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Sample records for alder alnus crispa

  1. Alder (alnus crispa) effects on soils in ecosystems of the agashashok river valley, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhoades, C.; Oskarsson, H.; Binkley, D.; Stottlemyer, B.

    2001-01-01

    At the northern limit of the boreal forest biome, alder (Alnus crispa [Ait.] Pursh) shrubs occur in a variety of ecosystems. We assessed the effects of individual alder shrubs on soil properties and understory plant tissue nitrogen in floodplain terraces, valley slopes and tussock tundra ridges. The three ecosystems differed with respect to soil properties and abiotic conditions and supported distinct plant communities. Alder increased resin-exchangeable soil N and NO3 production significantly in each ecosystem. The greatest difference between alder canopy and surrounding soil NO3 measured both under field and laboratory conditions occured in floodplain sites. The shrub effect on soil pH and soil organic matter was greatest on tundra ridges. Alder shrubs also influenced the nitrogen nutrition of plants growing beneath their canopies. Plants growing below alder canopies had higher foliar nitrogen concentration and natural abundance 15N composition and lower carbon to nitrogen ratio than open-grown plants. Similar to soil N availability, understory plant leaf chemistry responded more to alder on floodplains than on slope or tundra ecosystems. This pattern suggests that understory plants rely more heavily on alder-fixed-N in this resource-poor ecosystem.

  2. Ecophysiological characteristics of Taiwan alder (Alnus formosana) seedlings adapted to the subtropical region.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tien-Szu; Weng, Jen-Hsien

    2002-04-01

    We investigated several ecophysiological characteristics of seedlings of a low-elevation (100-200 m) and a high-elevation (2000-2400 m) population of Taiwan alder (Alnus formosana Makino) from subtropical Taiwan. Both populations had a wide optimal temperature range for photosynthesis, and there was little difference in the optimal temperature range for photosynthesis between populations. Photosynthetic rate (P(N)) was near maximal from 20 to 35 degrees C when seedlings of both the low-elevation and the high-elevation populations were acclimated at a day/night temperature of 30/23 degrees C. When seedlings were acclimated at a day/night temperature of 20/10 degrees C, P(N) was near maximal over the range 15-35 degrees C in the low-elevation population and 15-30 degrees C in the high-elevation population. Compared with nine other tree species native to Taiwan, Taiwan alder had a high P(N) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) under well-watered conditions. Reflecting its higher transpiration rate, Taiwan alder had a significantly greater leaf-air temperature difference than camphor (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), a co-occurring lowland tree species with leaves similar in shape and size to those of Taiwan alder. Despite higher g(s), high root and shoot hydraulic conductances enabled Taiwan alder to maintain higher leaf water potentials than camphor under well-watered conditions. We conclude that both photosynthetic characteristics and water relations are important factors enabling Taiwan alder to adapt to a wide temperature range, thereby ensuring its success at both high and low elevations in subtropical Taiwan. PMID:11960760

  3. Description and identification of Alnus acuminata ectomycorrhizae from Argentinean alder stands.

    PubMed

    Pritsch, Karin; Becerra, Alejandra; Põlme, Sergei; Tedersoo, Leho; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological and anatomical features of five unidentified ectomycorrhizal types of Alnus acuminata and to complement their identification based on ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The combined approach of morphotyping and sequence analysis based on ITS sequence comparison with sequences contained in GenBank and the UNITE database let us assign three of the five field-collected ectomycorrhiza morphotypes to the tomentella-thelephora lineage that closely matched European and North American species. The sequencing results within Tomentella point toward alder specific clades within T. sublilacina, T. ellisii and T. stuposa sensu lato. The two other EcM morphotypes matched Lactarius omphaliiformis and a Russula sp. Better focused, concomitant fruit body surveys are needed for accurate identification of South American ectomycorrhizal fungi because of the evidence of cryptic speciation in both agaricoid and resupinate mycobionts. PMID:20943556

  4. A Soil Moisture-Heat Based Early Establishment Model of Riparian White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablkowski, P.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2013-12-01

    Establishment of fluvially dispersed seeds on accreted gravel-sand bars is limited by water availability in streams. Past establishment models have used the stream/water table recession rate, and maximum root growth rate to determine the elevation limit of seedling establishment. This approach neglects the role of the saturated-unsaturated vadose zone in providing water to recently germinated seedlings, the physical processes that determine the soil moisture content, and the effect moisture deficit has on seedling root growth. This study combines a soil moisture-heat budget and a seedling root growth model that responds to soil moisture availability to find the elevation limit of establishment of white alder (Alnus rhombifolia) on vertically accreted bars along the south fork Eel River in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. To establish successfully, seedling roots must maintain a connection with sufficient moisture to avoid water stress. This will depend on the elevation of the bar, the stream recession rate, the root growth rate, and the diurnal cycle of soil moisture. A one-dimensional moisture-heat budget of the top 15 centimeters of sediment was validated at two locations characterized by sand and clay-gravel textures respectively, using soil moisture and temperature measurements at 5, 10 and 15 cm, net radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and precipitation measured during spring-summer stream recession. Two patterns in soil water content were apparent: an average daily moisture decrease at each depth driven by stream/water table recession, and a diurnal pattern of isothermal liquid and vapour flux increasing soil water content in the upper 15 cm between 12:00 pm and 5:00 pm PDT. To determine seedling root growth rates, white alder seedlings were grown in growth chambers under a range of reduced matric potentials using polyethylene glycol. Root length measurements were made at 4 hour intervals and a quadratic equation was fit to the root

  5. Holocene changes of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) in highland Ecuador and Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Chengyu; Bush, Mark B.; Chepstow-Lusty, Alex J.

    2004-10-01

    Fossil pollen records from the high Andes of Ecuador and northern Peru show that Alnus increased in abundance at most sites following warming associated with the onset of the Holocene. The peak of Alnus pollen abundance occurred between 9000 and 5000 yr BP. However, between 6500 and 4500 yr BP, the abundance of Alnus pollen declined markedly in all of the available records, including sites both within and above its modern distribution range. Even though the beginning of this decline may have been time-transgressive, the greatest reduction of Alnus abundance is consistent between sites, occurring at ca. 4500 yr BP. This synchrony suggests that one or more factors affected Alnus populations across the whole region. A cooler climate, droughts and anthropogenic activity are discussed as possible causes on such a large spatial scale. A scenario is suggested in which the early-mid Holocene increase in Alnus populations was curtailed by droughts, and then further impacted by major regional cooling from ca. 5000 yr BP onwards. Human agricultural activities in this wetter interval may also have delayed Alnus recovery. A resurgence of Alnus populations at 2000-1000 yr BP may have been a response to regional warming coupled with human land management practices. Copyright

  6. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26722013

  7. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26722013

  8. Chemo-protective and regenerative effects of diarylheptanoids from the bark of black alder (Alnus glutinosa) in human normal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Dinić, Jelena; Ranđelović, Teodora; Stanković, Tijana; Dragoj, Miodrag; Isaković, Aleksandra; Novaković, Miroslav; Pešić, Milica

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are recognized from ancient times as a source of diverse therapeutic agents and many of them are used as dietary supplements. Comprehensive approaches are needed that would identify bioactive components with evident activity against specific indications and provide a better link between science (ethno-botany, chemistry, biology and pharmacology) and market. Recently, the bark of black alder (Alnus glutinosa) appeared at market in the form of food supplement for treatment of different skin conditions. This study aimed to evaluate protective effects of two diarylheptanoids isolated from the bark of black alder: platyphylloside, 5(S)-1,7-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and its newly discovered analog 5(S)-1,7-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-O-β-D-[6-(E-p-coumaroylglucopyranosyl)]heptane-3-one (2) towards doxorubicin damaging activity. To that end, we employed HaCaT cells, non-cancerous human keratinocytes commonly used for skin regenerative studies. Diarylheptanoids significantly antagonized the effects of doxorubicin by lowering the sensitivity of HaCaT cells to this drug. Compound 2 prevented doxorubicin-induced cell death by activating autophagy. Both 1 and 2 protected HaCaT cells against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. They significantly promoted migration and affected F-actin distribution. These results indicate that chemo-protective effects of diarylheptanoids may occur at multiple subcellular levels. Therefore, diarylheptanoids 1 and 2 could be considered as protective agents for non-cancerous dividing cells during chemotherapy. PMID:26162555

  9. Antioxidative activity of diarylheptanoids from the bark of black alder (Alnus glutinosa) and their interaction with anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Dinić, Jelena; Novaković, Miroslav; Podolski-Renić, Ana; Stojković, Sonja; Mandić, Boris; Tešević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Isaković, Aleksandra; Pešić, Milica

    2014-08-01

    Diarylheptanoids belong to polyphenols, a group of plant secondary metabolites with multiple biological properties. Many of them display antioxidative, cytotoxic, or anticancer actions and are increasingly recognized as potential therapeutic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of two diarylheptanoids: platyphylloside 5(S)-1,7-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and its newly discovered analog 5(S)-1,7-di(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-O-β-D-[6-(E-p-coumaroylglucopyranosyl)]heptane-3-one (2), both isolated from the bark of black alder (Alnus glutinosa). To that end, we have employed a cancer cell line (NCI-H460), normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The effects on cell growth were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Cell death was examined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining on a flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species production was examined by dihydroethidium staining. Mitochondrial structure and doxorubicin localization were visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Diarylheptanoids antagonized the effects of either doxorubicin or cisplatin, significantly increasing their IC50 values in normal cells. Diarylheptanoid 1 induced the retention of doxorubicin in cytoplasm and reduced mitochondrial fragmentation associated with doxorubicin application. Diarylheptanoid 2 reduced the reactive oxygen species production induced by cisplatin. Both compounds increased the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species elimination (manganese superoxide dismutase and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α). These results indicate that neutralization of reactive oxygen species is an important mechanism of diarylheptanoid action, although these

  10. Stem Photosynthesis not Pressurized Ventilation is Responsible for Light-enhanced Oxygen Supply to Submerged Roots of Alder (Alnus glutinosa)

