to aid photosynthetic metabolism, perhaps by acting as an additional electron sink for photogenerated reductant or by dampening the generation of reactive oxygen species. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosystem I (PSI) absorbance, and biochemical and protein analyses were used to compare respiration and photosynthesis of Nicotiana tabacum ‘Petit Havana SR1’ wild-type plants with that of transgenic AOX knockdown (RNA interference) and overexpression lines, under both well-watered and moderate drought-stressed conditions. During drought, AOX knockdown lines displayed a lower rate of respiration in the light than the wild type, as confirmed by two independent methods. Furthermore, CO2 and light response curves indicated a nonstomatal limitation of photosynthesis in the knockdowns during drought, relative to the wild type. Also relative to the wild type, the knockdowns under drought maintained PSI and PSII in a more reduced redox state, showed greater regulated nonphotochemical energy quenching by PSII, and displayed a higher relative rate of cyclic electron transport around PSI. The origin of these differences may lie in the chloroplast ATP synthase amount, which declined dramatically in the knockdowns in response to drought. None of these effects were seen in plants overexpressing AOX. The results show that AOX is necessary to maintain mitochondrial respiration during moderate drought. In its absence, respiration rate slows and the lack of this electron sink feeds back on the photosynthetic apparatus, resulting in a loss of chloroplast ATP synthase that then limits photosynthetic capacity. PMID:25204647

  10. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods. PMID:22163450

  11. Human copper-dependent amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Finney, Joel; Moon, Hee-Jung; Ronnebaum, Trey; Lantz, Mason; Mure, Minae

    2014-03-15

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are a class of enzymes that contain Cu(2+) and a tyrosine-derived quinone cofactor, catalyze the conversion of a primary amine functional group to an aldehyde, and generate hydrogen peroxide and ammonia as byproducts. These enzymes can be classified into two non-homologous families: 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ)-dependent CAOs and the lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ)-dependent lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of proteins. In this review, we will focus on recent developments in the field of research concerning human CAOs and the LOX family of proteins. The aberrant expression of these enzymes is linked to inflammation, fibrosis, tumor metastasis/invasion and other diseases. Consequently, there is a critical need to understand the functions of these proteins at the molecular level, so that strategies targeting these enzymes can be developed to combat human diseases. PMID:24407025

  12. New phosphonate reagents for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to unbranched- or methyl-branched unsaturated aldehydes. The phosphonate reagents, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone and diethyl ethylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone, contained a protected...

  13. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  14. Influence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.

    PubMed

    Carly, F; Niu, H; Delvigne, F; Fickers, P

    2016-04-01

    High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (<4 % DO). Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work. PMID:26790417

  15. Synthesis of 5'-Aldehyde Oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Lartia, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of oligonucleotide ending with an aldehyde functional group at their 5'-end (5'-AON) is possible for both DNA (5'-AODN) and RNA (5'-AORN) series irrespectively of the nature of the last nucleobase. The 5'-alcohol of on-support ODN is mildly oxidized under Moffat conditions. Transient protection of the resulting aldehyde by N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives allows cleavage, deprotection, and RP-HPLC purification of the protected 5'-AON. Finally, 5'-AON is deprotected by usual acetic acid treatment. In the aggregates, 5'-AON can be now synthesized and purified as routinely as non-modified ODNs, following procedures similar to the well-known "DMT-On" strategy. PMID:26967469

  16. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

    1996-01-01

    The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

  17. Cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylase oxygenation of aldehydes yields n-1 aldehydes and alcohols in addition to alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Aukema, Kelly G.; Makris, Thomas M.; Stoian, Sebastian A.; Richman, Jack E.; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) catalyzes O2-dependent release of the terminal carbon of a biological substrate, octadecanal, to yield formate and heptadecane in a reaction that requires external reducing equivalents. We show here that ADO also catalyzes incorporation of an oxygen atom from O2 into the alkane product to yield alcohol and aldehyde products. Oxygenation of the alkane product is much more pronounced with C9-10 aldehyde substrates, so that use of nonanal as the substrate yields similar amounts of octane, octanal, and octanol products. When using doubly-labeled [1,2-13C]-octanal as the substrate, the heptane, heptanal and heptanol products each contained a single 13C-label in the C-1 carbons atoms. The only one-carbon product identified was formate. [18O]-O2 incorporation studies demonstrated formation of [18O]-alcohol product, but rapid solvent exchange prevented similar determination for the aldehyde product. Addition of [1-13C]-nonanol with decanal as the substrate at the outset of the reaction resulted in formation of [1-13C]-nonanal. No 13C-product was formed in the absence of decanal. ADO contains an oxygen-bridged dinuclear iron cluster. The observation of alcohol and aldehyde products derived from the initially formed alkane product suggests a reactive species similar to that formed by methane monooxygenase (MMO) and other members of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase family. Accordingly, characterization by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies shows that the electronic structure of the ADO cluster is similar, but not identical, to that of MMO hydroxylase component. In particular, the two irons of ADO reside in nearly identical environments in both the oxidized and fully reduced states, whereas those of MMOH show distinct differences. These favorable characteristics of the iron sites allow a comprehensive determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters describing the electronic state of the diferrous cluster for the first time for

  18. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  19. Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

  20. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  1. Enhanced AOX accumulation and aquatic toxicity during 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation in a Co(II)/peroxymonosulfate/Cl⁻ system.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changling; Xiao, Dongxue; Liu, Wenqian; Lou, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Jianshe

    2016-02-01

    Chloride ion is known to affect on degradation kinetics in different ways during HO· and SO4(·-)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, its effect on absorbable organic halogen (AOX) evolution and acute toxicity of treated water remains unknown, despite the importance of the two parameters in evaluating the applicability of AOPs. In the present study, Co/peroxymonosulfate (Co/PMS) and UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatment of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was compared in terms of AOX formation, chlorinated byproducts and acute toxicity. Both Co/PMS and UV/H2O2 systems were more reactive under acidic conditions, resulting in elevated AOX levels when compared with those at neutral pH. The presence of high levels of chloride led to an accumulation and increase of AOX in the Co/PMS system. The toxicity of chlorinated byproducts was evaluated using Photobacterium phosphoreum, and the results revealed a sharp increase in acute toxicity of Co/PMS reaction solutions on addition of chloride ion. However, addition of Cl(-) had no apparent impact on AOX and toxicity of UV/H2O2 reaction solutions. These findings may have significant technical implications for selecting feasible technologies to treat high salinity wastewater. PMID:26613359

  2. Potential anticancer application of polyamine oxidation products formed by amine oxidase: a new therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, E; Tempera, G; Viceconte, N; Saccoccio, S; Battaglia, V; Grancara, S; Toninello, A; Stevanato, R

    2010-02-01

    The polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine are ubiquitous cell components. These molecules are substrates of a class of enzymes that includes monoamine oxidases, diamine oxidases, polyamine oxidases and copper-containing amine oxidases. Amine oxidases are important because they contribute to regulate levels of mono- and polyamines. In tumors, polyamines and amine oxidases are increased as compared to normal tissues. Cytotoxicity induced by bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) and spermine is attributed to H(2)O(2) and aldehydes produced by the reaction. This study demonstrated that multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells (colon adenocarcinoma and melanoma) are significantly more sensitive than the corresponding wild-type (WT) ones to H(2)O(2) and aldehydes, the products of BSAO-catalyzed oxidation of spermine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed major ultrastructural alterations of the mitochondria. These were more pronounced in MDR than in WT cells. Increasing the incubation temperature from 37 to 42 degrees Celsius enhances cytotoxicity in cells exposed to spermine metabolites. The combination BSAO/spermine prevents tumor growth, particularly well if the enzyme has been conjugated to a biocompatible hydrogel polymers. Since both wild-type and MDR cancer cells after pre-treatment with MDL 72527, a lysosomotropic compound, are sensitized to subsequent exposure to BSAO/spermine, it is conceivable that combined treatment with a lysosomotropic compound and BSAO/spermine would be effective against tumor cells. It is of interest to search for such novel compounds, which might be promising for application in a therapeutic setting. PMID:20012114

  3. Biofuel cell for generating power from methanol substrate using alcohol oxidase bioanode and air-breathed laccase biocathode.

    PubMed

    Das, Madhuri; Barbora, Lepakshi; Das, Priyanki; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-09-15

    We report here an alcohol oxidase (AOx) based third generation bioanode for generating power from methanol substrate in a fuel cell setup using air breathed laccase biocathode. A composite three dimensional microporous matrix containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon paste and nafion was used as electroactive support for immobilization of the enzymes on toray carbon paper as supporting electrode in the fabrication of the bioelectrodes. Polyethylenimine was used to electrostatically stabilize the AOx (pI 4.3) on the anode operating on direct electrochemistry principle. Osmium tetroxide on poly (4-vinylpyridine) was used to wire the laccase for electron transfer in the biocathode. The enzymatic biofuel cell (EFC) generated an open circuit potential of 0.61 (±0.02) V with a maximum power density of 46 (±0.002) µW cm(-2) at an optimum of 1M methanol, 25 °C and an internal resistance of 0.024 µΩ. The operation and storage half life (t1/2) of the EFC were 17.22 h and 52 days, respectively at a fixed load of 1.85 Ω. The findings have demonstrated the feasibility of developing EFC using AOx based bioanode and laccase based biocathode without applying any toxic free mediator and metal electrode supports for generating electricity. PMID:24727604

  4. Ligand-Bound GeneSwitch Causes Developmental Aberrations in Drosophila that Are Alleviated by the Alternative Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Andjelković, Ana; Kemppainen, Kia K.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2016-01-01

    Culture of Drosophila expressing the steroid-dependent GeneSwitch transcriptional activator under the control of the ubiquitous α-tubulin promoter was found to produce extensive pupal lethality, as well as a range of dysmorphic adult phenotypes, in the presence of high concentrations of the inducing drug RU486. Prominent among these was cleft thorax, seen previously in flies bearing mutant alleles of the nuclear receptor Ultraspiracle and many other mutants, as well as notched wings, leg malformations, and bristle abnormalities. Neither the α-tubulin-GeneSwitch driver nor the inducing drug on their own produced any of these effects. A second GeneSwitch driver, under the control of the daughterless promoter, which gave much lower and more tissue-restricted transgene expression, exhibited only mild bristle abnormalities in the presence of high levels of RU486. Coexpression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis produced a substantial shift in the developmental outcome toward a wild-type phenotype, which was dependent on the AOX expression level. Neither an enzymatically inactivated variant of AOX, nor GFP, or the alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 from yeast gave any such rescue. Users of the GeneSwitch system should be aware of the potential confounding effects of its application in developmental studies. PMID:27412986

  5. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  6. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  7. DIFFERENTIATING THE TOXICITY OF CARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDES FROM NONCARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDES IN THE RAT NOSE USING CDNA ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differentiating the Toxicity of Carcinogenic Aldehydes from Noncarcinogenic Aldehydes in the Rat Nose Using cDNA Arrays.

    Formaldehyde is a widely used aldehyde in many industrial settings, the tanning process, household products, and is a contaminant in cigarette smoke. H...

  8. Oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids by Escherichia coli cells expressing the Vibrio harveyi fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH).

    PubMed

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Guder, Jan; Sporleder, Fenja; Paetzold, Melanie; Schrader, Jens

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acids represent an important renewable feedstock for the chemical industry. To enable biotechnological one carbon truncations of fatty acids, the enzymes α-dioxygenase and fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) have to be combined in a two-step process. We expressed an FALDH from V. harveyi in E. coli and characterized its substrate spectrum with a focus on the number and position of double bonds in the fatty aldehyde molecules. Synthesis of the expected fatty acid products was proven by analysis of whole cell biotransformation products. Coexpression of a H(2)O-forming NADPH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis led to the implementation of a cofactor regeneration cycle in in vitro oxidation experiments. The presence of NOX in whole cell biotransformations improved reaction velocity but did not result in higher product yields. We could further demonstrate that at least part of the endogenous NAD(P)(+) regeneration capacity in the resting cells results from the respiratory chain. The whole cell catalyst with the high broad range FALDH activity described here is an important biotechnological module for lipid biotransformation processes, especially the shortening of fatty acids. PMID:23180547

  9. A novel amperometric alcohol biosensor developed in a 3rd generation bioelectrode platform using peroxidase coupled ferrocene activated alcohol oxidase as biorecognition system.

    PubMed

    Chinnadayyala, Somasekhar R; Kakoti, Ankana; Santhosh, Mallesh; Goswami, Pranab

    2014-05-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOx) with a two-fold increase in efficiency (Kcat/Km) was achieved by physical entrapment of the activator ferrocene in the protein matrix through a simple microwave based partial unfolding technique and was used to develop a 3rd generation biosensor for improved detection of alcohol in liquid samples. The ferrocene molecules were stably entrapped in the AOx protein matrix in a molar ratio of ~3:1 through electrostatic interaction with the Trp residues involved in the functional activity of the enzyme as demonstrated by advanced analytical techniques. The sensor was fabricated by immobilizing ferrocene entrapped alcohol oxidase (FcAOx) and sol-gel chitosan film coated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon electrode through layer-by-layer technique. The bioelectrode reactions involved the formation of H2O2 by FcAOx biocatalysis of substrate alcohol followed by HRP-catalyzed reduction of the liberated H2O2 through MWCNT supported direct electron transfer mechanism. The amperometric biosensor exhibited a linear response to alcohol in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6) to 30 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and a sensitivity of 150 µA mM(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor response was steady for 28 successive measurements completed in a period of 5h and retained ~90% of the original response even after four weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of alcohol in commercial samples and its performance was validated by comparing with the data obtained by GC analyses of the samples. PMID:24368229

  10. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  11. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  12. Electrophilicity and nucleophilicity of commonly used aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Sanjay

    2014-08-14

    The present approach for determining the electrophilicity (E) and nucleophilicity (N) of aldehydes includes a kinetic study of KMNO4 oxidation and NaBH4 reduction of aldehydes. A transition state analysis of the KMNO4 promoted aldehyde oxidation reaction has been performed, which shows a very good correlation with experimental results. The validity of the experimental method has been tested using the experimental activation parameters of the two reactions. The utility of the present approach is further demonstrated by the theoretical versus experimental relationship, which provides easy access to E and N values for various aldehydes and offers an at-a-glance assessment of the chemical reactivity of aldehydes in various reactions. PMID:24979574

  13. Toward aldehyde and alkane production by removing aldehyde reductase activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled the construction of novel biological routes to valuable chemicals using suitable microbial hosts. Aldehydes serve as chemical feedstocks in the synthesis of rubbers, plastics, and other larger molecules. Microbial production of alkanes is dependent on the formation of a fatty aldehyde intermediate which is converted to an alkane by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO). However, microbial hosts such as Escherichia coli are plagued by many highly active endogenous aldehyde reductases (ALRs) that convert aldehydes to alcohols, which greatly complicates strain engineering for aldehyde and alkane production. It has been shown that the endogenous ALR activity outcompetes the ADO enzyme for fatty aldehyde substrate. The large degree of ALR redundancy coupled with an incomplete database of ALRs represents a significant obstacle in engineering E. coli for either aldehyde or alkane production. In this study, we identified 44 ALR candidates encoded in the E. coli genome using bioinformatics tools, and undertook a comprehensive screening by measuring the ability of these enzymes to produce isobutanol. From the pool of 44 candidates, we found five new ALRs using this screening method (YahK, DkgA, GldA, YbbO, and YghA). Combined deletions of all 13 known ALRs resulted in a 90–99% reduction in endogenous ALR activity for a wide range of aldehyde substrates (C2–C12). Elucidation of the ALRs found in E. coli could guide one in reducing competing alcohol formation during alkane or aldehyde production. PMID:25108218

  14. Multiple aldehyde reductases of human brain.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P L; Wermuth, B; von Wartburg, J P

    1980-01-01

    Human brain contains four forms of aldehyde reducing enzymes. One major activity, designated AR3, has properties indicating its identity with the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase, EC 1.1.1.2. The other major form of human brain enzyme, AR1, which is also NADPH-dependent, reduces both aldehyde and ketone-containing substrates, including vitamin K3 (menadione) and daunorubicin, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This enzyme is very sensitive to inhibition by the flavonoids quercitrin and quercetine, and may be analogous to a daunorubicin reductase previously described in liver of other species. One minor form of human brain aldehyde reductase, AR2, demonstrates substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity which suggest its similarity to aldose reductases found in lens and other tissues of many species. This enzyme, which can also use NADH as cofactor to some extent, is the most active in reducing the aldehyde derivatives of the biogenic amines. The fourth human brain enzyme ("SSA reductase") differs from the other forms in its ability to use NADH as well as or better than NADPH as cofactor, and in its molecular weight, which is nearly twice that of the other forms. It is quite specific for succinic semialdehyde (SSA) as substrate, and was found to be significantly inhibited only by quercetine and quercitrin. AR3 can also reduce SSA, and both enzymes may contribute to the production of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo. These results indicate that the human brain aldehyde reductases can play relatively specific physiologic roles. PMID:7424738

  15. A new crystal form of human diamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Aaron P; Hilmer, Kimberly M; Collyer, Charles A; Dooley, David M; Guss, J Mitchell

    2010-02-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are ubiquitous in nature and catalyse the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes. Humans have three viable CAO genes (AOC1-3). AOC1 encodes human diamine oxidase (hDAO), which is the frontline enzyme for histamine metabolism. hDAO is unique among CAOs in that it has a distinct substrate preference for diamines. The structure of hDAO in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with two molecules in the asymmetric unit has recently been reported. Here, the structure of hDAO refined to 2.1 A resolution in space group C222(1) with one molecule in the asymmetric unit is reported. PMID:20124708

  16. Alternative Oxidase Pathway Optimizes Photosynthesis During Osmotic and Temperature Stress by Regulating Cellular ROS, Malate Valve and Antioxidative Systems.

    PubMed

    Dinakar, Challabathula; Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 μmoles m(-2) s(-1) at 25°C under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 to 1.0 M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 to 10°C to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25°C), the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation), under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol) and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10°C), while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA) related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG) related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Further, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD) and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP) stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), the observed changes in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(P)H/NAD(P) and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the results indicated

  17. Alternative Oxidase Pathway Optimizes Photosynthesis During Osmotic and Temperature Stress by Regulating Cellular ROS, Malate Valve and Antioxidative Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Raghavendra, Agepati S.; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-01-01

    The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 μmoles m–2 s–1 at 25°C under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 to 1.0 M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 to 10°C to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25°C), the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation), under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol) and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10°C), while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA) related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG) related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Further, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD) and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP) stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), the observed changes in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(P)H/NAD(P) and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the results indicated

  18. Chemoenzymatic Fc Glycosylation via Engineered Aldehyde Tags

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins with chemically defined glycosylation sites and structures are important biopharmaceutical targets and critical tools for glycobiology. One approach toward constructing such molecules involves chemical glycosylation of aldehyde-tagged proteins. Here, we report the installation of a genetically encoded aldehyde tag at the internal glycosylation site of the crystallizable fragment (Fc) of IgG1. We replaced the natural Fc N-glycosylation sequon with a five amino-acid sequence that was efficiently converted by recombinant formylglycine generating enzyme in vitro, thereby introducing aldehyde groups for subsequent chemical elaboration. Oxime-linked glycoconjugates were synthesized by conjugating aminooxy N-acetylglucosamine to the modified Fc followed by enzymatic transfer of complex N-glycans from corresponding glycan oxazolines by an EndoS-derived glycosynthase. In this manner we generated specific Fc glycoforms without relying on natural protein glycosylation machineries. PMID:24702330

  19. Intercalation of Aldehydes into Vanadyl Phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík.; Zima, Vítězslav; Votinský, Jiří

    2001-02-01

    Intercalates of VOPO4 with several aliphatic aldehydes, benzaldehyde, and 4-methylbenzaldehyde were prepared and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. Aliphatic aldehyde intercalates are unstable and the guests undergo aldol condensation and oxidation. The arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is discussed. A part of aliphatic aldehydes is anchored to the host layers by coordination of their carbonyl oxygen to the vanadium atom; the rest is probably bonded by weak van der Waals forces. In the benzaldehyde and 4-methylbenzaldehyde intercalates, all guest molecules are coordinated to the vanadium atoms with their benzene rings perpendicular to the sheets of the host.

  20. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  1. Evans-Tishchenko coupling of heteroaryl aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Philip D; Durrani, Jamie; Cases-Thomas, Manuel J; Hulme, Alison N

    2010-11-01

    The low-temperature Evans-Tishchenko coupling of a range of functionalized heteroaryl aldehydes with β-hydroxy ketones in the presence of a Sm(III) catalyst has been achieved with high yields (90-99%) and good to excellent diastereoselectivity (90:10 → 95:5 dr). However, at room temperature a retro-aldol aldol-Tishchenko reaction was found to compete with the desired Evans-Tishchenko reaction. Identification of these byproducts has allowed the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko reaction to be optimized for several heteroaryl aldehydes. PMID:20929205

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.10.3.1) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. Highly reactive o-quinones couple with phenolics and specific amino acids on proteins to form the characteristic browning products in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and leaf tissues of plant...

  3. ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zargar, Kamrun; Conrad, Alison; Bernick, David L.; Lowe, Todd M.; Stolc, Viktor; Hoeft, Shelley; Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase protein superfamily in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ming; Qi, Lei-Peng; Yang, Xiong-Bang; Zhang, Kai-Xuan; Pang, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is an important model organism for fundamental research in the agro-biotechnology field. Aldehydes were generated in response to a suite of environmental stresses that perturb metabolism including salinity, dehydration, desiccation, and cold and heat shock. Many biologically important aldehydes are metabolized by the superfamily of NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here, starting from the database of Z. mays, we identified 28 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and 48 transcripts by the in silico cloning method using the ALDH-conserved domain amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis and rice as a probe. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all 28 members of the ALDH gene families were classified to ten distinct subfamilies. Microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis reveal that ZmALDH9, ZmALDH13, and ZmALDH17 genes involve the function of drought stress, acid tolerance, and pathogens infection. These results suggested that these three ZmALDH genes might be potentially useful in maize genetic improvement. PMID:22983498

  5. Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Thottumkara, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment demonstrating the feasibility of using water as a solvent for organic reactions which highlights the cost and environmental benefits of its use is presented. The experiment encourages students to think in terms of the reaction mechanism of the oxidation of aldehydes knowing that potassium persulfate is the active oxidant in Oxone…

  6. Volatile aldehydes in libraries and archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenech, Ann; Strlič, Matija; Kralj Cigić, Irena; Levart, Alenka; Gibson, Lorraine T.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Ntanos, Konstantinos; Kolar, Jana; Cassar, May

    2010-06-01

    Volatile aldehydes are produced during degradation of paper-based materials. This may result in their accumulation in archival and library repositories. However, no systematic study has been performed so far. In the frame of this study, passive sampling was carried out at ten locations in four libraries and archives. Despite the very variable sampling locations, no major differences were found, although air-filtered repositories were found to have lower concentrations while a non-ventilated newspaper repository exhibited the highest concentrations of volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural and hexanal). Five employees in one institution were also provided with personal passive samplers to investigate employees' exposure to volatile aldehydes. All values were lower than the presently valid exposure limits. The concentration of volatile aldehydes, acetic acid, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in general was also compared with that of outdoor-generated pollutants. It was evident that inside the repository and particularly inside archival boxes, the concentration of VOCs and acetic acid was much higher than the concentration of outdoor-generated pollutants, which are otherwise more routinely studied in connection with heritage materials. This indicates that further work on the pro-degradative effect of VOCs on heritage materials is necessary and that monitoring of VOCs in heritage institutions should become more widespread.

  7. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. Aldehyde Reduction by Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Srivastava, Sanjay; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE); specifically the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). These assays can be performed using either liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method used here to study the reduction of a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 9-AA, by CYPs was adapted from the assay used to investigate 9-anthracene oxidation as reported by Marini et al. (Marini et al., 2003). For experiments measuring reduction of the endogenous aldehyde, 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH and the metabolites were separated by High Pressure Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), using an adaptation of the method of Srivastava et al. (Srivastava et al., 2010). For study of 9-AA and 4-HNE reduction, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in appropriate media, followed by quantification of metabolites through either spectrofluorimetry or analysis by HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay, respectively. Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC-mass spectrometric analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 function can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction reactions for CYP’s were not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These character of these reactions are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions. PMID:21553396

  14. Lathyrus cicera copper amine oxidase reactions with tryptamine.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, Paola; Bellelli, Andrea; Fattibene, Paola; Mondovì, Bruno; Morpurgo, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Lathyrus cicera copper amine oxidase (LCAO) rapidly formed the typical Cu(I)-TPQ semiquinone UV-visible spectrum, identical to that formed by other substrates, upon O(2) exhaustion by turnover with excess tryptamine. A new band at 630 nm formed more slowly, with intensity dependent on aldehyde and H(2)O(2) concentrations. On prolonged incubation, all bands decayed in parallel, together with loss of enzymatic activity. The blue color disappeared on addition of KCN, a Cu(I) stabilizing agent, while the intensity of the radical visible bands increased. This shows that the 630 nm absorbing species is a Cu(II) derivative, as confirmed by the unchanged intensity of the EPR spectrum of the frozen blue solution from that of the native protein. Rapid kinetics experiments showed that this species derives from a reduced form of the protein, plus aldehyde and H(2)O(2) and that it is not in dynamic equilibrium with the radical. Given the similar population of the semiquinone radical with all substrates, it is possible that the reaction with aldehyde and H(2)O(2) occurs in all cases although substrates lacking the indole group only produce the Cu(I)-semiquinone band. The radical participation to the catalytic activity is demonstrated by the observation that its relative population (controlled by the pH) parallels changes in the reoxidation rate constant, while the 630 nm absorbing species is implied in the inactivation process, which depends on H(2)O(2) and aldehyde concentration. The results of the paper are consistent with half-of-the-site reactivity, i.e. the two subunits of LCAO are kinetically and spectroscopically distinct from each other. PMID:22369770

  15. Formation and control of aldehydes in alcohol fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyasamy, R.; Nagalingam, B.; Ganesan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V.; Murthy, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Aldehyde formation and emissions from alcohol fueled engines are presented in this paper. Several chemical kinetic models on the mechanism leading to aldehyde formation have been examined to explore the appropriate control methods to reduce exhaust aldehyde emissions. Control of aldehydes in exhaust emissions by suitable alteration of engine operating parameters, by in cylinder treatment with additives like aniline and water, by external treatment like airpreheating, secondary air injection cooling water rate and exhaust treatment are examined. The concept of surface ignition for alcohol fuels is briefly presented as a long range objective for using alcohols with minimal aldehyde emissions. 27 refs.

  16. Crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis of a nitroalkane oxidase from Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhua; Gao, Zengqiang; Hou, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Jihui; Yang, Haihua; Dong, Yuhui; Tan, Huarong

    2011-02-18

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) catalyzes neutral nitroalkanes to their corresponding aldehydes or ketones, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. The crystal structure of NAO from Streptomyces ansochromogenes was determined; it consists of two domains, a TIM barrel domain bound to FMN and C-terminal domain with a novel folding pattern. Site-directed mutagenesis of His179, which is spatially adjacent to FMN, resulted in the loss of enzyme activity, demonstrating that this amino acid residue is important for catalysis. The crystal structure of mutant H179D-nitroethane was also analyzed. Interestingly, Sa-NAO shows the typical function as nitroalkane oxidase but its structure is similar to that of 2-nitropropane dioxygenase. Overall, these results suggest that Sa-NAO is a novel nitroalkane oxidase with TIM barrel structure. PMID:21147069

  17. Characterization of Euphorbia characias Latex Amine Oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Padiglia, Alessandra; Medda, Rosaria; Lorrai, Anita; Murgia, Barbara; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Finazzi Agró, Alessandro; Floris, Giovanni

    1998-01-01

    A copper-containing amine oxidase from the latex of Euphorbia characias was purified to homogeneity and the copper-free enzyme obtained by a ligand-exchange procedure. The interactions of highly purified apo- and holoenzyme with several substrates, carbonyl reagents, and copper ligands were investigated by optical spectroscopy under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The extinction coefficients at 278 and 490 nm were determined as 3.78 × 105 m−1 cm−1 and 6000 m−1 cm−1, respectively. Active-site titration of highly purified enzyme with substrates and carbonyl reagents showed the presence of one cofactor at each enzyme subunit. In anaerobiosis the native enzyme oxidized one equivalent substrate and released one equivalent aldehyde per enzyme subunit. The apoenzyme gave exactly the same 1:1:1 stoichiometry in anaerobiosis and in aerobiosis. These findings demonstrate unequivocally that copper-free amine oxidase can oxidize substrates with a single half-catalytic cycle. The DNA-derived protein sequence shows a characteristic hexapeptide present in most 6-hydroxydopa quinone-containing amine oxidases. This hexapeptide contains the tyrosinyl residue that can be modified into the cofactor 6-hydroxydopa quinone. PMID:9701592

  18. Origin and evolution of lysyl oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Grau-Bové, Xavier; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidases (LOX) are copper-dependent enzymes that oxidize primary amine substrates to reactive aldehydes. The best-studied role of LOX enzymes is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in animals by cross-linking collagens and elastin, although intracellular functions have been reported as well. Five different LOX enzymes have been identified in mammals, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) 1 to 4, showing a highly conserved catalytic carboxy terminal domain and more divergence in the rest of the sequence. Here we have surveyed a wide selection of genomes in order to infer the evolutionary history of LOX. We identified LOX proteins not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, as well as in bacteria and archaea – which reveals a pre-metazoan origin for this gene family. LOX genes expanded during metazoan evolution resulting in two superfamilies, LOXL2/L3/L4 and LOX/L1/L5. Considering the current knowledge on the function of mammalian LOX isoforms in ECM remodeling, we propose that LOXL2/L3/L4 members might have preferentially been involved in making cross-linked collagen IV-based basement membrane, whereas the diversification of LOX/L1/L5 forms contributed to chordate/vertebrate-specific ECM innovations, such as elastin and fibronectin. Our work provides a novel view on the evolution of this family of enzymes. PMID:26024311

  19. Origin and evolution of lysyl oxidases.

    PubMed

    Grau-Bové, Xavier; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidases (LOX) are copper-dependent enzymes that oxidize primary amine substrates to reactive aldehydes. The best-studied role of LOX enzymes is the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in animals by cross-linking collagens and elastin, although intracellular functions have been reported as well. Five different LOX enzymes have been identified in mammals, LOX and LOX-like (LOXL) 1 to 4, showing a highly conserved catalytic carboxy terminal domain and more divergence in the rest of the sequence. Here we have surveyed a wide selection of genomes in order to infer the evolutionary history of LOX. We identified LOX proteins not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, as well as in bacteria and archaea - which reveals a pre-metazoan origin for this gene family. LOX genes expanded during metazoan evolution resulting in two superfamilies, LOXL2/L3/L4 and LOX/L1/L5. Considering the current knowledge on the function of mammalian LOX isoforms in ECM remodeling, we propose that LOXL2/L3/L4 members might have preferentially been involved in making cross-linked collagen IV-based basement membrane, whereas the diversification of LOX/L1/L5 forms contributed to chordate/vertebrate-specific ECM innovations, such as elastin and fibronectin. Our work provides a novel view on the evolution of this family of enzymes. PMID:26024311

  20. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  1. Mechanistic Insights from Reaction of α-Oxiranyl-Aldehydes with Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debasis; Ellington, Benjamin; Paul, Bishwajit; Marsh, E. Neil G.

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are derived from fatty acids, is widespread in Nature. The last step in this pathway involves the decarbonylation of fatty aldehydes to the corresponding alkanes or alkenes. In cyanobacteria this is catalyzed by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. We have investigated the mechanism of this enzyme using substrates bearing an oxirane ring adjacent to the aldehyde carbon. The enzyme catalyzed the deformylation of these substrates to produce the corresponding oxiranes. Performing the reaction in D2O allowed the facial selectivity of proton addition to be examined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The proton is delivered with equal probability to either face of the oxirane ring, indicating the formation of an oxiranyl radical intermediate that is free to rotate during the reaction. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also catalyzes a side reaction in which oxiranyl-aldehydes undergo tandem deformylation to furnish alkanes two carbons shorter. We present evidence that this involves the rearrangement of the intermediate oxiranyl radical formed in the first step, resulting an aldehyde that is further deformylated in a second step. These observations provide support for a radical mechanism for deformylation and, furthermore, allow the lifetime of the radical intermediate to be estimated based on prior measurements of rate constants for the rearrangement of oxiranyl radicals. PMID:24313866

  2. The effects of various alcohols on the secondary structural integrity of melittin, TH-10Aox, and Tc1 by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Hua; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2006-03-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of various alcohols on the structural integrity of three peptides: melittin with 2 α-helices, TH-10Aox with 3 β-strands, and Tc1 with 1 α-helix and 2 β-strands. The results reveal that the secondary structural integrity of these peptides increased with decreasing dielectric constant of the solvent, indicating that there is a positive correlation between the number of carbon atoms in alcohols and the stability of the secondary structures. In addition, TFE enhanced the secondary structural stability of these peptides to a greater extent than the other alcohols.

  3. One-Pot Amide Bond Formation from Aldehydes and Amines via a Photoorganocatalytic Activation of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Giorgos N; Kokotos, Christoforos G

    2016-08-19

    A mild, one-pot, and environmentally friendly synthesis of amides from aldehydes and amines is described. Initially, a photoorganocatalytic reaction of aldehydes with di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate leads to an intermediate carbonyl imide, which can react with a variety of amines to afford the desired amides. The initial visible light-mediated activation of a variety of monosubstituted or disubstituted aldehydes is usually fast, occurring in a few hours. Following the photocatalytic reaction, addition of the primary amine at room temperature or the secondary amine at elevated temperatures leads to the corresponding amide from moderate to excellent yields without epimerization. This methodology was applied in the synthesis of Moclobemide, a drug against depression and social anxiety. PMID:27227271

  4. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi

    1982-12-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.9.3.1) was purified from beef heart mitochondria. By washing the oxidase with detergent on a hydrophobic interaction column, phospholipids were depleted to the level of 1 mol of cardiolipin per mol of heme a. Hydrophobic impurities and partially denatured oxidase were separated from the intact oxidase on an affinity column with cytochrome c as the specific ligand. The final preparation of the oxidase contained seven distinct polypeptides. The molecular weight of the oxidase was estimated to be 130,000 from its specific heme a and copper content and from the subunit composition. Crystals of the oxidase were obtained by slow removal of the detergent from the buffer in which the oxidase was dissolved. The needle-shaped crystals were 100 μ m in average length and 5 μ m in width, and they strongly polarized visible light. Electron diffraction patterns were obtained with an unstained glutaraldehyde-fixed single crystal by electron microscopy using 1,000-kV electrons. From electron micrographs and the diffraction patterns of the crystal, it was concluded that the crystal is monoclinic in the space group P21, with unit cell dimensions a = 92 angstrom, b = 84 angstrom, and c = 103 angstrom, and α =β 90 degrees, γ = 126 degrees.

