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Sample records for aldehydes bind sulfhydryl

  1. Sulfhydryl Binding Sites within Bacterial Extracellular Polymeric Substances.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the concentration of sulfhydryl sites on bacterial biomass samples with and without extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was measured in order to determine the distribution of sulfhydryl sites on bacteria. Three different approaches were employed for EPS removal from Pseudomonas putida, and the measured sulfhydryl concentrations on bacterial EPS molecules are independent of the EPS removal protocols used. Prior to EPS removal, the measured sulfhydryl sites within P. putida samples was 34.9 ± 9.5 μmol/g, and no sulfhydryl sites were detected after EPS removal, indicating that virtually all of the sulfhydryl sites are located on the EPS molecules produced by P. putida. In contrast, the sulfhydryl sites within the S. oneidensis samples increased from 32.6 ± 3.6 μmol/g to 51.9 ± 7.2 μmol/g after EPS removal, indicating that the EPS produced by S. oneidensis contained fewer sulfhydryl sites than those present on the untreated cells. This study suggests that the sulfhydryl concentrations on EPS molecules may vary significantly from one bacterial species to another, thus it is crucial to quantify the concentration of sulfhydryl sites on EPS molecules of other bacterial species in order to determine the effect of bacterial EPS on metal cycling in the environment. PMID:27177017

  2. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    SciTech Connect

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-05-01

    The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction.

  3. Inhibition of mu and delta opioid receptor ligand binding by the peptide aldehyde protease inhibitor, leupeptin.

    PubMed

    Christoffers, Keith H; Khokhar, Arshia; Chaturvedi, Kirti; Howells, Richard D

    2002-04-15

    We reported recently that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is involved in agonist-induced down regulation of mu and delta opioid receptors [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 12345]. While evaluating the effects of various protease inhibitors on agonist-induced opioid receptor down regulation, we observed that while the peptide aldehyde, leupeptin (acetyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-Arginal), did not affect agonist-induced down regulation, leupeptin at submillimolar concentrations directly inhibited radioligand binding to opioid receptors. In this study, the inhibitory activity of leupeptin on radioligand binding was characterized utilizing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines expressing transfected mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. The rank order of potency for leupeptin inhibition of [3H]bremazocine binding to opioid receptors was mu > delta > kappa. In contrast to the effect of leupeptin, the peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitor, MG 132 (carbobenzoxy-L-Leucyl-L-Leucyl-L-Leucinal), had significantly less effect on bremazocine binding to mu, delta, or kappa opioid receptors. We propose that leupeptin inhibits ligand binding by reacting reversibly with essential sulfhydryl groups that are necessary for high-affinity ligand/receptor interactions. PMID:11853866

  4. In vivo sulfhydryl modification of the ligand-binding site of Tsr, the Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Iwama, T; Kawagishi, I; Gomi, S; Homma, M; Imae, Y

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chemoreceptor Tsr mediates an attractant response to serine. We substituted Cys for Thr-156, one of the residues involved in serine sensing. The mutant receptor Tsr-T156C retained serine- and repellent-sensing abilities. However, it lost serine-sensing ability when it was treated in vivo with sulfhydryl-modifying reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Serine protected Tsr-T156C from these reagents. We showed that [3H]NEM bound to Tsr-T156C and that binding decreased in the presence of serine. By pretreating cells with serine and cold NEM, Tsr-T156C was selectively labeled with radioactive NEM. These results are consistent with the location of Thr-156 in the serine-binding site. Chemical modification of the Tsr ligand-binding site provides a basis for simple purification and should assist further in vivo and in vitro investigations of this chemoreceptor protein. PMID:7721714

  5. Nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber for selective binding and rapid separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Wang, Hong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-31

    In the current study, a novel nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-Ni(2+)) was prepared in a simple way based on the coordination effect between Ni(2+) and thiol group on the surface of SCF. The composition and element mapping of SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were demonstrated by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Based on the high affinity of Ni(2+) to 6×His on histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins, SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were then further used as an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) adsorbent for selective binding and rapid separation of His-tagged proteins using an in- pipette-tip SPE format. Our results showed that SCF-Ni(2+) adsorbent can selectively capture His-tagged proteins from protein mixture and Escherichia coli cell lysates. Taken together, the developed method provides a rapid, convenient and efficient approach for the purification of His-tagged proteins. PMID:26087962

  6. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  7. Cysteine-10 on 17 β -Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1 Has Stabilizing Interactions in the Cofactor Binding Region and Renders Sensitivity to Sulfhydryl Modifying Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nashev, Lyubomir G; Atanasov, Atanas G; Baker, Michael E; Odermatt, Alex

    2013-01-01

    17 β -Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17 β -HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of estrone to the potent estrogen estradiol. 17 β -HSD1 is highly expressed in breast and ovary tissues and represents a prognostic marker for the tumor progression and survival of patients with breast cancer and other estrogen-dependent tumors. Therefore, the enzyme is considered a promising drug target against estrogen-dependent cancers. For the development of novel inhibitors, an improved understanding of the structure-function relationships is essential. In the present study, we examined the role of a cysteine residue, Cys(10), in the Rossmann-fold NADPH binding region, for 17 β -HSD1 function and tested the sensitivity towards sulfhydryl modifying chemicals. 3D structure modeling revealed important interactions of Cys(10) with residues involved in the stabilization of amino acids of the NADPH binding pocket. Analysis of enzyme activity revealed that 17 β -HSD1 was irreversibly inhibited by the sulfhydryl modifying agents N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and dithiocarbamates. Preincubation with increasing concentrations of NADPH protected 17 β -HSD1 from inhibition by these chemicals. Cys(10)Ser mutant 17 β -HSD1 was partially protected from inhibition by NEM and dithiocarbamates, emphasizing the importance of Cys(10) in the cofactor binding region. Substitution of Cys(10) with serine resulted in a decreased protein half-life, without significantly altering kinetic properties. Despite the fact that Cys(10) on 17 β -HSD1 seems to have limited potential as a target for new enzyme inhibitors, the present study provides new insight into the structure-function relationships of this enzyme. PMID:24348564

  8. A single lysyl residue defines the binding specificity of a human odorant-binding protein for aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Tcatchoff, Lionel; Nespoulous, Claude; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Briand, Loïc

    2006-04-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant soluble proteins belonging to the lipocalin superfamily, which are thought to carry hydrophobic odorants through aqueous mucus towards olfactory receptors. Human variant hOBP-2A has been demonstrated to bind numerous odorants of different chemical classes with a higher affinity for aldehydes and fatty acids. Three lysyl residues of the binding pocket (Lys62, Lys82 and Lys112) have been suggested as candidates for playing such a role. Here, using site-directed mutagenesis and fluorescent probe displacements, we show that Lys112 is the major determinant for governing hOBP-2A specificity towards aldehydes and small carboxylic acids. PMID:16546182

  9. Fluorescence lifetime analysis and effect of magnesium ions on binding of NADH to human aldehyde dehydrogenase 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) catalyzes oxidation of toxic aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Physiologic levels of Mg2+ ions influence ALDH1 activity in part by increasing NADH binding affinity to the enzyme thus reducing activity. By using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have resolved t...

  10. Sulfhydryl group(s) in the ligand binding site of the D-1 dopamine receptor: specific protection by agonist and antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, A.; Kassis, S.; Kebabian, J.; Fishman, P.H.

    1986-10-21

    An iodinated compound, (/sup 125/I)-8-iodo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol, has been recently reported to be a specific ligand for the D-1 dopamine receptor. Due to its high affinity and specific activity, this ligand was chosen for the biochemical characterization of the D-1 receptor. Alkylation of particulate fractions of rat caudate nucleus by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) caused an inactivation of the D-1 receptor, as measured by diminished binding of the radioligand to the receptor. The inactivation of the receptor sites by NEM was rapid and irreversible, resulting in a 70% net loss of binding sites. On the basis of Scatchard analysis of binding to NEM-treated tissue, the loss in binding sites was due to a net decrease in the receptor number with a 2-fold decrease in the affinity of the receptor for the radioligand. Receptor occupancy by either a D-1 specific agonist or antagonist protected the ligand binding sites from NEM-mediated inactivation. NEM treatment of the receptor in the absence or presence of protective compound abolished the agonist high-affinity state of the receptor as well as membrane adenylate cyclase activity. The above-treated striatal membranes were fused with HeLa membranes and assayed for dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. When the sources of D-1 receptors were from agonist-protected membranes, the receptors retained the ability to functionally couple to the HeLa adenylate cyclase. These results suggest that the D-1 dopamine receptor contains NEM-sensitive sulfhydryl group(s) either at or near the vicinity of the ligand binding sites, which are critical for both receptor binding and function.

  11. Insights into Substrate and Metal Binding from the Crystal Structure of Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase with Substrate Bound

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nonheme diiron enzyme cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase, cADO, catalyzes the highly unusual deformylation of aliphatic aldehydes to alkanes and formate. We have determined crystal structures for the enzyme with a long-chain water-soluble aldehyde and medium-chain carboxylic acid bound to the active site. These structures delineate a hydrophobic channel that connects the solvent with the deeply buried active site and reveal a mode of substrate binding that is different from previously determined structures with long-chain fatty acids bound. The structures also identify a water channel leading to the active site that could facilitate the entry of protons required in the reaction. NMR studies examining 1-[13C]-octanal binding to cADO indicate that the enzyme binds the aldehyde form rather than the hydrated form. Lastly, the fortuitous cocrystallization of the metal-free form of the protein with aldehyde bound has revealed protein conformation changes that are involved in binding iron. PMID:25222710

  12. Mouse liver protein sulfhydryl depletion after acetaminophen exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James; Shi, Qiang; Roberts, Dean W; Hinson, Jack A; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Davis, Kelly; Salminen, William F

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury is the leading cause of acute liver failure in many countries. This study determined the extent of liver protein sulfhydryl depletion not only in whole liver homogenate but also in the zonal pattern of sulfhydryl depletion within the liver lobule. A single oral gavage dose of 150 or 300 mg/kg APAP in B6C3F1 mice produced increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels, liver necrosis, and glutathione depletion in a dose-dependent manner. Free protein sulfhydryls were measured in liver protein homogenates by labeling with maleimide linked to a near infrared fluorescent dye followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Global protein sulfhydryl levels were decreased significantly (48.4%) starting at 1 hour after the APAP dose and maintained at this reduced level through 24 hours. To visualize the specific hepatocytes that had reduced protein sulfhydryl levels, frozen liver sections were labeled with maleimide linked to horseradish peroxidase. The centrilobular areas exhibited dramatic decreases in free protein sulfhydryls while the periportal regions were essentially spared. These protein sulfhydryl-depleted regions correlated with areas exhibiting histopathologic injury and APAP binding to protein. The majority of protein sulfhydryl depletion was due to reversible oxidation since the global- and lobule-specific effects were essentially reversed when the samples were reduced with tris(2-carboxyethy)phosphine before maleimide labeling. These temporal and zonal pattern changes in protein sulfhydryl oxidation shed new light on the importance that changes in protein redox status might play in the pathogenesis of APAP hepatotoxicity. PMID:23093024

  13. A Lysine at the C-Terminus of an Odorant-Binding Protein is Involved in Binding Aldehyde Pheromone Components in Two Helicoverpa Species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ya-Lan; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are soluble proteins, whose role in olfaction of insects is being recognized as more and more important. We have cloned, expressed and purified an OBP (HarmOBP7) from the antennae of the moth Helicoverpa armigera. Western blot experiments indicate specific expression of this protein in the antennae of adults. HarmOBP7 binds both pheromone components Z-11-hexadecenal and Z-9-hexadecenal with good affinity. We have also performed a series of binding experiments with linear aldehydes, alcohols and esters, as well as with other compounds and found a requirement of medium size for best affinity. The affinity of OBP7, as well as that of a mutant lacking the last 6 residues does not substantially decrease in acidic conditions, but increases at basic pH values with no significant differences between wild-type and mutant. Binding to both pheromone components, instead, is negatively affected by the lack of the C-terminus. A second mutant, where one of the three lysine residues in the C-terminus (Lys123) was replaced by methionine showed reduced affinity to both pheromone components, as well as to their analogues, thus indicating that Lys123 is involved in binding these compounds, likely forming hydrogen bonds with the functional groups of the ligands. PMID:23372826

  14. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed.

    PubMed

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  15. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed

    PubMed Central

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  16. Structural and Functional Consequences of Coenzyme Binding to the Inactive Asian Variant of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Roles of Residues 475 and 487

    SciTech Connect

    Larson,H.; Zhou, J.; Chen, Z.; Stamler, J.; Weiner, H.; Hurley, T.

    2007-01-01

    The common mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) ALDH2*2 polymorphism is associated with impaired ethanol metabolism and decreased efficacy of nitroglycerin treatment. These physiological effects are due to the substitution of Lys for Glu-487 that reduces the k{sub cat} for these processes and increases the K{sub m} for NAD{sup +}, as compared with ALDH2. In this study, we sought to understand the nature of the interactions that give rise to the loss of structural integrity and low activity in ALDH2*2 even when complexed with coenzyme. Consequently, we have solved the crystal structure of ALDH2*2 complexed with coenzyme to 2.5 {angstrom}. We have also solved the structures of a mutated form of ALDH2 where Arg-475 is replaced by Gln (R475Q). The structural and functional properties of the R475Q enzyme are intermediate between those of wild-type and the ALDH2*2 enzymes. In both cases, the binding of coenzyme restores most of the structural deficits observed in the apoenzyme structures. The binding of coenzyme to the R475Q enzyme restores its structure and catalytic properties to near wild-type levels. In contrast, the disordered helix within the coenzyme binding pocket of ALDH2*2 is reordered, but the active site is only partially reordered. Consistent with the structural data, ALDH2*2 showed a concentration-dependent increase in esterase activity and nitroglycerin reductase activity upon addition of coenzyme, but the levels of activity do not approach those of the wild-type enzyme or that of the R475Q enzyme. The data presented shows that Glu-487 maintains a critical function in linking the structure of the coenzyme binding site to that of the active site through its interactions with Arg-264 and Arg-475, and in doing so, creates the stable structural scaffold conducive to catalysis.

  17. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Laura R.; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Clarke, David J.; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD+. This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26899032

  18. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Laura R; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D; Campopiano, Dominic J; Clarke, David J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD(+). This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26899032

  19. Decreased sulfhydryl groups in the reperfused myocardial tissue of a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, H; Manaka, K; Yamakawa, K; Ogawa, K; Iizuka, M

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether myocardial injury resulting from temporary ischemia followed by reperfusion can be measured by assaying sulfhydryl groups in the affected tissue of a rat model of myocardial infarction. We studied 3 groups: a control group (n = 6), which underwent surgery without left coronary artery (LCA) ligation; group NoR (n = 9), in which the LCA was ligated for 3 h; and group I + R (n = 7), in which 30 min LCA ligation was followed by 3 h reperfusion. The sulfhydryl group content of myocardial tissue was assayed by measuring the fluorescence produced by incubating heart sections with N-(7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-3-coumarinyl) maleimide (DACM), which binds sulfhydryl groups. The fluorescence intensity (FI) of normal and infarcted myocardium was quantified by our computerized system of microscopic fluorophotometry. Indices such as sulfhydryl group content, the size of the low-FI area [% AREA(lower FI)] and the relative decrease in FI [%FI(decrease)]) in the infarct zone were calculated. Both %AREA(lower FI) and %FI(decrease) were significantly higher in the infarcted zone of animals in NoR and I + R groups than in control animals. Both indices were higher in infarct tissue from animals in the I + R group than in the NoR group. These changes suggest that sulfhydryl group content is significantly reduced in tissue that has been subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. Microscopic fluorophotometry, as defined by DACM staining of myocardial tissue, may help to delineate areas of myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:9070971

  20. The Nucleotide-Free State of the Multidrug Resistance ABC Transporter LmrA: Sulfhydryl Cross-Linking Supports a Constant Contact, Head-to-Tail Configuration of the Nucleotide-Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter M.; George, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    ABC transporters are integral membrane pumps that are responsible for the import or export of a diverse range of molecules across cell membranes. ABC transporters have been implicated in many phenomena of medical importance, including cystic fibrosis and multidrug resistance in humans. The molecular architecture of ABC transporters comprises two transmembrane domains and two ATP-binding cassettes, or nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), which are highly conserved and contain motifs that are crucial to ATP binding and hydrolysis. Despite the improved clarity of recent structural, biophysical, and biochemical data, the seemingly simple process of ATP binding and hydrolysis remains controversial, with a major unresolved issue being whether the NBD protomers separate during the catalytic cycle. Here chemical cross-linking data is presented for the bacterial ABC multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter LmrA. These indicate that in the absence of nucleotide or substrate, the NBDs come into contact to a significant extent, even at 4°C, where ATPase activity is abrogated. The data are clearly not in accord with an inward-closed conformation akin to that observed in a crystal structure of V. cholerae MsbA. Rather, they suggest a head-to-tail configuration ‘sandwich’ dimer similar to that observed in crystal structures of nucleotide-bound ABC NBDs. We argue the data are more readily reconciled with the notion that the NBDs are in proximity while undergoing intra-domain motions, than with an NBD ‘Switch’ mechanism in which the NBD monomers separate in between ATP hydrolysis cycles. PMID:26120849

  1. Confirmation of a blocked amino terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Janolino, V.G.; Morrison-Rowe, S.J.; Swaisgood, H.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The isolation of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk in a suitably pure form for sequencing was carried out by transient covalent affinity chromatography of diafiltered whey using cysteinylsuccinamidopropyl-glass as matrix. The glutathione-eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. By radiolabeling the affinity chromatography-purified enzyme with ({sup 14}C)iodoacetate before subjecting to SDS-PAGE, the sulfhydryl oxidase band was identified, because sulfhydryl oxidase is known to be inactivated by alkylation of one sulfhydryl group per mole. The results confirmed that sulfhydryl oxidase corresponds to the 85 ({plus minus} 5)-kDa band observed on SDS-PAGE. The protein band corresponding to radiolabeled sulfhydryl oxidase was recovered from SDS-PAGE gels by electrophoretic elution and by electroblotting on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane and subjected to gas phase sequencing. Precautions were taken during electrophoretic elution to prevent reactions that result in N-terminal blocking. Both methods of protein recovery yielded negative results when subjected to sequence analysis indicating that the N-terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase is blocked.

  2. Chemical modification and reactivity of sulfhydryls and disulfides of rat brain nicotinic-like acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lukas, R.J.; Bennett, E.L.

    1980-06-25

    Rat central nervous system binding sites for ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin display considerable biochemical homology with characterized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from the periphery. They possess a critical disulfide residue(s), which is susceptible to chemical modification and consequent specific alteration in the affinity of the binding site for cholinergic agonists. After reaction with Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 5/, as with reaction with dithiothreitol and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), the binding site is frozen in a high affinity state toward acetylcholine. After reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation with a variety of compounds of different molecular configuration or electrical charge, or both, the binding site is frozen in a low affinity state toward acetylcholine. Thus, effects of disulfide/sulfhydryl modification on agonist binding affinity appear to be attributable to the nature of the covalent modification rather than charge or steric alteration at the receptor active site brought about by chemical modification.

  3. The Crystal Structure of a Ternary Complex of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Provides New Insight Into the Reaction Mechansim and Shows A Novel Binding Mode of the 2'-Phosphate of NADP+ and A Novel Cation Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Segura, L.; Rudino-Pinera, E; Munoz-Clares, R; Horjales, E

    2009-01-01

    In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the NAD(P)+-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (PaBADH) may play the dual role of assimilating carbon and nitrogen from choline or choline precursors-abundant at infection sites-and producing glycine betaine and NADPH, potentially protective against the high-osmolarity and oxidative stresses prevalent in the infected tissues. Disruption of the PaBADH gene negatively affects the growth of bacteria, suggesting that this enzyme could be a target for antibiotic design. PaBADH is one of the few ALDHs that efficiently use NADP+ and one of the even fewer that require K+ ions for stability. Crystals of PaBADH were obtained under aerobic conditions in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, glycerol, NADP+ and K+ ions. The three-dimensional structure was determined at 2.1-A resolution. The catalytic cysteine (C286, corresponding to C302 of ALDH2) is oxidized to sulfenic acid or forms a mixed disulfide with 2-mercaptoethanol. The glutamyl residue involved in the deacylation step (E252, corresponding to E268 of ALDH2) is in two conformations, suggesting a proton relay system formed by two well-conserved residues (E464 and K162, corresponding to E476 and K178, respectively, of ALDH2) that connects E252 with the bulk water. In some active sites, a bound glycerol molecule mimics the thiohemiacetal intermediate; its hydroxyl oxygen is hydrogen bonded to the nitrogen of the amide groups of the side chain of the conserved N153 (N169 of ALDH2) and those of the main chain of C286, which form the 'oxyanion hole.' The nicotinamide moiety of the nucleotide is not observed in the crystal, and the adenine moiety binds in the usual way. A salt bridge between E179 (E195 of ALDH2) and R40 (E53 of ALDH2) moves the carboxylate group of the former away from the 2?-phosphate of the NADP+, thus avoiding steric clashes and/or electrostatic repulsion between the two groups. Finally, the crystal shows two K+ binding sites per subunit. One is in an

  4. Role of Sulfhydryl Sites on Bacterial Cell Walls in the Biosorption, Mobility and Bioavailability of Mercury and Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Satish C.; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Fein, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this exploratory study is to provide a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the impact of bacterial sulfhydryl groups on the bacterial uptake, speciation, methylation and bioavailability of Hg and redox changes of uranium. The relative concentration and reactivity of different functional groups present on bacterial surfaces will be determined, enabling quantitative predictions of the role of biosorption of Hg under the physicochemical conditions found at contaminated DOE sites.The hypotheses we propose to test in this investigation are as follows- 1) Sulfhydryl groups on bacterial cell surfaces modify Hg speciation and solubility, and play an important role, specifically in the sub-micromolar concentration ranges of metals in the natural and contaminated systems. 2) Sulfhydryl binding of Hg on bacterial surfaces significantly influences Hg transport into the cell and the methylation rates by the bacteria. 3) Sulfhydryls on cell membranes can interact with hexavalent uranium and convert to insoluble tetravalent species. 4) Bacterial sulfhydryl surface groups are inducible by the presence of metals during cell growth. Our studies focused on the first hypothesis, and we examined the nature of sulfhydryl sites on three representative bacterial species: Bacillus subtilis, a common gram-positive aerobic soil species; Shewanella oneidensis, a facultative gram-negative surface water species; and Geobacter sulfurreducens, an anaerobic iron-reducing gram-negative species that is capable of Hg methylation; and at a range of Hg concentration (and Hg:bacterial concentration ratio) in which these sites become important. A summary of our findings is as follows- Hg adsorbs more extensively to bacteria than other metals. Hg adsorption also varies strongly with pH and chloride concentration, with maximum adsorption occurring under circumneutral pH conditions for both Cl-bearing and Cl-free systems. Under these conditions, all bacterial species tested exhibit

  5. Involvement of Sulfhydryl Groups in the β-Galactosidase of Streptococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, G. A.; Sandine, W. E.; Elliker, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    Sulfhydryl oxidants and stabilizers caused changes demonstrating the sulfhydryl content of β-galactosidase for Streptococcus lactis 7962. Ammonium sulfate (0.85 m) rendered the enzyme insensitive to the oxidants. Titrations revealed 11.5 moles of sulfhydryl per mole of enzyme. PMID:5001210

  6. Microbial Engineering for Aldehyde Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kunjapur, Aditya M.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are a class of chemicals with many industrial uses. Several aldehydes are responsible for flavors and fragrances present in plants, but aldehydes are not known to accumulate in most natural microorganisms. In many cases, microbial production of aldehydes presents an attractive alternative to extraction from plants or chemical synthesis. During the past 2 decades, a variety of aldehyde biosynthetic enzymes have undergone detailed characterization. Although metabolic pathways that result in alcohol synthesis via aldehyde intermediates were long known, only recent investigations in model microbes such as Escherichia coli have succeeded in minimizing the rapid endogenous conversion of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols. Such efforts have provided a foundation for microbial aldehyde synthesis and broader utilization of aldehydes as intermediates for other synthetically challenging biochemical classes. However, aldehyde toxicity imposes a practical limit on achievable aldehyde titers and remains an issue of academic and commercial interest. In this minireview, we summarize published efforts of microbial engineering for aldehyde synthesis, with an emphasis on de novo synthesis, engineered aldehyde accumulation in E. coli, and the challenge of aldehyde toxicity. PMID:25576610

  7. Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Robert L; Fahy, Gregory M

    2015-12-01

    We describe here a new cryobiological and neurobiological technique, aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation (ASC), which demonstrates the relevance and utility of advanced cryopreservation science for the neurobiological research community. ASC is a new brain-banking technique designed to facilitate neuroanatomic research such as connectomics research, and has the unique ability to combine stable long term ice-free sample storage with excellent anatomical resolution. To demonstrate the feasibility of ASC, we perfuse-fixed rabbit and pig brains with a glutaraldehyde-based fixative, then slowly perfused increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol over several hours in a manner similar to techniques used for whole organ cryopreservation. Once 65% w/v ethylene glycol was reached, we vitrified brains at -135 °C for indefinite long-term storage. Vitrified brains were rewarmed and the cryoprotectant removed either by perfusion or gradual diffusion from brain slices. We evaluated ASC-processed brains by electron microscopy of multiple regions across the whole brain and by Focused Ion Beam Milling and Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) imaging of selected brain volumes. Preservation was uniformly excellent: processes were easily traceable and synapses were crisp in both species. Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation has many advantages over other brain-banking techniques: chemicals are delivered via perfusion, which enables easy scaling to brains of any size; vitrification ensures that the ultrastructure of the brain will not degrade even over very long storage times; and the cryoprotectant can be removed, yielding a perfusable aldehyde-preserved brain which is suitable for a wide variety of brain assays. PMID:26408851

  8. Sulfhydryl-specific probe for monitoring protein redox sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Ha, Sura; Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hee-Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2014-12-19

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate various biological processes by modifying reactive cysteine residues in the proteins participating in the relevant signaling pathways. Identification of ROS target proteins requires specific reagents that identify ROS-sensitive cysteine sulfhydryls that differ from the known alkylating agents, iodoacetamide and N-ethylmaleimide, which react nonspecifically with oxidized cysteines including sulfenic and sulfinic acid. We designed and synthesized a novel reagent, methyl-3-nitro-4-(piperidin-1-ylsulfonyl)benzoate (NPSB-1), that selectively and specifically reacts with the sulfhydryl of cysteines in model compounds. We validated the specificity of this reagent by allowing it to react with recombinant proteins followed by peptide sequencing with nanoUPLC-ESI-q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and mutant studies employed it to identify cellular proteins containing redox-sensitive cysteine residues. We also obtained proteins from cells treated with various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, labeled them with biotinylated NPSB-1 (NPSB-B), pulled them down with streptavidin beads, and identified them with MS/MS. We grouped these proteins into four families: (1) those having reactive cysteine residues easily oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, (2) those with cysteines reactive only under mild oxidative stress, (3) those with cysteines reactive only after exposure to oxidative stress, and (4) those with cysteines that are reactive regardless of oxidative stress. These results confirm that NPSBs can serve as novel chemical probes for specifically capturing reactive cysteine residues and as powerful tools for measuring their oxidative sensitivity and can help to understand the function of cysteine modifications in ROS-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:25354229

  9. Reversible, partial inactivation of plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase by betaine aldehyde: mechanism and possible physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Zárate-Romero, Andrés; Murillo-Melo, Darío S; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Montiel, Carmina; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2016-04-01

    In plants, the last step in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) is the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BAL) catalysed by some aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 10 enzymes that exhibit betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity. Given the irreversibility of the reaction, the short-term regulation of these enzymes is of great physiological relevance to avoid adverse decreases in the NAD(+):NADH ratio. In the present study, we report that the Spinacia oleracea BADH (SoBADH) is reversibly and partially inactivated by BAL in the absence of NAD(+)in a time- and concentration-dependent mode. Crystallographic evidence indicates that the non-essential Cys(450)(SoBADH numbering) forms a thiohemiacetal with BAL, totally blocking the productive binding of the aldehyde. It is of interest that, in contrast to Cys(450), the catalytic cysteine (Cys(291)) did not react with BAL in the absence of NAD(+) The trimethylammonium group of BAL binds in the same position in the inactivating or productive modes. Accordingly, BAL does not inactivate the C(450)SSoBADH mutant and the degree of inactivation of the A(441)I and A(441)C mutants corresponds to their very different abilities to bind the trimethylammonium group. Cys(450)and the neighbouring residues that participate in stabilizing the thiohemiacetal are strictly conserved in plant ALDH10 enzymes with proven or predicted BADH activity, suggesting that inactivation by BAL is their common feature. Under osmotic stress conditions, this novel partial and reversible covalent regulatory mechanism may contribute to preventing NAD(+)exhaustion, while still permitting the synthesis of high amounts of GB and avoiding the accumulation of the toxic BAL. PMID:26792760

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and ATP binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) functional assays isolate different populations of prostate stem cells where ABCG2 function selects for cells with increased stem cell activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction High expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase1A1 (ALDH1A1) is observed in many organs and tumors and may identify benign and cancer stem cell populations. Methods In the current study, the stem cell characteristics were determined in cells isolated from human prostate cell lines and clinical prostate specimens based upon the ALDEFLUOR™ assay. Cells isolated based on the ALDEFLUOR™ assay were compared to cells isolated based on ATP binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) activity using the side population assay. To test for stem cell characteristics of self-renewal and multipotency, cells with high and low ALDH1A1 activity, based on the ALDEFLUOR™ assay (ALDHHi and ALDHLow), were isolated from prostate clinical specimens and were recombined with rat urogenital sinus mesenchyme to induce prostate gland formation. Results The percentage of ALDHHi cells in prostate cell lines (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, CWR-R1, and DU-145) was 0.5 to 6%, similarly in non-tumor and tumor clinical specimens the percentage of ALDHHi cells was 0.6 to 4%. Recombinants using ALDHHi cells serially generated prostate tissue up to three generations with as few as 250 starting cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the recombinants using ALDHHi cells contained prostatic glands frequently expressing androgen receptor (AR), p63, chromogranin A, ALDH1A1, ABCG2, and prostate specific antigen (PSA), compared to their ALDHLow counterparts. Inhibition of ALDH resulted in the reduction of sphere formation capabilities in the CWR-R1, but not in the RWPE-2 and DU-145, prostate cell lines. ABCG2 inhibition resulted in a more robust decrease of sphere formation in androgen sensitive cell lines, CWR-R1 and RWPE-2, but not androgen insensitive DU-145. ALDH1A1 expression was enriched in ALDHHi cells and non-side population cells. ABCG2 expression was only enriched in side population cells. Conclusions The percentage of ALDHHi cells in prostate cell lines and prostate tissue was consistently higher compared

  11. Glutathione prevents ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage and depletion of sulfhydryl compounds in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Loguercio, C; Taranto, D; Beneduce, F; del Vecchio Blanco, C; de Vincentiis, A; Nardi, G; Romano, M

    1993-01-01

    Whether parenteral administration of reduced glutathione prevented ethanol induced damage to and depletion of sulfhydryl compounds in the human gastric mucosa was investigated. Ten healthy volunteers underwent endoscopy on three separate occasions. Gastric mucosal damage was induced by spraying 80% ethanol on to the gastric mucosa through the biopsy channel of the endoscope. The gastric mucosal score, total sulfhydryls, glutathione, and cysteine were evaluated in basal conditions and after ethanol administration with and without pretreatment with parenteral glutathione. Glutathione significantly decreased the extent of ethanol induced macroscopic injury to the mucosa of the gastric body and antrum. Glutathione's protective effect is associated with appreciable inhibition of ethanol induced depletion of gastric sulfhydryl compounds. This is the first report of protection against ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage by a sulfhydryl containing agent in humans. PMID:8432465

  12. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  13. MASS SPECTROMETRY OF FATTY ALDEHYDES

    PubMed Central

    Berdyshev, Evgeny V.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty aldehydes are important components of the cellular lipidome. Significant interest has been developed towards the analysis of the short chain α,β-unsaturated and hydroxylated aldehydes formed as a result of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Multiple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and subsequently liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) approaches have been developed to identify and quantify short-chain as well as long-chain fatty aldehydes. Due to the ability to non-enzymaticaly form Schiff bases with amino groups of proteins, lipids, and with DNA guanidine, free aldehydes are viewed as a marker or metric of fatty acid oxidation and not the part of intracellular signaling pathways which has significantly limited the overall attention this group of molecules have received. This review provides an overview of current GC/MS and LC/MS approaches of fatty aldehyde analysis as well as discusses technical challenges standing in the way of free fatty aldehyde quantitation. PMID:21930240

  14. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:26556381

  15. Unusual properties of crocodilian ovomacroglobulin shown in its methylamine treatment and sulfhydryl titration

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, H.; Osada, T.; Ikai, A.

    1986-02-01

    The inhibitory activity of chicken and crocodilian ovomacroglobulins against trypsin was measured before and after their incubation with methylamine. The result for crocodilian ovomacroglobulin showed that methylamine treatment destroyed half of its activity, in unique contrast to human alpha 2-macroglobulin and chicken ovomacroglobulin for which methylamine either destroys the inhibitory activity of the former completely or does not affect that of the latter at all. Free sulfhydryl groups of chicken and crocodilian ovomacroglobulins were titrated with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) before and after incubation with trypsin. Prior to the incubation with trypsin the chicken and crocodilian proteins respectively had 0 and 1 titratable sulfhydryl per molecule of Mr 720,000. After treatment with trypsin the crocodilian protein had 3.5-4 titratable sulfhydryls, whereas there were no titratable sulfhydryls in the chicken protein. After denaturation of the crocodilian protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate at 100 degrees C the number of titratable sulfhydryls was 4. Chicken ovomacroglobulin again did not have an appreciable number of titratable sulfhydryls under similar denaturing conditions. Incubation of crocodilian protein with (14C)methylamine showed an incorporation of at least 2 mol of methylamine per molecule. The result indicated the presence of three intramolecular thiol ester bonds in crocodilian ovomacroglobulin with differential stability against external perturbations.

  16. Rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Identification of essential sulfhydryl residues in the primary sequence of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    el-Maghrabi, M R; Pate, T M; D'Angelo, G; Correia, J J; Lively, M O; Pilkis, S J

    1987-08-25

    The kinase and sugar phosphate exchange reactions of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase were inactivated by treatment with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine or 8-azido-ATP, but activity could be restored by the addition of dithiothreitol. This inactivation was accompanied by incorporation of 5'-p-sulfonylbenzoyl[8-14C]adenosine into the enzyme that was not released by the addition of dithiothreitol. The lack of effect of ATP analogs on the ATP/ADP exchange or on bisphosphatase activity and reversal of their effects on the kinase and sugar phosphate reactions by dithiothreitol suggest that 1) they reacted with sulfhydryl groups important for sugar phosphate binding in the kinase reaction, and 2) the inactivation of the kinase by these analogs involves a specific reaction that is not related to their general mechanism of attacking nucleotide-binding sites. In addition, alkylation of the enzymes' sulfhydryls with iodoacetamide prevented inactivation by 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine, suggesting that the same thiols were involved. o-Iodosobenzoate inactivated the kinase and sugar phosphate exchange; the inactivation was reversed by dithiothreitol; but there was no effect on the bisphosphatase or nucleotide exchange, indicating that oxidation occurred at the same sulfhydryl that are associated with sugar phosphate binding. ATP or ADP, but not fructose 6-phosphate, protected these groups from modification by 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine, 8-azido-ATP, and o-iodosobenzoate. ATP also induced dramatic changes in the circular dichroism spectrum of the enzyme, suggesting that adenine nucleotide protection of thiol groups resulted from changes in enzyme secondary structure. Analysis of cyanogen bromide fragments of 14C-carboxamidomethylated enzyme showed that all radioactivity was associated with cysteinyl residues in a single cyanogen bromide fragment. Three of these cysteinyl residues are clustered in a 38-residue region, which

  17. Hemoglobin-sulfhydryls from tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can reduce oxidative damage induced by organic hydroperoxide in erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Torsoni, M A; Ogo, S H

    2000-08-01

    Sulfhydryl groups are important to avoid oxidative damage to the cell. In RBC, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are capable of oxidizing heme and promoting lipid peroxidation. H2O2 caused greater oxidation of heme than tert-BOOH, although the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups was similar. Geochelone carbonaria Hb, a rich sulfhydryl protein, inhibited the TBA-reactive substances formation of human erythrocytes exposed to tert-BOOH by about 30%; this decrease was smaller with Geochelone denticulata Hb. Sulfhydryl reagents diminished the number of reactive sulfhydryl groups in the G. carbonaria Hb resulting in a decrease of its antioxidant power, suggesting the involvement of sulfhydryls of Hb in the protection against lipid peroxidation. PMID:11026669

  18. A single aldehyde group can serve as a structural element for recognition by transmembrane protein CD36.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Amitsuka, Takahiko; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Kozai, Yuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-07-01

    Transmembrane protein CD36 is considered to bind its distinct ligands such as long-chain fatty acids primarily by recognizing their terminal carboxyl moiety. In this study, we provide evidence that long-chain fatty aldehydes, such as oleic aldehyde, can be recognized by CD36. We suggest that a single aldehyde group may also serve as one of the structural elements recognizable by CD36. PMID:26923548

  19. Aldehyde dehydrogenases: From eye crystallins to metabolic disease and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliou, Vasilis; Thompson, David C.; Smith, Clay; Fujita, Mayumi; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily is composed of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. To date, 24 ALDH gene families have been identified in the eukaryotic genome. In addition to aldehyde metabolizing capacity, ALDHs have additional catalytic (e.g. esterase and reductase) and non-catalytic activities. The latter include functioning as structural elements in the eye (crystallins) and as binding molecules to endobiotics and xenobiotics. Mutations in human ALDH genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases. Most recently ALDH polymorphisms have been associated with gout and osteoporosis. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. This article serves as a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the ALDH superfamily and the contribution of ALDHs to various physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:23159885

  20. New phosphonate reagents for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to unbranched- or methyl-branched unsaturated aldehydes. The phosphonate reagents, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone and diethyl ethylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone, contained a protected...

  1. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  2. Synthesis of 5'-Aldehyde Oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Lartia, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of oligonucleotide ending with an aldehyde functional group at their 5'-end (5'-AON) is possible for both DNA (5'-AODN) and RNA (5'-AORN) series irrespectively of the nature of the last nucleobase. The 5'-alcohol of on-support ODN is mildly oxidized under Moffat conditions. Transient protection of the resulting aldehyde by N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives allows cleavage, deprotection, and RP-HPLC purification of the protected 5'-AON. Finally, 5'-AON is deprotected by usual acetic acid treatment. In the aggregates, 5'-AON can be now synthesized and purified as routinely as non-modified ODNs, following procedures similar to the well-known "DMT-On" strategy. PMID:26967469

  3. Techniques for the Analysis of Cysteine Sulfhydryls and Oxidative Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Sherma, Nisha D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Modification of cysteine thiols dramatically affects protein function and stability. Hence, the abilities to quantify specific protein sulfhydryl groups within complex biological samples and map disulfide bond structures are crucial to gaining greater insights into how proteins operate in human health and disease. Recent Advances: Many different molecular probes are now commercially available to label and track cysteine residues at great sensitivity. Coupled with mass spectrometry, stable isotope-labeled sulfhydryl-specific reagents can provide previously unprecedented molecular insights into the dynamics of cysteine modification. Likewise, the combined application of modern mass spectrometers with improved sample preparation techniques and novel data mining algorithms is beginning to routinize the analysis of complex protein disulfide structures. Critical Issues: Proper application of these modern tools and techniques, however, still requires fundamental understanding of sulfhydryl chemistry as well as the assumptions that accompany sample preparation and underlie effective data interpretation. Future Directions: The continued development of tools, technical approaches, and corresponding data processing algorithms will, undoubtedly, facilitate site-specific protein sulfhydryl quantification and disulfide structure analysis from within complex biological mixtures with ever-improving accuracy and sensitivity. Fully routinizing disulfide structure analysis will require an equal but balanced focus on sample preparation and corresponding mass spectral dataset reproducibility. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 511–531. PMID:24383618

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFHYDRYL PROTEINS INVOLVED IN THE MAINTENANCE OF FLAGELLAR STRAIGHTNESS IN HAMSTER SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hamster caput epididymal spermatozoa exhibit a marked 90-180 degree bend when induced to acquire progressive motility in vitro (Cornwall et al, 1988). lagellar bending is prevented by oxidizing sperm sulfhydryl (SH) groups with diamide. n the present study, the authors examined t...

  5. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A J; Saneoka, H; Rhodes, D; Joly, R J; Goldsbrough, P B

    1996-01-01

    The ability to synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine is wide-spread among angiosperms and is thought to contribute to salt and drought tolerance. In plants glycine betaine is synthesized by the two-step oxidation of choline via the intermediate betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). Two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cDNA clones, BADH1 and BADH15, putatively encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were isolated and characterized. BADH1 is a truncated cDNA of 1391 bp. BADH15 is a full-length cDNA clone, 1812 bp in length, predicted to encode a protein of 53.6 kD. The predicted amino acid sequences of BADH1 and BADH15 share significant homology with other plant BADHs. The effects of water deficit on BADH mRNA expression, leaf water relations, and glycine betaine accumulation were investigated in leaves of preflowering sorghum plants. BADH1 and BADH15 mRNA were both induced by water deficit and their expression coincided with the observed glycine betaine accumulation. During the course of 17 d, the leaf water potential in stressed sorghum plants reached -2.3 MPa. In response to water deficit, glycine betaine levels increased 26-fold and proline levels increased 108-fold. In severely stressed plants, proline accounted for > 60% of the total free amino acid pool. Accumulation of these compatible solutes significantly contributed to osmotic potential and allowed a maximal osmotic adjustment of 0.405 MPa. PMID:8934627

  6. Cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylase oxygenation of aldehydes yields n-1 aldehydes and alcohols in addition to alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Aukema, Kelly G.; Makris, Thomas M.; Stoian, Sebastian A.; Richman, Jack E.; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) catalyzes O2-dependent release of the terminal carbon of a biological substrate, octadecanal, to yield formate and heptadecane in a reaction that requires external reducing equivalents. We show here that ADO also catalyzes incorporation of an oxygen atom from O2 into the alkane product to yield alcohol and aldehyde products. Oxygenation of the alkane product is much more pronounced with C9-10 aldehyde substrates, so that use of nonanal as the substrate yields similar amounts of octane, octanal, and octanol products. When using doubly-labeled [1,2-13C]-octanal as the substrate, the heptane, heptanal and heptanol products each contained a single 13C-label in the C-1 carbons atoms. The only one-carbon product identified was formate. [18O]-O2 incorporation studies demonstrated formation of [18O]-alcohol product, but rapid solvent exchange prevented similar determination for the aldehyde product. Addition of [1-13C]-nonanol with decanal as the substrate at the outset of the reaction resulted in formation of [1-13C]-nonanal. No 13C-product was formed in the absence of decanal. ADO contains an oxygen-bridged dinuclear iron cluster. The observation of alcohol and aldehyde products derived from the initially formed alkane product suggests a reactive species similar to that formed by methane monooxygenase (MMO) and other members of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase family. Accordingly, characterization by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies shows that the electronic structure of the ADO cluster is similar, but not identical, to that of MMO hydroxylase component. In particular, the two irons of ADO reside in nearly identical environments in both the oxidized and fully reduced states, whereas those of MMOH show distinct differences. These favorable characteristics of the iron sites allow a comprehensive determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters describing the electronic state of the diferrous cluster for the first time for

  7. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  8. Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

  9. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  10. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.

    1986-05-29

    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  11. DIFFERENTIATING THE TOXICITY OF CARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDES FROM NONCARCINOGENIC ALDEHYDES IN THE RAT NOSE USING CDNA ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differentiating the Toxicity of Carcinogenic Aldehydes from Noncarcinogenic Aldehydes in the Rat Nose Using cDNA Arrays.

    Formaldehyde is a widely used aldehyde in many industrial settings, the tanning process, household products, and is a contaminant in cigarette smoke. H...

  12. Differential effects of sulfhydryl reagents on saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin block of voltage-dependent Na channels.

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, G E; Alam, M; Hartmann, H A

    1994-01-01

    We have probed a cysteine residue that confers resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX) block in heart Na channels, with membrane-impermeant, cysteine-specific, methanethiosulfonate (MTS) analogs. Covalent addition of a positively charged group to the cysteinyl sulfhydryl reduced pore conductance by 87%. The effect was selectively prevented by treatment with TTX, but not saxitoxin (STX). Addition of a negatively charged group selectively inhibited STX block without affecting TTX block. These results agree with models that place an exposed cysteinyl sulfhydryl in the TTX site adjacent to the mouth of the pore, but do not support the contention that STX and TTX are interchangeable. The surprising differences between the two toxins are consistent with the hypothesis that the toxin-receptor complex can assume different conformations when STX or TTX bound. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7696471

  13. Quantitative determination of biological sulfhydryl groups by postcolumn derivatization and elucidation of microheterogeneity of serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, T; Nokihara, K

    1998-08-15

    A quantitative analytical system for biological sulfhydryl compounds has been developed using an ion-pair reagent with isocratic elution and an on-line postcolumn derivatization with Ellman-type reagents. As human or bovine serum albumin has 35 cysteinyl residues, one cysteinyl residue exists as a free sulfhydryl moiety, and this gives rise to the microheterogeneity in serum albumin. Here we report for the first time the quantitative characterization of the microheterogeneity of serum albumin. Cysteine was found to be the major molecule attached to the sulfydryl group of the serum albumins. Although glutathione could not be detected, the Cys-Gly element of glutathione was found. Freshly prepared human serum albumin from healthy volunteers contained 0.46 nmol of Cys/mL of serum, 0.24 nmol of Cys-Gly/mL of serum, and very small amounts of glutathione (0.02 nmol/mL). PMID:9726170

  14. Counting sulfhydryls and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins using mercurial ions as an MS-tag.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yifei; Chen, Liqin; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2008-08-01

    Organic mercurial compounds are the most specific and sensitive reagents for reaction with the sulfhydryl groups (SHs) in peptides and proteins because of the strong mercury-sulfur affinity. Using the monofunctional organic mercury ion RHg(+) as a mass spectrometry (MS)-tag has the advantages of reacting with one sulfhydryl group, offering definite mass shift, and especially stable and characteristic nonradioactive isotopic distribution. Mass spectrometric analysis of derivatized sulfhydryls in peptides/proteins is thus an alternative for precisely counting the number of sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds (SS). Here the tags used include monomethylmercury chloride, monoethylmercury chloride, and 4-(hydroxymercuri) benzoic acid. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated using HPLC/ESI-MS to count SHs and SS in model peptides/proteins, i.e., glutathione, phytochelatins, lysozyme and beta-lactoglobulin, which contain increasing SHs and various SS linkages. PMID:18524619

  15. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  16. EMISSIONS OF ODOROUS ALDEHYDES FROM ALKYD PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environmental chambers. It was found that, for each alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of ...

  17. Electrophilicity and nucleophilicity of commonly used aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Sanjay

    2014-08-14

    The present approach for determining the electrophilicity (E) and nucleophilicity (N) of aldehydes includes a kinetic study of KMNO4 oxidation and NaBH4 reduction of aldehydes. A transition state analysis of the KMNO4 promoted aldehyde oxidation reaction has been performed, which shows a very good correlation with experimental results. The validity of the experimental method has been tested using the experimental activation parameters of the two reactions. The utility of the present approach is further demonstrated by the theoretical versus experimental relationship, which provides easy access to E and N values for various aldehydes and offers an at-a-glance assessment of the chemical reactivity of aldehydes in various reactions. PMID:24979574

  18. Some properties of aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G J; Dickinson, F M

    1977-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver mitochondria was purified to homogeneity as judged by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels, and by sedimentation-equilibrium experiments in the analytical ultracentrifuge. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 198000 and a subunit size of 48000, indicating that the molecule is a tetramer. Fluorescence and spectrophotometric titrations indicate that each subunit can bind 1 molecule of NADH. Enzymic activity is completely blocked by reaction of 4mol of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate)/mol of enzyme. Excess of disulfiram or iodoacetamide decreases activity to only 50% of the control value, and only two thiol groups per molecule are apparently modified by these reagents. PMID:194582

  19. Toward aldehyde and alkane production by removing aldehyde reductase activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled the construction of novel biological routes to valuable chemicals using suitable microbial hosts. Aldehydes serve as chemical feedstocks in the synthesis of rubbers, plastics, and other larger molecules. Microbial production of alkanes is dependent on the formation of a fatty aldehyde intermediate which is converted to an alkane by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO). However, microbial hosts such as Escherichia coli are plagued by many highly active endogenous aldehyde reductases (ALRs) that convert aldehydes to alcohols, which greatly complicates strain engineering for aldehyde and alkane production. It has been shown that the endogenous ALR activity outcompetes the ADO enzyme for fatty aldehyde substrate. The large degree of ALR redundancy coupled with an incomplete database of ALRs represents a significant obstacle in engineering E. coli for either aldehyde or alkane production. In this study, we identified 44 ALR candidates encoded in the E. coli genome using bioinformatics tools, and undertook a comprehensive screening by measuring the ability of these enzymes to produce isobutanol. From the pool of 44 candidates, we found five new ALRs using this screening method (YahK, DkgA, GldA, YbbO, and YghA). Combined deletions of all 13 known ALRs resulted in a 90–99% reduction in endogenous ALR activity for a wide range of aldehyde substrates (C2–C12). Elucidation of the ALRs found in E. coli could guide one in reducing competing alcohol formation during alkane or aldehyde production. PMID:25108218

  20. The Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus tn79 gene encodes a functional sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme that is able to support the replication of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus lacking the sulfhydryl oxidase ac92 gene

    PubMed Central

    Clem, Stian A.; Wu, Wenbi; Lorena Passarelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac92 is a conserved baculovirus gene with homology to flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Its product, Ac92, is a functional sulfhydryl oxidase. Deletion of ac92 results in almost negligible levels of budded virus (BV) production, defects in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) co-envelopment and their inefficient incorporation into occlusion bodies. To determine the role of sulfhydryl oxidation in the production of BV, envelopment of nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsid incorporation into occlusion bodies, the Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus ortholog, Tn79, was substituted for ac92. Tn79 was found to be an active sulfhydryl oxidase that substituted for Ac92, resulting in the production of infectious BV, albeit about 10-fold less than an ac92-containing virus. Tn79 rescued defects in ODV morphogenesis caused by a lack of ac92. Active Tn79 sulfhydryl oxidase activity is required for efficient BV production, ODV envelopment, and their subsequent incorporation into occlusion bodies in the absence of ac92. PMID:25010286

  1. In vivo sulfhydryl distribution in brown cells of Mercenaria mercenaria exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Zaroogian, G.

    1995-12-31

    Brown cells are found in the red glands of Mercenaria mercenaria (Bivalvia) and have a role in detoxification. Brown cell involvement in metal detoxification is due in part to endogenous glutathione (GSH) and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). During treatment of Mercenaria with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm Cd{sup 2+}, brown cells were analyzed for total sulfhydryl (TSH), PBSH, non-protein bound sulfhydryl (NPSH) and GSH after 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 20 days. Trend analyses indicated that treatment with 0.5 ppm Cd{sup 2+} caused a continuous increase in PBSH/TSH, whereas NPSH/TSH did not appear to change during 20 days treatment. The GSH/NPSH ratio increased significantly (P<0.01) for 6 days, followed by a significant (P<0.01) continuous decrease to day 20. Treatment with 1.0 ppm Cd{sup 2+} caused an increase in NPSH/TSH during the first 3 days, after which the ratio remained fairly constant to day 20, whereas PBSH/TSH decreased today 2, increased to day 3 and remained unchanged to day 20. The GSH/NPSH ratio remained fairly constant for the first 12 days after which it increased significantly (P<0.01). Histopathological examination after treatment with 1.0 ppm Cd 2{sup +} indicated darkening of the lysosomes during the first 2 days, followed by extensive brown cell sloughing into the tubule lumen and the abundance of small lysosomes at day 3. Sloughing and small lysosome formation continued to a lesser extent to day 20 when granulocyte infiltration and necrosis of the intertubular connective tissue occurred. The data indicate that GSH is more resistant to fluctuations than PBSH which suggests a more rapid synthesis or turnover rate for GSH. The ratio of GSH to PBSH has potential for a biomarker of cadmium exposure and health of Mercenaria.

  2. Entrapment of Water at the Transmembrane Helix-Helix Interface of Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase 2.