    PubMed Central

    ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM; ARMSTRONG, JEAN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Claims that submerged roots of alder and other wetland trees are aerated by pressurized gas flow generated in the stem by a light-induced thermo-osmosis have seemed inconsistent with root anatomy. Our aim was to seek a verification using physical root–stem models, stem segments with or without artificial roots, and rooted saplings. • Methods Radial O2 loss (ROL) from roots was monitored polarographically as the gas space system of the models, and stems were pressurized artificially. ROL and internal pressurization were also measured when stems were irradiated and the xylem stream was either CO2 enriched or not. Stem photosynthesis and respiration were measured polarographically. Stem and root anatomy were examined by light and fluorescence microscopy. • Key Results Pressurizing the models and stems to ≤10 kPa, values much higher than those reportedly generated by thermo-osmosis, created only a negligible density-induced increase in ROL, but ROL increased rapidly when ambient O2 concentrations were raised. Internal pressures rose by several kPa when shoots were exposed to high light flux and ROL increased substantially, but both were due to O2 accumulation from stem photosynthesis using internally sourced CO2. Increased stem pressures had little effect on O2 transport, which remained largely diffusive. Oxygen flux from stems in high light periods indicated a net C gain by stem photosynthesis. Chloroplasts were abundant in the secondary cortex and secondary phloem, and occurred throughout the secondary xylem rays and medulla of 3-year-old stems. Diurnal patterns of ROL, most marked when light reached submerged portions of the stem, were modified by minor variations in light flux and water level. Low root temperatures also helped improve root aeration. • Conclusions Pressurized gas flow to submerged roots does not occur to any significant degree in alder, but stem photosynthesis, using internally sourced CO2 from respiration and the

  11. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin-Nadeau, Martin; Gagné, André; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Fortin, J André; Roy, Sébastien; Greer, Charles W; Khasa, Damase P

    2016-07-01

    Canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. These conditions are harsh for plant development. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. Seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of Paxillus involutus and Alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of NaCl, Na2SO4, and naphthenic acids in a growth chamber. Afterwards, seedling survival, height, dry biomass, leaf necrosis, and root mycorrhization rate were measured. Paxillus involutus Mai was the most successful strain in enhancing alder survival, health, and growth. Seedlings inoculated with this strain displayed a 25% increase in survival rate, 2-fold greater biomass, and 2-fold less leaf necrosis compared with controls. Contrary to our expectations, A. diplophloeus was not as effective as P. involutus in improving seedling fitness, likely because it did not form ectomycorrhizae on roots of either alder species. High intraspecific variation characterized strains of P. involutus in their ability to stimulate alder height and growth and to minimize leaf necrosis. We conclude that in vivo selection under bipartite symbiotic conditions is essential to select effective strains that will be of use for the revegetation and reclamation of derelict lands. PMID:27170470

  12. Can an Alder Disease Influence the Controls of Ecosystem Water Flux?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrs-Richey, J. K.; Mulder, C. P.; Ruess, R. W.; Winton, L. M.; Stanosz, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    In Alaska, nitrogen-fixing shrubs (Alnus spp.) comprise a large component of the vegetation and are important for water and energy flux in the Alaskan tundra, the Interior boreal forest, and south-central Alaska. Recently there has been high incidence and severity of a canker disease on Alnus which alters small scale controls (e.g., leaves, branches) of water and carbon flux and may have ecosystem scale effects in severely diseased areas. The fungal pathogen, Valsa melanodiscus (anamorph =Cytospora umbrina), kills active xylem and phloem, causes long, girdling cankers on stems, and is frequently associated with stem mortality in the thin leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia) and green alder (Alnus crispa). We are just beginning to understand how this canker disease affects the physiology of its host and the implications for water loss and carbon fixation. An inoculation experiment at the University of Alaska is currently being conducted on well-watered and water-limited green alders to: 1) monitor the response of the water transport system to infection and canker development; 2) assess the ability of colonized alders to adjust water use efficiency; and 3) measure the effect of canker development on photosynthesis. Only 4 weeks after inoculation, stems (3-5 mm diam.) with incipient cankers had an overall reduction in total daily water loss and up to 50 percent decrease in daily peak water loss. Stems with incipient cankers were also unable to attain the maximum photosynthetic rate of healthy stems, and had lower light saturation points and quantum efficiencies. Further quantification of these relationships is underway. This study, in combination with recent field measurements of sapflow, will allow us to estimate the impact of varying degrees of disease severity on stand-level water flux. Alders are a keystone species and are currently responding to climate change by expanding into the Alaska tundra, increasing abundance in northern Alaska, and migrating into river

  13. The effect of alder forest cover and alder forest conversion on site fertility and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Miegroet, H.; Cole, D.W.; Homann, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is known for its ability to improve the status of soil N through symbiotic N fixation. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of red alder forests and their removal on soil and solution chemistry and on the growth of trees subsequently established on such sites. This was achieved through a series of paired field comparisons at two locations in Washington, involving similar-aged pure alder and Douglas-fir forests on soils that were essentially the same prior to stand establishment. At Pack Forest alder and Douglas-fir stands on high- and low-productivity sites were subjected to three levels of harvesting: bore only removal, whole tree (aboveground) harvesting, and complete removal of all vegetation and forest floor. The effect of harvesting intensity was examined on nutrient removal with biomass and through leaching, and on subsequent seedling growth. At Thompson Research Center adjacent Douglas-fir and alder forests were harvested, and half of each area was replanted with either Douglas-fir or red alder seedlings, yielding four forest conversion units. Differences in growth patterns, tree nutrient status, and leaching losses between these conversion plots were examined. Compared with adjacent Douglas-fir forests, substantially more N, P, K, and Ca are tied up in aboveground vegetation and on the forest floor of alder forests, and these elements also cycle faster in alder ecosystems primarily due to the deciduous nature of alder.

  14. Migration Patterns of Subgenus Alnus in Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Douda, Jan; Doudová, Jana; Drašnarová, Alena; Kuneš, Petr; Hadincová, Věroslava; Krak, Karol; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Recently, new palaeoecological records supported by molecular analyses and palaeodistributional modelling have provided more comprehensive insights into plant behaviour during the last Quaternary cycle. We reviewed the migration history of species of subgenus Alnus during the last 50,000 years in Europe with a focus on (1) a general revision of Alnus history since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), (2) evidence of northern refugia of Alnus populations during the LGM and (3) the specific history of Alnus in particular European regions. Methodology We determined changes in Alnus distribution on the basis of 811 and 68 radiocarbon-dated pollen and macrofossil sites, respectively. We compiled data from the European Pollen Database, the Czech Quaternary Palynological Database, the Eurasian Macrofossil Database and additional literature. Pollen percentage thresholds indicating expansions or retreats were used to describe patterns of past Alnus occurrence. Principal Findings An expansion of Alnus during the Late Glacial and early Holocene periods supports the presence of alders during the LGM in southern peninsulas and northerly areas in western Europe, the foothills of the Alps, the Carpathians and northeastern Europe. After glaciers withdrew, the ice-free area of Europe was likely colonized from several regional refugia; the deglaciated area of Scandinavia was likely colonized from a single refugium in northeastern Europe. In the more northerly parts of Europe, we found a scale-dependent pattern of Alnus expansion characterised by a synchronous increase of Alnus within individual regions, though with regional differences in the times of the expansion. In southern peninsulas, the Alps and the Carpathians, by contrast, it seems that Alnus expanded differently at individual sites rather than synchronously in whole regions. Conclusions Our synthesis supports the idea that northern LGM populations were important sources of postglacial Alnus expansion. The

  15. WATERSHED BIOGEOCHEMISTRY IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE: THE ROLE OF RED ALDER AND SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. T...

  16. Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, B D; Hurd, T M; Raynal, D J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged approximately 7000 stems ha(-1) and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO(3-) and NH4(+) in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO(3-) and NH(4+) concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH(4+) accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH(4+) concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO(3-) accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO(3-) concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems. PMID:12667762

  17. In-planta sporulation phenotype: a major life history trait to understand the evolution of Alnus-infective Frankia strains.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Adrien C; Bautista-Guerrero, Hector H; Nouioui, Imen; Cotin-Galvan, Laëtitia; Pepin, Régis; Fournier, Pascale; Menu, Frédéric; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Two major types of Frankia strains are usually recognized, based on the ability to sporulate in-planta: spore-positive (Sp+) and spore-negative (Sp-). We carried out a study of Sp+ and Sp- Frankia strains based on nodules collected on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana and Alnus viridis. The nodules were phenotyped using improved histology methods, and endophytic Frankia strain genotype was determined using a multilocus sequence analysis approach. An additional sampling was done to assess the relation between Sp+ phenotype frequency and genetic diversity of Frankia strains at the alder stand scale. Our results revealed that (i) Sp+ and Sp- Alnus-infective Frankia strains are genetically different even when sampled from the same alder stand and the same host-plant species; (ii) there are at least two distinct phylogenetic lineages of Sp+ Frankia that cluster according to the host-plant species and without regard of geographic distance and (iii) genetic diversity of Sp+ strains is very low at the alder stand scale compared with Sp- strains. Difference in evolutionary history and genetic diversity between Sp+ and Sp- Frankia allows us to discuss the possible ecological role of in-planta sporulation. PMID:25335453

  18. NITROGEN EXPORT FROM FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE: THE ROLE OF N2-FIXING RED ALDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. T...