  5. Crystal structures of intermediates in the nitroalkane oxidase reaction.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Annie; Bozinovski, Dragana M; Valley, Michael P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F; Orville, Allen M

    2009-04-21

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to nitrite and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. Crystal structures to 2.2 A resolution or better of enzyme complexes with bound substrates and of a trapped substrate-flavin adduct are described. The D402N enzyme has no detectable activity with neutral nitroalkanes [Valley, M. P., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2003) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 8738-8739]. The structure of the D402N enzyme crystallized in the presence of 1-nitrohexane or 1-nitrooctane shows the presence of the substrate in the binding site. The aliphatic chain of the substrate extends into a tunnel leading to the enzyme surface. The oxygens of the substrate nitro group interact both with amino acid residues and with the 2'-hydroxyl of the FAD. When nitroalkane oxidase oxidizes nitroalkanes in the presence of cyanide, an electrophilic flavin imine intermediate can be trapped [Valley, M. P., Tichy, S. E., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2062-2066]. The structure of the enzyme trapped with cyanide during oxidation of 1-nitrohexane shows the presence of the modified flavin. A continuous hydrogen bond network connects the nitrogen of the CN-hexyl-FAD through the FAD 2'-hydroxyl to a chain of water molecules extending to the protein surface. Together, our complementary approaches provide strong evidence that the flavin cofactor is in the appropriate oxidation state and correlates well with the putative intermediate state observed within each of the crystal structures. Consequently, these results provide important structural descriptions of several steps along the nitroalkane oxidase reaction cycle. PMID:19265437

  6. Crystal Structures of Intermediates in the Nitroalkane Oxidase Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, A.; Bozinovski, D; Valley, M; Fitzpatrick, P; Orville, A

    2009-01-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. Nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to nitrite and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. Crystal structures to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution or better of enzyme complexes with bound substrates and of a trapped substrate-flavin adduct are described. The D402N enzyme has no detectable activity with neutral nitroalkanes. The structure of the D402N enzyme crystallized in the presence of 1-nitrohexane or 1-nitrooctane shows the presence of the substrate in the binding site. The aliphatic chain of the substrate extends into a tunnel leading to the enzyme surface. The oxygens of the substrate nitro group interact both with amino acid residues and with the 2'-hydroxyl of the FAD. When nitroalkane oxidase oxidizes nitroalkanes in the presence of cyanide, an electrophilic flavin imine intermediate can be trapped (Valley, M. P., Tichy, S. E., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2062-2066). The structure of the enzyme trapped with cyanide during oxidation of 1-nitrohexane shows the presence of the modified flavin. A continuous hydrogen bond network connects the nitrogen of the CN-hexyl-FAD through the FAD 2'-hydroxyl to a chain of water molecules extending to the protein surface. Together, our complementary approaches provide strong evidence that the flavin cofactor is in the appropriate oxidation state and correlates well with the putative intermediate state observed within each of the crystal structures. Consequently, these results provide important structural descriptions of several steps along the nitroalkane oxidase reaction cycle.

  7. Reductive trapping of substrate to bovine plasma amine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, C.; Klinman, J.P.

    1987-01-25

    Plasma amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines to aldehydes, followed by a 2e- reduction of O/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), previously believed to be restricted to prokaryotes, has recently been proposed to be the cofactor undergoing reduction in the first half-reaction of bovine plasma amine oxidase (Ameyama, M., Hayashi, U., Matsushita, K., Shinagawa, E., and Adachi, O. (1984) Agric. Biol. Chem. 48, 561-565; Lobenstein-Verbeek, C. L., Jongejan, J. A., Frank, J., and Duine, J. A. (1984) FEBS Lett. 170, 305-309). This result is unexpected, since model studies with PQQ implicate Schiff's base formation between a reactive carbonyl and substrates, whereas experiments with bovine plasma amine oxidase have failed to provide evidence for a carbonyl cofactor. We have, therefore, re-examined putative adducts between substrate and enzyme-bound cofactor, employing a combination of (/sup 14/C)benzylamine and (/sup 3/H)NaCNBH/sub 3/. The use of the relatively weak reductant, NaCNBH/sub 3/, affords Schiff's base specificity and permits the study of enzyme below pH 7.0. As we show, enzyme can only be inactivated by NaCNBH/sub 3/ in the presence of substrate, leading to the incorporation of 1 mol of (/sup 14/C)benzylamine/mol of enzyme subunit at complete inactivation. By contrast, we are unable to detect any labeling with (/sup 3/H)NaCNBH/sub 3/, analogous to an earlier study with (/sup 3/H)NaCNBH/sub 4/ (Suva, R. H., and Abeles, R. H. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 3538-3545). We conclude, first, that our inability to obtain adducts containing both carbon 14 and tritium rules out the reductive trapping either of amine substrate with pyridoxal phosphate or of aldehyde product with a lysyl side chain and, second, that the observed pattern of labeling is fully consistent with the presence of PQQ at the active site of bovine plasma amine oxidase.

  8. Reactive oxygen species and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes as second messengers in signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Henry Jay

    2014-01-01

    Signaling by H2O2, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and related chemical species, is thought to differ from signaling by other second messengers because the oxidants and other electrophiles can readily undergo nonenzymatic reactions and are therefore classified as “reactive.” This brief review will describe how and when the chemistry of signaling is similar or differs from classic second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, or posttranslational signaling, such as farnesylation or ubiquitination. The chemistry of cysteine provides a common factor that underlies signaling by H2O2 and HNE. Nonetheless, as H2O2 and HNE are rapidly metabolized in vivo, spatial considerations are extremely important in their actions. Therefore, the locations of sources of H2O2 and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, the NADPH oxidases, mitochondria, membrane lipids, and redox cycling toxicants, as well as their targets, are key factors. The activation of the JNK pathway by HNE and endogenously generated H2O2 illustrates these principles. PMID:20716281

  9. Chemical trapping of labile aldehyde intermediates in the metabolism of propranolol and oxprenolol.

    PubMed

    Goldszer, F; Tindell, G L; Walle, U K; Walle, T

    1981-11-01

    Propranolol is N-dealkylated to N-desisopropylpropranolol (DIP) by microsomal enzymes. DIP was shown in this study to be rapidly deaminated by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Thus, incubation of DIP (10(-4) M) with rat liver mitochondria for 90 min demonstrated 74.8 +/- 4.1% metabolism which was almost completely blocked by the MAO inhibitor pargyline (10(-5) M). The end products of this deamination were 3-(alpha-naphthoxy)-1,2-propylene glycol (Glycol) and 3-(alpha-naphthoxy)lactic acid (NLA). In the presence of excess NADH the Glycol was the major product whereas NLA was the major product in the presence of excess NAD+. The intermediate aldehyde in this deamination reaction, 3-(alpha-naphthoxy)-2-hydroxypropanal (Ald), was extremely labile and decomposed quantitatively to alpha-naphthol when removed from the incubates. However, the addition of methoxyamine hydrochloride directly to the incubates made it possible to chemically trap the intact Ald as an O-methyloxime and prove its structure by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The deamination of the primary amine of oxprenolol also gave rise to a labile aldehyde which could be trapped and identified as its O-methyloxime. PMID:7335950

  10. Control of aldehyde synthesis in the luminous bacterium Beneckea harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulitzur, S; Hastings, J W

    1979-01-01

    Some of the Beneckea harveyi dim aldehyde mutants, all of which emit light upon addition of exogenous long-chain aldehyde, also emit light when myristic acid is added. Analysis of these myristic acid-responsive mutants indicates that they are blocked before fatty acid formation, whereas another class of mutants, which respond only to aldehyde, appear to be defective in the enzyme(s) involved in the conversion of acid to aldehyde. Evidence is presented that this activity, designated myristic acid reductase, is coinduced with luciferase and is involved in the recycling of acid produced in the luciferase reaction, with specificity for the C14 compounds. PMID:311359

  11. Gibberellin biosynthesis from gibberellin A12-aldehyde in endosperm and embryos of Marah macrocarpus.

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, J; Ward, D A; Phillips, A L; Sánchez-Beltrán, M J; Gaskin, P; Lange, T; Hedden, P

    1997-01-01

    Soluble enzyme preparations from embryos and endosperm of Marah macrocarpus (previously Echinocystis macrocarpa) were incubated with [14C4]gibberellin(GA)12-aldehyde, [14C4]GA12, [14C1] GA9, 2,3-didehydro[14C1]GA9, [14C1]GA20, and [17-13C, 3H]GA5. Embryo preparations converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, and GA9 to GA4 and GA7; 2,3-didehydroGA9 to GA7; GA5 to GA3; and GA20 (incompletely) to GA1 and GA60, but not to GA3. Endosperm preparations converted GA12-aldehyde and GA12 to GA15, GA24, and GA9, but, unlike embryo preparations, not to GA4 or GA7. However, GA4 and GA7 were formed from GA9 and GA7 was formed from 2,3-didehydroGA9. Metabolism of GA5 to GA3 and GA20 to GA1 was low. 2,3-DidehydroGA9 accumulated when GA9 was incubated with a desalted endosperm preparation. A cDNA clone (M3-8), selected from an embryo-derived cDNA library using a DNA fragment generated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein converted GA12 to GA9 (major) and GA25 (minor); GA53 was metabolized less effectively and only to GA44. Thus, the M3-8 protein is functionally similar to GA 20-oxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana, Spinacia oleracea, and Pisum sativum, but different from that from Cucurbita maxima seeds, to which its amino acid sequence is most closely related. mRNA hybridizing to M3-8 accumulated in embryos and endosperm of M. macrocarpus, but was absent in vegetative tissues. PMID:9112781

  12. NADPH Oxidase and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S; Britto, Luiz R G

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) is a unique, multi-protein, electron transport system that produces large amounts of superoxide via the reduction of molecular oxygen. Nox-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in a variety of physiological processes, including host defense and signal transduction. However, over the past decade, the involvement of (Nox)-dependent oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases has been increasingly recognized. ROS produced by Nox proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases through distinct mechanisms, such as oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, amino acids and metals, in addition to activation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on Nox involvement in neurodegeneration, focusing on Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. PMID:23730256

  13. A coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 enhances the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to cinnamic acids by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions was previously observed. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas have been shown to harbor specialized enzymes for converting coniferyl aldehyde but no comparable enzymes have been identified in S. cerevisiae. CALDH from Pseudomonas was expressed in S. cerevisiae. An acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald5) was also hypothesized to be actively involved in the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic growth conditions in S. cerevisiae. In a second S. cerevisiae strain, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD5) was deleted. A prototrophic control strain was also engineered. The engineered S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1.1mM coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic condition in bioreactors. The results confirmed that expression of CALDH increased endogenous conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae and ALD5 is actively involved with the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27070284

  14. Non-P450 aldehyde oxidizing enzymes: the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Marchitti, Satori A; Brocker, Chad; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    Background Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules. While several non-P450 enzyme systems participate in their metabolism, one of the most important is the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation. Objective This article presents a review of what is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes. Methods Relevant literature involving all members of the human ALDH family was extensively reviewed, with the primary focus on recent and novel findings. Conclusion To date, 19 ALDH genes have been identified in the human genome and mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinemia, γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria and pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ALDH enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. Finally, ALDH enzymes display multiple catalytic and non-catalytic functions including ester hydrolysis, antioxidant properties, xenobiotic bioactivation and UV light absorption. PMID:18611112

  15. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Aldehyde Toxicity: A Chemical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are electrophilic compounds to which humans are pervasively exposed. Despite a significant health risk due to exposure, the mechanisms of aldehyde toxicity are poorly understood. This ambiguity is likely due to the structural diversity of aldehyde derivatives and corresponding differences in chemical reactions and biological targets. To gain mechanistic insight, we have used parameters based on the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory to profile the different aldehyde subclasses with respect to electronic character (softness, hardness), electrophilic reactivity (electrophilic index), and biological nucleophilic targets. Our analyses indicate that short chain aldehydes and longer chain saturated alkanals are hard electrophiles that cause toxicity by forming adducts with hard biological nucleophiles, e.g., primary nitrogen groups on lysine residues. In contrast, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives, alkenals, and the α-oxoaldehydes are soft electrophiles that preferentially react with soft nucleophilic thiolate groups on cysteine residues. The aldehydes can therefore be grouped into subclasses according to common electronic characteristics (softness/hardness) and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. As we will discuss, the toxic potencies of these subgroups are generally related to corresponding electrophilicities. For some aldehydes, however, predictions of toxicity based on electrophilicity are less accurate due to inherent physicochemical variables that limit target accessibility, e.g., steric hindrance and solubility. The unsaturated aldehydes are also members of the conjugated type-2 alkene chemical class that includes α,β-unsaturated amide, ketone, and ester derivatives. Type-2 alkenes are electrophiles of varying softness and electrophilicity that share a common mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, exposure to an environmental mixture of unsaturated carbonyl derivatives could cause “type-2 alkene toxicity” through additive interactions

  17. Hydride transfer made easy in the oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by choline oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Gadda, G.; Orville, A.; Pennati, A.; Francis, K.; Quaye, O.; Yuan, H.; Rungsrisuriyachai, K.; Finnegan, S.; Mijatovic, S.; Nguyen, T.

    2008-06-08

    Choline oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.17) catalyzes the two-step, four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as enzyme-associated intermediate and molecular oxygen as final electron acceptor (Scheme 1). The gem-diol, hydrated species of the aldehyde intermediate of the reaction acts as substrate for aldehyde oxidation, suggesting that the enzyme may use similar strategies for the oxidation of the alcohol substrate and aldehyde intermediate. The determination of the chemical mechanism for alcohol oxidation has emerged from biochemical, mechanistic, mutagenetic, and structural studies. As illustrated in the mechanism of Scheme 2, the alcohol substrate is initially activated in the active site of the enzyme by removal of the hydroxyl proton. The resulting alkoxide intermediate is then stabilized in the enzyme-substrate complex via electrostatic interactions with active site amino acid residues. Alcohol oxidation then occurs quantum mechanically via the transfer of the hydride ion from the activated substrate to the N(5) flavin locus. An essential requisite for this mechanism of alcohol oxidation is the high degree of preorganization of the activated enzyme-substrate complex, which is achieved through an internal equilibrium of the Michaelis complex occurring prior to, and independently from, the subsequent hydride transfer reaction. The experimental evidence that support the mechanism for alcohol oxidation shown in Scheme 2 is briefly summarized in the Results and Discussion section.

  18. Novel Carotenoid Oxidase Involved in Biosynthesis of 4,4′-Diapolycopene Dialdehyde

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Luan; Schenzle, Andreas; Odom, J. Martin; Cheng, Qiong

    2005-01-01

    Biosynthesis of C30 carotenoids is relatively restricted in nature but has been described in Staphylococcus and in methylotrophic bacteria. We report here identification of a novel gene (crtNb) involved in conversion of 4,4′-diapolycopene to 4,4′-diapolycopene aldehyde. An aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ald) responsible for the subsequent oxidation of 4,4′-diapolycopene aldehyde to 4,4′-diapolycopene acid was also identified in Methylomonas. CrtNb has significant sequence homology with diapophytoene desaturases (CrtN). However, data from knockout of crtNb and expression of crtNb in Escherichia coli indicated that CrtNb is not a desaturase but rather a novel carotenoid oxidase catalyzing oxidation of the terminal methyl group(s) of 4,4′-diaponeurosporene and 4,4′-diapolycopene to the corresponding terminal aldehyde. It has moderate to low activity on neurosporene and lycopene and no activity on β-carotene or ζ-carotene. Using a combination of C30 carotenoid synthesis genes from Staphylococcus and Methylomonas, 4,4′-diapolycopene dialdehyde was produced in E. coli as the predominant carotenoid. This C30 dialdehyde is a dark-reddish purple pigment that may have potential uses in foods and cosmetics. PMID:15933032

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  20. The role of cellular oxidases and catalytic iron in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, S.; Jayatilleke, E. Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY )

    1992-01-01

    Free radical generation and catalytic iron have been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury but the source of free radicals is a subject of controversy. The mechanism of ethanol-induced liver injury was investigated in isolated hepatocytes from a rodent model of iron loading in which free radical generation was measured by the determination of alkane production. Iron loading increased hepatic non-heme iron 3-fold, increased the prooxidant activity of cytosolic ultrafiltrates 2-fold and doubled ethanol-induced alkane production. The role of cellular oxidases as a source of ethanol induced free radicals was studied through the use of selective inhibitors. In both the presence and absence of iron loading, selective inhibition of xanthine oxidase with oxipurinol diminished ethanol-induced alkane production 0-40%, inhibition of aldehyde oxidase with menadione diminished alkane production 36-75%, while the inhibition of aldehyde and xanthine oxidase by feeding tungstate virtually abolished alkane production. Addition of acetaldehyde to hepatocytes generated alkanes at rates comparable to those achieved with ethanol indicating the importance of acetaldehyde metabolism in free radical generation.

  1. Reversible, partial inactivation of plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase by betaine aldehyde: mechanism and possible physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Zárate-Romero, Andrés; Murillo-Melo, Darío S; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Montiel, Carmina; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2016-04-01

    In plants, the last step in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) is the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BAL) catalysed by some aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 10 enzymes that exhibit betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity. Given the irreversibility of the reaction, the short-term regulation of these enzymes is of great physiological relevance to avoid adverse decreases in the NAD(+):NADH ratio. In the present study, we report that the Spinacia oleracea BADH (SoBADH) is reversibly and partially inactivated by BAL in the absence of NAD(+)in a time- and concentration-dependent mode. Crystallographic evidence indicates that the non-essential Cys(450)(SoBADH numbering) forms a thiohemiacetal with BAL, totally blocking the productive binding of the aldehyde. It is of interest that, in contrast to Cys(450), the catalytic cysteine (Cys(291)) did not react with BAL in the absence of NAD(+) The trimethylammonium group of BAL binds in the same position in the inactivating or productive modes. Accordingly, BAL does not inactivate the C(450)SSoBADH mutant and the degree of inactivation of the A(441)I and A(441)C mutants corresponds to their very different abilities to bind the trimethylammonium group. Cys(450)and the neighbouring residues that participate in stabilizing the thiohemiacetal are strictly conserved in plant ALDH10 enzymes with proven or predicted BADH activity, suggesting that inactivation by BAL is their common feature. Under osmotic stress conditions, this novel partial and reversible covalent regulatory mechanism may contribute to preventing NAD(+)exhaustion, while still permitting the synthesis of high amounts of GB and avoiding the accumulation of the toxic BAL. PMID:26792760

  2. Establishing the kinetic competency of the cationic imine intermediate in nitroalkane oxidase.

    PubMed

    Valley, Michael P; Tichy, Shane E; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2005-02-23

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. Cyanide inactivates the enzyme during turnover in a concentration-dependent fashion. Mass spectrometry of the flavin from enzyme inactivated by cyanide in the presence of nitroethane or nitrohexane shows that a flavin cyanoethyl or cyanohexyl intermediate has formed. At high concentrations of cyanide, inactivation does not consume oxygen. Rapid reaction studies show that formation of the adduct with 2-(2H2)-nitroethane shows a kinetic isotope effect of 7.9. These results are consistent with cyanide reacting with a species formed after proton abstraction but before flavin oxidation. The proposed mechanism for nitroalkane oxidase involves removal of a proton from the nitroalkane, forming a carbanion which adds to the flavin N(5). Elimination of nitrite from the resulting adduct would form an electrophilic imine which can be attacked by hydroxide. The present results are consistent with cyanide trapping this electrophilic intermediate. PMID:15713081

  3. Purification and characterization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Wieser, M; Morita, H; Sugio, T; Nagasawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107 was purified to apparent homogeneity as shown by SDS-PAGE and gel-permeation HPLC. The enzyme is a homodimeric flavoenzyme consisting of two 58 kDa subunits. It catalyzes the dehydrogenation of different 4-hydroxybenzylic structures, including the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols such as vanillyl alcohol to the corresponding aldehydes, eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, and 4-alkylphenols to 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alcohols. The latter reaction was S-stereospecific and was used for the synthesis of S-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol and -propanol with enantiomeric excesses of 81.9 and 86.0%, respectively. The catalytic and structural similarities to a Penicillium vanillyl-alcohol oxidase and Pseudomonas 4-alkylphenol methylhydroxylases are discussed. PMID:16232469

  4. Biogenic aldehyde determination by reactive paper spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bag, Soumabha; Hendricks, P I; Reynolds, J C; Cooks, R G

    2015-02-20

    Ionization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes is improved by performing simultaneous chemical derivatization using 4-aminophenol to produce charged iminium ions during paper spray ionization. Accelerated reactions occur in the microdroplets generated during the paper spray ionization event for the tested aldehydes (formaldehyde, n-pentanaldehyde, n-nonanaldehyde, n-decanaldehyde, n-dodecanaldehyde, benzaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the iminium ions using collision-induced dissociation demonstrated that straight chain aldehydes give a characteristic fragment at m/z 122 (shown to correspond to protonated 4-(methyleneamino)phenol), while the aromatic aldehyde iminium ions fragment to give a characteristic product ion at m/z 120. These features allow straightforward identification of linear and aromatic aldehydes. Quantitative analysis of n-nonaldehyde using a benchtop mass spectrometer demonstrated a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude from 2.5 ng to 5 μg of aldehyde loaded on the filter paper emitter. The limit of detection was determined to be 2.2 ng for this aldehyde. The method had a precision of 22%, relative standard deviation. The experiment was also implemented using a portable ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:25682245

  5. Coupling in cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. J.; Blondin, G. A.; Zande, H. Vande; Haworth, R. A.; Green, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.9.3.1) can be resolved into an electron transfer complex (ETC) and an ionophore transfer complex (ITC). Coupling requires an interaction between the moving electron in the ETC and a moving, positively charged ionophore-cation adduct in the ITC. The duplex character of cytochrome oxidase facilitates this interaction. The ITC mediates cyclical cation transport. It can be replaced as the coupling partner by the combination of valinomycin and nigericin in the presence of K+ when cytochrome oxidase is incorporated into liposomes containing acidic phospholipids or by the combination of lipid cytochrome c and bile acids in an ITC-resolved preparation of the ETC. Respiratory control can be induced by incorporating cytochrome oxidase into vesicles of unfractionated whole mitochondrial lipid. The activity of the ITC is suppressed by such incorporation and this suppression leads to the emergence of respiratory control. The ionophoroproteins of the ITC can be extracted into organic solvents; some 50% of the total protein of cytochrome oxidase is extractable. The release of free ionophore is achieved by tryptic digestion of the ionophoroprotein. Preliminary to this release the ionophoroprotein is degraded to an ionophoropeptide. Electrogenic ionophores, as well as uncoupler, are liberated by such proteolysis. The ITC contains a set of ionophoroproteins imbedded in a matrix of phospholipid. Images PMID:198794

  6. Discovery of a sensitive, selective, and tight binding fluorogenic substrate of bovine plasma amine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ke-Qing; Sayre, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a novel fluorogenic substrate of bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO), namely (2-(6-(aminomethyl)naphthalen-2-yloxy)ethyl)trimethylammonium (ANETA), which displays extremely tight binding to BPAO (Km 183±14 nM), and yet is metabolized fairly quickly (kcat 0.690±0.010 s−1), with the aldehyde turnover product (2-(6-formylnaphthalen-2-yloxy)ethyl)trimethylammonium serving as a real time reporting fluorophore of the enzyme activity. This allowed for the development of a fluorometric non-coupled assay that is two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the spectrophotometric benzylamine assay. The discovery of ANETA involved elaboration of the lead compound 6-methoxy-2-naphthalenemethaneamine by structure-based design, which recognized the ancillary cation binding site of BPAO as the most significant structural features controlling binding affinity. Structure-based design further ensured a high level of selectivity: ANETA is a good substrate of BPAO, but is not a substrate of either porcine kidney diamine oxidase (pkDAO) or rat liver monoamine oxidase (MAO-B). ANETA represents the first highly sensitive, selective, and tight binding fluorogenic substrate of a copper amine oxidase that is able to respond directly to the enzyme activity in real time. PMID:19053593

  7. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  8. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  9. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  10. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  11. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  12. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  13. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  14. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipes.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Kume, Hiroko; Arimoto, Yasushi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    Five fatty acid derivatives including three novel compounds were isolated from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipe. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analyses. These compounds inhibited aldehyde dehydrogenase in vitro. PMID:12444711

  16. A kinetic estimate of the free aldehyde content of aldoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The relative free aldehyde content of eight hexoses and four pentoses has been estimated within about 10% from the rate constants for their reaction with urazole (1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione). These values of the percent free aldehyde are in agreement with those estimated from CD measurements, but are more accurate. The relative free aldehyde contents for the aldoses were then correlated to various literature NMR measurements to obtain the absolute values. This procedure was also done for three deoxyaldoses, which react much more rapidly than can be accounted for by the free aldehyde content. This difference in reactivity between aldoses and deoxyaldoses is due to the inductive effect of the H versus the OH on C-2'. This may help explain why deoxyribonucleosides hydrolyze much more rapidly than ribonucleosides.

  17. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    SciTech Connect

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-05-01

    The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction.

  18. Photoorganocatalytic One-Pot Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acids from Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Giorgos N; Kokotos, Christoforos G

    2016-05-10

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of hydroxamic acids from aldehydes and hydroxylamine is described. A fast, visible-light-mediated metal-free hydroacylation of dialkyl azodicarboxylates was used to develop the subsequent addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride. A range of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes were employed in this reaction to give hydroxamic acids in high to excellent yields. Application of the current methodology was demonstrated in the synthesis of the anticancer medicine vorinostat. PMID:27038037

  19. Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides (also referred to as Protox- or PPO-inhibiting herbicides) were commercialized in the 1960s and their market share reached approximately 10% (total herbicide active ingredient output) in the late 1990’s. The wide-spread adoption of glyphosate-resista...

  20. A structure-based catalytic mechanism for the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, R; Hof, P; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J; Hille, R; Archer, M; Romão, M J

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related molybdenum-iron protein aldehyde oxido-reductase from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas (Mop) was analyzed in its desulfo-, sulfo-, oxidized, reduced, and alcohol-bound forms at 1.8-A resolution. In the sulfo-form the molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor has a dithiolene-bound fac-[Mo, = O, = S, ---(OH2)] substructure. Bound inhibitory isopropanol in the inner compartment of the substrate binding tunnel is a model for the Michaelis complex of the reaction with aldehydes (H-C = O,-R). The reaction is proposed to proceed by transfer of the molybdenum-bound water molecule as OH- after proton transfer to Glu-869 to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in concert with hydride transfer to the sulfido group to generate [MoIV, = O, -SH, ---(O-C = O, -R)). Dissociation of the carboxylic acid product may be facilitated by transient binding of Glu-869 to the molybdenum. The metal-bound water is replenished from a chain of internal water molecules. A second alcohol binding site in the spacious outer compartment may cause the strong substrate inhibition observed. This compartment is the putative binding site of large inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799115

  1. Structural analysis of aliphatic versus aromatic substrate specificity in a copper amine oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Klema, Valerie J; Solheid, Corinne J; Klinman, Judith P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2013-04-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are responsible for the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes. The CAO catalytic mechanism can be divided into two half-reactions: a reductive half-reaction in which a primary amine substrate is oxidized to its corresponding aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the organic cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ) and an oxidative half-reaction in which reduced TPQ is reoxidized with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The reductive half-reaction proceeds via Schiff base chemistry, in which the primary amine substrate first attacks the C5 carbonyl of TPQ, forming a series of covalent Schiff base intermediates. The X-ray crystal structures of copper amine oxidase-1 from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in complex with ethylamine and benzylamine have been determined to resolutions of 2.18 and 2.25 Å, respectively. These structures reveal the two amine substrates bound at the back of the active site coincident with TPQ in its two-electron-reduced aminoquinol form. Rearrangements of particular amino acid side chains within the substrate channel and specific protein-substrate interactions provide insight into the substrate specificity of HPAO-1. These changes begin to account for this CAO's kinetic preference for small, aliphatic amines over the aromatic amines or whole peptides preferred by some of its homologues. PMID:23452079

  2. Purification and characterization of an alkaliphilic choline oxidase of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Enokibara, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    A novel choline oxidase found in a fungus, Fusarium oxysporum strain V2, was purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 128 kDa and consists of two identical subunits. The purified enzyme showed adsorption peaks at 340 nm and 450 nm. It showed alkaliphilic pH characteristics: its optimum pH was 9.0-10.0, and it was stable at pH 8.0-10.2. The Michaelis constant (Km) values for choline and betaine aldehyde were 0.28 mM and 0.39 mM respectively. Trimethylamino-alcohols, dimethylamino-alcohols, and diethylaminoethanol were substrates for the enzyme, but the Km values for them increased with decreasing numbers of methyl groups on the ammonium headgroup. A marked decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) and Vmax/Km values was observed when N-replaced choline analogs were used as substrate instead of choline. The enzyme had a remarkably higher affinity for choline and betaine aldehyde than do previously reported enzymes. The enzyme oxidized these two substrates more quickly than a choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, and oxidation by the V2 enzyme was accompanied by an increase in the stoichometric amount of hydrogen peroxide. PMID:23221722

  3. Functional and molecular characterization of plastid terminal oxidase from rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiuju; Feilke, Kathleen; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Beyer, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastohydroquinone:oxygen oxidoreductase that shares structural similarities with alternative oxidases (AOX). Multiple roles have been attributed to PTOX, such as involvement in carotene desaturation, a safety valve function, participation in the processes of chlororespiration and setting the redox poise for cyclic electron transport. We have investigated a homogenously pure MBP fusion of PTOX. The protein forms a homo-tetrameric complex containing 2 Fe per monomer and is very specific for the plastoquinone head-group. The reaction kinetics were investigated in a soluble monophasic system using chemically reduced decyl-plastoquinone (DPQ) as the model substrate and, in addition, in a biphasic (liposomal) system in which DPQ was reduced with DT-diaphorase. While PTOX did not detectably produce reactive oxygen species in the monophasic system, their formation was observed by room temperature EPR in the biphasic system in a [DPQH₂] and pH-dependent manner. This is probably the result of the higher concentration of DPQ achieved within the partial volume of the lipid bilayer and a higher Km observed with PTOX-membrane associates which is ≈47mM compared to the monophasic system where a Km of ≈74μM was determined. With liposomes and at the basic stromal pH of photosynthetically active chloroplasts, PTOX was antioxidant at low [DPQH₂] gaining prooxidant properties with increasing quinol concentrations. It is concluded that in vivo, PTOX can act as a safety valve when the steady state [PQH₂] is low while a certain amount of ROS is formed at high light intensities. PMID:24780313

  4. Aldehydes with high and low toxicities inactivate cells by damaging distinct cellular targets.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Zhang; Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I; Salem, Amir M H; Oba, Shunya; Goda, Mizuki; Nakano, Toshiaki; Ide, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Aldehydes are genotoxic and cytotoxic molecules and have received considerable attention for their associations with the pathogenesis of various human diseases. In addition, exposure to anthropogenic aldehydes increases human health risks. The general mechanism of aldehyde toxicity involves adduct formation with biomolecules such as DNA and proteins. Although the genotoxic effects of aldehydes such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations are directly related to DNA damage, the role of DNA damage in the cytotoxic effects of aldehydes is poorly understood because concurrent protein damage by aldehydes has similar effects. In this study, we have analysed how saturated and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes exert cytotoxic effects through DNA and protein damage. Interestingly, DNA repair is essential for alleviating the cytotoxic effect of weakly toxic aldehydes such as saturated aldehydes but not highly toxic aldehydes such as long α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Thus, highly toxic aldehydes inactivate cells exclusively by protein damage. Our data suggest that DNA interstrand crosslinks, but not DNA-protein crosslinks and DNA double-strand breaks, are the critical cytotoxic DNA damage induced by aldehydes. Further, we show that the depletion of intracellular glutathione and the oxidation of thioredoxin 1 partially account for the DNA damage-independent cytotoxicity of aldehydes. On the basis of these findings, we have proposed a mechanistic model of aldehyde cytotoxicity mediated by DNA and protein damage. PMID:26917342

  5. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  6. The GA5 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a multifunctional gibberellin 20-oxidase: Molecular cloning and functional expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Ling; Li, Li; Wu, Keqiang

    1995-07-03

    The biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) after GA{sub 12}-aldehyde involves a series of oxidative steps that lead to the formation of bioactive GAs. Previously, a cDNA clone encoding a GA 20-oxidase [gibberellin, 2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (20-hydroxylating, oxidizing), EC 1.14.11-] was isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library from liquid endosperm of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) with antibodies against partially purified GA 20-oxidase. Here, we report isolation of a genomic clone for GA 20-oxidase from a genomic library of the long-day species Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh., strain Columbia, by using the pumpkin cDNA clone as a heterologous probe. This genomic clone contains a GA 20-oxidase gene that consists of three exons and two introns. The three exons are 1131-bp long and encode 377 amino acid residues. A cDNA clone corresponding to the putative GA 20-oxidase genomic sequence was constructed with the reverse transcription-PCR method, and the identity of the cDNA clone was confirmed by analyzing the capability of the fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli to convert GA{sub 53} to GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19} to GA{sub 20}. The Arabidopsis GA 20-oxidase shares 55% identity and >80% similarity with the pumpkin GA 20-oxidase at the derived amino acid level. Both GA 20-oxidases share high homology with other 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs), but the highest homology was found between the two GA 20-oxidases. Mapping results indicated tight linkage between the cloned GA 20-oxidase and the GA locus of Arabidopsis. The ga5 semidwarf mutant contains a G {yields} A point mutation that inserts a translational stop codon in the protein-coding sequence, thus confirming that the GA5 locus encodes GA 20-oxidase. Expression of the GA5 gene in Arabidopsis leaves was enhanced after plants were transferred from short to long days; it was reduced by GA{sub 4} treatment, suggesting end-product repression in the GA biosynthetic pathway. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.