    PubMed

    Ried, Christian L; Scharnagl, Christina; Langosch, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about how a membrane can regulate interactions between transmembrane helices. Here, we show that strong self-interaction of the transmembrane helix of human quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 2 rests on a motif of conserved amino acids comprising one face of the helix. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations suggest that water molecules enter the helix-helix interface and connect serine residues of both partner helices. In addition, an interfacial tyrosine can interact with noninterfacial water or lipid. Dimerization of this transmembrane helix might therefore be controlled by membrane properties controlling water permeation and/or by the lipid composition of the membrane. PMID:26894260

  3. Multiple aldehyde reductases of human brain.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P L; Wermuth, B; von Wartburg, J P

    1980-01-01

    Human brain contains four forms of aldehyde reducing enzymes. One major activity, designated AR3, has properties indicating its identity with the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase, EC 1.1.1.2. The other major form of human brain enzyme, AR1, which is also NADPH-dependent, reduces both aldehyde and ketone-containing substrates, including vitamin K3 (menadione) and daunorubicin, a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This enzyme is very sensitive to inhibition by the flavonoids quercitrin and quercetine, and may be analogous to a daunorubicin reductase previously described in liver of other species. One minor form of human brain aldehyde reductase, AR2, demonstrates substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity which suggest its similarity to aldose reductases found in lens and other tissues of many species. This enzyme, which can also use NADH as cofactor to some extent, is the most active in reducing the aldehyde derivatives of the biogenic amines. The fourth human brain enzyme ("SSA reductase") differs from the other forms in its ability to use NADH as well as or better than NADPH as cofactor, and in its molecular weight, which is nearly twice that of the other forms. It is quite specific for succinic semialdehyde (SSA) as substrate, and was found to be significantly inhibited only by quercetine and quercitrin. AR3 can also reduce SSA, and both enzymes may contribute to the production of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo. These results indicate that the human brain aldehyde reductases can play relatively specific physiologic roles. PMID:7424738

  4. Structure and dynamics of Escherichia coli chemosensory receptors. Engineered sulfhydryl studies.

    PubMed Central

    Careaga, C L; Falke, J J

    1992-01-01

    Cysteine residues introduced by site-directed mutagenesis have been used to probe the conformation and dynamics of two receptors in the E. coli chemotaxis pathway. (a) Thermal motions of the polypeptide backbone were investigated in the periplasmic D-galactose and D-glucose receptor, a globular protein of known structure. Disulfide bond formation between pairs of engineered sulfhydryls were used to trap collisions during the relative motions of surface alpha-helices I and X. Motions with amplitudes ranging from 4.5 to 15.2 A were detected on timescales ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-1) s, respectively. These results suggest that thermal backbone motions may have larger amplitudes than previously thought. (b) Conformational features of the transmembrane aspartate transducer have been investigated. Engineered sulfhydryls were used to ascertain the location and orientations of two putative transmembrane alpha-helices in the primary structure, to investigate the packing of these helices, to determine the oligomer and surface structures, and to detect thermal and ligand-induced dynamics of the polypeptide backbone. A model for the folded conformation of the transducer oligomer is reviewed. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:1318100

  5. Changes in sulfhydryl groups of honeybee glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase associated with generation of the intermediate plateau in its saturation kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, W. G.; Brandts, J. F.; Nordin, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Honeybee and rabbit muscle GPDH were studied to obtain information at the chemical level regarding anomolous saturation kinetics of the honeybee enzyme. Results demonstrate that the enzyme's sulfhydryl groups are implicated in the process. Measured by DTNB titration, native honeybee GPDH has one less active SH than the native rabbit muscle enzyme and displays changes in overall sulfhydryl reactivity after preincubation with G-3-P or G-3-P plus NAD+. The total DTNB reactive sulfhydryls of rabbit muscle GPDH are not changed by preincubation with NAD+ or G-3-P; honeybee GPDH, under certain conductions of preincubation with these ligands, shows a decrease of two total DTNB reactive SH groups. This difference has been confirmed by an independent experiment in which the two enzymes were carboxymethylated with C-14 bromoacetic acid.

  6. Sulfhydryl site-specific cross-linking and labeling of monoclonal antibodies by a fluorescent equilibrium transfer alkylation cross-link reagent.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, R B; Wahl, R L; Brocchini, S J; Lawton, R G; Smith, R H

    1990-01-01

    The site-specific intramolecular cross-linking of sulfhydryls of monoclonal antibodies via a new class of "equilibrium transfer alkylation cross-link (ETAC) reagents" is described. Following complete or partial reduction of interchain disulfides with dithiothreitol (DTT), two murine IgG2a monoclonal antibodies, 225.28S and 5G6.4, were reacted with alpha,alpha-bis[(p-tolylsulfonyl)methyl]-m-aminoacetophenone (ETAC 1a) and a fluorescent conjugated derivative, sulforhodamine B m-(alpha,alpha-bis(p-tolysulfonylmethyl)acetyl)anilide derivative (ETAC 1b). Reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the products from 1b indicated the formation of S-ETAC-S interchain heavy and light chain cross-links (approximately 23-34% overall yield by video-camera densitometry) which do not undergo disulfide-thiol exchange with DTT at 100 degrees C. In contrast, no interchain cross-links were observed upon reaction of unreduced or reduced antibody wherein the thiols have been previously alkylated with iodoacetamide. These results indicated site-specific cross-linking of interchain sulfhydryls and places their distance within 3-4 A. Flow cytometry of the ETAC 1b 5G6.4 cross-linked product using 77 IP3 human ovarian carcinoma target cells showed positive binding and retention of immunoreactivity. The in vivo biodistributions of 131I-labeled intact 5G6.4 and 125I-labeled reduced 5G6.4 + ETAC 1a product in rats were essentially identical over a period of 24 h. The present study illustrates the potential applications of labelable ETAC reagents as thiol-specific probes for a wide variety of immunological studies. PMID:2128870

  7. Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 7A1.

    PubMed

    Luo, Min; Tanner, John J

    2015-09-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) is part of lysine catabolism and catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent oxidation of α-aminoadipate semialdehyde to α-aminoadipate. Herein, we describe a structural study of human ALDH7A1 focused on substrate recognition. Five crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering data are reported, including the first crystal structure of any ALDH7 family member complexed with α-aminoadipate. The product binds with the ε-carboxylate in the oxyanion hole, the aliphatic chain packed into an aromatic box, and the distal end of the product anchored by electrostatic interactions with five conserved residues. This binding mode resembles that of glutamate bound to the proline catabolic enzyme ALDH4A1. Analysis of ALDH7A1 and ALDH4A1 structures suggests key interactions that underlie substrate discrimination. Structures of apo ALDH7A1 reveal dramatic conformational differences from the product complex. Product binding is associated with a 16 Å movement of the C-terminus into the active site, which stabilizes the active conformation of the aldehyde substrate anchor loop. The fact that the C-terminus is part of the active site was hitherto unknown. Interestingly, the C-terminus and aldehyde anchor loop are disordered in a new tetragonal crystal form of the apoenzyme, implying that these parts of the enzyme are highly flexible. Our results suggest that the active site of ALDH7A1 is disassembled when the aldehyde site is vacant, and the C-terminus is a mobile element that forms quaternary structural interactions that aid aldehyde binding. These results are relevant to the c.1512delG genetic deletion associated with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, which alters the C-terminus of ALDH7A1. PMID:26260980

  8. Inhibition of human Cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2A6 by aldehydes: Structure and activity relationships

    PubMed Central

    Kandagatla, Suneel K.; Mack, Todd; Simpson, Sean; Sollenberger, Jill; Helton, Eric; Raner, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to probe active site structure and dynamics of human cytochrome P4502E1 and P4502A6 using a series of related short chain fatty aldehydes. Binding efficiency of the aldehydes was monitored via their ability to inhibit the binding and activation of the probe substrates p-nitrophenol (2E1) and coumarin (2A6). Oxidation of the aldehydes was observed in reactions with individually expressed 2E1, but not 2A6, suggesting alternate binding modes. For saturated aldehydes the optimum chain length for inhibition of 2E1 was 9 carbons (KI=7.8 ±0.3 μM), whereas for 2A6 heptanal was most potent (KI=15.8 ±1.1 μM). A double bond in the 2-position of the aldehyde significantly decreased the observed KI relative to the corresponding saturated compound in most cases. A clear difference in the effect of the double bond was observed between the two isoforms. With 2E1, the double bond appeared to remove steric constraints on aldehyde binding with KI values for the 5–12 carbon compounds ranging between 2.6 ± 0.1 μM and 12.8± 0.5 μM, whereas steric effects remained the dominant factor in the binding of the unsaturated aldehydes to 2A6 (observed KI values between 7.0± 0.5 μM and >1000 μM). The aldehyde function was essential for effective inhibition, as the corresponding carboxylic acids had very little effect on enzyme activity over the same range of concentrations, and branching at the 3-position of the aldehydes increased the corresponding KI value in all cases examined. The results suggest that a conjugated π-system may be a key structural determinant in the binding of these compounds to both enzymes, and may also be an important feature for the expansion of the active site volume in 2E1. PMID:24924949

  9. Chemoenzymatic Fc Glycosylation via Engineered Aldehyde Tags

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins with chemically defined glycosylation sites and structures are important biopharmaceutical targets and critical tools for glycobiology. One approach toward constructing such molecules involves chemical glycosylation of aldehyde-tagged proteins. Here, we report the installation of a genetically encoded aldehyde tag at the internal glycosylation site of the crystallizable fragment (Fc) of IgG1. We replaced the natural Fc N-glycosylation sequon with a five amino-acid sequence that was efficiently converted by recombinant formylglycine generating enzyme in vitro, thereby introducing aldehyde groups for subsequent chemical elaboration. Oxime-linked glycoconjugates were synthesized by conjugating aminooxy N-acetylglucosamine to the modified Fc followed by enzymatic transfer of complex N-glycans from corresponding glycan oxazolines by an EndoS-derived glycosynthase. In this manner we generated specific Fc glycoforms without relying on natural protein glycosylation machineries. PMID:24702330

  10. Intercalation of Aldehydes into Vanadyl Phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík.; Zima, Vítězslav; Votinský, Jiří

    2001-02-01

    Intercalates of VOPO4 with several aliphatic aldehydes, benzaldehyde, and 4-methylbenzaldehyde were prepared and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, and IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. Aliphatic aldehyde intercalates are unstable and the guests undergo aldol condensation and oxidation. The arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is discussed. A part of aliphatic aldehydes is anchored to the host layers by coordination of their carbonyl oxygen to the vanadium atom; the rest is probably bonded by weak van der Waals forces. In the benzaldehyde and 4-methylbenzaldehyde intercalates, all guest molecules are coordinated to the vanadium atoms with their benzene rings perpendicular to the sheets of the host.

  11. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  12. Nucleotide-Protectable Labeling of Sulfhydryl Groups in Subunit I of the ATPhase from Halobacterium Saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzner, Michael; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    A membrane-bound ATPase from the archaebacterium Halobacterium saccharovorum is inhibited by N-ethyl-maleimide in a nucleotide-protectable manner. When the enzyme was incubated with N-[C-14]jethylmaleimide, the bulk of radioactivity was as- sociated with the 87,000-Da subunit (subunit 1). ATP, ADP, or AMP reduced incorporation of the inhibitor. No charge shift of subunit I was detected following labeling with N-ethylmaleimide, indicating an electroneutral reaction. The results are consistent with the selective modification of sulfhydryl groups in subunit I at or near the catalytic site and are further evidence of a resemblance between this archaebacterial ATPase and the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  13. Evans-Tishchenko coupling of heteroaryl aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Philip D; Durrani, Jamie; Cases-Thomas, Manuel J; Hulme, Alison N

    2010-11-01

    The low-temperature Evans-Tishchenko coupling of a range of functionalized heteroaryl aldehydes with β-hydroxy ketones in the presence of a Sm(III) catalyst has been achieved with high yields (90-99%) and good to excellent diastereoselectivity (90:10 → 95:5 dr). However, at room temperature a retro-aldol aldol-Tishchenko reaction was found to compete with the desired Evans-Tishchenko reaction. Identification of these byproducts has allowed the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko reaction to be optimized for several heteroaryl aldehydes. PMID:20929205

  14. Aldehyde Recognition and Discrimination by Mammalian Odorant Receptors via Functional Group-Specific Hydration Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian odorant receptors (ORs) form a chemical-detecting interface between the atmosphere and the nervous system. This large gene family is composed of hundreds of membrane proteins predicted to form as many unique small molecule binding niches within their G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) framework, but very little is known about the molecular recognition strategies they use to bind and discriminate between small molecule odorants. Using rationally designed synthetic analogs of a typical aliphatic aldehyde, we report evidence that among the ORs showing specificity for the aldehyde functional group, a significant percentage detect the aldehyde through its ability to react with water to form a 1,1-geminal (gem)-diol. Evidence is presented indicating that the rat OR-I7, an often-studied and modeled OR known to require the aldehyde function of octanal for activation, is likely one of the gem-diol activated receptors. A homology model based on an activated GPCR X-ray structure provides a structural hypothesis for activation of OR-I7 by the gem-diol of octanal. PMID:25181321

  15. The C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase determines the substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Barski, O A; Gabbay, K H; Bohren, K M

    1996-11-12

    Human aldehyde reductase has a preference for carboxyl group-containing negatively charged substrates. It belongs to the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase superfamily whose members are in part distinguished by unique C-terminal loops. To probe the role of the C-terminal loops in determining substrate specificities in these enzymes, two arginine residues, Arg308 and Arg311, located in the C-terminal loop of aldehyde reductase, and not found in any other C-terminal loop, were replaced with alanine residues. The catalytic efficiency of the R311A mutant for aldehydes containing a carboxyl group is reduced 150-250-fold in comparison to that of the wild-type enzyme, while substrates not containing a negative charge are unaffected. The R311A mutant is also significantly less sensitive to inhibition by dicarboxylic acids, indicating that Arg311 interacts with one of the carboxyl groups. The inhibition pattern indicates that the other carboxyl group binds to the anion binding site formed by Tyr49, His112, and the nicotinamide moiety of NADP+. The correlation between inhibitor potency and the length of the dicarboxylic acid molecules suggests a distance of approximately 10 A between the amino group of Arg311 and the anion binding site in the aldehyde reductase molecule. The sensitivity of inhibition of the R311A mutant by several commercially available aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) was variable, with tolrestat and zopolrestat becoming more potent inhibitors (30- and 5-fold, respectively), while others remained the same or became less potent. The catalytic properties, substrate specificity, and susceptibility to inhibition of the R308A mutant remained similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. The data provide direct evidence for C-terminal loop participation in determining substrate and inhibitor specificity of aldo-keto reductases and specifically identifies Arg311 as the basis for the carboxyl-containing substrate preference of aldehyde reductase. PMID:8916913

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase protein superfamily in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ming; Qi, Lei-Peng; Yang, Xiong-Bang; Zhang, Kai-Xuan; Pang, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is an important model organism for fundamental research in the agro-biotechnology field. Aldehydes were generated in response to a suite of environmental stresses that perturb metabolism including salinity, dehydration, desiccation, and cold and heat shock. Many biologically important aldehydes are metabolized by the superfamily of NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here, starting from the database of Z. mays, we identified 28 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and 48 transcripts by the in silico cloning method using the ALDH-conserved domain amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis and rice as a probe. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all 28 members of the ALDH gene families were classified to ten distinct subfamilies. Microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis reveal that ZmALDH9, ZmALDH13, and ZmALDH17 genes involve the function of drought stress, acid tolerance, and pathogens infection. These results suggested that these three ZmALDH genes might be potentially useful in maize genetic improvement. PMID:22983498

  17. The First Mammalian Aldehyde Oxidase Crystal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Catarina; Mahro, Martin; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Ramos, Maria João; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are homodimeric proteins belonging to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. Each 150-kDa monomer contains a FAD redox cofactor, two spectroscopically distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and a molybdenum cofactor located within the protein active site. AOXs are characterized by broad range substrate specificity, oxidizing different aldehydes and aromatic N-heterocycles. Despite increasing recognition of its role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, the physiological function of the protein is still largely unknown. We have crystallized and solved the crystal structure of mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 to 2.9 Å. This is the first mammalian AOX whose structure has been solved. The structure provides important insights into the protein active center and further evidence on the catalytic differences characterizing AOX and xanthine oxidoreductase. The mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 three-dimensional structure combined with kinetic, mutagenesis data, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics studies make a decisive contribution to understand the molecular basis of its rather broad substrate specificity. PMID:23019336

  18. Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Thottumkara, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment demonstrating the feasibility of using water as a solvent for organic reactions which highlights the cost and environmental benefits of its use is presented. The experiment encourages students to think in terms of the reaction mechanism of the oxidation of aldehydes knowing that potassium persulfate is the active oxidant in Oxone…

  19. Volatile aldehydes in libraries and archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenech, Ann; Strlič, Matija; Kralj Cigić, Irena; Levart, Alenka; Gibson, Lorraine T.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Ntanos, Konstantinos; Kolar, Jana; Cassar, May

    2010-06-01

    Volatile aldehydes are produced during degradation of paper-based materials. This may result in their accumulation in archival and library repositories. However, no systematic study has been performed so far. In the frame of this study, passive sampling was carried out at ten locations in four libraries and archives. Despite the very variable sampling locations, no major differences were found, although air-filtered repositories were found to have lower concentrations while a non-ventilated newspaper repository exhibited the highest concentrations of volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural and hexanal). Five employees in one institution were also provided with personal passive samplers to investigate employees' exposure to volatile aldehydes. All values were lower than the presently valid exposure limits. The concentration of volatile aldehydes, acetic acid, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in general was also compared with that of outdoor-generated pollutants. It was evident that inside the repository and particularly inside archival boxes, the concentration of VOCs and acetic acid was much higher than the concentration of outdoor-generated pollutants, which are otherwise more routinely studied in connection with heritage materials. This indicates that further work on the pro-degradative effect of VOCs on heritage materials is necessary and that monitoring of VOCs in heritage institutions should become more widespread.

  20. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine aldehyde condensate. 721.639... Substances § 721.639 Amine aldehyde condensate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. Aldehyde Reduction by Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Srivastava, Sanjay; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE); specifically the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). These assays can be performed using either liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method used here to study the reduction of a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 9-AA, by CYPs was adapted from the assay used to investigate 9-anthracene oxidation as reported by Marini et al. (Marini et al., 2003). For experiments measuring reduction of the endogenous aldehyde, 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH and the metabolites were separated by High Pressure Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), using an adaptation of the method of Srivastava et al. (Srivastava et al., 2010). For study of 9-AA and 4-HNE reduction, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in appropriate media, followed by quantification of metabolites through either spectrofluorimetry or analysis by HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay, respectively. Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC-mass spectrometric analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 function can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction reactions for CYP’s were not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These character of these reactions are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions. PMID:21553396

  7. Human antioxidant-response-element-mediated regulation of type 1 NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene expression. Effect of sulfhydryl modifying agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Jaiswal, A K

    1994-11-15

    Human antioxidant-response element (hARE) containing two copies of the AP1/AP1-like elements arranged as inverse repeat is known to mediate basal and beta-naphthoflavone-induced transcription of the type 1 NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) gene. Band-shift assays revealed that beta-naphthoflavone increased binding of nuclear proteins at the hARE. Super shift assays identified Jun-D and c-Fos proteins in the band-shift complexes observed with control and beta-naphthoflavone-treated Hepa-1 nuclear extracts. Hepa-1 cells stably transformed with hARE-tk-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) recombinant plasmid were used to demonstrate that, in addition to beta-naphthoflavone, a variety of antioxidants, tumor promoters and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) also increased expression of hARE-mediated CAT gene. beta-naphthoflavone induction of the CAT gene expression in Hepa-1 cells was found insensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinases. However, binding of regulatory proteins at the hARE and the CAT gene expression in Hepa-1 cells were increased by dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol and diamide. Treatment of the Hepa-1 cells with N-ethylmaleimide reduced binding of proteins at the hARE and interfered with expression and beta-naphthoflavone induction of the CAT gene. These results suggested a role of sulfhydryl modification of hARE binding (Jun and Fos) proteins which mediate basal and induced expression of the NQO1 gene. We also report that in-vitro-translated products of the proto-oncogenes, Jun and Fos, bind to the hARE in band-shift assays. The incubation of Jun and Fos proteins with small amounts of nuclear extract from dimethylsulfoxide-treated (control) or beta-naphthoflavone treated Hepa-1 cells prior to band-shift assays increased the binding of Jun and Fos proteins to the hARE. Interestingly, the increase in binding of Jun and Fos proteins to the hARE was more prominent with beta-naphthoflavone-treated nuclear extract as compared to the control

  8. Cholesterol Secosterol Aldehydes Induce Amyloidogenesis and Dysfunction of Wild Type Tumor Protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Nieva, Jorge; Song, Byeong-Doo; Rogel, Joseph K.; Kujawara, David; Altobel, Lawrence; Izharrudin, Alicia; Boldt, Grant E.; Grover, Rajesh K.; Wentworth, Anita D.; Wentworth, Paul

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Epidemiologic and clinical evidence points to an increased risk of cancer when coupled with chronic inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin this interrelationship remain largely unresolved. Herein we show that the inflammation-derived cholesterol 5,6-secosterol aldehydes, atheronal-A (KA) and –B (ALD), but not the PUFA-derived aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE), induce misfolding of wild-type p53 into an amyloidogenic form that binds thioflavin T and Congo Red dyes but cannot bind to a consensus DNA sequence. Treatment of lung carcinoma cells with KA and ALD leads to a loss of function of extracted p53, as determined by analysis of extracted nuclear protein and in activation of p21. Our results uncover a plausible chemical link between inflammation and cancer and expands the already pivotal role of p53 dysfunction and cancer risk. PMID:21802012

  9. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    PubMed

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes. PMID:25734422

  10. Oligonucleotide Immobilization and Hybridization on Aldehyde-Functionalized Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Brushes.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Tugba; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2015-11-01

    DNA biosensing requires high oligonucleotide binding capacity interface chemistries that can be tuned to maximize probe presentation as well as hybridization efficiency. This contribution investigates the feasibility of aldehyde-functionalized poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brush-based interfaces for oligonucleotide binding and hybridization. These polymer brushes, which allow covalent immobilization of oligonucleotides, are prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of HEMA followed by a postpolymerization oxidation step to generate side chain aldehyde groups. A series of polymer brushes covering a range of film thicknesses and grafting densities was investigated with regard to their oligonucleotide binding capacity as well as their ability to support oligonucleotide hybridization. Densely grafted brushes were found to have probe oligonucleotide binding capacities of up to ∼30 pmol/cm(2). Increasing the thickness of these densely grafted brush films, however, resulted in a decrease in the oligonucleotide binding capacity. Less densely grafted brushes possess binding capacities of ∼10 pmol/cm(2), which did not significantly depend on film thickness. The oligonucleotide hybridization efficiencies, however, were highest (93%) on those brushes that present the lowest surface concentration of the probe oligonucleotide. These results highlight the importance of optimizing the probe oligonucleotide surface concentration and binding interface chemistry. The versatility and tunability of the PHEMA-based brushes presented herein makes these films a very attractive platform for the immobilization and hybridization of oligonucleotides. PMID:26441148

  11. Formation and control of aldehydes in alcohol fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyasamy, R.; Nagalingam, B.; Ganesan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V.; Murthy, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Aldehyde formation and emissions from alcohol fueled engines are presented in this paper. Several chemical kinetic models on the mechanism leading to aldehyde formation have been examined to explore the appropriate control methods to reduce exhaust aldehyde emissions. Control of aldehydes in exhaust emissions by suitable alteration of engine operating parameters, by in cylinder treatment with additives like aniline and water, by external treatment like airpreheating, secondary air injection cooling water rate and exhaust treatment are examined. The concept of surface ignition for alcohol fuels is briefly presented as a long range objective for using alcohols with minimal aldehyde emissions. 27 refs.

  12. Relationship between rubisco sulfhydryl content and relative sensitivity of potato cultivars to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Enyedi, A.J.; Pell, E.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) induced a reduction in quantity of rubisco in potato foliage. In vitro, O{sub 3} predisposed purified rubisco to elevated proteolysis; reagents which protected sulfhydryl (SH) groups suppressed this effect. We hypothesized that rubisco SH content correlated directly with foliar O{sub 3} sensitivity. Rubisco was purified from Solanum tuberosum L. O{sub 3}-tolerant cv. Superior (SP) and Norgold Russet (NR), and O{sub 3}-susceptible cv. Norland (NL) and Cherokee (CK). When native rubisco was titrated with DTNB, protein of NL contained 1.33 and 1.26 times more SH groups than SP and NR, respectively. Rubisco from CK also contained more SH groups than SP and NR, but the difference was not significant. Rubisco of SP, NR and CK denatured by SDS exhibited identical number of SH groups, however, NL exhibited 1.15 times more SH groups. The greater number of SH groups in rubisco from NL versus SP and NR may explain its relative sensitivity to ozone. The role of SH groups in ozone-sensitivity of CK will require further study.

  13. Neurotoxicity of reactive aldehydes: the concept of "aldehyde load" as demonstrated by neuroprotection with hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Paul L; Khan, M Amin; Kulow, Sarah R; Mahmood, Siddique A; Moskal, Joseph R

    2006-06-20

    The concept of "oxidative stress" has become a mainstay in the field of neurodegeneration but has failed to differentiate critical events from epiphenomena and sequalae. Furthermore, the translation of current concepts of neurodegenerative mechanisms into effective therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases has been meager and disappointing. A corollary of current concepts of "oxidative stress" is that of "aldehyde load". This relates to the production of reactive aldehydes that covalently modify proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates and activate apoptotic pathways. However, reactive aldehydes can also be generated by mechanisms other than "oxidative stress". We therefore hypothesized that agents that can chemically neutralize reactive aldehydes should demonstrate superior neuroprotective actions to those of free radical scavengers. To this end, we evaluated hydroxylamines as aldehyde-trapping agents in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration induced by the reactive aldehyde, 3-aminopropanal (3-AP), a product of polyamine oxidase metabolism of spermine and spermidine. In this model, the hydroxylamines N-benzylhydroxylamine, cyclohexylhydroxylamine and t-butylhydroxylamine were shown to protect, in a concentration-dependent manner, against 3-AP neurotoxicity. Additionally, a therapeutic window of 3 h was demonstrated for delayed administration of the hydroxylamines. In contrast, the free radical scavengers TEMPO and TEMPONE and the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid were ineffective in this model. Extending these tissue culture findings in vivo, we examined the actions of N-benzylhydroxylamine in the trimethyltin (TMT) rat model of hippocampal CA3 neurodegeneration. This model involves augmented polyamine metabolism resulting in the generation of reactive aldehydes that compromise mitochondrial integrity. In the rat TMT model, NBHA (50 mg/kg, sc, daily) provided 100% protection against neurodegeneration, as reflected by measurements of KCl-evoked glutamate

  14. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  15. Mechanistic Insights from Reaction of α-Oxiranyl-Aldehydes with Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debasis; Ellington, Benjamin; Paul, Bishwajit; Marsh, E. Neil G.

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are derived from fatty acids, is widespread in Nature. The last step in this pathway involves the decarbonylation of fatty aldehydes to the corresponding alkanes or alkenes. In cyanobacteria this is catalyzed by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. We have investigated the mechanism of this enzyme using substrates bearing an oxirane ring adjacent to the aldehyde carbon. The enzyme catalyzed the deformylation of these substrates to produce the corresponding oxiranes. Performing the reaction in D2O allowed the facial selectivity of proton addition to be examined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The proton is delivered with equal probability to either face of the oxirane ring, indicating the formation of an oxiranyl radical intermediate that is free to rotate during the reaction. Unexpectedly, the enzyme also catalyzes a side reaction in which oxiranyl-aldehydes undergo tandem deformylation to furnish alkanes two carbons shorter. We present evidence that this involves the rearrangement of the intermediate oxiranyl radical formed in the first step, resulting an aldehyde that is further deformylated in a second step. These observations provide support for a radical mechanism for deformylation and, furthermore, allow the lifetime of the radical intermediate to be estimated based on prior measurements of rate constants for the rearrangement of oxiranyl radicals. PMID:24313866

  16. Facile preparation of biocompatible sulfhydryl cotton fiber-based sorbents by "thiol-ene" click chemistry for biological analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Shao-Ting; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-10-22

    Sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) has been widely used as adsorbent for a variety of metal ions since 1971. Thanks to the abundant thiols on SCF, in this study, we reported a universal method for the facile preparation of SCF-based materials using "thiol-ene" click chemistry for the first time. With the proposed method, two types of SCF-based materials, phenylboronic acid grafted sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-PBA) and zirconium phosphonate-modified sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+)), were successfully prepared. The grafted functional groups onto the thiol group of SCF were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared fibrous materials exhibited excellent fiber strength, good stability in aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, and great biocompatibility. Moreover, we developed filter-free in-pipet-tip SPE using these SCF-based materials as adsorbent for the enrichment of ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. Our results showed that SCF-PBA adsorbent can selectively capture ribonucleosides and glycopeptides from complex biological samples. And SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+) adsorbent exhibited high selectivity and capacity in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of β-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), as well as human serum and nonfat milk digest. Generally, the preparation strategy can be a universal method for the synthesis of other functionalized cotton-based adsorbents with special requirement in microscale biological analysis. PMID:25268138

  17. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.M.; Rohrmann, G.F.; Merrill, G.F.

    2009-06-05

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  18. One-Pot Amide Bond Formation from Aldehydes and Amines via a Photoorganocatalytic Activation of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Giorgos N; Kokotos, Christoforos G

    2016-08-19

    A mild, one-pot, and environmentally friendly synthesis of amides from aldehydes and amines is described. Initially, a photoorganocatalytic reaction of aldehydes with di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate leads to an intermediate carbonyl imide, which can react with a variety of amines to afford the desired amides. The initial visible light-mediated activation of a variety of monosubstituted or disubstituted aldehydes is usually fast, occurring in a few hours. Following the photocatalytic reaction, addition of the primary amine at room temperature or the secondary amine at elevated temperatures leads to the corresponding amide from moderate to excellent yields without epimerization. This methodology was applied in the synthesis of Moclobemide, a drug against depression and social anxiety. PMID:27227271

  19. A mechanistic study on the inhibition of α-chymotrypsin by a macrocyclic peptidomimetic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Bruning, J B; George, J H; Abell, A D

    2016-08-01

    Here we describe an NMR and X-ray crystallography-based characterisation of the mechanism by which a new class of macrocyclic peptidomimetic aldehyde inhibits α-chymotrypsin. In particular, a (13)C-labelled analogue of the inhibitor was prepared and used in NMR experiments to confirm formation of a hemiacetal intermediate on binding with α-chymotrypsin. Analysis of an X-ray crystallographic structure in complex with α-chymotrypsin reveals that the backbone adopts a stable β-strand conformation as per its design. Binding is further stabilised by interaction with the oxyanion hole near the S1 subsite and multiple hydrogen bonds. PMID:27349772

  20. N-ethylmaleimide inhibition of the DNA-binding activity of the herpes simplex virus type 1 major DNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyechan, W.T. )

    1988-03-01

    The major herpes simplex virus DNA-binding protein, designated ICP8, binds tightly to single-stranded DNA and is required for replication of viral DNA. The sensitivity of the DNA-binding activity of ICP8 to the action of the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide has been examined by using nitrocellulose filter-binding and agarose gel electrophoresis assays. Incubation of ICP8 with N-ethylmaleimide results in a rapid loss of DNA-binding activity. Preincubation of ICP8 with single-stranded DNA markedly inhibits this loss of binding activity. These results imply that a free sulfhydryl group is involved in the interaction of ICP8 with single-stranded DNA and that this sulfhydryl group becomes less accessible to the environment upon binding. Agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of the binding interaction in the presence and absence of N-ethylmaleimide indicates that the cooperative binding exhibited by ICP8 is lost upon treatment with this reagent but that some residual noncooperative binding may remain. This last result was confirmed by equilibrium dialysis experiments with the {sup 32}P-labeled oligonucleotide dT{sub 10} and native and N-ethylmaleimide-treated ICP8.

  1. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  2. Metformin exhibits radiation countermeasures efficacy when used alone or in combination with sulfhydryl containing drugs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard C; Murley, Jeffrey S; Grdina, David J

    2014-05-01

    Metformin, a biguanide drug used in the treatment of type II diabetes, was evaluated alone and in combination with amifostine, captopril, MESNA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) for its ability to protect when administered 24 h after irradiation. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) and SA-NH mouse sarcoma cells were exposed to 4 Gy in vitro. C3H mice were exposed to 7 Gy and evaluated utilizing an endogenous spleen colony assay system. Amifostine and WR1065, administered 30 min prior to irradiation, were used as positive controls. Treatment of MEF, HMEC and SA-NH cells with metformin elevated survival levels by 1.4-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold compared to 1.9-, 1.8- and 1.6-fold for these same cells treated with WR1065, respectively. Metformin (250 mg/kg) was effective in protecting splenic cells from a 7 Gy dose in vivo (protection factor = 1.8). Amifostine (400 mg/kg), administered 30 min prior to irradiation resulted in a 2.6-fold survival elevation, while metformin administered 24 h after irradiation in combination with NAC (400 mg/kg), MESNA (300 mg/kg) or captopril (200 mg/kg) enhanced survival by 2.6-, 2.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Each of these agents has been approved by the FDA for human use and each has a well characterized human safety profile. Metformin alone or in combination with selected sulfhydryl agents possesses radioprotective properties when administered 24 h after radiation exposure comparable to that observed for amifostine administered 30 min prior to irradiation making it a potentially useful agent for radiation countermeasures use. PMID:24754562

  3. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jaewoong; Liu, Z Lewis

    2015-04-01

    The aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of an intermediate subfamily within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily that clarified mechanisms of in situ detoxification of 2-furaldehyde and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) are common among tolerant candidate genes identified for lignocellulose-to-advanced biofuels conversion. This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde-inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co-factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a characteristic catalytic triad, Ser, Tyr and Lys; a conserved catalytic motif of Tyr-X-X-X-Lys; and a cofactor-binding sequence motif, Gly-X-X-Gly-X-X-Ala, near the N-terminus that are shared by Ydr541cp, Ygl039wp, Yol151wp/GRE2 and Ari1p. Findings of aldehyde reductase genes contribute to the yeast gene annotation and aids development of the next-generation biocatalyst for advanced biofuels production. PMID:25656103

  4. Arsenite binding to synthetic peptides based on the Zn finger region and the estrogen binding region of the human estrogen receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchin, Kirk T. . E-mail: kitchin.kirk@epa.gov; Wallace, Kathleen

    2005-08-01

    We selected the estrogen receptor protein for study because of prior results indicating that arsenite is a 'potential nonsteroidal environmental estrogen'. We utilized radioactive {sup 73}As-labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the binding affinity of arsenite to synthetic peptides. A zinc finger region containing four free sulfhydryls and the hormone binding region containing three free sulfhydryls based on the human estrogen receptor-{alpha} were studied. Peptide 15 (RYCAVCNDYASGYHYGVWSCEGCKA) bound arsenite with a K {sub d} of 2.2 {mu}M and B {sub max} (maximal binding capacity) of 89 nmol/mg protein. Peptide 10 (LECAWQGKCVEGTEHLYSMKCKNV) had a K {sub d} of 1.3 {mu}M and B {sub max} of 59 nmol/mg protein. In contrast, the monothiol peptide 19 (LEGAWQGKGVEGTEHLYSMKCKNV) bound arsenite with a higher K {sub d} of 124 {mu}M and a B {sub max} of 26 nmol/mg protein. In our studies, amino acids other than cysteine (including methionine and histidine) did not bind arsenite at all. Peptides modeled on the estrogen receptor with two or more nearby free sulfhydryls (two or five intervening amino acids) had low K {sub d} values in the 1-4 {mu}M range. Peptides containing single sulfhydryls or two sulfhydryls spaced 17 amino acids apart had higher K {sub d} values in the 100-200 {mu}M range, demonstrating lower affinity. With the exception of peptide 24 which had an unusually high B {sub max} value of 234 nmol/mg, the binding capacity of the studied peptides was proportional to the number of free cysteines. Binding of trivalent arsenicals to peptides and proteins can contribute to arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity via altered peptide/protein structure and enzyme function.

  5. Control of aldehyde synthesis in the luminous bacterium Beneckea harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulitzur, S; Hastings, J W

    1979-01-01

    Some of the Beneckea harveyi dim aldehyde mutants, all of which emit light upon addition of exogenous long-chain aldehyde, also emit light when myristic acid is added. Analysis of these myristic acid-responsive mutants indicates that they are blocked before fatty acid formation, whereas another class of mutants, which respond only to aldehyde, appear to be defective in the enzyme(s) involved in the conversion of acid to aldehyde. Evidence is presented that this activity, designated myristic acid reductase, is coinduced with luciferase and is involved in the recycling of acid produced in the luciferase reaction, with specificity for the C14 compounds. PMID:311359

  6. A coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 enhances the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of coniferyl aldehyde to cinnamic acids by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic growth conditions was previously observed. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas have been shown to harbor specialized enzymes for converting coniferyl aldehyde but no comparable enzymes have been identified in S. cerevisiae. CALDH from Pseudomonas was expressed in S. cerevisiae. An acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald5) was also hypothesized to be actively involved in the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic growth conditions in S. cerevisiae. In a second S. cerevisiae strain, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD5) was deleted. A prototrophic control strain was also engineered. The engineered S. cerevisiae strains were cultivated in the presence of 1.1mM coniferyl aldehyde under aerobic condition in bioreactors. The results confirmed that expression of CALDH increased endogenous conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae and ALD5 is actively involved with the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde in S. cerevisiae. PMID:27070284

  7. Non-P450 aldehyde oxidizing enzymes: the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Marchitti, Satori A; Brocker, Chad; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    Background Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules. While several non-P450 enzyme systems participate in their metabolism, one of the most important is the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation. Objective This article presents a review of what is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes. Methods Relevant literature involving all members of the human ALDH family was extensively reviewed, with the primary focus on recent and novel findings. Conclusion To date, 19 ALDH genes have been identified in the human genome and mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinemia, γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria and pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ALDH enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. Finally, ALDH enzymes display multiple catalytic and non-catalytic functions including ester hydrolysis, antioxidant properties, xenobiotic bioactivation and UV light absorption. PMID:18611112

  8. Vascular Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Barbara S.; Gorren, Antonius C. F.; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Wenzl, M. Verena; Furdui, Cristina M.; Poole, Leslie B.; Mayer, Bernd; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the bioactivation of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) in blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation by nitric oxide (NO) or a related species. Because the mechanism of this reaction is still unclear we determined the three-dimensional structures of wild-type (WT) ALDH2 and of a triple mutant of the protein that exhibits low denitration activity (E268Q/C301S/C303S) in complex with GTN. The structure of the triple mutant showed that GTN binds to the active site via polar contacts to the oxyanion hole and to residues 268 and 301 as well as by van der Waals interactions to hydrophobic residues of the catalytic pocket. The structure of the GTN-soaked wild-type protein revealed a thionitrate adduct to Cys-302 as the first reaction intermediate, which was also found by mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. In addition, the MS data identified sulfinic acid as the irreversibly inactivated enzyme species. Assuming that the structures of the triple mutant and wild-type ALDH2 reflect binding of GTN to the catalytic site and the first reaction step, respectively, superposition of the two structures indicates that denitration of GTN is initiated by nucleophilic attack of Cys-302 at one of the terminal nitrate groups, resulting in formation of the observed thionitrate intermediate and release of 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate. Our results shed light on the molecular mechanism of the GTN denitration reaction and provide useful information on the structural requirements for high affinity binding of organic nitrates to the catalytic site of ALDH2. PMID:22988236

  9. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Aldehyde Toxicity: A Chemical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are electrophilic compounds to which humans are pervasively exposed. Despite a significant health risk due to exposure, the mechanisms of aldehyde toxicity are poorly understood. This ambiguity is likely due to the structural diversity of aldehyde derivatives and corresponding differences in chemical reactions and biological targets. To gain mechanistic insight, we have used parameters based on the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory to profile the different aldehyde subclasses with respect to electronic character (softness, hardness), electrophilic reactivity (electrophilic index), and biological nucleophilic targets. Our analyses indicate that short chain aldehydes and longer chain saturated alkanals are hard electrophiles that cause toxicity by forming adducts with hard biological nucleophiles, e.g., primary nitrogen groups on lysine residues. In contrast, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives, alkenals, and the α-oxoaldehydes are soft electrophiles that preferentially react with soft nucleophilic thiolate groups on cysteine residues. The aldehydes can therefore be grouped into subclasses according to common electronic characteristics (softness/hardness) and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. As we will discuss, the toxic potencies of these subgroups are generally related to corresponding electrophilicities. For some aldehydes, however, predictions of toxicity based on electrophilicity are less accurate due to inherent physicochemical variables that limit target accessibility, e.g., steric hindrance and solubility. The unsaturated aldehydes are also members of the conjugated type-2 alkene chemical class that includes α,β-unsaturated amide, ketone, and ester derivatives. Type-2 alkenes are electrophiles of varying softness and electrophilicity that share a common mechanism of toxicity. Therefore, exposure to an environmental mixture of unsaturated carbonyl derivatives could cause “type-2 alkene toxicity” through additive interactions

  11. Human Augmenter of Liver Regeneration; probing the catalytic mechanism of a flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase†

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer-Ramadan, Stephanie; Gannon, Shawn A.; Thorpe, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Augmenter of liver regeneration is a member of the ERV family of small flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidases that contain a redox-active CxxC disulfide bond in redox communication with the isoalloxazine ring of bound FAD. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of thiol substrates with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. This work studies the catalytic mechanism of the short, cytokine, form of augmenter of liver regeneration (sfALR) using model thiol substrates of the enzyme. The redox potential of the proximal disulfide in sfALR was found to be approximately 57 mV more reducing than the flavin chromophore, in agreement with titration experiments. Rapid reaction studies show that dithiothreitol (DTT) generates a transient mixed disulfide intermediate with sfALR signaled by a weak charge-transfer interaction between the thiolate of C145 and the oxidized flavin. The subsequent transfer of reducing equivalents to the flavin ring is relatively slow, with a limiting apparent rate constant of 12.4 s−1. However, reoxidation of the reduced flavin by molecular oxygen is even slower (2.3 s−1 at air saturation), and thus largely limits turnover at 5 mM DTT. The nature of the charge-transfer complexes observed with DTT was explored using a range of simple monothiols to mimic the initial nucleophilic attack on the proximal disulfide. While β–mercaptoethanol is a very poor substrate of sfALR (~ 0.3 min−1 at 100 mM thiol), it rapidly generates a mixed disulfide intermediate allowing the thiolate of C145 to form a strong charge-transfer complex with the flavin. Unlike the other monothiols tested, glutathione is unable to form charge-transfer complexes and is an undetectable substrate of the oxidase. These data are rationalized on the basis of the stringent steric requirements for thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. The inability of the relatively bulky glutathione to attain the in-line geometry required for efficient disulfide exchange in sfALR may be

  12. Bioassay-guided isolation of an anti-ulcer diterpenoid from Croton reflexifolius: role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and sulfhydryls.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Trejo, Benito; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena; Becerra-García, Anabel Ariana; Cedillo-Portugal, Ernestina; Castillo-Henkel, Carlos; Arrieta, Jesús

    2008-07-01

    Croton reflexifolius H. B. K (Euphorbiaceae) is a very common medicinal plant in the Huastecan region of Mexico that, according to local folk medicine, is considered useful in the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcer. We have aimed to test the validity of this practice by using the experimental model of an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in male Wistar rats. The results showed that C. reflexifolius had gastroprotector activity, that the hexane extract had the highest protective activity (64.38+/-7.72%), and that polyalthic acid isolated from this extract was the main active gastroprotector agent. Rats treated orally with polyalthic acid showed a gastroprotective effect similar to that elicited by carbenoxolone. As with carbenoxolone, the effect elicited by polyalthic acid was attenuated by pretreatment with either N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mgkg(-1), i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mgkg(-1), s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggested that the gastroprotective mechanism of this diterpenoid involved the participation of both NO and endogenous sulfhydryl groups. Contrary to carbenoxolone, the gastroprotective effect of polyalthic acid was not affected by the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with indometacin (10 mgkg(-1), s. c.). In conclusion, Croton reflexifolius contains compounds with gastroprotector activity. Polyalthic acid, which was isolated from this plant, was the main compound with gastroprotector activity, having effectiveness similar to that found with the use of carbenoxolone. Whereas NO and sulfhydryl groups were involved in the mechanisms of gastroprotective action of polyalthic acid, prostaglandins were not. PMID:18549681

  13. PEPTIDE BINDING AS A MODE OF ACTION FOR THE CARCINOGENICITY AND TOXICITY OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure leads to tumors in human skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Three likely initial stages of arsenical-macromolecular interaction are (1) binding of trivalent arsenicals to the sulfhydryl groups of peptides and proteins, (2) arsenical-induced generation...

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  15. ‘Dopamine-first’ mechanism enables the rational engineering of the norcoclaurine synthase aldehyde activity profile

    PubMed Central

    Lichman, Benjamin R; Gershater, Markus C; Lamming, Eleanor D; Pesnot, Thomas; Sula, Altin; Keep, Nicholas H; Hailes, Helen C; Ward, John M

    2015-01-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) (EC 4.2.1.78) catalyzes the Pictet–Spengler condensation of dopamine and an aldehyde, forming a substituted (S)-tetrahydroisoquinoline, a pharmaceutically important moiety. This unique activity has led to NCS being used for both in vitro biocatalysis and in vivo recombinant metabolism. Future engineering of NCS activity to enable the synthesis of diverse tetrahydroisoquinolines is dependent on an understanding of the NCS mechanism and kinetics. We assess two proposed mechanisms for NCS activity: (a) one based on the holo X-ray crystal structure and (b) the ‘dopamine-first’ mechanism based on computational docking. Thalictrum flavum NCS variant activities support the dopamine-first mechanism. Suppression of the non-enzymatic background reaction reveals novel kinetic parameters for NCS, showing it to act with low catalytic efficiency. This kinetic behaviour can account for the ineffectiveness of recombinant NCS in in vivo systems, and also suggests NCS may have an in planta role as a metabolic gatekeeper. The amino acid substitution L76A, situated in the proposed aldehyde binding site, results in the alteration of the enzyme's aldehyde activity profile. This both verifies the dopamine-first mechanism and demonstrates the potential for the rational engineering of NCS activity. PMID:25620686

  16. Structure and function of mammalian aldehyde oxidases.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mineko; Romão, Maria João; Leimkühler, Silke; Bolis, Marco; Fratelli, Maddalena; Coelho, Catarina; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian aldehyde oxidases (AOXs; EC1.2.3.1) are a group of conserved proteins belonging to the family of molybdo-flavoenzymes along with the structurally related xanthine dehydrogenase enzyme. AOXs are characterized by broad substrate specificity, oxidizing not only aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids, but also hydroxylating a series of heteroaromatic rings. The number of AOX isoenzymes expressed in different vertebrate species is variable. The two extremes are represented by humans, which express a single enzyme (AOX1) in many organs and mice or rats which are characterized by tissue-specific expression of four isoforms (AOX1, AOX2, AOX3, and AOX4). In vertebrates each AOX isoenzyme is the product of a distinct gene consisting of 35 highly conserved exons. The extant species-specific complement of AOX isoenzymes is the result of a complex evolutionary process consisting of a first phase characterized by a series of asynchronous gene duplications and a second phase where the pseudogenization and gene deletion events prevail. In the last few years remarkable advances in the elucidation of the structural characteristics and the catalytic mechanisms of mammalian AOXs have been made thanks to the successful crystallization of human AOX1 and mouse AOX3. Much less is known about the physiological function and physiological substrates of human AOX1 and other mammalian AOX isoenzymes, although the importance of these proteins in xenobiotic metabolism is fairly well established and their relevance in drug development is increasing. This review article provides an overview and a discussion of the current knowledge on mammalian AOX. PMID:26920149

  17. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by nitric oxide is independent of membrane fluidity modulation or oxidation of sulfhydryl groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rojas, Jazmin M; Muriel, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates the fluidity of a variety of membranes. Thus, the aim of the present work was to study if the inhibitory effect of NO on mitochondrial respiration is associated with its effects on membrane fluidity. Liver mitochondria and an inner mitochondrial membrane fraction (IMMF) were isolated from male Wistar rats by differential centrifugation. Oxygen consumption was measured polarographically and fluidity by the fluorescence polarization method. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) was used as a NO donor. It was observed that NO decreased IMMF fluidity and oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent fashion. However, SAM a fluidizing agent that prevented the decrement in fluidity produced by SNAP, failed to preserve oxygen consumption. Protection of sulfhydryl groups with dithiotreitol was utilized to evaluate the role of oxidation of these groups on IMMF respiration. Incubation with dithiotreitol did not preserve IMMF oxygen consumption. The data shown herein suggest that NO inhibits the respiratory chain by a mechanism not involving the modulation of membrane fluidity or the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups. Thus, it seems that the mechanism by which NO modulates mitochondrial respiration is by cytochrome oxidase inhibition, because (as reported by others) low concentrations of NO specifically inhibit reversibly cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen. PMID:16167323

  18. Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase at 2.1 A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, K.; El-Ahmad, M.; Ramaswamy, S.; Hjelmqvist, L.; Jörnvall, H.; Eklund, H.

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, the most abundant aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) of cod liver, has been determined at 2.1 A resolution by the X-ray crystallographic method of molecular replacement. This enzyme represents a novel structure of the highly multiple ALDH, with at least 12 distinct classes in humans. This betaine ALDH of class 9 is different from the two recently determined ALDH structures (classes 2 and 3). Like these, the betaine ALDH structure has three domains, one coenzyme binding domain, one catalytic domain, and one oligomerization domain. Crystals grown in the presence or absence of NAD+ have very similar structures and no significant conformational change occurs upon coenzyme binding. This is probably due to the tight interactions between domains within the subunit and between subunits in the tetramer. The oligomerization domains link the catalytic domains together into two 20-stranded pleated sheet structures. The overall structure is similar to that of the tetrameric bovine class 2 and dimeric rat class 3 ALDH, but the coenzyme binding with the nicotinamide in anti conformation, resembles that of class 2 rather than of class 3. PMID:9792097

  19. Biogenic aldehyde determination by reactive paper spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bag, Soumabha; Hendricks, P I; Reynolds, J C; Cooks, R G

    2015-02-20

    Ionization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes is improved by performing simultaneous chemical derivatization using 4-aminophenol to produce charged iminium ions during paper spray ionization. Accelerated reactions occur in the microdroplets generated during the paper spray ionization event for the tested aldehydes (formaldehyde, n-pentanaldehyde, n-nonanaldehyde, n-decanaldehyde, n-dodecanaldehyde, benzaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the iminium ions using collision-induced dissociation demonstrated that straight chain aldehydes give a characteristic fragment at m/z 122 (shown to correspond to protonated 4-(methyleneamino)phenol), while the aromatic aldehyde iminium ions fragment to give a characteristic product ion at m/z 120. These features allow straightforward identification of linear and aromatic aldehydes. Quantitative analysis of n-nonaldehyde using a benchtop mass spectrometer demonstrated a linear response over 3 orders of magnitude from 2.5 ng to 5 μg of aldehyde loaded on the filter paper emitter. The limit of detection was determined to be 2.2 ng for this aldehyde. The method had a precision of 22%, relative standard deviation. The experiment was also implemented using a portable ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:25682245

  20. Oxidation of N-Nitrosoalkylamines by human cytochrome P450 2A6: sequential oxidation to aldehydes and carboxylic acids and analysis of reaction steps.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M Wade; Guengerich, F Peter

    2010-03-12

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 activates nitrosamines, including N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) and N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to alkyl diazohydroxides (which are DNA-alkylating agents) and also aldehydes (HCHO from DMN and CH(3)CHO from DEN). The N-dealkylation of DMN had a high intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect ((D)k(app) approximately 10), which was highly expressed in a variety of competitive and non-competitive experiments. The (D)k(app) for DEN was approximately 3 and not expressed in non-competitive experiments. DMN and DEN were also oxidized to HCO(2)H and CH(3)CO(2)H, respectively. In neither case was a lag observed, which was unexpected considering the k(cat) and K(m) parameters measured for oxidation of DMN and DEN to the aldehydes and for oxidation of the aldehydes to the carboxylic acids. Spectral analysis did not indicate strong affinity of the aldehydes for P450 2A6, but pulse-chase experiments showed only limited exchange with added (unlabeled) aldehydes in the oxidations of DMN and DEN to carboxylic acids. Substoichiometric kinetic bursts were observed in the pre-steady-state oxidations of DMN and DEN to aldehydes. A minimal kinetic model was developed that was consistent with all of the observed phenomena and involves a conformational change of P450 2A6 following substrate binding, equilibrium of the P450-substrate complex with a non-productive form, and oxidation of the aldehydes to carboxylic acids in a process that avoids relaxation of the conformation following the first oxidation (i.e. of DMN or DEN to an aldehyde). PMID:20061389

  1. Penicillin-binding site on the Escherichia coli cell envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, L.; Lee, Y.; Schwarz, U.; Lorian, V.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 35/S-labeled penicillin to distinct penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of the cell envelope obtained from the sonication of Escherichia coli was studied at different pHs ranging from 4 to 11. Experiments distinguishing the effect of pH on penicillin binding by PBP 5/6 from its effect on beta-lactamase activity indicated that although substantial binding occurred at the lowest pH, the amount of binding increased with pH, reaching a maximum at pH 10. Based on earlier studies, it is proposed that the binding at high pH involves the formation of a covalent bond between the C-7 of penicillin and free epsilon amino groups of the PBPs. At pHs ranging from 4 to 8, position 1 of penicillin, occupied by sulfur, is considered to be the site that establishes a covalent bond with the sulfhydryl groups of PBP 5. The use of specific blockers of free epsilon amino groups or sulfhydryl groups indicated that wherever the presence of each had little or no effect on the binding of penicillin by PBP 5, the presence of both completely prevented binding. The specific blocker of the hydroxyl group of serine did not affect the binding of penicillin.