  19. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigeaki F; Yazaki, Kenichi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha-1 year-1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4 percent of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand. PMID:24287656

  20. Ectomycorrhizal root development in wet Alder carr forests in response to desiccation and eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Baar, J; Bastiaans, T; van de Coevering, M A; Roelofs, J G M

    2002-06-01

    Effects of desiccation and eutrophication on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development in wet Alder carr forests in The Netherlands were studied. In northwestern Europe, wet Alder carr forests are found mostly in peatlands and along streams, forming an important component of wetland ecosystems. The dominant tree species in wet Alder carr forests is Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (Black alder), which associates with ectomycorrhizal fungi. During recent decades, wet Alder carr forests in Europe have declined because of desiccation and eutrophication, particularly in The Netherlands. In the present study, the number of root tips of A. glutinosa trees was highest in an undisturbed wet Alder carr forest in a peatland area. Eutrophication in the peatland area significantly inhibited ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development of A. glutinosa. In the eutrophied forest, ECM root tips were observed only close to A. glutinosa trees growing on hummocks. The concentrations of nitrate and potassium in soil water of the eutrophied forest were significantly higher than in the undisturbed forest, while magnesium and iron concentrations and the pH were significantly lower. The number of ECM root tips of A. glutinosa in a desiccated forest along a stream was generally lower than in an undisturbed wet Alder carr forest on waterlogged soil in the same area. The sulphate concentration in soil water in the desiccated forest was significantly higher than in the forest on waterlogged soil. ECM root development of A. glutinosa may have been negatively affected by the chemical composition of the soil water. PMID:12072985

  1. Structural differences in diarylheptanoids analogues from Alnus viridis and Alnus glutinosa influence their activity and selectivity towards cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dinić, Jelena; Novaković, Miroslav; Podolski-Renić, Ana; Vajs, Vlatka; Tešević, Vele; Isaković, Aleksandra; Pešić, Milica

    2016-04-01

    Diarylheptanoids represent a group of plant secondary metabolites that possess multiple biological properties and are increasingly recognized for their therapeutic potential. A comparative study was performed on structurally analogous diarylheptanoids isolated from the bark of green (Alnus viridis) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa) to address their biological effects and determine structure-activity relationship. The structures and configurations of all compounds were elucidated by NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV and IR. Diarylheptanoids actions were studied in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NCI-H460) and normal keratinocytes (HaCaT). A. viridis compounds 3v, 5v, 8v and 9v that possess a carbonyl group at C-3 were considerably more potent than compounds without this group. A. viridis/A. glutinosa analogue pairs, 5v/5g and 9v/9g, which differ in the presence of 3' and 3″-OH groups, were evaluated for anticancer activity and selectivity. 5v and 9v that do not possess 3' and 3″-OH groups showed significantly higher cytotoxicity compared to analogues 5g and 9g. In addition, these two A. viridis compounds induced a more prominent apoptosis in both cell lines and an increase in subG0 cell cycle phase, compared to their A. glutinosa analogues. 5v and 9v treatment triggered intracellular superoxide anion accumulation and notably decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In HaCaT cells, 9v and 9g with a 4,5 double bond caused a more prominent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential compared to 5v and 5g which possess a 5-methoxy group instead. Although green alder diarylheptanoids 5v and 9v displayed higher cytotoxicity, their analogues from black alder 5g and 9g could be more favorable for therapeutic use since they were more active in cancer cells than in normal keratinocytes. These results indicate that minor differences in the chemical structure can greatly influence the effect of diarylheptanoids on apoptosis and redox status and determine their

  2. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions (p < 0.05). The flowering synchronization of hazel and alder pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons. PMID:24098067

  3. Correlations between the ages of Alnus host species and the genetic diversity of associated endosymbiotic Frankia strains from nodules.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yumei; Zhang, Chenggang; Xiong, Zhi; Zhang, Zhongze

    2005-05-01

    Nodule samples were collected from four alder species: Alnus nepalensis, A. sibirica, A. tinctoria and A. mandshurica growing in different environments on Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province of Southwest China and on Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province of Northeast China. PCR-RFLP analysis of the IGS between nifD and nifK genes was directly applied to uncultured Frankia strains in the nodules. A total of 21 restriction patterns were obtained. The Frankia population in the nodules of A. nepalensis had the highest genetic diversity among all four Frankia populations; by contrast, the population in the nodules of A. mandshurica had the lowest degree of divergence; the ones in the nodules of A. sibirica and A. tinctoria were intermediate. A dendrogram, which was constructed based on the genetic distance between the restriction patterns, indicated that Frankia strains from A. sibirica and A. tinctoria had a close genetic relationship. Frankia strains from A. nepalensis might be the ancestor of Frankia strains infecting other Alnus species. From these results and the inference of the ages of Alnus host species, it is deduced that there was a co-evolution between Alnus and its microsymbiont Frankia in China. PMID:16089332

  4. Spatial and temporal controls on Alnus-derived nutrients and stream stoichiometry: Implications for aquatic ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devotta, D.; Fraterrigo, J.; Walsh, P.; Hu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting how nutrient fluxes that cross ecosystem boundaries will respond to future climate change is one of the greatest challenges for ecology in the 21st century. In southwestern (SW) Alaska, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and nitrogen (N)-fixation by alder (Alnus spp.) provide key nutrient subsidies to freshwater systems. The importance of alder-derived nutrients (ADN) to aquatic systems will increase as alder cover expands under climate warming and salmon harvesting reduces marine-derived nutrients. We investigate broad-scale spatial and temporal drivers of ADN and stream N:P in 26 streams in SW Alaska. Alder cover and watershed features were measured using satellite images and topographic maps in ArcGIS. Stream water samples were collected in each spring and summer from 2010-2013 and analyzed for dissolved N and total phosphorus (TP). We obtained annual growing season length (AGSL) and sum of growing degree days (GDD) data from weather stations. Elevation was inversely related to alder cover, stream N, and N:P (ρ=-0.802, -0.65, and -0.71 resp., p<0.01, n=208). Alder cover had the largest influence on stream N (mean β estimate=0.402, 90% CIs). Stream N increased with alder cover, under longer AGSL, and lower GDD (interaction effect sizes between alder and stream N=0.196 and -0.185 resp., 90% CIs), suggesting that long growing seasons with minimal heat accumulation during the spring and fall increased ADN export. Higher P was associated with lower temperatures, possibly reflecting reduced P demand under low rates of metabolic activity. Structural equation modeling revealed significant causal relationships among elevation, alder cover, and stream N:P across multiple years (r2=0.94, X2=742.8, df=9, p<0.01). All paths in the model were significant (p<0.01) except between stream N:P and weather (p=0.165). These results demonstrate that spatial variation in alder cover associated with elevation is a stronger regulator of ADN fluxes and stream N:P than

  5. Ectomycorrhizae between Alnus acuminata H.B.K. and Naucoria escharoides (Fr.:Fr.) Kummer from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; Nouhra, Eduardo; Horton, Tom

    2002-04-01

    Field ectomycorrhizae of Naucoria escharoides on Alnus acuminata ("andean alder", "aliso del cerro") are described in detail for the first time. Naturally occurring ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath sporocarps of N. escharoides. The samples were taken from four natural forest plots at two homogeneous A. acuminata sites (Tucumán and Catamarca Provinces, Argentina). The ectomycorrhizae were characterized morphologically and compared by means of PCR/RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA. The most important morphological features of the ectomycorrhizae are a white to pale yellow mantle, simple to monopodial branches, hyaline emanating hyphae, abundant hyphal bundles emerging more or less perpendicularly from a plectenchymatous mantle, and an acute or rounded apex with or without a mantle. N. escharoides fruitbodies have white basal mycelium with emanating hyphae similar to those of andean alder ectomycorrhizae. The RFLP profiles of sporocarps and mycorrhizae were the same. PMID:12035728

  6. δ15N patterns of Douglas-fir and red alder riparian forests in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, E.E.; Perakis, S.S.; Hibbs, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    We used naturally occurring stable isotopes of N to compare N dynamics in near-stream and upslope environments along riparian catenas in N-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Coast Range of western Oregon. Based on the existing literature, we expected soil δ15N to be enriched closer to streams owing to inputs of isotopically heavy, marine-derived N by spawning salmon, higher rates of denitrification near the stream, or both. However, it has been unclear what effect red alder might have on soil δ15N patterns near streams. We found a consistent −1‰ δ15N signature in red alder foliage, and δ15N of total N in soils under red alder averaged 2.2‰ along sampling transects extending 20 m upslope from the stream. Surprisingly, δ15N of total N in soil under Douglas-fir was progressively depleted nearer to streams, opposite from the pattern expected from N losses by denitrification or N inputs from anadromous salmon. Instead, δ15N of total N in soil under Douglas-fir converged toward soil δ15N values typical of red alder sites. We consider that the historic presence of red alder may have contributed a legacy of lower soil δ15N nearer to streams on sites that are currently dominated by young Douglas-fir forest.

  7. Headwater riparian invertebrate communities associated with red alder and conifer wood and leaf litter in southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeSage, C.M.; Merritt, R.W.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We examined how management of young upland forests in southeastern Alaska affect riparian invertebrate taxa richness, density, and biomass, in turn, potentially influencing food abundance for fish and wildlife. Southeastern Alaska forests are dominated by coniferous trees including Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), with mixed stands of red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.). Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is hypothesized to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and through forest management may provide increased riparian invertebrate abundance. To compare and contrast invertebrate densities between coniferous and alder riparian habitats, leaf litter and wood debris (early and late decay classes) samples were collected along eleven headwater streams on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Members of Acarina and Collembola were the most abundant taxa collected in leaf litter with alder litter having significantly higher mean taxa richness than conifer litter. Members of Acarina were the most abundant group collected on wood debris and alder wood had significantly higher mean taxa richness and biomass than conifer wood. Alder wood debris in more advanced decay stages had the highest mean taxa richness and biomass, compared to other wood types, while conifer late decay wood debris had the highest densities of invertebrates. The inclusion of alder in young-growth conifer forests can benefit forest ecosystems by enhancing taxa richness and biomass of riparian forest invertebrates. ?? 2005 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Diarylheptanoids from green alder bark and their potential for DNA protection.