    PubMed

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-02-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain

  8. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain

  9. Reaction of tobacco smoke aldehydes with human hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Hoberman, H D; San George, R C

    1988-01-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and acrolein, all of which are constituents of tobacco smoke, were reacted in 5 mM concentration with the purified major fraction of normal adult human hemoglobin (hemoglobin Ao) in 1 mM concentration. A cigarette smoke condensate, diluted to contain 5 mM total aldehydes, was also reacted with 1 mM hemoglobin Ao. Cationic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the products formed from simple aliphatic aldehydes, with the exception of formaldehyde, were analogues of those formed from acetaldehyde, earlier shown by us to be imidazolidinone derivatives, that is, cyclic addition products of the N-terminal aminoamide function of alpha and beta chains. Formaldehyde and acrolein produced a heterogeneous mixture of derivatives including cross-linked hemoglobin dimers. The greater proportion of modified hemoglobins produced by condensate aldehydes resembled those formed from acetaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in the condensate. A smaller fraction consisted of cross-linked hemoglobin dimers, presumably due to the action of formaldehyde. Mass spectrometric and HPLC analyses of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones precipitated from the condensate documented the presence of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, furfural, and methylfurfural. The toxicity of aldehydes is briefly discussed in the context of the findings of this study. PMID:3236330

  10. Aldehydes: occurrence, carcinogenic potential, mechanism of action and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Til, H P; de Vrijer, F; Woutersen, R A; Cassee, F R; van Bladeren, P J

    1991-01-01

    Aldehydes constitute a group of relatively reactive organic compounds. They occur as natural (flavoring) constituents in a wide variety of foods and food components, often in relatively small, but occasionally in very large concentrations, and are also widely used as food additives. Evidence of carcinogenic potential in experimental animals is convincing for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, limited for crotonaldehyde, furfural and glycidaldehyde, doubtful for malondialdehyde, very weak for acrolein and absent for vanillin. Formaldehyde carcinogenesis is a high-dose phenomenon in which the cytotoxicity plays a crucial role. Cytotoxicity may also be of major importance in acetaldehyde carcinogenesis but further studies are needed to prove or disprove this assumption. For a large number of aldehydes (relevant) data on neither carcinogenicity nor genotoxicity are available. From epidemiological studies there is no convincing evidence of aldehyde exposure being related to cancer in humans. Overall assessment of the cancer risk of aldehydes in the diet leads to the conclusion that formaldehyde, acrolein, citral and vanillin are no dietary risk factors, and that the opposite may be true for acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and furfural. Malondialdehyde, glycidaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and anisaldehyde cannot be evaluated on the basis of the available data. A series of aldehydes should be subjected to at least mutagenicity, cytogenicity and cytotoxicity tests. Priority setting for testing should be based on expected mechanism of action and degree of human exposure. PMID:2017217

  11. Urate oxidase: primary structure and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X W; Lee, C C; Muzny, D M; Caskey, C T

    1989-01-01

    Urate oxidase, or uricase (EC 1.7.3.3), is a peroxisomal enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin in most mammals. In humans and certain other primates, however, the enzyme has been lost by some unknown mechanism. To identify the molecular basis for this loss, urate oxidase cDNA clones were isolated from pig, mouse, and baboon, and their DNA sequences were determined. The mouse urate oxidase open reading frame encodes a 303-amino acid polypeptide, while the pig and baboon urate oxidase cDNAs encode a 304-amino acid polypeptide due to a single codon deletion/insertion event. The authenticity of this single additional codon was confirmed by sequencing the mouse and pig genomic copies of the gene. The urate oxidase sequence contains a domain similar to the type 2 copper binding motif found in other copper binding proteins, suggesting that the copper ion in urate oxidase is coordinated as a type 2 structure. Based upon a comparison of the NH2-terminal peptide and deduced sequences, we propose that the maturation of pig urate oxidase involves the posttranslational cleavage of a six-amino acid peptide. Two nonsense mutations were found in the human urate oxidase gene, which confirms, at the molecular level, that the urate oxidase gene in humans is nonfunctional. The sequence comparisons favor the hypothesis that the loss of urate oxidase in humans is due to a sudden mutational event rather than a progressive mutational process. Images PMID:2594778

  12. Monoamine Oxidase B Prompts Mitochondrial and Cardiac Dysfunction in Pressure Overloaded Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Kaludercic, Nina; Carpi, Andrea; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Zhu, Guangshuo; Lai, Edwin W.; Bedja, Djahida; De Mario, Agnese; Chen, Kevin; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Pacak, Karel; Takimoto, Eiki; Shih, Jean C.; Kass, David A.; Di Lisa, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial flavoenzymes responsible for neurotransmitter and biogenic amines catabolism. MAO-A contributes to heart failure progression via enhanced norepinephrine catabolism and oxidative stress. The potential pathogenetic role of the isoenzyme MAO-B in cardiac diseases is currently unknown. Moreover, it is has not been determined yet whether MAO activation can directly affect mitochondrial function. Results: In wild type mice, pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) resulted in enhanced dopamine catabolism, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and dysfunction. Conversely, mice lacking MAO-B (MAO-B−/−) subjected to TAC maintained concentric hypertrophy accompanied by extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, and preserved LV function, both at early (3 weeks) and late stages (9 weeks). Enhanced MAO activation triggered oxidative stress, and dropped mitochondrial membrane potential in the presence of ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin both in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. The MAO-B inhibitor pargyline completely offset this change, suggesting that MAO activation induces a latent mitochondrial dysfunction, causing these organelles to hydrolyze ATP. Moreover, MAO-dependent aldehyde formation due to inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity also contributed to alter mitochondrial bioenergetics. Innovation: Our study unravels a novel role for MAO-B in the pathogenesis of heart failure, showing that both MAO-driven reactive oxygen species production and impaired aldehyde metabolism affect mitochondrial function. Conclusion: Under conditions of chronic hemodynamic stress, enhanced MAO-B activity is a major determinant of cardiac structural and functional disarrangement. Both increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of aldehyde intermediates are likely liable for these adverse morphological and mechanical changes by directly targeting mitochondria. Antioxid. Redox

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grünblatt, Edna; Riederer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; E.C. 1.2.1.3) gene, protein expression and activity are substantially decreased in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This holds especially true for cytosolic ALDH1A1, while mitochondrial ALDH2 is increased in the putamen of PD. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) several studies in genetic, transcriptomic, protein and animal models suggest ALDH involvement in the neurodegeneration processes. Such data are in line with findings of increased toxic aldehydes, like for example malondialdehyde, nonenal, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and others. Genetic, transcriptomic and protein alterations may contribute to such data. Also in vitro and in vivo experimental work points to an important role of ALDH in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Aims at investigating dysfunctions of aldehyde detoxification are suitable to define genetic/molecular targets for new therapeutic strategies balancing amine metabolism in devastating disorders like PD and probably also AD. PMID:25298080

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with two aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Rieker, L. L.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A film forming polyvinyl alcohol resin is admixed, in aqueous solution, with a dialdehyde crosslinking agent which is capable of crosslinking the polyvinyl alcohol resin and a water soluble acid aldehyde containing a reactive aldehyde group capable of reacting with hydroxyl groups in the polyvinyl alcohol resin and an ionizable acid hydrogen atom. The dialdehyde is present in an amount sufficient to react with from 1 to 20% by weight of the theoretical amount required to react with all of the hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol. The amount of acid aldehyde is from 1 to 50% by weight, same basis, and is sufficient to reduce the pH of the aqueous admixture to 5 or less. The admixture is then formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet or film, and the shaped material is then heated to simultaneously dry and crosslink the article.

  15. Direct β-Alkylation of Aldehydes via Photoredox Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Direct β-alkylation of saturated aldehydes has been accomplished by synergistically combining photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Photon-induced enamine oxidation provides an activated β-enaminyl radical intermediate, which readily combines with a wide range of Michael acceptors to produce β-alkyl aldehydes in a highly efficient manner. Furthermore, this redox-neutral, atom-economical C–H functionalization protocol can be achieved both inter- and intramolecularly. Mechanistic studies by various spectroscopic methods suggest that a reductive quenching pathway is operable. PMID:24754456

  16. Structural and kinetic studies on the Ser101Ala variant of choline oxidase: Catalysis by compromise

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, S.; Orville, A.; Yuan, H.; Wang, Y.-F.; Weber, I. T.; Gadda, G.

    2010-09-15

    The oxidation of choline catalyzed by choline oxidase includes two reductive half-reactions where FAD is reduced by the alcohol substrate and by an aldehyde intermediate transiently formed in the reaction. Each reductive half-reaction is followed by an oxidative half-reaction where the reduced flavin is oxidized by oxygen. Here, we have used mutagenesis to prepare the Ser101Ala mutant of choline oxidase and have investigated the impact of this mutation on the structural and kinetic properties of the enzyme. The crystallographic structure of the Ser101Ala enzyme indicates that the only differences between the mutant and wild-type enzymes are the lack of a hydroxyl group on residue 101 and a more planar configuration of the flavin in the mutant enzyme. Kinetics established that replacement of Ser101 with alanine yields a mutant enzyme with increased efficiencies in the oxidative half-reactions and decreased efficiencies in the reductive half-reactions. This is accompanied by a significant decrease in the overall rate of turnover with choline. Thus, this mutation has revealed the importance of a specific residue for the optimization of the overall turnover of choline oxidase, which requires fine-tuning of four consecutive half-reactions for the conversion of an alcohol to a carboxylic acid.

  17. Choline oxidase, a catabolic enzyme in Arthrobacter pascens, facilitates adaptation to osmotic stress in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rozwadowski, K L; Khachatourians, G G; Selvaraj, G

    1991-01-01

    Choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17) is a bifunctional enzyme that is capable of catalyzing glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline via betaine aldehyde. A gene (cox) encoding this enzyme in the gram-positive soil bacterium Arthrobacter pascens was isolated and characterized. This gene is contained within a 1.9-kb fragment that encodes a polypeptide of approximately 66 kDa. Transfer of this gene to an Escherichia coli mutant that is defective in betaine biosynthesis resulted in an osmotolerant phenotype. This phenotype was associated with the ability of the host to synthesize and assemble an enzymatically active choline oxidase that could catalyze biosynthesis of glycine betaine from an exogenous supply of choline. Although glycine betaine functions as an osmolyte in several different organisms, it was not found to have this role in A. pascens. Instead, both choline and glycine betaine were utilized as carbon sources. In A. pascens synthesis and activity of choline oxidase were modulated by carbon sources and were susceptible to catabolite repression. Thus, cox, a gene concerned with carbon utilization in A. pascens, was found to play a role in adaptation to an environmental stress in a heterologous organism. In addition to providing a possible means of manipulating osmotolerance in other organisms, the cox gene offers a model system for the study of choline oxidation, an important metabolic process in both procaryotes and eucaryotes. Images PMID:1987142

  18. Catalytically active bovine serum amine oxidase bound to fluorescent and magnetically drivable nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sinigaglia, Giulietta; Magro, Massimiliano; Miotto, Giovanni; Cardillo, Sara; Agostinelli, Enzo; Zboril, Radek; Bidollari, Eris; Vianello, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Novel superparamagnetic surface-active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) characterized by a diameter of 10 ± 2 nm were modified with bovine serum amine oxidase, which used rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) adduct as a fluorescent spacer-arm. A fluorescent and magnetically drivable adduct comprised of bovine serum copper-containing amine oxidase (SAMN–RITC–BSAO) that immobilized on the surface of specifically functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was developed. The multifunctional nanomaterial was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and activity measurements. The results of this study demonstrated that bare magnetic nanoparticles form stable colloidal suspensions in aqueous solutions. The maximum binding capacity of bovine serum amine oxidase was approximately 6.4 mg g−1 nanoparticles. The immobilization procedure reduced the catalytic activity of the native enzyme to 30% ± 10% and the Michaelis constant was increased by a factor of 2. We suggest that the SAMN–RITC–BSAO complex, characterized by a specific activity of 0.81 IU g−1, could be used in the presence of polyamines to create a fluorescent magnetically drivable H2O2 and aldehydes-producing system. Selective tumor cell destruction is suggested as a potential future application of this system. PMID:22619559

  19. A Peroxidase-linked Spectrophotometric Assay for the Detection of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Kangkang; Yang, Zhongduo; Sheng, Jie; Shu, Zongmei; Shi, Yin

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new more accurate spectrophotometric method for detecting monoamine oxidase inhibitors from plant extracts, a series of amine substrates were selected and their ability to be oxidized by monoamine oxidase was evaluated by the HPLC method and a new substrate was used to develop a peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. 4-(Trifluoromethyl) benzylamine (11) was proved to be an excellent substrate for peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. Therefore, a new peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay was set up. The principle of the method is that the MAO converts 11 into aldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of peroxidase, the hydrogen peroxide will oxidize 4-aminoantipyrine into oxidised 4-aminoantipyrine which can condense with vanillic acid to give a red quinoneimine dye. The production of the quinoneimine dye was detected at 490 nm by a microplate reader. The ⊿OD value between the blank group and blank negative control group in this new method is twice as much as that in Holt's method, which enables the procedure to be more accurate and avoids the produce of false positive results. The new method will be helpful for researchers to screening monoamine oxidase inhibitors from deep-color plant extracts. PMID:27610153

  20. A Peroxidase-linked Spectrophotometric Assay for the Detection of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Kangkang; Yang, Zhongduo; Sheng, Jie; Shu, Zongmei; Shi, Yin

    2016-01-01

    To develop a new more accurate spectrophotometric method for detecting monoamine oxidase inhibitors from plant extracts, a series of amine substrates were selected and their ability to be oxidized by monoamine oxidase was evaluated by the HPLC method and a new substrate was used to develop a peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. 4-(Trifluoromethyl) benzylamine (11) was proved to be an excellent substrate for peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay. Therefore, a new peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay was set up. The principle of the method is that the MAO converts 11 into aldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of peroxidase, the hydrogen peroxide will oxidize 4-aminoantipyrine into oxidised 4-aminoantipyrine which can condense with vanillic acid to give a red quinoneimine dye. The production of the quinoneimine dye was detected at 490 nm by a microplate reader. The ⊿OD value between the blank group and blank negative control group in this new method is twice as much as that in Holt’s method, which enables the procedure to be more accurate and avoids the produce of false positive results. The new method will be helpful for researchers to screening monoamine oxidase inhibitors from deep-color plant extracts. PMID:27610153

  1. Incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kosonen, T; Uriu-Hare, J Y; Clegg, M S; Keen, C L; Rucker, R B

    1997-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase is a copper-dependent enzyme involved in extracellular processing of collagens and elastin. Although it is known that copper is essential for the functional activity of the enzyme, there is little information on the incorporation of copper. In the present study we examined the insertion of copper into lysyl oxidase using 67Cu in cell-free transcription/translation assays and in normal skin fibroblast culture systems. When a full-length lysyl oxidase cDNA was used as a template for transcription/translation reactions in vitro, unprocessed prolysyl oxidase appeared to bind copper. To examine further the post-translational incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase, confluent skin fibroblasts were incubated with inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, 10 microg/ml), glycosylation (tunicamycin, 10 microg/ml), protein secretion (brefeldin A, 10 microg/ml) and prolysyl oxidase processing (procollagen C-peptidase inhibitor, 2.5 microg/ml) together with 300 microCi of carrier-free 67Cu. It was observed that protein synthesis was a prerequisite for copper incorporation, but inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin did not affect the secretion of 67Cu as lysyl oxidase. Brefeldin A inhibited the secretion of 67Ci-labelled lysyl oxidase by 46%, but the intracellular incorporation of copper into lysyl oxidase was not affected. In addition, the inhibition of the extracellular proteolytic processing of prolysyl oxidase to lysyl oxidase had minimal effects on the secretion of protein-bound 67Cu. Our results indicate that, similar to caeruloplasmin processing [Sato and Gitlin (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 5128-5134], copper is inserted into prolysyl oxidase independently of glycosylation. PMID:9355764

  2. Arsenite Oxidase Also Functions as an Antimonite Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Warelow, Thomas P.; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Romano, Christine; Osborne, Thomas H.; Lehr, Corinne R.; Bothner, Brian; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids and are considered priority environmental pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Significant advances have been made in understanding microbe-arsenic interactions and how they influence arsenic redox speciation in the environment. However, even the most basic features of how and why a microorganism detects and reacts to antimony remain poorly understood. Previous work with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 5A concluded that oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] and arsenite [As(III)] required different biochemical pathways. Here, we show with in vivo experiments that a mutation in aioA [encoding the large subunit of As(III) oxidase] reduces the ability to oxidize Sb(III) by approximately one-third relative to the ability of the wild type. Further, in vitro studies with the purified As(III) oxidase from Rhizobium sp. strain NT-26 (AioA shares 94% amino acid sequence identity with AioA of A. tumefaciens) provide direct evidence of Sb(III) oxidation but also show a significantly decreased Vmax compared to that of As(III) oxidation. The aioBA genes encoding As(III) oxidase are induced by As(III) but not by Sb(III), whereas arsR gene expression is induced by both As(III) and Sb(III), suggesting that detection and transcriptional responses for As(III) and Sb(III) differ. While Sb(III) and As(III) are similar with respect to cellular extrusion (ArsB or Acr3) and interaction with ArsR, they differ in the regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of genes encoding the different Ars or Aio activities. In summary, this study documents an enzymatic basis for microbial Sb(III) oxidation, although additional Sb(III) oxidation activity also is apparent in this bacterium. PMID:25576601

  3. Characterization of active site residues of nitroalkane oxidase.

    PubMed

    Valley, Michael P; Fenny, Nana S; Ali, Shah R; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-06-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Ser171 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by approximately 5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of approximately 2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. PMID:20056514

  4. Aldehydic load and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 profile during the progression of post-myocardial infarction cardiomyopathy: benefits of Alda-1

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Katia M.S.; Bechara, Luiz R.G.; Lima, Vanessa M.; Ribeiro, Márcio A.C.; Campos, Juliane C.; Dourado, Paulo M.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Ferreira, Julio C.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives We previously demonstrated that reducing cardiac aldehydic load by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for metabolizing the major lipid peroxidation product, protects against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury and chronic heart failure. However, time-dependent changes in ALDH2 profile, aldehydic load and mitochondrial bioenergetics during progression of post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) cardiomyopathy is unknown and should be established to determine the optimal time window for drug treatment. Methods Here we characterized cardiac ALDH2 activity and expression, lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) adduct formation, glutathione pool and mitochondrial energy metabolism and H2O2 release during the 4 weeks after permanent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion in rats. Results We observed a sustained disruption of cardiac mitochondrial function during the progression of post-MI cardiomyopathy, characterized by >50% reduced mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and up to 2 fold increase in H2O2 release. Mitochondrial dysfunction was accompanied by accumulation of cardiac and circulating lipid peroxides and 4-HNE protein adducts and down-regulation of electron transport chain complexes I and V. Moreover, increased aldehydic load was associated with a 90% reduction in cardiac ALDH2 activity and increased glutathione pool. Further supporting an ALDH2 mechanism, sustained Alda-1 treatment (starting 24hrs after permanent LAD occlusion surgery) prevented aldehydic overload, mitochondrial dysfunction and improved ventricular function in post-MI cardiomyopathy rats. Conclusion Taken together, our findings demonstrate a disrupted mitochondrial metabolism along with an insufficient cardiac ALDH2-mediated aldehyde clearance during the progression of ventricular dysfunction, suggesting a potential therapeutic value of ALDH2 activators during the progression of post-myocardial infarction

  5. Triggering the approach of an arene or heteroarene towards an aldehyde via Lewis acid-aldehyde communication.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports a combined experimental/computational study of the Lewis acid promoted hydroxyalkylation reaction involving aldehyde and arene/heteroarene and reveals a mechanism in which the rate determining aldehyde to alcohol formation via a four-member cyclic transition state (TS) involves a transfer of hydrogen from arene/heteroarene C-H to aldehyde oxygen with the breaking of the C-H bond and formation of C-C and O-H bonds. The effect of different Sn(iv) derivatives on the hydroxyalkylation reaction from different in situ NMR and computational studies reveals that although the exergonic formation of the intermediate and its gained electrophilicity at the carbonyl carbon drive the reaction in SnCl4 compared to other Sn(iv) derivatives, the overall reaction is low yielding because of its stable intermediate. With respect to different aldehydes, LA promoted hydroxylation was found to be more feasible for an electron withdrawing aldehyde compared to electron rich aldehyde because of lower stability, enhanced electrophilicity gained at the aldehyde center, and a lower activation barrier between its intermediate and TS in the former as compared to the latter. The relative stability of the LA-aldehyde adduct decreases in the order SnCl4 > AlCl3 > InCl3 > BF3 > ZnCl2 > TiCl4 > SiCl4, while the activation barrier (ΔG(#)) between intermediate and transition states increases in the order AlCl3 < SnCl4 < InCl3 < BF3 < TiCl4 < ZnCl2 < SiCl4. On the other hand, the activation barriers in the case of different arenes/heteroarenes are in the order of indole < furan < anisole < thiophene < toluene < benzene < chlorobenzene < cyanobenzene, which suggests a facile reaction in the case of indole and the most difficult reaction in the case of cyanobenzene. The ease of formation of the corresponding diaryl methyl carbocation from the alcohol-LA intermediate is responsible for the determination of the undesired product and is found to be more viable in the case of strong

  6. Effects of aldehydes on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Wu, Hong; Liu, Qiu-ping; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zong, Min-hua

    2011-05-11

    The effects of five representative aldehydes in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and the lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans were investigated for the first time. There was no relationship between the hydrophobicity and the toxicity of aldehyde, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was less toxic than aromatic aldehydes and furfural. Binary combination of aromatic aldehydes caused a synergistic inhibitory effect, but combination of furan and aromatic aldehydes reduced the inhibition instead. A longer lag phase was found due to the presence of aldehydes and the decrease of sugar consumption rate, but more xylose was utilized by T. fermentans in the presence of aldehydes, especially at their low concentrations. The variation of malic enzyme activity was not related to the delay of lipid accumulation. Furthermore, the inhibition of aldehydes on cell growth was more dependent on inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than that on lipid content. PMID:21443267

  7. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  8. Direct N-acylation of lactams, oxazolidinones, and imidazolidinones with aldehydes by Shvo's catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2012-09-01

    Direct N-acylation of lactams, oxazolidinones, and imidazolidinones was achieved with aldehydes by Shvo's catalyst without using any other stoichiometric reagent. The N-acylations with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were achieved with excellent yields. PMID:22913512

  9. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Ronald A.; Froese, Colleen

    1990-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective antidepressant agents. They are increasingly and effectively used in a number of other psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical syndromes. Their potential for serious toxicity (i.e., hypertensive reaction) is far less than original reports suggest, and newer reversible substrate-specific MAOIs may offer even less toxicity. The author reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical indications, and dosing strategies of MAOIs. The common MAOI side-effects (hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, daytime sedation, myoclonus, and hypertensive episodes) are described and management techniques suggested. Recent clinical developments involving MAOIs are outlined. PMID:21233984

  10. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to angiotensin II induces over-activation of monoamine oxidase type A: implications in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Manni, Maria Elena; Zazzeri, Marina; Musilli, Claudia; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Lodovici, Maura; Raimondi, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Several evidences indicate that increased cardiac mitochondrial monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) activity associates with a failing phenotype. Till now, the mechanism underlying such relation is largely unknown. We explored the hypothesis that exposure of cardiomyocytes to AT-II caused activation of MAO-A and also of catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, enzymes involved in degrading MAO's end products. Left ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from normoglycemic (N) and streptozotocin-injected (50 mg/kg) rats (D) treated or not treated with losartan (20 mg/kg/day in drinking water; DLos and NLos, respectively), a type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist, for 3 weeks. In each group of cells, MAO, catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were measured radiochemically and spectrophotometrically. The same enzymes were also measured in HL-1 immortalized cardiomyocytes not exposed and exposed to AT-II (100 nM for 18 h) in the absence and in the presence of irbesartan (1 μM), an AT1 antagonist. MAO-A catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were found significantly higher in D, than in N cells. MAO-A positively correlated with catalase activity in D cells. MAO-A and aldehyde dehydrogenase but not catalase over-activation, were prevented in DLos cells. Similarly, MAO-A activity, but not catalase and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased significantly in HL-1 cells acutely exposed to AT-II and this increase was prevented when irbesartan, an AT1 antagonist was present. Over-activation of cardiomyocyte MAO-A activity is among acute (18 h) and short-term (2-weeks of diabetes) cardiac effects of AT-II and a novel target of AT1 antagonists, first line treatments of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24012905

  11. ANALYSIS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES IN THE GAS PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development and testing of a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-acetonitrile (DNPH-ACN) method for the analysis of aldehydes and ketones in ambient air are described. A discussion of interferences, preparation of calibration standards, analytical testing, fluorescence methods and car...

  12. Acute cardiopulmonary toxicity of inhaled aldehydes: role of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Inhalation of high-level volatile aldehydes, as present in smoke from wildfires and in tobacco smoke, is associated with both acute and chronic cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) protein forms a cation channel (irritant receptor) that mediates tobacco smoke-induced airway and lung injury, yet the role of TRPA1 in the cardiovascular toxicity of aldehyde exposure is unclear. Physiologically, airway-located TRPA1 activation triggers an irritant response (e.g., coughing and "respiratory braking") that alters the rate and depth of breathing to reduce exposure. Acrolein (2-propenal), a volatile, unsaturated aldehyde, activates TRPA1. Acrolein was used as a chemical weapon in World War I and is present at high levels in wildfires and tobacco smoke. Acrolein is thought to contribute to pulmonary and cardiovascular injury caused by tobacco smoke exposure, although the role of TRPA1 in cardiovascular toxicity is unclear. This minireview addresses this gap in our knowledge by exploring literature and recent data indicating a connection between TRPA1 and cardiovascular as well as pulmonary injury due to inhaled aldehydes. PMID:27152448

  13. A thermostable transketolase evolved for aliphatic aldehyde acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong; Saravanan, Thangavelu; Devamani, Titu; Charmantray, Franck; Hecquet, Laurence; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-11

    Directed evolution of the thermostable transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus based on a pH-based colorimetric screening of smart libraries yielded several mutants with up to 16-fold higher activity for aliphatic aldehydes and high enantioselectivity (>95% ee) in the asymmetric carboligation step. PMID:25415647

  14. Interaction of aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ciamporcero, Eric; Daga, Martina; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Arcaro, Alessia; Cetrangolo, Gianpaolo; Minelli, Rosalba; Dianzani, Chiara; Lepore, Alessio; Gentile, Fabrizio; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24027536

  15. New preparation of diethyl methylformylphosphonate dimethylhydrazone: A reagent for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phosphonate reagent, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone contains a protected aldehyde group instead of the usual ester group. It can be used for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to a, ß-unsaturated aldehydes. The reagent can be prepared in good overall yield (82%) and...

  16. Derivatization Strategy for the Comprehensive Characterization of Endogenous Fatty Aldehydes Using HPLC-Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2016-08-01

    Fatty aldehydes are crucial substances that mediate a wide range of vital physiological functions, particularly lipid peroxidation. Fatty aldehydes such as acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are considered potential biomarkers of myocardial ischemia and dementia, but analytical techniques for fatty aldehydes are lacking. In the present study, a comprehensive characterization strategy with high sensitivity and facility for fatty aldehydes based on derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) was developed. The fatty aldehydes of a biosample were derivatized using 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine under mild and efficient reaction conditions at 37 °C for 15 min. The limit of detection (LOD) of the fatty aldehydes varied from 0.1 to 1 pg/mL, depending on the structures of these molecules. General MRM parameters were forged for the analysis of endogenous fatty aldehydes. "Heavy" derivatization reagents with 20 deuterium atoms were synthesized for both the discovery and comprehensive characterization of fatty aldehydes. More than 80 fatty aldehydes were detected in the biosamples. The new strategy was successfully implemented in global fatty aldehyde profiling of plasma and brain tissue of the bilateral common carotid artery (2VO) dementia rat model. Dozens of fatty aldehydes were significantly changed between the control and model groups. These findings further highlight the importance of endogenous fatty aldehydes. PMID:27397858

  17. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  18. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance to study different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy. PMID:26846578

  19. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors [such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)] to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the...

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and alternative oxidase are involved in the cross tolerance of highland barley to salt stress and UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengzhou; Wang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Kunlun; Li, Ping; Chang, Ning; Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Feng; Li, Jiaolong; Bi, Yurong

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a new mechanism involving glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and alternative pathways (AP) in salt pretreatment-induced tolerance of highland barley to UV-B radiation was investigated. When highland barley was exposed to UV-B radiation, the G6PDH activity decreased but the AP capacity increased. In contrast, under UV-B+NaCl treatment, the G6PDH activity was restored to the control level and the maximal AP capacity and antioxidant enzyme activities were reached. Glucosamine (Glucm, an inhibitor of G6PDH) obviously inhibited the G6PDH activity in highland barley under UV-B + NaCl treatment and a similar pattern was observed in reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (Asc) contents. Similarly, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, an inhibitor of AOX) significantly reduced the AP capacity in highland barley under UV-B + NaCl treatment. The UV-B-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation was also followed. Further studies indicated that non-functioning of G6PDH or AP under UV-B+NaCl + Glucm or UV-B + NaCl + SHAM treatment also caused damages in photosynthesis and stomatal movement. Western blot analysis confirmed that the alternative oxidase (AOX) and G6PDH were dependent each other in cross tolerance to UV-B and salt. The inhibition of AP or G6PDH activity resulted in a significant accumulation or reduction of NADPH content, respectively, under UV-B+NaCl treatment in highland barley leaves. Taken together, our results indicate that AP and G6PDH mutually regulate and maintain photosynthesis and stomata movement in the cross adaptation of highland barley seedlings to UV-B and salt by modulating redox homeostasis and NADPH content. PMID:26009793

  1. Sulfite Oxidase Catalyzes Single-Electron Transfer at Molybdenum Domain to Reduce Nitrite to Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Krizowski, Sabina; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Niks, Dimitri; Tejero, Jesús; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Wang, Ling; Ragireddy, Venkata; Frizzell, Sheila; Kelley, Eric E.; Zhang, Yingze; Basu, Partha; Hille, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Recent studies suggest that the molybdenum enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mARC exhibit nitrite reductase activity at low oxygen pressures. However, inhibition studies of xanthine oxidase in humans have failed to block nitrite-dependent changes in blood flow, leading to continued exploration for other candidate nitrite reductases. Another physiologically important molybdenum enzyme—sulfite oxidase (SO)—has not been extensively studied. Results: Using gas-phase nitric oxide (NO) detection and physiological concentrations of nitrite, SO functions as nitrite reductase in the presence of a one-electron donor, exhibiting redox coupling of substrate oxidation and nitrite reduction to form NO. With sulfite, the physiological substrate, SO only facilitates one turnover of nitrite reduction. Studies with recombinant heme and molybdenum domains of SO indicate that nitrite reduction occurs at the molybdenum center via coupled oxidation of Mo(IV) to Mo(V). Reaction rates of nitrite to NO decreased in the presence of a functional heme domain, mediated by steric and redox effects of this domain. Using knockdown of all molybdopterin enzymes and SO in fibroblasts isolated from patients with genetic deficiencies of molybdenum cofactor and SO, respectively, SO was found to significantly contribute to hypoxic nitrite signaling as demonstrated by activation of the canonical NO-sGC-cGMP pathway. Innovation: Nitrite binds to and is reduced at the molybdenum site of mammalian SO, which may be allosterically regulated by heme and molybdenum domain interactions, and contributes to the mammalian nitrate-nitrite-NO signaling pathway in human fibroblasts. Conclusion: SO is a putative mammalian nitrite reductase, catalyzing nitrite reduction at the Mo(IV) center. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 283–294. PMID:25314640

  2. Structural Analysis of Aliphatic vs. Aromatic Substrate Specificity in a Copper Amine Oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Klema, Valerie J.; Solheid, Corinne J.; Klinman, Judith P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are responsible for the oxidative deamination of primary amines to their corresponding aldehydes. The CAO catalytic mechanism can be divided into two half-reactions: a reductive half-reaction, in which a primary amine substrate is oxidized to its corresponding aldehyde with the concomitant reduction of the organic cofactor 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ), and an oxidative half-reaction, in which reduced TPQ is re-oxidized with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The reductive half-reaction proceeds via Schiff base chemistry, in which the primary amine substrate first attacks the C5 carbonyl of TPQ, forming a series of covalent Schiff base intermediates. The X-ray crystal structures of copper amine oxidase-1 from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (HPAO-1) in complex with ethylamine and benzylamine have been solved to resolutions of 2.18 and 2.25 Å, respectively. These structures reveal the two amine substrates bound at the back of the active site coincident with TPQ in its two-electron reduced aminoquinol form. Rearrangements of particular amino acid side chains within the substrate channel and specific protein-substrate interactions provide insight into substrate specificity in HPAO-1. These changes begin to account for this CAO’s kinetic preference for small, aliphatic amines over the aromatic amines or whole peptides preferred by some of its homologs. PMID:23452079

  3. Purification and some properties of alcohol oxidase from alkane-grown Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, F M; Wadforth, C

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol oxidase was purified to homogeneity from membrane fractions obtained from alkane-grown Candida tropicalis. The enzyme appears to be a dimer of equal-sized subunits of Mr 70000. The purified enzyme is photosensitive and contains flavin-type material which is released by a combination of boiling and proteolytic digestion. The identity of the flavin material is not yet known, but it is not FMN, FAD or riboflavin. The enzyme is most active with dodecan-I-ol, but other long-chain alcohols are also attacked. The enzyme shows a weak, but significant activity towards long-chain aldehydes. Detailed kinetic studies with decan-1-ol as substrate suggest a group-transfer (Ping-Pong)-type mechanism of catalysis. PMID:1546949

  4. Identification of a nitroalkane oxidase gene: naoA related to the growth of Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Jihui; Tan, Huarong

    2008-12-01

    naoA, encoding a nitroalkane oxidase that can catalyze toxic nitroalkanes to their corresponding aldehydes or ketones and hydrogen peroxide, was cloned from Streptomyces ansochromogenes, but its function related to the growth of Streptomyces is unknown. naoA was disrupted by the insertion of a kanamycin-resistance gene; the resulting strain can grow earlier than a wild-type strain under the same conditions. It was shown that naoA disruption accelerated growth of the naoA-disruption mutant, which could restore its phenotype and morphology as a wild-type strain by complementation of a single copy number of naoA inserted into the chromosome. The introduction of an extra copy of naoA into the wild-type strain resulted in delayed growth. The result suggested that naoA is an important gene related to the growth of S. ansochromogenes. PMID:18810541

  5. Solvent isotope and viscosity effects on the steady-state kinetics of the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gadda, Giovanni; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2013-09-01

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidative denitrification of a broad range of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to yield the respective aldehydes or ketones, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. With nitroethane as substrate the D2O(k(cat)/K(M)) value is 0.6 and the D2Ok(cat) value is 2.4. The k(cat) proton inventory is consistent with a single exchangeable proton in flight, while the k(cat)/K(M) is consistent with either a single proton in flight in the transition state or a medium effect. Increasing the solvent viscosity did not affect the k(cat) or k(cat)/K(M) value significantly, establishing that nitroethane binding is at equilibrium and that product release does not limit k(cat). PMID:23660407

  6. The reaction pathway of membrane-bound rat liver mitochondrial monoamine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Houslay, Miles D.; Tipton, Keith F.