  2. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  3. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  5. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  6. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  7. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  8. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipes.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Kume, Hiroko; Arimoto, Yasushi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    Five fatty acid derivatives including three novel compounds were isolated from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipe. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analyses. These compounds inhibited aldehyde dehydrogenase in vitro. PMID:12444711

  10. A kinetic estimate of the free aldehyde content of aldoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The relative free aldehyde content of eight hexoses and four pentoses has been estimated within about 10% from the rate constants for their reaction with urazole (1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione). These values of the percent free aldehyde are in agreement with those estimated from CD measurements, but are more accurate. The relative free aldehyde contents for the aldoses were then correlated to various literature NMR measurements to obtain the absolute values. This procedure was also done for three deoxyaldoses, which react much more rapidly than can be accounted for by the free aldehyde content. This difference in reactivity between aldoses and deoxyaldoses is due to the inductive effect of the H versus the OH on C-2'. This may help explain why deoxyribonucleosides hydrolyze much more rapidly than ribonucleosides.

  11. Photoorganocatalytic One-Pot Synthesis of Hydroxamic Acids from Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Giorgos N; Kokotos, Christoforos G

    2016-05-10

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of hydroxamic acids from aldehydes and hydroxylamine is described. A fast, visible-light-mediated metal-free hydroacylation of dialkyl azodicarboxylates was used to develop the subsequent addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride. A range of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes were employed in this reaction to give hydroxamic acids in high to excellent yields. Application of the current methodology was demonstrated in the synthesis of the anticancer medicine vorinostat. PMID:27038037

  12. PAINS in the Assay: Chemical Mechanisms of Assay Interference and Promiscuous Enzymatic Inhibition Observed during a Sulfhydryl-Scavenging HTS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Significant resources in early drug discovery are spent unknowingly pursuing artifacts and promiscuous bioactive compounds, while understanding the chemical basis for these adverse behaviors often goes unexplored in pursuit of lead compounds. Nearly all the hits from our recent sulfhydryl-scavenging high-throughput screen (HTS) targeting the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 were such compounds. Herein, we characterize the chemical basis for assay interference and promiscuous enzymatic inhibition for several prominent chemotypes identified by this HTS, including some pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS). Protein mass spectrometry and ALARM NMR confirmed these compounds react covalently with cysteines on multiple proteins. Unfortunately, compounds containing these chemotypes have been published as screening actives in reputable journals and even touted as chemical probes or preclinical candidates. Our detailed characterization and identification of such thiol-reactive chemotypes should accelerate triage of nuisance compounds, guide screening library design, and prevent follow-up on undesirable chemical matter. PMID:25634295

  13. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. PMID:26669678

  14. Methylation of sulfhydryl groups: a new function for a family of small molecule plant O-methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Coiner, Heather; Schröder, Gudrun; Wehinger, Elke; Liu, Chang-Jun; Noel, Joseph P.; Schwab, Wilfried; Schröder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Summary In plants, type I and II S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) catalyze most hydroxyl group methylations of small molecules. A homology-based RT-PCR strategy using Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) RNA previously identified six new type I plant OMT family members. We now describe the molecular and biochemical characterization of a seventh protein. It shares 56–58% identity with caffeic acid OMTs (COMTs), but it failed to methylate COMT substrates, and had no activity with flavonoids. However, the in vitro incubations revealed unusually high background levels without added substrates. A search for the responsible component revealed that the enzyme methylated dithiothreitol (DTT), the reducing agent added for enzyme stabilization. Unexpectedly, product analysis revealed that the methylation occurred on a sulfhydryl moiety, not on a hydroxyl group. Analysis of 34 compounds indicated a broad substrate range, with a preference for small hydrophobic molecules. Benzene thiol (Km 220 μM) and furfuryl thiol (Km 60 μM) were the best substrates (6–7-fold better than DTT). Small isosteric hydrophobic substrates with hydroxyl groups, like phenol and guaiacol, were also methylated, but the activities were at least 5-fold lower than with thiols. The enzyme was named C. roseus S-methyltransferase 1 (CrSMT1). Models based on the COMT crystal structure suggest that S-methylation is mechanistically identical to O-methylation. CrSMT1 so far is the only recognized example of an S-methyltransferase in this protein family. Its properties indicate that a few changes in key residues are sufficient to convert an OMT into a S-methyltransferase (SMT). Future functional investigations of plant methyltransferases should consider the possibility that the enzymes may direct methylation at sulfhydryl groups. PMID:16623883

  15. Sulfhydryl-based tumor antigen-carrier protein conjugates stimulate superior antitumor immunity against B cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Betting, David J; Kafi, Kamran; Abdollahi-Fard, Alireza; Hurvitz, Sara A; Timmerman, John M

    2008-09-15

    Therapeutic vaccination of B cell lymphoma patients with tumor-specific Ig (idiotype, or Id) chemically coupled to the immunogenic foreign carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) using glutaraldehyde has shown promising results in early clinical trials, and phase III trials are underway. However, glutaraldehyde Id-KLH vaccines fail to elicit anti-Id immune and clinical responses in many patients, possibly because glutaraldehyde reacts with lysine, cysteine, tyrosine, and histidine residues, damaging critical immunogenic epitopes. A sulfhydryl-based tumor Ag-carrier protein conjugation system using maleimide chemistry was used to enhance the efficacy of Id-KLH vaccines. Maleimide Id-KLH conjugates eradicated A20 lymphoma from most tumor-bearing mice, whereas glutaraldehyde Id-KLH had little efficacy. Maleimide Id-KLH elicited tumor-specific IgG Abs and T cells, with CD8(+) T cells being the major effectors of antilymphoma immunity. Maleimide Id-KLH vaccines also demonstrated superior efficacy in 38C13 and BCL-1 lymphoma models, where Abs were shown to be critical for protection. Importantly, standard glutaraldehyde Id-KLH conjugation procedures could result in "overconjugation" of the tumor Ag, leading to decreased efficacy, whereas the heterobifunctional maleimide-based conjugation yielded potent vaccine product regardless of conjugation duration. Under lysosomal processing conditions, the Id-carrier protein linkage was cleavable only after maleimide conjugation. Maleimide KLH conjugation was easily performed with human Igs analogous to those used in Id-KLH clinical trials. These data support the evaluation of sulfhydryl-based Id-KLH vaccines in lymphoma clinical trials and possibly the use of tumor Ag-carrier protein vaccines for other cancers. PMID:18768870

  16. Aldehydes with high and low toxicities inactivate cells by damaging distinct cellular targets.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Zhang; Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I; Salem, Amir M H; Oba, Shunya; Goda, Mizuki; Nakano, Toshiaki; Ide, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Aldehydes are genotoxic and cytotoxic molecules and have received considerable attention for their associations with the pathogenesis of various human diseases. In addition, exposure to anthropogenic aldehydes increases human health risks. The general mechanism of aldehyde toxicity involves adduct formation with biomolecules such as DNA and proteins. Although the genotoxic effects of aldehydes such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations are directly related to DNA damage, the role of DNA damage in the cytotoxic effects of aldehydes is poorly understood because concurrent protein damage by aldehydes has similar effects. In this study, we have analysed how saturated and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes exert cytotoxic effects through DNA and protein damage. Interestingly, DNA repair is essential for alleviating the cytotoxic effect of weakly toxic aldehydes such as saturated aldehydes but not highly toxic aldehydes such as long α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Thus, highly toxic aldehydes inactivate cells exclusively by protein damage. Our data suggest that DNA interstrand crosslinks, but not DNA-protein crosslinks and DNA double-strand breaks, are the critical cytotoxic DNA damage induced by aldehydes. Further, we show that the depletion of intracellular glutathione and the oxidation of thioredoxin 1 partially account for the DNA damage-independent cytotoxicity of aldehydes. On the basis of these findings, we have proposed a mechanistic model of aldehyde cytotoxicity mediated by DNA and protein damage. PMID:26917342

  17. Reductive carbonylation of aryl halides employing a two-chamber reactor: a protocol for the synthesis of aryl aldehydes including 13C- and D-isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Korsager, Signe; Taaning, Rolf H; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2013-06-21

    A protocol has been developed for conducting the palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of aryl iodides and bromides using 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride (COgen) as a source of externally delivered carbon monoxide in a sealed two-chamber system (COware), and potassium formate as the in situ hydride source. The method is tolerant to a wide number of functional groups positioned on the aromatic ring, and it can be exploited for the isotope labeling of the aldehyde group. Hence, reductive carbonylations run with (13)COgen provide a facile access to (13)C-labeled aromatic aldehydes, whereas with DCO2K, the aldehyde is specifically labeled with deuterium. Two examples of double isotopic labeling are also demonstrated. Finally, the method was applied to the specific carbon-13 labeling of the β-amyloid binding compound, florbetaben. PMID:23692554

  18. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.

    PubMed

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-02-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain

  19. Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase: mechanism of aldehyde oxidation and dismutation.

    PubMed Central

    Winberg, J O; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) catalyses the oxidation of both alcohols and aldehydes. In the latter case, the oxidation is followed by a reduction of the aldehyde, i.e. a dismutation reaction. At high pH, dismutation is accompanied by a small release of NADH, which is not observed at neutral pH. Previously it has been emphasized that kinetic coefficients obtained by measuring the increase in A340, i.e. the release of NADH at high pH is not a direct measure of the aldehyde oxidation reaction and these values cannot be compared with those for alcohol dehydrogenation. In this article we demonstrate that this is not entirely true, and that the coefficients phiB and phiAB, where B is the aldehyde and A is NAD+, are the same for a dismutation reaction and a simple aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. Thus the substrate specificity of the aldehyde oxidation reaction can be determined by simply measuring the NADH release. The coefficients for oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions (phi0d and phiAd respectively) are complex and involve the constants for the dismutation reaction. However, dead-end inhibitors can be used to determine the quantitative contribution of the kinetic constants for the aldehyde oxidation and reduction pathways to the phi0d and phiAd coefficients. The combination of dead-end and product inhibitors can be used to determine the reaction mechanism for the aldehyde oxidation pathway. Previously, we showed that with Drosophila Adh, the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes followed a strictly compulsory ordered pathway, although aldehydes and ketones formed binary complexes with the enzyme. This raised the question regarding the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of aldehydes, i.e. whether a random ordered pathway was followed. In the present work, the mechanism for the oxidation of different aldehydes and the accompanying dismutation reaction with the slow alleloenzyme (AdhS) from Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. To obtain

  20. Reaction of tobacco smoke aldehydes with human hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Hoberman, H D; San George, R C

    1988-01-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and acrolein, all of which are constituents of tobacco smoke, were reacted in 5 mM concentration with the purified major fraction of normal adult human hemoglobin (hemoglobin Ao) in 1 mM concentration. A cigarette smoke condensate, diluted to contain 5 mM total aldehydes, was also reacted with 1 mM hemoglobin Ao. Cationic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the products formed from simple aliphatic aldehydes, with the exception of formaldehyde, were analogues of those formed from acetaldehyde, earlier shown by us to be imidazolidinone derivatives, that is, cyclic addition products of the N-terminal aminoamide function of alpha and beta chains. Formaldehyde and acrolein produced a heterogeneous mixture of derivatives including cross-linked hemoglobin dimers. The greater proportion of modified hemoglobins produced by condensate aldehydes resembled those formed from acetaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in the condensate. A smaller fraction consisted of cross-linked hemoglobin dimers, presumably due to the action of formaldehyde. Mass spectrometric and HPLC analyses of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones precipitated from the condensate documented the presence of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, furfural, and methylfurfural. The toxicity of aldehydes is briefly discussed in the context of the findings of this study. PMID:3236330

  1. Aldehydes: occurrence, carcinogenic potential, mechanism of action and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Til, H P; de Vrijer, F; Woutersen, R A; Cassee, F R; van Bladeren, P J

    1991-01-01

    Aldehydes constitute a group of relatively reactive organic compounds. They occur as natural (flavoring) constituents in a wide variety of foods and food components, often in relatively small, but occasionally in very large concentrations, and are also widely used as food additives. Evidence of carcinogenic potential in experimental animals is convincing for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, limited for crotonaldehyde, furfural and glycidaldehyde, doubtful for malondialdehyde, very weak for acrolein and absent for vanillin. Formaldehyde carcinogenesis is a high-dose phenomenon in which the cytotoxicity plays a crucial role. Cytotoxicity may also be of major importance in acetaldehyde carcinogenesis but further studies are needed to prove or disprove this assumption. For a large number of aldehydes (relevant) data on neither carcinogenicity nor genotoxicity are available. From epidemiological studies there is no convincing evidence of aldehyde exposure being related to cancer in humans. Overall assessment of the cancer risk of aldehydes in the diet leads to the conclusion that formaldehyde, acrolein, citral and vanillin are no dietary risk factors, and that the opposite may be true for acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and furfural. Malondialdehyde, glycidaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and anisaldehyde cannot be evaluated on the basis of the available data. A series of aldehydes should be subjected to at least mutagenicity, cytogenicity and cytotoxicity tests. Priority setting for testing should be based on expected mechanism of action and degree of human exposure. PMID:2017217

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grünblatt, Edna; Riederer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH; E.C. 1.2.1.3) gene, protein expression and activity are substantially decreased in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This holds especially true for cytosolic ALDH1A1, while mitochondrial ALDH2 is increased in the putamen of PD. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) several studies in genetic, transcriptomic, protein and animal models suggest ALDH involvement in the neurodegeneration processes. Such data are in line with findings of increased toxic aldehydes, like for example malondialdehyde, nonenal, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and others. Genetic, transcriptomic and protein alterations may contribute to such data. Also in vitro and in vivo experimental work points to an important role of ALDH in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Aims at investigating dysfunctions of aldehyde detoxification are suitable to define genetic/molecular targets for new therapeutic strategies balancing amine metabolism in devastating disorders like PD and probably also AD. PMID:25298080

  3. Polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with two aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Rieker, L. L.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A film forming polyvinyl alcohol resin is admixed, in aqueous solution, with a dialdehyde crosslinking agent which is capable of crosslinking the polyvinyl alcohol resin and a water soluble acid aldehyde containing a reactive aldehyde group capable of reacting with hydroxyl groups in the polyvinyl alcohol resin and an ionizable acid hydrogen atom. The dialdehyde is present in an amount sufficient to react with from 1 to 20% by weight of the theoretical amount required to react with all of the hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol. The amount of acid aldehyde is from 1 to 50% by weight, same basis, and is sufficient to reduce the pH of the aqueous admixture to 5 or less. The admixture is then formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet or film, and the shaped material is then heated to simultaneously dry and crosslink the article.

  4. Crystal structures of aldehyde deformylating oxygenase from Limnothrix sp. KNUA012 and Oscillatoria sp. KNUA011.

    PubMed

    Park, Ae Kyung; Kim, Il-Sup; Jeon, Byung Wook; Roh, Soo Jung; Ryu, Min-Young; Baek, Hae-Ri; Jo, Seoung-Woo; Kim, Young-Saeng; Park, Hyun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Han-Woo

    2016-08-26

    The cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (cADO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the unusual deformylation of aliphatic aldehydes for alkane biosynthesis and can be applied to the production of biofuel in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined crystal structures of two ADOs from Limnothrix sp. KNUA012 (LiADO) and Oscillatoria sp. KNUA011 (OsADO). The structures of LiADO and OsADO resembled those of typical cADOs, consisting of eight α-helices found in ferritin-like di-iron proteins. However, structural comparisons revealed that while the LiADO active site was vacant of iron and substrates, the OsADO active site was fully occupied, containing both a coordinated metal ion and substrate. Previous reports indicated that helix 5 is capable of adopting two distinct conformations depending upon the existence of bound iron. We observed that helix 5 of OsADO with an iron bound in the active site presented as a long helix, whereas helix 5 of LiADO, which lacked iron in the active site, presented two conformations (one long and two short helices), indicating that an equilibrium exists between the two states in solution. Furthermore, acquisition of a structure having a fully occupied active site is unique in the absence of higher iron concentrations as compared with other cADO structures, wherein low affinity for iron complicates the acquisition of crystal structures with bound iron. An in-depth analysis of the ADO apo-enzyme, the enzyme with substrate bound, and the enzyme with both iron and substrate bound provided novel insight into substrate-binding modes in the absence of a coordinated metal ion and suggested a separate two-step binding mechanism for substrate and iron co-factors. Moreover, our results provided a comprehensive structural basis for conformational changes induced by binding of the substrate and co-factor. PMID:27329814

  5. Direct β-Alkylation of Aldehydes via Photoredox Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Direct β-alkylation of saturated aldehydes has been accomplished by synergistically combining photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Photon-induced enamine oxidation provides an activated β-enaminyl radical intermediate, which readily combines with a wide range of Michael acceptors to produce β-alkyl aldehydes in a highly efficient manner. Furthermore, this redox-neutral, atom-economical C–H functionalization protocol can be achieved both inter- and intramolecularly. Mechanistic studies by various spectroscopic methods suggest that a reductive quenching pathway is operable. PMID:24754456

  6. Structure and mechanism of action of the hydroxy aryl aldehyde class of IRE1 endoribonuclease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Mario; Duffy, Nicole M.; Talukdar, Manisha; Thevakumaran, Nero; Chiovitti, David; Canny, Marella D.; Lee, Kenneth; Kurinov, Igor; Uehling, David; Al-awar, Rima; Poda, Gennadiy; Prakesch, Michael; Wilson, Brian; Tam, Victor; Schweitzer, Colleen; Toro, Andras; Lucas, Julie L.; Vuga, Danka; Lehmann, Lynn; Durocher, Daniel; Zeng, Qingping; Patterson, John B.; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response and its dysfunction is linked to multiple diseases. The stress transducer IRE1α is a transmembrane kinase endoribonuclease (RNase) that cleaves mRNA substrates to re-establish ER homeostasis. Aromatic ring systems containing hydroxy-aldehyde moieties, termed hydroxy aryl aldehydes (HAA), selectively inhibit IRE1α RNase and thus represent a novel chemical series for therapeutic development. We solved crystal structures of murine IRE1α in complex with three HAA inhibitors. HAA inhibitors engage a shallow pocket at the RNase active site through pi-stacking interactions with His910 and Phe889, an essential Schiff base with Lys907 and a H-bond with Tyr892. Structure activity studies and mutational analysis of contact residues define the optimal chemical space of inhibitors and validate the inhibitor binding site. These studies lay the foundation for understanding both the biochemical and cellular functions of IRE1α using small molecule inhibitors and suggest new avenues for inhibitor design. PMID:25164867

  7. Genomic organization and expression of the human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (FALDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.R.; Markova, N.G.; Compton, J.G.

    1997-01-15

    Mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) gene cause Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) - a disease characterized by mental retardation, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. To facilitate mutation analysis in SLS and to study the pathogenesis of FALDH deficiency, we have determined the structural organization and characterized expression of the FALDH (proposed designation ALDH10) gene. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning about 30.5 kb. A TATA-less promoter is associated with the major transcription initiation site found to be 258 hp upstream of the ATG codon. The G4C-rich sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site encompassed regulatory elements that interacted with proteins in HeLa nuclear extracts and were able to promote transcription in vitro. FALDH is widely expressed as three transcripts of 2, 3.8, and 4.0 kb, which originate from multiple polyadenylation signals in the 3{prime} UTR. An alternatively spliced mRNA was detected that contains an extra exon and encodes an enzyme that is likely to have altered membrane-binding properties. The FALDH gene lies only 50-85 kb from ALDH3, an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene that has homologous sequence and intron/exon structure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cinitapride protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats: role of 5-hydroxytryptamine, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-de-la-Lastra Romero, C; López, A; Martín, M J; la Casa, C; Motilva, V

    1997-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the gastroprotective properties of cinitapride (CNT), a novel prokinetic benzamide derivative agonist of 5-HT4 and 5-HT1 receptors and 5-HT2 antagonist, on mucosal injury produced by 50% (v/v) ethanol. Results were compared with those for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: 10 mg kg-1). The possible involvements of gastric mucus secretion, endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sulfhydryl compounds (SH) in the protection mediated by CNT were also examined. Intraperitoneal administration of CNT (0.50 and 1 mg kg-1), 30 min before ethanol, significantly prevented gastric ulceration and increased the hexosamine content of gastric mucus. CNT (1 mg kg-1) also produced a significant increase in gastric mucosal levels of PGE2, but did not induce any significant changes in SH values. On the contrary, pretreatment with 5-HT worsened ethanol-induced erosions, however, did not affect gastric mucus secretion, glycoprotein content or PGE2 levels, although the non-protein SH fraction was significantly decreased. The present results demonstrate that the gastroprotective effects of CNT could be partly explained by a complex PG dependent mechanism. We suggest that 5-HT dependent mechanisms through 5-HT2 receptor blockade and 5-HT1 receptor activation could be also involved. PMID:9211565

  9. Favism: effect of divicine on rat erythrocyte sulfhydryl status, hexose monophosphate shunt activity, morphology, and membrane skeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D C; Bolchoz, L J; Jollow, D J

    2001-08-01

    Favism is an acute anemic crisis that can occur in susceptible individuals who ingest fava beans. The fava bean pyrimidine aglycone divicine has been identified as a hemotoxic constituent; however, its mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. We have shown recently that divicine can induce a favic-like response in rats and that divicine is directly toxic to rat red cells. In the present study, we have examined the effect of hemotoxic concentrations of divicine on rat erythrocyte sulfhydryl status, hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt activity, morphology, and membrane skeletal proteins. In vitro exposure of rat red cells to divicine markedly stimulated HMP shunt activity and resulted in depletion of reduced glutathione with concomitant formation of glutathione-protein mixed-disulfides. Examination of divicine-treated red cells by scanning electron microscopy revealed transformation of the cells to an extreme echinocytic morphology. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the membrane skeletal proteins indicated that hemotoxicity was associated with the apparent loss of skeletal protein bands 2.1, 3, and 4.2, and the appearance of membrane-bound hemoglobin. Treatment of divicine-damaged red cells with dithiothreitol reversed the protein changes, which indicated that the observed alterations were due primarily to the formation of disulfide-linked hemoglobin-skeletal protein adducts. The data suggest that oxidative modification of hemoglobin and membrane skeletal proteins by divicine may be key events in the mechanism underlying favism. PMID:11452148

  10. Effects of depletion of ascorbic acid or nonprotein sulfhydryls on the acute inhalation toxicity of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, R.; Highfill, J.W.; Hatch, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of depleting lung ascorbic acid (AH{sub 2}) and nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) on the acute inhalation toxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), ozone (O{sub 3}), and phosgene (COCl{sub 2}) was investigated in guinea pigs. The increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid protein (an indicator of alveolar-capillary damage leading to increased permeability) was measured 16 to 18 hr following a 4 hr exposure to the gas in animals deficient in (AH{sub 2}) or NPSH. Gas concentrations were chosen which produced low but significant increases in BAL protein. Lung (AH{sub 2}) was lowered to about 20% of control by feeding rabbit chow for 2 weeks. Lung NPSH was lowered to about 50% of control by injecting a mixture of buthionine S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM) (2.7 and 1.2 mmol/kg respectively). BSO/DEM did not affect the lung concentrations of (AH{sub 2}) or alpha-tocopherol. AH{sub 2} depletion caused a 6 fold and a 3 fold enhancement in the toxicity of 5 ppm and 10 ppm (NO{sub 2}), and a 6 fold enhancement in the toxicity of 0.5 ppm (O{sub 3}), but did not affect toxicity of 1.0 ppm (O{sub 3}). AH{sub 2} depletion did not affect phosgene toxicity (at 0.25 ppm and 0.5 ppm).

  11. Effects of redox and sulfhydryl reagents on the bioelectric properties of the giant axon of the squid.

    PubMed

    Huneeus-Cox, F; Fernandez, H L; Smith, B H

    1966-09-01

    The effects of internally and externally applied sulfhydryl reagents on the bioelectric properties of the giant axon of the squid Loligo pealeii and Dosidicus gigas were studied. Cysteine-HCl (400 mM, pH 7.3) was used to remove axoplasm from the perfusion channel. Oxidizing agents (1 to 60 mM) tended to increase the duration of the action potential and had a slow, irreversible blocking effect when perfused internally; the membrane potential was little affected. Reducing agents applied internally caused a decrease in the spike duration without affecting its height or the membrane potential, although at high concentrations there was reversible deterioration of the action potential. Both external and internal perfusion of mercaptide-forming reagents caused deterioration in the action and membrane potentials with conduction block occurring in 5 to 45 min. 2-mercaptoethanol reversed the effects. Thiol alkylating reagents, iodoacetate and iodoacetamide, were without effect. N-ethylmaleimide did, however, block. Tests with chelating agents for nonheme iron in the membrane brought about no change in the electrical parameters. The implications of the present findings with regard to the macromolecular mechanism of excitation are discussed. PMID:5970570

  12. Uptake of [sup 10]B in gliosarcomas following the injection of gluthathione monoethyl ester and sulfhydryl borane

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.; Coderre, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The sulfhydryl borane Na[sub 2][sup 10]B[sub 12]H[sub 11]SH (BSH) was developed as a capture agent for BNCT about 20 years ago and is the compound currently used clinically in Japan for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Tumor [sup 10]B concentrations following the infusion of the oxidized BSH, a disulfide dimer (Na[sub 4][sup 10]B[sub 24]H[sub 22]S[sub 2]), are nearly twice those obtained following administration of equal amounts of boron as BSH. Also, the rate of decrease of tumor [sup 10]B concentration is slower after dimer infusion than after BSH infusion. When BNCT was administered to rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, the animals infused with dimer had a significant longer median survival time. Dimer, on the other hand, induces a moderately severe, but reversible, hepatotoxicity which may complicate its use in humans. Intracellular glutathione plays an important role in defense against radical-mediated tissue injury. Glutathione monoesters have been reported to have a protective effective on cisplatin toxicity and on radical-induced acute pancreatitis. We investigated the possibility of reducing dimer-induced hepatotoxicity by pre-administration of GSH-ME. The results indicate that not only does the pre-administration of GSH-ME markedly reduce dimer-induced hepatotoxicity, but also results in nearly a doubling of tumor boron concentration. Furthermore, GSH-ME markedly increases tumor boron uptake and retention following administration of BSH.

  13. Uptake of {sup 10}B in gliosarcomas following the injection of gluthathione monoethyl ester and sulfhydryl borane

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.; Coderre, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    The sulfhydryl borane Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH (BSH) was developed as a capture agent for BNCT about 20 years ago and is the compound currently used clinically in Japan for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Tumor {sup 10}B concentrations following the infusion of the oxidized BSH, a disulfide dimer (Na{sub 4}{sup 10}B{sub 24}H{sub 22}S{sub 2}), are nearly twice those obtained following administration of equal amounts of boron as BSH. Also, the rate of decrease of tumor {sup 10}B concentration is slower after dimer infusion than after BSH infusion. When BNCT was administered to rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, the animals infused with dimer had a significant longer median survival time. Dimer, on the other hand, induces a moderately severe, but reversible, hepatotoxicity which may complicate its use in humans. Intracellular glutathione plays an important role in defense against radical-mediated tissue injury. Glutathione monoesters have been reported to have a protective effective on cisplatin toxicity and on radical-induced acute pancreatitis. We investigated the possibility of reducing dimer-induced hepatotoxicity by pre-administration of GSH-ME. The results indicate that not only does the pre-administration of GSH-ME markedly reduce dimer-induced hepatotoxicity, but also results in nearly a doubling of tumor boron concentration. Furthermore, GSH-ME markedly increases tumor boron uptake and retention following administration of BSH.

  14. Surface modification of titanium substrates with silver nanoparticles embedded sulfhydrylated chitosan/gelatin polyelectrolyte multilayer films for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Yan; Cai, Kaiyong; Lin, Yingcheng

    2014-06-01

    To develop Ti implants with potent antibacterial activity, a novel "sandwich-type" structure of sulfhydrylated chitosan (Chi-SH)/gelatin (Gel) polyelectrolyte multilayer films embedding silver (Ag) nanoparticles was coated onto titanium substrate using a spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique. Ag ions would be enriched in the polyelectrolyte multilayer films via the specific interactions between Ag ions and -HS groups in Chi-HS, thus leading to the formation of Ag nanoparticles in situ by photo-catalytic reaction (ultraviolet irradiation). Contact angle measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to monitor the construction of Ag-containing multilayer on titanium surface, respectively. The functional multilayered films on titanium substrate [Ti/PEI/(Gel/Chi-SH/Ag) n /Gel] could efficiently inhibit the growth and activity of Bacillus subtitles and Escherichia coli onto titanium surface. Moreover, studies in vitro confirmed that Ti substrates coating with functional multilayer films remained the biological functions of osteoblasts, which was reflected by cell morphology, cell viability and ALP activity measurements. This study provides a simple, versatile and generalized methodology to design functional titanium implants with good cyto-compatibility and antibacterial activity for potential clinical applications. PMID:24664672

  15. Inactivation and dissociation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase by modification of sulfhydryl groups and its possible occurrence in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Corrales, F; Cabrero, C; Pajares, M A; Ortiz, P; Martin-Duce, A; Mato, J M

    1990-02-01

    Catalytically active human and rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase exists mainly in tetramer and dimer form. In liver biopsy samples from cirrhotic patients a marked reduction in total S-adenosylmethionine synthetase activity and a specific loss of the tetrameric form of the enzyme exist. We have investigated the possible role of sulfhydryl groups in maintaining the structure and activity of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Both forms of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase are rapidly inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide, and the loss of enzyme activity correlates with the incorporation of approximately 2 moles N-ethylmaleimide per mole of subunit. In addition, reaction with N-ethylmaleimide resulted in displacement of the tetramer-dimer equilibrium of the enzyme toward the dimer, but no monomer was detected under these conditions. A catalytically active monomeric S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was detected in the cytosolic extract from a liver biopsy sample from a cirrhotic patient, supporting our model for the structure of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Because treatment of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase with N-ethylmaleimide resembles the situation of this enzyme in cirrhotic patients, it is proposed that impaired protection of the enzyme from oxidizing agents caused by a decreased synthesis of glutathione can explain the diminished synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine in liver cirrhosis. PMID:2307400

  16. Involvement of sulfhydryl oxidase QSOX1 in the protection of cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, Carole; Adami, Pascale; Musard, Jean-Francois; Duval, Dominique; Radom, Jean; Jouvenot, Michele

    2007-11-15

    The QSOX1 protein, belonging to a new class of FAD-linked Quiescin/Sulfhydryl oxidase, catalyzes disulfide bond formation. To give new insight into the biological function of QSOX1, we studied its involvement in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and cell recovery of PC12 cells. By real time RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, we show that the QSOX1 mRNA and protein levels increased late after the beginning of oxidative treatment and were sustained for 72 h. These levels were still high when the PC12 cells were not dying but had resumed proliferation. The kinetics of QSOX1 expression suggest a more protective effect of QSOX1 rather than an involvement of this protein in apoptosis. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines overexpressing the guinea pig QSOX1 protein submitted to the same treatments appeared less sensitive to cell death than the MCF-7 control cells. The protective effect is partly due to a preservation of the mitochondrial polarization generally lost after an oxidative stress. These results strengthen our hypothesis of a protective role of QSOX1 against apoptosis.

  17. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Synthesis and electron transfer property of sulfhydryl-containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticle heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiumei; Hu, Jianqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Xie, Jingsi; Liu, Yuying

    2009-02-01

    One-dimensional metal/semiconductor heterojunction nanomaterials have opened many new opportunities for future nanodevices because of their novel structures and unique electrical and optical properties. In this work, sulfhydryl-containing multi-walled carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticle (MWCNT/Au) heterojunctions were synthesized in high yield by a sulfhydryl- functionalized self-assembly strategy. The component, size, structure, morphology and bond mode of the MWCNT/Au heterojunctions thus prepared were investigated and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared and UV-visible measurements. Cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies indicate that the MWCNT/Au heterojunctions have a novel electron transfer property, which retards electron transfer of the horseradish peroxidase or the ferricyanide in the underlying electrodes. We believe that MWCNT/Au heterojunctions with high stability and a unique electrical property are expected to find potential applications for nanodevices.

  18. Aldehydic load and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 profile during the progression of post-myocardial infarction cardiomyopathy: benefits of Alda-1

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Katia M.S.; Bechara, Luiz R.G.; Lima, Vanessa M.; Ribeiro, Márcio A.C.; Campos, Juliane C.; Dourado, Paulo M.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Ferreira, Julio C.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives We previously demonstrated that reducing cardiac aldehydic load by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for metabolizing the major lipid peroxidation product, protects against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury and chronic heart failure. However, time-dependent changes in ALDH2 profile, aldehydic load and mitochondrial bioenergetics during progression of post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) cardiomyopathy is unknown and should be established to determine the optimal time window for drug treatment. Methods Here we characterized cardiac ALDH2 activity and expression, lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) adduct formation, glutathione pool and mitochondrial energy metabolism and H2O2 release during the 4 weeks after permanent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery occlusion in rats. Results We observed a sustained disruption of cardiac mitochondrial function during the progression of post-MI cardiomyopathy, characterized by >50% reduced mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and up to 2 fold increase in H2O2 release. Mitochondrial dysfunction was accompanied by accumulation of cardiac and circulating lipid peroxides and 4-HNE protein adducts and down-regulation of electron transport chain complexes I and V. Moreover, increased aldehydic load was associated with a 90% reduction in cardiac ALDH2 activity and increased glutathione pool. Further supporting an ALDH2 mechanism, sustained Alda-1 treatment (starting 24hrs after permanent LAD occlusion surgery) prevented aldehydic overload, mitochondrial dysfunction and improved ventricular function in post-MI cardiomyopathy rats. Conclusion Taken together, our findings demonstrate a disrupted mitochondrial metabolism along with an insufficient cardiac ALDH2-mediated aldehyde clearance during the progression of ventricular dysfunction, suggesting a potential therapeutic value of ALDH2 activators during the progression of post-myocardial infarction

  19. Triggering the approach of an arene or heteroarene towards an aldehyde via Lewis acid-aldehyde communication.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports a combined experimental/computational study of the Lewis acid promoted hydroxyalkylation reaction involving aldehyde and arene/heteroarene and reveals a mechanism in which the rate determining aldehyde to alcohol formation via a four-member cyclic transition state (TS) involves a transfer of hydrogen from arene/heteroarene C-H to aldehyde oxygen with the breaking of the C-H bond and formation of C-C and O-H bonds. The effect of different Sn(iv) derivatives on the hydroxyalkylation reaction from different in situ NMR and computational studies reveals that although the exergonic formation of the intermediate and its gained electrophilicity at the carbonyl carbon drive the reaction in SnCl4 compared to other Sn(iv) derivatives, the overall reaction is low yielding because of its stable intermediate. With respect to different aldehydes, LA promoted hydroxylation was found to be more feasible for an electron withdrawing aldehyde compared to electron rich aldehyde because of lower stability, enhanced electrophilicity gained at the aldehyde center, and a lower activation barrier between its intermediate and TS in the former as compared to the latter. The relative stability of the LA-aldehyde adduct decreases in the order SnCl4 > AlCl3 > InCl3 > BF3 > ZnCl2 > TiCl4 > SiCl4, while the activation barrier (ΔG(#)) between intermediate and transition states increases in the order AlCl3 < SnCl4 < InCl3 < BF3 < TiCl4 < ZnCl2 < SiCl4. On the other hand, the activation barriers in the case of different arenes/heteroarenes are in the order of indole < furan < anisole < thiophene < toluene < benzene < chlorobenzene < cyanobenzene, which suggests a facile reaction in the case of indole and the most difficult reaction in the case of cyanobenzene. The ease of formation of the corresponding diaryl methyl carbocation from the alcohol-LA intermediate is responsible for the determination of the undesired product and is found to be more viable in the case of strong

  20. The Role of Sulfhydryl Reactivity of Small Molecules for the Activation of the KEAP1/NRF2 Pathway and the Heat Shock Response

    PubMed Central

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2012-01-01

    The KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and the heat shock response are two essential cytoprotective mechanisms that allow adaptation and survival under conditions of oxidative, electrophilic, and thermal stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks of genes with versatile protective functions. The two pathways are independently regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), respectively. The activity of these transcriptional master regulators increases during conditions of stress and also upon encounter of small molecules (inducers), both naturally occurring as well as synthetically produced. Inducers have a common chemical property: the ability to react with sulfhydryl groups. The protein targets of such sulfhydryl-reactive compounds are equipped with highly reactive cysteine residues, which serve as sensors for inducers. The initial cysteine-sensed signal is further relayed to affect the expression of large networks of genes, which in turn can ultimately influence complex cell fate decisions such as life and death. The paper summarizes the multiple lines of experimental evidence demonstrating that the reactivity with sulfhydryl groups is a major determinant of the mechanism of action of small molecule dual activators of the KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and the heat shock response. PMID:24278719

  1. Effects of aldehydes on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Wu, Hong; Liu, Qiu-ping; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zong, Min-hua

    2011-05-11

    The effects of five representative aldehydes in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and the lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans were investigated for the first time. There was no relationship between the hydrophobicity and the toxicity of aldehyde, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was less toxic than aromatic aldehydes and furfural. Binary combination of aromatic aldehydes caused a synergistic inhibitory effect, but combination of furan and aromatic aldehydes reduced the inhibition instead. A longer lag phase was found due to the presence of aldehydes and the decrease of sugar consumption rate, but more xylose was utilized by T. fermentans in the presence of aldehydes, especially at their low concentrations. The variation of malic enzyme activity was not related to the delay of lipid accumulation. Furthermore, the inhibition of aldehydes on cell growth was more dependent on inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than that on lipid content. PMID:21443267

  2. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  3. Direct N-acylation of lactams, oxazolidinones, and imidazolidinones with aldehydes by Shvo's catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2012-09-01

    Direct N-acylation of lactams, oxazolidinones, and imidazolidinones was achieved with aldehydes by Shvo's catalyst without using any other stoichiometric reagent. The N-acylations with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were achieved with excellent yields. PMID:22913512

  4. ANALYSIS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES IN THE GAS PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development and testing of a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-acetonitrile (DNPH-ACN) method for the analysis of aldehydes and ketones in ambient air are described. A discussion of interferences, preparation of calibration standards, analytical testing, fluorescence methods and car...

  5. Acute cardiopulmonary toxicity of inhaled aldehydes: role of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Inhalation of high-level volatile aldehydes, as present in smoke from wildfires and in tobacco smoke, is associated with both acute and chronic cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) protein forms a cation channel (irritant receptor) that mediates tobacco smoke-induced airway and lung injury, yet the role of TRPA1 in the cardiovascular toxicity of aldehyde exposure is unclear. Physiologically, airway-located TRPA1 activation triggers an irritant response (e.g., coughing and "respiratory braking") that alters the rate and depth of breathing to reduce exposure. Acrolein (2-propenal), a volatile, unsaturated aldehyde, activates TRPA1. Acrolein was used as a chemical weapon in World War I and is present at high levels in wildfires and tobacco smoke. Acrolein is thought to contribute to pulmonary and cardiovascular injury caused by tobacco smoke exposure, although the role of TRPA1 in cardiovascular toxicity is unclear. This minireview addresses this gap in our knowledge by exploring literature and recent data indicating a connection between TRPA1 and cardiovascular as well as pulmonary injury due to inhaled aldehydes. PMID:27152448

  6. A thermostable transketolase evolved for aliphatic aldehyde acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong; Saravanan, Thangavelu; Devamani, Titu; Charmantray, Franck; Hecquet, Laurence; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-11

    Directed evolution of the thermostable transketolase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus based on a pH-based colorimetric screening of smart libraries yielded several mutants with up to 16-fold higher activity for aliphatic aldehydes and high enantioselectivity (>95% ee) in the asymmetric carboligation step. PMID:25415647

  7. Interaction of aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pizzimenti, Stefania; Ciamporcero, Eric; Daga, Martina; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Arcaro, Alessia; Cetrangolo, Gianpaolo; Minelli, Rosalba; Dianzani, Chiara; Lepore, Alessio; Gentile, Fabrizio; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA) and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24027536

  8. A pathogenesis related-10 protein CaARP functions as aldo/keto reductase to scavenge cytotoxic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepti; Khandal, Hitaishi; Khurana, Jitendra Paul; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis related-10 (PR-10) proteins are present as multigene family in most of the higher plants. The role of PR-10 proteins in plant is poorly understood. A sequence analysis revealed that a large number of PR-10 proteins possess conserved motifs found in aldo/keto reductases (AKRs) of yeast and fungi. We took three PR-10 proteins, CaARP from chickpea, ABR17 from pea and the major pollen allergen Bet v1 from silver birch as examples and showed that these purified recombinant proteins possessed AKR activity using various cytotoxic aldehydes including methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde as substrates and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as co-factor. Essential amino acids for this catalytic activity were identified by substitution with other amino acids. CaARP was able to discriminate between the reduced and oxidized forms of NADP independently of its catalytic activity and underwent structural change upon binding with NADPH. CaARP protein was preferentially localized in cytosol. When expressed in bacteria, yeast or plant, catalytically active variants of CaARP conferred tolerance to salinity, oxidative stress or cytotoxic aldehydes. CaARP-expressing plants showed lower lipid peroxidation product content in presence or absence of stress suggesting that the protein functions as a scavenger of cytotoxic aldehydes produced by metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Our result proposes a new biochemical property of a PR-10 protein. PMID:26577640

  9. New preparation of diethyl methylformylphosphonate dimethylhydrazone: A reagent for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phosphonate reagent, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone contains a protected aldehyde group instead of the usual ester group. It can be used for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to a, ß-unsaturated aldehydes. The reagent can be prepared in good overall yield (82%) and...

  10. Derivatization Strategy for the Comprehensive Characterization of Endogenous Fatty Aldehydes Using HPLC-Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2016-08-01

    Fatty aldehydes are crucial substances that mediate a wide range of vital physiological functions, particularly lipid peroxidation. Fatty aldehydes such as acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) are considered potential biomarkers of myocardial ischemia and dementia, but analytical techniques for fatty aldehydes are lacking. In the present study, a comprehensive characterization strategy with high sensitivity and facility for fatty aldehydes based on derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) was developed. The fatty aldehydes of a biosample were derivatized using 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine under mild and efficient reaction conditions at 37 °C for 15 min. The limit of detection (LOD) of the fatty aldehydes varied from 0.1 to 1 pg/mL, depending on the structures of these molecules. General MRM parameters were forged for the analysis of endogenous fatty aldehydes. "Heavy" derivatization reagents with 20 deuterium atoms were synthesized for both the discovery and comprehensive characterization of fatty aldehydes. More than 80 fatty aldehydes were detected in the biosamples. The new strategy was successfully implemented in global fatty aldehyde profiling of plasma and brain tissue of the bilateral common carotid artery (2VO) dementia rat model. Dozens of fatty aldehydes were significantly changed between the control and model groups. These findings further highlight the importance of endogenous fatty aldehydes. PMID:27397858

  11. A Modular Approach for Assembling Aldehyde-Tagged Proteins on DNA Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of antibody scaffold diversity has the potential to expand the neutralizing capacity of the immune system and to generate enhanced therapeutics and probes. Systematic exploration of scaffold diversity could be facilitated with a modular and chemical scaffold for assembling proteins, such as DNA. However, such efforts require simple, modular, and site-specific methods for coupling antibody fragments or bioactive proteins to nucleic acids. To address this need, we report a modular approach for conjugating synthetic oligonucleotides to proteins with aldehyde tags at either terminus or internal loops. The resulting conjugates are assembled onto DNA-based scaffolds with low nanometer spatial resolution and can bind to live cells. Thus, this modular and site-specific conjugation strategy provides a new tool for exploring the potential of expanded scaffold diversity in immunoglobulin-based probes and therapeutics. PMID:25029632

  12. Novel aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone derivatives: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and molecular docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt, Tuncay; Tahtaci, Hakan; Subasi, Nuriye Tuna; Er, Mustafa; Ağar, Erbil

    2016-12-01

    In this study our purpose is that, synthesis and characterization of compounds containing the aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone groups and comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental results. The structures of all synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses techniques. The structure of compound (4) (C9H8N4O2S) was also elucidated by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the theoretical IR spectrum, 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shift values, frontier molecular orbital values (FMO) of these molecules were analyzed by using Becke-3- Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) method with LanL2DZ basis set. Finally, molecular docking studies were performed on synthesized compounds using the 4DKI beta-lactam protein structure to determine the potential binding mode of inhibitors.

  13. Lewis Acidity of Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane: Aldehyde Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by a Neutral Silicon Compound

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L.; Bergman, Robert G.; Tilley, T. Don

    2015-04-16

    Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane Si(cat(F)2 was prepared, and stoichiometric binding to Lewis bases was demonstrated with fluoride, triethylphosphine oxide, and N,N'-diisopropylbenzamide. The potent Lewis acidity of Si(cat(F)2 was suggested from catalytic hydrosilylation and silylcyanation reactions with aldehydes. Mechanistic studies of hydrosilylation using an optically active silane substrate, R-(+)-methyl-(1-naphthyl)phenylsilane, proceeded with predominant stereochemical retention at silicon, consistent with a carbonyl activation pathway. The enantiospecificity was dependent on solvent and salt effects, with increasing solvent polarity or addition of NBu4BAr(F)4 leading to a diminished enantiomeric ratio. The medium effects are consistent with an ionic mechanism, wherein hydride transfer occurs prior to silicon-oxygen bond formation.

  14. Lewis Acidity of Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane: Aldehyde Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by a Neutral Silicon Compound

    SciTech Connect

    Liberman-Martin, Allegra L.; Bergman, Robert G.; Tilley, T. Don

    2015-04-16

    Bis(perfluorocatecholato)silane Si(cat(F)2 was prepared, and stoichiometric binding to Lewis bases was demonstrated with fluoride, triethylphosphine oxide, and N,N'-diisopropylbenzamide. The potent Lewis acidity of Si(cat(F)2 was suggested from catalytic hydrosilylation and silylcyanation reactions with aldehydes. Mechanistic studies of hydrosilylation using an optically active silane substrate, R-(+)-methyl-(1-naphthyl)phenylsilane, proceeded with predominant stereochemical retention at silicon, consistent with a carbonyl activation pathway. The enantiospecificity was dependent on solvent and salt effects, with increasing solvent polarity or addition of NBu4BAr(F)4 leading to a diminished enantiomeric ratio. The medium effects are consistent with an ionic mechanism, wherein hydride transfer occurs prior to silicon-oxygen bond formation.

  15. Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization of the Aldehyde-Alcohol Redox-coupling Reaction in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Fukagawa, Takashi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yamano, Yumiko; Wada, Akimori; Kawamura, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study suggested the presence of a novel cone-specific redox reaction that generates 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol in the carp retina. This reaction is unique in that 1) both 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal were required to produce 11-cis-retinal; 2) together with 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinol was produced at a 1:1 ratio; and 3) the addition of enzyme cofactors such as NADP(H) was not necessary. This reaction is probably part of the reactions in a cone-specific retinoid cycle required for cone visual pigment regeneration with the use of 11-cis-retinol supplied from Müller cells. In this study, using purified carp cone membrane preparations, we first confirmed that the reaction is a redox-coupling reaction between retinals and retinols. We further examined the substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction. Oxidation was specific for 11-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinol. In contrast, reduction showed low specificity: many aldehydes, including all-trans-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, and 13-cis-retinals and even benzaldehyde, supported the reaction. On the basis of kinetic studies of this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction), we found that formation of a ternary complex of a retinol, an aldehyde, and a postulated enzyme seemed to be necessary, which suggested the presence of both the retinol- and aldehyde-binding sites in this enzyme. A subcellular fractionation study showed that the activity is present almost exclusively in the cone inner segment. These results suggest the presence of an effective production mechanism of 11-cis-retinal in the cone inner segment to regenerate visual pigment. PMID:24217249

  16. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors [such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)] to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the...

  17. Phenyl aldehyde and propanoids exert multiple sites of action towards cell membrane and cell wall targeting ergosterol in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, two phyto-compounds phenyl aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde) and propanoid (eugenol) were selected to explore their modes of action against Candida albicans. Electron microscopy, flow cytometry and spectroscopic assays were employed to determine the targets of these compounds. Treatment of C. albicans (CA04) with sub-MICs of cinnamaldehyde (50 μg/mL) and eugenol (200 μg/mL) indicated multiple sites of action including damages to cell walls, cell membranes, cytoplasmic contents and other membranous structures as observed under electron microscopy. Concentration and time dependent increase in the release of cytoplasmic contents accompanied with change in extracellular K+ concentration was recorded. Exposure of Candida cells at 4 × MIC of cinnaamldehyde and eugenol resulted in 40.21% and 50.90% dead cells, respectively as revealed by flow cytometry analysis. Treatment of Candida cells by cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at 0.5 × MIC showed 67.41% and 76.23% reduction in ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively. The binding assays reflected the ability of compounds to bind with the ergosterol. Our findings have suggested that the membrane damaging effects of phenyl aldehyde and propanoids class of compounds is attributed to their ability to inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis and simultaneously binding with ergosterol. Indirect or secondary action of these compounds on cell wall is also expected as revealed by electron microscopic studies. PMID:24010721

  18. Commentary to Gorelenkova Miller and Mieyal (2015): sulfhydryl-mediated redox signaling in inflammation: role in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masashi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Maeda, Masao; Tanaka, Natsuko; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Yoshinaga, Masafumi

    2016-04-01

    Gorelenkova Miller and Mieyal (Arch Toxicol 89(9): 1439-1467, 2015) recently published a review paper suggesting that reversible cysteine plays a key role in redox-linked signal transduction via alteration of protein function, resulting in an association with many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. Following their suggestions, we considered the correlation between sulfhydryl-mediated redox signaling and neurodegenerative diseases by focusing on RET proteins, a protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) potentially sited upstream of the signal transduction cascade. c-RET is the receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. c-RET has been reported to be involved in not only Hirschsprung disease via development of the enteric nervous system but also neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We also showed that c-RET might be associated with hearing loss via neurodegeneration of spiral ganglion neurons in the inner ear after birth in mice and humans. Moreover, we have reported that three kinds of oxidative stress, ultraviolet light-induced stress, osmotic stress and arsenic-induced stress, modulate kinase activity of RET-PTC1 without an extracellular domain as well as c-RET by conformational change of RET protein (dimerization) via disulfide bond formation. The oxidative stresses also modulate kinase activity of RET-PTC1 with cysteine 365 (C365) replaced by alanine with promotion of dimer formation, but not with cysteine 376 (C376) replaced by alanine. Since C376 of Ret-PTC-1 or its equivalent is most highly conserved and crucial for activity in PTKs, the cysteine could be one of major targets for oxidative stresses. PMID:26780347

  19. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  20. Positron binding to molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    While there is theoretical evidence that positrons can bind to atoms, calculations for molecules are much less precise. Unfortunately, there have been no measurements of positron-atom binding, due primarily to the difficulty in forming positron-atom bound states in two-body collisions. In contrast, positrons attach to molecules via Feshbach resonances (VFR) in which a vibrational mode absorbs the excess energy. Using a high-resolution positron beam, this VFR process has been studied to measure binding energies for more than 40 molecules. New measurements will be described in two areas: positron binding to relatively simple molecules, for which theoretical calculations appear to be possible; and positron binding to molecules with large permanent dipole moments, which can be compared to analogous, weakly bound electron-molecule (negative-ion) states. Binding energies range from 75 meV for CS2 (no dipole moment) to 180 meV for acetonitrile (CH3CN). Other species studied include aldehydes and ketones, which have permanent dipole moments in the range 2.5 - 3.0 debye. The measured binding energies are surprisingly large (by a factor of 10 to 100) compared to those for the analogous negative ions, and these differences will be discussed. New theoretical calculations for positron-molecule binding are in progress, and a recent result for acetonitrile will be discussed. This ability to compare theory and experiment represents a significant step in attempts to understand positron binding to matter. In collaboration with A. C. L. Jones, J. J. Gosselin, and C. M. Surko, and supported by NSF grant PHY 07-55809.

  1. An ethoxyquin-inducible aldehyde reductase from rat liver that metabolizes aflatoxin B1 defines a subfamily of aldo-keto reductases.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, E M; Judah, D J; Neal, G E; Hayes, J D

    1993-01-01

    Protection of liver against the toxic and carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) can be achieved through the induction of detoxification enzymes by chemoprotectors such as the phenolic antioxidant ethoxyquin. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding an aldehyde reductase (AFB1-AR), which is expressed in rat liver in response to dietary ethoxyquin. Expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli and purification of the recombinant enzyme reveals that the protein exhibits aldehyde reductase activity and is capable of converting the protein-binding dialdehyde form of AFB1-dihydrodiol to the nonbinding dialcohol metabolite. We show that the mRNA encoding this enzyme is markedly elevated in the liver of rats fed an ethoxyquin-containing diet, correlating with acquisition of resistance to AFB1. AFB1-AR represents the only carcinogen-metabolizing aldehyde reductase identified to date that is induced by a chemoprotector. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of AFB1-AR with other known and putative aldehyde reductases shows that it defines a subfamily within the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8234296

  2. Purification, Characterization, and Potential Bacterial Wax Production Role of an NADPH-Dependent Fatty Aldehyde Reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Bradley D.; Oswald, Whitney S.; Seefeldt, Lance C.; Barney, Brett M.