    PubMed

    Novaković, Miroslav; Stanković, Miroslava; Vučković, Ivan; Todorović, Nina; Trifunović, Snežana; Apostolović, Danijela; Mandić, Boris; Veljić, Milan; Marin, Petar; Tešević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljević, Slobodan

    2014-06-01

    Nine diarylheptanoids, 1-9, catechin (11), and a phenolic glucoside, 10, were isolated from the bark of green alder (Alnus viridis). Four of the isolated compounds, i.e., 2, 5, 8, 10, are new. The structures of 1-11 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Almost all of them exerted a pronounced effect of decreasing DNA damage of human lymphocytes, acting stronger than the known synthetic protector amifostine. PMID:24934673

  9. Comparative phylogenies and host specialization in the alder ectomycorrhizal fungi Alnicola, Alpova and Lactarius (Basidiomycota) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycorrhizal fungi form intimate associations with their host plants that constitute their carbon resource and habitat. Alnus spp. (Betulaceae) are known to host an exceptional species-poor and specialized ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community compared to other tree species, but the host-specificity pattern and its significance in terms of fungal diversification and speciation remain poorly documented. The degree of parallel speciation, host switching, and patterns of biogeography were explored in the historical associations between alders and three ECM taxa of Basidiomycetes: Alnicola (Agaricales), Alpova (Boletales), and Lactarius (Russulales). The aim was to develop an evolutionary framework on host specificity and diversification of Basidiomycetes in this highly specialized plant-fungus symbiosis. Results Sporocarps of Alnicola (220), Lactarius (61) and Alpova (29) were collected from stands of the four European alder species (A. alnobetula including the endemic subsp. suaveolens in Corsica, A. cordata, A. glutinosa, A. incana) in Western Europe (mainly in France and Austria), from 1995 to 2009. Specimens were morphologically identified to the species level. From these, 402 sequences of four DNA regions (ITS, rpb2, gpd, and the V9 domain of the mit-SSU rDNA) were successfully obtained and analyzed in addition with 89 sequences available in GenBank and UNITE databases. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on all sequence data sets (individual and combined) using maximum likelihood reconstruction and Bayesian inference. Fungal phylogenies are compared and discussed in relation to the host, with a focus on species boundaries by associating taxonomic, systematic and molecular information. Conclusions Patterns of host specificity and phylogenies of Alnicola and Lactarius suggest coevolution as a basal factor of speciation in relation with the subgeneric diversification of Alnus, possibly due to the very selective pressure of the host. A second element of

  10. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138. PMID:18448140

  11. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  12. The Phytophthora species assemblage and diversity in riparian alder ecosystems of western Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Sims, Laura Lee; Sutton, Wendy; Reeser, Paul; Hansen, Everett M

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora species were systematically sampled, isolated, identified and compared for presence in streams, soil and roots of alder (Alnus species) dominated riparian ecosystems in western Oregon. We describe the species assemblage and evaluate Phytophthora diversity associated with alder. We recovered 1250 isolates of 20 Phytophthora species. Only three species were recovered from all substrates (streams, soil, alder roots): P. gonapodyides, the informally described "P. taxon Pgchlamydo", and P. siskiyouensis. P. alni ssp. uniformis along with five other species not previously recovered in Oregon forests are included in the assemblage: P.citricola s.l., P. gregata, P. gallica, P. nicotianae and P. parsiana. Phytophthora species diversity was greatest in downstream riparian locations. There was no significant difference in species diversity comparing soil and unwashed roots (the rhizosphere) to stream water. There was a difference between the predominating species from the rhizosphere compared to stream water. The most numerous species was the informally described "P. taxon Oaksoil", which was mainly recovered from, and most predominant in, stream water. The most common species from riparian forest soils and alder root systems was P. gonapodyides. PMID:26240311

  13. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part I: sites and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C; Hervé, Jessica; Muhamad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-09-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in most developed countries and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. In the course of a screening project of medicinal plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree of Canada and having potential for the treatment of diabetes, we have identified several products that inhibit adipogenesis, suggesting potential antiobesity activities. The inhibitory activity of two of these, the extract of the inner bark of the deciduous trees Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Speckled Alder) and Populus balsamifera L. (Balsam Poplar), was analyzed using the 3T3-L1 cell model of adipogenesis. Intracellular triglyceride accumulation, pre-adipocyte proliferation, and PPAR- γ activity were measured. Alnus incana extracts acted early in the differentiation process but did not affect clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes nor the morphological transformation from fibroblast-like to rounded fat-laden cells. Alnus incana extracts were found to act as partial agonists toward PPAR- γ activity. In contrast, Populus balsamifera extracts completely abrogated adipogenesis, severely limited clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes and generally maintained cells in an undifferentiated fibroblast-like morphology. Populus balsamifera extracts exerted antagonistic action against PPAR- γ activity. It is concluded that, through their actions on the adipocyte, these plant products may be useful for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:20301057

  14. The Influence of Speckled Alder on Nitrogen Accumulation in Adirondack Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiernan, B. D.; Hurd, T. M.; Raynal, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    Shrub-dominated wetlands of the Adirondacks typically support vigorous populations of nitrogen-fixing speckled alder Alnus incana (L.) Moench var. americana Regel), and are the second most abundant wetland type in the Adirondack region. In symbiotic association with an actinomycete of the genus Frankia, this shrub fixes 37-43 kg N/ha/yr in monotypic stands. This study was undertaken to quantify the abundance of alder in wetlands typed as "Scrub-shrub 1" (SS1; known as alder/willow wetlands) in the National Wetlands Inventory, and to determine the accumulation of nitrate and ammonium in alder wetland substrates. Twenty wetlands from the Oswegatchie-Black (OB) and Upper Hudson (UH) watersheds were randomly selected using the Adirondack Park Agency's GIS data base which includes wetland cover types assigned using remotely sensed data. Wetlands designated as "SS1" (scrub-shrub vegetation) and "SS1/EM1" (scrub-shrub with emergent herbaceous vegetation) were included in the sample. Six wetlands varying in alder abundance were chosen to estimate N accumulation in the substrate, with measurement of dissolved inorganic N in groundwater and ion exchange resin extracts. In the OB watershed, A. incana averaged 30 % of total shrub density in SS1 wetlands and 36 % in SS1/EM1 wetlands. Alder accounted for 49 % of all stems in UH SS1 wetlands, 28 % in the SS1/EM1 wetlands and in total accounted for 35 % of all stems in this study. Nitrate in IER extracts and groundwater was significantly higher in high-density alder wetlands (p < 0.05). Eight of the 20 wetlands included in this study were estimated to have less than 3,000 alder stems/ha, and five were estimated to have greater than 10,000 stems/ha. The other seven wetlands averaged 6,000 stems/ha. At nine sites, foliar N equaled or exceeded estimated atmospheric deposition (~10 kg/ha/yr), and was likely derived from N fixation. We conclude that 50 % of the SS1/EM1 wetlands and at least 75 % of the SS1 wetlands in these watersheds

  15. How can effect the synergy of climate change, soil units and vegetation groups the potential global distribution of plants up to 2300: a modelling study for prediction of potential global distribution and migration of the N2 fixing species Alnus spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant migration is a well known adaptation strategy of plant groups or species with evidence from historical to present observation and monitoring studies. Importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder) is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model are presented to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale and its migration in the future by using climate change scenarios. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate niche of alders. The distribution and migration model (Alnus-Distribution-Model (ADM)) was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data from experiments performed by the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) including the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) mitigation scenarios, and extensions of the scenarios beyond 2100 to 2300. The model covered basic approaches to understand the combine effect of climate, soil and vegetation on plant distribution and migration in the current time and future.

  16. Alder Expansion as a Coastal Warming Signal - Linking Coastal Alaskan Carbon to Vegetation Change with Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.; Moy, C. M.; McGeachy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Corser Bog (60.5296364oN, 145.453858oW), 21 km east of Cordova, AK is a sphagnum-dominated peatland 42 m asl. adjacent to Sheridan Glacier and the Copper River Delta. Deglaciation at 11.5 ka began with shallow pond deposition, reflecting regional warmth with the pioneers Alnus crispa subsp. sinuata, Salix, and ferns colonizing the fresh, mineral soils on the landscape. Continued early Holocene warming/melting of glaciers led to the foundation species Alnus dominance and peatland formation, surrounded by shrubs such as Rubus spectabilis, Sambucus racemosa, and wetland species such as Myrica gale and Potentilla palustris. As Sphagnum peat accumulated, the highest rates of carbon accumulation for a few centuries are represented at 50 g/m2/a, similar to short-term very high rates in the early Holocene throughout the circumboreal region but varying within the early Holocene due to development of local wet, bryophytic environments. A shift to sedge peat regionally along the South-Central Alaskan coast 7.6 - 3.7 ka is paralleled by a more evaporative, drier climate with Rhododendron groenlandicum presence, lower carbon accumulation (13 g/m2/a), and minimal macrofossil preservation, which is paralleled regionally in coastal muskegs both to the northwest and southeast and by a hiatus in a nearby lake record. A cooler, moister climate is evident in Corser Bog with the shift to Sphagnum peat at 3.7 ka, regional shifts from sedge to Sphagnum peat throughout the entire coastline from Yakutat to Girdwood, AK and the demonstration of glacial advances in the region. Alnus pollen markedly increases to 60% in the uppermost sample, indicative of a major signal for glacial recession in this region.

  17. Red Alder (Alnus rubra) Distribution Influences Nitrate Discharge to Coastal Estuaries: Comparison of Two Oregon Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We determined nutrient export from the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers as part of a larger program for evaluating nutrient sources to coastal waters. The Yaquina and Alsea data indicated that one river typically contained twice the amount of dissolved nitrate-N, although temperature, co...

  18. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  19. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Katrina L.; Roy, Sébastien; Khasa, Damase P.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal) alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI), and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas), metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter) and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas) increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN) assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude) and mineralization (five-fold). Genomic techniques proved useful in investigating

  20. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study.

    PubMed

    Callender, Katrina L; Roy, Sébastien; Khasa, Damase P; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal) alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI), and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas), metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter) and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas) increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN) assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude) and mineralization (five-fold). Genomic techniques proved useful in investigating

  1. Anatomical and molecular characterization of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis, Russula alnijorullensis and Cortinarius tucumanensis ectomycorrhizae on Alnus acuminata.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Beenken, Ludwig; Pritsch, Karin; Daniele, Graciela; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis Romagn., Russula alnijorullensis (Sing.) Sing. and Cortinarius tucumanensis Mos. on Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth) were characterized and identified. The identification of the fungal symbionts was achieved by morpho-anatomical observations of mycorrhizae and by comparison of ITS-RFLP patterns obtained from ECM and fruitbodies. L. aff omphaliformis ECM differed in some morphological details such as ramification and mantle type from ECM of the same species on A. glutinosa. L. aff omphaliformis ECM show an orange to ochre mantle containing latex cells, which stain with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. R. alnijorullensis ECM represent a typical Russula-type-ECM, light yellow to pinkish, the outer mantle being composed of triangular latex-filled cells staining with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. C. tucumanensis ECM exhibit a white (silvery) to yellowish brown mantle covered with soil particles, emanating hyphae with clamps. PMID:16596956

  2. The Significance of Tinospora crispa in Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alex; Rajesh, E K; Kumar, D Suresh

    2016-03-01

    Tinospora crispa is a medicinal plant belonging to the botanical family Menispermiaceae. The plant is widely distributed in Southeast Asia and the northeastern region of India. A related species Tinospora cordifolia is used in Ayurveda for treating a large spectrum of diseases. Traditional healers of Thailand, Malaysia, Guyana, Bangladesh and the southern Indian province of Kerala use this plant in the treatment of diabetes. Many diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosteroids, alkaloids and their glycosides have been isolated from T. crispa. Cell culture and animal studies suggest that the herb stimulates secretion of insulin from β-cells. It also causes dose-dependent and time-dependent enhancement of glucose uptake in muscles. However, in view of the reported hepatotoxicity, this herb may be used with caution. This article reviews the animal studies and human clinical trials carried out using this herb. Areas of future research are also identified. PMID:26749336