    1973-01-01

    1. A preparation of a partly purified mitochondrial outer-membrane fraction suitable for kinetic investigations of monoamine oxidase is described. 2. An apparatus suitable for varying the O2 concentration in a spectrophotometer cuvette is described. 3. The reaction catalysed by the membrane-bound enzyme is shown to proceed by a double-displacement (Ping Pong) mechanism, and a formal mechanism is proposed. 4. KCN, NaN3, benzyl cyanide and 4-cyanophenol are shown to be reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. 5. The non-linear reciprocal plot obtained with impure preparations of benzylamine, which is typical of high substrate inhibition, is shown to be due to aldehyde contamination of the substrate. PMID:4778271

  7. RRM analysis of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sauren, M; Pirogova, E; Cosic, I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymes are crucial in accelerating metabolic reactions in living organisms. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PpOI) is an enzyme that catalyses the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a protein used in a cancer treatment known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, a structure-function analysis of PpOI was carried out using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM), a physico-mathematical approach for analysis of proteins interactions. This method is based on the finding that the distribution of delocalised electron energies along the protein plays a crucial role in determining the protein's biological activity. Two digital signal processing (DSP) methods were used: Fourier Transform (FT) and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). Here we have determined the characteristic frequencies and the "hot spot" amino acids, and predicted the location of proteins' active site(s). Several proteins that potentially belong to the PpOI functional group were also analysed to distinguish their viability in this role. PMID:15712584

  8. Crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Dikalov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. In recent years, a feed-forward regulation of the ROS sources has been reported. The interaction between main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, however, remain obscure. This work summarizes the latest findings on the role of crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases in pathophysiological processes. Mitochondria have the highest levels of antioxidants in the cell and play an important role in the maintenance of cellular redox status, thereby acting as an ROS and redox sink and limiting NADPH oxidase activity. Mitochondria, however, are not only a target for ROS produced by NADPH oxidase but also a significant source of ROS, which under certain condition may stimulate NADPH oxidases. This crosstalk between mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, therefore, may represent a feed-forward vicious cycle of ROS production which can be pharmacologically targeted under conditions of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants break this vicious cycle, inhibiting ROS production by mitochondria and reducing NADPH oxidase activity. This may provide a novel strategy for treatment of many pathological conditions including aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and degenerative neurological disorders in which mitochondrial oxidative stress seems to play a role. It is conceivable that the use of mitochondria-targeted treatments would be effective in these conditions. PMID:21777669

  9. Structural Insights into Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Wilson, H.; Graf, T.; Xiang, S.; Jaramillo-Busquets, S.; Rajagopalan, K.; Kisker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a lethal genetic disease that results from defects either in the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or in the sulfite oxidase gene itself. Several point mutations in the sulfite oxidase gene have been identified from patients suffering from this disease worldwide. Although detailed biochemical analyses have been carried out on these mutations, no structural data could be obtained because of problems in crystallizing recombinant human and rat sulfite oxidases and the failure to clone the chicken sulfite oxidase gene. We synthesized the gene for chicken sulfite oxidase de novo, working backward from the amino acid sequence of the native chicken liver enzyme by PCR amplification of a series of 72 overlapping primers. The recombinant protein displayed the characteristic absorption spectrum of sulfite oxidase and exhibited steady state and rapid kinetic parameters comparable with those of the tissue-derived enzyme. We solved the crystal structures of the wild type and the sulfite oxidase deficiency-causing R138Q (R160Q in humans) variant of recombinant chicken sulfite oxidase in the resting and sulfate-bound forms. Significant alterations in the substrate-binding pocket were detected in the structure of the mutant, and a comparison between the wild type and mutant protein revealed that the active site residue Arg-450 adopts different conformations in the presence and absence of bound sulfate. The size of the binding pocket is thereby considerably reduced, and its position relative to the cofactor is shifted, causing an increase in the distance of the sulfur atom of the bound sulfate to the molybdenum.

  10. Aldehydes, carboxylic acids and inorganic nitrate during NSMCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Daniel

    This article describes the methods and results of a study involving measurements of ambient levels of carboxylic acids (formic, acetic and oxalic), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, n- butanal, n- pentanal and benzaldehyde) and total inorganic nitrate (nitric acid + particulate nitrate) during the Nitrogen Species Methods Comparison Study (NSMCS). Results for inorganic nitrate obtained using Teflon-nylon filter packs are compared to those obtained with nylon-nylon filter units and to those obtained by other methods during NSMCS. Calculations are presented of the distribution of gas phase nitrogen among NO, NO 2, HONO 2 and PAN, and of the positive bias due to PAN and HONO 2 in NOx measurements by chemiluminescence. Data for aldehydes and carboxylic acids are discussed in terms of sampling efficiency, gas-aerosol phase distribution, possible interferents (e.g. PAN as acetate on alkaline filters), diurnal variations, and relative importance of emissions vs in-situ daytime and night-time formation and removal processes.

  11. Human lysyl oxidase-like 2.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Finney, Joel; Ronnebaum, Trey; Mure, Minae

    2014-12-01

    Lysyl oxidase like-2 (LOXL2) belongs to the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family, which comprises Cu(2+)- and lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ)-dependent amine oxidases. LOXL2 is proposed to function similarly to LOX in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by promoting crosslinking of collagen and elastin. LOXL2 has also been proposed to regulate extracellular and intracellular cell signaling pathways. Dysregulation of LOXL2 has been linked to many diseases, including cancer, pro-oncogenic angiogenesis, fibrosis and heart diseases. In this review, we will give an overview of the current understandings and hypotheses regarding the molecular functions of LOXL2. PMID:25146937

  12. NADPH Oxidases and Angiotensin II Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Abel Martin; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade many studies have demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases in angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling, as well as a role for ROS in the development of different diseases in which Ang II is a central component. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of activation of NADPH oxidases by Ang II and describe the molecular targets of ROS in Ang II signaling in the vasculature, kidney and brain. We also discuss the effects of genetic manipulation of NADPH oxidase function on the physiology and pathophysiology of the renin angiotensin system. PMID:19059306

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cellular responses to oxidative/electrophilic stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Chen, Ying; Jackson, Brian C; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single-celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors such as dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an "aldehyde scavenger" during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Upregulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity, and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation), and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane, and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that contributes significantly to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, highlighting the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23195683

  14. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling of Alkenes, Aldehydes, and Silyl Triflates

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze-sze; Ho, Chun-Yu; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A full account of two recently developed nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions of alkenes, aldehydes and silyl triflates is presented. These reactions provide either allylic alcohol or homoallylic alcohol derivatives selectively, depending on the ligand employed. These processes are believed to be mechanistically distinct from Lewis acid-catalyzed carbonyl-ene reactions, and several lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16939275

  15. Ruthenium catalyzed hydrogenation of aldehyde with synthesis gas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohei; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-11-21

    The hydrogenation of aldehyde utilizing synthesis gas as a dihydrogen source was examined with various ruthenium catalysts, among which Ru-cyclopentadienone complexes (Shvo-type catalysts) exhibited higher activity than others. DFT calculations proved that the exchange of coordinated carbon monoxide by dihydrogen is relatively preferable in Shvo-type catalysts compared to others, which is a pre-equilibrium for the generation of the hydrogenation-active species. PMID:25372182

  16. Hydrogenation of Aldehydes Catalyzed by an Available Ruthenium Complex.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuefeng; Wang, Guozhen; Zhu, Ziyue; Ren, Conghui; Zhou, Jinping; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Chung, Lung Wa; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-04-01

    A readily available ruthenium(II) catalyst was developed for the catalytic hydrogenation of aldehydes with a TON (turnover number) up to 340000. It can be performed without base and solvent, showing highly industrial potential. High chemoselectivity can be achieved in the presence of alkenyl and ketone groups. Further application of this protocol in glucose reduction showed good efficiency. Theoretical studies revealed that the rate-determining step is the hydrogenation step, not the carboxylate-assisted H2 activation step. PMID:26974348

  17. Quantification of the electrophilic reactivities of aldehydes, imines, and enones.

    PubMed

    Appel, Roland; Mayr, Herbert

    2011-06-01

    The rates of the epoxidation reactions of aldehydes, of the aziridination reactions of aldimines, and of the cyclopropanation reactions of α,β-unsaturated ketones with aryl-stabilized dimethylsulfonium ylides have been determined photometrically in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). All of these sulfur ylide-mediated cyclization reactions as well as the addition reactions of stabilized carbanions to N-tosyl-activated aldimines have been shown to follow a second-order rate law, where the rate constants reflect the (initial) CC bond formation between nucleophile and electrophile. The derived second-order rate constants (log k(2)) have been combined with the known nucleophilicity parameters (N, s(N)) of the aryl-stabilized sulfur ylides 4a,b and of the acceptor-substituted carbanions 4c-h to calculate the electrophilicity parameters E of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes (1a-i), N-acceptor-substituted aromatic aldimines (2a-e), and α,β-unsaturated ketones (3a-f) according to the linear free-energy relationship log k(2) = s(N)(N + E) as defined in J. Am. Chem. Soc.2001, 123, 9500-9512. The data reported in this work provide the first quantitative comparison of the electrophilic reactivities of aldehydes, imines, and simple Michael acceptors in DMSO with carbocations and cationic metal-π complexes within our comprehensive electrophilicity scale. PMID:21553901

  18. Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe.

    PubMed

    Al Rashidi, M; Shihadeh, A; Saliba, N A

    2008-11-01

    Very little is known about the quality and quantity of toxicants yielded by the narghile, a subject of increasing importance as this method of tobacco smoking has become popular all over the world. This study is concerned with the identification and quantification of volatile aldehydes in the gas and particle phases of mainstream narghile smoke generated using a popular type of flavored ma'ssel tobacco mixture. These compounds were analyzed based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency compendium method TO-11A. Using a standardized smoking machine protocol consisting of 171 puffs, 2.6s puff duration and 17s inter puff interval, the average yields of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde and methacrolein were 630, 2520, 892, 403, and 106 microg/smoking session, respectively. The results showed that none of the aldehydes identified in this study are found in the particulate phase of the smoke, except for formaldehyde for which the partitioning coefficient was estimated as Kp = 3.3 x 10(-8) microg/m3. Given previously reported lung absorption fractions of circa 90% for volatile aldehydes, the yields measured in this study are sufficient to induce various diseases depending on the extent of exposure, and on the breathing patterns of the smokers. PMID:18834915

  19. γ-Unsaturated aldehydes as potential Lilial replacers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Martin; Mathys, Marion; Ehrensperger, Nadja; Büchel, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    A series of Claisen rearrangements was undertaken in order to find a replacement for Lilial (=3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanal), a high-tonnage perfumery ingredient with a lily-of-the-valley odour, which is a CMR2 material [1]. 5,7,7-Trimethyl-4-methyleneoctanal (10), the synthesis of which is described, became the main lead. It possesses an odour which is very close to that of Lilial but lacks its substantivity. Aldehydes with higher molecular weights than that of 10 were, therefore, synthesised in order to boost substantivity and to understand the structural requirements for a 'Lilial' odour. The aldehydes were obtained via Claisen rearrangements of 'exo-methylidene' vinyl ethers, allenyl vinyl ethers, or allenyl allyl ethers. Alternatively, coupling of terminal alkynes with allyl alcohols led to the desired aldehydes. Derivatives of 10 and their sila analogues were also synthesised. The olfactory properties of all synthesised molecules were evaluated for possible structure-odour relationships (SOR). PMID:25329790

  20. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis; Xiang, Quanju; Li, Xi; Liu, Na; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors (such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the reduction enzymes involved in this reaction remain largely unknown. In this study, we reported that an uncharacterized open reading frame PICST_72153 (putative GRE2) from S. stipitis was highly induced in response to furfural and HMF stresses. Overexpression of this gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improved yeast tolerance to furfural and HMF. GRE2 was identified as an aldehyde reductase which can reduce furfural to FM with either NADH or NADPH as the co-factor and reduce HMF to FDM with NADPH as the co-factor. This enzyme can also reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that it is a member of the subclass "intermediate" of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Although GRE2 from S. stipitis is similar to GRE2 from S. cerevisiae in a three-dimensional structure, some differences were predicted. GRE2 from S. stipitis forms loops at D133-E137 and T143-N145 locations with two α-helices at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations, different GRE2 from S. cerevisiae with an α-helix at D133-E137 and a β-sheet at T143-N145 locations, and two loops at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations. This research provided guidelines for the study of other SDR enzymes from S. stipitis and other yeasts on tolerant mechanisms to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27003269

  1. Regulation of NADPH oxidases in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo F; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    The only known function of NAD(P)H oxidases is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skeletal muscles express three isoforms of NAD(P)H oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4) that have been identified as critical modulators of redox homeostasis. Nox2 acts as the main source of skeletal muscle ROS during contractions, participates in insulin signaling and glucose transport, and mediates the myocyte response to osmotic stress. Nox2 and Nox4 contribute to skeletal muscle abnormalities elicited by angiotensin II, muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and high fat diet. Our review addresses the expression and regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases with emphasis on aspects that are relevant to skeletal muscle. We also summarize: i) the most widely used NAD(P)H oxidases activity assays and inhibitors, and ii) studies that have defined Nox enzymes as protagonists of skeletal muscle redox homeostasis in a variety of health and disease conditions. PMID:27184955

  2. Activation of Polyphenol Oxidase of Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Tolbert, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or —18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density. Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles × mg−1 chlorophyll × hr−1. Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes. Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30

  3. NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat

  4. Heme/copper terminal oxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson-Miller, S.; Babcock, G.T.

    1996-11-01

    Spatially well-organized electron-transfer reactions in a series of membrane-bound redox proteins form the basis for energy conservation in both photosynthesis and respiration. The membrane-bound nature of the electron-transfer processes is critical, as the free energy made available in exergonic redox chemistry is used to generate transmembrane proton concentration and electrostatic potential gradients. These gradients are subsequently used to drive ATP formation, which provides the immediate energy source for constructive cellular processes. The terminal heme/copper oxidases in respiratory electron-transfer chains illustrate a number of the thermodynamic and structural principles that have driven the development of respiration. This class of enzyme reduces dioxygen to water, thus clearing the respiratory system of low-energy electrons so that sustained electron transfer and free-energy transduction can occur. By using dioxygen as the oxidizing substrate, free-energy production per electron through the chain is substantial, owing to the high reduction potential of O{sub 2} (0.815 V at pH 7). 122 refs.

  5. Wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces via entrapment in low potential phenothiazine-modified redox polymers.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Alsaoub, Sabine; Leimkühler, Silke; Wollenberger, Ulla; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Phenothiazine-modified redox hydrogels were synthesized and used for the wiring of the aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC to electrode surfaces. The effects of the pH value and electrode surface modification on the biocatalytic activity of the layers were studied in the presence of vanillin as the substrate. The enzyme electrodes were successfully employed as bioanodes in vanillin/O2 biofuel cells in combination with a high potential bilirubin oxidase biocathode. Open circuit voltages of around 700 mV could be obtained in a two compartment biofuel cell setup. Moreover, the use of a rather hydrophobic polymer with a high degree of crosslinking sites ensures the formation of stable polymer/enzyme films which were successfully used as bioanode in membrane-less biofuel cells. PMID:26775204

  6. Neuroprotective effects of pterin-6-aldehyde in gerbil global brain ischemia: comparison with those of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Arai, T; Ishii, H; Adachi, T; Endo, N; Makino, K; Mori, K

    1998-01-30

    The superoxide (O2.-) scavenging activity and the neuroprotective effects of pterin-6-aldehyde (P6A), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, were examined and compared with those of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), a spin trapping agent. The scavenging activity of P6A was more potent than that of PBN by 150-fold in neutrophil/phorbol myristate acetate O2.- generating system. P6A attenuated the neuronal damage with a much smaller dose and a greater efficiency than PBN in global brain ischemia in gerbils. These findings suggest that P6A is a more potent neuroprotective agent than PBN and has possible therapeutic effects against various diseases in which O2.- is involved. PMID:9507930

  7. Crystallization and preliminary analysis of active nitroalkane oxidase in three crystal forms.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Akanksha; Valley, Michael P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F; Orville, Allen M

    2004-08-01

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO), a flavoprotein cloned and purified from Fusarium oxysporum, catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, with the production of H2O2 and nitrite. In this paper, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of active nitroalkane oxidase are described. The first crystal form belongs to a trigonal space group (either P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.8, c = 487.0 A) and diffracts to at least 1.6 A resolution. Several data sets were collected using 2theta and kappa geometry in order to obtain a complete data set to 2.07 A resolution. Solvent-content and Matthews coefficient analysis suggests that crystal form 1 contains two homotetramers per asymmetric unit. Crystal form 2 (P2(1)2(1)2(1); a = 147.3, b = 153.5, c = 169.5 A) and crystal form 3 (P3(1) or P3(2); a = b = 108.9, c = 342.5 A) are obtained from slightly different conditions and also contain two homotetramers per asymmetric unit, but have different solvent contents. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from selenomethionine-enriched NAO (SeMet-NAO) in crystal form 3 and will be used for phasing. PMID:15272176

  8. Genomic organisation, activity and distribution analysis of the microbial putrescine oxidase degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Foster, Alexander; Barnes, Nicole; Speight, Robert; Keane, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic action of putrescine specific amine oxidases acting in tandem with 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase is explored as a degradative pathway in Rhodococcus opacus. By limiting the nitrogen source, increased catalytic activity was induced leading to a coordinated response in the oxidative deamination of putrescine to 4-aminobutyraldehyde and subsequent dehydrogenation to 4-aminobutyrate. Isolating the dehydrogenase by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration revealed that the enzyme acts principally on linear aliphatic aldehydes possessing an amino moiety. Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis delivered a Michaelis constant (K(M)=0.014 mM) and maximum rate (Vmax=11.2 μmol/min/mg) for the conversion of 4-aminobutyraldehyde to 4-aminobutyrate. The dehydrogenase identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis (E value=0.031, 23% coverage) belongs to a functionally related genomic cluster that includes the amine oxidase, suggesting their association in a directed cell response. Key regulatory, stress and transport encoding genes have been identified, along with candidate dehydrogenases and transaminases for the further conversion of 4-aminobutyrate to succinate. Genomic analysis has revealed highly similar metabolic gene clustering among members of Actinobacteria, providing insight into putrescine degradation notably among Micrococcaceae, Rhodococci and Corynebacterium by a pathway that was previously uncharacterised in bacteria. PMID:23906496

  9. Ni-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Direct Transformation of Aldehydes to Esters and Amides

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Aaron M.; Dong, Vy M.

    2015-01-01

    By exploring a new mode of Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling, we have developed a protocol to transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides directly. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. We present mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C–H bond. PMID:25424967

  10. Nickel-catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling: direct transformation of aldehydes into esters and amides.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Aaron M; Dong, Vy M

    2015-01-19

    By exploring a new mode of nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling, a method to directly transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides has been developed. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. Mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C-H bond is also presented. PMID:25424967

  11. Betaine aldehyde, betaine, and choline levels in rat livers during ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chern, M K; Gage, D A; Pietruszko, R

    2000-12-01

    Betaine aldehyde levels were determined in rat livers following 4 weeks of ethanol feeding, employing the Lieber-De Carli liquid diet. The results showed that the levels of betaine aldehyde are unaffected by alcohol feeding to rats. These levels in both experimental and control animals were found to be quite low, 5.5 nmol/g liver. Betaine aldehyde levels have not been determined previously in mammalian liver because of methodological difficulties. This investigation employed fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy to determine the levels of betaine aldehyde, betaine, and choline. The decrease in betaine levels following ethanol administration confirmed the results of other investigators. Choline levels determined during this investigation were lower than previously reported. The reason for starting this investigation was the fact that the enzyme that catalyzes betaine aldehyde dehydrogenation to betaine, which is distributed in both mitochondria and the cytoplasm, was found to also metabolize acetaldehyde with K(m) and V(max) values lower than those for betaine aldehyde. Thus, it appeared likely that the metabolism of acetaldehyde during ethanol metabolism might inhibit betaine aldehyde conversion to betaine and thereby result in decreased betaine levels (Barak et al., Alcohol 13: 395-398, 1996). The fact that betaine aldehyde levels in alcohol-fed animals were similar to those in controls demonstrates that competition between acetaldehyde and betaine aldehyde for the same enzyme does not occur. This complete lack of competition suggests that betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial matrix may totally metabolize betaine aldehyde to betaine without any involvement of cytoplasmic betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. PMID:11077045

  12. On the nature of the olefination reaction involving ditungsten hexaalkoxides and aldehydes or ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, M.H.; Huffman, J.C.; Lucas, E.A.; Sousa, A.; Streib, W.E.

    1992-03-25

    Reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones to olefins under the action of ditungsten hexaalkoxides was investigated. In these reactions, reductive cleavage of the aldehyde or ketone carbonyl is followed by formation of the olefinic C-C bond and breaking of the carbonyl C-O bond of the second aldehyde or ketone. Observations concerning the initial C-O bond cleavage and subsequent C-C bond formation are presented. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Reductive half-reaction of nitroalkane oxidase: effect of mutation of the active site aspartate to glutamate.

    PubMed

    Valley, Michael P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2003-05-20

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to the respective aldehydes or ketones, releasing nitrite. The enzyme has recently been identified as being homologous to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes [Daubner, S. C., Gadda, G., Valley, M. P., and Fitzpatrick, P. F. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 2702-2707]. The glutamate which acts as an active site base in that family of enzymes aligns with Asp402 of nitroalkane oxidase. To evaluate the identification of Asp402 as an active site base, the effect of mutation of Asp402 to glutamate on the rate of cleavage of the nitroalkane C-H bond has been determined. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects on steady state kinetic parameters and direct measurement of the rate of flavin reduction establish that the mutation increases the DeltaG(++) for C-H bond cleavage by 1.6-1.9 kcal/mol. There is no effect on the rate of reaction of the reduced enzyme with oxygen. These results support the assignment of Asp402 as the active site base in nitroalkane oxidase. PMID:12741843

  14. Heterologous Production and Characterization of Two Glyoxal Oxidases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Daou, Marianne; Piumi, François; Cullen, Daniel; Record, Eric

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus includes a large number of genes encoding enzymes implicated in lignin degradation. Among these, three genes are predicted to encode glyoxal oxidase, an enzyme previously isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The glyoxal oxidase of P. chrysosporium is physiologically coupled to lignin-oxidizing peroxidases via generation of extracellular H2O2 and utilizes an array of aldehydes and α-hydroxycarbonyls as the substrates. Two of the predicted glyoxal oxidases of P. cinnabarinus, GLOX1 (PciGLOX1) and GLOX2 (PciGLOX2), were heterologously produced in Aspergillus niger strain D15#26 (pyrG negative) and purified using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, yielding 59 and 5 mg of protein for PciGLOX1 and PciGLOX2, respectively. Both proteins were approximately 60 kDa in size and N-glycosylated. The optimum temperature for the activity of these enzymes was 50°C, and the optimum pH was 6. The enzymes retained most of their activity after incubation at 50°C for 4 h. The highest relative activity and the highest catalytic efficiency of both enzymes occurred with glyoxylic acid as the substrate. The two P. cinnabarinus enzymes generally exhibited similar substrate preferences, but PciGLOX2 showed a broader substrate specificity and was significantly more active on 3-phenylpropionaldehyde. IMPORTANCE This study addresses the poorly understood role of how fungal peroxidases obtain an in situ supply of hydrogen peroxide to enable them to oxidize a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. This cooperative activity is intrinsic in the living organism to control the amount of toxic H2O2 in its environment, thus providing a feed-on-demand scenario, and can be used biotechnologically to supply a cheap source of peroxide for the peroxidase reaction. The secretion of multiple glyoxal oxidases by filamentous fungi as part of a lignocellulolytic mechanism suggests a controlled system, especially as these

  15. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  16. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited. PMID:26591999

  17. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  18. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  19. Electron transmission through a class of anthracene aldehyde molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-03-01

    Transmission of electrons via metal-molecule-metal junctions, involving rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecules is investigated. Two model barriers having input parameters evaluated from accurate ab initio calculations are proposed and the transmission coefficients are obtained by using the quasiclassical approximation. Transmission coefficients further enter in the integral for the net current, utilizing Simmons' method. Conformational dependence of the tunneling processes is evident and the presence of the side groups enhances the functionality of the future single-molecule based electronic devices.

  20. Some properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G J; Dickinson, F M

    1977-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria was purified to homogeneity as judged by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels, and by sedimentation-equilibrium experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 198000 and a subunit size of 48000, indicating that the molecule is a tetramer. Fluorescence and spectrophotometric titrations indicate that each subunit can bind 1 molecule of NADH. Enzymic activity is completely blocked by reaction of 4mol of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate)/mol of enzyme. Excess of disulfiram or iodoacetamide decreases activity to only 50% of the control value, and only two thiol groups per molecule are apparently modified by these reagents. PMID:194582

  1. Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Phang, James M

    2012-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (oxidase, PRODH/POX), the first enzyme in the proline degradative pathway, plays a special role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Proline metabolism catalyzed by PRODH/POX is closely linked with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and urea cycle. The proline cycle formed by the interconversion of proline and Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) between mitochondria and cytosol interlocks with pentose phosphate pathway. Importantly, by catalyzing proline to P5C, PRODH/POX donates electrons into the electron transport chain to generate ROS or ATP. In earlier studies, we found that PRODH/POX functions as a tumor suppressor to initiate apoptosis, inhibit tumor growth, and block the cell cycle, all by ROS signaling. It also suppresses hypoxia inducible factor signaling by increasing α-ketoglutarate. During tumor progression, PRODH/POX is under the control of various tumor-associated factors, such as tumor suppressor p53, inflammatory factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), onco-miRNA miR-23b*, and oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC. Recent studies revealed the two-sided features of PRODH/POX-mediated regulation. Under metabolic stress such as oxygen and glucose deprivation, PRODH/POX can be induced to serve as a tumor survival factor through ATP production or ROS-induced autophagy. The paradoxical roles of PRODH/POX can be understood considering the temporal and spatial context of the tumor. Further studies will provide additional insights into this protein and on its metabolic effects in tumors, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:22886911

  2. The composition of milk xanthine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Hart, L. I.; McGartoll, Mary A.; Chapman, Helen R.; Bray, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    The composition of milk xanthine oxidase has been reinvestigated. When the enzyme is prepared by methods that include a selective denaturation step in the presence of sodium salicylate the product is obtained very conveniently and in high yield, and is homogeneous in the ultracentrifuge and in recycling gel filtration. It has specific activity higher than previously reported preparations of the enzyme and its composition approximates closely to 2mol of FAD, 2g-atoms of Mo and 8g-atoms of Fe/mol of protein (molecular weight about 275000). In contrast, when purely conventional preparative methods are used the product is also homogeneous by the above criteria but has a lower specific activity and is generally comparable to the crystallized enzyme described previously. Such samples also contain 2mol of FAD/mol of protein but they have lower contents of Mo (e.g. 1.2g-atom/mol). Amino acid compositions for the two types of preparation are indistinguishable. These results confirm the previous conclusion that conventional methods give mixtures of xanthine oxidase with an inactive modification of the enzyme now termed `de-molybdo-xanthine oxidase', and show that salicylate can selectively denature the latter. The origin of de-molybdo-xanthine oxidase was investigated. FAD/Mo ratios show that it is present not only in enzyme purified by conventional methods but also in `milk microsomes' (Bailie & Morton, 1958) and in enzyme samples prepared without proteolytic digestion. We conclude that it is secreted by cows together with the active enzyme and we discuss its occurrence in the preparations of other workers. Studies on the milks of individual cows show that nutritional rather than genetic factors determine the relative amounts of xanthine oxidase and de-molybdo-xanthine oxidase. A second inactive modification of the enzyme, now termed `inactivated xanthine oxidase', causes variability in activity relative to E450 or to Mo content and formation of it decreases these ratios

  3. NADPH oxidases: new actors in thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a crucial substrate for thyroid peroxidase, a key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. However, as a potent oxidant, H2O2 might also be responsible for the high level of oxidative DNA damage observed in thyroid tissues, such as DNA base lesions and strand breakages, which promote chromosomal instability and contribute to the development of tumours. Although the role of H2O2 in thyroid hormone synthesis is well established, its precise mechanisms of action in pathological processes are still under investigation. The NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase family are the only oxidoreductases whose primary function is to produce reactive oxygen species. As such, the function and expression of these enzymes are tightly regulated. Thyrocytes express dual oxidase 2, which produces most of the H2O2 for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrocytes also express dual oxidase 1 and NADPH oxidase 4, but the roles of these enzymes are still unknown. Here, we review the structure, expression, localization and function of these enzymes. We focus on their potential role in thyroid cancer, which is characterized by increased expression of these enzymes. PMID:27174022

  4. X-ray Crystal Structure of Arsenite-Inhibited Xanthine Oxidase:[mu]-Sulfido,[mu]-Oxo Double Bridge between Molybdenum and Arsenic in the Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Hongnan; Hall, James; Hille, Russ

    2012-10-23

    Xanthine oxidoreductase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction of sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon centers of a variety of substrates, including purines, aldehydes, and other heterocyclic compounds. The complex of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase has been characterized previously by UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and the catalytically essential sulfido ligand of the square-pyrimidal molybdenum center has been suggested to be involved in arsenite binding through either a {mu}-sulfido,{mu}-oxo double bridge or a single {mu}-sulfido bridge. However, this is contrary to the crystallographically observed single {mu}-oxo bridge between molybdenum and arsenic in the desulfo form of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (an enzyme closely related to xanthine oxidase), whose molybdenum center has an oxo ligand replacing the catalytically essential sulfur, as seen in the functional form of xanthine oxidase. Here we use X-ray crystallography to characterize the molybdenum center of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase and solve the structures of the oxidized and reduced inhibition complexes at 1.82 and 2.11 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. We observe {mu}-sulfido,{mu}-oxo double bridges between molybdenum and arsenic in the active sites of both complexes. Arsenic is four-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-pyramidal geometry in the oxidized complex and three-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-planar geometry in the reduced complex. The doubly bridged binding mode is in agreement with previous XAS data indicating that the catalytically essential sulfur is also essential for the high affinity of reduced xanthine oxidoreductase for arsenite.

  5. Enhanced aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by regenerating NAD+ in Klebsiella pneumoniae and implications for the glycerol dissimilation pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Su, Mingyue; Ge, Xizhen; Tian, Pingfang

    2013-10-01

    In Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3-hydroxypropaldehyde is converted to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Although ALDH overexpression stimulates the formation of 3-HP, it ceases to accumulate when NAD(+) is exhausted. Here we show that NAD(+) regeneration, together with ALDH overexpression, facilitates 3-HP production and benefits cell growth. Three distinct NAD(+)-regenerating enzymes: NADH oxidase and NADH dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were individually expressed in K. pneumoniae. In vitro assay showed their higher activities than that of the control, indicating their capacities to regenerate NAD(+). When they were respectively co-expressed with ALD4, an ALDH from S. cerevisiae, the activities of ALD4 were significantly elevated compared with that expressing ALD4 alone, suggesting that the regenerated NAD(+) enhanced the activity of ALD4. More interestingly, the growth rates of all NAD(+)-regenerating strains were prolonged in comparison with the control, indicating that NAD(+) regeneration stimulated cell proliferation. This study not only reveals the reliance of ALD4 activity on NAD(+) availability but also provides a method for regulating the dha regulon. PMID:23794046

  6. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins.

    PubMed

    Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Susan; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  7. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly. PMID:10995371

  8. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 in stem cells and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human genome contains 19 putatively functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, which encode enzymes critical for detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates through NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation. ALDH1 has three main isotypes, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, and is a marker of normal tissue stem cells (SC) and cancer stem cells (CSC), where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. Experiments with murine and human cells indicate that ALDH1 activity, predominantly attributed to isotype ALDH1A1, is tissue- and cancer-specific. High ALDH1 activity and ALDH1A1 overexpression are associated with poor cancer prognosis, though high ALDH1 and ALDH1A1 levels do not always correlate with highly malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome. In cancer therapy, ALDH1A1 provides a useful therapeutic CSC target in tissue types that normally do not express high levels of ALDH1A1, including breast, lung, esophagus, colon and stomach. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key ALDH isozyme linked to SC populations and an important contributor to CSC function in cancers, and we outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. PMID:26783961

  9. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. ||; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  10. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim/sup -3/ (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate. (JGB)

  11. Residual Particle Sizes of Evaporating Droplets: Ammonium Sulfate and Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, N.; Galloway, M. M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    The reactions of carbonyls like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde, with ammonium salts have been proposed as significant sources of atmospheric organic aerosol. Aerosol containing these compounds was generated in the laboratory using the Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG). The particles were completely dried before they were measured using a SMPS system. The nonvolatile fraction of the resulting aerosol was measured. The drying times were varied between two and twenty minutes, and for ammonium sulfate and glyoxal reactions, minimum residual particle sizes were reached after 3.5 minutes. Reactions of glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal with ammonium sulfate appeared to have lower non-volatile fractions remaining at higher starting concentrations, suggesting that a constant 'excess volume,' likely water, was present in the residual particles that could not be evaporated even after 20 minutes of drying. These excess volumes were not observed in our previous experiments with aldehydes but no ammonium sulfate present. At the highest concentrations tested (100 uM), non-volatile fractions of aldehydes present in residual particles were 16 (±17) %, 41 (±28) %, and 17(±32) % for glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal, respectively.

  12. Modulation of therapy-induced senescence by reactive lipid aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Flor, A C; Doshi, A P; Kron, S J

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding points to unrepairable chromosomal damage as the critical determinant of accelerated senescence in cancer cells treated with radiation or chemotherapy. Nonetheless, the potent senescence inducer etoposide not only targets topoisomerase II to induce DNA damage but also produces abundant free radicals, increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Toward examining roles for DNA damage and oxidative stress in therapy-induced senescence, we developed a quantitative flow cytometric senescence assay and screened 36 redox-active agents as enhancers of an otherwise ineffective dose of radiation. While senescence failed to correlate with total ROS, the radiation enhancers, etoposide and the other effective topoisomerase inhibitors each produced high levels of lipid peroxidation. The reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product, was sufficient to induce senescence in irradiated cells. In turn, sequestering aldehydes with hydralazine blocked effects of etoposide and other senescence inducers. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation potentiates DNA damage from radiation and chemotherapy to drive therapy-induced senescence. PMID:27453792

  13. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins

    PubMed Central

    Varrella, Stefano; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G.; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  14. CYTOCHROME OXIDASE IN NORMAL AND REGENERATING NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Howard A.; Mellors, Robert C.