    2009-01-01

    Wax esters, ester-linked fatty acids and long-chain alcohols, are important energy storage compounds in select bacteria. The synthesis of wax esters from fatty acids is proposed to require the action of a four-enzyme pathway. An essential step in the pathway is the reduction of a fatty aldehyde to the corresponding fatty alcohol, although the enzyme responsible for catalyzing this reaction has yet to be identified in bacteria. We report here the purification and characterization of an enzyme from the wax ester-accumulating bacterium Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, which is a proposed fatty aldehyde reductase in this pathway. The enzyme, a 57-kDa monomer, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose binding protein on the N terminus and was purified to near homogeneity by using amylose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to reduce a number of long-chain aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols coupled to the oxidation of NADPH. The highest specific activity was observed for the reduction of decanal (85 nmol decanal reduced/min/mg). Short-chain and aromatic aldehydes were not substrates. The enzyme showed no detectable catalysis of the reverse reaction, the oxidation of decanol by NADP+. The mechanism of the enzyme was probed with several site-specific chemical probes. The possible uses of this enzyme in the production of wax esters are discussed. PMID:19270127

  3. Aldehydes, carboxylic acids and inorganic nitrate during NSMCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Daniel

    This article describes the methods and results of a study involving measurements of ambient levels of carboxylic acids (formic, acetic and oxalic), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, n- butanal, n- pentanal and benzaldehyde) and total inorganic nitrate (nitric acid + particulate nitrate) during the Nitrogen Species Methods Comparison Study (NSMCS). Results for inorganic nitrate obtained using Teflon-nylon filter packs are compared to those obtained with nylon-nylon filter units and to those obtained by other methods during NSMCS. Calculations are presented of the distribution of gas phase nitrogen among NO, NO 2, HONO 2 and PAN, and of the positive bias due to PAN and HONO 2 in NOx measurements by chemiluminescence. Data for aldehydes and carboxylic acids are discussed in terms of sampling efficiency, gas-aerosol phase distribution, possible interferents (e.g. PAN as acetate on alkaline filters), diurnal variations, and relative importance of emissions vs in-situ daytime and night-time formation and removal processes.

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cellular responses to oxidative/electrophilic stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Brocker, Chad; Koppaka, Vindhya; Chen, Ying; Jackson, Brian C; Matsumoto, Akiko; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated within living systems and the inability to manage ROS load leads to elevated oxidative stress and cell damage. Oxidative stress is coupled to the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. This process generates over 200 types of aldehydes, many of which are highly reactive and toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and thereby mitigate oxidative/electrophilic stress in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. ALDHs are found throughout the evolutionary gamut, from single-celled organisms to complex multicellular species. Not surprisingly, many ALDHs in evolutionarily distant, and seemingly unrelated, species perform similar functions, including protection against a variety of environmental stressors such as dehydration and ultraviolet radiation. The ability to act as an "aldehyde scavenger" during lipid peroxidation is another ostensibly universal ALDH function found across species. Upregulation of ALDHs is a stress response in bacteria (environmental and chemical stress), plants (dehydration, salinity, and oxidative stress), yeast (ethanol exposure and oxidative stress), Caenorhabditis elegans (lipid peroxidation), and mammals (oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation). Recent studies have also identified ALDH activity as an important feature of cancer stem cells. In these cells, ALDH expression helps abrogate oxidative stress and imparts resistance against chemotherapeutic agents such as oxazaphosphorine, taxane, and platinum drugs. The ALDH superfamily represents a fundamentally important class of enzymes that contributes significantly to the management of electrophilic/oxidative stress within living systems. Mutations in various ALDHs are associated with a variety of pathological conditions in humans, highlighting the fundamental importance of these enzymes in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23195683

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling of Alkenes, Aldehydes, and Silyl Triflates

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze-sze; Ho, Chun-Yu; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A full account of two recently developed nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions of alkenes, aldehydes and silyl triflates is presented. These reactions provide either allylic alcohol or homoallylic alcohol derivatives selectively, depending on the ligand employed. These processes are believed to be mechanistically distinct from Lewis acid-catalyzed carbonyl-ene reactions, and several lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16939275

  6. Ruthenium catalyzed hydrogenation of aldehyde with synthesis gas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohei; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-11-21

    The hydrogenation of aldehyde utilizing synthesis gas as a dihydrogen source was examined with various ruthenium catalysts, among which Ru-cyclopentadienone complexes (Shvo-type catalysts) exhibited higher activity than others. DFT calculations proved that the exchange of coordinated carbon monoxide by dihydrogen is relatively preferable in Shvo-type catalysts compared to others, which is a pre-equilibrium for the generation of the hydrogenation-active species. PMID:25372182

  7. Hydrogenation of Aldehydes Catalyzed by an Available Ruthenium Complex.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuefeng; Wang, Guozhen; Zhu, Ziyue; Ren, Conghui; Zhou, Jinping; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Chung, Lung Wa; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-04-01

    A readily available ruthenium(II) catalyst was developed for the catalytic hydrogenation of aldehydes with a TON (turnover number) up to 340000. It can be performed without base and solvent, showing highly industrial potential. High chemoselectivity can be achieved in the presence of alkenyl and ketone groups. Further application of this protocol in glucose reduction showed good efficiency. Theoretical studies revealed that the rate-determining step is the hydrogenation step, not the carboxylate-assisted H2 activation step. PMID:26974348

  8. Quantification of the electrophilic reactivities of aldehydes, imines, and enones.

    PubMed

    Appel, Roland; Mayr, Herbert

    2011-06-01

    The rates of the epoxidation reactions of aldehydes, of the aziridination reactions of aldimines, and of the cyclopropanation reactions of α,β-unsaturated ketones with aryl-stabilized dimethylsulfonium ylides have been determined photometrically in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). All of these sulfur ylide-mediated cyclization reactions as well as the addition reactions of stabilized carbanions to N-tosyl-activated aldimines have been shown to follow a second-order rate law, where the rate constants reflect the (initial) CC bond formation between nucleophile and electrophile. The derived second-order rate constants (log k(2)) have been combined with the known nucleophilicity parameters (N, s(N)) of the aryl-stabilized sulfur ylides 4a,b and of the acceptor-substituted carbanions 4c-h to calculate the electrophilicity parameters E of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes (1a-i), N-acceptor-substituted aromatic aldimines (2a-e), and α,β-unsaturated ketones (3a-f) according to the linear free-energy relationship log k(2) = s(N)(N + E) as defined in J. Am. Chem. Soc.2001, 123, 9500-9512. The data reported in this work provide the first quantitative comparison of the electrophilic reactivities of aldehydes, imines, and simple Michael acceptors in DMSO with carbocations and cationic metal-π complexes within our comprehensive electrophilicity scale. PMID:21553901

  9. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2015-03-17

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  10. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  11. Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe.

    PubMed

    Al Rashidi, M; Shihadeh, A; Saliba, N A

    2008-11-01

    Very little is known about the quality and quantity of toxicants yielded by the narghile, a subject of increasing importance as this method of tobacco smoking has become popular all over the world. This study is concerned with the identification and quantification of volatile aldehydes in the gas and particle phases of mainstream narghile smoke generated using a popular type of flavored ma'ssel tobacco mixture. These compounds were analyzed based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency compendium method TO-11A. Using a standardized smoking machine protocol consisting of 171 puffs, 2.6s puff duration and 17s inter puff interval, the average yields of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde and methacrolein were 630, 2520, 892, 403, and 106 microg/smoking session, respectively. The results showed that none of the aldehydes identified in this study are found in the particulate phase of the smoke, except for formaldehyde for which the partitioning coefficient was estimated as Kp = 3.3 x 10(-8) microg/m3. Given previously reported lung absorption fractions of circa 90% for volatile aldehydes, the yields measured in this study are sufficient to induce various diseases depending on the extent of exposure, and on the breathing patterns of the smokers. PMID:18834915

  12. γ-Unsaturated aldehydes as potential Lilial replacers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Martin; Mathys, Marion; Ehrensperger, Nadja; Büchel, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    A series of Claisen rearrangements was undertaken in order to find a replacement for Lilial (=3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-2-methylpropanal), a high-tonnage perfumery ingredient with a lily-of-the-valley odour, which is a CMR2 material [1]. 5,7,7-Trimethyl-4-methyleneoctanal (10), the synthesis of which is described, became the main lead. It possesses an odour which is very close to that of Lilial but lacks its substantivity. Aldehydes with higher molecular weights than that of 10 were, therefore, synthesised in order to boost substantivity and to understand the structural requirements for a 'Lilial' odour. The aldehydes were obtained via Claisen rearrangements of 'exo-methylidene' vinyl ethers, allenyl vinyl ethers, or allenyl allyl ethers. Alternatively, coupling of terminal alkynes with allyl alcohols led to the desired aldehydes. Derivatives of 10 and their sila analogues were also synthesised. The olfactory properties of all synthesised molecules were evaluated for possible structure-odour relationships (SOR). PMID:25329790

  13. Elevated Transcription of the Gene QSOX1 Encoding Quiescin Q6 Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soloviev, Mikhail; Esteves, Michelle P.; Amiri, Fakhria; Crompton, Mark R.; Rider, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The q arm of chromosome 1 is frequently amplified at the gene level in breast cancer. Since the significance of this is unclear we investigated whether 1q genes are overexpressed in this disease. The cDNA levels of 1q-located genes were analysed in a search for overexpressed genes. 26 genes mapping to the 1q arm show highly significant (P≤0.01) overexpression of transcripts in breast cancer compared to normal breast tissue. Amongst those showing the highest levels of overexpression in both expressed sequence tag (EST) and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) databases was enzyme quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1). We investigated QSOX1 cDNA derived from T47D breast carcinoma cells by RT-PCR and 3′-RACE PCR and identified a novel extended form of QSOX1 transcript, containing a long 3′UTR, nearly double the size of the previously reported QSOX1 cDNA, and confirmed its 3′ end nucleotide sequence using RACE-PCR. We also used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse a panel of cDNAs derived from 50 clinically-graded normal and malignant breast tissue samples for the expression of QSOX1 mRNAs. QSOX1 transcription was elevated in an increasing proportion in the grade 2 and grade 3 tumours (graded according to the Nottingham prognostic index), with 10 of the 15 grade 3 tumours (67%) examined exceeding the normal range. There was a significant correlation between relative transcript level and clinical grade (P≤0.01) for all qPCR primer sets tested. QSOX1 mRNA levels, based on SAGE expression data, did not correlate with either Estrogen Receptor (ER) or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (ErbB-2 or HER2/neu) expression. Our data indicate that QSOX1 is a potential new prognostic marker which may prove of use in the staging of breast tumours and the stratification of breast cancer patients. PMID:23460839

  14. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide and mercurial sulfhydryl reagents on water and solute permeability of rat kidney brush border membranes.

    PubMed

    van Hoek, A N; de Jong, M D; van Os, C H

    1990-12-14

    The effects of dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, and mercurial sulfhydryl reagents have been studied on water and small solute permeability of rat renal brush border membrane vesicles. Water and solute permeability was measured by mixing membrane vesicles with hypertonic solutions in a stopped-flow apparatus and following osmotically-induced changes in vesicular volume via changes in scattered light intensity. The rate constant of the fast osmotic shrinkage is proportional to the osmotic water permeability, while the rate constant of the slow reswelling phase is proportional to the solute permeability. Using mannitol as the osmotic agent, the osmotic shrinkage of rat renal brush border membrane vesicles followed a biphasic time course. 80% of the vesicles shrunk with a rate constant of approx. 50 s-1 and 20% with a rate constant of approx. 2 s-1. DMSO decreased dose-dependently the amplitude of the fast osmotic shrinkage, without affecting its rate constant. In contrast to DMSO, HgCl2 decreased the rate constant but not the amplitude of the fast osmotic shrinkage of renal brush border vesicles. Between 40-50 microM HgCl2, the inhibition of the fast osmotic shrinkage was completed. DMSO and HgCl2 increase the activation energy of water permeation in renal membranes from 3 to 12-15 kcal/mol. DMSO and HgCl2 did not affect the rate constant of the slow osmotic shrinkage of renal membrane vesicles and were also without effect on osmotic shrinkage of small intestinal brush border and pure phospholipid vesicles. In renal brush border membranes, HgCl2 at low concentrations (less than 10 microM) increased by 15-fold the permeability to NaCl and urea but not to mannitol, an effect which precedes the inhibition of water permeability at higher HgCl2 concentrations. The increase in small solute permeability was irreversible while the inhibition of water permeability could be reversed with cysteine and dithiothreitol. We conclude that water and small solute pathways in rat renal brush

  15. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis; Xiang, Quanju; Li, Xi; Liu, Na; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors (such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the reduction enzymes involved in this reaction remain largely unknown. In this study, we reported that an uncharacterized open reading frame PICST_72153 (putative GRE2) from S. stipitis was highly induced in response to furfural and HMF stresses. Overexpression of this gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improved yeast tolerance to furfural and HMF. GRE2 was identified as an aldehyde reductase which can reduce furfural to FM with either NADH or NADPH as the co-factor and reduce HMF to FDM with NADPH as the co-factor. This enzyme can also reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that it is a member of the subclass "intermediate" of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Although GRE2 from S. stipitis is similar to GRE2 from S. cerevisiae in a three-dimensional structure, some differences were predicted. GRE2 from S. stipitis forms loops at D133-E137 and T143-N145 locations with two α-helices at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations, different GRE2 from S. cerevisiae with an α-helix at D133-E137 and a β-sheet at T143-N145 locations, and two loops at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations. This research provided guidelines for the study of other SDR enzymes from S. stipitis and other yeasts on tolerant mechanisms to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27003269

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Macrocyclic Peptide Aldehydes as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the 20S Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David L; Meininger, Isabel; Strater, Zack; Steiner, Stephanie; Tomlin, Frederick; Wu, Julia; Jamali, Haya; Krappmann, Daniel; Götz, Marion G

    2016-03-10

    This research explores the first design and synthesis of macrocyclic peptide aldehydes as potent inhibitors of the 20S proteasome. Two novel macrocyclic peptide aldehydes based on the ring-size of the macrocyclic natural product TMC-95 were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome. Both compounds inhibited in the low nanomolar range and proved to be selective for the proteasome over other serine and cysteine proteases, particularly when compared to linear analogues with similar amino acid sequences. In HeLa cells, both macrocycles efficiently inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor by blocking proteasomal degradation of the inhibitor protein IκBα after cytokine stimulation. Due to their covalent mechanism of binding these compounds represent a 1000-fold increase in inhibitory potency over previously reported noncovalently binding TMC-95 analogues. Molecular modeling of the macrocyclic peptides confirms the preference of the large S3 pocket for large, hydrophobic residues and the ability to exploit this to improve selectivity of proteasome inhibitors. PMID:26985310

  17. Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Mahro, Martin; Brás, Natércia F.; Cerqueira, Nuno M. F. S. A.; Teutloff, Christian; Coelho, Catarina; Romão, Maria João; Leimkühler, Silke

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate factors that determine substrate specificity and activity of mammalian molybdo-flavoproteins we performed site directed mutagenesis of mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 (mAOX3). The sequence alignment of different aldehyde oxidase (AOX) isoforms identified variations in the active site of mAOX3 in comparison to other AOX proteins and xanthine oxidoreductases (XOR). Based on the structural alignment of mAOX3 and bovine XOR, differences in amino acid residues involved in substrate binding in XORs in comparison to AOXs were identified. We exchanged several residues in the active site to the ones found in other AOX homologues in mouse or to residues present in bovine XOR in order to examine their influence on substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. Additionally we analyzed the influence of the [2Fe-2S] domains of mAOX3 on its kinetic properties and cofactor saturation. We applied UV-VIS and EPR monitored redox-titrations to determine the redox potentials of wild type mAOX3 and mAOX3 variants containing the iron-sulfur centers of mAOX1. In addition, a combination of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations (MD) was used to investigate factors that modulate the substrate specificity and activity of wild type and AOX variants. The successful conversion of an AOX enzyme to an XOR enzyme was achieved exchanging eight residues in the active site of mAOX3. It was observed that the absence of the K889H exchange substantially decreased the activity of the enzyme towards all substrates analyzed, revealing that this residue has an important role in catalysis. PMID:24358164

  18. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  19. Sulfhydryl-Modified Fe3O4@SiO2 Core/Shell Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Toxicity Assessment in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xueyi; Mao, Fangfang; Wang, Weijia; Yang, Ying; Bai, Zhiming

    2015-07-15

    The objectives of this study are to prepare sulfhydryl-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell magnetic nanocomposites, assess their toxicity in vitro, and explore their potential application in the biomedical fields. Fe3O4 nanoparticles synthesized by facile solvothermal method were coated with SiO2 via the Stöber method and further modified by the meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to prepare Fe3O4@SiO2@DMSA nanoparticles. The morphology, structure, functional groups, surface charge, and magnetic susceptibility of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, dynamic laser scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Cytotoxicity tests and hemolysis assay were also carried out. Experimental results show that the toxicity of sulfhydryl-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles in mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines is between grade 0 and grade 1, and the material lacks hemolytic activity, indicating good biocompatibility of this Fe3O4@SiO2@DMSA nanocomposite, which is suitable for further application in biochemical fields. PMID:26083720

  20. Ni-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Direct Transformation of Aldehydes to Esters and Amides

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Aaron M.; Dong, Vy M.

    2015-01-01

    By exploring a new mode of Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling, we have developed a protocol to transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides directly. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. We present mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C–H bond. PMID:25424967

  1. Nickel-catalyzed dehydrogenative cross-coupling: direct transformation of aldehydes into esters and amides.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Aaron M; Dong, Vy M

    2015-01-19

    By exploring a new mode of nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling, a method to directly transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides has been developed. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. Mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C-H bond is also presented. PMID:25424967

  2. Betaine aldehyde, betaine, and choline levels in rat livers during ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chern, M K; Gage, D A; Pietruszko, R

    2000-12-01

    Betaine aldehyde levels were determined in rat livers following 4 weeks of ethanol feeding, employing the Lieber-De Carli liquid diet. The results showed that the levels of betaine aldehyde are unaffected by alcohol feeding to rats. These levels in both experimental and control animals were found to be quite low, 5.5 nmol/g liver. Betaine aldehyde levels have not been determined previously in mammalian liver because of methodological difficulties. This investigation employed fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy to determine the levels of betaine aldehyde, betaine, and choline. The decrease in betaine levels following ethanol administration confirmed the results of other investigators. Choline levels determined during this investigation were lower than previously reported. The reason for starting this investigation was the fact that the enzyme that catalyzes betaine aldehyde dehydrogenation to betaine, which is distributed in both mitochondria and the cytoplasm, was found to also metabolize acetaldehyde with K(m) and V(max) values lower than those for betaine aldehyde. Thus, it appeared likely that the metabolism of acetaldehyde during ethanol metabolism might inhibit betaine aldehyde conversion to betaine and thereby result in decreased betaine levels (Barak et al., Alcohol 13: 395-398, 1996). The fact that betaine aldehyde levels in alcohol-fed animals were similar to those in controls demonstrates that competition between acetaldehyde and betaine aldehyde for the same enzyme does not occur. This complete lack of competition suggests that betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mitochondrial matrix may totally metabolize betaine aldehyde to betaine without any involvement of cytoplasmic betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. PMID:11077045

  3. On the nature of the olefination reaction involving ditungsten hexaalkoxides and aldehydes or ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, M.H.; Huffman, J.C.; Lucas, E.A.; Sousa, A.; Streib, W.E.

    1992-03-25

    Reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones to olefins under the action of ditungsten hexaalkoxides was investigated. In these reactions, reductive cleavage of the aldehyde or ketone carbonyl is followed by formation of the olefinic C-C bond and breaking of the carbonyl C-O bond of the second aldehyde or ketone. Observations concerning the initial C-O bond cleavage and subsequent C-C bond formation are presented. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  5. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited. PMID:26591999

  6. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  7. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  8. A Simple Litmus Test for Aldehyde Oxidase Metabolism of Heteroarenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bioavailability of aromatic azaheterocyclic drugs can be affected by the activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO). Susceptibility to AO metabolism is difficult to predict computationally and can be complicated in vivo by differences between species. Here we report the use of bis(((difluoromethyl)sulfinyl)oxy)zinc (DFMS) as a source of CF2H radical for a rapid and inexpensive chemical “litmus test” for the early identification of heteroaromatic drug candidates that have a high probability of metabolism by AO. PMID:24472070

  9. Electron transmission through a class of anthracene aldehyde molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-03-01

    Transmission of electrons via metal-molecule-metal junctions, involving rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecules is investigated. Two model barriers having input parameters evaluated from accurate ab initio calculations are proposed and the transmission coefficients are obtained by using the quasiclassical approximation. Transmission coefficients further enter in the integral for the net current, utilizing Simmons' method. Conformational dependence of the tunneling processes is evident and the presence of the side groups enhances the functionality of the future single-molecule based electronic devices.

  10. Protein kinase C zeta mediates cigarette smoke/aldehyde- and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation and histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongwei; Hwang, Jae-woong; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria T; Leitges, Michael; Kishore, Nandini; Li, Xiong; Rahman, Irfan

    2010-02-19

    Atypical protein kinase C (PKC) zeta is an important regulator of inflammation through activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. Chromatin remodeling on pro-inflammatory genes plays a pivotal role in cigarette smoke (CS)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced abnormal lung inflammation. However, the signaling mechanism whereby chromatin remodeling occurs in CS- and LPS-induced lung inflammation is not known. We hypothesized that PKCzeta is an important regulator of chromatin remodeling, and down-regulation of PKCzeta ameliorates lung inflammation by CS and LPS exposures. We determined the role and molecular mechanism of PKCzeta in abnormal lung inflammatory response to CS and LPS exposures in PKCzeta-deficient (PKCzeta(-/-)) and wild-type mice. Lung inflammatory response was decreased in PKCzeta(-/-) mice compared with WT mice exposed to CS and LPS. Moreover, inhibition of PKCzeta by a specific pharmacological PKCzeta inhibitor attenuated CS extract-, reactive aldehydes (present in CS)-, and LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory mediator release from macrophages. The mechanism underlying these findings is associated with decreased RelA/p65 phosphorylation (Ser(311)) and translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB into the nucleus. Furthermore, CS/reactive aldehydes and LPS exposures led to activation and translocation of PKCzeta into the nucleus where it forms a complex with CREB-binding protein (CBP) and acetylated RelA/p65 causing histone phosphorylation and acetylation on promoters of pro-inflammatory genes. Taken together, these data suggest that PKCzeta plays an important role in CS/aldehyde- and LPS-induced lung inflammation through acetylation of RelA/p65 and histone modifications via CBP. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:20007975

  11. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins.

    PubMed

    Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Susan; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  12. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly. PMID:10995371

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 in stem cells and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human genome contains 19 putatively functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, which encode enzymes critical for detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates through NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation. ALDH1 has three main isotypes, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, and is a marker of normal tissue stem cells (SC) and cancer stem cells (CSC), where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. Experiments with murine and human cells indicate that ALDH1 activity, predominantly attributed to isotype ALDH1A1, is tissue- and cancer-specific. High ALDH1 activity and ALDH1A1 overexpression are associated with poor cancer prognosis, though high ALDH1 and ALDH1A1 levels do not always correlate with highly malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome. In cancer therapy, ALDH1A1 provides a useful therapeutic CSC target in tissue types that normally do not express high levels of ALDH1A1, including breast, lung, esophagus, colon and stomach. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key ALDH isozyme linked to SC populations and an important contributor to CSC function in cancers, and we outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. PMID:26783961

  14. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. ||; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  15. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim/sup -3/ (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate. (JGB)

  16. Residual Particle Sizes of Evaporating Droplets: Ammonium Sulfate and Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, N.; Galloway, M. M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    The reactions of carbonyls like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde, with ammonium salts have been proposed as significant sources of atmospheric organic aerosol. Aerosol containing these compounds was generated in the laboratory using the Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG). The particles were completely dried before they were measured using a SMPS system. The nonvolatile fraction of the resulting aerosol was measured. The drying times were varied between two and twenty minutes, and for ammonium sulfate and glyoxal reactions, minimum residual particle sizes were reached after 3.5 minutes. Reactions of glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal with ammonium sulfate appeared to have lower non-volatile fractions remaining at higher starting concentrations, suggesting that a constant 'excess volume,' likely water, was present in the residual particles that could not be evaporated even after 20 minutes of drying. These excess volumes were not observed in our previous experiments with aldehydes but no ammonium sulfate present. At the highest concentrations tested (100 uM), non-volatile fractions of aldehydes present in residual particles were 16 (±17) %, 41 (±28) %, and 17(±32) % for glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal, respectively.

  17. Modulation of therapy-induced senescence by reactive lipid aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Flor, A C; Doshi, A P; Kron, S J

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding points to unrepairable chromosomal damage as the critical determinant of accelerated senescence in cancer cells treated with radiation or chemotherapy. Nonetheless, the potent senescence inducer etoposide not only targets topoisomerase II to induce DNA damage but also produces abundant free radicals, increasing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Toward examining roles for DNA damage and oxidative stress in therapy-induced senescence, we developed a quantitative flow cytometric senescence assay and screened 36 redox-active agents as enhancers of an otherwise ineffective dose of radiation. While senescence failed to correlate with total ROS, the radiation enhancers, etoposide and the other effective topoisomerase inhibitors each produced high levels of lipid peroxidation. The reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product, was sufficient to induce senescence in irradiated cells. In turn, sequestering aldehydes with hydralazine blocked effects of etoposide and other senescence inducers. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation potentiates DNA damage from radiation and chemotherapy to drive therapy-induced senescence. PMID:27453792

  18. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins

    PubMed Central

    Varrella, Stefano; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G.; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  19. A Novel NADPH-Dependent Aldehyde Reductase Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-12632 Involved in the Detoxification of Aldehyde Inhibitors Derived from Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and phenylaldehyde are commonly generated during lignocellulosic biomass conversion process for low-cost cellulosic ethanol production that interferes with subsequent microbial growth and...

  20. Structure and mechanism of action of the hydroxy-aryl-aldehyde class of IRE1 endoribonuclease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sanches, Mario; Duffy, Nicole M.; Talukdar, Manisha; Thevakumaran, Nero; Chiovitti, David; Canny, Marella D.; Lee, Kenneth; Kurinov, Igor; Uehling, David; Al-awar, Rima; Poda, Gennadiy; Prakesch, Michael; Wilson, Brian; Tam, Victor; Schweitzer, Colleen; Toro, Andras; Lucas, Julie L.; Vuga, Danka; Lehmann, Lynn; Durocher, Daniel; Zeng, Qingping; Patterson, John B.; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-10-24

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response and its dysfunction is linked to multiple diseases. The stress transducer IRE1α is a transmembrane kinase endoribonuclease (RNase) that cleaves mRNA substrates to re-establish ER homeostasis. Aromatic ring systems containing hydroxy–aldehyde moieties, termed hydroxy–aryl–aldehydes (HAA), selectively inhibit IRE1α RNase and thus represent a novel chemical series for therapeutic development. We solved crystal structures of murine IRE1α in complex with three HAA inhibitors. HAA inhibitors engage a shallow pocket at the RNase-active site through pi-stacking interactions with His910 and Phe889, an essential Schiff base with Lys907 and a hydrogen bond with Tyr892. Structure–activity studies and mutational analysis of contact residues define the optimal chemical space of inhibitors and validate the inhibitor-binding site. These studies lay the foundation for understanding both the biochemical and cellular functions of IRE1α using small molecule inhibitors and suggest new avenues for inhibitor design.

  1. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  2. A specific affinity reagent to distinguish aldehyde dehydrogenases and oxidases. Enzymes catalyzing aldehyde oxidation in an adult moth

    SciTech Connect

    Tasayco, M.L.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-02-25

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and oxidase (AO) enzymes from the tissue extracts of male and female tobacco budworm moth (Heliothis virescens) were identified after electrophoretic protein separation. AO activity was visualized using formazan- or horseradish peroxidase-mediated staining coupled to the AO-catalyzed oxidation of benzaldehyde. A set of six soluble AO enzymes with isoelectric points from pI 4.6 to 5.3 were detected primarily in the antennal extracts. Partially purified antennal AO enzymes also oxidized both (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, the two major pheromone components of this moth. ALDH activity was detected using a tritium-labeled affinity reagent based on a known irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme. This labeled vinyl ketone, (3H)(Z)-1,11-hexadecadien-3-one, was synthesized and used to covalently modify the soluble ALDH enzymes from tissue extracts. Molecular subunits of potential ALDH enzymes were visualized in the fluorescence autoradiograms of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated proteins of the antenna, head, and leg tissues. Covalent modification of these protein subunits decreased specifically in the presence of excess pheromone aldehyde or benzaldehyde. Labeled vinyl ketones are thus novel tools for the identification of molecular subunits of ALDH enzymes.

  3. Oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids by Escherichia coli cells expressing the Vibrio harveyi fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH).

    PubMed

    Buchhaupt, Markus; Guder, Jan; Sporleder, Fenja; Paetzold, Melanie; Schrader, Jens

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acids represent an important renewable feedstock for the chemical industry. To enable biotechnological one carbon truncations of fatty acids, the enzymes α-dioxygenase and fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) have to be combined in a two-step process. We expressed an FALDH from V. harveyi in E. coli and characterized its substrate spectrum with a focus on the number and position of double bonds in the fatty aldehyde molecules. Synthesis of the expected fatty acid products was proven by analysis of whole cell biotransformation products. Coexpression of a H(2)O-forming NADPH oxidase (NOX) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis led to the implementation of a cofactor regeneration cycle in in vitro oxidation experiments. The presence of NOX in whole cell biotransformations improved reaction velocity but did not result in higher product yields. We could further demonstrate that at least part of the endogenous NAD(P)(+) regeneration capacity in the resting cells results from the respiratory chain. The whole cell catalyst with the high broad range FALDH activity described here is an important biotechnological module for lipid biotransformation processes, especially the shortening of fatty acids. PMID:23180547

  4. Direct aldehyde homologation utilized to construct a conjugated-tetraene hydrocarbon insect pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to methyl- or ethyl-branched unsaturated aldehydes and used in the practical synthesis of (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene (1), a pheromone of the beetle, Carpophilus lugubris. The phosphona...

  5. Evaluating protective terpenoid aldehyde compounds in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has epidermal glands containing terpenoid aldehyde (TA) compounds that help protect the cotton plant from pests and diseases. One terpenoid aldehyde called gossypol, is found predominantly in seed and roots and has two forms, plus (+) and minus (-) present in varying a...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Aldehyde-Degrading Strain Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Ren, Chong; Shan, Xiexie; Zeng, Runying

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas axialensisACH-L-8, a deep-sea strain isolated from the South China Sea, has the ability to degrade aldehydes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which could provide fundamental molecular information on the aldehydes-degrading mechanism. PMID:27081145

  7. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-08-26

    The first example of homogeneous copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes is reported. This method utilizes atmospheric oxygen as the sole oxidant, proceeds under extremely mild aqueous conditions, and covers a wide range of various functionalized aldehydes. Chromatography is generally not necessary for product purification. PMID:27505714

  8. Cu-NHC-TEMPO catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolong; Xia, Qinqin; Zhang, Yuejiao; Chen, Congyan; Chen, Wanzhi

    2013-09-01

    Imidazolium salts bearing TEMPO groups react with commercially available copper powder affording Cu-NHC complexes. The in situ generated Cu-NHC-TEMPO complexes are quite efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols into aldehydes. The catalyst is easily available, and various primary alcohols were selectively converted to aldehydes in excellent yields. PMID:23944937

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Aldehyde-Degrading Strain Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Ren, Chong; Shan, Xiexie

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas axialensis ACH-L-8, a deep-sea strain isolated from the South China Sea, has the ability to degrade aldehydes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which could provide fundamental molecular information on the aldehydes-degrading mechanism. PMID:27081145

  10. Effects of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt.) on cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl level in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Kumari, M V; Rao, A R

    1989-07-15

    The aril of plant Myristica fragrans Houtt. commonly known as mace, which is consumed as a spice as well as used as a folk-medicine, was screened for its effects on the levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid-soluble sulfhydryl (SH) groups in the liver of young adult male and female Swiss albino mice. Animals were assorted into 4 groups comprised of either sex and received either normal diet (negative control), 1% 2,3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) diet (positive control), 1% mace diet or 2% mace diet for 10 days. There was a significant increase in the GST activity in the liver of mice exposed to BHA or mace. In addition, there was a significant increase in the SH content in the liver of mice fed on 1% BHA and 2% mace diets. PMID:2752386

  11. Synthesis of bio-based aldehyde from seaweed polysaccharide and its interaction with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kholiya, Faisal; Chaudhary, Jai Prakash; Vadodariya, Nilesh; Meena, Ramavatar

    2016-10-01

    Here, we demonstrate a successful synthesis of bio-based aldehyde namely dialdehyde-carboxymethylagarose (DCMA) using carboxymethyagarose (CMA). Further reaction parameters (i.e. reaction temperature, pH and periodate concentration) were optimized to achieve maximum aldehyde content and product yield. The synthesis of DCMA was confirmed by employing FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TGA, DSC, EA and GPC techniques. To investigate the aldehyde functionality, DCMA was allowed to interact with BSA and obtained results were found to be comparable with that of synthetic aldehyde (Formaldehyde). Further interaction of DCMA with BSA was confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, fluorescent spectroscopy, CD and DLS analysis. Results of this study revealed that bio-based aldehyde behaves like formaldehyde. This study adds value to abundant marine biopolymers and opens the new research area for polymer researchers. PMID:27312639

  12. [Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene fragment from mung bean Vigna radiata using the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A G; Bubiakina, V V; Tatarinova, T D; Zelenin, S M

    1998-01-01

    Two degenerate oligonucleotide sequence primers and polymerase chain reactions on total DNA have been utilized to clone on 651--bp gene fragment coding the central part of amino acid sequence of an earlier unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from mung bean. The deduced partial amino acid sequence for this aldehyde dehydrogenase shows about 65% sequence identity to ALDHs of Vibrio cholerae Rhodococcus sp., Alcaligenes eutrophus and about 45% sequence identity to mammalian ALDHs 1 and 2, ALDHs of Aspergillus niger and A, nidulans, the betain aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach. Alignment of the mung bean aldehyde dehydrogenase partial amino acid sequence with the sequence of 16 NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases has demonstrated that all strictly conserved amino acid residues and all three conservative regions are identical. PMID:9778740

  13. Site-specific chemical protein conjugation using genetically encoded aldehyde tags.

    PubMed

    Rabuka, David; Rush, Jason S; deHart, Gregory W; Wu, Peng; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-06-01

    We describe a method for modifying proteins site-specifically using a chemoenzymatic bioconjugation approach. Formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE) recognizes a pentapeptide consensus sequence, CxPxR, and it specifically oxidizes the cysteine in this sequence to an unusual aldehyde-bearing formylglyine. The FGE recognition sequence, or aldehyde tag, can be inserted into heterologous recombinant proteins produced in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The conversion of cysteine to formylglycine is accomplished by co-overexpression of FGE, either transiently or as a stable cell line, and the resulting aldehyde can be selectively reacted with α-nucleophiles to generate a site-selectively modified bioconjugate. This protocol outlines both the generation and the analysis of proteins aldehyde-tagged at their termini and the methods for chemical conjugation to the formylglycine. The process of generating aldehyde-tagged protein followed by chemical conjugation and purification takes 20 d. PMID:22576105

  14. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  15. Comparative effects of sulfhydryl compounds on target organellae, nuclei and mitochondria, of hydroxylated fullerene-induced cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Nakae, Dai

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by a hydroxylated fullerene [C60 (OH)24 ], which is a spherical nanomaterial and/or a water-soluble fullerene derivative, and their protection by sulfhydryl compounds were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The exposure of hepatocytes to C60 (OH)24 at a concentration of 50 μM caused time (0 to 3 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell surface blebs, the loss of cellular levels of ATP and reduced glutathione, accumulation of glutathione disulfide, and induction of DNA fragmentation assayed using alkali single-cell agarose-gel electrophoresis. C60 (OH)24 -induced cytotoxicity was effectively prevented by pretreatment with sulfhydryl compounds. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), L-cysteine and L-methionine, at a concentration of 2.5 mM, ameliorated cell death, accompanied by a decrease in cellular ATP levels, formation of cell surface blebs, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by C60 (OH)24 . In addition, DNA fragmentation caused by C60 (OH)24 was also inhibited by NAC, whereas an antioxidant ascorbic acid did not affect C60 (OH)24 -induced cell death and DNA damage in rat hepatocytes. Taken collectively, these results indicate that incubation of rat hepatocytes with C60 (OH)24 elicits DNA damage, suggesting that nuclei as well as mitochondria are target sites of the hydroxylated fullerene; and induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress is ameliorated by an increase in cellular GSH levels, suggesting that the onset of toxic effects may be partially attributable to a thiol redox-state imbalance caused by C60 (OH)24 . PMID:25809591

  16. Evidence for a reactive cysteine at the nucleotide binding site of spinach ribulose-5-phosphate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Omnaas, J.; Porter, M.A.; Hartman, F.C.

    1985-02-01

    Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from spinach was rapidly inactivated by N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate in a bimolecular fashion with a k2 of 2.0 m s at 2C and pH 8.0. Ribulose 5-phosphate had little effect on the rate of inactivation, whereas complete protection was afforded by ADP or ATP. The extent of incorporation as determined with UC-labeled reagent was about 1 molar equivalent per subunit in the presence of ATP with full retention of enzymatic activity, and about 2 molar equivalents per subunit in the completely inactivated enzyme. Amino acid analyses of enzyme derivatized with UC-labeled reagent reveal that all of the covalently incorporated reagent was associated with cysteinyl residues. Hence, two sulfhydryls are reactive, but the inactivation correlates with alkylation of one cysteinyl residue at or near the enzyme's nucleotide binding site. The kinase was also extremely sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagents 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and N-ethylmaleimide. The reactive sulfhydryl groups are likely to be those generated by reduction of a disulfide during activation. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Studies on organic indole-3-aldehyde single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Ravi, G.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    Indole-3-aldehyde (IA) is a new organic nonlinear material for which its solubility in methanol and acetone was found out using the apparatus fabricated by the authors. In order to get the good-quality crystals, methods of evaporation of solvent at room temperature and slow cooling of saturated solution at boiling temperature were adopted. Simulated lattice parameter values were found out using experimentally known " d" values. The etching and mechanical strength studies on different planes of the crystal were carried out. Decomposition temperature, weight loss and different functional bond frequencies associated with the crystal were also found out from differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, respectively.

  18. Multicomponent reactions of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Bykova, Tetiana; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2016-01-21

    This paper reports the preparation of methyl substituted all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes prepared from a Birch reduction of benzoic acid, worked up with a methyl iodide quench. The resultant methylcyclohexadiene carboxylic acid was reduced to the alcohol, protected as an ether and then a sequence of functional group manipulations carried out to introduce four fluorines. The cyclohexadienyl ring was then epoxidised and the C-O bonds sequentially converted through deoxyfluorination reactions to two sets of isomers of all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexane isomers. The blocking methyl group renders the ring safe to hydrogen fluoride elimination. Deprotection of the benzylic ether and then oxidation gave aldehydes which were then used in Ugi and Passerini multicomponent reactions, allowing this facially polarised cyclohexane to be incorporated into peptidic structural motifs. PMID:26646211

  19. Electron impact ionization of cycloalkanes, aldehydes, and ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2014-08-07

    The theoretical calculations of electron impact total ionization cross section for cycloalkane, aldehyde, and ketone group molecules are undertaken from ionization threshold to 2 keV. The present calculations are based on the spherical complex optical potential formalism and complex scattering potential ionization contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied compare fairly well with the recent measurements, wherever available and the cross sections for many targets are predicted for the first time. The correlation between the peak of ionization cross sections with number of target electrons and target parameters is also reported. It was found that the cross sections at their maximum depend linearly with the number of target electrons and with other target parameters, confirming the consistency of the values reported here.

  20. Substrate specificity of an aflatoxin-metabolizing aldehyde reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, E M; Hayes, J D

    1995-01-01

    The enzyme from rat liver that reduces aflatoxin B1-dialdehyde exhibits a unique catalytic specificity distinct from that of other aldo-keto reductases. This enzyme, designated AFAR, displays high activity towards dicarbonyl-containing compounds with ketone groups on adjacent carbon atoms; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, acenaphthenequinone and camphorquinone were found to be good substrates. Although AFAR can also reduce aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes such as succinic semialdehyde, it is inactive with glucose, galactose and xylose. The enzyme also exhibits low activity towards alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds. Determination of the apparent Km reveals that AFAR has highest affinity for 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and succinic semialdehyde, and low affinity for glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde. PMID:8526867

  1. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  2. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: a Potential Approach for Cell labeling

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Song, Haijing; Affleck, Donna; McDougald, Darryl L.; Storms, Robert W.; Zalutksy, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To advance the science and clinical application of stem cell therapy, the availability of a highly sensitive, quantitative, and translational method for tracking stem cells would be invaluable. Because hematopoetic stem cells express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1), we sought to develop an agent that is specific to ALDH1 and thus to cells expressing the enzyme. Such an agent might be also helpful in identifying tumors that are resistant to cyclophosphomide chemotherapy because ALDH1 is known to be responsible for this resistance. Methods We developed schemes for the synthesis of two 3radioiodinated aldehdyes—N-formylmethyl-5-[*I]iodopyridine-3-carboxamide ([*I]FMIC) and 4-diethylamino-3-[*I]iodobenzaldehyde ([*I]DEIBA)—at no-carrier-added levels from their respective tin precursors. These agents were evaluated using pure ALDH1 and tumor cells that expressed the enzyme. Results The average radiochemical yields for the synthesis [125I]FMIC and [125I]DEIBA were 70 ± 5% and 47 ± 14%, respectively. ALDH1 converted both compounds to respective acids suggesting their suitability as ALDH1 imaging agents. Although ability of ALDH1 within the cells to oxidize one of these substrates was shown, specific uptake in ALDH-expressing tumor cells could not be demonstrated. Conclusion To pursue this approach for ALDH1 imaging, radiolabeled aldehydes need to be designed such that, in addition to being good substrates for ALDH1, the cognate products should be sufficiently polar so as to be retained within the cells. PMID:19875048

  3. Quantification of Carnosine-Aldehyde Adducts in Human Urine.

    PubMed

    da Silva Bispo, Vanderson; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates several reactive carbonyl species, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and malondialdehyde. One major pathwayof aldehydes detoxification is through conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases or, alternatively, by conjugation with endogenous histidine containing dipeptides, such as carnosine (CAR). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of CAR- ACR, CAR-HHE and CAR-HNE adducts in human urinary samples from non-smokers young adults. Standard adducts were prepared and isolated by HPLC. The results showed the presence of a new product from the reaction of CAR with ACR. This new adduct was completely characterized by HPLC/MS-MSn, 1H RMN, COSY and HSQC. The new HPLC/MS/MS methodology employing stable isotope-labeled internal standards (CAR-HHEd5 and CAR-HNEd11) was developed for adducts quantification. This methodology permits quantification of 10pmol CAR-HHE and 1pmol of CAR-ACR and CAR-HNE. Accurate determinations in human urine sample were performed and showed 4.65±1.71 to CAR-ACR, 5.13±1.76 to CAR-HHE and 5.99±3.19nmol/mg creatinine to CAR-HNE. Our results indicate that carnosine pathways can be an important detoxification route of a, ß -unsaturated aldehydes. Moreover, carnosine adducts may be useful as redox stress indicator. PMID:26461323

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity promotes survival of human muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Elise; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Notarnicola, Cécile; Rouger, Karl; Serratrice, Nicolas; Bonnieu, Anne; Gay, Stéphanie; Bacou, Francis; Duret, Cédric; Carnac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that efficiently detoxify aldehydic products generated by reactive oxygen species and might therefore participate in cell survival. Because ALDH activity has been used to identify normal and malignant cells with stem cell properties, we asked whether human myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) could be identified and isolated based on their levels of ALDH activity. Human muscle explant-derived cells were incubated with ALDEFLUOR, a fluorescent substrate for ALDH, and we determined by flow cytometry the level of enzyme activity. We found that ALDH activity positively correlated with the myoblast-CD56+ fraction in those cells, but, we also observed heterogeneity of ALDH activity levels within CD56-purified myoblasts. Using lentiviral mediated expression of shRNA we demonstrated that ALDH activity was associated with expression of Aldh1a1 protein. Surprisingly, ALDH activity and Aldh1a1 expression levels were very low in mouse, rat, rabbit and non-human primate myoblasts. Using different approaches, from pharmacological inhibition of ALDH activity by diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of class I ALDH, to cell fractionation by flow cytometry using the ALDEFLUOR assay, we characterized human myoblasts expressing low or high levels of ALDH. We correlated high ALDH activity ex vivo to resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxic effect and in vivo to improved cell viability when human myoblasts were transplanted into host muscle of immune deficient scid mice. Therefore detection of ALDH activity, as a purification strategy, could allow non-toxic and efficient isolation of a fraction of human myoblasts resistant to cytotoxic damage. PMID:19840193

  5. Murine hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 is a major contributor to oxidation of aldehydes formed by lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Makia, Ngome L.; Bojang, Pasano; Falkner, K. Cameron; Conklin, Daniel J.; Prough, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lipid aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of various oxidative stress-mediated diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and cataract. In the present study, we sought to define which hepatic Aldh isoform plays a major role in detoxification of lipid-derived aldehydes, such as acrolein and HNE by enzyme kinetic and gene expression studies. The catalytic efficiencies for metabolism of acrolein by Aldh1a1 was comparable to that of Aldh3a1 (Vmax/Km = 23). However, Aldh1a1 exhibits far higher affinity for acrolein (Km = 23.2 μM) compared to Aldh3a1 (Km = 464 μM). Aldh1a1 displays a 3-fold higher catalytic efficiency for HNE than Aldh3a1 (218 vs 69 ml/min/mg). The endogenous Aldh1a1 gene was highly expressed in mouse liver and a liver-derived cell line (Hepa-1c1c7) compared to Aldh2, Aldh1b1 and Aldh3a1. Aldh1a1 mRNA levels was 34-fold and 73-fold higher than Aldh2 in mouse liver and Hepa-1c1c7 cells respectively. Aldh3a1 gene was absent in mouse liver, but moderately expressed in Hepa-1c1c7 cells compared to Aldh1a1. We demonstrated that knockdown of Aldh1a1 expression by siRNA caused Hepa-1c1c7 cells to be more sensitive to acrolein-induced cell death and resulted in increased accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts and caspase 3 activation. These results indicate that Aldh1a1 plays a major role in cellular defense against oxidative damage induced by reactive lipid aldehydes in mouse liver. We also noted that hepatic Aldh1a1 mRNA levels were significantly increased (≈ 3 fold) in acrolein-fed mice compared to control. In addition, hepatic cytosolic ALDH activity was induced by acrolein when 1 mM NAD+ was used as cofactor, suggesting an Aldh1a1-protective mechanism against acrolein toxicity in mice liver. Thus, mechanisms to induce Aldh1a1 gene expression may provide a useful rationale for therapeutic protection against oxidative stress-induced pathologies. PMID:21256123

  6. [Effects of panthenol and carnitine on aldehyde metabolic enzymes in rats with tetrachloromethane-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Satanovskaia, V I; Pron'ko, P S; Gaĭshmanova, A V; Miskevich, D A

    2009-01-01

    Tetrachloromethane (2 g/kg, intragastric) produced a decrease in the activity of NAD- and NADH- dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases with high Km for aldehydes in rat liver. Panthenol and L-carnitine administered separately normalized the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases, while a combination of the drugs did not produce any significant effect. PMID:19441727

  7. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, impairs signal transduction associated with muscarinic acetylcholine and metabotropic glutamate receptors: possible action on G alpha(q/11).

    PubMed

    Blanc, E M; Kelly, J F; Mark, R J; Waeg, G; Mattson, M P

    1997-08-01

    Considerable data indicate that oxidative stress and membrane lipid peroxidation contribute to neuronal degeneration in an array of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the impact of subtoxic levels of membrane lipid peroxidation on neuronal function is largely unknown. We now report that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, disrupts coupling of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors to phospholipase C-linked GTP-binding proteins in cultured rat cerebrocortical neurons. At subtoxic concentrations, HNE markedly inhibited GTPase activity, inositol phosphate release, and elevation of intracellular calcium levels induced by carbachol (muscarinic agonist) and (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl glycine (metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist). Maximal impairment of agonist-induced responses occurred within 30 min of exposure to HNE. Other aldehydes, including malondialdehyde, had little effect on agonist-induced responses. Antioxidants that suppress lipid peroxidation did not prevent impairment of agonist-induced responses by HNE, whereas glutathione, which is known to bind and detoxify HNE, did prevent impairment of agonist-induced responses. HNE itself did not induce oxidative stress. Immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis using an antibody to HNE-protein conjugates showed that HNE can bind to G alpha(q/11). HNE also significantly suppressed inositol phosphate release induced by aluminum fluoride. Collectively, our data suggest that HNE plays a role in altering receptor-G protein coupling in neurons under conditions of oxidative stress that may occur both normally, and before cell degeneration and death in pathological settings. PMID:9231714

  8. Fatty Aldehyde and Fatty Alcohol Metabolism: Review and Importance for Epidermal Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. PMID:24036493

  9. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.E.; Finnerty, W.R.

    1985-12-01

    The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: (i) a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9 fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and (ii) a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N.