  3. Ardisia crispa roots inhibit cyclooxygenase and suppress angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In our previous studies conducted on Ardisia crispa roots, it was shown that Ardisia crispa root inhibited inflammation-induced angiogenesis in vivo. The present study was conducted to identify whether the anti-angiogenic properties of Ardisia crispa roots was partly due to either cyclooxygenase (COX) or/and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity inhibition in separate in vitro studies. Methods Benzoquinonoid fraction (BQ) was isolated from hexane extract by column chromatography, and later analyzed by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Anti-angiogenic effect was studied on mouse sponge implantation assay. Ardisia crispa ethanolic rich fraction (ACRH), quinone-rich fraction (QRF) and BQ were screened for COX assay to evaluate their selectivity towards two isoforms (COX-1 and COX-2), The experiment on soy lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory assay was also performed to determine the inhibitory effect of ACRH, QRF and BQ on soy LOX. Results BQ was confirmed to consist of 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone, when compared with previous data. Antiangiogenesis study exhibited a reduction of mean vascular density (MVD) in both ACRH and QRF, compared to control. In vitro study showed that both ACRH and QRF inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2, despite COX-2 inhibition being slightly higher than COX-1 in BQ. On the other hand, both ACRH and QRF were shown to have poor LOX inhibitory activity, but not BQ. Conclusions In conclusion, ACRH and QRF might possibly exhibit its anti-angiogenic effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. However, both of them were shown to possess poor LOX inhibitory activity. On the other hand, BQ displayed selectivity to COX-2 inhibitory property as well as LOX inhibitory effect. PMID:24641961

  4. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  5. Molecular diversity of Frankia in root nodules of Alnus incana grown with inoculum from polluted urban soils.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, K P; Marland, L A; Harrison, A F; Wright, J; Young, J P W; Fitter, A H

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT The establishment and growth of trees can be compromised by soil contamination which can reduce populations of key microbial symbionts. We describe the colonisation of grey alder (Alnus incana) by Frankia from 10 urban soils with varying degrees of organic and inorganic pollution. Principal components analysis (PCA) of soil chemical profiles showed a separation of remediated and unremediated soils. A. incana seedlings were used as trap plants to capture the microsymbiont from soil. After 6 months growth, nodulation was lowest on trees grown with the most contaminated soils. Plant biomass was positively correlated with root nodule biomass and negatively correlated with PAH concentration. DNA was isolated from nodules for the analysis of Frankia genetic diversity. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS) of Frankia ribosomal DNA. PCR products were subject to restriction digestion yielding 10 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types from 72 nodules analysed. Our results demonstrate that each soil supports a distinct nodulating Frankia community. Partial 16S sequencing placed most strains in Frankia clusters 1a and 1b, which are typically Alnus-infecting, but sequences from several nodules obtained from a gasworks soil belonged to cluster 3, normally associated with Elaeagnus. These results show for the first time that polluted soils can be an effective source of Alnus-infective Frankia. Inoculation with site-adapted Frankia under greenhouse conditions could thus be an appropriate strategy to increase the symbiotic capacity of A. incana and to improve its chances of survival and growth when planted on polluted soils. PMID:19712365

  6. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae).

    PubMed

    Joshi, S R

    2008-09-01

    The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae)) on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day), taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species). Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of Aureobasidium pollulans

  7. Economic considerations in establishing European alder in herbaceous cover on surface-mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, J.M.; Graves, D.H.

    1985-12-09

    Herbicides are a practical tool for selectively controlling vegetative competition during tree seedling establishment. A study to investigate the effects of eight herbicide treatments on the survival and height growth of European alder (Alnus glutinosa) seedlings established in herbaceous cover indicated a positive treatment effect, but very little difference between the herbicide treatments themselves. Since the costs of the herbicides varied considerably, similar results could be obtained using the different herbicides, but at substantially different costs. Biological data were combined with the economic data to derive a modified benefit/cost ratio. This ratio facilitates herbicide treatment choice by comparing the amount of added survival or growth obtained per dollar spent on herbicides. 5 references, 6 tables.

  8. Dendrochronology and lakes: using tree-rings of alder to reconstruct lake levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Maaten, Ernst; Buras, Allan; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Kaiser, Knut; Lorenz, Sebastian; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is considered a major threat for ecosystems around the world. Assessing its effects is challenging, amongst others, as we are unsure how ecosystems may respond to climate conditions they were not exposed to before. However, increased insight may be obtained by analyzing responses of ecosystems to past climate variability. In this respect, lake ecosystems appear as valuable sentinels, because they provide direct and indirect indicators of change through effects of climate. Lake-level fluctuations of closed catchments, for example, reflect a dynamic water balance, provide detailed insight in past moisture variations, and thereby allow for assessments of effects of anticipated climate change. Up to now, lake-level data are mostly obtained from gauging records and reconstructions from sediments and landforms. However, these records are in many cases only available over relatively short time periods, and, since geoscientific work is highly demanding, lake-level reconstructions are lacking for many regions. Here, we present and discuss an alternative method to reconstruct lake levels, which is based on tree-ring data of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). This tree species tolerates permanently waterlogged and temporally flooded conditions (i.e. riparian vegetation), and is often found along lakeshores. As the yearly growth of trees varies depending upon the experienced environmental conditions, annual rings of black alder from lakeshore vegetation likely capture information on variations in water table, and may therefore be used to reconstruct lake levels. Although alder is a relatively short-lived tree species, the frequent use of its' decay-resistant wood in foundations of historical buildings offers the possibility of extending living tree-chronologies back in time for several centuries. In this study, the potential to reconstruct lake-level fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder is explored for three lake ecosystems in the Mecklenburg

  9. Ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata from Calilegua National Park (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Zak, Marcelo R; Horton, Thomas R; Micolini, Jorge

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) colonization associated with Alnus acuminata (Andean alder), in relation to soil parameters (electrical conductivity, field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, available P, organic matter, and total N) at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in natural forests of A. acuminata situated in Calilegua National Park (Jujuy, Argentina). Nine ECM morphotypes were found on A. acuminata roots. The ECM colonization was affected by seasonality and associated positively with field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, and total N and negatively associated with organic matter. Two morphotypes (Russula alnijorullensis and Tomentella sp. 3) showed significant differences between seasons. Positive and negative correlations were found between five morphotypes (Alnirhiza silkacea, Lactarius omphaliformis, Tomentella sp. 1, Tomentella sp. 3, and Lactarius sp.) and soil parameters (total N, pH, and P). A significant negative correlation was found between field H(2)O holding capacity and organic matter with AM colonization. Results of this study provide evidence that ECM and AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil chemical edaphic parameters and indicate that some ECM morphotypes are sensitive to changes in seasonality and soil parameters. PMID:16034621

  10. Short-term influence of nitrate on acetylene reduction, photosynthesis and nodule respiration of black alder seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cazell, B.H.; Samuelson, L.J.; Seiler, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaernt.) has shown significant benefits in several silvicultural applications such as nurse-trees. However, little is known concerning the nitrate/N-fixing interactions. Our objections were to examine the effects of three nitrate levels on acetylene reduction (AR), net photosynthesis (Ps) and nodule respiration (NR). Fifteen month-old black alder rooted cuttings were inoculated with one strain of Frankia inoculum (ARgN22D) at six months, maintained under 16h photoperiod at ambient greenhouse conditions, and fertilized for two months prior to study with a modified Crone's N-free solution. At study initiation seedlings were fertilized for six days with 0, 7.5 or 15 mM NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Measurements of AR, Ps and NR were collected on the second, fourth and sixth day of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} application. By day four AR was significantly lowered by 75% for the 15 mM NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} treatment when compared with the controls. On day six, Ps and NR were lowered significantly by 29% and 59%, respectively, for the 15 mM NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} treatments when compared to control values. Results suggest any benefit from black alder N-fixation might be negated by nitrate fertilization.

  11. Global biogeography of Alnus-associated Frankia actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Põlme, Sergei; Bahram, Mohammad; Kõljalg, Urmas; Tedersoo, Leho

    2014-12-01

    Macroecological patterns of microbes have received relatively little attention until recently. This study aimed to disentangle the determinants of the global biogeographic community of Alnus-associated actinobacteria belonging to the Frankia alni complex. By determining a global sequence similarity threshold for the nitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene, we separated Frankia into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and tested the relative effects of Alnus phylogeny, geographic relatedness, and climatic and edaphic variables on community composition at the global scale. Based on the optimal nifH gene sequence similarity threshold of 99.3%, we distinguished 43 Frankia OTUs from root systems of 22 Alnus species on four continents. Host phylogeny was the main determinant of Frankia OTU-based community composition, but there was no effect on the phylogenetic structure of Frankia. Biogeographic analyses revealed the strongest cross-continental links over the Beringian land bridge. Despite the facultative symbiotic nature of Frankia, phylogenetic relations among Alnus species play a prominent role in structuring root-associated Frankia communities and their biogeographic patterns. Our results suggest that Alnus species exert strong phylogenetically determined selection pressure on compatible Actinobacteria. PMID:25124146

  12. Can We Use Tree Rings of Black Alder to Reconstruct Lake Levels? A Case Study for the Mecklenburg Lake District, Northeastern Germany

    PubMed Central

    van der Maaten, Ernst; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Buras, Allan; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Kaiser, Knut; Lorenz, Sebastian; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the potential to reconstruct lake-level (and groundwater) fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) for three study lakes in the Mecklenburg Lake District, northeastern Germany. As gauging records for lakes in this region are generally short, long-term reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations could provide valuable information on past hydrological conditions, which, in turn, are useful to assess dynamics of climate and landscape evolution. We selected black alder as our study species as alder typically thrives as riparian vegetation along lakeshores. For the study lakes, we tested whether a regional signal in lake-level fluctuations and in the growth of alder exists that could be used for long-term regional hydrological reconstructions, but found that local (i.e. site-specific) signals in lake level and tree-ring chronologies prevailed. Hence, we built lake/groundwater-level reconstruction models for the three study lakes individually. Two sets of models were considered based on (1) local tree-ring series of black alder, and (2) site-specific Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI). Although the SPEI-based models performed statistically well, we critically reflect on the reliability of these reconstructions, as SPEI cannot account for human influence. Tree-ring based reconstruction models, on the other hand, performed poor. Combined, our results suggest that, for our study area, long-term regional reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations that consider both recent and ancient (e.g., archaeological) wood of black alder seem extremely challenging, if not impossible. PMID:26317768

  13. Can We Use Tree Rings of Black Alder to Reconstruct Lake Levels? A Case Study for the Mecklenburg Lake District, Northeastern Germany.