    1945-01-01

    Manometric determinations of cytochrome oxidase activity were carried out on grey matter from the thalamus and anterior horn of cats and monkeys under various experimental conditions. The thalamus of the cat was studied following the degeneration of virtually all the thalamic neurons secondary to decortication. In comparing the deneuronated thalamus with the normal one, it was found that approximately 34 per cent of the cytochrome oxidase activity was contributed by the neurons and the balance by neuroglia and mesodermal tissues which on the operated side remained comparable to that of the normal side. Total activity of the normal thalamus averaged 5.52 units per mg. of dry weight where I unit is defined as the amount of cytochrome oxidase required to produce a net oxygen consumption of 10 c.mm. per hour under the specified conditions of the experiment. The grey matter of the anterior horns of the spinal cord was isolated by a special technique and its cytochrome oxidase activity was compared with anterior horns in which motoneurons had been stimulated to regenerative activity by section of peripheral nerves. Each animal was studied in relation to an anterior horn which was normal and one in which only the functional state of the motoneurons had been changed. Average normal levels of 2.23 units were found for cat anterior horn and 0.69 units for the monkey. Reductions of cytochrome oxidase activity in the range of 22 to 23 per cent were observed for both cat and monkey following nerve section. In the latter the time sequence was carefully studied in relation to the cytological cycle known as chromatolysis and a virus refractory state previously described by us. It was found that maximal reduction of cytochrome oxidase activity coincided with maximal refractoriness of the cells to poliomyelitis virus (30 to 70 days following nerve section). Neither of these states could be correlated in time with maximal chromatolysis (10 to 15 days). PMID:19871471

  15. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  16. Direct aldehyde homologation utilized to construct a conjugated-tetraene hydrocarbon insect pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to methyl- or ethyl-branched unsaturated aldehydes and used in the practical synthesis of (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene (1), a pheromone of the beetle, Carpophilus lugubris. The phosphona...

  17. Evaluating protective terpenoid aldehyde compounds in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has epidermal glands containing terpenoid aldehyde (TA) compounds that help protect the cotton plant from pests and diseases. One terpenoid aldehyde called gossypol, is found predominantly in seed and roots and has two forms, plus (+) and minus (-) present in varying a...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Aldehyde-Degrading Strain Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Ren, Chong; Shan, Xiexie; Zeng, Runying

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas axialensisACH-L-8, a deep-sea strain isolated from the South China Sea, has the ability to degrade aldehydes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which could provide fundamental molecular information on the aldehydes-degrading mechanism. PMID:27081145

  19. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-08-26

    The first example of homogeneous copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes is reported. This method utilizes atmospheric oxygen as the sole oxidant, proceeds under extremely mild aqueous conditions, and covers a wide range of various functionalized aldehydes. Chromatography is generally not necessary for product purification. PMID:27505714

  20. Cu-NHC-TEMPO catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolong; Xia, Qinqin; Zhang, Yuejiao; Chen, Congyan; Chen, Wanzhi

    2013-09-01

    Imidazolium salts bearing TEMPO groups react with commercially available copper powder affording Cu-NHC complexes. The in situ generated Cu-NHC-TEMPO complexes are quite efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols into aldehydes. The catalyst is easily available, and various primary alcohols were selectively converted to aldehydes in excellent yields. PMID:23944937

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Aldehyde-Degrading Strain Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Ren, Chong; Shan, Xiexie

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8, a deep-sea strain isolated from the South China Sea, has the ability to degrade aldehydes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which could provide fundamental molecular information on the aldehydes-degrading mechanism. PMID:27081145

  2. Synthesis of bio-based aldehyde from seaweed polysaccharide and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kholiya, Faisal; Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Meena, Ramavatar

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of bio-based aldehyde namely dialdehyde-carboxymethylagarose (DCMA) using carboxymethyagarose (CMA). Further reaction parameters (i.e. reaction temperature, pH and periodate concentration) were optimized to achieve maximum aldehyde content and product yield. The synthesis of DCMA was confirmed by employing FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TGA, DSC, EA and GPC techniques. To investigate the aldehyde functionality, DCMA was allowed to interact with BSA and obtained results were found to be comparable with that of synthetic aldehyde (Formaldehyde). Further interaction of DCMA with BSA was confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, fluorescent spectroscopy, CD and DLS analysis. Results of this study revealed that bio-based aldehyde behaves like formaldehyde. This study adds value to abundant marine biopolymers and opens the new research area for polymer researchers. PMID:27312639

  3. [Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene fragment from mung bean Vigna radiata using the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A G; Bubiakina, V V; Tatarinova, T D; Zelenin, S M

    1998-01-01

    Two degenerate oligonucleotide sequence primers and polymerase chain reactions on total DNA have been utilized to clone on 651--bp gene fragment coding the central part of amino acid sequence of an earlier unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from mung bean. The deduced partial amino acid sequence for this aldehyde dehydrogenase shows about 65% sequence identity to ALDHs of Vibrio cholerae Rhodococcus sp., Alcaligenes eutrophus and about 45% sequence identity to mammalian ALDHs 1 and 2, ALDHs of Aspergillus niger and A, nidulans, the betain aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach. Alignment of the mung bean aldehyde dehydrogenase partial amino acid sequence with the sequence of 16 NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases has demonstrated that all strictly conserved amino acid residues and all three conservative regions are identical. PMID:9778740

  4. Site-specific chemical protein conjugation using genetically encoded aldehyde tags.

    PubMed

    Rabuka, David; Rush, Jason S; deHart, Gregory W; Wu, Peng; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-06-01

    We describe a method for modifying proteins site-specifically using a chemoenzymatic bioconjugation approach. Formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE) recognizes a pentapeptide consensus sequence, CxPxR, and it specifically oxidizes the cysteine in this sequence to an unusual aldehyde-bearing formylglyine. The FGE recognition sequence, or aldehyde tag, can be inserted into heterologous recombinant proteins produced in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The conversion of cysteine to formylglycine is accomplished by co-overexpression of FGE, either transiently or as a stable cell line, and the resulting aldehyde can be selectively reacted with α-nucleophiles to generate a site-selectively modified bioconjugate. This protocol outlines both the generation and the analysis of proteins aldehyde-tagged at their termini and the methods for chemical conjugation to the formylglycine. The process of generating aldehyde-tagged protein followed by chemical conjugation and purification takes 20 d. PMID:22576105

  5. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenases: From eye crystallins to metabolic disease and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliou, Vasilis; Thompson, David C.; Smith, Clay; Fujita, Mayumi; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is composed of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. To date, 24 ALDH gene families have been identified in the eukaryotic genome. In addition to aldehyde metabolizing capacity, ALDHs have additional catalytic (e.g. esterase and reductase) and non-catalytic activities. The latter include functioning as structural elements in the eye (crystallins) and as binding molecules to endobiotics and xenobiotics. Mutations in human ALDH genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases. Most recently ALDH polymorphisms have been associated with gout and osteoporosis. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. This article serves as a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the ALDH superfamily and the contribution of ALDHs to various physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23159885

  7. Oxidative stress, NADPH oxidases, and arteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-An; Runge, Marschall S; Madamanchi, Nageswara R

    2016-05-10

    Atherosclerosis and its major complications - myocardial infarction and stroke - remain major causes of death and disability in the United States and world-wide. Indeed, with dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes mellitus, the prevalence and public health impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) will likely remain high. Major advances have been made in development of new therapies to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis and CVD, in particular for treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Oxidative stress is the common mechanistic link for many CVD risk factors. However, only recently have the tools existed to study the interface between oxidative stress and CVD in animal models. The most important source of reactive oxygen species (and hence oxidative stress) in vascular cells are the multiple forms of enzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase). Recently published and emerging studies now clearly establish that: 1) NADPH oxidases are of critical importance in atherosclerosis and hypertension in animal models; 2) given the tissue-specific expression of key components of NADPH oxidase, it may be possible to target vascular oxidative stress for prevention of CVD. PMID:25649240

  8. Studies on organic indole-3-aldehyde single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Ravi, G.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    Indole-3-aldehyde (IA) is a new organic nonlinear material for which its solubility in methanol and acetone was found out using the apparatus fabricated by the authors. In order to get the good-quality crystals, methods of evaporation of solvent at room temperature and slow cooling of saturated solution at boiling temperature were adopted. Simulated lattice parameter values were found out using experimentally known " d" values. The etching and mechanical strength studies on different planes of the crystal were carried out. Decomposition temperature, weight loss and different functional bond frequencies associated with the crystal were also found out from differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, respectively.

  9. Multicomponent reactions of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Bykova, Tetiana; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2016-01-21

    This paper reports the preparation of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes prepared from a Birch reduction of benzoic acid, worked up with a methyl iodide quench. The resultant methylcyclohexadiene carboxylic acid was reduced to the alcohol, protected as an ether and then a sequence of functional group manipulations carried out to introduce four fluorines. The cyclohexadienyl ring was then epoxidised and the C-O bonds sequentially converted through deoxyfluorination reactions to two sets of isomers of all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane isomers. The blocking methyl group renders the ring safe to hydrogen fluoride elimination. Deprotection of the benzylic ether and then oxidation gave aldehydes which were then used in Ugi and Passerini multicomponent reactions, allowing this facially polarised cyclohexane to be incorporated into peptidic structural motifs. PMID:26646211

  10. Electron impact ionization of cycloalkanes, aldehydes, and ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2014-08-07

    The theoretical calculations of electron impact total ionization cross section for cycloalkane, aldehyde, and ketone group molecules are undertaken from ionization threshold to 2 keV. The present calculations are based on the spherical complex optical potential formalism and complex scattering potential ionization contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied compare fairly well with the recent measurements, wherever available and the cross sections for many targets are predicted for the first time. The correlation between the peak of ionization cross sections with number of target electrons and target parameters is also reported. It was found that the cross sections at their maximum depend linearly with the number of target electrons and with other target parameters, confirming the consistency of the values reported here.

  11. Substrate specificity of an aflatoxin-metabolizing aldehyde reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, E M; Hayes, J D

    1995-01-01

    The enzyme from rat liver that reduces aflatoxin B1-dialdehyde exhibits a unique catalytic specificity distinct from that of other aldo-keto reductases. This enzyme, designated AFAR, displays high activity towards dicarbonyl-containing compounds with ketone groups on adjacent carbon atoms; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, acenaphthenequinone and camphorquinone were found to be good substrates. Although AFAR can also reduce aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes such as succinic semialdehyde, it is inactive with glucose, galactose and xylose. The enzyme also exhibits low activity towards alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds. Determination of the apparent Km reveals that AFAR has highest affinity for 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and succinic semialdehyde, and low affinity for glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde. PMID:8526867

  12. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  13. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: a Potential Approach for Cell labeling

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Song, Haijing; Affleck, Donna; McDougald, Darryl L.; Storms, Robert W.; Zalutksy, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To advance the science and clinical application of stem cell therapy, the availability of a highly sensitive, quantitative, and translational method for tracking stem cells would be invaluable. Because hematopoetic stem cells express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1), we sought to develop an agent that is specific to ALDH1 and thus to cells expressing the enzyme. Such an agent might be also helpful in identifying tumors that are resistant to cyclophosphomide chemotherapy because ALDH1 is known to be responsible for this resistance. Methods We developed schemes for the synthesis of two 3radioiodinated aldehdyes—N-formylmethyl-5-[*I]iodopyridine-3-carboxamide ([*I]FMIC) and 4-diethylamino-3-[*I]iodobenzaldehyde ([*I]DEIBA)—at no-carrier-added levels from their respective tin precursors. These agents were evaluated using pure ALDH1 and tumor cells that expressed the enzyme. Results The average radiochemical yields for the synthesis [125I]FMIC and [125I]DEIBA were 70 ± 5% and 47 ± 14%, respectively. ALDH1 converted both compounds to respective acids suggesting their suitability as ALDH1 imaging agents. Although ability of ALDH1 within the cells to oxidize one of these substrates was shown, specific uptake in ALDH-expressing tumor cells could not be demonstrated. Conclusion To pursue this approach for ALDH1 imaging, radiolabeled aldehydes need to be designed such that, in addition to being good substrates for ALDH1, the cognate products should be sufficiently polar so as to be retained within the cells. PMID:19875048

  14. Quantification of Carnosine-Aldehyde Adducts in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    da Silva Bispo, Vanderson; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates several reactive carbonyl species, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and malondialdehyde. One major pathwayof aldehydes detoxification is through conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases or, alternatively, by conjugation with endogenous histidine containing dipeptides, such as carnosine (CAR). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of CAR- ACR, CAR-HHE and CAR-HNE adducts in human urinary samples from non-smokers young adults. Standard adducts were prepared and isolated by HPLC. The results showed the presence of a new product from the reaction of CAR with ACR. This new adduct was completely characterized by HPLC/MS-MSn, 1H RMN, COSY and HSQC. The new HPLC/MS/MS methodology employing stable isotope-labeled internal standards (CAR-HHEd5 and CAR-HNEd11) was developed for adducts quantification. This methodology permits quantification of 10pmol CAR-HHE and 1pmol of CAR-ACR and CAR-HNE. Accurate determinations in human urine sample were performed and showed 4.65±1.71 to CAR-ACR, 5.13±1.76 to CAR-HHE and 5.99±3.19nmol/mg creatinine to CAR-HNE. Our results indicate that carnosine pathways can be an important detoxification route of a, ß -unsaturated aldehydes. Moreover, carnosine adducts may be useful as redox stress indicator. PMID:26461323

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity promotes survival of human muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Elise; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Notarnicola, Cécile; Rouger, Karl; Serratrice, Nicolas; Bonnieu, Anne; Gay, Stéphanie; Bacou, Francis; Duret, Cédric; Carnac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that efficiently detoxify aldehydic products generated by reactive oxygen species and might therefore participate in cell survival. Because ALDH activity has been used to identify normal and malignant cells with stem cell properties, we asked whether human myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) could be identified and isolated based on their levels of ALDH activity. Human muscle explant-derived cells were incubated with ALDEFLUOR, a fluorescent substrate for ALDH, and we determined by flow cytometry the level of enzyme activity. We found that ALDH activity positively correlated with the myoblast-CD56+ fraction in those cells, but, we also observed heterogeneity of ALDH activity levels within CD56-purified myoblasts. Using lentiviral mediated expression of shRNA we demonstrated that ALDH activity was associated with expression of Aldh1a1 protein. Surprisingly, ALDH activity and Aldh1a1 expression levels were very low in mouse, rat, rabbit and non-human primate myoblasts. Using different approaches, from pharmacological inhibition of ALDH activity by diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of class I ALDH, to cell fractionation by flow cytometry using the ALDEFLUOR assay, we characterized human myoblasts expressing low or high levels of ALDH. We correlated high ALDH activity ex vivo to resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxic effect and in vivo to improved cell viability when human myoblasts were transplanted into host muscle of immune deficient scid mice. Therefore detection of ALDH activity, as a purification strategy, could allow non-toxic and efficient isolation of a fraction of human myoblasts resistant to cytotoxic damage. PMID:19840193

  16. Structure-function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family.

    PubMed

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H; Davies, Gideon J; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure-function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  17. Structure–function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family

    PubMed Central

    Yin, DeLu (Tyler); Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M.; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure–function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  18. Murine hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is a major contributor to oxidation of aldehydes formed by lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Makia, Ngome L.; Bojang, Pasano; Falkner, K. Cameron; Conklin, Daniel J.; Prough, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lipid aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of various oxidative stress-mediated diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and cataract. In the present study, we sought to define which hepatic Aldh isoform plays a major role in detoxification of lipid-derived aldehydes, such as acrolein and HNE by enzyme kinetic and gene expression studies. The catalytic efficiencies for metabolism of acrolein by Aldh1a1 was comparable to that of Aldh3a1 (Vmax/Km = 23). However, Aldh1a1 exhibits far higher affinity for acrolein (Km = 23.2 μM) compared to Aldh3a1 (Km = 464 μM). Aldh1a1 displays a 3-fold higher catalytic efficiency for HNE than Aldh3a1 (218 vs 69 ml/min/mg). The endogenous Aldh1a1 gene was highly expressed in mouse liver and a liver-derived cell line (Hepa-1c1c7) compared to Aldh2, Aldh1b1 and Aldh3a1. Aldh1a1 mRNA levels was 34-fold and 73-fold higher than Aldh2 in mouse liver and Hepa-1c1c7 cells respectively. Aldh3a1 gene was absent in mouse liver, but moderately expressed in Hepa-1c1c7 cells compared to Aldh1a1. We demonstrated that knockdown of Aldh1a1 expression by siRNA caused Hepa-1c1c7 cells to be more sensitive to acrolein-induced cell death and resulted in increased accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts and caspase 3 activation. These results indicate that Aldh1a1 plays a major role in cellular defense against oxidative damage induced by reactive lipid aldehydes in mouse liver. We also noted that hepatic Aldh1a1 mRNA levels were significantly increased (≈ 3 fold) in acrolein-fed mice compared to control. In addition, hepatic cytosolic ALDH activity was induced by acrolein when 1 mM NAD+ was used as cofactor, suggesting an Aldh1a1-protective mechanism against acrolein toxicity in mice liver. Thus, mechanisms to induce Aldh1a1 gene expression may provide a useful rationale for therapeutic protection against oxidative stress-induced pathologies. PMID:21256123

  19. [Effects of panthenol and carnitine on aldehyde metabolic enzymes in rats with tetrachloromethane-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Satanovskaia, V I; Pron'ko, P S; Gaĭshmanova, A V; Miskevich, D A

    2009-01-01

    Tetrachloromethane (2 g/kg, intragastric) produced a decrease in the activity of NAD- and NADH- dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases with high Km for aldehydes in rat liver. Panthenol and L-carnitine administered separately normalized the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases, while a combination of the drugs did not produce any significant effect. PMID:19441727

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to the alternative oxidase of higher plant mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Nickels, R.L.; McIntosh, L. )

    1989-04-01

    The higher plant mitochondrial electron transport chain contains, in addition to the cytochrome chain which terminates with cytochrome oxidase, an alternative pathway that terminates with an alternative oxidase. The alternative oxidase of Sauromatum guttatum Schott has recently been identified as a cluster of proteins with apparent M{sub r} of 37, 36, and 35 kilodaltons (kD). Monoclonal antibodies have now been prepared to these proteins and designated as AOA (binding all three proteins of the alternative oxidase cluster), AOU (binding the upper or 37 kD protein), and AOL (binding the lower or 36 and 35 kD proteins). All three antibodies bind to their respective alternative oxidase proteins whether the proteins are in their native or denatured states. AOA and AOU inhibit alternative oxidase activity around 49%, whereas AOL inhibits activity only 14%. When coupled individually to Sepharose 4B, all three monoclonal resins were capable of retaining the entire cluster of alternative oxidase proteins, suggesting that these proteins are physically associated in some manner. The monoclonals were capable of binding similar mitochondrial proteins in a number of thermogenic and nonthermogenic species, indicating that they will be useful in characterizing and purifying the alternative oxidase of different systems. The ability of the monoclonal-Sepharose 4B resins to retain the cluster of previously identified alternative oxidase proteins, along with the inhibition of alternative oxidase activity by these monoclonals, supports the role of these proteins in constituting the alternative oxidase.

  1. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural conversion by fungal aryl-alcohol oxidase and unspecific peroxygenase.

    PubMed

    Carro, Juan; Ferreira, Patricia; Rodríguez, Leonor; Prieto, Alicia; Serrano, Ana; Balcells, Beatriz; Ardá, Ana; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is of biotechnological interest for the production of renewable (lignocellulose-based) platform chemicals, such as 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). To the best of our knowledge, the ability of fungal aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO) to oxidize HMF is reported here for the first time, resulting in almost complete conversion into 2,5-formylfurancarboxylic acid (FFCA) in a few hours. The reaction starts with alcohol oxidation, yielding 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), which is rapidly converted into FFCA by carbonyl oxidation, most probably without leaving the enzyme active site. This agrees with the similar catalytic efficiencies of the enzyme with respect to oxidization of HMF and DFF, and its very low activity on 2,5-hydroxymethylfurancarboxylic acid (which was not detected by GC-MS). However, AAO was found to be unable to directly oxidize the carbonyl group in FFCA, and only modest amounts of FDCA are formed from HMF (most probably by chemical oxidation of FFCA by the H2 O2 previously generated by AAO). As aldehyde oxidation by AAO proceeds via the corresponding geminal diols (aldehyde hydrates), the various carbonyl oxidation rates may be related to the low degree of hydration of FFCA compared with DFF. The conversion of HMF was completed by introducing a fungal unspecific heme peroxygenase that uses the H2 O2 generated by AAO to transform FFCA into FDCA, albeit more slowly than the previous AAO reactions. By adding this peroxygenase when FFCA production by AAO has been completed, transformation of HMF into FDCA may be achieved in a reaction cascade in which O2 is the only co-substrate required, and water is the only by-product formed. PMID:25495853

  2. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  3. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.E.; Finnerty, W.R.

    1985-12-01

    The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: (i) a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9 fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and (ii) a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N.

  4. Human brain aldehyde reductases: relationship to succinic semialdehyde reductase and aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P L; Wermuth, B; von Wartburg, J P

    1980-08-01

    Human brain contains multiple forms of aldehyde-reducing enzymes. One major form (AR3), as previously shown, has properties that indicate its identity with NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase isolated from brain and other organs of various species; i.e., low molecular weight, use of NADPH as the preferred cofactor, and sensitivity to inhibition by barbiturates. A second form of aldehyde reductase ("SSA reductase") specifically reduces succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to produce gamma-hydroxybutyrate. This enzyme form has a higher molecular weight than AR3, and uses NADH as well as NADPH as cofactor. SSA reductase was not inhibited by pyrazole, oxalate, or barbiturates, and the only effective inhibitor found was the flavonoid quercetine. Although AR3 can also reduce SSA, the relative specificity of SSA reductase may enhance its in vivo role. A third form of human brain aldehyde reductase, AR2, appears to be comparable to aldose reductases characterized in several species, on the basis of its activity pattern with various sugar aldehydes and its response to characteristic inhibitors and activators, as well as kinetic parameters. This enzyme is also the most active in reducing the aldehyde derivatives of biogenic amines. These studies suggest that the various forms of human brain aldehyde reductases may have specific physiological functions. PMID:6778961

  5. α,β-Unsaturated aldehyde of hyaluronan--Synthesis, analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Radovan; Šedová, Petra; Basarabová, Ivana; Moravcová, Martina; Wolfová, Lucie; Bobula, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2015-12-10

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) modified with an aldehyde group (HA-CHO or HA-aldehyde) has been extensively used for various biomedical applications. The main advantage of the aldehyde moieties is the ability to react with a wide range of amino compounds under physiological conditions. Reactions of aldehydes with primary amines in water are reversible and equilibrium is thoroughly shifted towards starting aldehyde and amine. This work presents an unique modification of HA: α,β-unsaturated aldehyde of HA (4,5-anhydro-6(GlcNAc)-oxo HA or ΔHA-CHO), which allows the primary amines to be attached to HA more effectively in comparison to the saturated HA-CHO. Higher hydrolytic stability is caused by the conjugation of imine with an adjacent --C=C-- double bond. Two strategies for the preparation of unsaturated HA-aldehyde were developed and chemical structures were studied in details. Cross-linked materials prepared from this precursor are biocompatible and suitable for applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:26428127

  6. Dark Hydrazone Fluorescence Labeling Agents Enable Imaging of Cellular Aldehydic Load.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Lik Hang; Saxena, Nivedita S; Park, Hyun Shin; Weinberg, Kenneth; Kool, Eric T

    2016-08-19

    Aldehydes are key intermediates in many cellular processes, from endogenous metabolic pathways like glycolysis to undesired exogenously induced processes such as lipid peroxidation and DNA interstrand cross-linking. Alkyl aldehydes are well documented to be cytotoxic, affecting the functions of DNA and protein, and their levels are tightly regulated by the oxidative enzyme ALDH2. Mutations in this enzyme are associated with cardiac damage, diseases such as Fanconi anemia (FA), and cancer. Many attempts have been made to identify and quantify the overall level of these alkyl aldehydes inside cells, yet there are few practical methods available to detect and monitor these volatile aldehydes in real time. Here, we describe a multicolor fluorogenic hydrazone transfer ("DarkZone") system to label alkyl aldehydes, yielding up to 30-fold light-up response in vitro. A cell-permeant DarkZone dye design was applied to detect small-molecule aldehydes in the cellular environment. The new dye design also enabled the monitoring of cellular acetaldehyde production from ethanol over time by flow cytometry, demonstrating the utility of the DarkZone dyes for measuring and imaging the aldehydic load related to human disease. PMID:27326450

  7. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions. PMID:17913204

  8. Acyloin production from aldehydes in the perfused rat heart: the potential role of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, J A; Jetté, M; Huot, S; Des Rosiers, C

    1993-01-01

    Aldehydes represent an important class of cytotoxic products derived from free radical-induced lipid peroxidation which may contribute to reperfusion injury following myocardial infarct. Metabolism of aldehydes in the heart has not been well characterized aside from conjugation of unsaturated aldehydes with glutathione. However, aliphatic aldehydes like hexanal do not form stable glutathione conjugates. We have recently demonstrated in vitro that pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyses a reaction between pyruvate and saturated aldehydes to produce acyloins (3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones). In the present study, rat hearts were perfused with various aldehydes and pyruvate. Acyloins were generated from saturated aldehydes (butanal, hexanal or nonanal), but not from 2-hexanal (an unsaturated aldehyde) or malondialdehyde. Hearts perfused with 2 mM pyruvate and 10-100 microM hexanal rapidly took up hexanal in a dose-related manner (140-850 nmol/min), and released 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one (0.7-30 nmol/min), 2,3-octanediol (0-12 nmol/min) and hexanol (10-200 nmol/min). Small quantities of hexanoic acid (about 10 nmol/min) were also released. The rate of release of acyloin metabolites rose with increased concentration of hexanal, whereas hexanol release attained a plateau when hexanal infusion concentrations rose above 50 microM. Up to 50% of hexanal uptake could be accounted for by metabolite release. Less than 0.5% of hexanal uptake was found to be bound to acid-precipitable macromolecules. When hearts perfused with 50 microM hexanal and 2 mM pyruvate were subjected to a 15 min ischaemic period, the rates of release of 2,3-octanediol, 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one, hexanol and hexanoate during the reperfusion period were not significantly different from those in the pre-ischaemic period. Our results indicate that saturated aldehydes can be metabolically converted by the heart into stable diffusible compounds. PMID:8379929

  9. Chemical modification of aldehyde dehydrogenase by a vinyl ketone analogue of an insect pheromone.

    PubMed

    Blatter, E E; Tasayco, M L; Prestwich, G; Pietruszko, R

    1990-12-01

    A major component of the sex pheromone from the tobacco budworm moth Heliothis virescens is a C16 straight-chain aldehyde with a single unsaturation at the eleventh position. The sex pheromones are inactivated when metabolized to their corresponding acids by insect aldehyde dehydrogenase. During this investigation it was demonstrated that the C16 aldehyde is a good substrate for human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) isoenzymes E1 and E2 with Km and Kcat. values at pH 7.0 of 2 microM and 0.4 mumol of NADH/min per mg and of 0.6 microM and 0.24 mumol of NADH/min per mg respectively. A vinyl ketone analogue of the pheromone inhibited insect pheromone metabolism; it also inactivated human aldehyde dehydrogenase. Total inactivation of both isoenzymes was achieved at stoichiometric (equal or less than the subunit number) concentrations of vinyl ketone, incorporating 2.1-2.6 molecules/molecule of enzyme. Substrate protection was observed in the presence of the parent aldehyde and 5'-AMP. Peptide maps of tryptic digests of the E2 isoenzyme modified with 3H-labelled vinyl ketone showed that incorporation occurred into a single peptide peak. The labelled peptide of E2 isoenzyme was further purified on h.p.l.c. and sequenced. The label was incorporated into cysteine-302 in the primary structure of E2 isoenzyme, thus indicating that cysteine-302 is located in the aldehyde substrate area of the active site of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Affinity labelling of aldehyde dehydrogenase with vinyl ketones may prove to be of general utility in biochemical studies of these enzymes. PMID:2268265

  10. A SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex as a highly efficient catalyst for allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Sheets, Matthew

    2006-07-01

    An air- and moisture-stable SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex was synthesized and found to catalyze the nucleophilic allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin. The allylation of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to give the corresponding homoallyl alcohols was performed at room temperature to 60 degrees C in yields ranging from 50% (for typical aliphatic aldehydes) to up to 97% (for aromatic aldehydes) using 5 x 10(-3) to 1 mol % of the Pd catalyst. NMR spectroscopic study indicated that a sigma-allylpalladium intermediate was formed and possibly functions as the nucleophilic species that undergoes addition to the aldehydes. PMID:16808533

  11. Antimony(v) cations for the selective catalytic transformation of aldehydes into symmetric ethers, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, and 1,3,5-trioxanes.

    PubMed

    Arias Ugarte, Renzo; Devarajan, Deepa; Mushinski, Ryan M; Hudnall, Todd W

    2016-07-01

    1-Diphenylphosphinonaphthyl-8-triphenylstibonium triflate ([][OTf]) was prepared in excellent yield by treating 1-lithio-8-diphenylphosphinonaphthalene with dibromotriphenylstiborane followed by halide abstraction with AgOTf. This antimony(v) cation was found to be stable toward oxygen and water, and exhibited exceptional Lewis acidity. The Lewis acidity of [][OTf] was exploited in the catalytic reductive coupling of a variety of aldehydes into symmetric ethers of type in good to excellent yields under mild conditions using Et3SiH as the reductant. Additionally, [][OTf] was found to selectively catalyze the Aldol condensation reaction to afford α-β unsaturated aldehydes () when aldehydes with 2 α-hydrogen atoms were used. Finally, [][OTf] catalyzed the cyclotrimerization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to afford the industrially-useful 1,3,5 trioxanes () in good yields, and with great selectivity. This phosphine-stibonium motif represents one of the first catalytic systems of its kind that is able to catalyze these reactions with aldehydes in a controlled, efficient manner. The mechanism of these processes has been explored both experimentally and theoretically. In all cases the Lewis acidic nature of the antimony(v) cation was found to promote these reactions. PMID:27326797

  12. The carbonyl oxide-aldehyde complex: a new intermediate of the ozonolysis reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi; McKee, M. L.; Radharkrishnan, T. P.

    1991-12-01

    MP4(SDQ)/6-31G (d,p) calculations suggest that the ozonolysis of alkenes in solution phase does not proceed via carbonyl oxide, but via a dipole complex between aldehyde and carbonyl oxide, which is 9 kcal/mol more stable than the separated molecules. The dipole complex is probably formed in the solvent cage upon decomposition of primary ozonide to aldehyde and carbonyl oxide. Rotation of either aldehyde or carbonyl oxide in the solvent cage leads to an antiparallel alignment of molecular dipole moments and dipole-dipole attraction.

  13. Direct Access to β-Fluorinated Aldehydes by Nitrite-Modified Wacker Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Crystal K; Ziegler, Daniel T; Carr, Brian; Wickens, Zachary K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-07-11

    An aldehyde-selective Wacker-type oxidation of allylic fluorides proceeds with a nitrite catalyst. The method represents a direct route to prepare β-fluorinated aldehydes. Allylic fluorides bearing a variety of functional groups are transformed in high yield and very high regioselectivity. Additionally, the unpurified aldehyde products serve as versatile intermediates, thus enabling access to a diverse array of fluorinated building blocks. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggest that inductive effects have a strong influence on the rate and regioselectivity of the oxidation. PMID:27225538

  14. New aldehyde tag sequences identified by screening formylglycine generating enzymes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rush, Jason S; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2008-09-17

    Formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE) performs a critical posttranslational modification of type I sulfatases, converting cysteine within the motif CxPxR to the aldehyde-bearing residue formylglycine (FGly). This concise motif can be installed within heterologous proteins as a genetically encoded "aldehyde tag" for site-specific labeling with aminooxy- or hydrazide-functionalized probes. In this report, we screened FGEs from M. tuberculosis and S. coelicolor against synthetic peptide libraries and identified new substrate sequences that diverge from the canonical motif. We found that E. coli's FGE-like activity is similarly promiscuous, enabling the use of novel aldehyde tag sequences for in vivo modification of recombinant proteins. PMID:18722427

  15. Zinc-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling of Terminal Alkynes with Aldehydes: Access to Ynones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shan; Zeng, Li; Liu, Yichang; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-21

    Because of the lack of redox ability, zinc has seldom been used as a catalyst in dehydrogenative cross-coupling reactions. Herein, a novel zinc-catalyzed dehydrogenative C(sp(2) )H/C(sp)H cross-coupling of terminal alkynes with aldehydes was developed, and provides a simple way to access ynones from readily available materials under mild reaction conditions. Good reaction selectivity can be achieved with a 1:1 ratio of terminal alkyne and aldehyde. Various terminal alkynes and aldehydes are suitable in this transformation. PMID:26564779

  16. NADPH oxidases in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Belmondo, Simone; Calcagno, Cristina; Genre, Andrea; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays key roles as both signal and stressor in several plant processes, including defense responses against pathogens. ROS accumulation in root cells during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development has raised the interest in understanding how ROS-mediated defense programs are modulated during the establishment of this mutualistic interaction. We have recently analyzed the expression pattern of 5 NADPH oxidase (also called RBOH) encoding genes in Medicago truncatula, showing that only one of them (MtRbohE) is specifically upregulated in arbuscule-containing cells. In line with this result, RNAi silencing of MtRbohE generated a strong alteration in root colonization, with a significant reduction in the number of arbusculated cells. On this basis, we propose that MtRBOHE-mediated ROS production plays a crucial role in the intracellular accommodation of arbuscules. PMID:27018627

  17. Reactive ring-opened aldehyde metabolites in benzene hematotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Witz, G; Zhang, Z; Goldstein, B D

    1996-01-01

    The hematotoxicity of benzene is mediated by reactive benzene metabolites and possibly by other intermediates including reactive oxygen species. We previously hypothesized that ring-opened metabolites may significantly contribute to benzene hematotoxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, our studies initially demonstrated that benzene is metabolized in vitro to trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reactive six-carbon diene dialdehyde, and that MUC is toxic to the bone marrow in a manner similar to benzene. Benzene toxicity most likely involves interactions among several metabolites that operate by different mechanisms to produce more than one biological effect. Our studies indicate that MUC coadministered with hydroquinone is a particularly potent metabolite combination that causes bone marrow damage, suggesting that the involvement of ring-opened metabolites in benzene toxicity may be related to their biological effects in combination with other benzene metabolites. Studies in our laboratory and by others indicate that MUC is metabolized to a variety of compounds by oxidation or reduction of the aldehyde groups. The aldehydic MUC metabolite 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienal (CHO-M-OH), similar to MUC but to a lesser extent, is reactive toward glutathione, mutagenic in V79 cells, and hematotoxic in mice. It is formed by monoreduction of MUC, a process that is reversible and could be of biological significance in benzene bone marrow toxicity. The MUC metabolite 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic (COOH-M-OH) is an end product of MUC metabolism in vitro. Our studies indicate that COOH-M-OH is a urinary metabolite of benzene in mice, a finding that provides further indirect evidence for the in vivo formation of MUC from benzene. Mechanistic studies showed the formation of cis-trans-muconaldehyde in addition to MUC from benzene incubated in a hydroxyl radical-generating Fenton system. These results suggest that the benzene ring is initially opened to cis

  18. Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution - Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell D.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-01-01

    Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basin brines and hydrothermal systems like they are in the atmosphere. The data and parameters summarized here allow evaluation of the role of aldehydes in the formation of prebiotic precursors, such as amino acids and hydroxy acids on the early Earth and in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  19. Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution: Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, M.D.; Shock, E.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins brines and hydrothermal systems like they are in the atmosphere. The data and parameters summarized here allow evaluation of the role of aldehydes in the formation of prebiotic precursors, such as amino acids and hydroxy acids on the early Earth and in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. 97 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  1. INCREASED XANTHINE OXIDASE IN THE SKIN OF PREECLAMPTIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Deng, Jau-Shyong; Roberts, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthine oxioreductase is the holoenzyme responsible for terminal purine catabolism. Under conditions of metabolic stress or heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine production this enzyme is preferentially in it’s oxidized form, xanthine oxidase, with catalytic action that generates uric acid and the free radical superoxide. As preeclampsia is characterized by heightened inflammation, oxidative stress and hyperuricemia it has been proposed that xanthine oxidase plays a pivotal role in this hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. We sought to determine whether xanthine oxidase protein content was higher in maternal tissue of preeclamptic mothers, compared to healthy pregnant controls, using immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies. We further compared xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in skin biopsies from preeclamptic women and patients with several inflammatory conditions. In preeclamptic women, intense xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity was present within the epidermis. By contrast, only very faint xanthine oxidase staining was observed in skin biopsies from healthy pregnant controls. Further, a role for inflammation in the increase of xanthine oxidase was suggested by similar findings of heightened xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in the skin biopsies from non-pregnant individuals diagnosed with conditions of systemic inflammation. The finding of increased xanthine oxidase in maternal tissue, most likely as the result of heightened maternal inflammation, suggest maternal xanthine oxidase as a source of free radical and uric acid generation in preeclampsia. PMID:19196876

  2. Nanogels based on alginic aldehyde and gelatin by inverse miniemulsion technique: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Anil Kumar, P R; Raj, Deepa K; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-03-30

    Nanogels were developed from alginic aldehyde and gelatin by an inverse miniemulsion technique. Stable inverse miniemulsions were prepared by sonication of noncontinuous aqueous phase (mixture of alginic aldehyde and gelatin) in a continuous organic phase (Span 20 dissolved in cyclohexane). Cross-linking occurred between alginic aldehyde (AA) and gelatin (gel) in the presence of borax by Schiff's base reaction during the formation of inverse miniemulsion. The effects of surfactant (Span 20) concentration, volume of the aqueous phase and AA/gel weight ratio on the size of the alginic aldehyde-gelatin (AA-gel) nanoparticles were studied. Nanogels were characterized by DLS, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, SEM and TEM. DLS, TEM and SEM studies demonstrated nanosize and spherical morphology of the nanogels. Hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility analyses of the nanogels proved their nontoxicity. The results indicated the potential of the present nanogel system as a candidate for drug- and gene-delivery applications. PMID:25563951

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY PROTOCOL VERIFICATION REPORT, EMISSIONS OF VOCS AND ALDEHYDES FROM COMMERCIAL FURNITURE (WITH APPENDICES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification program, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) developed a test protocol for measuring volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in a large chamber. RTI convened stakeholders for the commercial...