  10. Human brain aldehyde reductases: relationship to succinic semialdehyde reductase and aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, P L; Wermuth, B; von Wartburg, J P

    1980-08-01

    Human brain contains multiple forms of aldehyde-reducing enzymes. One major form (AR3), as previously shown, has properties that indicate its identity with NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase isolated from brain and other organs of various species; i.e., low molecular weight, use of NADPH as the preferred cofactor, and sensitivity to inhibition by barbiturates. A second form of aldehyde reductase ("SSA reductase") specifically reduces succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to produce gamma-hydroxybutyrate. This enzyme form has a higher molecular weight than AR3, and uses NADH as well as NADPH as cofactor. SSA reductase was not inhibited by pyrazole, oxalate, or barbiturates, and the only effective inhibitor found was the flavonoid quercetine. Although AR3 can also reduce SSA, the relative specificity of SSA reductase may enhance its in vivo role. A third form of human brain aldehyde reductase, AR2, appears to be comparable to aldose reductases characterized in several species, on the basis of its activity pattern with various sugar aldehydes and its response to characteristic inhibitors and activators, as well as kinetic parameters. This enzyme is also the most active in reducing the aldehyde derivatives of biogenic amines. These studies suggest that the various forms of human brain aldehyde reductases may have specific physiological functions. PMID:6778961

  11. α,β-Unsaturated aldehyde of hyaluronan--Synthesis, analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Radovan; Šedová, Petra; Basarabová, Ivana; Moravcová, Martina; Wolfová, Lucie; Bobula, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2015-12-10

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) modified with an aldehyde group (HA-CHO or HA-aldehyde) has been extensively used for various biomedical applications. The main advantage of the aldehyde moieties is the ability to react with a wide range of amino compounds under physiological conditions. Reactions of aldehydes with primary amines in water are reversible and equilibrium is thoroughly shifted towards starting aldehyde and amine. This work presents an unique modification of HA: α,β-unsaturated aldehyde of HA (4,5-anhydro-6(GlcNAc)-oxo HA or ΔHA-CHO), which allows the primary amines to be attached to HA more effectively in comparison to the saturated HA-CHO. Higher hydrolytic stability is caused by the conjugation of imine with an adjacent --C=C-- double bond. Two strategies for the preparation of unsaturated HA-aldehyde were developed and chemical structures were studied in details. Cross-linked materials prepared from this precursor are biocompatible and suitable for applications in drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:26428127

  12. Dark Hydrazone Fluorescence Labeling Agents Enable Imaging of Cellular Aldehydic Load.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Lik Hang; Saxena, Nivedita S; Park, Hyun Shin; Weinberg, Kenneth; Kool, Eric T

    2016-08-19

    Aldehydes are key intermediates in many cellular processes, from endogenous metabolic pathways like glycolysis to undesired exogenously induced processes such as lipid peroxidation and DNA interstrand cross-linking. Alkyl aldehydes are well documented to be cytotoxic, affecting the functions of DNA and protein, and their levels are tightly regulated by the oxidative enzyme ALDH2. Mutations in this enzyme are associated with cardiac damage, diseases such as Fanconi anemia (FA), and cancer. Many attempts have been made to identify and quantify the overall level of these alkyl aldehydes inside cells, yet there are few practical methods available to detect and monitor these volatile aldehydes in real time. Here, we describe a multicolor fluorogenic hydrazone transfer ("DarkZone") system to label alkyl aldehydes, yielding up to 30-fold light-up response in vitro. A cell-permeant DarkZone dye design was applied to detect small-molecule aldehydes in the cellular environment. The new dye design also enabled the monitoring of cellular acetaldehyde production from ethanol over time by flow cytometry, demonstrating the utility of the DarkZone dyes for measuring and imaging the aldehydic load related to human disease. PMID:27326450

  13. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions. PMID:17913204

  14. Acyloin production from aldehydes in the perfused rat heart: the potential role of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, J A; Jetté, M; Huot, S; Des Rosiers, C

    1993-01-01

    Aldehydes represent an important class of cytotoxic products derived from free radical-induced lipid peroxidation which may contribute to reperfusion injury following myocardial infarct. Metabolism of aldehydes in the heart has not been well characterized aside from conjugation of unsaturated aldehydes with glutathione. However, aliphatic aldehydes like hexanal do not form stable glutathione conjugates. We have recently demonstrated in vitro that pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyses a reaction between pyruvate and saturated aldehydes to produce acyloins (3-hydroxyalkan-2-ones). In the present study, rat hearts were perfused with various aldehydes and pyruvate. Acyloins were generated from saturated aldehydes (butanal, hexanal or nonanal), but not from 2-hexanal (an unsaturated aldehyde) or malondialdehyde. Hearts perfused with 2 mM pyruvate and 10-100 microM hexanal rapidly took up hexanal in a dose-related manner (140-850 nmol/min), and released 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one (0.7-30 nmol/min), 2,3-octanediol (0-12 nmol/min) and hexanol (10-200 nmol/min). Small quantities of hexanoic acid (about 10 nmol/min) were also released. The rate of release of acyloin metabolites rose with increased concentration of hexanal, whereas hexanol release attained a plateau when hexanal infusion concentrations rose above 50 microM. Up to 50% of hexanal uptake could be accounted for by metabolite release. Less than 0.5% of hexanal uptake was found to be bound to acid-precipitable macromolecules. When hearts perfused with 50 microM hexanal and 2 mM pyruvate were subjected to a 15 min ischaemic period, the rates of release of 2,3-octanediol, 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one, hexanol and hexanoate during the reperfusion period were not significantly different from those in the pre-ischaemic period. Our results indicate that saturated aldehydes can be metabolically converted by the heart into stable diffusible compounds. PMID:8379929

  15. Chemical modification of aldehyde dehydrogenase by a vinyl ketone analogue of an insect pheromone.

    PubMed

    Blatter, E E; Tasayco, M L; Prestwich, G; Pietruszko, R

    1990-12-01

    A major component of the sex pheromone from the tobacco budworm moth Heliothis virescens is a C16 straight-chain aldehyde with a single unsaturation at the eleventh position. The sex pheromones are inactivated when metabolized to their corresponding acids by insect aldehyde dehydrogenase. During this investigation it was demonstrated that the C16 aldehyde is a good substrate for human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) isoenzymes E1 and E2 with Km and Kcat. values at pH 7.0 of 2 microM and 0.4 mumol of NADH/min per mg and of 0.6 microM and 0.24 mumol of NADH/min per mg respectively. A vinyl ketone analogue of the pheromone inhibited insect pheromone metabolism; it also inactivated human aldehyde dehydrogenase. Total inactivation of both isoenzymes was achieved at stoichiometric (equal or less than the subunit number) concentrations of vinyl ketone, incorporating 2.1-2.6 molecules/molecule of enzyme. Substrate protection was observed in the presence of the parent aldehyde and 5'-AMP. Peptide maps of tryptic digests of the E2 isoenzyme modified with 3H-labelled vinyl ketone showed that incorporation occurred into a single peptide peak. The labelled peptide of E2 isoenzyme was further purified on h.p.l.c. and sequenced. The label was incorporated into cysteine-302 in the primary structure of E2 isoenzyme, thus indicating that cysteine-302 is located in the aldehyde substrate area of the active site of aldehyde dehydrogenase. Affinity labelling of aldehyde dehydrogenase with vinyl ketones may prove to be of general utility in biochemical studies of these enzymes. PMID:2268265

  16. A SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex as a highly efficient catalyst for allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Sheets, Matthew

    2006-07-01

    An air- and moisture-stable SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex was synthesized and found to catalyze the nucleophilic allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin. The allylation of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to give the corresponding homoallyl alcohols was performed at room temperature to 60 degrees C in yields ranging from 50% (for typical aliphatic aldehydes) to up to 97% (for aromatic aldehydes) using 5 x 10(-3) to 1 mol % of the Pd catalyst. NMR spectroscopic study indicated that a sigma-allylpalladium intermediate was formed and possibly functions as the nucleophilic species that undergoes addition to the aldehydes. PMID:16808533

  17. Oxidation of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel alters calmodulin binding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, J. Z.; Wu, Y.; Williams, B. Y.; Rodney, G.; Mandel, F.; Strasburg, G. M.; Hamilton, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    This study presents evidence for a close relationship between the oxidation state of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel (RyR1) and its ability to bind calmodulin (CaM). CaM enhances the activity of RyR1 in low Ca2+ and inhibits its activity in high Ca2+. Oxidation, which activates the channel, blocks the binding of 125I-labeled CaM at both micromolar and nanomolar Ca2+ concentrations. Conversely, bound CaM slows oxidation-induced cross-linking between subunits of the RyR1 tetramer. Alkylation of hyperreactive sulfhydryls (<3% of the total sulfhydryls) on RyR1 with N-ethylmaleimide completely blocks oxidant-induced intersubunit cross-linking and inhibits Ca2+-free 125I-CaM but not Ca2+/125I-CaM binding. These studies suggest that 1) the sites on RyR1 for binding apocalmodulin have features distinct from those of the Ca2+/CaM site, 2) oxidation may alter the activity of RyR1 in part by altering its interaction with CaM, and 3) CaM may protect RyR1 from oxidative modifications during periods of oxidative stress.

  18. Antimony(v) cations for the selective catalytic transformation of aldehydes into symmetric ethers, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, and 1,3,5-trioxanes.

    PubMed

    Arias Ugarte, Renzo; Devarajan, Deepa; Mushinski, Ryan M; Hudnall, Todd W

    2016-07-01

    1-Diphenylphosphinonaphthyl-8-triphenylstibonium triflate ([][OTf]) was prepared in excellent yield by treating 1-lithio-8-diphenylphosphinonaphthalene with dibromotriphenylstiborane followed by halide abstraction with AgOTf. This antimony(v) cation was found to be stable toward oxygen and water, and exhibited exceptional Lewis acidity. The Lewis acidity of [][OTf] was exploited in the catalytic reductive coupling of a variety of aldehydes into symmetric ethers of type in good to excellent yields under mild conditions using Et3SiH as the reductant. Additionally, [][OTf] was found to selectively catalyze the Aldol condensation reaction to afford α-β unsaturated aldehydes () when aldehydes with 2 α-hydrogen atoms were used. Finally, [][OTf] catalyzed the cyclotrimerization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to afford the industrially-useful 1,3,5 trioxanes () in good yields, and with great selectivity. This phosphine-stibonium motif represents one of the first catalytic systems of its kind that is able to catalyze these reactions with aldehydes in a controlled, efficient manner. The mechanism of these processes has been explored both experimentally and theoretically. In all cases the Lewis acidic nature of the antimony(v) cation was found to promote these reactions. PMID:27326797

  19. The carbonyl oxide-aldehyde complex: a new intermediate of the ozonolysis reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi; McKee, M. L.; Radharkrishnan, T. P.

    1991-12-01

    MP4(SDQ)/6-31G (d,p) calculations suggest that the ozonolysis of alkenes in solution phase does not proceed via carbonyl oxide, but via a dipole complex between aldehyde and carbonyl oxide, which is 9 kcal/mol more stable than the separated molecules. The dipole complex is probably formed in the solvent cage upon decomposition of primary ozonide to aldehyde and carbonyl oxide. Rotation of either aldehyde or carbonyl oxide in the solvent cage leads to an antiparallel alignment of molecular dipole moments and dipole-dipole attraction.

  20. Direct Access to β-Fluorinated Aldehydes by Nitrite-Modified Wacker Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Crystal K; Ziegler, Daniel T; Carr, Brian; Wickens, Zachary K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2016-07-11

    An aldehyde-selective Wacker-type oxidation of allylic fluorides proceeds with a nitrite catalyst. The method represents a direct route to prepare β-fluorinated aldehydes. Allylic fluorides bearing a variety of functional groups are transformed in high yield and very high regioselectivity. Additionally, the unpurified aldehyde products serve as versatile intermediates, thus enabling access to a diverse array of fluorinated building blocks. Preliminary mechanistic investigations suggest that inductive effects have a strong influence on the rate and regioselectivity of the oxidation. PMID:27225538

  1. New aldehyde tag sequences identified by screening formylglycine generating enzymes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rush, Jason S; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2008-09-17

    Formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE) performs a critical posttranslational modification of type I sulfatases, converting cysteine within the motif CxPxR to the aldehyde-bearing residue formylglycine (FGly). This concise motif can be installed within heterologous proteins as a genetically encoded "aldehyde tag" for site-specific labeling with aminooxy- or hydrazide-functionalized probes. In this report, we screened FGEs from M. tuberculosis and S. coelicolor against synthetic peptide libraries and identified new substrate sequences that diverge from the canonical motif. We found that E. coli's FGE-like activity is similarly promiscuous, enabling the use of novel aldehyde tag sequences for in vivo modification of recombinant proteins. PMID:18722427

  2. Zinc-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling of Terminal Alkynes with Aldehydes: Access to Ynones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shan; Zeng, Li; Liu, Yichang; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-12-21

    Because of the lack of redox ability, zinc has seldom been used as a catalyst in dehydrogenative cross-coupling reactions. Herein, a novel zinc-catalyzed dehydrogenative C(sp(2) )H/C(sp)H cross-coupling of terminal alkynes with aldehydes was developed, and provides a simple way to access ynones from readily available materials under mild reaction conditions. Good reaction selectivity can be achieved with a 1:1 ratio of terminal alkyne and aldehyde. Various terminal alkynes and aldehydes are suitable in this transformation. PMID:26564779

  3. Influence of a sulfhydryl cross-link across the allosteric-site interface of E. coli phosphofructokinase

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason L.; Lasagna, Mauricio D.; Reinhart, Gregory D.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the role of quaternary stability on the properties of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase (PFK), a disulfide bond has been introduced across the subunit interface containing the allosteric binding sites in E. coli phosphofructokinase by changing N288 to cysteine. N288 is located in close proximity to the equivalent residue on an adjacent subunit. Although SDS-PAGE of oxidized N288C indicates monomeric protein, blocking the six native cysteine residues with N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) reveals dimers of N288C on non-native gels. Subsequent addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) to NEM-labeled N288C regenerates the monomer on SDS-PAGE, reflecting the reversibility of intersubunit disulfide bond formation. KSCN-induced hybrid formation between N288C and the charged-tagged mutant E195,199K exhibits full monomer–monomer exchange only upon DTT addition, providing a novel assessment of disulfide bond formation without NEM treatment. N288C also exhibits a diminished tendency toward nonspecific aggregation under denaturing conditions, a phenomenon associated with monomer formation in PFK. Pressure-induced dissociation and urea denaturation studies further indicate that oxidized N288C exhibits increased quaternary stability along both interfaces of the tetramer, suggesting a synergistic relationship between active site and allosteric site formation. Although the apparent binding affinities of substrates and effectors change somewhat upon disulfide formation in N288C, little difference is evident between the maximally inhibited and activated forms of the enzyme in oxidizing versus reducing conditions. Allosteric influence, therefore, is not correlated to subunit–subunit affinity, and does not involve substantial interfacial rearrangement. PMID:11604525

  4. Reactive ring-opened aldehyde metabolites in benzene hematotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Witz, G; Zhang, Z; Goldstein, B D

    1996-01-01

    The hematotoxicity of benzene is mediated by reactive benzene metabolites and possibly by other intermediates including reactive oxygen species. We previously hypothesized that ring-opened metabolites may significantly contribute to benzene hematotoxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, our studies initially demonstrated that benzene is metabolized in vitro to trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reactive six-carbon diene dialdehyde, and that MUC is toxic to the bone marrow in a manner similar to benzene. Benzene toxicity most likely involves interactions among several metabolites that operate by different mechanisms to produce more than one biological effect. Our studies indicate that MUC coadministered with hydroquinone is a particularly potent metabolite combination that causes bone marrow damage, suggesting that the involvement of ring-opened metabolites in benzene toxicity may be related to their biological effects in combination with other benzene metabolites. Studies in our laboratory and by others indicate that MUC is metabolized to a variety of compounds by oxidation or reduction of the aldehyde groups. The aldehydic MUC metabolite 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienal (CHO-M-OH), similar to MUC but to a lesser extent, is reactive toward glutathione, mutagenic in V79 cells, and hematotoxic in mice. It is formed by monoreduction of MUC, a process that is reversible and could be of biological significance in benzene bone marrow toxicity. The MUC metabolite 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic (COOH-M-OH) is an end product of MUC metabolism in vitro. Our studies indicate that COOH-M-OH is a urinary metabolite of benzene in mice, a finding that provides further indirect evidence for the in vivo formation of MUC from benzene. Mechanistic studies showed the formation of cis-trans-muconaldehyde in addition to MUC from benzene incubated in a hydroxyl radical-generating Fenton system. These results suggest that the benzene ring is initially opened to cis

  5. Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution - Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell D.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-01-01

    Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basin brines and hydrothermal systems like they are in the atmosphere. The data and parameters summarized here allow evaluation of the role of aldehydes in the formation of prebiotic precursors, such as amino acids and hydroxy acids on the early Earth and in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  6. Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution: Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, M.D.; Shock, E.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins brines and hydrothermal systems like they are in the atmosphere. The data and parameters summarized here allow evaluation of the role of aldehydes in the formation of prebiotic precursors, such as amino acids and hydroxy acids on the early Earth and in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. 97 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Nanogels based on alginic aldehyde and gelatin by inverse miniemulsion technique: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Anil Kumar, P R; Raj, Deepa K; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-03-30

    Nanogels were developed from alginic aldehyde and gelatin by an inverse miniemulsion technique. Stable inverse miniemulsions were prepared by sonication of noncontinuous aqueous phase (mixture of alginic aldehyde and gelatin) in a continuous organic phase (Span 20 dissolved in cyclohexane). Cross-linking occurred between alginic aldehyde (AA) and gelatin (gel) in the presence of borax by Schiff's base reaction during the formation of inverse miniemulsion. The effects of surfactant (Span 20) concentration, volume of the aqueous phase and AA/gel weight ratio on the size of the alginic aldehyde-gelatin (AA-gel) nanoparticles were studied. Nanogels were characterized by DLS, FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, SEM and TEM. DLS, TEM and SEM studies demonstrated nanosize and spherical morphology of the nanogels. Hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility analyses of the nanogels proved their nontoxicity. The results indicated the potential of the present nanogel system as a candidate for drug- and gene-delivery applications. PMID:25563951

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY PROTOCOL VERIFICATION REPORT, EMISSIONS OF VOCS AND ALDEHYDES FROM COMMERCIAL FURNITURE (WITH APPENDICES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification program, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) developed a test protocol for measuring volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in a large chamber. RTI convened stakeholders for the commercial...

  9. Synthesis of vinyl boronates from aldehydes by a practical boron-Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Coombs, John R; Zhang, Liang; Morken, James P

    2015-04-01

    A highly stereoselective boron-Wittig reaction between stable and readily accessible 1,1-bis(pinacolboronates) and aldehydes furnishes a variety of synthetically useful di- and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters. PMID:25799147

  10. Reaction of aminals of conjugated omega-dimethylamino aldehydes with indandione

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnaya, Zh.A.; Stytsenko, T.S.; Gusev, D.G.; Prokof'ev, E.P.

    1987-01-20

    Conjugated omega-dimethylamino ..beta..-diketones with two to five double bonds and trimethylidyne- and pentamethylidyneoxanine salts are formed in the condensation of animals of conjugated ..beta..-dimethylamino aldehydes with indandione.

  11. Copper catalyzed oxidative esterification of aldehydes with alkylbenzenes via cross dehydrogenative coupling.

    PubMed

    Rout, Saroj Kumar; Guin, Srimanta; Ghara, Krishna Kanta; Banerjee, Arghya; Patel, Bhisma K

    2012-08-01

    Copper(II) as the catalyst in a cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction has been demonstrated for the synthesis of benzylic esters using aldehydes and alkylbenzenes as coupling partners. PMID:22817825

  12. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Hydrogen Production in the Ketonization of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Lina M; Renz, Michael; Corma, Avelino

    2016-09-01

    Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2 ). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal oxide surface in the absence of noble metals. PMID:27539722

  13. Studies on the Mechanism of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Joshua F.

    2009-01-01

    DFT calculations support a concerted mechanism for xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase hydride displacement from the sp2 carbon of 6-substituted 4-quinazolinones. The variations in transition state structure show that C-O bond formation is nearly complete in the transition state and the transition state changes are anti-Hammond with the C-H and C-O bond lengths being more product-like for the faster reactions. The C-O bond length in the transition state is around 90% formed. However, the C-H bond is only about 80% broken. This leads to a very tetrahedral transition state with an O-C-N angle of 109 degrees. Thus, while the mechanism is concerted, the anti-bonding orbital of the C-H bond that is broken is not directly attacked by the nucleophile and instead hydride displacement occurs after almost complete tetrahedral transition state formation. In support of this the C=N bond is lengthened in the transition state indicating that attack on the electrophilic carbon occurs by addition to the C=N bond with negative charge increasing on the nitrogen. Differences in experimental reaction rates are accurately reproduced by these calculations, and tend to support this mechanism. PMID:18998731

  14. Studies on the mechanism of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Joshua F; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2008-12-01

    DFT calculations support a concerted mechanism for xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase hydride displacement from the sp(2) carbon of 6-substituted 4-quinazolinones. The variations in transition state structure show that C-O bond formation is nearly complete in the transition state and the transition state changes are anti-Hammond with the C-H and C-O bond lengths being more product-like for the faster reactions. The C-O bond length in the transition state is around 90% formed. However, the C-H bond is only about 80% broken. This leads to a very tetrahedral transition state with an O-C-N angle of 109 degrees. Thus, while the mechanism is concerted, the antibonding orbital of the C-H bond that is broken is not directly attacked by the nucleophile and instead hydride displacement occurs after almost complete tetrahedral transition state formation. In support of this the C=N bond is lengthened in the transition state indicating that attack on the electrophilic carbon occurs by addition to the C=N bond with negative charge increasing on the nitrogen. Differences in experimental reaction rates are accurately reproduced by these calculations and tend to support this mechanism. PMID:18998731

  15. Kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics of bisulfite-aldehyde adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bisulfite addition to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH in order to assess the importance of this reaction in stabilizing S(IV) in fog-, cloud-, and rainwater. Previously, the authors established that appreciable concentrations of the formaldehyde-bisulfite adduct (HMSA) are often present in fogwater. Measured HMSA concentrations in fogwater often do not fully account for observed excess S(IV) concentrations, however, so that other S(IV)-aldehyde adducts may be present. Reaction rates were determined by monitoring the disappearance of benzaldehyde by U.V. spectrophotometry under pseudo-first order conditions, (S(IV))/sub T/ >>(phi-CHO)/sub T/, in the pH range 0 - 4.4 at 25/sup 0/C. The equilibrium constant was determined by dissolving the sodium salt of the addition compound in a solution adjusted to pH 3.9, and measuring the absorbance of the equilibrated solution at 250 nm. A literature value of the extinction coefficient for benzaldehyde was used to calculate the concentration of free benzaldehyde. All solutions were prepared under an N/sub 2/ atmosphere using deoxygenated, deionized water and ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 M with sodium chloride.

  16. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  17. Sodium borohydride removes aldehyde inhibitors for enhancing biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    To enhance biohydrogen production from glucose and xylose in the presence of aldehyde inhibitors, reducing agent (i.e., sodium borohydride) was in situ added for effective detoxification. The detoxification efficiencies of furfural (96.7%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 91.7%) with 30mM NaBH4 were much higher than those of vanillin (77.3%) and syringaldehyde (69.3%). Biohydrogen fermentation was completely inhibited without detoxification, probably because of the consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by inhibitors reduction (R-CHO+2NADH→R-CH2OH+2NAD(+)). Addition of 30mM NaBH4 provided the reducing power necessary for inhibitors reduction (4R-CHO+NaBH4+2H2O→4R-CH2OH+NaBO2). The recovered reducing power in fermentation resulted in 99.3% recovery of the hydrogen yield and 64.6% recovery of peak production rate. Metabolite production and carbon conversion after detoxification significantly increased to 63.7mM and 81.9%, respectively. PMID:26342346

  18. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in Chinese and Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Leslie; Leong, Jern-Yi; Lim, Jing-Yan; Lee, Arthur; Yang, Jun; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Winslow, Munidasa

    2010-01-01

    The association between two functional polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2/ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes and alcohol dependence was examined in 182 Chinese and Indian patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence and 184 screened control subjects from Singapore. All subjects were screened by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients were also administered the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and selected genotypes confirmed by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were higher in controls compared to alcohol-dependent subjects for both Chinese and Indians. Frequencies of these two alleles were also higher in the 104 Chinese controls compared to the 80 Indian controls. None of the eight Chinese who were homozygous for both protective alleles was alcohol dependent. The higher frequencies of the protective alleles could explain the lower rate of alcohol dependence in Chinese. PMID:20025435

  19. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  20. Studies of the condensation of sulfones with ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Garst, Michael E; Dolby, Lloyd J; Esfandiari, Shervin; Okrent, Rachel A; Avey, Alfred A

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] The condensation of ketones or aldehydes with sulfones was shown to give a variety of products. Condensation of 2-methylcyclohexanone with dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide as base gave useful yields of 1,2-dimethylenecyclohexane. Under the same conditions, cycloheptanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and 2-butanone were converted to dienes. Remarkably, these reaction conditions converted acetophenone into p-terphenyl (10%) and (E)-1,4-diphenyl-3-penten-1-one (44%). Propiophenone was converted to 2'-methyl-p-terphenyl (61%). Using alpha-tetralone produced 1-methynaphthalene and naphthalene. No reaction took place with beta-tetralone. Using diethyl sulfone with alpha-tetralone lead to pure naphthalene. Condensation of isobutyraldehyde and dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide gave isoprene in low yield. Using benzaldehyde and benzyl phenyl sulfone in N,N-dimethylacetamide gave 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene, N,N-dimethylcinnamide, and a complex condensation product. Only 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene was obtained when the solvent was THF. PMID:16408963

  1. Intracellular localization of aldehyde dehydrogenase in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Marjanen, Leo

    1972-01-01

    1. Distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in rat liver was studied by measuring the rate of disappearance of acetaldehyde in the presence of each of the subcellular fractions. These were obtained by rough separation of particulate fractions from the soluble portion of the cell, by differential centrifugation, and by isopycnic gradient centrifugation. 2. The maximal rate of acetaldehyde oxidation was 3.7 μmol/min per g, with an apparent Km value below 10−5m. The highest rate of activity was observed in phosphate buffers of high Pi concentration (above 60mm). 3. The activity measured was completely dependent on NAD+. 4. The microsomal fraction and the nuclei were inactive in the assay. Of the total activity 80% was found in the mitochondrial fraction and the remaining 20% in the cytoplasm. 5. The distribution pattern is important from the point of view of acetaldehyde oxidation during ethanol metabolism. The apparent discrepancy of the results obtained by different workers and the localization of acetaldehyde oxidation in vivo is discussed. PMID:4346744

  2. Reactive ring-opened aldehyde metabolites in benzene hematotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Witz, G.; Zhang, Zhihua; Goldstein, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The hematotoxicity of benzene is mediated by reactive benzene metabolites and possibly by other intermediates including reactive oxygen species. We previously hypothesized that ring-opened metabolites may significantly contribute to benzene hematotoxicity. Consistent with this hypothesis, our studies initially demonstrated that benzene is metabolized in vitro to trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reactive six-carbon diene dialdehyde, and that MUC is toxic to the bone marrow in a manner similar to benzene. Benzene toxicity most likely involves interactions among several metabolites that operate by different mechanisms to produce more than one biological effect. Our studies indicate that MUC coadministered with hydroquinone is a particularly potent metabolite combination that causes bone marrow damage, suggesting that the involvement of ring-opened metabolites in benzene toxicity may be related to their biological effects in combination with other benzene metabolites. Studies in our laboratory and by others indicate that MUC is metabolized to a variety of compounds by oxidation or reduction of the aldehyde groups. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency of aldo-keto reductases with phospholipid aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Spite, Matthew; Baba, Shahid P.; Ahmed, Yonis; Barski, Oleg A.; Nijhawan, Kanchan; Petrash, J. Mark; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Phospholipid oxidation generates several bioactive aldehydes that remain esterified to the glycerol backbone (‘core’ aldehydes). These aldehydes induce endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic factors and enhance monocyte–endothelium adhesion. They also serve as ligands of scavenger receptors for the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins or apoptotic cells. The biochemical pathways involved in phospholipid aldehyde metabolism, however, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have examined the efficacy of the three mammalian AKR (aldo-keto reductase) families in catalysing the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes. The model phospholipid aldehyde POVPC [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine] was efficiently reduced by members of the AKR1, but not by the AKR6 or the ARK7 family. In the AKR1 family, POVPC reductase activity was limited to AKR1A and B. No significant activity was observed with AKR1C enzymes. Among the active proteins, human AR (aldose reductase) (AKR1B1) showed the highest catalytic activity. The catalytic efficiency of human small intestinal AR (AKR1B10) was comparable with the murine AKR1B proteins 1B3 and 1B8. Among the murine proteins AKR1A4 and AKR1B7 showed appreciably lower catalytic activity as compared with 1B3 and 1B8. The human AKRs, 1B1 and 1B10, and the murine proteins, 1B3 and 1B8, also reduced C-7 and C-9 sn-2 aldehydes as well as POVPE [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine]. AKR1A4, B1, B7 and B8 catalysed the reduction of aldehydes generated in oxidized C16:0-20:4 phosphatidylcholine with acyl, plasmenyl or alkyl linkage at the sn-1 position or C16:0-20:4 phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid. AKR1B1 displayed the highest activity with phosphatidic acids; AKR1A4 was more efficient with long-chain aldehydes such as 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl derivatives, whereas AKR1B8 preferred phosphatidylglycerol. These results suggest that proteins of the AKR1A and B families are

  4. Photoredox Activation for the Direct β-Arylation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Pirnot, Michael T.; Rankic, Danica A.; Martin, David B. C.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct β-activation of saturated aldehydes and ketones has long been an elusive transformation. We found that photoredox catalysis in combination with organocatalysis can lead to the transient generation of 5π-electron β-enaminyl radicals from ketones and aldehydes that rapidly couple with cyano-substituted aryl rings at the carbonyl β-position. This mode of activation is suitable for a broad range of carbonyl β-functionalization reactions and is amenable to enantioselective catalysis. PMID:23539600

  5. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    PubMed

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. PMID:26703808

  6. Aldehyde-Tagged Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks: a Versatile Platform for Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Xi, Fu-Gui; Liu, Hui; Yang, Ning-Ning; Gao, En-Qing

    2016-05-16

    Aldehyde-tagged UiO-67-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized via the direct solvothermal method or postsynthetic ligand exchange. Various functionalities have been introduced into the MOFs via postsynthetic modification (PSM) employing C-N and C-C coupling reactions of the aldehyde tag. Tandem PSM has also been demonstrated. An amino-functionalized MOF obtained by PSM is shown to be an efficient, heterogeneous, and recyclable catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation. PMID:27136395

  7. Neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction in mice lacking cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases: implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wey, Margaret Chia-Ying; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Martinez, Paul Anthony; Sullivan, Patricia; Goldstein, David S; Strong, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated levels of biogenic aldehydes in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain, aldehydes are primarily detoxified by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Reduced ALDH1 expression in surviving midbrain dopamine neurons has been reported in brains of patients who died with PD. In addition, impaired complex I activity, which is well documented in PD, reduces the availability of the NAD(+) co-factor required by multiple ALDH isoforms to catalyze the removal of biogenic aldehydes. We hypothesized that chronically decreased function of multiple aldehyde dehydrogenases consequent to exposure to environmental toxins and/or reduced ALDH expression, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of PD. To address this hypothesis, we generated mice null for Aldh1a1 and Aldh2, the two isoforms known to be expressed in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Aldh1a1(-/-)×Aldh2(-/-) mice exhibited age-dependent deficits in motor performance assessed by gait analysis and by performance on an accelerating rotarod. Intraperitoneal administration of L-DOPA plus benserazide alleviated the deficits in motor performance. We observed a significant loss of neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra and a reduction of dopamine and metabolites in the striatum of Aldh1a1(-/-)×Aldh2(-/-) mice. We also observed significant increases in biogenic aldehydes reported to be neurotoxic, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the aldehyde intermediate of dopamine metabolism, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). These results support the hypothesis that impaired detoxification of biogenic aldehydes may be important in the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that Aldh1a1(-/-)×Aldh2(-/-) mice may be a useful animal model of PD. PMID:22384032

  8. Iron-Catalyzed Regioselective Transfer Hydrogenative Couplings of Unactivated Aldehydes with Simple Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Long; Liu, Yan-Yao; Wu, Yi-Mei; Wang, Yin-Xia; Lin, Yu-Tong; Ye, Mengchun

    2016-05-17

    An FeBr3 -catalyzed reductive coupling of various aldehydes with alkenes that proceeds through a direct hydride transfer pathway has been developed. With (i) PrOH as the hydrogen donor under mild conditions, previously challenging coupling reactions of unactivated alkyl and aryl aldehydes with simple alkenes, such as styrene derivatives and α-olefins, proceeded smoothly to furnish a diverse range of functionalized alcohols with complete linear regioselectivity. PMID:27072872

  9. Garner’s aldehyde as a versatile intermediate in the synthesis of enantiopure natural products

    PubMed Central

    Passiniemi, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since its introduction to the synthetic community in 1984, Garner’s aldehyde has gained substantial attention as a chiral intermediate for the synthesis of numerous amino alcohol derivatives. This review presents some of the most successful carbon chain elongation reactions, namely carbonyl alkylations and olefinations. The literature is reviewed with particular attention on understanding how to avoid the deleterious epimerization of the existing stereocenter in Garner’s aldehyde. PMID:24367429

  10. Synergistic gold and enamine catalysis: intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes with allenamides.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Casado, Jaime; Nelson, Ronald; Mascareñas, José L; López, Fernando

    2016-02-18

    Aldehydes can be α-alkylated with allenamides by the combined action of an organocatalyst and a gold complex. The reaction requires the simultaneous generation of an enamine and a gold-activated allenamide. Importantly, by using a chiral amine as organocatalyst it is possible to obtain aldehyde products featuring all-carbon quaternary stereocenter at their α-position, with moderate to good levels of enantioselectivity. PMID:26765976

  11. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptides. Histidine dipeptides are present in micromolar to millimolar range in the tissues of vertebrates, where they are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as pH buffering, metal chelation, oxidant and aldehyde scavenging. Histidine dipeptides such as carnosine form Michael adducts with lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes, and react with carbohydrate-derived oxo- and hydroxy- aldehydes forming products of unknown structure. Although these peptides react with electrophilic molecules at lower rate than glutathione, they can protect glutathione from modification by oxidant and they may be important for aldehyde quenching in glutathione-depleted cells or extracellular space where glutathione is scarce. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with carnosine has been shown to diminish ischemic injury, improve glucose control, ameliorate the development of complications in animal models of diabetes and obesity, promote wound healing and decrease atherosclerosis. The protective effects of carnosine have been linked to its anti-oxidant properties, it ability to promote glycolysis, detoxify reactive aldehydes and enhance histamine levels. Thus, treatment with carnosine and related histidine dipeptides may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with high carbonyl load. PMID:23313711

  12. Synthesis of Chiral Piperazinones Using Amphoteric Aziridine Aldehyde Dimers and Functionalized Isocyanides.

    PubMed

    Heine, Niklas B; Kaldas, Sherif J; Belding, Lee; Shmatova, Olga; Dudding, Travis; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Studer, Armido; Yudin, Andrei K

    2016-06-17

    We have evaluated a range of functionalized isocyanides in the aziridine aldehyde-driven multicomponent synthesis of piperazinones. High diasteroselectivity for each isocyanide was observed. A theoretical evaluation of the reaction course corroborates the experimental data. Moreover, the reactivity of cis- and trans-configured aziridine aldehyde dimers has been compared. This study further probes the dimer-driven mechanism of cyclization and enables an efficient access to a wide range of chiral piperazinones bearing functionalized side chains. PMID:27156711

  13. Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L.O.; Martinez, A. |

    1999-10-05

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw-materials requires the hydrolysis of carbohydrate polymers into a fermentable syrup. During the hydrolysis of hemicellulose with dilute acid, a variety of toxic compounds are produced such as soluble aromatic aldehydes from lignin and furfural from pentose destruction. In this study, the authors have investigated the toxicity of representative aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethlyfurfural, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, and vanillin) as inhibitors of growth and ethanol production by ethanologenic derivatives of Escherichia coli B (strains K011 and LY01). Aromatic aldyhydes were at least twice as toxic as furfural of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a weight basis. The toxicities of all aldehydes (and ethanol) except furfural were additive when tested in binary combinations. In all cases, combinations with furfural were unexpectedly toxic. Although the potency of these aldehydes was directly related to hydrophobicity indicating a hydrophobic site of action, none caused sufficient membrane damage to allow the leakage of intracellular magnesium even when present at sixfold the concentrations required for growth inhibition. Of the aldehydes tested, only furfural strongly inhibited ethanol production in vitro. A comparison with published results for other microorganisms indicates that LY01 is equivalent or more resistant than other biocatalysts to the aldehydes examined in this study.

  14. [Fatty aldehydes of the plasmalogenic form of phosphatidylethanolamine in the vertebrate brain].

    PubMed

    Kruglova, E E

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made on the composition of fatty aldehydes of plasmalogen form of ethanolamine phospholipid in the brain of 28 fish species (13 cartilaginous and 15 teleost species, exhibiting different level of organization of the nervous system, marine and freshwater, dwelling in different habitats), as well as in the brain of other vertebrates. It was found that in all primitive species of cartilaginous fish high degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes is observed; in higher species the degree of unsaturation is much lower. The highest degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes was demonstrated for abyssal species of cartilaginous and teleost fishes. In warm-water species which dwell in the upper layers, unlike all other fishes investigated, almost all fatty aldehydes are saturated. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty aldehydes in fish brain depends on the entity of phylogenetic and ecological factors. Studies on other vertebrates show that in warm-blooded animals saturated fatty aldehydes predominate, whereas in cold-blooded-unsaturated ones are more abundant. PMID:314210

  15. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  16. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 ..mu..g and 19.6 +/- 1.6 ..mu..g, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 ..mu..g to 10.5 +/- 4.8 ..mu..g) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 ..mu..g vs 1661 +/- 471 ..mu..g, respectively, when compared to the control group.

  17. Modulatory potential of smokeless tobacco on the garlic, mace or black mustard-altered hepatic detoxication system enzymes, sulfhydryl content and lipid peroxidation in murine system.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Singh, S P

    1997-09-16

    The present study evaluates the potential of smokeless tobacco to modify the chemopreventive efficacy of minor dietary constituents, including garlic, mace or black mustard, via modulating the competing pathways of hepatic detoxication system and antioxidant defense mechanism in murine system. Garlic (100 mg/kg b.w. per day) by gavage and mace (1% w/w) or black mustard (1% w/w) in diet induced a significant increase in the levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH), cytochrome b5 (Cyt.b5) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt.P-450) in murine liver. The hepatic levels of GST and -SH were significantly depressed whereas microsomal Cyt.b5, Cyt.P-450 and MDA levels were elevated in groups treated with smokeless tobacco (50 or 100 mg/kg b.w. per day). The data revealed the inhibitory potential of smokeless tobacco on garlic-induced hepatic GST/GSH system besides the significant augmentation by smokeless tobacco on garlic or mace or black mustard-induced microsomal cytochromes. The possible implications of modulation in competing bioactivation and detoxication pathways in the process of chemical carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:9310267

  18. [Comparative evaluation of the influence of sulfhydryl and phosphate ACE inhibitors on thrombocyte aggregation in patients suffering from atrerial hypertension with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Medvedev, I N; Tolmachev, V V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of two ACE inhibitors--captopril, a sulfhydryl one, and fozinopril, a phosphate one--on the aggregation activity of thrombocytes in patients suffering from arterial hypertension (AH) with metabolic syndrome (MS). Sixty-nine patients suffering from AH with MS were examined; 36 patients were administered captopril during 16 weeks, while 33 patients were treated with fozinopril during the same period of time. Changes in anthropometric parameters, blood lipid spectrum, lipid peroxidation in blood plasma and thrombocytes, and the antioxidative protection of liquid part of blood and platelets, as well as the aggregation activity of thrombocytes were assessed. The data received were processed using Student criterion and system multifactor analysis. The study shows that the use of fozinopril in patients with AH and metabolic syndrome attenuates peroxidation syndrome and optimizes thrombocyte aggregation. Prolonged fozinopril application will stabilize the achieved effect. Captopril did not have a positive effect on the parameters under study. In conclusion, fozinopril should be applied in combination with non-drug means to lower body weight in patients suffering from AH with MS. PMID:17564032

  19. A novel reaction mediated by human aldehyde oxidase: amide hydrolysis of GDC-0834.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Jasleen K; Wong, Susan; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Liu, Lichuan; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P; Halladay, Jason S

    2015-06-01

    GDC-0834, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor investigated as a potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, was previously reported to be extensively metabolized by amide hydrolysis such that no measurable levels of this compound were detected in human circulation after oral administration. In vitro studies in human liver cytosol determined that GDC-0834 (R)-N-(3-(6-(4-(1,4-dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl)phenylamino)-4-methyl-5-oxo- 4,5-dihydropyrazin-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b] thiophene-2-carboxamide) was rapidly hydrolyzed with a CLint of 0.511 ml/min per milligram of protein. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) and carboxylesterase (CES) were putatively identified as the enzymes responsible after cytosolic fractionation and mass spectrometry-proteomics analysis of the enzymatically active fractions. Results were confirmed by a series of kinetic experiments with inhibitors of AO, CES, and xanthine oxidase (XO), which implicated AO and CES, but not XO, as mediating GDC-0834 amide hydrolysis. Further supporting the interaction between GDC-0834 and AO, GDC-0834 was shown to be a potent reversible inhibitor of six known AO substrates with IC50 values ranging from 0.86 to 1.87 μM. Additionally, in silico modeling studies suggest that GDC-0834 is capable of binding in the active site of AO with the amide bond of GDC-0834 near the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo), orientated in such a way to enable potential nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl of the amide bond by the hydroxyl of MoCo. Together, the in vitro and in silico results suggest the involvement of AO in the amide hydrolysis of GDC-0834. PMID:25845827

  20. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of membrane lipid peroxidation, impairs glutamate transport and mitochondrial function in synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Keller, J N; Mark, R J; Bruce, A J; Blanc, E; Rothstein, J D; Uchida, K; Waeg, G; Mattson, M P

    1997-10-01

    Removal of extracellular glutamate at synapses, by specific high-affinity glutamate transporters, is critical to prevent excitotoxic injury to neurons. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of an array of prominent neurodegenerative conditions that involve degeneration of synapses and neurons in glutamatergic pathways including stroke, and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Although cell culture data indicate that oxidative insults can impair key membrane regulatory systems including ion-motive ATPases and amino acid transport systems, the effects of oxidative stress on synapses, and the mechanisms that mediate such effects, are largely unknown. This study provides evidence that 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, mediates oxidation-induced impairment of glutamate transport and mitochondrial function in synapses. Exposure of rat cortical synaptosomes to 4-hydroxynonenal resulted in concentration- and time-dependent decreases in [3H]glutamate uptake, and mitochondrial function [assessed with the dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. Other related aldehydes including malondialdehyde and hexanal had little or no effect on glutamate uptake or mitochondrial function. Exposure of synaptosomes to insults known to induce lipid peroxidation (FeSO4 and amyloid beta-peptide) also impaired glutamate uptake and mitochondrial function. The antioxidants propyl gallate and glutathione prevented impairment of glutamate uptake and MTT reduction induced by FeSO4 and amyloid beta-peptide, but not that induced by 4-hydroxynonenal. Western blot analyses using an antibody to 4-hydroxynonenal-conjugated proteins showed that 4-hydroxynonenal bound to multiple cell proteins including GLT-1, a glial glutamate transporter present at high levels in synaptosomes. 4-Hydroxynonenal itself induced lipid peroxidation suggesting that, in addition to binding directly to membrane regulatory proteins, 4

  1. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Charles N.; Goodman, Blake; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Miller, Lance D.; Mejia, Pablo Vivas; Jennings, Nicolas B.; Gershenson, David M.; Bast, Robert C.; Coleman, Robert L.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) expression characterizes a subpopulation of cells with tumor initiating or cancer stem cell properties in several malignancies. Our goal was to characterize the phenotype of ALDH1A1-positive ovarian cancer cells and examine the biological effects of ALDH1A1 gene silencing. In our analysis of multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, we found that ALDH1A1 expression and activity was significantly higher in taxane and platinum-resistant cell lines. In patient samples, 72.9% of ovarian cancers had ALDH1A1 expression, in whom the percent of ALDH1A1-positive cells correlated negatively with progression-free survival (6.05 v 13.81 months, p<0.035). Subpopulations of A2780cp20 cells with ALDH1A1 activity were isolated for orthotopic tumor initiating studies, where tumorigenicity was approximately 50-fold higher with ALDH1A1-positive cells. Interestingly, tumors derived from ALDH1A1-positive cells gave rise to both ALDH1A1-positive and ALDH1A1-negative populations, but ALDH1A1-negative cells could not generate ALDH1A1-positive cells. In an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer, ALDH1A1 silencing using nanoliposomal siRNA sensitized both taxane- and platinum-resistant cell lines to chemotherapy, significantly reducing tumor growth in mice compared to chemotherapy alone (a 74–90% reduction, p<0.015). These data demonstrate that the ALDH1A1 subpopulation is associated with chemoresistance and outcome in ovarian cancer patients, and targeting ALDH1A1 sensitizes resistant cells to chemotherapy. ALDH1A1-positive cells have enhanced, but not absolute, tumorigenicity, but do have differentiation capacity lacking in ALDH1A1-negative cells. This enzyme may be important for identification and targeting of chemoresistant cell populations in ovarian cancer. PMID:20889728

  2. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  3. Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Purified Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Aldehyde Dehydrogenases*

    PubMed Central

    Beretta, Matteo; Gruber, Karl; Kollau, Alexander; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Goessler, Walter; Keung, Wing Ming; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Metabolism of nitroglycerin (GTN) to 1,2-glycerol dinitrate (GDN) and nitrite by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is essentially involved in GTN bioactivation resulting in cyclic GMP-mediated vascular relaxation. The link between nitrite formation and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is still unclear. To test the hypothesis that the ALDH2 reaction is sufficient for GTN bioactivation, we measured GTN-induced formation of cGMP by purified sGC in the presence of purified ALDH2 and used a Clark-type electrode to probe for nitric oxide (NO) formation. In addition, we studied whether GTN bioactivation is a specific feature of ALDH2 or is also catalyzed by the cytosolic isoform (ALDH1). Purified ALDH1 and ALDH2 metabolized GTN to 1,2- and 1,3-GDN with predominant formation of the 1,2-isomer that was inhibited by chloral hydrate (ALDH1 and ALDH2) and daidzin (ALDH2). GTN had no effect on sGC activity in the presence of bovine serum albumin but caused pronounced cGMP accumulation in the presence of ALDH1 or ALDH2. The effects of the ALDH isoforms were dependent on the amount of added protein and, like 1,2-GDN formation, were sensitive to ALDH inhibitors. GTN caused biphasic sGC activation with apparent EC50 values of 42 ± 2.9 and 3.1 ± 0.4 μm in the presence of ALDH1 and ALDH2, respectively. Incubation of ALDH1 or ALDH2 with GTN resulted in sustained, chloral hydrate-sensitive formation of NO. These data may explain the coupling of ALDH2-catalyzed GTN metabolism to sGC activation in vascular smooth muscle. PMID:18450747

  4. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:14756315

  5. Nicotinamide Cofactors Suppress Active-Site Labeling of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Stiti, Naim; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Strubl, Laura; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bartels, Dorothea; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-06-17

    Active site labeling by (re)activity-based probes is a powerful chemical proteomic tool to globally map active sites in native proteomes without using substrates. Active site labeling is usually taken as a readout for the active state of the enzyme because labeling reflects the availability and reactivity of active sites, which are hallmarks for enzyme activities. Here, we show that this relationship holds tightly, but we also reveal an important exception to this rule. Labeling of Arabidopsis ALDH3H1 with a chloroacetamide probe occurs at the catalytic Cys, and labeling is suppressed upon nitrosylation and oxidation, and upon treatment with other Cys modifiers. These experiments display a consistent and strong correlation between active site labeling and enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, however, labeling is suppressed by the cofactor NAD(+), and this property is shared with other members of the ALDH superfamily and also detected for unrelated GAPDH enzymes with an unrelated hydantoin-based probe in crude extracts of plant cell cultures. Suppression requires cofactor binding to its binding pocket. Labeling is also suppressed by ALDH modulators that bind at the substrate entrance tunnel, confirming that labeling occurs through the substrate-binding cavity. Our data indicate that cofactor binding adjusts the catalytic Cys into a conformation that reduces the reactivity toward chloroacetamide probes. PMID:26990764

  6. The Pivotal Role of Aldehyde Toxicity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Therapeutic Potential of Micronutrient Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Jurnak, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as by restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Genomic studies have not revealed dominant genetic errors common to all forms of ASD. So ASD is assumed to be a complex disorder due to mutations in hundreds of common variants. Other theories argue that spontaneous DNA mutations and/or environmental factors contribute to as much as 50% of ASD. In reviewing potential genetic linkages between autism and alcoholism, it became apparent that all theories of ASD are consistent with aldehyde toxicity, in which endogenous and exogenous aldehydes accumulate as a consequence of mutations in key enzymes. Aldehyde toxicity is characterized by cell-localized, micronutrient deficiencies in sulfur-containing antioxidants, thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6), folate, Zn2+, possibly Mg2+, and retinoic acid, causing oxidative stress and a cascade of metabolic disturbances. Aldehydes also react with selective cytosolic and membrane proteins in the cell of origin; then some types migrate to damage neighboring cells. Reactive aldehydes also form adducts with DNA, selectively mutating bases and inducing strand breakage. This article reviews the relevant genomic, biochemical, and nutritional literature, which supports the central hypothesis that most ASD symptoms are consistent with symptoms of aldehyde toxicity. The hypothesis represents a paradigm shift in thinking and has profound implications for clinical detection, treatment, and even prevention of ASD. Insight is offered as to which neurologically afflicted children might successfully be treated with micronutrients and which children are unlikely to be helped. The aldehyde toxicity hypothesis likely applies to other neurological disorders. PMID:27330305

  7. Synthesis and accumulation of aromatic aldehydes in an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kunjapur, Aditya M; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-08-20

    Aromatic aldehydes are useful in numerous applications, especially as flavors, fragrances, and pharmaceutical precursors. However, microbial synthesis of aldehydes is hindered by rapid, endogenous, and redundant conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. We report the construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that serves as a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis. Six genes with reported activity on the model substrate benzaldehyde were rationally targeted for deletion: three genes that encode aldo-keto reductases and three genes that encode alcohol dehydrogenases. Upon expression of a recombinant carboxylic acid reductase in the RARE strain and addition of benzoate during growth, benzaldehyde remained in the culture after 24 h, with less than 12% conversion of benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Although individual overexpression results demonstrated that all six genes could contribute to benzaldehyde reduction in vivo, additional experiments featuring subset deletion strains revealed that two of the gene deletions were dispensable under the conditions tested. The engineered strain was next investigated for the production of vanillin from vanillate and succeeded in preventing formation of the byproduct vanillyl alcohol. A pathway for the biosynthesis of vanillin directly from glucose was introduced and resulted in a 55-fold improvement in vanillin titer when using the RARE strain versus the wild-type strain. Finally, synthesis of the chiral pharmaceutical intermediate L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) was demonstrated from benzaldehyde and glucose upon expression of a recombinant mutant pyruvate decarboxylase in the RARE strain. Beyond allowing accumulation of aromatic aldehydes as end products in E. coli, the RARE strain expands the classes of chemicals that can be produced microbially via aldehyde intermediates. PMID:25076127

  8. Identification and Characterization of an Antennae-Specific Aldehyde Oxidase from the Navel Orangeworm

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Young-Moo; Pelletier, Julien; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Leal, Walter S.