    PubMed

    van der Maaten, Ernst; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Buras, Allan; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Kaiser, Knut; Lorenz, Sebastian; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the potential to reconstruct lake-level (and groundwater) fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) for three study lakes in the Mecklenburg Lake District, northeastern Germany. As gauging records for lakes in this region are generally short, long-term reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations could provide valuable information on past hydrological conditions, which, in turn, are useful to assess dynamics of climate and landscape evolution. We selected black alder as our study species as alder typically thrives as riparian vegetation along lakeshores. For the study lakes, we tested whether a regional signal in lake-level fluctuations and in the growth of alder exists that could be used for long-term regional hydrological reconstructions, but found that local (i.e. site-specific) signals in lake level and tree-ring chronologies prevailed. Hence, we built lake/groundwater-level reconstruction models for the three study lakes individually. Two sets of models were considered based on (1) local tree-ring series of black alder, and (2) site-specific Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI). Although the SPEI-based models performed statistically well, we critically reflect on the reliability of these reconstructions, as SPEI cannot account for human influence. Tree-ring based reconstruction models, on the other hand, performed poor. Combined, our results suggest that, for our study area, long-term regional reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations that consider both recent and ancient (e.g., archaeological) wood of black alder seem extremely challenging, if not impossible. PMID:26317768

  14. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus. PMID:22279375

  15. Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) ameliorates skin conditions in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Mamiko; Yamada, Munenori; Nishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Sparassis crispa (SC) is an edible mushroom with various medicinal properties. In this study, we investigated to determine whether SC would affect skin conditions in rats and humans. Oral administration of SC increased both turnover of the stratum corneum and dermal soluble collagen content in collagen synthetic activity-reduced model rats. To investigate the effects of oral intake of SC in humans, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. We found that cheek transepidermal water loss was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 4 weeks of ingestion. This study suggests that SC is effective and safe for the improvement of skin conditions. PMID:24018675

  16. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of Mentha crispa in the treatment of giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Teles, Naracélia S B; Fechine, Francisco V; Viana, Fernando André C; Viana, Ismenia O L; Nascimento, Demétrius F; Leite, Ana Lourdes A S; Bezerra, Fernando Antônio Frota; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Moraes, Maria Elisabete A

    2011-11-01

    It's estimated that around 200 million people are annually infected with Giardia lamblia, making the disease a major cause of morbidity worldwide. The current treatment of giardiasis includes the use of several drugs, among them, herbal medicines formulated with Mentha crispa. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of M. crispa in the treatment of giardiasis. The research consisted initially of a cross-sectional study for the selection of subjects with giardiasis. After that, there was a randomized, open, in parallel with active control study, in order to verify the therapeutic efficacy of M. crispa in the treatment of giardiasis. Coprology samples were collected from 1622 patients between May 2005 and May 2007 for a series of parasitological examinations. Ninety-six patients with G. lamblia were selected, which were then distributed randomly into two groups: Secnidazole, consisting of 50 patients treated with 2g of Secnidazole and M. crispa, containing 46 patients treated with 2g of M. crispa. After 7 days, healing was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay in a fresh fecal sample. Additionally, the subjects were questioned about possible adverse effects and answered a questionnaire covering socioeconomic and hydrosanitary issues. The analysis of the clinical trial data showed that the cure rate for the Secnidazole group (84.0%) was significantly higher (P=0.0002) as that verified in the M. crispa group (47.83%). Therefore, the study concludes that, in the dose used in this trial, the effect of M. crispa in the treatment of giardisis is less effective than that of Secnidazole. PMID:21872682

  17. Growth and photosynthesis of plants in response to environmental stress. [Raphanus sativus; Glycine max; Salix nigra; Alnus serrulata; Populus tremuloides

    SciTech Connect

    Greitner, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental stresses generally decrease photosynthetic rates and growth of plants, and alter biomass partitioning. Nutrient deficiency and drought cause root:shoot ratios to increase, whereas the air pollutant ozone (O[sub 3]) causes an opposite shift in carbon allocation. Plants in nature usually grow under suboptimal conditions; therefore plants were raised with O[sub 3] combined with other stresses to analyze the mechanisms whereby multiple stresses influence gas exchange and growth. Physiological and growth responses to stress were determined for radish (raphanus sativus), soybean (Glycine max) willow (Salix nigra), alder (Alnus serrulata) and aspen (Populus tremuloides) in laboratory and field trials. In willow, high-nutrient status plants had more visible injury, but a smaller decline in leaf area with O[sub 3] than did low-nutrient plants. Ultrastructure of host plant cells in alder root nodules was disrupted by O[sub 3], suggesting that this air pollutant can affect the ability of plants to acquire nutrients via symbiosis. Biomass and root:shoot ratios decreased with O[sub 3] in radish and soy-bean. Shifts in stable carbon isotope ratios were caused by O[sub 3], and this technique was used to integrate the effects of O[sub 3] on gas exchange over time. In aspen, O[sub 3] enhanced photosynthesis and foliar areas in young leaves of well-watered aspen, partially compensating for declines in older leaves. This effect was more pronounced in plants raised at a high nitrogen level than in N-deficient plants. Carboxylation efficiency decreased in older, but increased in younger leaves with O[sub 3]. Prior exposure to drought reduced effects of O[sub 3] on photosynthesis and leaf area.

  18. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    PubMed

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. PMID:23202636

  19. Beneficial effect of Sparassis crispa on stroke through activation of Akt/eNOS pathway in brain of SHRSP

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitomi, Hisae; Iwaoka, Emiko; Kubo, Masahide; Shibata, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Sparassis crispa (S. crispa) is a mushroom used as a natural medicine that recently became cultivatable in Japan. In this study, we investigated not only the preventive effects of S. crispa against stroke and hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) but also the mechanism involved by using studies of the cerebral cortex at a young age. Six-week-old male SHRSP were divided into 2 groups, a control group and an S. crispa group administered 1.5% S. crispa in feed, and we then observed their survival. In addition, rats of the same age were treated with 1.5% S. crispa for 4 weeks and we measured body weight, blood pressure, blood flow from the tail, NOx production, and the levels of expression of several proteins in the cerebral cortex by western blot analysis. Our results showed that the S. crispa group had a delayed incidence of stroke and death and significantly decreased blood pressure and increased blood flow after the administration. Moreover, the quantity of urinary excretion and the nitrate/nitrite concentration in cerebral tissue were higher than those of control SHRSP rats. In the cerebral cortex, phosphor-eNOS (Ser1177) and phosphor-Akt (Ser473) in S. crispa-treated SHRSP were increased compared with those of control SHRSP rats. In conclusion, S. crispa could ameliorate cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction by promoting recovery of Akt-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and increasing NO production in the cerebral cortex. S. crispa may be useful for preventing stroke and hypertension. PMID:21076883

  20. Streptomyces alni sp. nov., a daidzein-producing endophyte isolated from a root of Alnus nepalensis D. Don.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Mei; Gu, Qiang; Zheng, Wen; Huang, Ying

    2009-02-01

    A filamentous actinomycete, designated strain D65(T), was isolated from a root of a wild tree, Alnus nepalensis D. Don (Nepalese Alder), collected in Xishuangbanna, China. It produced the bioactive agents daidzein and N-acetyltyramine and had morphological and chemical properties characteristic of streptomycetes. Pink to brownish red diffusible pigments were produced on several ISP media. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain D65(T) formed a distinct phyletic line that was most closely, albeit loosely, associated with Streptomyces hebeiensis YIM 001(T), Streptomyces aurantiogriseus NRRL B-5416(T), Streptomyces griseoviridis NBRC 12874(T), Streptomyces niveoruber NBRC 15428(T) and Streptomyces thermovulgaris NBRC 13473. A number of phenotypic properties allowed differentiation of the strain from related Streptomyces species. Therefore strain D65(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D65(T) (=CGMCC 4.3510(T)=NRRL B-24611(T)). PMID:19196762

  1. Photosynthetic and leaf water potential responses of Alnus glutinosa saplings to stem-base inoculaton with Phytophthora alni subsp. alni.

    PubMed

    Clemenz, Christian; Fleischmann, Frank; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Osswald, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Three-year-old Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (alder) saplings were single or double inoculated at the stem base with Phytophthora alni subsp. alni Brasier & S.A. Kirk under natural climatic conditions. Lesion formation on the bark showed a biphasic pattern of development, with extension occurring at a moderate rate in spring, and more rapidly during late summer. However, large variability was encountered in pathogen development within the population of infected saplings, ranging from high susceptibility to almost complete resistance. Infection resulted in severe growth retardation, and death within two years of inoculation in 75% of the saplings. During disease development, rates of transpiration and CO(2) uptake were significantly reduced. Consequently, minimum leaf water potentials were less negative in infected saplings than in control saplings. Surviving saplings matched control trees in photosynthetic capacity, transpiration rate and water potential during the second year of infection. Leaf starch concentration of infected saplings was significantly higher than in control saplings, possibly indicating that the destruction of bark tissue by the pathogen impaired phloem transport from leaves to roots. PMID:18765375

  2. Humus bacteria of Norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Elo; Maunuksela; Salkinoja-Salonen; Smolander; Haahtela

    2000-02-01

    We studied the potential of the humus layer of the Norway spruce stands to supply beneficial rhizobacteria to birch (Betula pendula), alder (Alnus incana) and fescue grass (Festuca rubra), representatives of pioneer vegetation after clear-cutting of the coniferous forest. Axenically grown seedlings of these species were inoculated with the acid spruce humus, pH 3.7-5.3. Actinorhizal propagules, capable of nodulating alder, were present in high density (10(3) g(-1)) in humus of long-term limed plots, whereas plots with nitrogen fertilization contained almost none (

  3. The pentadehydro-Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Naredla, Rajasekhar Reddy; Thompson, Severin K; Hoye, Thomas R