  4. Synthesis of vinyl boronates from aldehydes by a practical boron-Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Zhang, Liang; Morken, James P

    2015-04-01

    A highly stereoselective boron-Wittig reaction between stable and readily accessible 1,1-bis(pinacolboronates) and aldehydes furnishes a variety of synthetically useful di- and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters. PMID:25799147

  5. Reaction of aminals of conjugated omega-dimethylamino aldehydes with indandione

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnaya, Zh.A.; Stytsenko, T.S.; Gusev, D.G.; Prokof'ev, E.P.

    1987-01-20

    Conjugated omega-dimethylamino ..beta..-diketones with two to five double bonds and trimethylidyne- and pentamethylidyneoxanine salts are formed in the condensation of animals of conjugated ..beta..-dimethylamino aldehydes with indandione.

  6. Copper catalyzed oxidative esterification of aldehydes with alkylbenzenes via cross dehydrogenative coupling.

    PubMed

    Rout, Saroj Kumar; Guin, Srimanta; Ghara, Krishna Kanta; Banerjee, Arghya; Patel, Bhisma K

    2012-08-01

    Copper(II) as the catalyst in a cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction has been demonstrated for the synthesis of benzylic esters using aldehydes and alkylbenzenes as coupling partners. PMID:22817825

  7. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Hydrogen Production in the Ketonization of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Lina M; Renz, Michael; Corma, Avelino

    2016-09-01

    Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2 ). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal oxide surface in the absence of noble metals. PMID:27539722

  8. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of variants of monoamine oxidase from Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, Kate E.; Reiss, Renate; Turner, Nicholas J.; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Grogan, Gideon

    2008-03-01

    Crystals of A. niger monoamine oxidase variants display P2{sub 1} or P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2/P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 symmetry, with eight or two molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively. Monoamine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) is an FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyses the conversion of terminal amines to their corresponding aldehydes. Variants of MAO-N produced by directed evolution have been shown to possess altered substrate specificity. Crystals of two of these variants (MAO-N-3 and MAO-N-5) have been obtained; the former displays P2{sub 1} symmetry with eight molecules per asymmetric unit and the latter has P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 symmetry and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Solution of these structures will help shed light on the molecular determinants of improved activity and high enantioselectivity towards a broad range of substrates.

  9. Structural and functional mimic of galactose oxidase by a copper complex of a sterically demanding [N2O2] ligand.

    PubMed

    John, Alex; Shaikh, Mobin M; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2008-06-01

    A structural and functional mimic of the galactose oxidase (GOase) enzyme active-site by a copper complex supported over a sterically demanding ligand having [N2O2] donor sites is reported. Specifically, the binding of the histidine (496 and 581) and tyrosine (272 and 495) residues to the copper center in a square-pyramidal fashion in the active-site of galactose oxidase (GOase) enzyme has been modeled in a copper complex, ([(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-2-hydoxybenzyl)(3'-tert-butyl-5'-methyl-2'-oxobenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)]amine)Cu(OAc)) (1b), stabilized over a sterically demanding ligand in which the two phenolate-O atoms mimicked the tyrosine binding while an amine-N and pyridyl-N atoms emulated the histidine binding to the metal center, similar to that in the enzyme active-site. Furthermore, the copper complex 1b is found to be an effective functional model of the enzyme as it efficiently catalyzed the chemoselective oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes in high turnover numbers under ambient conditions. An insight into the nature of the active-species was obtained by EPR and CV studies, which in conjunction with the DFT studies, revealed that the active-species is an anti-ferromagnetically coupled diamagnetic radical cation, (1)1b+, obtained by one electron oxidation at the equatorial phenolate-O atom of the ligand in the 1b complex. PMID:18478142

  10. Kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics of bisulfite-aldehyde adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bisulfite addition to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH in order to assess the importance of this reaction in stabilizing S(IV) in fog-, cloud-, and rainwater. Previously, the authors established that appreciable concentrations of the formaldehyde-bisulfite adduct (HMSA) are often present in fogwater. Measured HMSA concentrations in fogwater often do not fully account for observed excess S(IV) concentrations, however, so that other S(IV)-aldehyde adducts may be present. Reaction rates were determined by monitoring the disappearance of benzaldehyde by U.V. spectrophotometry under pseudo-first order conditions, (S(IV))/sub T/ >>(phi-CHO)/sub T/, in the pH range 0 - 4.4 at 25/sup 0/C. The equilibrium constant was determined by dissolving the sodium salt of the addition compound in a solution adjusted to pH 3.9, and measuring the absorbance of the equilibrated solution at 250 nm. A literature value of the extinction coefficient for benzaldehyde was used to calculate the concentration of free benzaldehyde. All solutions were prepared under an N/sub 2/ atmosphere using deoxygenated, deionized water and ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 M with sodium chloride.

  11. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  12. Sodium borohydride removes aldehyde inhibitors for enhancing biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    To enhance biohydrogen production from glucose and xylose in the presence of aldehyde inhibitors, reducing agent (i.e., sodium borohydride) was in situ added for effective detoxification. The detoxification efficiencies of furfural (96.7%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 91.7%) with 30mM NaBH4 were much higher than those of vanillin (77.3%) and syringaldehyde (69.3%). Biohydrogen fermentation was completely inhibited without detoxification, probably because of the consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by inhibitors reduction (R-CHO+2NADH→R-CH2OH+2NAD(+)). Addition of 30mM NaBH4 provided the reducing power necessary for inhibitors reduction (4R-CHO+NaBH4+2H2O→4R-CH2OH+NaBO2). The recovered reducing power in fermentation resulted in 99.3% recovery of the hydrogen yield and 64.6% recovery of peak production rate. Metabolite production and carbon conversion after detoxification significantly increased to 63.7mM and 81.9%, respectively. PMID:26342346

  13. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in Chinese and Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Leslie; Leong, Jern-Yi; Lim, Jing-Yan; Lee, Arthur; Yang, Jun; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Winslow, Munidasa

    2010-01-01

    The association between two functional polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2/ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes and alcohol dependence was examined in 182 Chinese and Indian patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence and 184 screened control subjects from Singapore. All subjects were screened by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients were also administered the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and selected genotypes confirmed by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were higher in controls compared to alcohol-dependent subjects for both Chinese and Indians. Frequencies of these two alleles were also higher in the 104 Chinese controls compared to the 80 Indian controls. None of the eight Chinese who were homozygous for both protective alleles was alcohol dependent. The higher frequencies of the protective alleles could explain the lower rate of alcohol dependence in Chinese. PMID:20025435

  14. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  15. Studies of the condensation of sulfones with ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Garst, Michael E; Dolby, Lloyd J; Esfandiari, Shervin; Okrent, Rachel A; Avey, Alfred A

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] The condensation of ketones or aldehydes with sulfones was shown to give a variety of products. Condensation of 2-methylcyclohexanone with dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide as base gave useful yields of 1,2-dimethylenecyclohexane. Under the same conditions, cycloheptanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and 2-butanone were converted to dienes. Remarkably, these reaction conditions converted acetophenone into p-terphenyl (10%) and (E)-1,4-diphenyl-3-penten-1-one (44%). Propiophenone was converted to 2'-methyl-p-terphenyl (61%). Using alpha-tetralone produced 1-methynaphthalene and naphthalene. No reaction took place with beta-tetralone. Using diethyl sulfone with alpha-tetralone lead to pure naphthalene. Condensation of isobutyraldehyde and dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide gave isoprene in low yield. Using benzaldehyde and benzyl phenyl sulfone in N,N-dimethylacetamide gave 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene, N,N-dimethylcinnamide, and a complex condensation product. Only 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene was obtained when the solvent was THF. PMID:16408963

  16. Intracellular localization of aldehyde dehydrogenase in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Marjanen, Leo

    1972-01-01

    1. Distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in rat liver was studied by measuring the rate of disappearance of acetaldehyde in the presence of each of the subcellular fractions. These were obtained by rough separation of particulate fractions from the soluble portion of the cell, by differential centrifugation, and by isopycnic gradient centrifugation. 2. The maximal rate of acetaldehyde oxidation was 3.7 μmol/min per g, with an apparent Km value below 10−5m. The highest rate of activity was observed in phosphate buffers of high Pi concentration (above 60mm). 3. The activity measured was completely dependent on NAD+. 4. The microsomal fraction and the nuclei were inactive in the assay. Of the total activity 80% was found in the mitochondrial fraction and the remaining 20% in the cytoplasm. 5. The distribution pattern is important from the point of view of acetaldehyde oxidation during ethanol metabolism. The apparent discrepancy of the results obtained by different workers and the localization of acetaldehyde oxidation in vivo is discussed. PMID:4346744

  17. Reactive ring-opened aldehyde metabolites in benzene hematotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Witz, G.; Zhang, Zhihua; Goldstein, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The hematotoxicity of benzene is mediated by reactive benzene metabolites and possibly by other intermediates including reactive oxygen species. We previously hypothesized that ring-opened metabolites may significantly contribute to benzene hematotoxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, our studies initially demonstrated that benzene is metabolized in vitro to trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reactive six-carbon diene dialdehyde, and that MUC is toxic to the bone marrow in a manner similar to benzene. Benzene toxicity most likely involves interactions among several metabolites that operate by different mechanisms to produce more than one biological effect. Our studies indicate that MUC coadministered with hydroquinone is a particularly potent metabolite combination that causes bone marrow damage, suggesting that the involvement of ring-opened metabolites in benzene toxicity may be related to their biological effects in combination with other benzene metabolites. Studies in our laboratory and by others indicate that MUC is metabolized to a variety of compounds by oxidation or reduction of the aldehyde groups. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of aldo-keto reductases with phospholipid aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Spite, Matthew; Baba, Shahid P.; Ahmed, Yonis; Barski, Oleg A.; Nijhawan, Kanchan; Petrash, J. Mark; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Phospholipid oxidation generates several bioactive aldehydes that remain esterified to the glycerol backbone (‘core’ aldehydes). These aldehydes induce endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic factors and enhance monocyte–endothelium adhesion. They also serve as ligands of scavenger receptors for the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins or apoptotic cells. The biochemical pathways involved in phospholipid aldehyde metabolism, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have examined the efficacy of the three mammalian AKR (aldo-keto reductase) families in catalysing the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes. The model phospholipid aldehyde POVPC [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine] was efficiently reduced by members of the AKR1, but not by the AKR6 or the ARK7 family. In the AKR1 family, POVPC reductase activity was limited to AKR1A and B. No significant activity was observed with AKR1C enzymes. Among the active proteins, human AR (aldose reductase) (AKR1B1) showed the highest catalytic activity. The catalytic efficiency of human small intestinal AR (AKR1B10) was comparable with the murine AKR1B proteins 1B3 and 1B8. Among the murine proteins AKR1A4 and AKR1B7 showed appreciably lower catalytic activity as compared with 1B3 and 1B8. The human AKRs, 1B1 and 1B10, and the murine proteins, 1B3 and 1B8, also reduced C-7 and C-9 sn-2 aldehydes as well as POVPE [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine]. AKR1A4, B1, B7 and B8 catalysed the reduction of aldehydes generated in oxidized C16:0-20:4 phosphatidylcholine with acyl, plasmenyl or alkyl linkage at the sn-1 position or C16:0-20:4 phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. AKR1B1 displayed the highest activity with phosphatidic acids; AKR1A4 was more efficient with long-chain aldehydes such as 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl derivatives, whereas AKR1B8 preferred phosphatidylglycerol. These results suggest that proteins of the AKR1A and B families are

  19. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed. PMID:10092944

  20. Photoredox Activation for the Direct β-Arylation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Pirnot, Michael T.; Rankic, Danica A.; Martin, David B. C.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct β-activation of saturated aldehydes and ketones has long been an elusive transformation. We found that photoredox catalysis in combination with organocatalysis can lead to the transient generation of 5π-electron β-enaminyl radicals from ketones and aldehydes that rapidly couple with cyano-substituted aryl rings at the carbonyl β-position. This mode of activation is suitable for a broad range of carbonyl β-functionalization reactions and is amenable to enantioselective catalysis. PMID:23539600

  1. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. PMID:26703808

  2. Aldehyde-Tagged Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks: a Versatile Platform for Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Xi, Fu-Gui; Liu, Hui; Yang, Ning-Ning; Gao, En-Qing

    2016-05-16

    Aldehyde-tagged UiO-67-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized via the direct solvothermal method or postsynthetic ligand exchange. Various functionalities have been introduced into the MOFs via postsynthetic modification (PSM) employing C-N and C-C coupling reactions of the aldehyde tag. Tandem PSM has also been demonstrated. An amino-functionalized MOF obtained by PSM is shown to be an efficient, heterogeneous, and recyclable catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation. PMID:27136395

  3. Neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction in mice lacking cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wey, Margaret Chia-Ying; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Martinez, Paul Anthony; Sullivan, Patricia; Goldstein, David S; Strong, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated levels of biogenic aldehydes in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain, aldehydes are primarily detoxified by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Reduced ALDH1 expression in surviving midbrain dopamine neurons has been reported in brains of patients who died with PD. In addition, impaired complex I activity, which is well documented in PD, reduces the availability of the NAD(+) co-factor required by multiple ALDH isoforms to catalyze the removal of biogenic aldehydes. We hypothesized that chronically decreased function of multiple aldehyde dehydrogenases consequent to exposure to environmental toxins and/or reduced ALDH expression, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of PD. To address this hypothesis, we generated mice null for Aldh1a1 and Aldh2, the two isoforms known to be expressed in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Aldh1a1(-/-)×Aldh2(-/-) mice exhibited age-dependent deficits in motor performance assessed by gait analysis and by performance on an accelerating rotarod. Intraperitoneal administration of L-DOPA plus benserazide alleviated the deficits in motor performance. We observed a significant loss of neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra and a reduction of dopamine and metabolites in the striatum of Aldh1a1(-/-)×Aldh2(-/-) mice. We also observed significant increases in biogenic aldehydes reported to be neurotoxic, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the aldehyde intermediate of dopamine metabolism, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). These results support the hypothesis that impaired detoxification of biogenic aldehydes may be important in the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that Aldh1a1(-/-)×Aldh2(-/-) mice may be a useful animal model of PD. PMID:22384032

  4. Iron-Catalyzed Regioselective Transfer Hydrogenative Couplings of Unactivated Aldehydes with Simple Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Long; Liu, Yan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Mei; Wang, Yin-Xia; Lin, Yu-Tong; Ye, Mengchun

    2016-05-17

    An FeBr3 -catalyzed reductive coupling of various aldehydes with alkenes that proceeds through a direct hydride transfer pathway has been developed. With (i) PrOH as the hydrogen donor under mild conditions, previously challenging coupling reactions of unactivated alkyl and aryl aldehydes with simple alkenes, such as styrene derivatives and α-olefins, proceeded smoothly to furnish a diverse range of functionalized alcohols with complete linear regioselectivity. PMID:27072872

  5. Garner’s aldehyde as a versatile intermediate in the synthesis of enantiopure natural products

    PubMed Central

    Passiniemi, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since its introduction to the synthetic community in 1984, Garner’s aldehyde has gained substantial attention as a chiral intermediate for the synthesis of numerous amino alcohol derivatives. This review presents some of the most successful carbon chain elongation reactions, namely carbonyl alkylations and olefinations. The literature is reviewed with particular attention on understanding how to avoid the deleterious epimerization of the existing stereocenter in Garner’s aldehyde. PMID:24367429

  6. Synergistic gold and enamine catalysis: intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes with allenamides.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Casado, Jaime; Nelson, Ronald; Mascareñas, José L; López, Fernando

    2016-02-18

    Aldehydes can be α-alkylated with allenamides by the combined action of an organocatalyst and a gold complex. The reaction requires the simultaneous generation of an enamine and a gold-activated allenamide. Importantly, by using a chiral amine as organocatalyst it is possible to obtain aldehyde products featuring all-carbon quaternary stereocenter at their α-position, with moderate to good levels of enantioselectivity. PMID:26765976

  7. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptides. Histidine dipeptides are present in micromolar to millimolar range in the tissues of vertebrates, where they are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as pH buffering, metal chelation, oxidant and aldehyde scavenging. Histidine dipeptides such as carnosine form Michael adducts with lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes, and react with carbohydrate-derived oxo- and hydroxy- aldehydes forming products of unknown structure. Although these peptides react with electrophilic molecules at lower rate than glutathione, they can protect glutathione from modification by oxidant and they may be important for aldehyde quenching in glutathione-depleted cells or extracellular space where glutathione is scarce. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with carnosine has been shown to diminish ischemic injury, improve glucose control, ameliorate the development of complications in animal models of diabetes and obesity, promote wound healing and decrease atherosclerosis. The protective effects of carnosine have been linked to its anti-oxidant properties, it ability to promote glycolysis, detoxify reactive aldehydes and enhance histamine levels. Thus, treatment with carnosine and related histidine dipeptides may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with high carbonyl load. PMID:23313711

  8. Synthesis of Chiral Piperazinones Using Amphoteric Aziridine Aldehyde Dimers and Functionalized Isocyanides.

    PubMed

    Heine, Niklas B; Kaldas, Sherif J; Belding, Lee; Shmatova, Olga; Dudding, Travis; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Studer, Armido; Yudin, Andrei K

    2016-06-17

    We have evaluated a range of functionalized isocyanides in the aziridine aldehyde-driven multicomponent synthesis of piperazinones. High diasteroselectivity for each isocyanide was observed. A theoretical evaluation of the reaction course corroborates the experimental data. Moreover, the reactivity of cis- and trans-configured aziridine aldehyde dimers has been compared. This study further probes the dimer-driven mechanism of cyclization and enables an efficient access to a wide range of chiral piperazinones bearing functionalized side chains. PMID:27156711

  9. Pathological changes in platelet histamine oxidases in atopic eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Gruia

    1993-01-01

    Increased plasma histamine levels were associated with significantly lowered diamine and type B monoamine oxidase activities in platelet-rich plasma of atopic eczema (AE) patients. The diamine oxidase has almost normal cofactor levels (pyridoxal phosphate and Cu2+) but the cofactor levels for type B monoamine oxidase (flavin adenine dinucleotide and Fe2+) are lowered. The biogenic amines putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and serotonin in the sera, as well as dopamine and epinephrine in EDTA-plasma were found to be normal. It is unlikely, therefore, that these amines are responsible for the decreased activities of monoamine and diamine oxidase in these patients. The most likely causative factors for the inhibition of the diamine oxidase are nicotine, alcohol, food additives and other environmental chemicals, or perhaps a genetic defect of the diamine oxidase. PMID:18475554

  10. Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L.O.; Martinez, A. |

    1999-10-05

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw-materials requires the hydrolysis of carbohydrate polymers into a fermentable syrup. During the hydrolysis of hemicellulose with dilute acid, a variety of toxic compounds are produced such as soluble aromatic aldehydes from lignin and furfural from pentose destruction. In this study, the authors have investigated the toxicity of representative aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethlyfurfural, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, and vanillin) as inhibitors of growth and ethanol production by ethanologenic derivatives of Escherichia coli B (strains K011 and LY01). Aromatic aldyhydes were at least twice as toxic as furfural of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a weight basis. The toxicities of all aldehydes (and ethanol) except furfural were additive when tested in binary combinations. In all cases, combinations with furfural were unexpectedly toxic. Although the potency of these aldehydes was directly related to hydrophobicity indicating a hydrophobic site of action, none caused sufficient membrane damage to allow the leakage of intracellular magnesium even when present at sixfold the concentrations required for growth inhibition. Of the aldehydes tested, only furfural strongly inhibited ethanol production in vitro. A comparison with published results for other microorganisms indicates that LY01 is equivalent or more resistant than other biocatalysts to the aldehydes examined in this study.

  11. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  12. [Fatty aldehydes of the plasmalogenic form of phosphatidylethanolamine in the vertebrate brain].

    PubMed

    Kruglova, E E

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made on the composition of fatty aldehydes of plasmalogen form of ethanolamine phospholipid in the brain of 28 fish species (13 cartilaginous and 15 teleost species, exhibiting different level of organization of the nervous system, marine and freshwater, dwelling in different habitats), as well as in the brain of other vertebrates. It was found that in all primitive species of cartilaginous fish high degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes is observed; in higher species the degree of unsaturation is much lower. The highest degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes was demonstrated for abyssal species of cartilaginous and teleost fishes. In warm-water species which dwell in the upper layers, unlike all other fishes investigated, almost all fatty aldehydes are saturated. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty aldehydes in fish brain depends on the entity of phylogenetic and ecological factors. Studies on other vertebrates show that in warm-blooded animals saturated fatty aldehydes predominate, whereas in cold-blooded-unsaturated ones are more abundant. PMID:314210

  13. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  14. Development of post-column enzymic reactors with immobilized alcohol oxidase for use in the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of alcohols with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Tagliaro, F; Schiavon, G; Dorizzi, R; Marigo, M

    1991-01-18

    The development of a very sensitive, direct injection high-performance liquid chromatographic method, using a post-column reactor with immobilized alcohol oxidase, was undertaken with the aim of determining methanol and ethanol levels in microlitre volumes of biological samples. After reversed-phase chromatography to separate methanol and ethanol, the analytes were enzymically converted into the respective aldehydes with formation of stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen peroxide, which could be measured via electrochemical oxidation at a platinum electrode. Some problems were encountered in the development of solid-phase enzymic reactors, using a delicate enzyme, that is prone to lose activity, such as alcohol oxidase. Owing to the slightly alkaline pH required for the optimum activity of alcohol oxidase, polymeric columns seemed to be preferable for the chromatography. HEMA copolymer was chosen as the stationary phase, but the methanol and ethanol peaks eluted close together and posed severe problems of limiting post-column band spreading. Reactors based on coarse supports for enzyme immobilization gave unacceptable band spreading, causing the methanol and ethanol peaks to overlap. On the other hand high-performance liquid chromatographic packings maintained the efficiency of the chromatographic separation, quite independently of the reactor volume. Polymeric supports proved superior to silicas in maintaining the enzyme activity. However, relevant changes in the enzyme substrate specificity were observed after immobilization. PMID:2061376

  15. Gravity Responsive NADH Oxidase of the Plasma Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing gravity using an NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane which has been found to respond to unit gravity and low centrifugal g forces. The oxidation rate of NADH supplied to the NADH oxidase is measured and translated to represent the relative gravitational force exerted on the protein. The NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane may be obtained from plant or animal sources or may be produced recombinantly.

  16. The Apoplastic Copper AMINE OXIDASE1 Mediates Jasmonic Acid-Induced Protoxylem Differentiation in Arabidopsis Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Ghuge, Sandip A.; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A.; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Polyamines are involved in key developmental processes and stress responses. Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine (Put), producing an aldehyde, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) amine oxidase gene At4g14940 (AtAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed at the early stages of vascular tissue differentiation in roots. Here, its role in root development and xylem differentiation was explored by pharmacological and forward/reverse genetic approaches. Analysis of the AtAO1 expression pattern in roots by a promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase fusion revealed strong gene expression in the protoxylem at the transition, elongation, and maturation zones. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced AtAO1 gene expression in vascular tissues, especially at the transition and elongation zones. Early protoxylem differentiation was observed upon MeJA treatment along with Put level decrease and H2O2 accumulation in wild-type roots, whereas Atao1 loss-of-function mutants were unresponsive to the hormone. The H2O2 scavenger N,N1-dimethylthiourea reversed the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in wild-type seedlings. Likewise, Put, which had no effect on Atao1 mutants, induced early protoxylem differentiation in the wild type, this event being counteracted by N,N1-dimethylthiourea treatment. Consistently, AtAO1-overexpressing plants showed lower Put levels and early protoxylem differentiation concurrent with H2O2 accumulation in the root zone where the first protoxylem cells with fully developed secondary wall thickenings are found. These results show that the H2O2 produced via AtAO1-driven Put oxidation plays a role in MeJA signaling leading to early protoxylem differentiation in root. PMID:25883242

  17. An overview on alcohol oxidases and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Pranab; Chinnadayyala, Soma Sekhar R; Chakraborty, Mitun; Kumar, Adepu Kiran; Kakoti, Ankana

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol oxidases (Alcohol: O₂ Oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.3.x) are flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds with a concomitant release of hydrogen peroxide. Based on substrate specificity, alcohol oxidases may be categorized broadly into four different groups namely, (a) short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), (b) long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), (c) aromatic alcohol oxidase (AAO), and (d) secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO). The sources reported for these enzymes are mostly limited to bacteria, yeast, fungi, plant, insect, and mollusks. However, the quantum of reports for each category of enzymes considerably varies across these sources. The enzymes belonging to SCAO and LCAO are intracellular in nature, whereas AAO and SAO are mostly secreted to the medium. SCAO and LCAO are invariably reported as multimeric proteins with very high holoenzyme molecular masses, but the molecular characteristics of these enzymes are yet to be clearly elucidated. One of the striking features of the alcohol oxidases that make them distinct from the widely known alcohol dehydrogenase is the avidly bound cofactor to the redox center of these enzymes that obviate the need to supplement cofactor during the catalytic reaction. These flavin-based redox enzymes have gained enormous importance in the development of various industrial processes and products primarily for developing biosensors and production of various industrially useful carbonyl compounds. The present review provides an overview on alcohol oxidases from different categories focusing research on these oxidases during the last decade along with their potential industrial applications. PMID:23525937

  18. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  19. Superoxide anion radical generation during the oxidation of various amines by diamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Silva, I J; Azevedo, M S; Manso, C F

    1996-03-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) or histaminase is an enzyme which deaminates histamine and several aliphatic amines to their corresponding aldehydes. Hydrogen peroxide and ammonia are side products of this reaction. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate if determination of produced hydrogen peroxide reflects DAO activity or if intermediate formation of the superoxide radical could be a reason for lack of correspondence between oxygen uptake and hydrogen peroxide production at different pH. Superoxide radical formation was determined by cytochrome c reduction in the presence and absence of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Oxygen uptake was measured with an oxygen electrode and hydrogen peroxide production by a spectrophotometric method. At pH 6.6 there was no superoxide production, but at pH 7.4 there was some, and it increased markedly at pH 9.5. Oxygen uptake also increased with increasing pH, especially with histamine as substrate. These results lead us to suggest that the mechanism of action of DAO involves the intermediate generation of superoxide radicals. PMID:8728118

  20. Structural insights into the substrate specificity of bacterial copper amine oxidase obtained by using irreversible inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murakawa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Taki, Masayasu; Yamamoto, Yukio; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Okajima, Toshihide

    2012-02-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) catalyse the oxidation of various aliphatic amines to the corresponding aldehydes, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Although CAOs from various organisms share a highly conserved active-site structure including a protein-derived cofactor, topa quinone (TPQ), their substrate specificities differ considerably. To obtain structural insights into the substrate specificity of a CAO from Arthrobacter globiformis (AGAO), we have determined the X-ray crystal structures of AGAO complexed with irreversible inhibitors that form covalent adducts with TPQ. Three hydrazine derivatives, benzylhydrazine (BHZ), 4-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (4-OH-BHZ) and phenylhydrazine (PHZ) formed predominantly a hydrazone adduct, which is structurally analogous to the substrate Schiff base of TPQ formed during the catalytic reaction. With BHZ and 4-OH-BHZ, but not with PHZ, the inhibitor aromatic ring is bound to a hydrophobic cavity near the active site in a well-defined conformation. Furthermore, the hydrogen atom on the hydrazone nitrogen is located closer to the catalytic base in the BHZ and 4-OH-BHZ adducts than in the PHZ adduct. These results correlate well with the reactivity of 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine as preferred substrates for AGAO and also explain why benzylamine is a poor substrate with markedly decreased rate constants for the steps of proton abstraction and the following hydrolysis. PMID:21984603

  1. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hye; Park, Ae Kyung; Oh, Jae Soon; Lee, Ki Seog; Chi, Young Min

    2013-08-01

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) is a flavin-dependent enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. In order to better understand the structure and function of this enzyme, NAO from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified and crystallized as a native and a selenomethionine-substituted (SeMet) enzyme. Both crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å and belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2₁, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.06, b = 55.43, c = 87.74 Å, β = 96.56° for native NAO and a = 69.89, b = 54.83, c = 88.20 Å, β = 95.79° for SeMet NAO. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit in both crystals, the Matthews coefficients (VM) for native and SeMet NAO were calculated to be 2.30 and 2.48 ų Da⁻¹, with estimated solvent contents of 46.50 and 50.37%, respectively. PMID:23908035

  2. Identification of a hypothetical protein from Podospora anserina as a nitroalkane oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tormos, José R; Taylor, Alexander B; Daubner, S Colette; Hart, P John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-06-22

    The flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily. To date no enzymes other than that from F. oxysporum have been annotated as NAOs. To identify additional potential NAOs, the available database was searched for enzymes in which the active site residues Asp402, Arg409, and Ser276 were conserved. Of the several fungal enzymes identified in this fashion, PODANSg2158 from Podospora anserina was selected for expression and characterization. The recombinant enzyme is a flavoprotein with activity on nitroalkanes comparable to the F. oxysporum NAO, although the substrate specificity is somewhat different. Asp399, Arg406, and Ser273 in PODANSg2158 correspond to the active site triad in F. oxysporum NAO. The k(cat)/K(M)-pH profile with nitroethane shows a pK(a) of 5.9 that is assigned to Asp399 as the active site base. Mutation of Asp399 to asparagine decreases the k(cat)/K(M) value for nitroethane over 2 orders of magnitude. The R406K and S373A mutations decrease this kinetic parameter by 64- and 3-fold, respectively. The structure of PODANSg2158 has been determined at a resolution of 2.0 A, confirming its identification as an NAO. PMID:20481475

  3. Lysyl Oxidase Activity Is Required for Ordered Collagen Fibrillogenesis by Tendon Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Herchenhan, Andreas; Uhlenbrock, Franziska; Eliasson, Pernilla; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Kadler, Karl E.; Magnusson, S. Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are a family of copper-dependent oxido-deaminases that can modify the side chain of lysyl residues in collagen and elastin, thereby leading to the spontaneous formation of non-reducible aldehyde-derived interpolypeptide chain cross-links. The consequences of LOX inhibition in producing lathyrism are well documented, but the consequences on collagen fibril formation are less clear. Here we used β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOX in tendon-like constructs (prepared from human tenocytes), which are an experimental model of cell-mediated collagen fibril formation. The improvement in structure and strength seen with time in control constructs was absent in constructs treated with BAPN. As expected, BAPN inhibited the formation of aldimine-derived cross-links in collagen, and the constructs were mechanically weak. However, an unexpected finding was that BAPN treatment led to structurally abnormal collagen fibrils with irregular profiles and widely dispersed diameters. Of special interest, the abnormal fibril profiles resembled those seen in some Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome phenotypes. Importantly, the total collagen content developed normally, and there was no difference in COL1A1 gene expression. Collagen type V, decorin, fibromodulin, and tenascin-X proteins were unaffected by the cross-link inhibition, suggesting that LOX regulates fibrillogenesis independently of these molecules. Collectively, the data show the importance of LOX for the mechanical development of early collagenous tissues and that LOX is essential for correct collagen fibril shape formation. PMID:25979340

  4. Recombinant human diamine oxidase activity is not inhibited by ethanol, acetaldehyde, disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamate or cyanamide.