    2013-01-01

    Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes – the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs). Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13–16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13–16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:23826341

  9. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  10. Anti-ulcerogenic mechanisms of the sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin-enriched fraction from Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae): role of somatostatin, gastrin, and endogenous sulfhydryls and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Cola, Maíra; Di Pietro Magri, Luciana; Batista, Leonia Maria; de Paiva, Joseilson Alves; Trigo, José Roberto; Souza-Brito, Alba R M

    2012-04-01

    Arctium lappa L. has been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative, and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The mechanisms involved in the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the sesquiterpene onopordopicrin (ONP)-enriched fraction (termed the ONP fraction), obtained from A. lappa leaves, were studied. The gastroprotective mechanism of the ONP fraction was evaluated in experimental in vivo models in rodents, mimicking this disease in humans. ONP fraction (50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the mucosal injury induced by ethanol/HCl solution (75%), indomethacin/bethanecol (68.9%), and stress (58.3%). When the ONP fraction was investigated in pylorus ligature, it did not induce alteration in the gastric volume but did modify the pH and total acid concentration of gastric juice. ONP fraction significantly increased serum somatostatin levels (82.1±4.1 vs. control group 12.7±4 pmol/L) and decreased serum gastrin levels (62.6±6.04 vs. control group 361.5±8.2 μU/mL). Mucus production was not significantly altered by the ONP fraction. Gastroprotection by the ONP fraction was completely inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide treatment and did not modify the effect in the animals pretreated with l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester. These results suggest an antisecretory mechanism involved with the antiulcerogenic effect of the ONP fraction. However, only endogenous sulfhydryls play an important role in gastroprotection of the ONP fraction. PMID:22191571

  11. Time course of inhibition of cholinesterase and aliesterase activities, and nonprotein sulfhydryl levels following exposure to organophosphorus insecticides in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Boone, J S; Chambers, J E

    1996-02-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) in brain and muscle was quickly inhibited during a 48-hr in vivo exposure to chlorpyrifos (0.1 ppm), parathion (0.15 ppm), and methyl parathion (8 ppm) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). ChE remained inhibited during a 96-hr nonexposure period. Brain ChE reached peak inhibition by 12 hr after exposure to parathion and chlorpyrifos and by 4 hr after exposure to methyl parathion. All insecticides caused greater than 70% ChE inhibition by 4 hr in muscle. There was no recovery of ChE after 4 days of nonexposure in either brain or muscle. Hepatic aliesterases (AliE) were quickly and greatly inhibited (> 70% by 4 hr) after exposure to parathion and chlorpyrifos but not after exposure to methyl parathion. Exposure to methyl parathion required 24-36 hr to inhibit hepatic AliE to the same level as that following parathion and chlorpyrifos exposures at 4 hr. Exposure to all insecticides eventually resulted in greater than 80% inhibition of AliE. None of the test groups treated with insecticides showed any signs of significant recovery of AliE during the 4 days of nonexposure. Nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) concentrations were lower than controls after 24 hr of exposure and 96 hr after recovery for all compounds. Exposure to methyl parathion lowered NPSH concentrations greater than the other compounds. Hepatic AliE appear capable of affording some protection of ChE from inhibition following parathion or chlorpyrifos exposures, but considerably less protection against methyl parathion. PMID:8742317

  12. Prognostic values of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu-mei; Zhao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been used as a functional stem cell marker to isolate cancer stem cells in different cancer types, including ovarian cancer. However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity in ovarian cancer remains elusive. In addition, the prognostic value of an individual ALDH1 isoenzyme in ovarian cancer is not clear. Thus, we accessed the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer patients through the “Kaplan–Meier plotter” online database, which can be used to determine the effect of the genes on ovarian cancer prognosis. We found that high mRNA expression of five ALDH1 isoenzymes, such as ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, and ALDH1L1, was not correlated with overall survival (OS) for all 1,306 ovarian cancer patients. In addition, all five of the ALDH1 isoenzymes’ high mRNA expression was found to be uncorrelated with OS in serous cancer or endometrioid cancer patients. However, ALDH1A3’s high mRNA expression is associated with worse OS in grade II ovarian cancer patients, hazard ratio (HR) 1.53 (1.14–2.07), P=0.005. ALDH1A2’s high mRNA expression is significantly associated with worse OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, HR 2.86 (1.56–5.08), P=0.00036. In addition, ALDH1A3’s high mRNA expression is significantly associated with better OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, HR 0.56 (0.32–1.00), P=0.04. Our results indicate that although ALDH1 isoenzyme mRNA might not be a prognostic marker for overall ovarian cancer patients, some isoenzymes, such as ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3, might be a good prognostic marker for some types of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27110126

  13. Biochemical studies of olfaction: binding specificity of radioactively labeled stimuli to an isolated olfactory preparation from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed

    Cagan, R H; Zeiger, W N

    1978-10-01

    The extent of binding of 10 radioactively labeled odorant amino acids to a sedimentable fraction (fraction P2) derived from the olfactory rosettes of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri corresponded closely with their reported relative stimulatory effectiveness measured electrophysiologically. L isomers were bound to a greater extent than their respective D isomers. Binding of L-alanine was strongly and irreversibly inhibited by mercurials but was not affected by sulfhydryl-blocking reagents. Binding was saturable and reversible. Scatchard analyses gave evidence of two types of binding sites for most of the amino acids studied. The Kd values of the higher-affinity binding sites were similar among the amino acids, being in the range of 10(-6) M; differences occurred in the relative numbers of sites, n. These results, coupled with those from competition experiments, lead to the postulate that a multiplicity of types of olfactory binding sites exist in the trout: site TSA, which binds L-threonine, L-serine, and L-alanine; site L, which binds L-lysine; and site AB which binds beta-alanine. Tentative assignments are: site V, which binds L-valine; site H, which binds L-histidine; and site AD, which binds D-alanine. Site AD may be a lower affinity site for L-alanine. Binding of olfactory stimulus molecules appears to be an initial discrimination step in olfaction. PMID:283385

  14. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  15. Direct site-specific immobilization of protein A via aldehyde-hydrazide conjugation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Berlin; Ren, Jun; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Immobilization of affinity ligands on supporting matrices is a key step for the preparation of affinity chromatography resins, and an efficient coupling strategy can significantly improve the validity and cost of the affinity system, especially for systems that employ expensive recombinant proteins or antibodies as affinity ligands. This study described a simple method for obtaining site-specific immobilization of protein A (the ligand) via aldehyde-hydrazide conjugation and its application in antibody purification via protein A chromatography. An aldehyde group was generated at the N-terminus of protein A in vivo by co-expressing a formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) and recombinant protein A containing a FGE recognizing sequence (aldehyde tag) in Escherichia coli. The resulting aldehyde allowed direct immobilization of protein A onto the hydrazide-modified agarose matrices under mild condition. We found that 100mM aniline was most effective for catalyzing the coupling reaction, and the recombinant protein A could be coupled with high selectivity, directly from a crude cell extract. The site-specific immobilized protein A showed good capacity for antibody purification. The specificity of the aldehyde-hydrazide reaction not only allowed site-specific immobilization of affinity ligands, but also improved the cost of the process by employing unpurified ligands, a method that might be of great use to industrial applications. PMID:26655104

  16. Charged tag founded in N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization for quantification of fatty aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjing; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuanqi; Qi, Wanshu; Guo, Yinlong

    2016-09-21

    N-(1-chloroalkyl)pyridinium quaternization was developed for the derivatization of fatty aldehydes. Differing from common pre-charged reagents, non-charged pyridine and thionyl chloride were designed to add permanently charged tag on aldehydes. Pyridine was far less competitive than charged derivatives in ionization. Thionyl chloride in excess was quenched by deionized water, converting into less residual sulfur dioxide bubbles. Thus solutions could be tested directly by mass spectrometry without further post-treatments. Pyridine-d5 labeled fatty aldehydes were prepared as internal standards. Mixed derivatives were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analytical parameters including reaction yield, stability, precision, linearity, and detection limits (LODs < 0.3 pg mL(-1)) were carefully validated. This method facilitated the analysis low content (ng mL(-1)) levels of free aliphatic aldehydes (C6C18) in human thyroid carcinoma and para-carcinoma tissue with a simple pretreatment procedure. Content of long chain nonvolatile aldehydes (C10C18) remarkably increased in thyroid carcinoma tissues (p < 0.05). PMID:27590548

  17. Toxicity of polyunsaturated aldehydes of diatoms to Indo-Pacific bioindicator organism Echinometra mathaei.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Davide; Gaion, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known suitability of early developmental stages of sea urchin as recommended model for pollutant toxicity testing, little is known about the sensitivity of Indo-Pacific species Echinometra mathaei to polyunsaturated aldehydes. In this study, the effect of three short chain aldehydes, 2,4-decadienal (DD), 2,4-octadienal (OD) and 2,4-heptadienal (HD), normally found in many diatoms, such as Skeletonema costatum, Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, was evaluated on larval development of E. mathaei embryos. Aldehydes affected larval development in a dose-dependent manner, in particular HD>OD>DD; the results of this study highlighted the higher sensitivity of this species toward aldehydes compared with data registered for other sea urchin species. In comparison with studies reported in the literature, contrasting results were observed during our tests; therefore, an increasing toxic effect was registered with decreasing the chain length of aldehydes. This work could provide new insights in the development of new toxicological assays toward most sensitive species. PMID:25945412

  18. Glutathione depletion in lung cells by low-molecular-weight aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Meacher, D M; Menzel, D B

    1999-06-01

    Use of oxygenates in gasoline in the United States may increase atmospheric levels of aldehydes. To assist in health assessments of inhalation exposure to aldehydes, we studied glutathione (GSH) depletion by low-molecular-weight n-alkanals and 2-alkenals, ubiquitous air pollutants, in adult rat lung (ARL) cells by laser cytometry. For each homologous series, the effective aldehyde concentration that depleted GSH by 50% (EC50) in ARL cells correlates with published values for the median lethal dose of the chemicals and with Hammett/Taft electronic parameters, sigma* for n-alkanals and sigma(+)p for 2-alkenals. n-Alkanals (EC50, 110-400 mmol/L) were 1000 times less effective in depleting GSH than were 2-alkenals (EC50, 2-180 micromol/L), of which acrolein was the most potent. Ability of the 2-alkenals to deplete GSH follows the second-order rate constant for adduct formation. Ability of n-alkanals to deplete GSH follows chain length. Within a homologous series of low-molecular-weight aldehydes, structure-activity relationships are useful for predicting the toxicity of the aldehydes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:10580549

  19. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  20. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    PubMed

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods. PMID:25089792

  1. Oxidation of cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes by a basic peroxidase from lignifying Zinnia elegans hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A R; Pomar, F

    2001-08-01

    The xylem of 26-day old Zinnia elegans hypocotyls synthesizes lignins derived from coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol with a G/S ratio of 43/57 in the aryl-glycerol-beta-aryl ether core, as revealed by thioacidolysis. Thioacidolysis of Z. elegans lignins also reveals the presence of coniferyl aldehyde end groups linked by beta-0-4 bonds. Both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, as well as coniferyl and sinapyl aldehyde, are substrates of a xylem cell wall-located strongly basic peroxidase, which is capable of oxidizing them in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This peroxidase shows a particular affinity for cinnamyl aldehydes with kappa(M) values in the mu(M) range, and some specificity for syringyl-type phenols. The affinity of this strongly basic peroxidase for cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes is similar to that shown by the preceding enzymes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway (microsomal 5-hydroxylases and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase), which also use cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes as substrates, indicating that the one-way highway of construction of the lignin macromolecule has no metabolic "potholes" in which the lignin building blocks might accumulate. This fact suggests a high degree of metabolic plasticity for this basic peroxidase, which has been widely conserved during the evolution of vascular plants, making it one of the driving forces in the evolution of plant lignin heterogeneity. PMID:11430983

  2. Highly enantioselective reductive cyclization of acetylenic aldehydes via rhodium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jong Uk; Krische, Michael J

    2006-08-23

    Catalytic hydrogenation of acetylenic aldehydes 1a-12a using chirally modified cationic rhodium catalysts enables highly enantioselective reductive cyclization to afford cyclic allylic alcohols 1b-12b. Using an achiral hydrogenation catalyst, the chiral racemic acetylenic aldehydes 13a-15a engage in highly syn-diastereoselective reductive cyclizations to afford cyclic allylic alcohols 13b-15b. Ozonolysis of cyclization products 7b and 9b allows access to optically enriched alpha-hydroxy ketones 7c and 9c. Reductive cyclization of enyne 7a under a deuterium atmosphere provides the monodeuterated product deuterio-7b, consistent with a catalytic mechanism involving alkyne-carbonyl oxidative coupling followed by hydrogenolytic cleavage of the resulting oxametallacycle. These hydrogen-mediated transformations represent the first examples of the enantioselective reductive cyclization of acetylenic aldehydes. PMID:16910650

  3. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  4. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  5. Identification of candidate aldehyde oxidases from the silkworm Bombyx mori potentially involved in antennal pheromone degradation.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Julien; Bozzolan, Françoise; Solvar, Marthe; François, Marie-Christine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2007-12-01

    Signal inactivation is a crucial step in the dynamic of olfactory process and involves various Odorant-Degrading Enzymes. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the best models for studying olfaction in insects, the involvement of an antennal-specific aldehyde oxidase in the degradation of the sex pheromone component bombykal has been demonstrated over the three past decades by biochemical studies. However, the corresponding enzyme has never been characterized at the molecular level. Bioinformatic screening of B. mori genome and molecular approaches have been used to isolate several candidate sequences of aldehyde oxidases. Two interesting antennal-expressed genes have been further characterized and their putative functions are discussed in regard to their respective expression pattern and to our knowledge on aldehyde oxidase properties. Interestingly, one gene appeared as specifically expressed in the antennae of B. mori and associated in males with the bombykal-sensitive sensilla, strongly suggesting that it could encode for the previously biochemically characterized enzyme. PMID:17904312

  6. Vapour-phase gold-surface-mediated coupling of aldehydes with methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingjun; Liu, Xiaoying; Haubrich, Jan; Friend, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Selective coupling of oxygenates is critical to many synthetic processes, including those necessary for the development of alternative fuels. We report a general process for selective coupling of aldehydes and methanol as a route to ester synthesis. All steps are mediated by oxygen-covered metallic gold nanoparticles on Au(111). Remarkably, cross-coupling of methanol with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and benzeneacetaldehyde to methyl esters is promoted by oxygen-covered Au(111) below room temperature with high selectivity. The high selectivity is attributed to the ease of nucleophilic attack of the aldehydes by the methoxy intermediate-formed from methanol on the surface-which yields the methyl esters. The competing combustion occurs via attack of both methanol and the aldehydes by oxygen. The mechanistic model constructed in this study provides insight into factors that control selectivity and clearly elucidates the crucial role of Au nanoparticles as active species in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols, even in solution.

  7. Chemoselective Reduction of Tertiary Amides under Thermal Control: Formation of either Aldehydes or Amines.

    PubMed

    Tinnis, Fredrik; Volkov, Alexey; Slagbrand, Tove; Adolfsson, Hans

    2016-03-24

    The chemoselective reduction of amides in the presence of other more reactive reducible functional groups is a highly challenging transformation, and successful examples thereof are most valuable in synthetic organic chemistry. Only a limited number of systems have demonstrated the chemoselective reduction of amides over ketones. Until now, the aldehyde functionality has not been shown to be compatible in any catalytic reduction protocol. Described herein is a [Mo(CO)6 ]-catalyzed protocol with an unprecedented chemoselectivity and allows for the reduction of amides in the presence of aldehydes and imines. Furthermore, the system proved to be tunable by variation of the temperature, which enabled for either C-O or C-N bond cleavage that ultimately led to the isolation of both amines and aldehydes, respectively, in high chemical yields. PMID:26934055

  8. Ubiquitin-aldehyde: a general inhibitor of ubiquitin-recycling processes.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A; Rose, I A

    1987-01-01

    The generation and characterization of ubiquitin (Ub)-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of Ub-C-terminal hydrolase, has previously been reported. We now examine the action of this compound on the Ub-mediated proteolytic pathway using the system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. Addition of Ub-aldehyde was found to strongly inhibit breakdown of added 125I-labeled lysozyme, but inhibition was overcome by increasing concentrations of Ub. The following evidence shows the effect of Ub-aldehyde on protein breakdown to be indirectly caused by its interference with the recycling of Ub, leading to exhaustion of the supply of free Ub: Ub-aldehyde markedly increased the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates coincident with a much decreased rate of conjugate breakdown. release of Ub from isolated Ub-protein conjugates in the absence of ATP (and therefore not coupled to protein degradation) is markedly inhibited by Ub-aldehyde. On the other hand, the ATP-dependent degradation of the protein moiety of Ub conjugates, which is an integral part of the proteolytic process, is not inhibited by this agent. Direct measurement of levels of free Ub showed a rapid disappearance caused by the inhibitor. The Ub is found to be distributed in derivatives of a wide range of molecular weight classes. It thus seems that Ub-aldehyde, previously demonstrated to inhibit the hydrolysis of Ub conjugates of small molecules, also inhibits the activity of a series of enzymes that regenerate free Ub from adducts with proteins and intermediates in protein breakdown. Images PMID:3031653

  9. Binding Procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  10. Enantioselective Multicomponent Condensation Reactions of Phenols, Aldehydes, and Boronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Keith S; Luan, Yi; Ramella, Daniele; Panek, James S; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Chiral diols and biphenols catalyze the multicomponent condensation reaction of phenols, aldehydes, and alkenyl or aryl boronates. The condensation products are formed in good yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds via an initial Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aldehyde and phenol to yield an ortho-quinone methide that undergoes an enantioselective boronate addition. A cyclization pathway was discovered while exploring the scope of the reaction that provides access to chiral 2,4-diaryl chroman products, the core of which is a structural motif found in natural products. PMID:26576776

  11. Immobilization of DNA via oligonucleotides containing an aldehyde or carboxylic acid group at the 5' terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Kremsky, J N; Wooters, J L; Dougherty, J P; Meyers, R E; Collins, M; Brown, E L

    1987-01-01

    A general method for the immobilization of DNA through its 5'-end has been developed. A synthetic oligonucleotide, modified at its 5'-end with an aldehyde or carboxylic acid, was attached to latex microspheres containing hydrazide residues. Using T4 polynucleotide ligase and an oligonucleotide splint, a single stranded 98mer was efficiently joined to the immobilized synthetic fragment. After impregnation of the latex microspheres with the fluorescent dye, Nile Red and attachment of an aldehyde 16mer, 5 X 10(5) bead-DNA conjugates could be detected with a conventional fluorimeter. Images PMID:3562241

  12. Nickel(0)-catalyzed intramolecular reductive coupling of alkenes and aldehydes or ketones with hydrosilanes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yukari; Hoshimoto, Yoichi; Kumar, Ravindra; Ohashi, Masato; Ogoshi, Sensuke

    2016-05-01

    A nickel(0)-catalyzed reductive coupling of aldehydes and simple alkenes with hydrosilanes has been developed. A variety of silyl-protected 1-indanol derivatives were prepared in a highly diastereoselective manner (up to >99 : 1 dr) by employing a combination of nickel(0)/N-heterocyclic carbene and triethylsilane. The present system was also applied to a reductive coupling with ketones. Preliminary results of a nickel(0)-catalyzed asymmetric three-component coupling reaction of an aldehyde, an alkene, and triethylsilane are also shown. PMID:27077829

  13. Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, Miyoshi; Mosley, S.P.; Barbero, L.J. )

    1992-10-01

    The growth of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was inhibited by terpene alcohols and the terpene aldehyde citral. The strongest activity was shown by citral. Nerol, geraniol, and citronellol also showed pronounced activity. Strong inhibition was linked to acyclic terpenes containing a primary alcohol or aldehyde function. Inhibition appeared to be taking place through the vapor phase rather than by diffusion through the agar medium from the terpene-treated paper disks used in the system. Inhibition through agar diffusion was shown by certain aged samples of terpene hydrocarbons but not by recently purchased samples.

  14. Application of a Sequential Reaction Model to PANS and Aldehyde Measurements in Two Urban Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, James M.; Stroud, C.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Trainer, Michael; Hereid, D.; Williams, E. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Brune, W. H.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.

    2001-12-15

    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (= PAN, PPN, MPAN) and aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propanal, and methacrolein) were made at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1999 and Houston, Texas, in 2000. The data were interpreted with a sequential reaction model that included reaction of aldehydes with hydroxl radical and formation or loss of PANs mediated by peroxyacyl radicals. The comparison of the measured ratios with those predicted by the model showed disagreement for PAN/acetaldehyde and PPN/propanal in Nashville but agreement in Houston. These features are consistent with the relative importance of isoprene to PAN formation at each site.

  15. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  16. Kinetics of forming aldehydes in frying oils and their distribution in french fries revealed by LC-MS-based chemometrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehydes are major secondary lipid oxidation products (LOPs) from heating vegetable oils and deep frying. The routes and reactions that generate aldehydes have been extensively investigated, but the sequences and kinetics of their formation in oils are poorly defined. In this study, a platform comb...

  17. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerev...

  18. Quantification of aldehyde terminated heparin by SEC-MALLS-UV for the surface functionalization of polycaprolactone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Steele, Terry W J; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Li, Min; Boujday, Souhir; Prawirasatya, Melissa; Neoh, Koon Gee; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-08-01

    A straight forward strategy of heparin surface grafting employs a terminal reactive-aldehyde group introduced through nitrous acid depolymerization. An advanced method that allows simultaneously monitoring of both heparin molar mass and monomer/aldehyde ratio by size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light scattering and UV-absorbance (SEC-MALLS-UV) has been developed to improve upon heparin surface grafting. Advancements over older methods allow quantitative characterization by direct (aldehyde absorbance) and indirect (Schiff-based absorbance) evaluation of terminal functional aldehydes. The indirect quantitation of functional aldehydes through labeling with aniline (and the formation of a Schiff-base) allows independent quantitation of both polymer mass and terminal functional groups with the applicable UV mass extinction coefficients determined. The protocol was subsequently used to synthesize an optimized heparin-aldehyde that had minimal polydispersity (PDI<2) and high reaction yields (yield >60% by mass). The 8 kDa weight averaged molar mass heparin-aldehyde was then grafted on polycaprolactone (PCL), a common implant material. This optimized heparin-aldehyde retained its antithrombin activity, assessed in freshly drawn blood or surface immobilized on PCL films. Anticoagulant activity was equal to or better than the 24 kDa unmodified heparin it was fragmented from. PMID:26052108

  19. Effect of selected aldehydes found in the corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and xylitol fermentation of Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Tang, Pingwah; Fan, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-01-01

    The effects of four aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin and syringaldehyde), which were found in the corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate, on the growth and xylitol fermentation of Candida tropicalis were investigated. The results showed that vanillin was the most toxic aldehyde for the xylitol fermentation, followed by syringaldehyde, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Moreover, the binary combination tests revealed that furfural amplified the toxicity of other aldehydes and the toxicities of other binary combinations without furfural were simply additive. Based on the fermentation experiments, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of aldehydes could be alleviated by prolonging the fermentation incubation, increasing the initial cell concentration, enhancing the initial pH value and minimizing the furfural levels in the hydrolysate evaporation process. The strategies that we proposed to suppress the inhibitory effects of the aldehydes successfully avoided the complicated and costly detoxifications. Our findings could be potentially adopted for the industrial xylitol fermentation from hydrolysates. PMID:23843370

  20. Role of Cysteine Residues in the Structure, Stability, and Alkane Producing Activity of Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuuki; Yasugi, Fumitaka; Arai, Munehito

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (AD) is a key enzyme for alkane biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, and it can be used as a catalyst for alkane production in vitro and in vivo. However, three free Cys residues in AD may impair its catalytic activity by undesired disulfide bond formation and oxidation. To develop Cys-deficient mutants of AD, we examined the roles of the Cys residues in the structure, stability, and alkane producing activity of AD from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 by systematic Cys-to-Ala/Ser mutagenesis. The C71A/S mutations reduced the hydrocarbon producing activity of AD and facilitated the formation of a dimer, indicating that the conserved Cys71, which is located in close proximity to the substrate-binding site, plays crucial roles in maintaining the activity, structure, and stability of AD. On the other hand, mutations at Cys107 and Cys117 did not affect the hydrocarbon producing activity of AD. Therefore, we propose that the C107A/C117A double mutant is preferable to wild type AD for alkane production and that the double mutant may be used as a pseudo-wild type protein for further improvement of the alkane producing activity of AD. PMID:25837679

  1. 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde modulates enzymatic methylation for syringyl monolignol formation, a new view of monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Popko, J L; Umezawa, T; Chiang, V L

    2000-03-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) has traditionally been thought to catalyze the methylation of caffeate and 5- hydroxyferulate for the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol, a lignin constituent of angiosperm wood that enables efficient lignin degradation for cellulose production. However, recent recognition that coniferyl aldehyde prevents 5-hydroxyferulate biosynthesis in lignifying tissue, and that the hydroxylated form of coniferyl aldehyde, 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde, is an alternative COMT substrate, demands a re-evaluation of the role of COMT during monolignol biosynthesis. Based on recombinant aspen (Populus tremuloides) COMT enzyme kinetics coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, this study establishes for the first time that COMT is in fact a 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde O-methyltransferase (AldOMT), and that 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde is both the preferred AldOMT substrate and an inhibitor of caffeate and 5-hydroxyferulate methylation, as measured by K(m) and K(i) values. 5-Hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde also inhibited the caffeate and 5-hydroxyferulate methylation activities of xylem proteins from various angiosperm tree species. The evidence that syringyl monolignol biosynthesis is independent of caffeate and 5-hydroxyferulate methylation supports our previous discovery that coniferyl aldehyde prevents ferulate 5-hydroxylation and at the same time ensures a coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylase (CAld5H)-mediated biosynthesis of 5-hydroxyconiferyl aldehyde. Together, our results provide conclusive evidence for the presence of a CAld5H/AldOMT-catalyzed coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylation/methylation pathway that directs syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms. PMID:10692459

  2. Two-Carbon Homologation of Ketones to 3-Methyl Unsaturated Aldehydes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The usual scheme of two-carbon homologation of ketones to 3-methyl unsaturated aldehydes by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensations with phosphonate esters, such as triethyl-2-phosphonoacetate, involves three steps. The phosphonate condensation step results in extension of the carbon chain by two carb...

  3. Rice Aldehyde Dehydrogenase7 Is Needed for Seed Maturation and Viability1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jun-Hye; Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Although the proteins have been studied from various organisms and at different growth stages, their roles in seed development have not been well elucidated. We obtained T-DNA insertional mutants in OsALDH7, which is remarkably inducible by oxidative and abiotic stresses. Interestingly, endosperms from the osaldh7 null mutants accumulated brown pigments during desiccation and storage. Extracts from the mutant seeds showed a maximum absorbance peak at 360 nm, the wavelength that melanoidin absorbs. Under UV light, those extracts also exhibited much stronger fluorescence than the wild type, suggesting that the pigments are melanoidin. These pigments started to accumulate in the late seed developmental stage, the time when OsALDH7 expression began to increase significantly. Purified OsALDH7 protein showed enzyme activities to malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde. These results suggest that OsALDH7 is involved in removing various aldehydes formed by oxidative stress during seed desiccation. The mutant seeds were more sensitive to our accelerated aging treatment and accumulated more malondialdehyde than the wild type. These data imply that OsALDH7 plays an important role in maintaining seed viability by detoxifying the aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation. PMID:19052152

  4. Dual Lewis Acid/Lewis Base Catalyzed Acylcyanation of Aldehydes: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Laurell Nash, Anna; Hertzberg, Robin; Wen, Ye-Qian; Dahlgren, Björn; Brinck, Tore; Moberg, Christina

    2016-03-01

    A mechanistic investigation, which included a Hammett correlation analysis, evaluation of the effect of variation of catalyst composition, and low-temperature NMR spectroscopy studies, of the Lewis acid-Lewis base catalyzed addition of acetyl cyanide to prochiral aldehydes provides support for a reaction route that involves Lewis base activation of the acyl cyanide with formation of a potent acylating agent and cyanide ion. The cyanide ion adds to the carbonyl group of the Lewis acid activated aldehyde. O-Acylation by the acylated Lewis base to form the final cyanohydrin ester occurs prior to decomplexation from titanium. For less reactive aldehydes, the addition of cyanide is the rate-determining step, whereas, for more reactive, electron-deficient aldehydes, cyanide addition is rapid and reversible and is followed by rate-limiting acylation. The resting state of the catalyst lies outside the catalytic cycle and is believed to be a monomeric titanium complex with two alcoholate ligands, which only slowly converts into the product. PMID:26592522

  5. One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eunyoung; Hong, Bomi; De Castro, Kathlia A; Lim, Minkyung; Rhee, Hakjune

    2007-12-01

    One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using various aldehydes by Pd/C catalyst in aqueous 2-propanol solvent with ammonium formate as in situ hydrogen donor is illustrated. The reaction proceeded smoothly and selectively with excellent yield at room temperature. Our protocol presents a facile, economical, and environmentally benign alternative for reductive amination. PMID:17997570

  6. APPLICATION OF MULTISPECTRAL TECHNIQUES TO THE PRECISE IDENTIFICATION OF ALDEHYDES IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    By using gas chromatography coupled with low- and high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry, low- and high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, eight straight-chain aldehydes were identified in a water sample taken...

  7. Analysis of endogenous aldehydes in human urine by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2016-03-11

    Endogenous aldehydes (EAs) generated during oxidative stress and cell processes are associated with many pathogenic and toxicogenic processes. The aim of this research was to develop a solvent-free and automated analytical method for the determination of EAs in human urine using a static headspace generator sampler coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Twelve significant EAs used as markers of different biochemical and physiological processes, namely short- and medium-chain alkanals, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and dicarbonyl aldehydes have been selected as target analytes. Human urine samples (no dilution is required) were derivatized with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine in alkaline medium (hydrogen carbonate-carbonate buffer, pH 10.3). The HS-GC-MS method developed renders an efficient tool for the sensitive and precise determination of EAs in human urine with limits of detection from 1 to 15ng/L and relative standard deviations, (RSDs) from 6.0 to 7.9%. Average recoveries by enriching urine samples ranged between 92 and 95%. Aldehydes were readily determined at 0.005-50μg/L levels in human urine from healthy subjects, smokers and diabetic adults. PMID:26879451

  8. Roaming as the dominant mechanism for molecular products in the photodissociation of large aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Li, Hou-Kuan; Kasai, Toshio; Lin, King-Chuen

    2015-09-21

    Photodissociation of isobutyraldehyde (C3H7CHO) at 248 nm is investigated using time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy to demonstrate the growing importance of the roaming pathway with increasing molecular size of aliphatic aldehydes. Each acquired CO rotational distribution from v = 1 to 4 is well characterized by a single Boltzmann rotational temperature from 637 to 750 K, corresponding to an average rotational energy of 5.9 ± 0.6 kJ mol(-1). The roaming signature that shows a small fraction of CO rotational energy disposal accompanied by a vibrationally hot C3H8 co-fragment is supported by theoretical prediction. The energy difference between the tight transition state (TS) and the roaming saddle point (SP) is found to be -27, 4, 15, 22, and 30 kJ mol(-1) for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and 2,2-dimethyl propanal, respectively. The roaming SP is stabilized by a larger alkyl moiety. It is suggested that the roaming photodissociation rate of aldehydes increasingly exceeds those via the tight TS, resulting in the dominance of the CO + alkane products, as the size of aldehydes becomes larger. Along with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde, in this work isobutyraldehyde is further demonstrated that this aldehyde family with special functional group is the first case in the organic compound to follow predominantly a roaming dissociation pathway, as the molecular size becomes larger. PMID:26279383

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Gross, Eric R.; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P.; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R2=0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was also beneficial when given even after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians’ apparent lower pain tolerance. PMID:25163478

  10. Electrocoagulation for the removal of phenol and aldehyde contaminants from resin effluent.

    PubMed

    Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Pirkarami, Azam

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report on a study which aimed to investigate the effect of different current density, pH, temperature, and cathode-anode combination on the removal of phenol and aldehyde in two samples of actual resin effluent through the process of electrocoagulation using solar energy. Current density 60 A/m(2) and pH 6 proved to be the best levels for both contaminants. As for the effect of temperature, although the highest degree of phenol and aldehyde removal was achieved at 15 °C, 25 °C was taken to be the optimum temperature for economic reasons. The Fe-Fe combination of electrodes was found to be the best as it led to nearly 93% of phenol removal and approximately 95% of aldehyde removal. Also, the effect of electrode combination on energy consumption was studied. It was observed that the Fe-Fe combination consumed the least amount of energy (0.7-4.3 kWh/m(3) of wastewater in the case of phenol and 0.8-4 kWh/m(3) of wastewater in the case aldehyde). Moreover, the Fe-Fe combination brought about the best results in terms of chemical oxygen demand removal: 93% in both cases. Finally, an economic analysis was performed for the electrocoagulation process. PMID:24225093

  11. A HIGHLY STEREOSELECTIVE, NOVEL COUPLING REACTION BETWEEN ALKYNES WITH ALDEHYDES. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of indium triflate or gallium chloride, a novel coupling between internal alkynes and aldehydes occurred to give unsaturated ketones and [4+1] annulation products.


    Graphical Abstrac...

  12. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R.; Myszka, David G.; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD+, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:25945581

  13. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  14. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  15. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of aliphatic aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casale, Mia T.; Richman, Aviva R.; Elrod, Matthew J.; Garland, Rebecca M.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    Field observations of atmospheric aerosols have established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass. However, the physical/chemical pathway by which organic compounds are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols remains unclear. The potential role of acid-catalyzed reactions of organic compounds on acidic aerosols has been explored as a possible chemical pathway for the incorporation of organic material into aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C 2-C 8). The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature. While the kinetic data are generally consistent with previous laboratory reports of aldehyde reactivity in various sulfuric acid media, the aldol condensation reactions involving aliphatic aldehydes do not appear fast enough to be responsible for significant transfer of organic material into atmospheric aerosols.

  16. Reactions and reaction intermediates on iron surfaces. III. Reactions of aldehydes and ketones on Fe(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Benziger, J.B.; Madix, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The reactions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone on Fe(100) were studied by temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were observed to react with adsorbed hydrogen to form adsorbed alkoxy intermediates. These reactions occurred at low temperature (ca. 200 K). In the absence of adsorbed hydrogen, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde decomposed to adsorbed CO and hydrogen. This reaction was also observed at low temperatures. On an initially clean surface the aldehydes first decomposed, forming adsorbed hydrogen which subsequently reacted with adsorbed aldehyde to form an alkoxy intermediate. The alkoxy intermediates reacted to form CO and H/sub 2/ primarily, with lesser amounts of alcohol, aldehyde, and hydrocarbon products. Acetone reacted differently from the aldehydes and did not appear to form an alkoxy intermediate. XPS results suggested that acetone and acetaldehyde did not adsorb in their keto form on the surface and it is suggested that they adsorbed as enol intermediates. The distinct reaction behavior of acetone may be due to these enol intermediates.

  17. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of an aldehyde scrubber system specifically for the detection of acrolein.

    PubMed

    Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Akiyama, Kenichi; Shimono, Akio; Kitasaka, Kazuya; Shimajiri, Hatsumi; Sugihara, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of an aldehyde scrubber system to resolve isobaric aldehyde/alkene interferences in a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) by selectively removing the aldehydes from the gas mixture without loss of quantitative information for the alkene components. The aldehyde scrubber system uses a bisulfite solution, which scrubs carbonyl compounds from the gas stream by forming water-soluble carbonyl bisulfite addition products, and has been evaluated using a synthetic mixture of acrolein and isoprene. Trapping efficiencies of acrolein exceeded 97%, whereas the transmission efficiency of isoprene was better than 92%. Quantification of the PTR-MS response to acrolein was validated through an intercomparison study that included two derivatization methods, dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and O-(4-cyano-2-ethoxybenzyl)hydroxylamine (CNET), and a spectroscopic method using a quantum cascade laser infrared absorption spectroscopy (QCL) instrument. Finally, using cigarette smoke as a complex matrix, the acrolein content was assessed using the scrubber and compared with direct QCL-based detection. PMID:18069460

  19. Volatile trans-2-hexenal a soybean aldehyde inhibits Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trans-2-hexenal, a volatile aldehyde, is produced by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and other plants via the lipoxygenase pathway. In vitro tests showed it significantly (p< 0.001) reduced Aspergillus flavus germinating conidial viability at 10 µM, with approximately 95% viability reduction observ...

  20. A new device for formaldehyde and total aldehydes real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sassine, Maria; Picquet-Varrault, Bénédicte; Perraudin, Emilie; Chiappini, Laura; Doussin, Jean François; George, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A new sensitive technique for the quantification of formaldehyde (HCHO) and total aldehydes has been developed in order to monitor these compounds, which are known to be involved in air quality issues and to have health impacts. Our approach is based on a colorimetric method where aldehydes are initially stripped from the air into a scrubbing solution by means of a turning coil sampler tube and then derivatised with 3-methylbenzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone in acid media (pH = -0.5). Hence, colourless aldehydes are transformed into blue dyes that are detected by UV-visible spectroscopy at 630 nm. Liquid core waveguide LCW Teflon® AF-2400 tube was used as innovative optical cells providing a HCHO detection limit of 4 pptv for 100 cm optical path with a time resolution of 15 min. This instrument showed good correlation with commonly used techniques for aldehydes analysis such as DNPH derivatisation chromatographic techniques with off-line and on-line samplers, and DOAS techniques (with deviation below 6%) for both indoor and outdoor conditions. This instrument is associated with simplicity and low cost, which is a prerequisite for indoor monitoring. PMID:23892614

  1. Fast determination of aldehyde preservatives by miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chen, Fang; Ge, Jinyuan; Tong, Fanghong; Deng, Zhaoyue; Shen, Fengwu; Gu, Qianxia; Ye, Jiannong; Chu, Qingcui

    2014-02-01

    A novel miniaturized CE with amperometric detection (mini-CE-AD) method has been developed for fast determination of aliphatic aldehyde preservatives, namely formaldehyde and glyoxal, in commodities. After derivatization with an electroactive compound 2-thiobarbituric acid, these two nonelectroactive aldehydes were converted to electroactive adducts, therefore detectable by mini-CE-AD approach. Under the optimum conditions, two aldehydes can be well-separated with the coexisting interferents as well as their homologs (acetaldehyde and methyl-glyoxal), and the LODs (S/N = 3) were achieved at nanogram-per-milliliter level (1.64-2.80 ng/mL) based on the online enrichment method of transient moving chemical reaction boundary. The proposed method has been applied for the analyses of above aldehyde preservatives in different real commodity samples including skincare products, baby lotion, and toothpaste, and the average recoveries were in the range of 94-105%, which should find a wide range of analytical applications as an alternative to conventional and microchip CE approaches. PMID:24002819

  2. Asymmetric intramolecular α-cyclopropanation of aldehydes using a donor/acceptor carbene mimetic.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chaosheng; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Enantioselective α-alkylation of carbonyl is considered as one of the most important processes for asymmetric synthesis. Common alkylation agents, that is, alkyl halides, are notorious substrates for both Lewis acids and organocatalysts. Recently, olefins emerged as a benign alkylating species via photo/radical mechanisms. However, examples of enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes/ketones are scarce and direct asymmetric dialkylation remains elusive. Here we report an intramolecular α-cyclopropanation reaction of olefinic aldehydes to form chiral cyclopropane aldehydes. We demonstrate that an α-iodo aldehyde can function as a donor/acceptor carbene equivalent, which engages in a formal [2+1] annulation with a tethered double bond. Privileged bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-type scaffolds are prepared in good optical purity using a chiral amine. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated by versatile transformations of the bridgehead formyl functionality. We expect the concept of using α-iodo iminium as a donor/acceptor carbene surrogate will find wide applications in chemical reaction development. PMID:26644194

  3. Modulation of ethanol stress tolerance by aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma vaccinum.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe, Theodore; Krause, Katrin; Schlunk, Ines; Kothe, Erika

    2012-08-01

    We report the first mycorrhizal fungal aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, ald1, which was isolated from the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum. The gene, encoding a protein Ald1 of 502 amino acids, is up-regulated in ectomycorrhiza. Phylogenetic analyses using 53 specific fungal aldehyde dehydrogenases from all major phyla in the kingdom of fungi including Ald1 and two partial sequences of T. vaccinum were performed to get an insight in the evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. By using competitive and real-time RT-PCR, ald1 is up-regulated in response to alcohol and aldehyde-related stress. Furthermore, heterologous expression of ald1 in Escherichia coli and subsequent in vitro enzyme activity assay demonstrated the oxidation of propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde with different kinetics using either NAD(+) or NADP(+) as cofactors. In addition, overexpression of ald1 in T. vaccinum after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation increased ethanol stress tolerance. These results demonstrate the ability of Ald1 to circumvent ethanol stress, a critical function in mycorrhizal habitats. PMID:22159964

  4. A C-terminal aldehyde analog of the insect kinins inhibits diuresis in the housefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are present in a wide variety of insects and function as potent diuretic peptides in flies. A C-terminal aldehyde insect kinin analog, Fmoc-RFFPWG-H (R-LK-CHO), demonstrates stimulation of Malpighian tubule fluid secretion in crickets, but shows inhibition of both in vitro and in v...

  5. 1,2-disubstituted cyclohexane derived tripeptide aldehydes as novel selective thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Harmat, N J; Di Bugno, C; Criscuoli, M; Giorgi, R; Lippi, A; Martinelli, A; Monti, S; Subissi, A

    1998-05-19

    A series of tripeptide arginine aldehydes was synthesized by replacement of proline with 1,2-disubstituted cyclohexane derivatives in the sequence of D-MePhe-Pro-Arg-H. Based on molecular modeling, further modification of the D-MePhe residue resulted in a potent and selective thrombin inhibitor. PMID:9871744

  6. Extremely efficient hydroboration of ketones and aldehydes by copper carbene catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh, Sharareh; Mankad, Neal P

    2016-03-01

    A readily available copper carbene complex, (IPr)CuOtBu, catalyses the hydroboration of ketones and aldehydes even at very low catalyst loadings (0.1 mol%), in some cases with turnover frequencies exceeding 6000 h(-1). Carbonyl reduction occurs selectivitily in the presence of other reducible functional groups including alkenes, nitriles, esters, and alkyl chlorides. PMID:26871503

  7. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  8. Campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis: a mechanism leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnt, A.; Iinuma, Y.; Mutzel, A.; Böge, O.; Claeys, M.; Herrmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis was performed to investigate pathways leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) marker compounds. Campholenic aldehyde, a known α-pinene oxidation product, is suggested to be a key intermediate in the formation of terpenylic acid upon α-pinene ozonolysis. It was reacted with ozone in the presence and absence of an OH radical scavenger, leading to SOA formation with a yield of 0.75 and 0.8, respectively. The resulting oxidation products in the gas and particle phases were investigated employing a denuder/filter sampling combination. Gas-phase oxidation products bearing a carbonyl group, which were collected by the denuder, were derivatised by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) followed by liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and were compared to the gas-phase compounds detected by online proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Particle-phase products were also analysed, directly or after DNPH derivatisation, to derive information about specific compounds leading to SOA formation. Among the detected compounds, the aldehydic precursor of terpenylic acid was identified and its presence was confirmed in ambient aerosol samples from the DNPH derivatisation, accurate mass data, and additional mass spectrometry (MS2 and MS3 fragmentation studies). Furthermore, the present investigation sheds light on a reaction pathway leading to the formation of terpenylic acid, involving α-pinene, α-pinene oxide, campholenic aldehyde, and terpenylic aldehyde. Additionally, the formation of diaterpenylic acid acetate could be connected to campholenic aldehyde oxidation. The present study also provides insights into the source of other highly functionalised oxidation products (e.g. m / z 201, C9H14O5 and m / z 215, C10H16O5), which have been observed in ambient aerosol samples and smog chamber-generated monoterpene SOA. The m / z 201 and 215

  9. Cytochromes P450 Catalyze the Reduction of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Dieter, Laura J.; Tamasi, Viola; Cai, Jan; Conklin, Daniel J.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Martin, Martha V.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g. 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O2, and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ≅ P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 & rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions, but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and α-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in liver. PMID:21766881

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  11. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Douglas B; Braker, Jay D; Bowman, Michael J; Vermillion, Karl E; Moon, Jaewoong; Liu, Z Lewis

    2011-12-01

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to mitigate the toxicity of FFA and HMF by catalyzing the NADPH-dependent conversion to corresponding alcohols, furfuryl alcohol (FFOH) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfuryl alcohol (HMFOH). At pH 7.0 and 25°C, purified Ari1p catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of substrates with the following values (k(cat) (s(-1)), k(cat)/K(m) (s(-1)mM(-1)), K(m) (mM)): FFA (23.3, 1.82, 12.8), HMF (4.08, 0.173, 23.6), and dl-glyceraldehyde (2.40, 0.0650, 37.0). When acting on HMF and dl-glyceraldehyde, the enzyme operates through an equilibrium ordered kinetic mechanism. In the physiological direction of the reaction, NADPH binds first and NADP(+) dissociates from the enzyme last, demonstrated by k(cat) of HMF and dl-glyceraldehyde that are independent of [NADPH] and (K(ia)(NADPH)/k(cat)) that extrapolate to zero at saturating HMF or dl-glyceraldehyde concentration. Microscopic kinetic parameters were determined for the HMF reaction (HMF+NADPH↔HMFOH+NADP(+)), by applying steady-state, presteady-state, kinetic isotope effects, and dynamic modeling methods. Release of products, HMFOH and NADP(+), is 84% rate limiting to k(cat) in the forward direction. Equilibrium constants, [NADP(+)][FFOH]/[NADPH][FFA][H(+)]=5600×10(7)M(-1) and [NADP(+)][HMFOH]/[NADPH][HMF][H(+)]=4200×10(7)M(-1), favor the physiological direction mirrored by the slowness of hydride transfer in the non-physiological direction, NADP(+)-dependent oxidation of alcohols (k(cat) (s(-1)), k(cat)/K(m) (s(-1)mM(-1)), K(m) (mM)): FFOH (0.221, 0.00158, 140) and HMFOH (0.0105, 0.000104, 101). PMID:21890004

  12. Tyrosinase-like activity and estradiol binding in rat uterine nuclear extracts.

    PubMed

    Garai, J; Clark, J H

    1992-05-01

    Nuclear extracts from the uteri of estradiol-implanted rats contain a tyrosinase-like enzyme that has three activities: monophenolase or cresolase, diphenolase or catecholase, and estrogen binding. When [3H]estradiol was used as a substrate, 3H2O was released from the A ring in the presence of copper and ascorbic acid. The optimal concentrations of these cofactors for the cresolase activity were established. The cresolase activity was lost on attempts at further purification. Estradiol binding was observed in conjunction with the enzymatic activity and was dependent on the presence of ascorbic acid and copper. The most potent inhibitors of 3H2O release from [3H]estradiol were those with a dihydroxyphenol moiety. The reaction was also sensitive to sulfhydryl reagents. These features of the enzyme are distinctive from other oxidases capable of attacking the aromatic ring of estrogens. PMID:1488787

  13. Development of Selective Inhibitors for Human Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) for the Enhancement of Cyclophosphamide Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bibek; Georgiadis, Taxiarchis M.; Fishel, Melissa L.; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) plays an important role in many cellular oxidative processes, including cancer chemo-resistance by metabolizing activated forms of oxazaphosphorine drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CP) and its analogues such as mafosfamide (MF), ifosfamide (IFM), 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HPCP). Compounds that can selectively target ALDH3A1 may permit delineation of its roles in these processes and could restore chemosensitivity in cancer cells that express this isoenzyme. Here we report the detailed kinetic and structural characterization of an ALDH3A1 selective inhibitor, CB29, previously identified in a high throughput screen. Kinetic and crystallographic studies demonstrate that CB29 binds within the aldehyde substrate-binding site of ALDH3A1. Cellular proliferation of ALDH3A1-expressing lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and glioblastoma (SF767) cell lines, as well as the ALDH3A1 non-expressing lung fibroblast cells, CCD-13Lu, is unaffected by treatment with CB29 and its analogues alone. However, the sensitivity toward the anti-proliferative effects of mafosfamide is enhanced by treatment with CB29 and its analogue in the tumour cells. In contrast, the sensitivity of CCD-13Lu cells toward mafosfamide was unaffected by the addition of these same compounds. CB29 is chemically distinct from the previously reported small molecule inhibitors of ALDH isoenzymes and does not inhibit ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1 or ALDH2 isoenzymes at concentrations up to 250 μM. Thus, CB29 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of ALDH3A1, which may be useful as a chemical tool to delineate the role of ALDH3A1 in numerous metabolic pathways, including sensitizing ALDH3A1-positive cancer cells to oxazaphosphorines. PMID:24677340

  14. Effects of aldehydes and methods of cross-linking on properties of calcium alginate microspheres prepared by emulsification.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul W S

    2002-03-01

    Calcium alginate microspheres were prepared by an emulsification method and cross-linked with various aldehydes using different methods. Methanal and pentanedial produced low aggregation of microspheres while octanal and octadecanal produced the opposite effect. The latter two aldehydes displaced very little calcium ions from the alginate microspheres, indicating that the aggregation was due to the tackiness imparted by the aldehydes to the microsphere surface. Higuchi's model was not applicable to the drug release from microspheres in this study. The microspheres treated with methanal or pentanedial showed comparable dissolution T75% values which were significantly higher than that of the control. In contrast, octanal and octadecanal produced microspheres with lower dissolution T75% values. The drug contents of the microspheres treated with aldehydes were significantly lower than that of the control. There was insignificant interaction between the aldehydes and the drug. However, the aldehydes were found to impart acidity to the aqueous solution to varying extents, resulting in varying drug loss from the microspheres. The properties of the microspheres were also markedly affected by the method of incorporating the aldehyde. Soaking the microspheres in methanal solution produced microspheres with marked aggregation and low drug content. PMID:11808537

  15. Suppressing glioblastoma stem cell function by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition with chloramphenicol or disulfiram as a new treatment adjunct: an hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kast, Richard E; Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal

    2009-12-01

    Strong expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase is a prominent feature of both normal and cancer stem cells, including the stem cell sub-population of glioblastoma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase function is used by cancer stem cells to repopulate a tumor mass after chemotherapy cytoreduction. Cancer stem cells tend to be chemotherapy compared to the non-stem cell majority cell population in several common human cancers. Such has been demonstrated specifically in glioblastoma. In normal hematopoietic stem cells with unimpaired high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase, stem cells divide rarely and then asymmetrically to a daughter stem cell and a daughter cell on a path of differentiation or symmetrically with both daughter cells on a differentiated path. If a parallel situation obtains in glioblastoma stem cells, the migrating, far flung paucicellular extensions will be stem cell rich and use aldehyde dehydrogenase to generate the characteristic multiple metastases made up of mostly non-stem cells. With inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase, stem cell division to non-stem daughter cells tends to become blocked. We have three old yet potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors on the market- chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, and disulfiram- they should be investigated as adjuncts in glioblastoma chemotherapy. If GBM stem cell function can be thwarted by potent aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition, they will be less able to regenerate a stem cell derived tumor mass after primary resection or chemotherapy. PMID:19500061

  16. Easy access to aroma active unsaturated γ-lactones by addition of modified titanium homoenolate to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain

    2011-04-27

    The homo-Reformatsky reaction, in which a metal homoenolate of an ester is added to an aldehyde, was adapted to produce γ-lactones from unsaturated, enolizable aldehydes. By use of titanium homoenolate, 11 different γ-lactones were synthesized in one step with moderate to good yields from readily available aldehydes. In particular, this procedure allowed the rapid preparation of a series of C(12) unsaturated γ-lactones differing in the position and configuration of the double bond. These reference compounds will be used to identify previously unknown lactones in butter oil. The chromatographic, spectral, and sensory descriptions of the synthesized lactones are provided. PMID:21395335

  17. Reductions of aldehydes and ketones with a readily available N-heterocyclic carbene borane and acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Vladimir; Pan, Xiangcheng

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acetic acid promotes the reduction of aldehydes and ketones by the readily available N-heterocyclic carbene borane, 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene borane. Aldehydes are reduced over 1–24 h at room temperature with 1 equiv of acetic acid and 0.5 equiv of the NHC-borane. Ketone reductions are slower but can be accelerated by using 5 equiv of acetic acid. Aldehydes can be selectively reduced in the presence of ketones. On a small scale, products are isolated by evaporation of the reaction mixture and direct chromatography. PMID:23616812

  18. Cysteine residues in the transmembrane (TM) 9 to TM11 region of the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype 1 play an important role in inhibitor binding and translocation function.

    PubMed

    Park, Jamie S; Hammond, James R

    2012-11-01

    Inhibitor and substrate interactions with equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; SLC29A1) are known to be affected by cysteine-modifying reagents. A previous study from our laboratory established Cys222 in transmembrane (TM) 6 as the residue responsible for methyl methanethiosulfonate (a membrane-permeable sulfhydryl modifier)-mediated enhancement of the binding of the ENT1 inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) in intact cells. However, the capacity of charged sulfhydryl reagents to inhibit the binding of NBMPR in broken cell preparations (allowing cytoplasmic access) was not affected by mutation of any of the cysteines (Cys87, 193, 213, or 222) in the N-terminal half of the protein. We thus hypothesized that the inhibitory effects of the modifiers were due to the one or more of the six cysteine residues in the C-terminal half of ENT1, particularly one or both of those in the fifth intracellular loop (Cys414 and Cys416). Each of the cysteines were mutated to serine or alanine and expressed in nucleoside transport-deficient PK15 cells and probed with a series of methanethiosulfonate sulfhydryl-modifying reagents. Transporter function was assessed by the site-specific binding of [(3)H]NBMPR and the cellular uptake of [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine. These studies established that Cys378 is an extracellular-located residue modified by [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methane-thiosulfonate (MTSET) to inhibit the binding of NBMPR to intact cells. Mutation of Cys414 led to an enhancement of the ability of MTSET to inhibit NBMPR binding, and this enhancement was eliminated by the comutation of Cys378, indicating that disruption of the fifth intracellular loop modifies the conformation of TM10 and its extracellular extension. Mutation of Cys416 led to the loss of the ability of the charged sulfhydryl reagents to inhibit NBMPR binding in isolated membranes and also led to the loss of transport function. This finding further supports an allosteric interaction

  19. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-01

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes. PMID:26752344

  20. Quantitative Fluorescent Labeling of Aldehyde-Tagged Proteins for Single-Molecule Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinghua; Jung, Yonil; Lin, Li-Jung; Liu, Cheng; Wu, Cong; Cann, Isaac K. O.; Ha, Taekjip

    2012-01-01

    A major hurdle for molecular mechanistic studies of many proteins is the lack of a general method for fluorescent labeling with high efficiency, specificity, and speed. By incorporating an aldehyde motif genetically into a protein and improving the labeling kinetics substantially under mild conditions, we achieved fast, site-specific labeling of a protein with ~100% efficiency while maintaining the biological function. We demonstrate that an aldehyde-tagged protein can be specifically labeled in cell extracts without protein purification and then can be used in single-molecule pull-down analysis. We further show the unique power of our method in a series of single-molecule studies on the transient interactions and switching between two quantitatively labeled DNA polymerases on their processivity factor. PMID:22466795

  1. One-Pot Synthesis of Highly-Substituted N-Fused Heteroaromatic Bicycles from Azole Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Outlaw, Victor K.; d’Andrea, Felipe B.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient route to substituted N-fused aromatic heterocycles, including indolizines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, and imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines from azole aldehydes is reported. A three-component Wittig olefination of the aldehydes with fumaronitrile and triethylphosphine affords predominantly E-alkenes that undergo rapid cyclization upon in situ treatment with catalytic amounts of mild base. Substituent control of the 1-, 2-, and 3-positions of the resulting heteroaromatic bicycles is shown. Alternatively, the isolable E-alkene product from pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, under dianionic conditions, undergoes selective alkylation with various electrophiles, followed by in situ annulation to indolizines additionally substituted at the 6-position. PMID:25815402

  2. Discovery of a novel class of covalent inhibitor for aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Mary; Chen, Che-Hong; Kimble-Hill, Ann; Parajuli, Bibek; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Baskaran, Sulochanadevi; Kim, Jeewon; Dria, Karl; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2012-10-23

    Human aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a family of 17 homologous enzymes that metabolize different biogenic and exogenic aldehydes. To date, there are relatively few general ALDH inhibitors that can be used to probe the contribution of this class of enzymes to particular metabolic pathways. Here, we report the discovery of a general class of ALDH inhibitors with a common mechanism of action. The combined data from kinetic studies, mass spectrometric measurements, and crystallographic analyses demonstrate that these inhibitors undergo an enzyme-mediated {beta}-elimination reaction generating a vinyl ketone intermediate that covalently modifies the active site cysteine residue present in these enzymes. The studies described here can provide the basis for rational approach to design ALDH isoenzyme-specific inhibitors as research tools and perhaps as drugs, to address diseases such as cancer where increased ALDH activity is associated with a cellular phenotype.

  3. Reconstitution of Formylglycine-generating Enzyme with Copper(II) for Aldehyde Tag Conversion.

    PubMed

    Holder, Patrick G; Jones, Lesley C; Drake, Penelope M; Barfield, Robyn M; Bañas, Stefanie; de Hart, Gregory W; Baker, Jeanne; Rabuka, David

    2015-06-19

    To further our aim of synthesizing aldehyde-tagged proteins for research and biotechnology applications, we developed methods for recombinant production of aerobic formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) in good yield. We then optimized the FGE biocatalytic reaction conditions for conversion of cysteine to formylglycine in aldehyde tags on intact monoclonal antibodies. During the development of these conditions, we discovered that pretreating FGE with copper(II) is required for high turnover rates and yields. After further investigation, we confirmed that both aerobic prokaryotic (Streptomyces coelicolor) and eukaryotic (Homo sapiens) FGEs contain a copper cofactor. The complete kinetic parameters for both forms of FGE are described, along with a proposed mechanism for FGE catalysis that accounts for the copper-dependent activity. PMID:25931126

  4. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ke; Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2014-12-01

    The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the Csbnd C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η2(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo2C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the Cdbnd O and Csbnd OH bonds.