    2016-04-28

    In the classic Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, the overall degree of unsaturation (or oxidation state) of the 4π (diene) and 2π (dienophile) pairs of reactants dictates the oxidation state of the newly formed six-membered carbocycle. For example, in the classic Diels-Alder reaction, butadiene and ethylene combine to produce cyclohexene. More recent developments include variants in which the number of hydrogen atoms in the reactant pair and in the resulting product is reduced by, for example, four in the tetradehydro-Diels-Alder (TDDA) and by six in the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reactions. Any oxidation state higher than tetradehydro (that is, lacking more than four hydrogens) leads to the production of a reactive intermediate that is more highly oxidized than benzene. This increases the power of the overall process substantially, because trapping of the reactive intermediate can be used to increase the structural complexity of the final product in a controllable and versatile manner. Here we report an unprecedented overall 4π + 2π cycloaddition reaction that generates a different, highly reactive intermediate known as an α,3-dehydrotoluene. This species is in the same oxidation state as a benzyne. Like benzynes, α,3-dehydrotoluenes can be captured by various trapping agents to produce structurally diverse products that are complementary to those arising from the HDDA process. We call this new cycloisomerization process a pentadehydro-Diels-Alder (PDDA) reaction-a nomenclature chosen for chemical taxonomic reasons rather than mechanistic ones. In addition to alkynes, nitriles (RC≡N), although non-participants in aza-HDDA reactions, readily function as the 2π component in PDDA cyclizations to produce, via trapping of the α,3-(5-aza)dehydrotoluene intermediates, pyridine-containing products. PMID:27088605

  4. Anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of quaternary alkaloids from Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Mashitah; Hamid, Hazrulrizawati; Houghton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary alkaloids are the major alkaloids isolated from Tinospora species. A previous study pointed to the necessary presence of quaternary nitrogens for strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in such alkaloids. Repeated column chromatography of the vine of Tinospora crispa extract led to the isolation of one new protoberberine alkaloid, 4,13-dihydroxy-2,8,9-trimethoxydibenzo[a,g]quinolizinium (1), along with six known alkaloids-dihydrodiscretamine (2), columbamine (3), magnoflorine (4), N-formylannonaine (5), N-formylnornuciferine (6), and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (7). The seven compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Two known alkaloids, namely, dihydrodiscretamine and columbamine are reported for the first time for this plant. The compounds were tested for AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's method. In the AChE inhibition assay, only columbamine (3) showed strong activity with IC50 48.1 µM. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results suggest that the quaternary nitrogen in the skeleton has some effect, but that a high degree of methoxylation is more important for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. PMID:24448061

  5. The impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands.

    PubMed

    Mander, Ülo; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Teemusk, Alar; Kanal, Arno; Uri, Veiko; Truu, Jaak

    2015-02-01

    Floods control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in floodplains; however, there is a lack of data on the impact of short-term events on emissions. We studied the short-term effect of changing groundwater (GW) depth on the emission of (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in two riparian grey alder (Alnus incana) stands of different age in Kambja, southern Estonia, using the opaque static chamber (five replicates in each site) and gas chromatography methods. The average carbon and total nitrogen content in the soil of the old alder (OA) stand was significantly higher than in the young alder (YA) stand. In both stands, one part was chosen for water table manipulation (Manip) and another remained unchanged with a stable and deeper GW table. Groundwater table manipulation (flooding) significantly increases CH4 emission (average: YA-Dry 468, YA-Manip 8,374, OA-Dry 468, OA-Manip 4,187 μg C m(-2) h(-1)) and decreases both CO2 (average: OA-Dry 138, OA-Manip 80 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and N2O emissions (average: OA-Dry 23.1, OA-Manip 11.8 μg N m(-2) h(-1)) in OA sites. There was no significant difference in CO2 and CH4 emissions between the OA and YA sites, whereas in OA sites with higher N concentration in the soil, the N2O emission was significantly higher than at the YA sites. The relative CO2 and CH4 emissions (the soil C stock-related share of gaseous losses) were higher in manipulated plots showing the highest values in the YA-Manip plot (0.03 and 0.0030 % C day(-1), respectively). The soil N stock-related N2O emission was very low achieving 0.000019 % N day(-1) in the OA-Dry plot. Methane emission shows a negative correlation with GW, whereas the 20 cm depth is a significant limit below which most of the produced CH4 is oxidized. In terms of CO2 and N2O, the deeper GW table significantly increases emission. In riparian zones of headwater streams, the short-term floods (e.g. those driven by extreme climate events) may significantly enhance

  6. Origins of Stereoselectivity in the trans-Diels-Alder Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Robert S.; Mackey, Joel L.; Kim, Woo Han; Lee, Jun Hee; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Houk, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    The regioselectivity and stereoselectivity aspects of the Diels-Alder/radical hydrodenitration reaction sequence leading to trans-fused ring systems have been investigated with density functional calculations. A continuum of transition structures representing Diels-Alder and hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadditions as well as a sigmatropic rearrangement have been located, and they all lie very close in energy on the potential energy surface. All three pathways are found to be important in the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct. Reported regioselectivities are reproduced by the calculations. The stereoselectivity of radical hydrodenitration of the cis-Diels-Alder adduct is found to be related to the relative conformational stabilities of bicyclic radical intermediates. Overall, the computations provide understanding of the regioselectivities and stereoselectivities of the trans-Diels-Alder paradigm. PMID:20557046

  7. Seed dispersal and germination patternsin a rare Mediterranean island endemic ( Anchusa crispa Viv., Boraginaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilichini, Angélique; Debussche, Max

    2000-12-01

    We analyse and discuss patterns of seed dispersal and germination of a rare endemic plant species, Anchusa crispa Viv. (Boraginaceae) from Corsica and Sardinia. This coastal plant inhabits dunes and back-dunes, and currently numbers only a few thousand individuals which generally occur in isolated populations. This study included experiments conducted in the field in Corsica and also under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Short-distance dispersal of A. crispa is performed by ants, both by myrmecochory and dyszoochory. The invasion of an exotic species of ant, Linepithema humile, could locally modify the dispersal system and possibly the population dynamics of A. crispa. Long-distance dispersal may occur by water transport since seeds can germinate after at least 1 week of immersion in seawater and readily float on the surface. Burial of seeds is favourable for germination, percentage germination being maximised at a depth of 1-2 cm below the soil surface. A. crispa has a seed bank of about ten viable seeds per m 2, which may contribute to the survival of this species which exists in small populations with a short life span. Due to its seed dispersal and germination patterns, the conservation of this species will necessitate that human disturbance, which can destabilise the surface of the sand is prevented and that new populations are introduced to favourable sites.

  8. Draft Plastid and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences from Antarctic Alga Prasiola crispa.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Evelise Leis; Wallau, Gabriel da Luz; Rangel, Darlene Lopes; Machado, Laís Ceschini; da Silva, Alexandre Freitas; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Duarte; Macedo, Pablo Echeverria; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Victoria, Filipe de Carvalho; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; Dal Belo, Cháriston André; Pinto, Paulo Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The organelle genomes of the Antarctic alga Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing have been sequenced. The plastid and mitochondrial genomes have a total length of 196,502 bp and 89,819 bp, respectively. These genomes have 19 putative photosynthesis-related genes and 17 oxidative metabolism-related genes, respectively. PMID:26450727

  9. Draft Plastid and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences from Antarctic Alga Prasiola crispa

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Evelise Leis; Wallau, Gabriel da Luz; Rangel, Darlene Lopes; Machado, Laís Ceschini; da Silva, Alexandre Freitas; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Duarte; Macedo, Pablo Echeverria; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Victoria, Filipe de Carvalho; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2015-01-01

    The organelle genomes of the Antarctic alga Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing have been sequenced. The plastid and mitochondrial genomes have a total length of 196,502 bp and 89,819 bp, respectively. These genomes have 19 putative photosynthesis-related genes and 17 oxidative metabolism-related genes, respectively. PMID:26450727

  10. Standardized extract of Tinospora crispa stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Standardized extract of Tinospora crispa has been shown to exhibit immunostimulatory effects on innate immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats by enhancing neutrophil and T cell-mediated immunity. In this study the immunostimulatory effects of T. crispa were further investigated on the cellular immune response by determining its effect on nitric oxide (NO) production ability, peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), whereas the humoral immune response was evaluated through the measurement of serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) and serum lysozyme levels. Male Balb/c mice were immunized with 200 μL of 5 × 10(9) sheep red blood cells (sRBCs) per mL on day 0 and orally administered with 50, 100 and 200 mg per kg of ethanol extract of T. crispa for 14 days. Syringin and magnoflorine were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in the extract as chemical markers by using a validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method. T. crispa extract (TCE) considerably improved the peritoneal macrophages' ability to engulf FITC-labeled E. coli in a dose-dependent manner. TCE also dose-dependently promoted NO production in peritoneal macrophages activated by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and markedly potentiated the sRBS-induced swelling rate of the mice paw in DTH. The extract significantly enhanced the level of serum immunoglobulins, showing maximum activity at 100 mg kg(-1). Compared to the control groups, the serum lysozyme level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were significantly higher in extract-treated groups. These findings suggest that T. crispa possesses strong immunostimulatory activities and might act as a natural immunomodulator as well as a potential nutraceutical for the modulation of the immune response. PMID:26839149

  11. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of β-1,3-Glucan Synthase from Sparassis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun Hui; Kang, Hyeon-Woo

    2014-01-01

    A β-glucan synthase gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of polypore mushroom Sparassis crispa, which reportedly produces unusually high amount of soluble β-1,3-glucan (β-glucan). Sequencing and subsequent open reading frame analysis of the isolated gene revealed that the gene (5,502 bp) consisted of 10 exons separated by nine introns. The predicted mRNA encoded a β-glucan synthase protein, consisting of 1,576 amino acid residues. Comparison of the predicted protein sequence with multiple fungal β-glucan synthases estimated that the isolated gene contained a complete N-terminus but was lacking approximately 70 amino acid residues in the C-terminus. Fungal β-glucan synthases are integral membrane proteins, containing the two catalytic and two transmembrane domains. The lacking C-terminal part of S. crispa β-glucan synthase was estimated to include catalytically insignificant transmembrane α-helices and loops. Sequence analysis of 101 fungal β-glucan synthases, obtained from public databases, revealed that the β-glucan synthases with various fungal origins were categorized into corresponding fungal groups in the classification system. Interestingly, mushrooms belonging to the class Agaricomycetes were found to contain two distinct types (Type I and II) of β-glucan synthases with the type-specific sequence signatures in the loop regions. S. crispa β-glucan synthase in this study belonged to Type II family, meaning Type I β-glucan synthase is expected to be discovered in S. crispa. The high productivity of soluble β-glucan was not explained but detailed biochemical studies on the catalytic loop domain in the S. crispa β-glucan synthase will provide better explanations. PMID:25071386