    PubMed

    Bartko, Johann; Gludovacz, Elisabeth; Petroczi, Karin; Borth, Nicole; Jilma, Bernd; Boehm, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Human diamine oxidase (hDAO, EC 1.4.3.22) is the key enzyme in the degradation of extracellular histamine. Consumption of alcohol is a known trigger of mast cell degranulation in patients with mast cell activation syndrome. Ethanol may also interfere with enzymatic histamine degradation, but reports on the effects on DAO activity are controversial. There are also conflicting reports whether disulfiram, an FDA-approved agent in the treatment of alcohol dependence, inhibits DAO. We therefore investigated the inhibitory potential of ethanol and disulfiram and their metabolites on recombinant human DAO (rhDAO) in three different assay systems. Relevant concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate did not inhibit rhDAO activity in an in vitro assay system using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) -mediated luminol oxidation. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; EC 1.2.1.3) inhibitors cyanamide and its dimer dicyanamide also had no effect on DAO activity. In one assay system, the irreversible ALDH inhibitor disulfiram and its main metabolite diethyldithiocarbamate seemed to inhibit DAO activity. However, the decreased product formation was not due to a direct block of DAO activity but resulted from inhibition of peroxidase employed in the coupled system. Our in vitro data do not support a direct blocking effect of ethanol, disulfiram, and their metabolites on DAO activity in vivo. PMID:27401969

  5. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hye; Park, Ae Kyung; Oh, Jae Soon; Lee, Ki Seog; Chi, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) is a flavin-dependent enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. In order to better understand the structure and function of this enzyme, NAO from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified and crystallized as a native and a selenomethionine-substituted (SeMet) enzyme. Both crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å and belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.06, b = 55.43, c = 87.74 Å, β = 96.56° for native NAO and a = 69.89, b = 54.83, c = 88.20 Å, β = 95.79° for SeMet NAO. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit in both crystals, the Matthews coefficients (V M) for native and SeMet NAO were calculated to be 2.30 and 2.48 Å3 Da−1, with estimated solvent contents of 46.50 and 50.37%, respectively. PMID:23908035

  6. Lysyl Oxidase Activity Is Required for Ordered Collagen Fibrillogenesis by Tendon Cells.

    PubMed

    Herchenhan, Andreas; Uhlenbrock, Franziska; Eliasson, Pernilla; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Kadler, Karl E; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2015-06-26

    Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are a family of copper-dependent oxido-deaminases that can modify the side chain of lysyl residues in collagen and elastin, thereby leading to the spontaneous formation of non-reducible aldehyde-derived interpolypeptide chain cross-links. The consequences of LOX inhibition in producing lathyrism are well documented, but the consequences on collagen fibril formation are less clear. Here we used β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOX in tendon-like constructs (prepared from human tenocytes), which are an experimental model of cell-mediated collagen fibril formation. The improvement in structure and strength seen with time in control constructs was absent in constructs treated with BAPN. As expected, BAPN inhibited the formation of aldimine-derived cross-links in collagen, and the constructs were mechanically weak. However, an unexpected finding was that BAPN treatment led to structurally abnormal collagen fibrils with irregular profiles and widely dispersed diameters. Of special interest, the abnormal fibril profiles resembled those seen in some Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome phenotypes. Importantly, the total collagen content developed normally, and there was no difference in COL1A1 gene expression. Collagen type V, decorin, fibromodulin, and tenascin-X proteins were unaffected by the cross-link inhibition, suggesting that LOX regulates fibrillogenesis independently of these molecules. Collectively, the data show the importance of LOX for the mechanical development of early collagenous tissues and that LOX is essential for correct collagen fibril shape formation. PMID:25979340

  7. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  8. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  9. Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Purified Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Aldehyde Dehydrogenases*

    PubMed Central

    Beretta, Matteo; Gruber, Karl; Kollau, Alexander; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Goessler, Walter; Keung, Wing Ming; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Metabolism of nitroglycerin (GTN) to 1,2-glycerol dinitrate (GDN) and nitrite by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is essentially involved in GTN bioactivation resulting in cyclic GMP-mediated vascular relaxation. The link between nitrite formation and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is still unclear. To test the hypothesis that the ALDH2 reaction is sufficient for GTN bioactivation, we measured GTN-induced formation of cGMP by purified sGC in the presence of purified ALDH2 and used a Clark-type electrode to probe for nitric oxide (NO) formation. In addition, we studied whether GTN bioactivation is a specific feature of ALDH2 or is also catalyzed by the cytosolic isoform (ALDH1). Purified ALDH1 and ALDH2 metabolized GTN to 1,2- and 1,3-GDN with predominant formation of the 1,2-isomer that was inhibited by chloral hydrate (ALDH1 and ALDH2) and daidzin (ALDH2). GTN had no effect on sGC activity in the presence of bovine serum albumin but caused pronounced cGMP accumulation in the presence of ALDH1 or ALDH2. The effects of the ALDH isoforms were dependent on the amount of added protein and, like 1,2-GDN formation, were sensitive to ALDH inhibitors. GTN caused biphasic sGC activation with apparent EC50 values of 42 ± 2.9 and 3.1 ± 0.4 μm in the presence of ALDH1 and ALDH2, respectively. Incubation of ALDH1 or ALDH2 with GTN resulted in sustained, chloral hydrate-sensitive formation of NO. These data may explain the coupling of ALDH2-catalyzed GTN metabolism to sGC activation in vascular smooth muscle. PMID:18450747

  10. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:14756315

  11. Vascular Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Barbara S.; Gorren, Antonius C. F.; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Wenzl, M. Verena; Furdui, Cristina M.; Poole, Leslie B.; Mayer, Bernd; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the bioactivation of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) in blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation by nitric oxide (NO) or a related species. Because the mechanism of this reaction is still unclear we determined the three-dimensional structures of wild-type (WT) ALDH2 and of a triple mutant of the protein that exhibits low denitration activity (E268Q/C301S/C303S) in complex with GTN. The structure of the triple mutant showed that GTN binds to the active site via polar contacts to the oxyanion hole and to residues 268 and 301 as well as by van der Waals interactions to hydrophobic residues of the catalytic pocket. The structure of the GTN-soaked wild-type protein revealed a thionitrate adduct to Cys-302 as the first reaction intermediate, which was also found by mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. In addition, the MS data identified sulfinic acid as the irreversibly inactivated enzyme species. Assuming that the structures of the triple mutant and wild-type ALDH2 reflect binding of GTN to the catalytic site and the first reaction step, respectively, superposition of the two structures indicates that denitration of GTN is initiated by nucleophilic attack of Cys-302 at one of the terminal nitrate groups, resulting in formation of the observed thionitrate intermediate and release of 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate. Our results shed light on the molecular mechanism of the GTN denitration reaction and provide useful information on the structural requirements for high affinity binding of organic nitrates to the catalytic site of ALDH2. PMID:22988236

  12. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  13. NADPH oxidase promotes neutrophil extracellular trap formation in pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J; D'Auria, Anthony C; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Segal, Brahm H; Urban, Constantin F

    2014-05-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47(phox-/-)) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47(phox-/-) mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47(phox-/-) mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  14. The Pivotal Role of Aldehyde Toxicity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Therapeutic Potential of Micronutrient Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Jurnak, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as by restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Genomic studies have not revealed dominant genetic errors common to all forms of ASD. So ASD is assumed to be a complex disorder due to mutations in hundreds of common variants. Other theories argue that spontaneous DNA mutations and/or environmental factors contribute to as much as 50% of ASD. In reviewing potential genetic linkages between autism and alcoholism, it became apparent that all theories of ASD are consistent with aldehyde toxicity, in which endogenous and exogenous aldehydes accumulate as a consequence of mutations in key enzymes. Aldehyde toxicity is characterized by cell-localized, micronutrient deficiencies in sulfur-containing antioxidants, thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6), folate, Zn2+, possibly Mg2+, and retinoic acid, causing oxidative stress and a cascade of metabolic disturbances. Aldehydes also react with selective cytosolic and membrane proteins in the cell of origin; then some types migrate to damage neighboring cells. Reactive aldehydes also form adducts with DNA, selectively mutating bases and inducing strand breakage. This article reviews the relevant genomic, biochemical, and nutritional literature, which supports the central hypothesis that most ASD symptoms are consistent with symptoms of aldehyde toxicity. The hypothesis represents a paradigm shift in thinking and has profound implications for clinical detection, treatment, and even prevention of ASD. Insight is offered as to which neurologically afflicted children might successfully be treated with micronutrients and which children are unlikely to be helped. The aldehyde toxicity hypothesis likely applies to other neurological disorders. PMID:27330305

  15. Synthesis and accumulation of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-08-20

    Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates. PMID:25076127

  16. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  17. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T.; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M.; Braun, Caroline L.; Davis, Lawrence C.; Kanost, Michael R.; Gorman, Maureen J.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surpring because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  18. A single aldehyde group can serve as a structural element for recognition by transmembrane protein CD36.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Kozai, Yuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-07-01

    Transmembrane protein CD36 is considered to bind its distinct ligands such as long-chain fatty acids primarily by recognizing their terminal carboxyl moiety. In this study, we provide evidence that long-chain fatty aldehydes, such as oleic aldehyde, can be recognized by CD36. We suggest that a single aldehyde group may also serve as one of the structural elements recognizable by CD36. PMID:26923548

  19. Effect of contraceptive steroids on monoamine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Jennifer; Collins, G. G. S.; Pryse-Davies, J.; Sandler, M.

    1969-01-01

    Cyclical variations in monoamine oxidase activity during the human menstrual cycle, specific to the endometrium and modified in women undergoing contraceptive steroid treatment, may reflect changes in hormonal environment. Treatment of rats with individual constituents of the contraceptive pill causes analogous changes: oestrogens inhibit and progestogens potentiate uterine monoamine oxidase activity. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3

  20. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives. PMID:25340468

  1. Activation of antibacterial autophagy by NADPH oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju; Canadien, Veronica; Lam, Grace Y.; Steinberg, Benjamin E.; Dinauer, Mary C.; Magalhaes, Marco A. O.; Glogauer, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio; Brumell, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in immunity to microbial pathogens. The autophagy system can target bacteria in phagosomes, promoting phagosome maturation and preventing pathogen escape into the cytosol. Recently, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling from phagosomes was found to initiate their targeting by the autophagy system, but the mechanism by which TLR signaling activates autophagy is unclear. Here we show that autophagy targeting of phagosomes is not exclusive to those containing TLR ligands. Engagement of either TLRs or the Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) during phagocytosis induced recruitment of the autophagy protein LC3 to phagosomes with similar kinetics. Both receptors are known to activate the NOX2 NADPH oxidase, which plays a central role in microbial killing by phagocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that NOX2-generated ROS are necessary for LC3 recruitment to phagosomes. Antibacterial autophagy in human epithelial cells, which do not express NOX2, was also dependent on ROS generation. These data reveal a coupling of oxidative and nonoxidative killing activities of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase in phagocytes through autophagy. Furthermore, our results suggest a general role for members of the NOX family in regulating autophagy. PMID:19339495

  2. Prognostic values of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu-mei; Zhao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been used as a functional stem cell marker to isolate cancer stem cells in different cancer types, including ovarian cancer. However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity in ovarian cancer remains elusive. In addition, the prognostic value of an individual ALDH1 isoenzyme in ovarian cancer is not clear. Thus, we accessed the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer patients through the “Kaplan–Meier plotter” online database, which can be used to determine the effect of the genes on ovarian cancer prognosis. We found that high mRNA expression of five ALDH1 isoenzymes, such as ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, and ALDH1L1, was not correlated with overall survival (OS) for all 1,306 ovarian cancer patients. In addition, all five of the ALDH1 isoenzymes’ high mRNA expression was found to be uncorrelated with OS in serous cancer or endometrioid cancer patients. However, ALDH1A3’s high mRNA expression is associated with worse OS in grade II ovarian cancer patients, hazard ratio (HR) 1.53 (1.14–2.07), P=0.005. ALDH1A2’s high mRNA expression is significantly associated with worse OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, HR 2.86 (1.56–5.08), P=0.00036. In addition, ALDH1A3’s high mRNA expression is significantly associated with better OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, HR 0.56 (0.32–1.00), P=0.04. Our results indicate that although ALDH1 isoenzyme mRNA might not be a prognostic marker for overall ovarian cancer patients, some isoenzymes, such as ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3, might be a good prognostic marker for some types of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27110126

  3. The complex roles of NADPH oxidases in fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary NADPH oxidases play key roles in immunity and inflammation that go beyond the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). The past decade has brought a new appreciation for the diversity of roles played by ROS in signaling associated with inflammation and immunity. NADPH oxidase activity affects disease outcome during infections by human pathogenic fungi, an important group of emerging and opportunistic pathogens that includes Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. Here we review how alternative roles of NADPH oxidase activity impact fungal infection and how ROS signaling affects fungal physiology. Particular attention is paid to roles for NADPH oxidase in immune migration, immunoregulation in pulmonary infection, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, autophagy and inflammasome activity. These recent advances highlight the power and versatility of spatiotemporally controlled redox regulation in the context of infection, and point to a need to understand the molecular consequences of NADPH oxidase activity in the cell. PMID:24905433

  4. Ascorbic acid and L-gulonolactone oxidase in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Jenness, R; Birney, E C; Ayaz, K L

    1978-01-01

    1. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.8) in the liver of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is about 10-fold greater in winter than in summer. 2. L-gulonolactone oxidase activity is low and tissue ascorbate high during all seasons in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). 3. Liver contents of ascorbate fall to low levels in L. americanus fed on rabbit chow in the laboratory. 4. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase in liver of Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus is depressed by feeding high levels of L-ascorbic acid. 5. The New Zealand White breed of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has considerably higher levels of L-gulonolactone oxidase and liver ascorbate than does the Dutch breed. 6. In a wild population of Oryctolagus sampled in Australia L-gulonolactone oxidase levels were intermediate between those of the two domestic breeds and more variable than either. PMID:318384

  5. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  6. Direct site-specific immobilization of protein A via aldehyde-hydrazide conjugation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Berlin; Ren, Jun; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Immobilization of affinity ligands on supporting matrices is a key step for the preparation of affinity chromatography resins, and an efficient coupling strategy can significantly improve the validity and cost of the affinity system, especially for systems that employ expensive recombinant proteins or antibodies as affinity ligands. This study described a simple method for obtaining site-specific immobilization of protein A (the ligand) via aldehyde-hydrazide conjugation and its application in antibody purification via protein A chromatography. An aldehyde group was generated at the N-terminus of protein A in vivo by co-expressing a formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) and recombinant protein A containing a FGE recognizing sequence (aldehyde tag) in Escherichia coli. The resulting aldehyde allowed direct immobilization of protein A onto the hydrazide-modified agarose matrices under mild condition. We found that 100mM aniline was most effective for catalyzing the coupling reaction, and the recombinant protein A could be coupled with high selectivity, directly from a crude cell extract. The site-specific immobilized protein A showed good capacity for antibody purification. The specificity of the aldehyde-hydrazide reaction not only allowed site-specific immobilization of affinity ligands, but also improved the cost of the process by employing unpurified ligands, a method that might be of great use to industrial applications. PMID:26655104

  7. Charged tag founded in N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization for quantification of fatty aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjing; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuanqi; Qi, Wanshu; Guo, Yinlong

    2016-09-21

    N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization was developed for the derivatization of fatty aldehydes. Differing from common pre-charged reagents, non-charged pyridine and thionyl chloride were designed to add permanently charged tag on aldehydes. Pyridine was far less competitive than charged derivatives in ionization. Thionyl chloride in excess was quenched by deionized water, converting into less residual sulfur dioxide bubbles. Thus solutions could be tested directly by mass spectrometry without further post-treatments. Pyridine-d5 labeled fatty aldehydes were prepared as internal standards. Mixed derivatives were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analytical parameters including reaction yield, stability, precision, linearity, and detection limits (LODs < 0.3 pg mL(-1)) were carefully validated. This method facilitated the analysis low content (ng mL(-1)) levels of free aliphatic aldehydes (C6C18) in human thyroid carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissue with a simple pretreatment procedure. Content of long chain nonvolatile aldehydes (C10C18) remarkably increased in thyroid carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05). PMID:27590548

  8. Toxicity of polyunsaturated aldehydes of diatoms to Indo-Pacific bioindicator organism Echinometra mathaei.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Davide; Gaion, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known suitability of early developmental stages of sea urchin as recommended model for pollutant toxicity testing, little is known about the sensitivity of Indo-Pacific species Echinometra mathaei to polyunsaturated aldehydes. In this study, the effect of three short chain aldehydes, 2,4-decadienal (DD), 2,4-octadienal (OD) and 2,4-heptadienal (HD), normally found in many diatoms, such as Skeletonema costatum, Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, was evaluated on larval development of E. mathaei embryos. Aldehydes affected larval development in a dose-dependent manner, in particular HD>OD>DD; the results of this study highlighted the higher sensitivity of this species toward aldehydes compared with data registered for other sea urchin species. In comparison with studies reported in the literature, contrasting results were observed during our tests; therefore, an increasing toxic effect was registered with decreasing the chain length of aldehydes. This work could provide new insights in the development of new toxicological assays toward most sensitive species. PMID:25945412

  9. Glutathione depletion in lung cells by low-molecular-weight aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Meacher, D M; Menzel, D B

    1999-06-01

    Use of oxygenates in gasoline in the United States may increase atmospheric levels of aldehydes. To assist in health assessments of inhalation exposure to aldehydes, we studied glutathione (GSH) depletion by low-molecular-weight n-alkanals and 2-alkenals, ubiquitous air pollutants, in adult rat lung (ARL) cells by laser cytometry. For each homologous series, the effective aldehyde concentration that depleted GSH by 50% (EC50) in ARL cells correlates with published values for the median lethal dose of the chemicals and with Hammett/Taft electronic parameters, sigma* for n-alkanals and sigma(+)p for 2-alkenals. n-Alkanals (EC50, 110-400 mmol/L) were 1000 times less effective in depleting GSH than were 2-alkenals (EC50, 2-180 micromol/L), of which acrolein was the most potent. Ability of the 2-alkenals to deplete GSH follows the second-order rate constant for adduct formation. Ability of n-alkanals to deplete GSH follows chain length. Within a homologous series of low-molecular-weight aldehydes, structure-activity relationships are useful for predicting the toxicity of the aldehydes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:10580549

  10. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  11. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    PubMed

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods. PMID:25089792

  12. Oxidation of cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes by a basic peroxidase from lignifying Zinnia elegans hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A R; Pomar, F

    2001-08-01

    The xylem of 26-day old Zinnia elegans hypocotyls synthesizes lignins derived from coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol with a G/S ratio of 43/57 in the aryl-glycerol-beta-aryl ether core, as revealed by thioacidolysis. Thioacidolysis of Z. elegans lignins also reveals the presence of coniferyl aldehyde end groups linked by beta-0-4 bonds. Both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, as well as coniferyl and sinapyl aldehyde, are substrates of a xylem cell wall-located strongly basic peroxidase, which is capable of oxidizing them in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This peroxidase shows a particular affinity for cinnamyl aldehydes with kappa(M) values in the mu(M) range, and some specificity for syringyl-type phenols. The affinity of this strongly basic peroxidase for cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes is similar to that shown by the preceding enzymes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway (microsomal 5-hydroxylases and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase), which also use cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes as substrates, indicating that the one-way highway of construction of the lignin macromolecule has no metabolic "potholes" in which the lignin building blocks might accumulate. This fact suggests a high degree of metabolic plasticity for this basic peroxidase, which has been widely conserved during the evolution of vascular plants, making it one of the driving forces in the evolution of plant lignin heterogeneity. PMID:11430983

  13. Gene structure and quinol oxidase activity of a cytochrome bd-type oxidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, J; Koga, E; Mizuta, T; Sato, C; Noguchi, S; Sone, N

    1999-04-21

    Gram-positive thermophilic Bacillus species contain cytochrome caa3-type cytochrome c oxidase as their main terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. We previously identified and purified an alternative oxidase, cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase, from a mutant of Bacillus stearothermophilus defective in the caa3-type oxidase activity (J. Sakamoto et al., FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 143 (1996) 151-158). Compared with proteobacterial counterparts, B. stearothermophilus cytochrome bd showed lower molecular weights of the two subunits, shorter wavelength of alpha-band absorption maximum due to heme D, and lower quinol oxidase activity. Preincubation with menaquinone-2 enhanced the enzyme activity up to 40 times, suggesting that, besides the catalytic site, there is another quinone-binding site which largely affects the enzyme activity. In order to clarify the molecular basis of the differences of cytochromes bd between B. stearothermophilus and proteobacteria, the genes encoding for the B. stearothermophilus bd was cloned based on its partial peptide sequences. The gene for subunit I (cbdA) encodes 448 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 50195 Da, which is 14 and 17% shorter than those of Escherichia coli and Azotobacter vinelandii, respectively, and CbdA lacks the C-terminal half of the long hydrophilic loop between the putative transmembrane segments V and VI (Q loop), which has been suggested to include the substrate quinone-binding site for the E. coli enzyme. The gene for subunit II (cbdB) encodes 342 residues with a molecular weight of 38992 Da. Homology search indicated that the B. stearothermophilus cbdAB has the highest sequence similarity to ythAB in B. subtilis genome rather than to cydAB, the first set of cytochrome bd genes identified in the genome. Sequence comparison of cytochromes bd and their homologs from various organisms demonstrates that the proteins can be classified into two subfamilies, a proteobacterial type including E. coli bd and a

  14. Highly enantioselective reductive cyclization of acetylenic aldehydes via rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jong Uk; Krische, Michael J

    2006-08-23

    Catalytic hydrogenation of acetylenic aldehydes 1a-12a using chirally modified cationic rhodium catalysts enables highly enantioselective reductive cyclization to afford cyclic allylic alcohols 1b-12b. Using an achiral hydrogenation catalyst, the chiral racemic acetylenic aldehydes 13a-15a engage in highly syn-diastereoselective reductive cyclizations to afford cyclic allylic alcohols 13b-15b. Ozonolysis of cyclization products 7b and 9b allows access to optically enriched alpha-hydroxy ketones 7c and 9c. Reductive cyclization of enyne 7a under a deuterium atmosphere provides the monodeuterated product deuterio-7b, consistent with a catalytic mechanism involving alkyne-carbonyl oxidative coupling followed by hydrogenolytic cleavage of the resulting oxametallacycle. These hydrogen-mediated transformations represent the first examples of the enantioselective reductive cyclization of acetylenic aldehydes. PMID:16910650

  15. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  16. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  17. Vapour-phase gold-surface-mediated coupling of aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingjun; Liu, Xiaoying; Haubrich, Jan; Friend, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Selective coupling of oxygenates is critical to many synthetic processes, including those necessary for the development of alternative fuels. We report a general process for selective coupling of aldehydes and methanol as a route to ester synthesis. All steps are mediated by oxygen-covered metallic gold nanoparticles on Au(111). Remarkably, cross-coupling of methanol with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and benzeneacetaldehyde to methyl esters is promoted by oxygen-covered Au(111) below room temperature with high selectivity. The high selectivity is attributed to the ease of nucleophilic attack of the aldehydes by the methoxy intermediate-formed from methanol on the surface-which yields the methyl esters. The competing combustion occurs via attack of both methanol and the aldehydes by oxygen. The mechanistic model constructed in this study provides insight into factors that control selectivity and clearly elucidates the crucial role of Au nanoparticles as active species in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols, even in solution.

  18. Chemoselective Reduction of Tertiary Amides under Thermal Control: Formation of either Aldehydes or Amines.

    PubMed

    Tinnis, Fredrik; Volkov, Alexey; Slagbrand, Tove; Adolfsson, Hans

    2016-03-24

    The chemoselective reduction of amides in the presence of other more reactive reducible functional groups is a highly challenging transformation, and successful examples thereof are most valuable in synthetic organic chemistry. Only a limited number of systems have demonstrated the chemoselective reduction of amides over ketones. Until now, the aldehyde functionality has not been shown to be compatible in any catalytic reduction protocol. Described herein is a [Mo(CO)6 ]-catalyzed protocol with an unprecedented chemoselectivity and allows for the reduction of amides in the presence of aldehydes and imines. Furthermore, the system proved to be tunable by variation of the temperature, which enabled for either C-O or C-N bond cleavage that ultimately led to the isolation of both amines and aldehydes, respectively, in high chemical yields. PMID:26934055

  19. Ubiquitin-aldehyde: a general inhibitor of ubiquitin-recycling processes.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A; Rose, I A

    1987-01-01

    The generation and characterization of ubiquitin (Ub)-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of Ub-C-terminal hydrolase, has previously been reported. We now examine the action of this compound on the Ub-mediated proteolytic pathway using the system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. Addition of Ub-aldehyde was found to strongly inhibit breakdown of added 125I-labeled lysozyme, but inhibition was overcome by increasing concentrations of Ub. The following evidence shows the effect of Ub-aldehyde on protein breakdown to be indirectly caused by its interference with the recycling of Ub, leading to exhaustion of the supply of free Ub: Ub-aldehyde markedly increased the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates coincident with a much decreased rate of conjugate breakdown. release of Ub from isolated Ub-protein conjugates in the absence of ATP (and therefore not coupled to protein degradation) is markedly inhibited by Ub-aldehyde. On the other hand, the ATP-dependent degradation of the protein moiety of Ub conjugates, which is an integral part of the proteolytic process, is not inhibited by this agent. Direct measurement of levels of free Ub showed a rapid disappearance caused by the inhibitor. The Ub is found to be distributed in derivatives of a wide range of molecular weight classes. It thus seems that Ub-aldehyde, previously demonstrated to inhibit the hydrolysis of Ub conjugates of small molecules, also inhibits the activity of a series of enzymes that regenerate free Ub from adducts with proteins and intermediates in protein breakdown. Images PMID:3031653

  20. In Situ Enzymatically Generated Photoswitchable Oxidase Mimetics and Their Application for Colorimetric Detection of Glucose Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gen-Xia; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Wang, Guang-Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a simple and amplified colorimetric assay is developed for the detection of the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on in situ formation of a photoswitchable oxidase mimetic of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS quantum dots (QDs). GOx catalyzes the oxidation of 1-thio-β-d-glucose to give 1-thio-β-d-gluconic acid which spontaneously hydrolyzes to β-d-gluconic acid and H₂S; the generated H₂S instantly reacts with Cd(2+) in the presence of Na₃PO₄ to give PO₄(3-)-stabilized CdS QDs in situ. Under visible-light (λ ≥ 400 nm) stimulation, the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs are a new style of oxidase mimic derived by producing some active species, such as h⁺, (•)OH, O₂(•-) and a little H₂O₂, which can oxidize the typical substrate (3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzydine (TMB)) with a color change. Based on the GOx-triggered growth of the oxidase mimetics of PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs in situ, we developed a simple and amplified colorimetric assay to probe the enzymatic activity of GOx. The proposed method allowed the detection of the enzymatic activity of GOx over the range from 25 μg/L to 50 mg/L with a low detection limit of 6.6 μg/L. We believe the PO₄(3-)-capped CdS QDs generated in situ with photo-stimulated enzyme-mimicking activity may find wide potential applications in biosensors. PMID:27409598

  1. NADPH Oxidases in Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Joy X.; Török, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common feature observed in a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) are emerging as major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several major isoforms are expressed in the liver, including NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4. While the phagocytic NOX2 has been known to play an important role in Kupffer cell and neutrophil phagocytic activity and inflammation, the nonphagocytic NOX homologues are increasingly recognized as key enzymes in oxidative injury and wound healing. In this review, we will summarize the current advances in knowledge on the regulatory pathways of NOX activation, their cellular distribution, and their role in the modulation of redox signaling in liver diseases. PMID:26436133

  2. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Fang; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wei-De; Liao, Lin; Wan, Hong-Fu

    2011-11-01

    In this study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from commercial potatoes. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO was investigated. The experimental results show that potato PPO is more active in weak acid than in basic condition and that the optimum pH for the reaction is 5.0. The degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato PPO reaches a maximum at 298 K. After reaction for 1 h, the removal of both pentachlorophenol and total organic carbon is >70% with 6.0 units/mL potato PPO at pH 5.0 and 298 K. Pentachlorophenol can be degraded through dechlorination and ring-opening by potato PPO. The work demonstrates that pentachlorophenol can be effectively eliminated by crude potato PPO. PMID:21967325

  3. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  4. Drugs related to monoamine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Fišar, Zdeněk

    2016-08-01

    Progress in understanding the role of monoamine neurotransmission in pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders was made after the discovery of the mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs, including monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The increase in monoamine neurotransmitter availability, decrease in hydrogen peroxide production, and neuroprotective effects evoked by MAO inhibitors represent an important approach in the development of new drugs for the treatment of mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. New drugs are synthesized by acting as multitarget-directed ligands, with MAO, acetylcholinesterase, and iron chelation as targets. Basic information is summarized in this paper about the drug-induced regulation of monoaminergic systems in the brain, with a focus on MAO inhibition. Desirable effects of MAO inhibition include increased availability of monoamine neurotransmitters, decreased oxidative stress, decreased formation of neurotoxins, induction of pro-survival genes and antiapoptotic factors, and improved mitochondrial functions. PMID:26944656

  5. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  6. Modeling dioxygen reduction at multicopper oxidase cathodes.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Peter; Heath, James R; Gray, Harry B

    2014-10-01

    We report a general kinetics model for catalytic dioxygen reduction on multicopper oxidase (MCO) cathodes. Our rate equation combines Butler-Volmer (BV) electrode kinetics and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formalism for enzymatic catalysis, with the BV model accounting for interfacial electron transfer (ET) between the electrode surface and the MCO type 1 copper site. Extending the principles of MM kinetics to this system produced an analytical expression incorporating the effects of subsequent intramolecular ET and dioxygen binding to the trinuclear copper cluster into the cumulative model. We employed experimental electrochemical data on Thermus thermophilus laccase as benchmarks to validate our model, which we suggest will aid in the design of more efficient MCO cathodes. In addition, we demonstrate the model's utility in determining estimates for both the electronic coupling and average distance between the laccase type-1 active site and the cathode substrate. PMID:25188422

  7. POLYAMINE OXIDASE 1 from rice (Oryza sativa) is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis POLYAMINE OXIDASE 5

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Taibo; Wook Kim, Dong; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    POLYAMINE OXIDASE 1 (OsPAO1), from rice (Oryza sativa), and POLYAMINE OXIDASE 5 (AtPAO5), from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are enzymes sharing high identity at the amino acid level and with similar characteristics, such as polyamine specificity and pH preference; furthermore, both proteins localize to the cytosol. A loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, Atpao5–2, was hypersensitive to low doses of exogenous thermospermine but this phenotype could be rescued by introduction of the wild-type AtPAO5 gene. Introduction of OsPAO1, under the control of a constitutive promoter, into Atpao5–2 mutants also restored normal thermospermine sensitivity, allowing growth in the presence of low levels of thermospermine, along with a concomitant decrease in thermospermine content in plants. By contrast, introduction of OsPAO3, which encodes a peroxisome-localized polyamine oxidase, into Atpao5–2 plants could not rescue any of the mutant phenotypes in the presence of thermospermine. These results suggest that OsPAO1 is the functional ortholog of AtPAO5. PMID:25763711

  8. POLYAMINE OXIDASE 1 from rice (Oryza sativa) is a functional ortholog of Arabidopsis POLYAMINE OXIDASE 5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taibo; Wook Kim, Dong; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2014-07-25

    POLYAMINE OXIDASE 1 (OsPAO1), from rice (Oryza sativa), and POLYAMINE OXIDASE 5 (AtPAO5), from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are enzymes sharing high identity at the amino acid level and with similar characteristics, such as polyamine specificity and pH preference; furthermore, both proteins localize to the cytosol. A loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, Atpao5-2, was hypersensitive to low doses of exogenous thermospermine but this phenotype could be rescued by introduction of the wild-type AtPAO5 gene. Introduction of OsPAO1, under the control of a constitutive promoter, into Atpao5-2 mutants also restored normal thermospermine sensitivity, allowing growth in the presence of low levels of thermospermine, along with a concomitant decrease in thermospermine content in plants. By contrast, introduction of OsPAO3, which encodes a peroxisome-localized polyamine oxidase, into Atpao5-2 plants could not rescue any of the mutant phenotypes in the presence of thermospermine. These results suggest that OsPAO1 is the functional ortholog of AtPAO5. PMID:25061821

  9. Lysyl oxidase binds transforming growth factor-beta and regulates its signaling via amine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Kaku, Masaru; Fong, Keith S K; Csiszar, Katalin; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2008-12-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX), an amine oxidase critical for the initiation of collagen and elastin cross-linking, has recently been shown to regulate cellular activities possibly by modulating the functions of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the interaction between LOX and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a potent growth factor abundant in bone, the effect of LOX on TGF-beta1 signaling, and its potential mechanism. The specific binding between mature LOX and mature TGF-beta1 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay in vitro. Both proteins were colocalized in the extracellular matrix in an osteoblastic cell culture system, and the binding complex was identified in the mineral-associated fraction of bone matrix. Furthermore, LOX suppressed TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation likely through its amine oxidase activity. The data indicate that LOX binds to mature TGF-beta1 and enzymatically regulates its signaling in bone and thus may play an important role in bone maintenance and remodeling. PMID:18835815

  10. Enantioselective Multicomponent Condensation Reactions of Phenols, Aldehydes, and Boronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Keith S; Luan, Yi; Ramella, Daniele; Panek, James S; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Chiral diols and biphenols catalyze the multicomponent condensation reaction of phenols, aldehydes, and alkenyl or aryl boronates. The condensation products are formed in good yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds via an initial Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aldehyde and phenol to yield an ortho-quinone methide that undergoes an enantioselective boronate addition. A cyclization pathway was discovered while exploring the scope of the reaction that provides access to chiral 2,4-diaryl chroman products, the core of which is a structural motif found in natural products. PMID:26576776

  11. Immobilization of DNA via oligonucleotides containing an aldehyde or carboxylic acid group at the 5' terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Kremsky, J N; Wooters, J L; Dougherty, J P; Meyers, R E; Collins, M; Brown, E L

    1987-01-01

    A general method for the immobilization of DNA through its 5'-end has been developed. A synthetic oligonucleotide, modified at its 5'-end with an aldehyde or carboxylic acid, was attached to latex microspheres containing hydrazide residues. Using T4 polynucleotide ligase and an oligonucleotide splint, a single stranded 98mer was efficiently joined to the immobilized synthetic fragment. After impregnation of the latex microspheres with the fluorescent dye, Nile Red and attachment of an aldehyde 16mer, 5 X 10(5) bead-DNA conjugates could be detected with a conventional fluorimeter. Images PMID:3562241

  12. Nickel(0)-catalyzed intramolecular reductive coupling of alkenes and aldehydes or ketones with hydrosilanes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yukari; Hoshimoto, Yoichi; Kumar, Ravindra; Ohashi, Masato; Ogoshi, Sensuke

    2016-05-01

    A nickel(0)-catalyzed reductive coupling of aldehydes and simple alkenes with hydrosilanes has been developed. A variety of silyl-protected 1-indanol derivatives were prepared in a highly diastereoselective manner (up to >99 : 1 dr) by employing a combination of nickel(0)/N-heterocyclic carbene and triethylsilane. The present system was also applied to a reductive coupling with ketones. Preliminary results of a nickel(0)-catalyzed asymmetric three-component coupling reaction of an aldehyde, an alkene, and triethylsilane are also shown. PMID:27077829

  13. Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, Miyoshi; Mosley, S.P.; Barbero, L.J. )

    1992-10-01

    The growth of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was inhibited by terpene alcohols and the terpene aldehyde citral. The strongest activity was shown by citral. Nerol, geraniol, and citronellol also showed pronounced activity. Strong inhibition was linked to acyclic terpenes containing a primary alcohol or aldehyde function. Inhibition appeared to be taking place through the vapor phase rather than by diffusion through the agar medium from the terpene-treated paper disks used in the system. Inhibition through agar diffusion was shown by certain aged samples of terpene hydrocarbons but not by recently purchased samples.