  5. Reconstitution of Formylglycine-generating Enzyme with Copper(II) for Aldehyde Tag Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Patrick G.; Jones, Lesley C.; Drake, Penelope M.; Barfield, Robyn M.; Bañas, Stefanie; de Hart, Gregory W.; Baker, Jeanne; Rabuka, David

    2015-01-01

    To further our aim of synthesizing aldehyde-tagged proteins for research and biotechnology applications, we developed methods for recombinant production of aerobic formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) in good yield. We then optimized the FGE biocatalytic reaction conditions for conversion of cysteine to formylglycine in aldehyde tags on intact monoclonal antibodies. During the development of these conditions, we discovered that pretreating FGE with copper(II) is required for high turnover rates and yields. After further investigation, we confirmed that both aerobic prokaryotic (Streptomyces coelicolor) and eukaryotic (Homo sapiens) FGEs contain a copper cofactor. The complete kinetic parameters for both forms of FGE are described, along with a proposed mechanism for FGE catalysis that accounts for the copper-dependent activity. PMID:25931126

  6. Therapeutic potential of targeting lipid aldehydes and lipoxidation end-products in the treatment of ocular disease.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Rosemary E; McGeown, J Graham; Stitt, Alan W; Curtis, Tim M

    2013-02-01

    Lipoxidation reactions and the subsequent accumulation of advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many of the leading causes of visual impairment. Here, we begin by outlining some of the major lipid aldehydes produced through lipoxidation reactions, the ALEs formed upon their reaction with proteins, and the endogenous aldehyde metabolizing enzymes involved in protecting cells against lipoxidation mediated damage. Discussions are subsequently focused on the clinical and experimental evidence supporting the contribution of lipid aldehydes and ALEs in the development of ocular diseases. From these discussions, it is clear that inhibition of lipoxidation reactions and ALE formation could represent a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of a broad range of ocular disorders. Current and emerging pharmacological strategies to prevent or neutralize the effects of lipid aldehydes and ALEs are therefore considered, with particular emphasis on the potential of these drugs for treatment of diseases of the eye. PMID:23360143

  7. New Aldehyde Reductase Genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Contribute In Situ Detoxification of Lignocellulose-to-Ethanol Conversion Inhibitiors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion for cleaner transportation fuels. It is possible to in situ detoxify the aldehyde inhibitors by tolerant ethanologenic yeast strains. Multiple gene-mediated reductio...

  8. Transcriptome analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 reveals mechanisms of tolerance and detoxification of phenolic aldehyde inhibitors from lignocellulose pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Phenolic aldehydes generated from lignocellulose pretreatment exhibited severe toxic inhibitions on microbial growth and fermentation. Numerous tolerance studies against furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), acetate, and ethanol were reported, but studies on inhibition of phenol...

  9. An insight into the mechanism of the aerobic oxidation of aldehydes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, O; Chiappe, C; Fogagnolo, M; Giovannini, P P; Massi, A; Pomelli, C S; Ragno, D

    2014-02-25

    N-Heterocyclic carbene catalysis for the aerobic oxidation and esterification of aromatic aldehydes was monitored by ESI-MS (MS/MS) and the key intermediates were intercepted and characterized using the charge-tag strategy. PMID:24413829

  10. Electrophoretic characterization of aldehyde-fixed red blood cells, kidney cells, lynphocytes and chamber coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Ground-based electrokinetic data on the electrophoresis flight experiment to be flown on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project experiment MA-011 are stipulated. Aldehyde-fixed red blood cells, embryonic kidney cells and lymphocytes were evaluated by analytical particle electrophoresis. The results which aided in the interpretation of the final analysis of the MA-011 experiment are documented. The electrophoresis chamber surface modifications, the buffer, and the material used in the column system are also discussed.

  11. Synthesis of pyridazinones through the copper(I)-catalyzed multicomponent reaction of aldehydes, hydrazines, and alkynylesters.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Anderson C; Goulart, Tales A C; Back, Davi F; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-09-22

    The copper-catalyzed multicomponent cyclization reaction, which combined aldehydes, hydrazines, and alkynylesters, was applied in the synthesis of pyridazinones. The reaction was regioselective and gave only six-membered pyridazinones in the complete absence of five-membered pyrazoles or a regioisomeric mixture. During this investigation, the use of 2-halobenzaldehyde as the starting material, under identical reaction conditions, gave 6-(2-ethoxyphenyl)pyridazinones after sequential Michael addition/1,2-addition/Ullmann cross-coupling reactions. PMID:25124722

  12. Aqueous DMSO Mediated Conversion of (2-(Arylsulfonyl)vinyl)iodonium Salts to Aldehydes and Vinyl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Eman; Moran, Wesley J

    2016-01-01

    Vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts are useful compounds in organic synthesis but they are under-utilized and their chemistry is under-developed. Herein is described the solvolysis of some vinyl(phenyl)iodonium salts, bearing an arylsulfonyl group, in aqueous DMSO leading to aldehyde formation. This unusual process is selective and operates under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the addition of aqueous HCl and DMSO to these vinyl(aryl)iodonium salts allows their facile conversion to vinyl chlorides. PMID:27537866

  13. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  14. Synthesis of Tetrahydronaphthyridines from Aldehydes and HARP Reagents via Radical Pictet-Spengler Reactions.

    PubMed

    Jackl, Moritz K; Kreituss, Imants; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-04-15

    The combination of aldehydes with newly designed HARP (halogen amine radical protocol) reagents gives access to α-substituted tetrahydronaphthyridines. By using different HARP reagents, various regioisomeric structures can be prepared in a single operation. These products, which are of high value in medicinal chemistry, are formed in a predictable manner via a formal Pictet-Spengler reaction of electron-poor pyridines that would not participate in the corresponding polar reactions. PMID:27026179

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in heart failure restores mitochondrial function and improves ventricular function and remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Katia M.S.; Campos, Juliane C.; Bechara, Luiz R.G.; Queliconi, Bruno; Lima, Vanessa M.; Disatnik, Marie-Helene; Magno, Paulo; Chen, Che-Hong; Brum, Patricia C.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Ferreira, Julio C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We previously demonstrated that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects the heart against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we determined the benefits of chronic activation of ALDH2 on the progression of heart failure (HF) using a post-myocardial infarction model. Methods and results We showed that a 6-week treatment of myocardial infarction-induced HF rats with a selective ALDH2 activator (Alda-1), starting 4 weeks after myocardial infarction at a time when ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction were present, improved cardiomyocyte shortening, cardiac function, left ventricular compliance and diastolic function under basal conditions, and after isoproterenol stimulation. Importantly, sustained Alda-1 treatment showed no toxicity and promoted a cardiac anti-remodelling effect by suppressing myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Moreover, accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts and protein carbonyls seen in HF was not observed in Alda-1-treated rats, suggesting that increasing the activity of ALDH2 contributes to the reduction of aldehydic load in failing hearts. ALDH2 activation was associated with improved mitochondrial function, including elevated mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and reduced H2O2 release. Importantly, selective ALDH2 activation decreased mitochondrial Ca2+-induced permeability transition and cytochrome c release in failing hearts. Further supporting a mitochondrial mechanism for ALDH2, Alda-1 treatment preserved mitochondrial function upon in vitro aldehydic load. Conclusions Selective activation of mitochondrial ALDH2 is sufficient to improve the HF outcome by reducing the toxic effects of aldehydic overload on mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species generation, suggesting that ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, have a potential therapeutic value for treating HF patients. PMID:24817685

  16. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylation of Chiral β-Stereogenic Alcohols: Bypassing Discrete Formation of Epimerizable Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Daniel C.; Dechert-Schmitt, Anne-Marie R.; Krische, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclometallated π-allyliridium 3,4-dinitro-C,O-benzoate complex modified by (R)- or (S)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP promotes the transfer hydrogenative coupling of allyl acetate to β-stereogenic alcohols with good to excellent levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity to furnish homoallylic alcohols. Remote electronic effects of the C,O-benzoate of the catalyst play a critical role in suppressing epimerization of the transient α-stereogenic aldehyde. PMID:23231774

  17. Chiral sulfoxides in the enantioselective allylation of aldehydes with allyltrichlorosilane: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Guglielmo; Vignes, Chiara; De Piano, Francesco; Bosco, Assunta; Massa, Antonio

    2012-12-28

    The mechanism of the allylation of aldehydes in the presence of allyltrichlorosilane employing the commercially available (R)-methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide as a Lewis base has been investigated. The combination of kinetic measurements, conductivity analysis and quantum chemical calculations indicates that the reaction proceeds through a dissociative pathway in which an octahedral cationic complex with two sulfoxides is involved. The lack of turnover is ascribed to the formation of neutral sulfurane derivatives. PMID:23139050

  18. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  19. Purification and Properties of Flavin- and Molybdenum-Containing Aldehyde Oxidase from Coleoptiles of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, T.; Saito, E.; Ono, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Sato, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) that could oxidize indole-3-acetaldehyde into indole-3-acetic acid was purified approximately 2000-fold from coleoptiles of 3-d-old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme was about 300 kD as estimated by gel-filtration column chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme was composed of 150-kD subunits. It contained flavin adenine dinucleotide, iron, and molybdenum as prosthetic groups and had absorption peaks in the visible region (300-600 nm). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and metals in plant AO. Other aromatic aldehydes such as indole-3-aldehyde and benzaldehyde also served as good substrates, but N-methylnicotinamide, a good substrate for animal AO, was not oxidized. 2-Mercaptoethanol, p-chloromercu-ribenzoate, and iodoacetate partially inhibited the activity, but well-known inhibitors of animal AO, such as menadione and estradiol, caused no reduction in activity. These results indicate that, although maize AO is similar to animal enzymes in molecular mass and cofactor components, it differs in substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors. Immunoblotting analysis with mouse polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified maize AO showed that the enzyme was relatively rich in the apical region of maize coleoptiles. The possible role of this enzyme is discussed in relation to phytohormone biosynthesis in plants. PMID:12226218

  20. Aldehydes and sugars from evolved precometary ice analogs: Importance of ices in astrochemical and prebiotic evolution

    PubMed Central

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Meinert, Cornelia; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Nahon, Laurent; Buhse, Thomas; d’Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolved interstellar ices observed in dense protostellar molecular clouds may arguably be considered as part of precometary materials that will later fall on primitive telluric planets, bringing a wealth of complex organic compounds. In our laboratory, experiments reproducing the photo/thermochemical evolution of these ices are routinely performed. Following previous amino acid identifications in the resulting room temperature organic residues, we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected 10 aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde—two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment. The presence of ammonia in water and methanol ice mixtures appears essential for the recovery of these aldehydes in the refractory organic residue at room temperature, although these products are free of nitrogen. We finally point out the importance of detecting aldehydes and sugars in extraterrestrial environments, in the gas phase of hot molecular clouds, and, more importantly, in comets and in primitive meteorites that have most probably seeded the Earth with organic material as early as 4.2 billion years ago. PMID:25583475

  1. Pulsed corona discharge oxidation of aqueous lignin: decomposition and aldehydes formation.

    PubMed

    Panorel, Iris; Kaijanen, Laura; Kornev, Iakov; Preis, Sergei; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Sirén, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is the mass waste product of pulp and paper industry mostly incinerated for energy recovery. Lignin is, however, a substantial source of raw material for derivatives currently produced in costly wet oxidation processes. The pulsed corona discharge (PCD) for the first time was applied to lignin oxidation aiming a cost-effective environmentally friendly lignin removal and transformation to aldehydes. The experimental research into treatment of coniferous kraft lignin aqueous solutions was undertaken to establish the dependence of lignin oxidation and aldehyde formation on the discharge parameters, initial concentration of lignin and gas phase composition. The rate and the energy efficiency of lignin oxidation increased with increasing oxygen concentration reaching up to 82 g kW-1 h-1 in 89% vol. oxygen. Oxidation energy efficiency in PCD treatment exceeds the one for conventional ozonation by the factor of two under the experimental conditions. Oxidation at low oxygen concentrations showed a tendency of the increasing aldehydes and glyoxylic acid formation yield. PMID:24600854

  2. Enhancement of the Stability of a Prolipase from Rhizopus oryzae toward Aldehydes by Saturation Mutagenesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Molina, Rafael; Hermoso, Juan A.; Pirozzi, Domenico; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2007-01-01

    A prolipase from Rhizopus oryzae (proROL) was engineered in order to increase its stability toward lipid oxidation products such as aldehydes with the aim of improving its performance in oleochemical industries. Out of 22 amino acid residues (15 Lys and 7 His) prone to react with aldehydes, 6 Lys and all His residues (except for the catalytic histidine) were chosen and subjected to saturation mutagenesis. In order to quickly and reliably identify stability mutants within the resulting libraries, active variants were prescreened by an activity staining method on agar plates. Active mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli Origami in a 96-well microtiterplate format, and a stability test using octanal as a model deactivating agent was performed. The most stable histidine mutant (H201S) conferred a stability increase of 60%, which was further enhanced to 100% by combination with a lysine mutant (H201S/K168I). This increase in stability was also confirmed for other aldehydes. Interestingly, the mutations did not affect specific activity, as this was still similar to the wild-type enzyme. PMID:17890336

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase from Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, N.; Vedadi, M.; Delarge, M.; Meighen, E.; Abu-Abed, M.; Howell, P. L.; Vrielink, A.

    1996-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase from Vibrio harveyi catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to acids. The enzyme is unique among the family of aldehyde dehydrogenases in that it exhibits much higher specificity for the cofactor NADP+ than for NAD+. The sequence of this form of the enzyme varies significantly from the NAD+ dependent forms, suggesting differences in the three-dimensional structure that may be correlated to cofactor specificity. Crystals of the enzyme have been grown both in the presence and absence of NADP+ using the hanging drop vapor diffusion technique. In order to improve crystal size and quality, iterative seeding techniques were employed. The crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit cell dimensions a = 79.4 A, b = 131.1 A, c = 92.2 A, and beta = 92.4 degrees. Freezing the crystal to 100 K has enabled a complete set of data to be collected using a rotating anode source (lambda = 1.5418 A). The crystals diffract to a minimum d-spacing of 2.6 A resolution. Based on density calculations, two homodimers of molecular weight 110 kDa are estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit. Self-rotation functions show the presence of 3 noncrystallographic twofold symmetry axes. PMID:8897616

  4. Lung morphometry changes in prevention of airway remodeling by protocatechuic aldehyde in asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiankai; Ma, Mulan; Qin, Dongyun; Huang, Jianping; Cui, Xiaojun; Wu, Yongfu; Yang, Huiling; Fu, Hui; Liao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling can lead to irreversible airflow obstruction and persistent airway hyper-responsiveness, which is the pathological basis of refractory asthma. To investigate the preventive effect of protocatechuic aldehyde on airway remodeling in asthmatic mice by lung morphometry methods. BALB/c mice were used to establish model of airway remodeling by ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for eosinophils (EOS) count and detection of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon (IFN-γ) content. The left lung pathological sections were performed HE, AB-PAS and Masson staining. The epithelial lamina thickness of the left main bronchus (Re), the smooth muscle layer thickness (Rm), the number of goblet cells and goblet cell area percentage (%Ac) and gas side of the road and vascular collagen deposition (%Aco, %Avc) situation were measured. Protocatechuic aldehyde gavage made the reduction of BALF EOS count. IL-4 and IL-13 levels also decreased, while the IFN-γ level increased. The left main bronchus Re, Rm, goblet cell count, Ac% and Aco% and Avc% reduced. Protocatechuic aldehyde can significantly control airway inflammation and prevent airway remodeling. PMID:26221226

  5. Hydrazide and hydrazine reagents as reactive matrices for MALDI-MS to detect gaseous aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Shigeri, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shinya; Yasuda, Akikazu; Ando, Masanori; Sato, Hiroaki; Kinumi, Tomoya

    2014-08-01

    The reagents 19 hydrazide and 14 hydrazine were examined to function as reactive matrices for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to detect gaseous aldehydes. Among them, two hydrazide (2-hydroxybenzohydrazide and 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid hydrazide) and two hydrazine reagents [2-hydrazinoquinoline and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)] were found to react efficiently with carbonyl groups of gaseous aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde); these are the main factors for sick building syndrome and operate as reactive matrices for MALDI-MS. Results from accurate mass measurements by JMS-S3000 Spiral-TOF suggested that protonated ion peaks corresponding to [M + H](+) from the resulting derivatives were observed in all cases with the gaseous aldehydes in an incubation, time-dependent manner. The two hydrazide and two hydrazine reagents all possessed absorbances at 337 nm (wavelength of MALDI nitrogen laser), with, significant electrical conductivity of the matrix crystal and functional groups, such as hydroxy group and amino group, being important for desorption/ionization efficiency in MALDI-MS. To our knowledge, this is the first report that gaseous molecules could be derivatized and detected directly in a single step by MALDI-MS using novel reactive matrices that were derivatizing agents with the ability to enhance desorption/ionization efficiency. PMID:25044902

  6. Lung morphometry changes in prevention of airway remodeling by protocatechuic aldehyde in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiankai; Ma, Mulan; Qin, Dongyun; Huang, Jianping; Cui, Xiaojun; Wu, Yongfu; Yang, Huiling; Fu, Hui; Liao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling can lead to irreversible airflow obstruction and persistent airway hyper-responsiveness, which is the pathological basis of refractory asthma. To investigate the preventive effect of protocatechuic aldehyde on airway remodeling in asthmatic mice by lung morphometry methods. BALB/c mice were used to establish model of airway remodeling by ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected for eosinophils (EOS) count and detection of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon (IFN-γ) content. The left lung pathological sections were performed HE, AB-PAS and Masson staining. The epithelial lamina thickness of the left main bronchus (Re), the smooth muscle layer thickness (Rm), the number of goblet cells and goblet cell area percentage (%Ac) and gas side of the road and vascular collagen deposition (%Aco, %Avc) situation were measured. Protocatechuic aldehyde gavage made the reduction of BALF EOS count. IL-4 and IL-13 levels also decreased, while the IFN-γ level increased. The left main bronchus Re, Rm, goblet cell count, Ac% and Aco% and Avc% reduced. Protocatechuic aldehyde can significantly control airway inflammation and prevent airway remodeling. PMID:26221226

  7. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Stress Response Induced by Diatom Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  8. Metabolomics reveals the formation of aldehydes and iminium in gefitinib metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Lu, Yuanfu; Guan, Xinfu; Dong, Bingning; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yiqing; Krishnamurthy, Partha; Li, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Gefitinib (GEF), an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, is widely used for the treatment of cancers, particularly non-small cell lung cancer. However, its clinical use is limited by multiple adverse effects associated with GEF, such as liver and lung injuries, severe nausea, and diarrhea. Although, the exact mechanism of GEF adverse effects are still unknown, xenobiotic-induced bioactivation is thought to play a significant role in GEF induced toxicity. Using a metabolomic approach, we investigated the metabolic pathways of GEF in human and mouse liver microsomes. Thirty four GEF metabolites and adducts were identified and half of them are novel. The potential reactive metabolites, two aldehydes and one iminium, were identified for the first time. The previously reported GSH adducts and primary amines were observed as well. The aldehyde and iminium pathways were further confirmed by using methoxylamine and potassium cyanide as trapping reagents. Using recombinant CYP450 isoforms, CYP3A4 inhibitor, and S9 from Cyp3a-null mice, we confirmed CYP3A is the major enzyme contributing to the formation of aldehydes, GSH adducts, and primary amines in liver. Multiple enzymes contribute to the formation of iminium. This study provided us more knowledge of GEF bioactivation and enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, which can be utilized for understanding the mechanism of adverse effects associated with GEF and predicting possible drug-drug interactions. Further studies are suggested to determine the roles of these bioactivation pathways in GEF toxicity. PMID:26212543

  9. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed Michael addition to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by redox oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zi-Qiang; Jia, Min-Qiang; You, Shu-Li

    2011-08-01

    Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed Michael addition reactions to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by redox oxidation were realized. With 10 mol % of camphor-derived triazolium salt D, 15 mol % of DBU, 5 mol % of NaBF(4), and 100 mol % of quinone oxidant, the reactions of various dicarbonyl compounds with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes led to 3,4-dihydro-α-pyrones in good yields and excellent ee's. PMID:21732659

  10. Asymmetric trifluoromethylation of aromatic aldehydes by cooperative catalysis with (IPr)CuF and quinidine-derived quaternary ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoxiang; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qi; Chen, Fu-Xue

    2012-12-21

    A general enantioselective trifluoromethylation of aldehydes has been developed using (IPr)CuF and quinidine-derived quaternary ammonium salt as the cooperative catalyst. Thus, a wide range of aromatic aldehydes have been converted to the corresponding products in up to 92% yield and 81% ee at 2 mol% of catalyst loading. The greatly enhanced activity and enantioselectivity result from the initiative generation of active [(IPr)CuCF(3)] as well as additional coordination activation of other copper species. PMID:23085678

  11. SnAP-eX Reagents for the Synthesis of Exocyclic 3-Amino- and 3-Alkoxypyrrolidines and Piperidines from Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Luescher, Michael U; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-06-01

    SnAP-eX (tin amine protocol, exocyclic heteroatoms) reagents allow the single-step transformation of aldehydes and ketones into 2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines and piperidines containing exocyclic amine or alkoxy groups. These saturated N-heterocycles are of importance in modern drug discovery approaches and are prepared in moderate yields using an operationally simple protocol that is compatible with a range of functional groups and heterocyclic aldehydes. PMID:27192447

  12. Aerobic Copper-Promoted Radical-Type Cleavage of Coordinated Cyanide Anion: Nitrogen Transfer to Aldehydes To Form Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Luo, Yi; Lei, Aiwen; You, Jingsong

    2016-03-01

    We have disclosed for the first time the copper-promoted C≡N triple bond cleavage of coordinated cyanide anion under a dioxygen atmosphere, which enables a nitrogen transfer to various aldehydes. Mechanistic study of this unprecedented transformation suggests that the single electron-transfer process could be involved in the overall course. This protocol provides a new cleavage pattern for the cyanide ion and would eventually lead to a more useful synthetic pathway to nitriles from aldehydes. PMID:26907853

  13. Aortic Binding of AZD5248: Mechanistic Insight and Reactivity Assays To Support Lead Optimzation.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Ryan A; Brocklehurst, Simon; Gustafsson, Frida; Goodman, James; Hickling, Kevin; MacFaul, Philip A; Swallow, Steve; Tugwood, Jonathan

    2015-10-19

    The oral dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) inhibitor AZD5248 showed aortic binding in a rat quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA) study, and its development was terminated prior to human dosing. A mechanistic hypothesis for this finding was established invoking reactivity with aldehydes involved in the cross-linking of elastin, a major component of aortic tissue. This was tested by developing a simple aldehyde chemical reactivity assay and a novel in vitro competitive covalent binding assay. Results obtained with AZD5248, literature compounds, and close analogues of AZD5248 support the mechanistic hypothesis and provide validation for the use of these assays in a two tier screening approach to support lead optimization. The strengths and limitations of these assays are discussed. PMID:26351880

  14. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Cd binding onto bacterial consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Bunker, Bruce A.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Nerenberg, Robert; Read-Daily, Brenda L.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we use extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy measurements to examine the atomic environment of Cd bound onto two experimental bacterial consortia: one grown from river water, and one grown from a manufacturing gas plant site. The experiments were conducted as a function of pH and demonstrate that the complex mixtures of bacteria, containing both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, yield relatively simple EXAFS spectra, a result which indicates that only a limited number of functional group types contribute to Cd binding for each bacterial consortium. The EXAFS spectra indicate that the average Cd binding environment in the river water consortium varies significantly with pH, but the manufacturing gas plant consortium exhibits a Cd binding environment that remains relatively constant over the pH range examined. The EXAFS data for the river water consortium were modeled using carboxyl, phosphoryl and sulfhydryl sites. However, only carboxyl and phosphoryl sites were required to model the manufacturing gas plant consortium data under similar experimental conditions. This is the first EXAFS study to identify and quantify the relative importance of metal binding sites in bacterial consortia. Although our results indicate differences in the binding environments of the two consortia, the data suggest that there are broad similarities in the binding environments present on a wide range of bacterial cell walls.

  15. Kinetics of Forming Aldehydes in Frying Oils and Their Distribution in French Fries Revealed by LC-MS-Based Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Csallany, A Saari; Kerr, Brian J; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the kinetics of aldehyde formation in heated frying oils was characterized by 2-hydrazinoquinoline derivatization, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The aldehydes contributing to time-dependent separation of heated soybean oil (HSO) in a PCA model were grouped by the HCA into three clusters (A1, A2, and B) on the basis of their kinetics and fatty acid precursors. The increases of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the A2-to-B ratio in HSO were well-correlated with the duration of thermal stress. Chemometric and quantitative analysis of three frying oils (soybean, corn, and canola oils) and French fry extracts further supported the associations between aldehyde profiles and fatty acid precursors and also revealed that the concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, acrolein, and the A2-to-B ratio in French fry extracts were more comparable to their values in the frying oils than other unsaturated aldehydes. All of these results suggest the roles of specific aldehydes or aldehyde clusters as novel markers of the lipid oxidation status for frying oils or fried foods. PMID:27128101

  16. Molecular cloning of the cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase: tissue distribution and regulation in vivo by testosterone.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaki, M; Demontis, S; Barzago, M M; Garattini, E; Terao, M

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA coding for mouse aldehyde oxidase (AO), a molybdoflavoprotein, has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA is 4347 nt long and consists of an open reading frame predicting a polypeptide of 1333 amino acid residues, with 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 13 and 335 nt respectively. The apparent molecular mass of the translation product in vitro derived from the corresponding cRNA is consistent with that of the monomeric subunit of the AO holoenzyme. The cDNA codes for a catalytically active form of AO, as demonstrated by transient transfection experiments conducted in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cell line. The deduced primary structure of the AO protein contains consensus sequences for two distinct 2Fe-2S redox centres and a molybdopterin-binding site. The amino acid sequence of the mouse AO has a high degree of similarity with the human and bovine counterparts, and a significant degree of relatedness to AO proteins of plant origin. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that hepatocytes, cardiocytes, lung endothelial or epithelial cells and oesophagus epithelial cells express high levels of AO mRNA. In the various tissues and organs considered, the level of AO mRNA expression is not strictly correlated with the amount of the corresponding protein, suggesting that the synthesis of the AO enzyme is under translational or post-translational control. In addition, we observed sex-related regulation of AO protein synthesis. In the liver of male animals, despite similar amounts of AO mRNA, the levels of the AO enzyme and corresponding polypeptide are significantly higher than those in female animals. Treatment of female mice with testosterone increases the amounts of AO mRNA and of the relative translation product to levels similar to those in male animals. PMID:10377246

  17. Peptidyl aldehyde NK-1.8k suppresses enterovirus 71 and enterovirus 68 infection by targeting protease 3C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Yang, Ben; Zhai, Yangyang; Yin, Zheng; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2015-05-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease in the Pacific-Asia region. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections, and the fatality rates from EV71 infection are high. Moreover, an outbreak of respiratory illnesses caused by an emerging EV, EV68, recently occurred among over 1,000 young children in the United States and was also associated with neurological infections. Although enterovirus has emerged as a considerable global public health threat, no antiviral drug for clinical use is available. In the present work, we screened our compound library for agents targeting viral protease and identified a peptidyl aldehyde, NK-1.8k, that inhibits the proliferation of different EV71 strains and one EV68 strain and that had a 50% effective concentration of 90 nM. Low cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >200 μM) indicated a high selective index of over 2,000. We further characterized a single amino acid substitution inside protease 3C (3C(pro)), N69S, which conferred EV71 resistance to NK-1.8k, possibly by increasing the flexibility of the substrate binding pocket of 3C(pro). The combination of NK-1.8k and an EV71 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor or entry inhibitor exhibited a strong synergistic anti-EV71 effect. Our findings suggest that NK-1.8k could potentially be developed for anti-EV therapy. PMID:25691647

  18. Chemical characterization of binding properties of opacity-associated protein II from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Bessen, D; Gotschlich, E C

    1987-01-01

    Binding of an opacity-associated protein II (PIIop) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eucaryotic macromolecules was studied. HeLa cell extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose, and purified PIIop bound to approximately 50 distinct molecular species. The binding of PIIop to HeLa cell components was stable in high salt and nonionic detergent and was not inhibited by a variety of monosaccharides and polyionic substances. PIIop binding behavior was compared with that of two model carbohydrate-binding proteins, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and concanavalin A (ConA). Model glycoproteins (ovomucoid, fetuin, mucin, ovalbumin) inhibited binding by PIIop, WGA, and ConA to various degrees. HeLa cell glycopeptides, generated by pronase digestion of chloroform-methanol-extracted cells, were tested for their ability to inhibit binding by PIIop to Western blots of HeLa cell macromolecules. HeLa cell extracts inhibited PIIop binding before pronase treatment, but inhibitory activity was lost as a result of pronase digestion. Direct binding to defined glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins revealed that ConA and WGA bound only glycoproteins, whereas PIIop bound to proteins lacking carbohydrate as well. PIIop binding to human and bovine serum albumins was of high affinity and required partial unfolding of albumin; native albumin was not bound by PIIop; however, both the denatured, reduced form of albumin and the compact, nonreduced form of carboxymethylated albumin were bound strongly by PIIop. Albumin-PIIop interaction did not involve covalent bond formation through sulfhydryl groups. The predominant binding interactions of PIIop found in this study were with protein rather than carbohydrate, and the chemical nature of the interactions is more complex than involvement of purely ionic or hydrophobic forces. Images PMID:3098683

  19. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca L; Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24h LD(50) values of 7 and 20 microM for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 microM of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24h LD(50) of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 microM of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24h LD(50) of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 microM zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 microM copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed. PMID:15927283

  20. Identification of long chain specific aldehyde reductase and its use in enhanced fatty alcohol production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Zia; Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-09-01

    Long chain fatty alcohols have wide application in chemical industries and transportation sector. There is no direct natural reservoir for long chain fatty alcohol production, thus many groups explored metabolic engineering approaches for its microbial production. Escherichia coli has been the major microbial platform for this effort, however, terminal endogenous enzyme responsible for converting fatty aldehydes of chain length C14-C18 to corresponding fatty alcohols is still been elusive. Through our in silico analysis we selected 35 endogenous enzymes of E. coli having potential of converting long chain fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols and studied their role under in vivo condition. We found that deletion of ybbO gene, which encodes NADP(+) dependent aldehyde reductase, led to >90% reduction in long chain fatty alcohol production. This feature was found to be strain transcending and reinstalling ybbO gene via plasmid retained the ability of mutant to produce long chain fatty alcohols. Enzyme kinetic study revealed that YbbO has wide substrate specificity ranging from C6 to C18 aldehyde, with maximum affinity and efficiency for C18 and C16 chain length aldehyde, respectively. Along with endogenous production of fatty aldehyde via optimized heterologous expression of cyanobaterial acyl-ACP reductase (AAR), YbbO overexpression resulted in 169mg/L of long chain fatty alcohols. Further engineering involving modulation of fatty acid as well as of phospholipid biosynthesis pathway improved fatty alcohol production by 60%. Finally, the engineered strain produced 1989mg/L of long chain fatty alcohol in bioreactor under fed-batch cultivation condition. Our study shows for the first time a predominant role of a single enzyme in production of long chain fatty alcohols from fatty aldehydes as well as of modulation of phospholipid pathway in increasing the fatty alcohol production. PMID:27134112

  1. Inhibition of guinea pig aldehyde oxidase activity by different flavonoid compounds: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siah, Maryam; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Hadi; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO), a cytosolic molybdenum-containing hydroxylase, is predominantly active in liver and other tissues of mammalian species and involved in the metabolism of extensive range of aldehydes and nitrogen-containing compounds. A wide range of natural components including polyphenols are able to interfere with AO-catalyzed reactions. Polyphenols and flavonoids are one of the extensive secondary plant metabolites ubiquitously present in plants considered an important part of the human diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate inhibitory effect of selected phenolic compounds from three subclasses of aurone, flavanone and phenolic lactone compounds on the activity of AO, spectrophotometrically. AO enzyme was partially purified from liver of guinea pig. Then, inhibitory effects of 10 flavonoid compounds including 8 derivatives of 2-benzylidenebenzofuran-3(2H)-ones, as well as naringenin and ellagic acid on the activity of aldehyde oxidase were assessed compared with the specific inhibitor of AO, menadione. Among the phenolic compounds with inhibitory effects on the enzyme, ellagic acid (IC50=14.47 μM) was the most potent agent with higher inhibitory action than menadione (IC50=31.84 μM). The mechanisms by which flavonoid compounds inhibit AO activity have been also determined. The inhibitory process of the assessed compounds occurs via either a non-competitive or mixed mode. Although flavonoid compounds extensively present in the nature, mainly in dietary regimen, aurones with promising biological properties are not widely distributed in nature, so synthesis of aurone derivatives is of great importance. Additionally, aurones seem to provide a promising scaffold in medicinal chemistry for the skeleton of new developing drugs, so the results of the current study can be valuable in order to better understanding drug-food as well as drug-drug interaction and also appears to be worthwhile in drug development strategies. PMID:26722818

  2. Betaine Accumulation and Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Spinach Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Mei; Moreau, Robert A.; Yu, Charles; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1981-01-01

    Spinach leaf discs accumulated betaine when exposed to a mannitol solution of −20 bars. The accumulation was 12 micromoles per gram original fresh weight in a 24-hour period. Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) was assayed in various subcellular fractions prepared from spinach leaves, and it was found only in the soluble fraction. This cytosolic enzyme was purified 175-fold, and its properties were studied. The enzyme was relatively specific for betaine aldehyde as the substrate with an apparent Km value of 2.08 × 10−4 molar. It also exerted activity on other aldehyde analogs tested, but with lower Vmax and higher Km values. The enzyme was relatively specific for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as the coenzyme, having an apparent Km value of 9.46 × 10−6 molar; lower activities were observed when nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide were tested as electron acceptors. The activity was enhanced by dithiothreitol and inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, and the inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was partially reversed by the subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. The activity was inhibited by high concentrations of NaCl and, to a lesser extent, proline. The equilibrium of the enzymic reaction was strongly in favor of betaine formation. The in vitro activity of the enzyme under optimal assay conditions was high enough to account for the amount of betaine accumulated under water stress conditions. The enzyme activity was the same in unstressed leaves and in leaves that had been water stressed for 24 hours. PMID:16661818

  3. Mono(imidazolin-2-iminato) actinide complexes: synthesis and application in the catalytic dimerization of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Karmel, Isabell S R; Fridman, Natalia; Tamm, Matthias; Eisen, Moris S

    2014-12-10

    The synthesis of the mono(imidazolin-2-iminato) actinide(IV) complexes [(Im(R)N)An(N{SiMe3)2}3] (3-8) was accomplished by the protonolysis reaction between the respective imidazolin-2-imine (Im(R)NH, R = tBu, Mes, Dipp) and the actinide metallacycles [{(Me3Si)N}2An{κ(2)C,N-CH2SiMe2N(SiMe3)}] (1, An = U; 2, M = Th). The thorium and uranium complexes were obtained in high yields, and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The mono(imidazolin-2-iminato) actinide complexes 3-8 display short An-N bonds together with large An-N-C angles, indicating strong electron donation from the imidazolin-2-iminato moiety to the metal, corroborating a substantial π-character to the An-N bond. The reactivity of complexes 3-8 toward benzaldehyde was studied in the catalytic dimerization of aldehydes (Tishchenko reaction), displaying low to moderate catalytic activities for the uranium complexes 3-5 and moderate to high catalytic activities for the thorium analogues 6-8, among which 8 exhibited the highest catalytic activity. In addition, actinide coordination compounds showed unprecedented reactivity toward cyclic and branched aliphatic aldehydes in the catalytic Tishchenko reaction mediated by the thorium complex [(Im(Dipp)N)Th{N(SiMe3)2}3] (8), exhibiting high activity even at room temperature. Moreover, complex 8 was successfully applied in the crossed Tishchenko reaction between an aromatic or polyaromatic and an aliphatic cyclic and branched aldehyde, yielding selectively the asymmetrically substituted ester in high yields (80-100%). PMID:25393398

  4. Characterization of a periplasmic quinoprotein from Sphingomonas wittichii that functions as aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zeiser, Jessica; Mühlenbeck, Larissa Helen; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    The α-proteobacterium Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is known for its ability to degrade dioxins and related toxic substances. Bioinformatic analysis of the genome indicated that this organism may contain the largest number of pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases of any bacteria sequenced so far. Sequence analysis also showed that one of these genes (swit_4395) encodes an enzyme that belongs to the class of periplasmic glucose dehydrogenases. This gene was fused to a pelB signal sequence and a strep-tag coding region at the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. The fusion product was cloned into the broad-host range expression vector pBBR1p264-Streplong and the corresponding protein was heterologously produced in Escherichia coli, purified via Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography, and characterized. The protein Swit_4395 had a subunit mass of 39.3 kDa and formed active homooctamers and homododecamers. The enzyme showed the highest activities with short- and medium-chain aldehydes (chain length C1-C6) and ketoaldehydes, such as methylglyoxal and phenylglyoxal. Butyraldehyde was the best substrate, with V max and apparent K M values of 3,970 U/mg protein and 12.3 mM, respectively. Pyrroloquinoline quinone was detected using UV-Vis spectroscopy and was found to be a prosthetic group of the purified enzyme. Therefore, Swit_4395 was identified as a pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase. The enzyme could be purified from the native host when the expression vector was introduced into S. wittichii RW1, indicating homologous protein production. Overproduction of Swit_4395 in S. wittichii RW1 dramatically increased the tolerance of the bacterium toward butyraldehyde and thus might contribute to the detoxification of toxic aldehydes. PMID:23828599

  5. Integrated quantification and identification of aldehydes and ketones in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Meinema, Anne C; Permentier, Hjalmar; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Bischoff, Rainer

    2014-05-20

    The identification of unknown compounds remains to be a bottleneck of mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics screening experiments. Here, we present a novel approach which facilitates the identification and quantification of analytes containing aldehyde and ketone groups in biological samples by adding chemical information to MS data. Our strategy is based on rapid autosampler-in-needle-derivatization with p-toluenesulfonylhydrazine (TSH). The resulting TSH-hydrazones are separated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and detected by electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-QqTOF) mass spectrometry using a SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Fragment-Ion Spectra) data-independent high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) approach. Derivatization makes small, poorly ionizable or retained analytes amenable to reversed phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in both polarities. Negatively charged TSH-hydrazone ions furthermore show a simple and predictable fragmentation pattern upon collision induced dissociation, which enables the chemo-selective screening for unknown aldehydes and ketones via a signature fragment ion (m/z 155.0172). By means of SWATH, targeted and nontargeted application scenarios of the suggested derivatization route are enabled in the frame of a single UHPLC-ESI-QqTOF-HR-MS workflow. The method's ability to simultaneously quantify and identify molecules containing aldehyde and ketone groups is demonstrated using 61 target analytes from various compound classes and a (13)C labeled yeast matrix. The identification of unknowns in biological samples is detailed using the example of indole-3-acetaldehyde. PMID:24745975

  6. Gibberellin biosynthesis from gibberellin A12-aldehyde in endosperm and embryos of Marah macrocarpus.

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, J; Ward, D A; Phillips, A L; Sánchez-Beltrán, M J; Gaskin, P; Lange, T; Hedden, P

    1997-01-01

    Soluble enzyme preparations from embryos and endosperm of Marah macrocarpus (previously Echinocystis macrocarpa) were incubated with [14C4]gibberellin(GA)12-aldehyde, [14C4]GA12, [14C1] GA9, 2,3-didehydro[14C1]GA9, [14C1]GA20, and [17-13C, 3H]GA5. Embryo preparations converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, and GA9 to GA4 and GA7; 2,3-didehydroGA9 to GA7; GA5 to GA3; and GA20 (incompletely) to GA1 and GA60, but not to GA3. Endosperm preparations converted GA12-aldehyde and GA12 to GA15, GA24, and GA9, but, unlike embryo preparations, not to GA4 or GA7. However, GA4 and GA7 were formed from GA9 and GA7 was formed from 2,3-didehydroGA9. Metabolism of GA5 to GA3 and GA20 to GA1 was low. 2,3-DidehydroGA9 accumulated when GA9 was incubated with a desalted endosperm preparation. A cDNA clone (M3-8), selected from an embryo-derived cDNA library using a DNA fragment generated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein converted GA12 to GA9 (major) and GA25 (minor); GA53 was metabolized less effectively and only to GA44. Thus, the M3-8 protein is functionally similar to GA 20-oxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana, Spinacia oleracea, and Pisum sativum, but different from that from Cucurbita maxima seeds, to which its amino acid sequence is most closely related. mRNA hybridizing to M3-8 accumulated in embryos and endosperm of M. macrocarpus, but was absent in vegetative tissues. PMID:9112781

  7. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  8. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert E.; Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 5-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  9. Iron/ABNO-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes and Ketones under Ambient Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianyue; Shang, SenSen; Li, Guosong; Ren, Lanhui; Lv, Ying; Gao, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    We report a new Fe(NO3)3·9H2O/9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-N-oxyl catalyst system that enables efficient aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system exhibits excellent activity and selectivity for primary aliphatic alcohol oxidation. This procedure can also be scaled up. Kinetic analysis demonstrates that C-H bond cleavage is the rate-determining step and that cationic species are involved in the reaction. PMID:26859251

  10. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Reaction of Trifluoromethylketones with Aldehydes via a Copper Difluoroenolate.

    PubMed

    Doi, Ryohei; Ohashi, Masato; Ogoshi, Sensuke

    2016-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed reaction of easily accessible α,α,α-trifluoromethylketones with various aldehydes affords difluoro-methylene compounds in the presence of diboron and NaOtBu. The key process of the reaction is the formation of a copper difluoroenolate by 1,2-addition of a borylcopper intermediate to α,α,α-trifluoromethylketones and subsequent β-fluoride elimination. Mechanistic studies including the isolation and characterization of a possible anionic copper alkoxide intermediate are also described. PMID:26514445

  12. Chiral phenoxyimino-amido aluminum complexes for the asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ternel, J; Agbossou-Niedercorn, F; Gauvin, R M

    2014-03-21

    The reactivity of triethylaluminum towards salicylaldimine sulfonamides was probed, affording well-defined complexes through consecutive protonolysis of two Al-C bonds by the proligand. These complexes, when combined with an achiral anilinic N-oxide, catalyze the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilylcyanide to a wide range of aldehydes, with good activity and enantioselectivity (up to 91% ee). Insertion of the benzaldehyde substrate into the Al-N amido bond was observed, bringing elements for discussion around the nature of the actual active species. PMID:24434893

  13. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans.

    PubMed

    Sobreira, Tiago J P; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S L; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification. PMID:21169504

  14. Structural shifts of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes were instrumental for the early evolution of retinoid-dependent axial patterning in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Schechtman, Deborah; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Brunet, Frédéric; Sweeney, Sarah; Pani, Ariel; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Lowe, Christopher J.; Davidson, Bradley; Laudet, Vincent; Bronner, Marianne; de Oliveira, Paulo S. L.; Schubert, Michael; Xavier-Neto, José

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catabolize toxic aldehydes and process the vitamin A-derived retinaldehyde into retinoic acid (RA), a small diffusible molecule and a pivotal chordate morphogen. In this study, we combine phylogenetic, structural, genomic, and developmental gene expression analyses to examine the evolutionary origins of ALDH substrate preference. Structural modeling reveals that processing of small aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, by ALDH2, versus large aldehydes, including retinaldehyde, by ALDH1A is associated with small versus large substrate entry channels (SECs), respectively. Moreover, we show that metazoan ALDH1s and ALDH2s are members of a single ALDH1/2 clade and that during evolution, eukaryote ALDH1/2s often switched between large and small SECs after gene duplication, transforming constricted channels into wide opened ones and vice versa. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that during the evolutionary emergence of RA signaling, the ancestral, narrow-channeled metazoan ALDH1/2 gave rise to large ALDH1 channels capable of accommodating bulky aldehydes, such as retinaldehyde, supporting the view that retinoid-dependent signaling arose from ancestral cellular detoxification mechanisms. Our analyses also indicate that, on a more restricted evolutionary scale, ALDH1 duplicates from invertebrate chordates (amphioxus and ascidian tunicates) underwent switches to smaller and narrower SECs. When combined with alterations in gene expression, these switches led to neofunctionalization from ALDH1-like roles in embryonic patterning to systemic, ALDH2-like roles, suggesting functional shifts from signaling to detoxification. PMID:21169504

  15. Proteomics Guided Discovery of Flavopeptins: Anti-Proliferative Aldehydes Synthesized by a Reductase Domain-Containing Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunqiu; McClure, Ryan A.; Zheng, Yupeng; Thomson, Regan J.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the importance of proteases in regulating cellular processes, the development of protease inhibitors has garnered great attention. Peptide-based aldehydes are a class of compounds that exhibit inhibitory activities against various proteases and proteasomes in the context of anti-proliferative treatments for cancer and other diseases. More than a dozen peptide-based natural products containing aldehydes have been discovered such as chymostatin, leupeptin, and fellutamide; however, the biosynthetic origin of the aldehyde functionality has yet to be elucidated. Herein we describe the discovery of a new group of lipopeptide aldehydes, the flavopeptins, and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway arising from an orphan gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. NRRL-F6652, a close relative of Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331. This research was initiated using a proteomics approach that screens for expressed enzymes involved in secondary metabolism in microorganisms. Flavopeptins are synthesized through a nonribosomal peptide synthetase containing a terminal NAD(P)H dependent reductase domain likely for the reductive release of the peptide with a C-terminal aldehyde. Solid phase peptide synthesis of several flavopeptin species and derivatives enabled structural verification and subsequent screening of biological activity. Flavopeptins exhibited submicromolar inhibition activities against cysteine proteases such as papain and calpain as well as the human 20S proteasome. They also showed anti-proliferative activities against multiple myeloma and lymphoma cell lines. PMID:23763305

  16. Aminosilica materials as adsorbents for the selective removal of aldehydes and ketones from simulated bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Drese, Jeffrey H; Talley, Anne D; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-21

    The fast pyrolysis of biomass is a potential route to the production of liquid biorenewable fuel sources. However, degradation of the bio-oil mixtures due to reaction of oxygenates, such as aldehydes and ketones, reduces the stability of the liquids and can impact long-term storage and shipping. Herein, solid aminosilica adsorbents are described for the selective adsorptive removal of reactive aldehyde and ketone species. Three aminosilica adsorbents are prepared through the reaction of amine-containing silanes with pore-expanded mesoporous silica. A fourth aminosilica adsorbent is prepared through the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine from pore-expanded mesoporous silica. Adsorption experiments with a representative mixture of bio-oil model compounds are presented using each adsorbent at room temperature and 45 °C. The adsorbent comprising only primary amines adsorbs the largest amount of aldehydes and ketones. The overall reactivity of this adsorbent increases with increasing temperature. Additional aldehyde screening experiments show that the reactivity of aldehydes with aminosilicas varies depending on their chemical functionality. Initial attempts to regenerate an aminosilica adsorbent by acid hydrolysis show that they can be at least partially regenerated for further use. PMID:21246749

  17. Single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of volatile aldehydes in fresh cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2008-07-01

    Headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) was used as a rapid and reliable method for the isolation and preconcentration of volatile aldehydes from fresh cucumbers. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated in the determination of (E)-2-nonenal and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The limit of detection, linearity and repeatability have been determined for 2,6-nonadienal and (E)-2-nonenal. Limits of detection for nonenal and nonadienal were 0.05 and 0.04 mg kg(-1), respectively. The repeatability of extraction was obtained with the RSD values lower than 13%. Concentrations of target aldehydes in fresh cucumbers obtained by means of the HS-SDME method were in the range 9.4-12.5 (nonadienal) and 2.6-3.8 mg kg(-1) (nonenal). The results of the single-drop extraction in combination with gas chromatography show promising potential for the analysis of volatile aldehydes in vegetables. PMID:18415084

  18. S-nitrosomycothiol reductase and mycothiol are required for survival under aldehyde stress and biofilm formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Derek; Hageman, Samantha; Gulati, Megha; Nobile, Clarissa J; Rawat, Mamta

    2016-08-01

    We show that Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants disrupted in mscR, coding for a dual function S-nitrosomycothiol reductase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase, and mshC, coding for a mycothiol ligase and lacking mycothiol (MSH), are more susceptible to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and aldehydes than wild type. MSH is a cofactor for MscR, and both mshC and mscR are induced by GSNO and aldehydes. We also show that a mutant disrupted in egtA, coding for a γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase and lacking in ergothioneine, is sensitive to nitrosative stress but not to aldehydes. In addition, we find that MSH and S-nitrosomycothiol reductase are required for normal biofilm formation in M. smegmatis, suggesting potential new therapeutic pathways to target to inhibit or disrupt biofilm formation. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(8):621-628, 2016. PMID:27321674

  19. Site-specific chemical modification of recombinant proteins produced in mammalian cells by using the genetically encoded aldehyde tag.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Shui, Wenqing; Carlson, Brian L; Hu, Nancy; Rabuka, David; Lee, Julia; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2009-03-01

    The properties of therapeutic proteins can be enhanced by chemical modification. Methods for site-specific protein conjugation are critical to such efforts. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant proteins expressed in mammalian cells can be site-specifically modified by using a genetically encoded aldehyde tag. We introduced the peptide sequence recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE), which can be as short as 6 residues, into heterologous proteins expressed in mammalian cells. Cotranslational modification of the proteins by FGE produced products bearing a unique aldehyde group. Proteins bearing this "aldehyde tag" were chemically modified by selective reaction with hydrazide- or aminooxy-functionalized reagents. We applied the technique to site-specific modification of monoclonal antibodies, the fastest growing class of biopharmaceuticals, as well as membrane-associated and cytosolic proteins expressed in mammalian cells. PMID:19202059

  20. Emissions of acrolein and other aldehydes from biodiesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Okamoto, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles. For the 2008 vehicle, only soy biodiesel and CARB ULSD fuels were tested. The research objective was to compare aldehyde emission rates between (1) the test fuels, (2) the drive cycles, and (3) the engine technologies. The results showed that soy biodiesel had the highest acrolein emission rates while the renewable diesel showed the lowest. The drive cycle also affected emission rates with the cruise drive cycle having lower emissions than the urban drive cycle. Lastly, the newer vehicle with the diesel particulate filter had greatly reduced carbonyl emissions compared to the other vehicles, thus demonstrating that the engine technology had a greater influence on emission rates than the fuels. PMID:22746209

  1. Reactive oxygen species and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes as second messengers in signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Henry Jay

    2014-01-01

    Signaling by H2O2, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and related chemical species, is thought to differ from signaling by other second messengers because the oxidants and other electrophiles can readily undergo nonenzymatic reactions and are therefore classified as “reactive.” This brief review will describe how and when the chemistry of signaling is similar or differs from classic second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, or posttranslational signaling, such as farnesylation or ubiquitination. The chemistry of cysteine provides a common factor that underlies signaling by H2O2 and HNE. Nonetheless, as H2O2 and HNE are rapidly metabolized in vivo, spatial considerations are extremely important in their actions. Therefore, the locations of sources of H2O2 and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, the NADPH oxidases, mitochondria, membrane lipids, and redox cycling toxicants, as well as their targets, are key factors. The activation of the JNK pathway by HNE and endogenously generated H2O2 illustrates these principles. PMID:20716281

  2. Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Ethyl 3-METHYL-3-PHENYLGLYCIDATE (strawberry Aldehyde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Steven T.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Suenram, Richard D.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2009-06-01

    Strawberry aldehyde (C_{12} O_3 H_{14}), a common artificial flavoring compound, has two non-interconvertible conformational families defined by the relative stereochemistry around its epoxide carbons. In one family, referred to as the trans because the two large substituents (a phenyl ring and an ethyl ester) are on opposite sides of the epoxide ring, these two substituents are unable to interact with each other. However, in the cis family, there is a long-range interaction that is difficult to accurately capture in electronic structure calculations. Three trans and two cis conformations have been assigned by broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, along with the C-13 isotopomers in natural abundance for one conformer from each of the families. The agreement of the rotational constants, relative dipole moments, and relative energies between theory and experiment is excellent, even at relatively crude levels of theory, for the trans family, but is quite poor for the cis conformers. In addition, due to the reactivity of strawberry aldehyde and the high temperature to which it must be heated to yield a suitable vapor pressure, several decomposition products have been assigned, and more, as of yet unassigned, are likely to be present. This project demonstrates some of the challenges in performing large-molecule rotational spectroscopy.

  3. Green Bank Telescope Detection of New Interstellar Aldehydes: Propenal and Propanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Remijan, A.; Møllendal, H.

    2004-07-01

    The new interstellar molecules propenal (CH2CHCHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO) have been detected largely in absorption toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of rotational transitions observed with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) operating in the range from 18 GHz (λ~1.7 cm) to 26 GHz (λ~1.2 cm). The GBT was also used to observe the previously reported interstellar aldehyde propynal (HC2CHO) in Sagittarius B2(N), which is a known source of large molecules presumably formed on interstellar grains. The presence of these three interstellar aldehydes toward Sagittarius B2(N) strongly suggests that simple hydrogen addition on interstellar grains accounts for successively larger molecular species: from propynal to propenal and from propenal to propanal. Energy sources within Sagittarius B2(N) likely permit the hydrogen addition reactions on grain surfaces to proceed. This work demonstrates that successive hydrogen addition is probably an important chemistry route in the formation of a number of complex interstellar molecules. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO).

  4. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  5. Molecular abnormality of an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase variant commonly found in Orientals.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, A; Huang, I Y; Ikawa, M

    1984-01-01

    Usual human livers contain two major aldehyde dehydrogenase [(ALDH) aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase] isozymes--i.e., a cytosolic ALDH1 component and a mitochondrial ALDH2 component--whereas approximately equal to 50% of Orientals are "atypical" and have only the ALDH1 isozyme and are missing the ALDH2 isozyme. We previously demonstrated that atypical livers contain an enzymatically inactive but immunologically crossreactive material (CRM) corresponding to the ALDH2 component. The enzymatically active ALDH2 obtained from a usual liver and the CRM obtained from an atypical liver were reduced, S-carboxymethylated, and digested by trypsin. Separation of their digests by high-performance reverse-phase chromatography and by two-dimensional paper chromatography and electrophoresis revealed that ALDH2 contained a peptide sequence of -Glu-Leu-Gly-Glu-Ala-Gly-Leu-Gln-Ala-Asn-Val-Gln-Val-Lys- and that the glutamine adjacent to lysine was substituted by lysine in CRM. All other tryptic peptides, including eight peptides containing S-carboxymethylcysteine, were common in ALDH2 and CRM. It is concluded that a point mutation in the human ALDH2 locus produced the glutamine leads to lysine substitution and enzyme inactivation. Images PMID:6582480

  6. Cross-linking connectivity in bone collagen fibrils: the COOH-terminal locus of free aldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otsubo, K.; Katz, E. P.; Mechanic, G. L.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of the chemical state of the 16c residue of the alpha 1 chain of bone collagen were performed on samples from fetal (4-6-month embryo) and mature (2-3 year old) bovine animals. All of this residue could be accounted for in terms of three chemical states, in relative amounts which depended upon the age of the animal. Most of the residue was incorporated into either bifunctional or trifunctional cross-links. Some of it, however, was present as free aldehyde, and the content increased with maturation. This was established by isolating and characterizing the aldehyde-containing peptides generated by tryptic digestion of NaB3H4-reduced mature bone collagen. We have concluded that the connectivity of COOH-terminal cross-linking in bone collagen fibrils changes with maturation in the following way: at first, each 16c residue in each of the two alpha 1 chains of the collagen molecule is incorporated into a sheet-like pattern of intermolecular iminium cross-links, which stabilizes the young, nonmineralized fibril as a whole. In time, some of these labile cross-links maturate into pyridinoline while others dissociate back to their precursor form. The latter is likely due to changes in the molecular packing brought about by the mineralization of the collagen fibrils. The resultant reduction in cross-linking connectivity may provide a mechanism for enhancing certain mechanical characteristics of the skeleton of a mature animal.

  7. Preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde-gelatin nanogels.

    PubMed

    P R, Sarika; James, Nirmala Rachel; P R, Anil Kumar; Raj, Deepa K

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenol exhibits chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities towards cancer. In order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, curcumin is encapsulated in alginate aldehyde-gelatin (Alg Ald-Gel) nanogels. Alginate aldehyde-gelatin nanogels are prepared by inverse miniemulsion technique. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded nanogels are evaluated by, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Curcumin loaded nanogels show hydrodynamic diameter of 431±8nm and a zeta potential of -36±4mV. The prepared nanogels exhibit an encapsulation efficiency of 72±2%. In vitro drug release studies show a controlled release of curcumin from nanogels over a period of 48h. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the nanogels are evaluated. Bare nanogels are cytocompatible and curcumin loaded nanogels induce anticancer activity towards MCF-7 cells. In vitro cellular uptake of the curcumin loaded nanogels using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirms the uptake of nanogels in MCF-7 cells. Hence, the developed nanogel system can be a suitable candidate for curcumin delivery to cancer cells. PMID:27524019

  8. Alda-1 is an agonist and chemical chaperone for the common human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variant

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Miller, Samantha; Younus, Hina; Vanam, Ram; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2010-04-19

    In approximately one billion people, a point mutation inactivates a key detoxifying enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). This mitochondrial enzyme metabolizes toxic biogenic and environmental aldehydes, including the endogenously produced 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and the environmental pollutant acrolein, and also bioactivates nitroglycerin. ALDH2 is best known, however, for its role in ethanol metabolism. The accumulation of acetaldehyde following the consumption of even a single alcoholic beverage leads to the Asian alcohol-induced flushing syndrome in ALDH2*2 homozygotes. The ALDH2*2 allele is semidominant, and heterozygotic individuals show a similar but less severe phenotype. We recently identified a small molecule, Alda-1, that activates wild-type ALDH2 and restores near-wild-type activity to ALDH2*2. The structures of Alda-1 bound to ALDH2 and ALDH2*2 reveal how Alda-1 activates the wild-type enzyme and how it restores the activity of ALDH2*2 by acting as a structural chaperone.

  9. NAD(+)-independent aldehyde oxidase catalyzes cofactor balanced 3-hydroxypropionic acid production in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Luo; Tian, Pingfang

    2014-11-01

    The limiting step for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) in Klebsiella pneumoniae is the conversion of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) to 3-HP. This reaction is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with NAD(+) as a cofactor. Although NAD(+)-dependent ALDH overexpression facilitates 3-HP biosynthesis, ALDH activity decreases and 3-HP stops accumulation when NAD(+) is exhausted. Here, we show that an NAD(+)-independent aldehyde oxidase (AOX) from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 362 holds promise for cofactor-balanced 3-HP production in K. pneumoniae. The AOX coding gene, alod, was heterologously expressed in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and their respective crude cell extracts showed 38.1 U/mg and 16.6 U/mg activities toward propionaldehyde. The recombinant K. pneumoniae expressing alod showed 13.7 U/mg activity toward 3-HPA; K m and V max were 6.7 mM and 42 μM/min/mg, respectively. In shake-flask cultures, the recombinant K. pneumoniae strain produced 0.89 g 3-HP/l, twice that of the control. Moreover, it produced 3 g 3-HP/l during 24 h fed-batch cultivation in a 5 l bioreactor. The results indicate that AOX can efficiently convert 3-HPA into 3-HP. PMID:24980850

  10. Absorption Reveals and Hydrogen Addition Explains New Interstellar Aldehydes: Propenal and Propanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Remijan, A.; Mollendal, H.

    2004-01-01

    New interstellar molecules propenal (CH2CHCHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO) have been detected largely in absorption toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of rotational transitions observed with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) operating in the range of 18 GHz (lambda approximately 1.7 cm) to 26 GHz (lambda approximately 1.2 cm). The GBT was also used to observe the previously reported interstellar aldehyde propynal (HC2CHO) in Sagittarius B2(N) which is known for large molecules believed to form on interstellar grains. The presence of these three interstellar aldehydes toward Sagittarius B2(N) strongly suggests that simple hydrogen addition on interstellar grains accounts for successively larger molecular species: from propynal to propenal and from propenal to propanal. Energy sources within Sagittarius B2(N) likely permit the hydrogen addition reactions on grain surfaces to proceed. This work demonstrates that successive hydrogen addition is probably an important chemistry route in the formation of a number of complex interstellar molecules. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO).

  11. Aqueous phase hydration and hydrate acidity of perfluoroalkyl and n:2 fluorotelomer aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    The SPARC software program and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the aqueous phase hydration equilibrium constants (Khyd) of perfluoroalkyl aldehydes (PFAlds) and n:2 fluorotelomer aldehydes (FTAlds). Both classes are degradation products of known industrial compounds and environmental contaminants such as fluorotelomer alcohols, iodides, acrylates, phosphate esters, and other derivatives, as well as hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Prior studies have generally failed to consider the hydration, and subsequent potential hydrate acidity, of these compounds, resulting in incomplete and erroneous predictions as to their environmental behavior. In the current work, DFT calculations suggest that all PFAlds will be dominantly present as the hydrated form in aqueous solution. Both SPARC and DFT calculations suggest that FTAlds will not likely be substantially hydrated in aquatic systems or in vivo. PFAld hydrates are expected to have pKa values in the range of phenols (ca. 9 to 10), whereas n:2 FTAld hydrates are expected to have pKa values ca. 2 to 3 units higher (ca. 12 to 13). In order to avoid spurious modeling predictions and a fundamental misunderstanding of their fate, the molecular and/or dissociated hydrate forms of PFAlds and FTAlds need to be explicitly considered in environmental, toxicological, and waste treatment investigations. The results of the current study will facilitate a more complete examination of the environmental fate of PFAlds and FTAlds. PMID:26980678

  12. Determination of aliphatic aldehydes by liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2005-01-21

    An electrochemical detection method for short-chain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes separated by liquid chromatography in moderately acidic medium is described. A triple-step waveform of the potentials applied to the polycrystalline platinum electrode, is proposed for sensitive detection of aliphatic aldehydes in flowing streams avoiding tedious pre- or post-column derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. The influences of the perchloric acid concentration and dissolved oxygen in the mobile phase, on the amperometric and chromatographic performance were evaluated and considered in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. Under the optimised experimental conditions (i.e., deoxygenated 50mM HClO4) the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits between 0.2 microM for acrolein and 2.5 microM for valeraldehyde. Regression analysis of calibration data indicates that responses for all investigated compounds are linear over about 2 orders of magnitude above the LOD, with correlation coefficients >0.990. The method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acrolein in real matrices such as spiked water and red wines with good mean recoveries (81-97%). PMID:15700464

  13. Inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by nitric oxide-mediated S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Jo; Song, Byoung J.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde and other toxic lipid aldehydes. Despite many reports about the inhibition of ALDH2 by toxic chemicals, it is unknown whether nitric oxide (NO) can alter the ALDH2 activity in intact cells or in vivo animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NO on ALDH2 activity in H4IIE-C3 rat hepatoma cells. NO donors such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine significantly increased the nitrite concentration while they inhibited the ALDH2 activity. Addition of GSH-ethylester (GSH-EE) completely blocked the GSNO-mediated ALDH2 inhibition and increased nitrite concentration. To directly demonstrate the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and inactivation, ALDH2 was immunopurified from control or GSNO-treated cells and subjected to immunoblot analysis. The anti-nitrosocysteine antibody recognized the immunopurified ALDH2 only from the GSNO-treated samples. All these results indicate that S-nitrosylation of ALDH2 in intact cells leads to reversible inhibition of ALDH2 activity. PMID:16242127

  14. Kinetics of Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions of Aliphatic Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, M. J.; Casale, M. T.; Richman, A. R.; Beaver, M. R.; Garland, R. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    While it is well established that organic compounds compose a large fraction of the atmospheric aerosol mass, the mechanisms through which organics are incorporated into atmospheric aerosols are not well understood. Acid-catalyzed reactions of compounds with carbonyl groups have recently been suggested as important pathways for transfer of volatile organics into acidic aerosols. In the present study, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of formation of the products of the aldol condensation reaction of a range of aliphatic aldehydes (C2-C8) The experiments were carried out at various sulfuric acid concentrations and a range of temperatures in order to estimate the rate constants of such reactions on sulfuric acid aerosols under tropospheric conditions. The rate constants were generally found to decrease as the chain length of the aliphatic aldehyde increased (except for acetaldehyde, which had an unusually small rate constant), increase as a function of sulfuric acid concentration as predicted by excess acidity theory, and showed normal Arrhenius behavior as a function of temperature.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of mixtures involving ketones and aldehydes by a direct bubble pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Boutin, Anne

    2010-07-01

    Ketone and aldehyde molecules are involved in a large variety of industrial applications. Because they are mainly present mixed with other compounds, the prediction of phase equilibrium of mixtures involving these classes of molecules is of first interest particularly to design and optimize separation processes. The main goal of this work is to propose a transferable force field for ketones and aldehydes that allows accurate molecular simulations of not only pure compounds but also complex mixtures. The proposed force field is based on the anisotropic united-atoms AUA4 potential developed for hydrocarbons, and it introduces only one new atom, the carbonyl oxygen. The Lennard-Jones parameters of this oxygen atom have been adjusted on saturated thermodynamic properties of both acetone and acetaldehyde. To simulate mixtures, Monte Carlo simulations are carried out in a specific pseudoensemble which allows a direct calculation of the bubble pressure. For polar mixtures involved in this study, we show that this approach is an interesting alternative to classical calculations in the isothermal-isobaric Gibbs ensemble. The pressure-composition diagrams of polar + polar and polar + nonpolar binary mixtures are well reproduced. Mutual solubilities as well as azeotrope location, if present, are accurately predicted without any empirical binary interaction parameters or readjustment. Such result highlights the transferability of the proposed force field, which is an essential feature toward the simulation of complex oxygenated mixtures of industrial interest. PMID:20540589

  16. Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Protection against Ultraviolet Damage and Maintenance of Transparency for Vision

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Koppaka, Vindhya; Jester, James V.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes catalyze the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes to their corresponding acids. Some members of the ALDH superfamily of enzymes are abundantly expressed in the mammalian cornea and lens in a taxon-specific manner. Considered to be corneal and lens crystallins, they confer protective and transparent properties upon these ocular tissues. ALDH3A1 is highly expressed in the cornea of most mammals, with the exception of rabbit that expresses exclusively ALDH1A1 in the cornea. ALDH1A1 is present in both the cornea and lens of several animal species. As a result of their catalytic and non-catalytic functions, ALDH3A1 and ALDH1A1 proteins protect inner ocular tissues from ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen-induced damage. In addition, these corneal crystallins contribute to cellular transparency in corneal stromal keratocytes, supporting a structural role of these ALDH proteins. A putative regulatory function of ALDH3A1 on corneal cell proliferation has also been proposed. Finally, the three retinaldehye dehydrogenases cooperatively mediate retinoic acid signaling during the eye development. PMID:23098688

  17. The short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase ABA2 catalyzes the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    González-Guzmán, Miguel; Apostolova, Nadezda; Bellés, José M; Barrero, José M; Piqueras, Pedro; Ponce, María R; Micol, José L; Serrano, Ramón; Rodríguez, Pedro L

    2002-08-01

    Mutants able to germinate and perform early growth in medium containing a high NaCl concentration were identified during the course of two independent screenings and named salt resistant (sre) and salobreño (sañ). The sre and sañ mutants also were able to germinate in high-osmoticum medium, indicating that they are osmotolerant in a germination assay. Complementation analyses revealed that sre1-1, sre1-2, sañ3-1, and sañ3-2 were alleles of the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis ABA2 gene. A map-based cloning strategy allowed the identification of the ABA2 gene and molecular characterization of four new aba2 alleles. The ABA2 gene product belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, which are known to be NAD- or NADP-dependent oxidoreductases. Recombinant ABA2 protein produced in Escherichia coli exhibits a K(m) value for xanthoxin of 19 micro M and catalyzes in a NAD-dependent manner the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisic aldehyde, as determined by HPLC-mass spectrometry. The ABA2 mRNA is expressed constitutively in all plant organs examined and is not upregulated in response to osmotic stress. The results of this work are discussed in the context of previous genetic and biochemical evidence regarding ABA biosynthesis, confirming the xanthoxin-->abscisic aldehyde-->ABA transition as the last steps of the major ABA biosynthetic pathway. PMID:12172025

  18. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mineko; Barzago, Maria Monica; Kurosaki, Mami; Fratelli, Maddalena; Bolis, Marco; Borsotti, Andrea; Bigini, Paolo; Micotti, Edoardo; Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bagnati, Renzo; Passoni, Alice; Pastorelli, Roberta; Brunelli, Laura; Toschi, Ivan; Cesari, Valentina; Sanoh, Seigo; Garattini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action. While perturbations of clock-genes is sex-independent in the Harderian-gland and hypothalamus, sex influences this trait in liver and white-adipose-tissue which are characterized by the presence of AOX isoforms other than AOX4. In knock-out animals, perturbations in clock-gene expression are accompanied by reduced locomotor activity, resistance to diet induced obesity and to hepatic steatosis. All these effects are observed in female and male animals. Resistance to obesity is due to diminished fat accumulation resulting from increased energy dissipation, as white-adipocytes undergo trans-differentiation towards brown-adipocytes. Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. PMID:27456060

  19. The use of aldehyde indicators to determine glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde contamination in chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Zhenzhen

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of aldehyde indicator pads for detection of glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. The quantitative analysis of glutaraldehyde permeation through a glove material was determined for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde following a solvent-desorption process and gas chromatographic analysis. All glutaraldehyde solutions exhibited >99% adsorption (including both the glutaraldehyde oligomers of the reaction product and the excess glutaraldehyde) on the pads over the spiking range 0.05-5.0 microL. Breakthrough times for protective gloves were determined using the Thermo-Hand test method, and found to range from 76 to 150, from 170 to 230, and from 232 to 300 min for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde, respectively. Glutaraldehyde recovery was calculated and ranged from 61 to 80% for all glutaraldehyde solutions. The mass of glutaraldehyde in these solutions at the time of breakthrough detection ranged from 17 to 18, from 18 to 19, and from 19 to 20 microg/cm(2) for Wavicide, 50% glutaraldehyde solution, and Metricide, respectively. Aldehyde indicator pads and the Thermo-Hand test method together should find utility in detecting, collecting, and quantitatively analyzing glutaraldehyde permeation samples through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. PMID:19330475

  20. Chemical trapping of labile aldehyde intermediates in the metabolism of propranolol and oxprenolol.

    PubMed

    Goldszer, F; Tindell, G L; Walle, U K; Walle, T

    1981-11-01

    Propranolol is N-dealkylated to N-desisopropylpropranolol (DIP) by microsomal enzymes. DIP was shown in this study to be rapidly deaminated by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Thus, incubation of DIP (10(-4) M) with rat liver mitochondria for 90 min demonstrated 74.8 +/- 4.1% metabolism which was almost completely blocked by the MAO inhibitor pargyline (10(-5) M). The end products of this deamination were 3-(alpha-naphthoxy)-1,2-propylene glycol (Glycol) and 3-(alpha-naphthoxy)lactic acid (NLA). In the presence of excess NADH the Glycol was the major product whereas NLA was the major product in the presence of excess NAD+. The intermediate aldehyde in this deamination reaction, 3-(alpha-naphthoxy)-2-hydroxypropanal (Ald), was extremely labile and decomposed quantitatively to alpha-naphthol when removed from the incubates. However, the addition of methoxyamine hydrochloride directly to the incubates made it possible to chemically trap the intact Ald as an O-methyloxime and prove its structure by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The deamination of the primary amine of oxprenolol also gave rise to a labile aldehyde which could be trapped and identified as its O-methyloxime. PMID:7335950

  1. Cigarette smoke-induced reduction in binding of the salivary translocator protein is not mediated by free radicals.

    PubMed

    Nagler, R; Savulescu, D; Gavish, M

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignancy of the head and neck and its main inducer is exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) in the presence of saliva. It is commonly accepted that CS contributes to the pathogenesis of oral cancer via reactive free radicals and volatile aldehydes. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is an intracellular receptor involved in proliferation and apoptosis, and has been linked to various types of cancer. The presence of TSPO in human saliva has been linked to oral cancer, and its binding affinity to its ligand is reduced following exposure to CS. In the present study we wished to further investigate the mechanism behind the CS-induced reduction of TSPO binding by exploring the possible mediatory role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and volatile aldehydes in this process. We first analyzed TSPO binding in control saliva and in saliva exposed to CS in the presence and absence of various antioxidants. These experiments found that TSPO binding ability was not reversed by any of the antioxidants added, suggesting that CS exerts its effect on TSPO via mechanisms that do not involve volatile aldehydes and free radicals tested. Next, we analyzed TSPO binding in saliva following addition of exogenous ROS in the form of H2O2. These experiments found that TSPO binding was enhanced due to the treatment, once again showing that the CS-induced TSPO binding reduction is not mediated by this common form of ROS. However, the previously reported CS-induced reduction in salivary TSPO binding together with the role of TSPO in cells and its link to cancer strongly suggest that TSPO has a critical role in the pathogenesis of CS-induced oral cancer. The importance of further elucidating the mechanisms behind it should be emphasized. PMID:26582415

  2. Mild and efficient strategy for site-selective aldehyde modification of glycosaminoglycans: tailoring hydrogels with tunable release of growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujiang; Oommen, Oommen P; Yan, Hongji; Varghese, Oommen P

    2013-07-01

    Aldehydes have been used as an important bioorthogonal chemical reporter for conjugation of large polymers and bioactive substances. However, generating aldehyde functionality on carbohydrate-based biopolymers without changing its native chemical structure has always persisted as a challenging task. The common methods employed to achieve this require harsh reaction conditions, which often compromise the structural integrity and biological function of these sensitive molecules. Here we report a mild and simple method to graft aldehydes groups on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a site-selective manner without compromising the structural integrity of the biopolymer. This regio-selective modification was achieved by conjugating the amino-glycerol moiety on the carboxylate residue of the polymer, which allowed selective cleavage of pendent diol groups without interfering with the C2-C3 diol groups of the native glucopyranose residue. Kinetic evaluation of this reaction demonstrated significant differences in second-order reaction rate for periodate oxidation (by four-orders of magnitude) between the two types of vicinal diols. We employed this chemistry to develop aldehyde modifications of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs such as hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin (HP), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). We further utilized these aldehyde grafted GAGs to tailor extracellular matrix mimetic injectable hydrogels and evaluated its rheological properties. The composition of the hydrogels was also found to modulate release of therapeutic protein such as FGF-2, demonstrating controlled release (60%) for over 14 days. In short, our result clearly demonstrates a versatile strategy to graft aldehyde groups on sensitive biopolymers under mild conditions that could be applied for various bioconjugation and biomedical applications such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:23721079

  3. Crystal structure of the NADP+-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase from Vibrio harveyi: structural implications for cofactor specificity and affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Ahvazi, B; Coulombe, R; Delarge, M; Vedadi, M; Zhang, L; Meighen, E; Vrielink, A

    2000-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase from the bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, catalyses the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to acids. The enzyme is unique compared with other forms of aldehyde dehydrogenase in that it exhibits a very high specificity and affinity for the cofactor NADP(+). Structural studies of this enzyme and comparisons with other forms of aldehyde dehydrogenase provide the basis for understanding the molecular features that dictate these unique properties and will enhance our understanding of the mechanism of catalysis for this class of enzyme. The X-ray structure of aldehyde dehydrogenase from V. harveyi has been solved to 2.5-A resolution as a partial complex with the cofactor NADP(+) and to 2. 1-A resolution as a fully bound 'holo' complex. The cofactor preference exhibited by different forms of the enzyme is predominantly determined by the electrostatic environment surrounding the 2'-hydroxy or the 2'-phosphate groups of the adenosine ribose moiety of NAD(+) or NADP(+), respectively. In the NADP(+)-dependent structures the presence of a threonine and a lysine contribute to the cofactor specificity. In the V. harveyi enzyme an arginine residue (Arg-210) contributes to the high cofactor affinity through a pi stacking interaction with the adenine ring system of the cofactor. Further differences between the V. harveyi enzyme and other aldehyde dehydrogenases are seen in the active site, in particular a histidine residue which is structurally conserved with phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This may suggest an alternative mechanism for activation of the reactive cysteine residue for nucleophilic attack. PMID:10903148

  4. Enantioselective construction of quaternary stereogenic carbons by the Lewis base catalyzed additions of silyl ketene imines to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Wilson, Tyler W; Burk, Matthew T; Heemstra, John R

    2007-12-01

    Silyl ketene imines derived from a variety of alpha-branched nitriles have been developed as highly useful reagents for the construction of quaternary stereogenic centers via the aldol addition reaction. In the presence of SiCl4 and the catalytic action of chiral phosphoramide (R,R)-5, silyl ketene imines undergo extremely rapid and high yielding addition to a wide variety of aromatic aldehydes with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Of particular note is the high yields and selectivities obtained from electron-rich, electron-poor, and hindered aldehydes. The nitrile function serves as a useful precursor for further synthetic manipulation. PMID:17988135

  5. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids. Vinylogous aldol addition reactions of conjugated N,O-silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2006-02-01

    N,O-Silyl dienyl ketene acetals derived from unsaturated morpholine amides have been developed as highly useful reagents for vinylogous aldol addition reactions. In the presence of SiCl4 and the catalytic action of chiral phosphoramide (R,R)-3, N,O-silyl dienyl ketene acetal 8 undergoes high-yielding and highly site-selective addition to a wide variety of aldehydes with excellent enantioselectivity. Of particular note is the high yields and selectivities obtained from aliphatic aldehydes. Low catalyst loadings (2-5 mol %) can be employed. The morpholine amide serves as a useful precursor for further synthetic manipulation. PMID:16433495

  6. Aryl bromides as inexpensive starting materials in the catalytic enantioselective arylation of aryl aldehydes: the additive TMEDA enhances the enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Xin; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Yan-E; Wang, Pei; Zhuo, Fang-Fang; An, Xian-Tao; Da, Chao-Shan

    2014-11-01

    We used aryl bromides as inexpensive starting materials to enantioselectively arylate aldehydes in one pot. Aryl bromides readily transfer aryls to aryllithiums with n-butyllithium, successively to triarylaluminums with aluminum chloride, and then to aryltitaniums with titanium isopropoxide. Finally aryltitaniums arylate aldehydes catalyzed by (S)-H8-BINOL-Ti(Oi-Pr)2 in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The additive TMEDA evidently suppresses the racemic background reaction promoted by LiCl generated from salt metathesis. This procedure represents a cost-effective and operationally convenient method for enantioenriched diarylmethanols. PMID:25279967

  7. The utility of phenol-aldehyde cross linking resins in polymer modified asphalt - the Butaphalt (tm) process

    SciTech Connect

    Krivohlavek, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    The use of Phenol-Aldehyde cross linking or vulcanizing resin is well known in the rubber and plastics industry. Previous to our work little (if any) understanding of the utility of these compounds in polymer modified asphalt (or bitumen) was known. This presentation will hopefully enlighten practitioners of the art of asphalt modification on this subject. This art is commercially known as the Butaphalt(tm) Process. Of initial interest is the mechanism of reaction of Phenol-Aldehyde cross linking resins. As the quantitative analysis of such a mechanism in asphalt would likely need years of effort to resolve, we will look at possible mechanisms in a rubber system.

  8. Metal complex-catalyzed epoxidation of olefins by dioxygen with co-oxidation of aldehydes: A mechanistic study

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, W.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.H.

    1996-02-14

    Mechanistic studies of the oxidation of olefins by dioxygen plus aldehyde in the presence of metal complexes such as metalloporphyrins and metal cyclam complexes have been carried out. Epoxides were the predominant products, with trace amounts of allylic oxidation products. cis-Stilbene was oxidized to a mixture of cis- and trans-stilbene oxides. It is concluded from this study that the principal role of the metal complexes is to aid in the initiation step for the free radical autoxidation of the aldehyde and that acylperoxy radicals generated in the autoxidation reaction (or metal complexes formed by complexation of the acylperoxy radicals) are the active epoxidizing agents.

  9. Aptamer/target binding-induced triple helix forming for signal-on electrochemical biosensing.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yinfei; Liu, Jinquan; He, Dinggen; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Shi, Hui; Wen, Li

    2015-10-01

    Owing to its diversified structures, high affinity, and specificity for binding a wide range of non-nucleic acid targets, aptamer is a useful molecular recognition tool for the design of various biosensors. Herein, we report a new signal-on electrochemical biosensing platform which is based on an aptamer/target binding-induced strand displacement and triple-helix forming. The biosensing platform is composed of a signal transduction probe (STP) modified with a methylene blue (MB) and a sulfhydryl group, a triplex-forming oligonucleotides probe (TFO) and a target specific aptamer probe (Apt). Through hybridization with the TFO probe and the Apt probe, the self-assembled STP on Au electrode via Au-S bonding keeps its rigid structure. The MB on the STP is distal to the Au electrode surface. It is eT off state. Target binding releases the Apt probe and liberates the end of the MB tagged STP to fold back and form a triplex-helix structure with TFO (STP/TFO/STP), allowing MB to approach the Au electrode surface and generating measurable electrochemical signals (eT ON). As test for the feasibility and universality of this signal-on electrochemical biosensing platform, two aptamers which bind to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and human α-thrombin (Tmb), respectively, are selected as models. The detection limit of ATP was 7.2 nM, whereas the detection limit of Tmb was 0.86 nM. PMID:26078174

  10. Characterization of the Aldehydes and Their Transformations Induced by UV Irradiation and Air Exposure of White Guanxi Honey Pummelo (Citrus Grandis (L.) Osbeck) Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Li Jun; Hong, Peng; Chen, Feng; Sun, Hao; Yang, Yuan Fan; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Gao Ling; Wu, Li Ming; Ni, Hui

    2016-06-22

    Aldehydes are key aroma contributors of citrus essential oils. White Guanxi honey pummelo essential oil (WPEO) was investigated in its aldehyde constituents and their transformations induced by UV irradiation and air exposure by GC-MS, GC-O, and sensory evaluation. Nine aldehydes, i.e., octanal, nonanal, citronellal, decanal, trans-citral, cis-citral, perilla aldehyde, dodecanal, and dodecenal, were detected in WPEO. After treatment, the content of citronellal increased, but the concentrations of other aldehydes decreased. The aliphatic aldehydes were transformed to organic acids. Citral was transformed to neric acid, geranic acid, and cyclocitral. Aldehyde transformation caused a remarkable decrease in the minty, herbaceous, and lemon notes of WPEO. In fresh WPEO, β-myrcene, d-limonene, octanal, decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal had the highest odor dilution folds. After the treatment, the dilution folds of decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal decreased dramatically. This result provides information for the production and storage of aldehyde-containing products. PMID:27226192

  11. Determination of linear aliphatic aldehydes in heavy metal containing waters by high-performance liquid chromatography using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Liang; Wang, Po-Yen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Ku, Kuan-Hsuan; Yeh, Yun-Tai; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2009-09-01

    A simple and sensitive method is described for the determination of picomolar amounts of C(1)-C(9) linear aliphatic aldehydes in waters containing heavy metal ions. In this method, aldehydes were first derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) at optimized pH 1.8 for 30 min and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector at 365 nm. Factors affecting the derivatization reaction of aldehydes and DNPH were investigated. Cupric ion, an example of heavy metals, is a common oxidative reagent, which may oxidize DNPH and greatly interfere with the determination of aldehydes. EDTA was used to effectively mask the interferences by heavy metal ions. The method detection limits for direct injection of derivatized most aldehydes except formaldehyde were of the order of 7-28 nM. The detection limit can be further lowered by using off-line C(18) adsorption cartridge enrichment. The recoveries of C(1)-C(9) aldehydes were 93-115% with a relative standard deviation of 3.6-8.1% at the 0.1 microM level for aldehydes. The HPLC-DNPH method has been applied for determining aldehyde photoproducts from Cu(II)-amino acid complex systems. PMID:19643424

  12. Analysis of human follistatin structure: identification of two discontinuous N-terminal sequences coding for activin A binding and structural consequences of activin binding to native proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Keutmann, H T; Schneyer, A L; Sluss, P M

    2000-09-01

    A primary physiological function of follistatin is the binding and neutralization of activin, a transforming growth factor-beta family growth factor, and loss of function mutations are lethal. Despite the critical biological importance of follistatin's neutralization of activin, the structural basis of activin's binding to follistatin is poorly understood. The purposes of these studies were 1) to identify the primary sequence(s) within the N-terminal domain of the follistatin coding for activin binding, and 2) to determine whether activin binding to the native protein causes changes in other structural domains of follistatin. Synthetic peptide mimotopes identified within a 63-residue N-terminal domain two discontinuous sequences capable of binding labeled activin A. The first is located in a region (amino acids 3-26) of follistatin, a site previously identified by directed mutagenesis as important for activin binding. The second epitope, predicted to be located between amino acids 46 and 59, is newly identified. Although the sequences 3-26 and 46-59 code for activin binding, native follistatin only binds activin if disulfide bonding is intact. Furthermore, pyridylethylation of Cys residues followed by N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis revealed that all of the Cys residues in follistatin are involved in disulfide bonds and lack reactive free sulfhydryl groups. Specific ligands were used to probe the structural effects of activin binding on the other domains of the full-length molecule, comprised largely of the three 10-Cys follistatin module domains. No effects on ligand binding to follistatin-like module I or II were observed after the binding of activin A to native protein. In contrast, activin binding diminished recognition of domain III and enhanced that of the C domain by their respective monoclonal antibody probes, indicating an alteration of the antigenic structures of these regions. Thus, subsequent to activin binding, interactions are likely to

  13. Development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of salivary aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Almeida, M Inês G S; McCullough, Michael J; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-05-01

    A low cost, disposable and easy to use microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for simple and non-invasive determination of total aldehydes in saliva with a potential to be used in epidemiological studies to assess oral cancer risk. The μPAD is based on the colour reaction between aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and iron(III) to form an intense blue coloured formazan dye. The newly developed μPAD has a 3D design with two overlapping paper layers. The first layer comprises 15 circular detection zones (8 mm in diameter), each impregnated with 8 μL of MBTH, while the second layer contains 15 reagent zones (4 mm in diameter). Two μL of iron(III) chloride are added to each one of the second layer zones after the addition of sample to the detection zones in the first layer. All hydrophilic zones of the μPAD are defined by wax printing using a commercial wax printer. Due to the 2-step nature of the analytical reaction, the two paper layers are separated by a cellulose acetate interleaving sheet to allow for the reaction between the aldehydes in the saliva sample with MBTH to proceed first with the formation of an azine, followed by a blue coloured reaction between the azine and the oxidized by iron(III) form of MBTH, produced after the removal of the interleaving sheet. After obtaining a high resolution image of the detection side zone of the device using a flatbed scanner, the intensity of the blue colour within each detection zone is measured with Image J software. Under optimal conditions, the μPAD is characterised by a working range of 20.4-114.0 μM, limit of detection of 6.1 μM, and repeatability, expressed as RSD, of less than 12.7% (n = 5). There is no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the results obtained by the μPAD and the reference method (Student's t-test: 0.090 < 0.38). The optimized μPAD is stable for more than 41 days

  14. Growth inhibition of cultured marine phytoplankton by toxic algal-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ribalet, François; Berges, John A; Ianora, Adrianna; Casotti, Raffaella

    2007-12-15

    Several marine diatoms produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) that have been shown to be toxic to a wide variety of model organisms, from bacteria to invertebrates. However, very little information is available on their effect on phytoplankton. Here, we expand previous studies to six species of marine phytoplankton, belonging to different taxonomic groups that are well represented in marine plankton. The effect of three PUAs, 2E,4E-decadienal, 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal, was assessed on growth, cell membrane permeability, flow cytometric properties and morphology. A concentration-dependent reduction in the growth rate was observed for all cultures exposed to PUAs with longer-chained aldehydes having stronger effects on growth than shorter-chained aldehydes. Clear differences were observed among the different species. The prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana was the most sensitive species to PUA exposure with a lower threshold for an observed effect triggered by mean concentrations of 0.10 micromol L(-1) for 2E,4E-decadienal, 1.86 micromol L(-1) for 2E,4E-octadienal and 3.06 micromol L(-1) for 2E,4E-heptadienal, and a 50% growth inhibition (EC(50)) with respect to the control at 0.99, 2.25 and 5.90 micromol L(-1) for the three PUAs, respectively. Alternatively, the chlorophyte Tetraselmis suecica and the diatom Skeletonema marinoi (formerly S. costatum) were the most resistant species with 50% growth inhibition occurring at concentrations at least two to three times higher than I. galbana. In all species, the three PUAs caused changes in flow cytometric measures of cell size and cell granulosity and increased membrane permeability, assessed using the viability stain SYTOX Green. For example, after 48 h 51.6+/-2.6% of I. galbana cells and 15.0+/-1.8% of S. marinoi cells were not viable. Chromatin fragmentation was observed in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae while clear DNA degradation was observed in the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta

  15. MUC1-C Oncoprotein Activates ERK→C/EBPβ Signaling and Induction of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Maroof; Ahmad, Rehan; Rajabi, Hasan; Kharbanda, Akriti; Kufe, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity is used as a marker of breast cancer stem cells; however, little is known about the regulation of ALDH1A1 expression. Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a heterodimeric protein that is aberrantly overexpressed in most human breast cancers. In studies of breast cancer cells stably silenced for MUC1 or overexpressing the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit, we demonstrate that MUC1-C is sufficient for induction of MEK→ERK signaling and that treatment with a MUC1-C inhibitor suppresses ERK activation. In turn, MUC1-C induces ERK-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) transcription factor. The results further show that MUC1-C and C/EBPβ form a complex on the ALDH1A1 gene promoter and activate ALDH1A1 gene transcription. MUC1-C-induced up-regulation of ALDH1A1 expression is associated with increases in ALDH activity and is detectable in stem-like cells when expanded as mammospheres. These findings demonstrate that MUC1-C (i) activates a previously unrecognized ERK→C/EBPβ→ALDH1A1 pathway, and (ii) promotes the induction of ALDH activity in breast cancer cells. PMID:24043631

  16. O-4-Linked coniferyl and sinapyl aldehydes in lignifying cell walls are the main targets of the Wiesner (phloroglucinol-HCl) reaction.

    PubMed

    Pomar, F; Merino, F; Barceló, A Ros

    2002-10-01

    The nature and specificity of the Wiesner test (phloroglucinol-HCl reagent) for the aromatic aldehyde fraction contained in lignins is studied. Phloroglucinol reacted in ethanol-hydrochloric acid with coniferyl aldehyde, sinapyl aldehyde, vanillin, and syringaldehyde to yield either pink pigments (in the case of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes) or red-brown pigments (in the case of hydroxybenzaldehydes). However, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and highly condensed dehydrogenation polymers derived from these cinnamyl alcohols and aldehydes did not react with phloroglucinol in ethanol-hydrochloric acid. The differences in the reactivity of phloroglucinol with hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes and their dehydrogenation polymers may be explained by the fact that, in the latter, the unsubstituted (alpha,beta-unsaturated) cinnamaldehyde functional group, which is responsible for the dye reaction, is lost due to lateral chain cross-linking reactions involving the beta carbon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thioacidolysis analyses of phloroglucinol-positive lignifying plant cell walls belonging to the plant species Zinnia elegans L., Capsicum annuumvar. annuum, Populus albaL., and Pinus halepensisL. demonstrated the presence of 4- O-linked hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde end groups and 4- O-linked 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (vanillin) end groups in lignins. However, given the relatively low abundance of 4- O-linked vanillin in lignifying cell walls and the low extinction coefficient of its red-brown phloroglucinol adduct, it is unlikely that vanillin contributes to a great extent to the phloroglucinol-positive stain reaction. These results suggest that the phloroglucinol-HCl pink stain of lignifying xylem cell walls actually reveals the 4- O-linked hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde structures contained in lignins. Histochemical studies showed that these aldehyde structures are assembled, as in the case of coniferyl aldehyde, during the early stages of xylem cell wall

  17. Catalytic asymmetric reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes: enantioselective synthesis of allylic alcohols and alpha-hydroxy ketones.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen M; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Jamison, Timothy F

    2003-03-26

    A highly enantioselective method for catalytic reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes is described. Allylic alcohols are afforded with complete E/Z selectivity, generally >95:5 regioselectivity, and in up to 96% ee. In conjunction with ozonolysis, this process is complementary to existing methods of enantioselective alpha-hydroxy ketone synthesis. PMID:12643701

  18. Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehydes Catalyzed by Chiral O,N,O-tridentate Phenol Ligands Derived From Camphor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sheng; Chang, Shu-Ming; Ho, Chun-Ying; Lu, Ta-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Chiral O,N,O-tridentate phenol ligands bearing a camphor backbone were found to be effective chiral catalysts for the enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to aromatic aldehydes, resulting in high enantioselectivities (80-95% ee) at room temperature. PMID:26487505

  19. Scope and mechanism of the highly stereoselective metal-mediated domino aldol reactions of enolates with aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Cinar, M Emin; Engelen, Bernward; Panthöfer, Martin; Deiseroth, Hans-Jörg; Schlirf, Jens; Schmittel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot transformation, which involves the reaction of ketones with aldehydes in the presence of metal halides to furnish tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,4-diols in a highly diastereoselective manner, is investigated thoroughly by experiments and computations. The reaction was also successfully implemented on a flow micro reactor system. PMID:27340472

  20. Scope and mechanism of the highly stereoselective metal-mediated domino aldol reactions of enolates with aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Bernward; Panthöfer, Martin; Deiseroth, Hans-Jörg; Schlirf, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Summary A one-pot transformation, which involves the reaction of ketones with aldehydes in the presence of metal halides to furnish tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,4-diols in a highly diastereoselective manner, is investigated thoroughly by experiments and computations. The reaction was also successfully implemented on a flow micro reactor system. PMID:27340472

  1. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids. Catalytic enantioselective addition of silyl enol ethers of achiral methyl ketones to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2003-06-26

    A highly enantioselective addition of silyl enol ethers derived from simple methyl ketones is described. The catalyst system of silicon tetrachloride activated by a chiral bisphosphoramide (R,R)-7 effectively promotes the addition of a variety of unsubstituted silyl enol ethers to aromatic, olefinic, and heteroaromatic aldehydes in excellent yield. [reaction: see text] PMID:12816434

  2. Synthesis of densely substituted 1,3-butadienes through acid-catalyzed alkenylations of α-oxoketene dithioacetals with aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhui; Gu, Yanlong

    2014-10-17

    Aldehydes were proved to be viable reagents for implementing alkenylation of α-oxoketene dithioacetals. AlCl3 was found to be the best catalyst. The established reaction opened an avenue to access densely substituted 1,3-butadiene derivatives. The obtained product bears multiple reactive sites that can be converted into various valuable molecules. PMID:25247719

  3. An aldehyde group-based P-acid probe for selective fluorescence turn-on sensing of cysteine and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunlei; Wang, Xiu; Shen, Lei; Deng, Wenping; Liu, Haiyun; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-06-15

    A highly sensitive and selective turn on fluorescent probe P-acid-aldehyde (P-CHO) is developed for the determination of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy). The probe is designed and synthesized by incorporating the specific functional group aldehyde group for thiols into a stable π-conjugated material 4,4'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-phenylene) bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl) dibenzoic acid (P-acid). The probe fluorescence is quenched through donor photoinduced electron transfer (d-PET) between the fluorophore (P-acid) and the recognition group (aldehyde group). In the presence of thiols, Cys and Hcy can selectively react with aldehyde group of the probe because the inhibition of d-PET between fluorophore and recognition group. Therefore, a turn-on fluorescent sensor was established for the fluorescence recovery. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence response of probe is directly proportional to the concentration of Cys in the range of 4-95 NM L(-1), with a detection limit 3.0 nM. In addition, the sensing system exhibits good selectively toward Cys and Hcy in the presence of other amino acids. It has been successfully applied for bioimaging of Cys and Hcy in living cells with low cell toxicity. PMID:26802748

  4. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia. PMID:27366754

  5. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  6. An Oxidation of Benzyl Methyl Ethers with NBS that Selectively Affords Either Aromatic Aldehydes or Aromatic Methyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S.; Talukdar, Arindam; Cushman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Either mono- or di-bromination of benzyl methyl ethers can be achieved by controlling the amount of NBS and the temperature. Elimination of methyl bromide from the monobrominated intermediates produces aromatic aldehydes, whereas hydrolysis of the dibrominated intermediates affords aromatic methyl esters in good yields. PMID:20373742

  7. Fish larval deformity caused by aldehydes and unknown byproducts in ozonated effluents from municipal wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiming; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Hongying; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    Ozonated secondary effluents (SEs) from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) have been found to cause developmental retardation of fish embryos. This study explored the potential cause of the embryo toxicity formed in ozonated SEs by exposing Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) (d-rR) embryos to ozonated SE from a MWTP in Tianjin, China. The increase of ozone dose from 0.26 to 0.96 mg O3/mg DOC0 (consumed ozone per initial DOC), which produced total aldehyde (mixture of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal) from 41.5 to 114.7 μg/L, resulted in an increase in the percentage of deformed larvae from 2.2% to 24.1%. Increases in larval deformity and embryo mortality were also observed in ozonated SEs from other MWTPs. The exposure experiment using the mixture aldehyde solution showed that the production of aldehydes could explain approximately 13.6% of larval deformity caused by ozonation of SEs. Pilot experimental results in Tianjin and Beijing, China showed that biofiltration as a post-treatment technology was effective in removing the aldehydes as well as reducing embryo toxicity caused by ozonation. PMID:25243655

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic dihydropyrans via organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reactions of enolizable aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Long; Yang, Kai-Chuan; Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-23

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reaction involving aqueous acetaldehyde has been discovered. The reaction, in which cyclic enones serve as dienes in the presence of readily available secondary amine catalysts, allows facile construction of optically active bicyclic dihydropyrans. Other typical enolizable aliphatic aldehydes can also serve as competent dienophiles in the reaction. PMID:27436351

  9. ADVANCED EMISSIONS SPECIATION METHODOLOGIES FOR THE AUTO/OIL AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM - II. ALDEHYDES, KETONES, AND ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods for determining individual aldehyde, ketone, and alcohol emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and variable-fueled vehicles are described. These methods were used in the Auto/Oil Air quality Improvement Research Program to provide emission data for comparison of...

  10. A simple and efficient procedure of low valent iron- or copper-mediated Reformatsky reaction of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Angshuman; Dubey, Akhil Kr

    2007-11-23

    An operationally simple and very efficient procedure of Reformatsky reaction of aldehydes has been carried out in THF in the presence of low valent iron or copper which were prepared in situ employing a bimetal redox strategy through reduction of FeCl3 or CuCl2-2H2O with magnesium. PMID:17973426

  11. A USER'S GUIDE TO ALDEHYDE ANALYSIS USING PFBHA DERIVATIZATION AND GC/ECD DETECTION: AVOIDING THE PITFALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are of interest because they have been identified as by-products of drinking water disinfection, particularly ozonation. In order to monitor treatment practices, assess exposure to consumers, and control health risks that might be associated with this class of by-produ...

  12. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Has Cardioprotective Effects on Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury via Suppressing Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenqing; Wei, Shujian; Hao, Panpan; Xing, Junhui; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Wang, Jiali; Xu, Feng; Chen, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy, is excessively activated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The study investigated whether aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) exerted its cardioprotective effect by regulating mitophagy. Myocardial infarct size and apoptosis after I/R in rats were ameliorated by Alda-1, an ALDH2 activator, and aggravated by ALDH2 inhibition. Both in I/R rats and hypoxia/reoxygenation H9C2 cells, ALDH2 activation suppressed phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin expression, regulating mitophagy, by preventing 4-hydroxynonenal, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide accumulation. Furthermore, the effect was enhanced by ALDH2 inhibition. Thus, ALDH2 may protect hearts against I/R injury by suppressing PINK1/Parkin–dependent mitophagy. PMID:27148058

  13. A new aldehyde compound from the fruit of Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi.

    PubMed

    Mai, Dinh Tri; Le, Tien Dung; Nguyen, Tan Phat; Phan, Nhat Minh; Nguyen, Huu An; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Phuc; Tran, Le Quan

    2015-01-01

    From the fruit of Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi, one new (1) and six known aldehyde compounds (2-7) were isolated by various chromatography methods. Based on their spectroscopic data, these compounds were identified as (Z)-4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl) benzaldehyde (1), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2), syringaldehyde (3), (E)-ferulaldehyde (4), (E)-sinapinaldehyde (5), vanillin (6) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfual (7). The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of all compounds was measured. The isolated compounds (1-6) showed better α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 values ranging from 36.5 to 192.4 μM) than the standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 214.5 μM). PMID:25674660

  14. Cinnamon spice and everything not nice: many features of intraoral allergy to cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Renton, Megan; Li, Monica Kayi; Parsons, Laurie M

    2015-01-01

    Intraoral allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an uncommonly reported entity. The most commonly implicated allergens are metals that are incorporated into dental appliances. Intraoral ACD to nonmetal allergens is even less frequently described. Cinnamic aldehyde is widely used as a flavoring agent in foods and dentifrices. However, intraoral ACD to cinnamon flavoring agents has only been sporadically reported. In these cases, a variety of sources have been implicated, including candy, chewing gum, mouthwash, lip sunscreen, cinnamon toast, volatile oils, and toothpaste. The clinical presentation of intraoral ACD reactions varies greatly, and as a result, clinicians often do not recognize the diagnosis. Furthermore, because patients are typically unable to provide a list of putative allergens, a high degree of clinical suspicion is required to make the correct diagnosis. We describe several patients with intraoral ACD caused by cinnamon and review the literature associated with this condition. PMID:25984687

  15. Glyceraldehyde and glycolaldehyde in interstellar ice analogues and the role of aldehydes in cosmochemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, U.; de Marcellus, P.; Meinert, C.; Myrgorodska, I.; Nahon, L.; Buhse, T.; d'Hendecourt, L.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the molecular origin of life is based on amino acids, ribose, and nucleobases that - after their selection by prebiotic processes - initiated the evolutionary assembly of catalytic and informational polymers, being proteins and ribonucleic acids. Following previous amino acid identifications in the room-temperature residues of simulated circumstellar/interstellar ices [1,2] we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected ten aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde - two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment.

  16. Alkylfluorenyl substituted N-heterocyclic carbenes in copper(I) catalysed hydrosilylation of aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Teci, Matthieu; Lentz, Nicolas; Brenner, Eric; Matt, Dominique; Toupet, Loïc

    2015-08-21

    Copper(i) complexes featuring N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) in which the nitrogen atoms are substituted by a 9-ethyl-9-fluorenyl group (EF) have been synthesised and tested in the hydrosylilation of functionalized and/or sterically demanding ketones and aldehydes. These reactions, carried out with triethylsilane as hydride source, were best achieved with the imidazolylidene copper complex in which the EF substituents can freely rotate about the corresponding N-CEF bonds. The remarkable stability of the active species, which surpasses that of previously reported Cu-NHC catalysts is likely to rely on the ability of the NHC side arms to protect the copper centre during the catalytic cycle by forming sandwich-like intermediates, but also on its steric flexibility facilitating approach of encumbered substrates. TONs up to 1000 were reached. PMID:26162019

  17. Biological evaluation and 3D-QSAR studies of curcumin analogues as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Changyuan; Tang, Zhikai; He, Yan; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is reported as a biomarker for identifying some cancer stem cells, and down-regulation or inhibition of the enzyme can be effective in anti-drug resistance and a potent therapeutic for some tumours. In this paper, the inhibitory activity, mechanism mode, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship) of curcumin analogues (CAs) against ALDH1 were studied. Results demonstrated that curcumin and CAs possessed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1, and the CAs compound with ortho di-hydroxyl groups showed the most potent inhibitory activity. This study indicates that CAs may represent a new class of ALDH1 inhibitor. PMID:24840575

  18. Selective Catalytic Hydrogenations of Nitriles, Ketones, and Aldehydes by Well-Defined Manganese Pincer Complexes.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Topf, Christoph; Fischer, Steffen; Jiao, Haijun; Spannenberg, Anke; Baumann, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-20

    Hydrogenations constitute fundamental processes in organic chemistry and allow for atom-efficient and clean functional group transformations. In fact, the selective reduction of nitriles, ketones, and aldehydes with molecular hydrogen permits access to a green synthesis of valuable amines and alcohols. Despite more than a century of developments in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, efforts toward the creation of new useful and broadly applicable catalyst systems are ongoing. Recently, Earth-abundant metals have attracted significant interest in this area. In the present study, we describe for the first time specific molecular-defined manganese complexes that allow for the hydrogenation of various polar functional groups. Under optimal conditions, we achieve good functional group tolerance, and industrially important substrates, e.g., for the flavor and fragrance industry, are selectively reduced. PMID:27219853

  19. Molecular mechanism of null expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Yoshida, Akira; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    1996-04-01

    In isozyme systems in general, the pattern of tissue-dependent expression of a given type of isozyme is uniform in various mammalian species. In contrast, a major cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme, termed ALDH1, which is strongly expressed in the livers of humans and other mammals, is hardly detectable in rat liver. Thirteen nucleotides existing in the 5{prime}-promoter region of human, marmoset, and mouse ALDH1 genes are absent in the four rat strains examined. When the 13 nucleotides were deleted from a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression construct, which contained the 5{prime} promoter region of the human ALDH1 gene and a low-background promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression vector, the expression activity was severely diminished in human hepatic cells. Thus, deletion of the 13 nucleotides in the promoter region of the gene can account for the lack of ALDH1 expression in rat liver. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Water chemical ionization mass spectrometry of aldehydes, ketones esters, and carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.

    1986-11-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI) of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds using water as the reagent gas provides intense pseudomolecular ions and class-specific fragmentation patterns that can be used to identify aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters. The length of ester acyl and alkyl groups can easily be determined on the basis of loss of alcohols from the protonated parent. Water CI provides for an approximately 200:1 selectivity of carbonyl species over alkanes. No reagent ions are detected above 55 amu, allowing species as small as acetone, propanal, acetic acid, and methyl formate to be identified. When deuterate water was used as the reagent, only the carboxylic acids and ..beta..-diketones showed significant H/D exchange. The use of water CI to identify carbonyl compounds in a wastewater from the supercritical water extraction of lignite coal, in lemon oil, and in whiskey volatiles is discussed.