  14. Application of a Sequential Reaction Model to PANS and Aldehyde Measurements in Two Urban Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, James M.; Stroud, C.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Trainer, Michael; Hereid, D.; Williams, E. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Brune, W. H.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.

    2001-12-15

    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (= PAN, PPN, MPAN) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propanal, and methacrolein) were made at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1999 and Houston, Texas, in 2000. The data were interpreted with a sequential reaction model that included reaction of aldehydes with hydroxl radical and formation or loss of PANs mediated by peroxyacyl radicals. The comparison of the measured ratios with those predicted by the model showed disagreement for PAN/acetaldehyde and PPN/propanal in Nashville but agreement in Houston. These features are consistent with the relative importance of isoprene to PAN formation at each site.

  15. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  16. Phagocyte NADPH oxidase and specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Julien; Deffert, Christine; Hugues, Stephanie; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-01

    The phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2 produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a well-known player in host defence. However, there is also increasing evidence for a regulatory role of NOX2 in adaptive immunity. Deficiency in phagocyte NADPH oxidase causes chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) in humans, a condition that can also be studied in CGD mice. Clinical observations in CGD patients suggest a higher susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, in particular lupus, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and rheumatoid arthritis. In mice, a strong correlation exists between a polymorphism in a NOX2 subunit and the development of autoimmune arthritis. NOX2 deficiency in mice also favours lupus development. Both CGD patients and CGD mice exhibit increased levels of immunoglobulins, including autoantibodies. Despite these phenotypes suggesting a role for NOX2 in specific immunity, mechanistic explanations for the typical increase of CGD in autoimmune disease and antibody levels are still preliminary. NOX2-dependent ROS generation is well documented for dendritic cells and B-lymphocytes. It is unclear whether T-lymphocytes produce ROS themselves or whether they are exposed to ROS derived from dendritic cells during the process of antigen presentation. ROS are signalling molecules in virtually any cell type, including T- and B-lymphocytes. However, knowledge about the impact of ROS-dependent signalling on T- and B-lymphocyte phenotype and response is still limited. ROS might contribute to Th1/Th2/Th17 cell fate decisions during T-lymphocyte activation and might enhance immunoglobulin production by B-lymphocytes. In dendritic cells, NOX2-derived ROS might be important for antigen processing and cell activation. PMID:25760962

  17. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this microorganism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the phenolic substrate, pH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration used. It was demonstrated that three different PPOs are expressed. The genes coding for the enzymes were unambiguously correlated with the enzymatic activities detected by generation of null mutations in the genes by using insertional mutagenesis with a suicide plasmid and estimating the changes in the levels of enzymatic activities compared to the levels in the wild-type strain. The protein encoded by the RSp1530 locus is a multicopper protein with laccase activity. Two other genes, RSc0337 and RSc1501, code for nonblue copper proteins exhibiting homology to tyrosinases. The product of RSc0337 has strong tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and it has been shown that this enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis by R. solanacearum. The product of the RSc1501 gene is an enzyme that shows a clear preference for oxidation of o-diphenols. Preliminary characterization of the mutants obtained indicated that PPOs expressed by R. solanacearum may participate in resistance to phenolic compounds since the mutants exhibited higher sensitivity to l-tyrosine than the wild-type strain. These results suggest a possible role in the pathogenic process to avoid plant resistance mechanisms involving the participation of phenolic compounds. PMID:16269713

  18. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching. PMID:19763895

  19. Dephenolization of industrial wastewaters catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Atlow, S.C.; Bonadonna-Aparo, L.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A new enzymatic method for the removal of phenols from industrial aqueous effluents has been developed. The method uses the enzyme polyphenol oxidase which oxidizes phenols to the corresponding o-quinones; the latter then undergo a nonenzymatic polymerization to form water-insoluble aggregates. Therefore, the enzyme in effect precipitates phenols from water. Polyphenol oxidase has been found to nearly completely dephenolize solutions of phenol in the concentration range from 0.01 to 1.0 g/L. The enzymatic treatment is effective over a wide range of pH and temperature; a crude preparation of polyphenol oxidase (mushroom extract) is as effective as a purified, commercially obtained version. In addition to phenol itself, polyphenol oxidase is capable of precipitating from water a number of substituted phenols (cresols, chlorophenols, naphthol, etc.). Also, even pollutants which are unreactive towards polyphenol oxidase can be enzymatically coprecipitated with phenol. The polyphenol oxidase treatment has been successfully used to dephenolize two different real industrial wastewater samples, from a plant producing triarylphosphates and from a coke plant. The advantage of the polyphenol oxidase dephenolization over the peroxidase-catalyzed one previously elaborated by the authors is that the former enzyme uses molecular oxygen instead of costly hydrogen peroxide (used by peroxidase) as an oxidant.

  20. Immobilization of Pichia pastoris cells containing alcohol oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maleknia, S; Ahmadi, H; Norouzian, D

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The attempts were made to describe the development of a whole cell immobilization of P. pastoris by entrapping the cells in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell Pichia pastoris was evaluated in comparison with yeast biomass production. Materials and Methods Methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris was obtained from Collection of Standard Microorganisms, Department of Bacterial Vaccines, Pasteur Institute of Iran (CSMPI). Stock culture was maintained on YPD agar plates. Alcohol oxidase was strongly induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were harvested by centrifugation then permeabilized. Finally the cells were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel beads. The activity of alcohol oxidase was determined by method of Tane et al. Results At the end of the logarithmic phase of cell culture, the alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell P. Pastoris reached the highest level. In comparison, the alcohol oxidase activity was measured in an immobilized P. pastoris when entrapped in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of cells was induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were permeabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and immobilized. CTAB was also found to increase the gel permeability. Alcohol oxidase activity of immobilized cells was then quantitated by ABTS/POD spectrophotometric method at OD 420. There was a 14% increase in alcohol oxidase activity in immobilized cells as compared with free cells. By addition of 2-butanol as a substrate, the relative activity of alcohol oxidase was significantly higher as compared with other substrates added to the reaction media. Conclusion Immobilization of cells could eliminate lengthy and expensive procedures of enzyme separation and purification, protect and stabilize enzyme activity, and perform easy separation of the enzyme from the reaction media. PMID:22530090

  1. CotA, a Multicopper Oxidase from Bacillus pumilus WH4, Exhibits Manganese-Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianmei; Bao, Peng; Bai, Tenglong; Deng, Lin; Wu, Hui; Liu, Fan; He, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a family of enzymes that use copper ions as cofactors to oxidize various substrates. Previous research has demonstrated that several MCOs such as MnxG, MofA and MoxA can act as putative Mn(II) oxidases. Meanwhile, the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus species has been confirmed as a typical MCO. To study the relationship between CotA and the Mn(II) oxidation, the cotA gene from a highly active Mn(II)-oxidizing strain Bacillus pumilus WH4 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain M15. The purified CotA contained approximately four copper atoms per molecule and showed spectroscopic properties typical of blue copper oxidases. Importantly, apart from the laccase activities, the CotA also displayed substantial Mn(II)-oxidase activities both in liquid culture system and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum Mn(II) oxidase activity was obtained at 53°C in HEPES buffer (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.8 mM CuCl2. Besides, the addition of o-phenanthroline and EDTA both led to a complete suppression of Mn(II)-oxidizing activity. The specific activity of purified CotA towards Mn(II) was 0.27 U/mg. The Km, Vmax and kcat values towards Mn(II) were 14.85±1.17 mM, 3.01×10−6±0.21 M·min−1 and 0.32±0.02 s−1, respectively. Moreover, the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity of the recombinant E. coli strain M15-pQE-cotA was significantly increased when cultured both in Mn-containing K liquid medium and on agar plates. After 7-day liquid cultivation, M15-pQE-cotA resulted in 18.2% removal of Mn(II) from the medium. Furthermore, the biogenic Mn oxides were clearly observed on the cell surfaces of M15-pQE-cotA by scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report that provides the direct observation of Mn(II) oxidation with the heterologously expressed protein CotA, Therefore, this novel finding not only establishes the foundation for in-depth study of Mn(II) oxidation mechanisms, but also offers a

  2. Fluorescence lifetime analysis and effect of magnesium ions on binding of NADH to human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) catalyzes oxidation of toxic aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Physiologic levels of Mg2+ ions influence ALDH1 activity in part by increasing NADH binding affinity to the enzyme thus reducing activity. By using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have resolved t...

  3. Kinetics of forming aldehydes in frying oils and their distribution in french fries revealed by LC-MS-based chemometrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehydes are major secondary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) from heating vegetable oils and deep frying. The routes and reactions that generate aldehydes have been extensively investigated, but the sequences and kinetics of their formation in oils are poorly defined. In this study, a platform comb...

  4. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerev...

  5. Quantification of aldehyde terminated heparin by SEC-MALLS-UV for the surface functionalization of polycaprolactone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Steele, Terry W J; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Li, Min; Boujday, Souhir; Prawirasatya, Melissa; Neoh, Koon Gee; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-08-01

    A straight forward strategy of heparin surface grafting employs a terminal reactive-aldehyde group introduced through nitrous acid depolymerization. An advanced method that allows simultaneously monitoring of both heparin molar mass and monomer/aldehyde ratio by size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light scattering and UV-absorbance (SEC-MALLS-UV) has been developed to improve upon heparin surface grafting. Advancements over older methods allow quantitative characterization by direct (aldehyde absorbance) and indirect (Schiff-based absorbance) evaluation of terminal functional aldehydes. The indirect quantitation of functional aldehydes through labeling with aniline (and the formation of a Schiff-base) allows independent quantitation of both polymer mass and terminal functional groups with the applicable UV mass extinction coefficients determined. The protocol was subsequently used to synthesize an optimized heparin-aldehyde that had minimal polydispersity (PDI<2) and high reaction yields (yield >60% by mass). The 8 kDa weight averaged molar mass heparin-aldehyde was then grafted on polycaprolactone (PCL), a common implant material. This optimized heparin-aldehyde retained its antithrombin activity, assessed in freshly drawn blood or surface immobilized on PCL films. Anticoagulant activity was equal to or better than the 24 kDa unmodified heparin it was fragmented from. PMID:26052108

  6. The terminal oxidase in the marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica 617.

    PubMed

    Simpson, H; Denis, M; Malatesta, F

    1997-06-01

    The molecular properties of a novel membrane quinol oxidase from the marine bacterium Pseudomonas nautica 617 are presented. The protein contains 2b hemes/mole which may be distinguished by EPR spectroscopy but not by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry. Respiration, though being cyanide insensitive, is not inhibited by carbon monoxide and oxygen reduction is carried out only half-way with production of hydrogen peroxide. The terminal oxidase represents, therefore, a unique example in the large family of terminal oxidases known up to date. PMID:9337488

  7. Identification of yeasts from clinical specimens by oxidase test.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Arora, B S; Mathur, M D

    2000-10-01

    A total of 100 yeasts and yeast like fungi isolates from clinical specimens were negative for oxidase production on Sabouraud dextrose agar. When grown on Columbia agar, chocolate agar, tryptose agar, Mueller-Hinton agar, brain heart infusion and a medium resembling Sabouraud's dextrose agar but with starch instead of dextrose, all the isolate of Candida albicans (55), C. guilliermondii (6), C. parapsilosis (14), C. tropicalis (6), C. pseudotropicalis (6) and Crytococcus neoformans (2) were positive for oxidase producation. Torulopsis glabrata (2), Saccharomyces cervisiae (2) and two out of seven isolates of C. krusei were negative for oxidase test. PMID:11344606

  8. Aiding and abetting roles of NOX oxidases in cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Block, Karen; Gorin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    NADPH oxidases of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family are dedicated reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes that broadly and specifically regulate redox-sensitive signalling pathways that are involved in cancer development and progression. They act at specific cellular membranes and microdomains through the activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of tumour suppressor proteins. In this Review, we discuss primary targets and redox-linked signalling systems that are influenced by NOX-derived ROS, and the biological role of NOX oxidases in the aetiology of cancer. PMID:22918415

  9. Multilayered Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules: Interaction with the Enzyme Cytochrome C Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Laura; Dellacasa, Elena; Noor, Mohamed R.; Soulimane, Tewfik; Bianchini, Paolo; D'Autilia, Francesca; Antipov, Alexei; Diaspro, Alberto; Tofail, Syed A. M.; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2014-01-01

    Cell-sized polyelectrolyte capsules functionalized with a redox-driven proton pump protein were assembled for the first time. The interaction of polyelectrolyte microcapsules, fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly, with cytochrome c oxidase molecules was investigated. We found that the cytochrome c oxidase retained its functionality, that the functionalized microcapsules interacting with cytochrome c oxidase were permeable and that the permeability characteristics of the microcapsule shell depend on the shell components. This work provides a significant input towards the fabrication of an integrated device made of biological components and based on specific biomolecular functions and properties. PMID:25372607

  10. Effect of selected aldehydes found in the corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and xylitol fermentation of Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Tang, Pingwah; Fan, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-01-01

    The effects of four aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin and syringaldehyde), which were found in the corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate, on the growth and xylitol fermentation of Candida tropicalis were investigated. The results showed that vanillin was the most toxic aldehyde for the xylitol fermentation, followed by syringaldehyde, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Moreover, the binary combination tests revealed that furfural amplified the toxicity of other aldehydes and the toxicities of other binary combinations without furfural were simply additive. Based on the fermentation experiments, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of aldehydes could be alleviated by prolonging the fermentation incubation, increasing the initial cell concentration, enhancing the initial pH value and minimizing the furfural levels in the hydrolysate evaporation process. The strategies that we proposed to suppress the inhibitory effects of the aldehydes successfully avoided the complicated and costly detoxifications. Our findings could be potentially adopted for the industrial xylitol fermentation from hydrolysates. PMID:23843370

  11. Studies on the insulinomimetic effects of benzylamine, exogenous substrate of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase enzyme in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Soltész, Zs; Tábi, T; Halász, A S; Pálfi, M; Kocsis, E; Magyar, K; Tóth, M; Szökö, E

    2007-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 (SSAO) is believed to be a bifunctional membrane protein. It is localized extracellularly and preferentially oxidizes short chain primary amines to aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia, but also functions as an adhesion molecule, which is involved in leukocyte migration. Serum SSAO activity is increased in diabetic patients and animals and the aldehydes formed in the enzyme reaction may contribute to vascular damage. However, administration of exogenous substrates has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and reduce hyperglycaemia in diabetic animals. Hydrogen peroxide and/or its vanadate complexes have been suggested responsible for these effects. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with benzylamine (BZA) +/- vanadate (V) or insulin. In contrast to insulin, BZA + V treatment did not reduce HbA(1C) levels. However, it reduced the elevated serum SSAO activity, decreased the accumulation of advanced-glycation end products and increased the bioavailability of nitric oxide in diabetic animals, similarly to insulin. BZA alone did not affect any of these parameters. PMID:17431735

  12. Overexpression of a GmCnx1 gene enhanced activity of nitrate reductase and aldehyde oxidase, and boosted mosaic virus resistance in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; He, Hongli; Ma, Luping; Yu, Xiaoqian; Mi, Qian; Pang, Jingsong; Tang, Guixiang; Liu, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is required for the activities of Moco-dependant enzymes. Cofactor for nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase (Cnx1) is known to be involved in the biosynthesis of Moco in plants. In this work, a soybean (Glycine max L.) Cnx1 gene (GmCnx1) was transferred into soybean using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Twenty seven positive transgenic soybean plants were identified by coating leaves with phosphinothricin, bar protein quick dip stick and PCR analysis. Moreover, Southern blot analysis was carried out to confirm the insertion of GmCnx1 gene. Furthermore, expression of GmCnx1 gene in leaf and root of all transgenic lines increased 1.04-2.12 and 1.55-3.89 folds, respectively, as compared to wild type with GmCnx1 gene and in line 10 , 22 showing the highest expression. The activities of Moco-related enzymes viz nitrate reductase (NR) and aldehydeoxidase (AO) of T1 generation plants revealed that the best line among the GmCnx1 transgenic plants accumulated 4.25 μg g(-1) h(-1) and 30 pmol L(-1), respectively (approximately 2.6-fold and 3.9-fold higher than non-transgenic control plants).In addition, overexpression ofGmCnx1boosted the resistance to various strains of soybean mosaic virus (SMV). DAS-ELISA analysis further revealed that infection rate of GmCnx1 transgenic plants were generally lower than those of non-transgenic plants among two different virus strains tested. Taken together, this study showed that overexpression of a GmCnx1 gene enhanced NR and AO activities and SMV resistance, suggesting its important role in soybean genetic improvement. PMID:25886067

  13. 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde modulates enzymatic methylation for syringyl monolignol formation, a new view of monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Popko, J L; Umezawa, T; Chiang, V L

    2000-03-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) has traditionally been thought to catalyze the methylation of caffeate and 5- hydroxyferulate for the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol, a lignin constituent of angiosperm wood that enables efficient lignin degradation for cellulose production. However, recent recognition that coniferyl aldehyde prevents 5-hydroxyferulate biosynthesis in lignifying tissue, and that the hydroxylated form of coniferyl aldehyde, 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde, is an alternative COMT substrate, demands a re-evaluation of the role of COMT during monolignol biosynthesis. Based on recombinant aspen (Populus tremuloides) COMT enzyme kinetics coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, this study establishes for the first time that COMT is in fact a 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde O-methyltransferase (AldOMT), and that 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde is both the preferred AldOMT substrate and an inhibitor of caffeate and 5-hydroxyferulate methylation, as measured by K(m) and K(i) values. 5-Hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde also inhibited the caffeate and 5-hydroxyferulate methylation activities of xylem proteins from various angiosperm tree species. The evidence that syringyl monolignol biosynthesis is independent of caffeate and 5-hydroxyferulate methylation supports our previous discovery that coniferyl aldehyde prevents ferulate 5-hydroxylation and at the same time ensures a coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylase (CAld5H)-mediated biosynthesis of 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde. Together, our results provide conclusive evidence for the presence of a CAld5H/AldOMT-catalyzed coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation/methylation pathway that directs syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms. PMID:10692459

  14. Two-Carbon Homologation of Ketones to 3-Methyl Unsaturated Aldehydes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The usual scheme of two-carbon homologation of ketones to 3-methyl unsaturated aldehydes by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensations with phosphonate esters, such as triethyl-2-phosphonoacetate, involves three steps. The phosphonate condensation step results in extension of the carbon chain by two carb...

  15. Rice Aldehyde Dehydrogenase7 Is Needed for Seed Maturation and Viability1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jun-Hye; Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Although the proteins have been studied from various organisms and at different growth stages, their roles in seed development have not been well elucidated. We obtained T-DNA insertional mutants in OsALDH7, which is remarkably inducible by oxidative and abiotic stresses. Interestingly, endosperms from the osaldh7 null mutants accumulated brown pigments during desiccation and storage. Extracts from the mutant seeds showed a maximum absorbance peak at 360 nm, the wavelength that melanoidin absorbs. Under UV light, those extracts also exhibited much stronger fluorescence than the wild type, suggesting that the pigments are melanoidin. These pigments started to accumulate in the late seed developmental stage, the time when OsALDH7 expression began to increase significantly. Purified OsALDH7 protein showed enzyme activities to malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde. These results suggest that OsALDH7 is involved in removing various aldehydes formed by oxidative stress during seed desiccation. The mutant seeds were more sensitive to our accelerated aging treatment and accumulated more malondialdehyde than the wild type. These data imply that OsALDH7 plays an important role in maintaining seed viability by detoxifying the aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation. PMID:19052152

  16. Dual Lewis Acid/Lewis Base Catalyzed Acylcyanation of Aldehydes: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Laurell Nash, Anna; Hertzberg, Robin; Wen, Ye-Qian; Dahlgren, Björn; Brinck, Tore; Moberg, Christina

    2016-03-01

    A mechanistic investigation, which included a Hammett correlation analysis, evaluation of the effect of variation of catalyst composition, and low-temperature NMR spectroscopy studies, of the Lewis acid-Lewis base catalyzed addition of acetyl cyanide to prochiral aldehydes provides support for a reaction route that involves Lewis base activation of the acyl cyanide with formation of a potent acylating agent and cyanide ion. The cyanide ion adds to the carbonyl group of the Lewis acid activated aldehyde. O-Acylation by the acylated Lewis base to form the final cyanohydrin ester occurs prior to decomplexation from titanium. For less reactive aldehydes, the addition of cyanide is the rate-determining step, whereas, for more reactive, electron-deficient aldehydes, cyanide addition is rapid and reversible and is followed by rate-limiting acylation. The resting state of the catalyst lies outside the catalytic cycle and is believed to be a monomeric titanium complex with two alcoholate ligands, which only slowly converts into the product. PMID:26592522

  17. One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eunyoung; Hong, Bomi; De Castro, Kathlia A; Lim, Minkyung; Rhee, Hakjune

    2007-12-01

    One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using various aldehydes by Pd/C catalyst in aqueous 2-propanol solvent with ammonium formate as in situ hydrogen donor is illustrated. The reaction proceeded smoothly and selectively with excellent yield at room temperature. Our protocol presents a facile, economical, and environmentally benign alternative for reductive amination. PMID:17997570

  18. APPLICATION OF MULTISPECTRAL TECHNIQUES TO THE PRECISE IDENTIFICATION OF ALDEHYDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    By using gas chromatography coupled with low- and high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry, low- and high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, eight straight-chain aldehydes were identified in a water sample taken...

  19. Analysis of endogenous aldehydes in human urine by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2016-03-11

    Endogenous aldehydes (EAs) generated during oxidative stress and cell processes are associated with many pathogenic and toxicogenic processes. The aim of this research was to develop a solvent-free and automated analytical method for the determination of EAs in human urine using a static headspace generator sampler coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Twelve significant EAs used as markers of different biochemical and physiological processes, namely short- and medium-chain alkanals, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyl aldehydes have been selected as target analytes. Human urine samples (no dilution is required) were derivatized with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine in alkaline medium (hydrogen carbonate-carbonate buffer, pH 10.3). The HS-GC-MS method developed renders an efficient tool for the sensitive and precise determination of EAs in human urine with limits of detection from 1 to 15ng/L and relative standard deviations, (RSDs) from 6.0 to 7.9%. Average recoveries by enriching urine samples ranged between 92 and 95%. Aldehydes were readily determined at 0.005-50μg/L levels in human urine from healthy subjects, smokers and diabetic adults. PMID:26879451

  20. Roaming as the dominant mechanism for molecular products in the photodissociation of large aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Li, Hou-Kuan; Kasai, Toshio; Lin, King-Chuen

    2015-09-21

    Photodissociation of isobutyraldehyde (C3H7CHO) at 248 nm is investigated using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy to demonstrate the growing importance of the roaming pathway with increasing molecular size of aliphatic aldehydes. Each acquired CO rotational distribution from v = 1 to 4 is well characterized by a single Boltzmann rotational temperature from 637 to 750 K, corresponding to an average rotational energy of 5.9 ± 0.6 kJ mol(-1). The roaming signature that shows a small fraction of CO rotational energy disposal accompanied by a vibrationally hot C3H8 co-fragment is supported by theoretical prediction. The energy difference between the tight transition state (TS) and the roaming saddle point (SP) is found to be -27, 4, 15, 22, and 30 kJ mol(-1) for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and 2,2-dimethyl propanal, respectively. The roaming SP is stabilized by a larger alkyl moiety. It is suggested that the roaming photodissociation rate of aldehydes increasingly exceeds those via the tight TS, resulting in the dominance of the CO + alkane products, as the size of aldehydes becomes larger. Along with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde, in this work isobutyraldehyde is further demonstrated that this aldehyde family with special functional group is the first case in the organic compound to follow predominantly a roaming dissociation pathway, as the molecular size becomes larger. PMID:26279383

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Gross, Eric R.; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P.; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R2=0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was also beneficial when given even after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians’ apparent lower pain tolerance. PMID:25163478

  2. Electrocoagulation for the removal of phenol and aldehyde contaminants from resin effluent.

    PubMed

    Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Pirkarami, Azam

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report on a study which aimed to investigate the effect of different current density, pH, temperature, and cathode-anode combination on the removal of phenol and aldehyde in two samples of actual resin effluent through the process of electrocoagulation using solar energy. Current density 60 A/m(2) and pH 6 proved to be the best levels for both contaminants. As for the effect of temperature, although the highest degree of phenol and aldehyde removal was achieved at 15 °C, 25 °C was taken to be the optimum temperature for economic reasons. The Fe-Fe combination of electrodes was found to be the best as it led to nearly 93% of phenol removal and approximately 95% of aldehyde removal. Also, the effect of electrode combination on energy consumption was studied. It was observed that the Fe-Fe combination consumed the least amount of energy (0.7-4.3 kWh/m(3) of wastewater in the case of phenol and 0.8-4 kWh/m(3) of wastewater in the case aldehyde). Moreover, the Fe-Fe combination brought about the best results in terms of chemical oxygen demand removal: 93% in both cases. Finally, an economic analysis was performed for the electrocoagulation process. PMID:24225093

  3. A HIGHLY STEREOSELECTIVE, NOVEL COUPLING REACTION BETWEEN ALKYNES WITH ALDEHYDES. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of indium triflate or gallium chloride, a novel coupling between internal alkynes and aldehydes occurred to give unsaturated ketones and [4+1] annulation products.


    Graphical Abstrac...

  4. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R.; Myszka, David G.; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD+, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:25945581

  5. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  6. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  7. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, Mia T.; Richman, Aviva R.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has been explored as a possible chemical pathway for the incorporation of organic material into aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C 2-C 8). The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature. While the kinetic data are generally consistent with previous laboratory reports of aldehyde reactivity in various sulfuric acid media, the aldol condensation reactions involving aliphatic aldehydes do not appear fast enough to be responsible for significant transfer of organic material into atmospheric aerosols.

  8. Reactions and reaction intermediates on iron surfaces. III. Reactions of aldehydes and ketones on Fe(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Benziger, J.B.; Madix, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The reactions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone on Fe(100) were studied by temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were observed to react with adsorbed hydrogen to form adsorbed alkoxy intermediates. These reactions occurred at low temperature (ca. 200 K). In the absence of adsorbed hydrogen, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde decomposed to adsorbed CO and hydrogen. This reaction was also observed at low temperatures. On an initially clean surface the aldehydes first decomposed, forming adsorbed hydrogen which subsequently reacted with adsorbed aldehyde to form an alkoxy intermediate. The alkoxy intermediates reacted to form CO and H/sub 2/ primarily, with lesser amounts of alcohol, aldehyde, and hydrocarbon products. Acetone reacted differently from the aldehydes and did not appear to form an alkoxy intermediate. XPS results suggested that acetone and acetaldehyde did not adsorb in their keto form on the surface and it is suggested that they adsorbed as enol intermediates. The distinct reaction behavior of acetone may be due to these enol intermediates.

  9. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  10. Laboratory evaluation of an aldehyde scrubber system specifically for the detection of acrolein.

    PubMed

    Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Akiyama, Kenichi; Shimono, Akio; Kitasaka, Kazuya; Shimajiri, Hatsumi; Sugihara, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of an aldehyde scrubber system to resolve isobaric aldehyde/alkene interferences in a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) by selectively removing the aldehydes from the gas mixture without loss of quantitative information for the alkene components. The aldehyde scrubber system uses a bisulfite solution, which scrubs carbonyl compounds from the gas stream by forming water-soluble carbonyl bisulfite addition products, and has been evaluated using a synthetic mixture of acrolein and isoprene. Trapping efficiencies of acrolein exceeded 97%, whereas the transmission efficiency of isoprene was better than 92%. Quantification of the PTR-MS response to acrolein was validated through an intercomparison study that included two derivatization methods, dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and O-(4-cyano-2-ethoxybenzyl)hydroxylamine (CNET), and a spectroscopic method using a quantum cascade laser infrared absorption spectroscopy (QCL) instrument. Finally, using cigarette smoke as a complex matrix, the acrolein content was assessed using the scrubber and compared with direct QCL-based detection. PMID:18069460

  11. Volatile trans-2-hexenal a soybean aldehyde inhibits Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trans-2-hexenal, a volatile aldehyde, is produced by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and other plants via the lipoxygenase pathway. In vitro tests showed it significantly (p< 0.001) reduced Aspergillus flavus germinating conidial viability at 10 µM, with approximately 95% viability reduction observ...

  12. A new device for formaldehyde and total aldehydes real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sassine, Maria; Picquet-Varrault, Bénédicte; Perraudin, Emilie; Chiappini, Laura; Doussin, Jean François; George, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A new sensitive technique for the quantification of formaldehyde (HCHO) and total aldehydes has been developed in order to monitor these compounds, which are known to be involved in air quality issues and to have health impacts. Our approach is based on a colorimetric method where aldehydes are initially stripped from the air into a scrubbing solution by means of a turning coil sampler tube and then derivatised with 3-methylbenzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone in acid media (pH = -0.5). Hence, colourless aldehydes are transformed into blue dyes that are detected by UV-visible spectroscopy at 630 nm. Liquid core waveguide LCW Teflon® AF-2400 tube was used as innovative optical cells providing a HCHO detection limit of 4 pptv for 100 cm optical path with a time resolution of 15 min. This instrument showed good correlation with commonly used techniques for aldehydes analysis such as DNPH derivatisation chromatographic techniques with off-line and on-line samplers, and DOAS techniques (with deviation below 6%) for both indoor and outdoor conditions. This instrument is associated with simplicity and low cost, which is a prerequisite for indoor monitoring. PMID:23892614

  13. Fast determination of aldehyde preservatives by miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chen, Fang; Ge, Jinyuan; Tong, Fanghong; Deng, Zhaoyue; Shen, Fengwu; Gu, Qianxia; Ye, Jiannong; Chu, Qingcui

    2014-02-01

    A novel miniaturized CE with amperometric detection (mini-CE-AD) method has been developed for fast determination of aliphatic aldehyde preservatives, namely formaldehyde and glyoxal, in commodities. After derivatization with an electroactive compound 2-thiobarbituric acid, these two nonelectroactive aldehydes were converted to electroactive adducts, therefore detectable by mini-CE-AD approach. Under the optimum conditions, two aldehydes can be well-separated with the coexisting interferents as well as their homologs (acetaldehyde and methyl-glyoxal), and the LODs (S/N = 3) were achieved at nanogram-per-milliliter level (1.64-2.80 ng/mL) based on the online enrichment method of transient moving chemical reaction boundary. The proposed method has been applied for the analyses of above aldehyde preservatives in different real commodity samples including skincare products, baby lotion, and toothpaste, and the average recoveries were in the range of 94-105%, which should find a wide range of analytical applications as an alternative to conventional and microchip CE approaches. PMID:24002819

  14. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  15. Modulation of ethanol stress tolerance by aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma vaccinum.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe, Theodore; Krause, Katrin; Schlunk, Ines; Kothe, Erika

    2012-08-01

    We report the first mycorrhizal fungal aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, ald1, which was isolated from the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum. The gene, encoding a protein Ald1 of 502 amino acids, is up-regulated in ectomycorrhiza. Phylogenetic analyses using 53 specific fungal aldehyde dehydrogenases from all major phyla in the kingdom of fungi including Ald1 and two partial sequences of T. vaccinum were performed to get an insight in the evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. By using competitive and real-time RT-PCR, ald1 is up-regulated in response to alcohol and aldehyde-related stress. Furthermore, heterologous expression of ald1 in Escherichia coli and subsequent in vitro enzyme activity assay demonstrated the oxidation of propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde with different kinetics using either NAD(+) or NADP(+) as cofactors. In addition, overexpression of ald1 in T. vaccinum after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation increased ethanol stress tolerance. These results demonstrate the ability of Ald1 to circumvent ethanol stress, a critical function in mycorrhizal habitats. PMID:22159964

  16. A C-terminal aldehyde analog of the insect kinins inhibits diuresis in the housefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are present in a wide variety of insects and function as potent diuretic peptides in flies. A C-terminal aldehyde insect kinin analog, Fmoc-RFFPWG-H (R-LK-CHO), demonstrates stimulation of Malpighian tubule fluid secretion in crickets, but shows inhibition of both in vitro and in v...

  17. Aldehyde Recognition and Discrimination by Mammalian Odorant Receptors via Functional Group-Specific Hydration Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian odorant receptors (ORs) form a chemical-detecting interface between the atmosphere and the nervous system. This large gene family is composed of hundreds of membrane proteins predicted to form as many unique small molecule binding niches within their G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) framework, but very little is known about the molecular recognition strategies they use to bind and discriminate between small molecule odorants. Using rationally designed synthetic analogs of a typical aliphatic aldehyde, we report evidence that among the ORs showing specificity for the aldehyde functional group, a significant percentage detect the aldehyde through its ability to react with water to form a 1,1-geminal (gem)-diol. Evidence is presented indicating that the rat OR-I7, an often-studied and modeled OR known to require the aldehyde function of octanal for activation, is likely one of the gem-diol activated receptors. A homology model based on an activated GPCR X-ray structure provides a structural hypothesis for activation of OR-I7 by the gem-diol of octanal. PMID:25181321

  18. 1,2-disubstituted cyclohexane derived tripeptide aldehydes as novel selective thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Harmat, N J; Di Bugno, C; Criscuoli, M; Giorgi, R; Lippi, A; Martinelli, A; Monti, S; Subissi, A

    1998-05-19

    A series of tripeptide arginine aldehydes was synthesized by replacement of proline with 1,2-disubstituted cyclohexane derivatives in the sequence of D-MePhe-Pro-Arg-H. Based on molecular modeling, further modification of the D-MePhe residue resulted in a potent and selective thrombin inhibitor. PMID:9871744

  19. Extremely efficient hydroboration of ketones and aldehydes by copper carbene catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, Sharareh; Mankad, Neal P

    2016-03-01

    A readily available copper carbene complex, (IPr)CuOtBu, catalyses the hydroboration of ketones and aldehydes even at very low catalyst loadings (0.1 mol%), in some cases with turnover frequencies exceeding 6000 h(-1). Carbonyl reduction occurs selectivitily in the presence of other reducible functional groups including alkenes, nitriles, esters, and alkyl chlorides. PMID:26871503

  20. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.