  12. Enantio- and periselective nitroalkene Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Narcis, Maurice J; Sprague, Daniel J; Captain, Burjor; Takenaka, Norito

    2012-12-14

    The periselective Diels-Alder reaction of 5-substituted pentamethylcyclopentadienes and nitroethylene has been realized by helical-chiral hydrogen bond donor catalysts. To our knowledge, this represents the first asymmetric catalytic nitroalkene Diels-Alder reaction via activation of nitroalkene, and thus establishes its proof-of-principle. PMID:23104427

  13. Covalently crosslinked diels-alder polymer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Christopher; Adzima, Brian J.; Anderson, Benjamin John

    2011-09-01

    This project examines the utility of cycloaddition reactions for the synthesis of polymer networks. Cycloaddition reactions are desirable because they produce no unwanted side reactions or small molecules, allowing for the formation of high molecular weight species and glassy crosslinked networks. Both the Diels-Alder reaction and the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) were studied. Accomplishments include externally triggered healing of a thermoreversible covalent network via self-limited hysteresis heating, the creation of Diels-Alder based photoresists, and the successful photochemical catalysis of CuAAC as an alternative to the use of ascorbic acid for the generation of Cu(I) in click reactions. An analysis of the results reveals that these new methods offer the promise of efficiently creating robust, high molecular weight species and delicate three dimensional structures that incorporate chemical functionality in the patterned material. This work was performed under a Strategic Partnerships LDRD during FY10 and FY11 as part of a Sandia National Laboratories/University of Colorado-Boulder Excellence in Science and Engineering Fellowship awarded to Brian J. Adzima, a graduate student at UC-Boulder. Benjamin J. Anderson (Org. 1833) was the Sandia National Laboratories point-of-contact for this fellowship.

  14. Generation and Evaluation of High β-Glucan Producing Mutant Strains of Sparassis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Rak; Kang, Hyeon-Woo

    2013-01-01

    A chemical mutagenesis technique was employed for development of mutant strains of Sparassis crispa targeting the shortened cultivation time and the high β-glucan content. The homogenized mycelial fragments of S. crispa IUM4010 strain were treated with 0.2 vol% methyl methanesulfonate, an alkylating agent, yielding 199 mutant strains. Subsequent screening in terms of growth and β-glucan content yielded two mutant strains, B4 and S7. Both mutants exhibited a significant increase in β-glucan productivity by producing 0.254 and 0.236 mg soluble β-glucan/mg dry cell weight for the B4 and S7 strains, respectively, whereas the wild type strain produced 0.102 mg soluble β-glucan/mg dry cell weight. The results demonstrate the usefulness of chemical mutagenesis for generation of mutant mushroom strains. PMID:24198672

  15. New Actinoporins from sea anemone Heteractis crispa: cloning and functional expression.

    PubMed

    Tkacheva, E S; Leychenko, E V; Monastyrnaya, M M; Issaeva, M P; Zelepuga, E A; Anastuk, S D; Dmitrenok, P S; Kozlovskaya, E P

    2011-10-01

    A new actinoporin Hct-S4 (molecular mass 19,414 ± 10 Da) belonging to the sphingomyelin-inhibited α-pore forming toxin (α-PFT) family was isolated from the tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa (also called Radianthus macrodactylus) and purified by methods of protein chemistry. The N-terminal nucleotide sequence (encoding 20 amino acid residues) of actinoporin Hct-S4 was determined. Genes encoding 18 new isoforms of H. crispa actinoporins were cloned and sequenced. These genes form a multigene Hct-S family characterized by presence of N-terminal serine in the mature proteins. Highly conserved residues comprising the aromatic phosphorylcholine-binding site and significant structure-function changes in the N-terminal segment (10-27 amino acid residues) of actinoporins were established. Two expressed recombinant actinoporins (rHct-S5 and rHct-S6) were one order less hemolytically active than native actinoporins. PMID:22098238

  16. Immunostimulatory effects of extract of Pulicaria crispa before and after Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Maghraby, Amany S; Shalaby, Nagwa; Abd-Alla, Howida I; Ahmed, Samia A; Khaled, Hussein M; Bahgat, Mahmoud M

    2010-01-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of methanolic extract from Pulicaria crispa were investigated in mice before and after infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Mice were subjected for daily intra-peritoneal injection by the extract (33 ng/mouse) for 10 successive days followed by infecting every mouse with 100 S. mansoni cercariae. Treatment with the extract induced significant increase (p < 0.05) in sera-IL-2 before and after infection. Upon using soluble worm antigen preparation or cancer bladder homogenates as antigens in ELISA, the detected levels of IgG were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sera from treated-infected mice than untreated P. crispa infected mice. Using crude Escherichia coli lysate as an antigen in ELISA, it was detected a significant (p < 0.05) increase in IgG levels in sera from the extract-treated mice before and after infection. PMID:20210082

  17. [Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Polypeptide of the Sea Anemone, Heteractis crispa].

    PubMed

    Sintsova, O V; Monastyrnaya, M M; Pislyagin, E A; Menchinskaya, E S; Leychenko, E V; Aminin, D L; Kozlovskaya, E P

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the recombinant polypeptide HCGS 1.20, a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor of the sea anemone Heteractis crispa, was investigated. It was shown that the polypeptide inhibits the increase of the concentration of calcium ions in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages elicited by histamine, and reduces the content of NO in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages. A presumable mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of the polypeptide was being discussed. PMID:27125018

  18. A new multigene superfamily of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors from sea anemone Heteractis crispa.

    PubMed

    Isaeva, Marina P; Chausova, Victoriya E; Zelepuga, Elena A; Guzev, Konstantin V; Tabakmakher, Valentin M; Monastyrnaya, Margarita M; Kozlovskaya, Emma P

    2012-03-01

    Despite a considerable number of publications devoted to isolation and physicochemical properties of protease inhibitors from sea anemones, virtually nothing is known about the structure of the genes, and the nature of their isoforms diversity. Using the PCR-based cloning approach we discovered the Kunitz-type multigene superfamily composed of distinct gene families (GS-, RG-, GG-, and GN-gene families). It has been identified only three full-length GS-transcripts indicating a much greater variety of Kunitz homologs in Heteractis crispa. We have examined an exon-intron structure of GS-genes; an open reading frame is interrupted by a single intron located at the middle of the signal peptide. 33 deduced mature GS-polypeptides have been categorized into three groups according to the nature of a P1 residue. Some of them corresponded to native Kunitz-type protease inhibitors earlier isolated from H. crispa. The deduced GS-polypeptide sequences demonstrated diverse charge distribution ranging from the local point charges forms to the overall positive ones. We have suggested that the GS-gene family has evolved through gene tandem duplication followed by adaptive divergence of the P1 residue in the reactive site selected for divergent functions in paralogs. The expansion of this Kunitz-type multigene superfamily during evolution is lineage-specific, providing the tropical sea anemone H. crispa with the ability to interact an increasing diversity of the preys and predators. Our results show that the Kunitz-type polypeptides are encoded by a multigene superfamily and realized via a combinatory Kunitz-type library in the H. crispa tentacles venom. PMID:22001835

  19. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson: A Review of Its Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Bukhari, Syed N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute toward improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery. The plant has been used traditionally in the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorders, fever, malaria, diabetes, internal inflammation, fracture, scabies, hypertension, reducing thirst, increasing appetite, cooling down the body temperature, and maintaining good health. Phytochemical analyses of T. crispa revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and flavone glycosides, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene glycosides, cis clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids, lactones, sterols, lignans, and nucleosides. Studies showed that the crude extracts and isolated compounds of T. crispa possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, antimalarial, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic activities. Most pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts of the plant and the bioactive compounds responsible for the bioactivities have not been well identified. Further investigations are required to transform the experience-based claims on the use of T. crispa in traditional medicine practices into evidence-based information. The plant extract used in pharmacological and biological studies should be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed based on its biomarkers. There should be detail in vitro and in vivo studies on the mechanisms of action of the pure bioactive compounds and more elaborate toxicity study to ensure safety of the plant for human use. More

  20. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  1. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson: A Review of Its Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Bukhari, Syed N A

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute toward improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery. The plant has been used traditionally in the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorders, fever, malaria, diabetes, internal inflammation, fracture, scabies, hypertension, reducing thirst, increasing appetite, cooling down the body temperature, and maintaining good health. Phytochemical analyses of T. crispa revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and flavone glycosides, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene glycosides, cis clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids, lactones, sterols, lignans, and nucleosides. Studies showed that the crude extracts and isolated compounds of T. crispa possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, antimalarial, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic activities. Most pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts of the plant and the bioactive compounds responsible for the bioactivities have not been well identified. Further investigations are required to transform the experience-based claims on the use of T. crispa in traditional medicine practices into evidence-based information. The plant extract used in pharmacological and biological studies should be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed based on its biomarkers. There should be detail in vitro and in vivo studies on the mechanisms of action of the pure bioactive compounds and more elaborate toxicity study to ensure safety of the plant for human use. More

  2. Tinospora crispa Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by High Fat Diet in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Abu, Mohd Nazri; Samat, Suhana; Kamarapani, Norathirah; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic properties of Tinospora crispa, a local herb that has been used in traditional Malay medicine and rich in antioxidant, were explored based on obesity-linked insulin resistance condition. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely, the normal control (NC) which received standard rodent diet, the high fat diet (HFD) which received high fat diet only, the high fat diet treated with T. crispa (HFDTC), and the high fat diet treated with orlistat (HFDO). After sixteen weeks of treatment, blood and organs were harvested for analyses. Results showed that T. crispa significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the body weight (41.14 ± 1.40%), adiposity index serum levels (4.910 ± 0.80%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 161 ± 4.71 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 100.95 ± 3.10 U/L), total cholesterol (TC: 18.55 ± 0.26 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG: 3.70 ± 0.11 mmol/L), blood glucose (8.50 ± 0.30 mmo/L), resistin (0.74 ± 0.20 ng/mL), and leptin (17.428 ± 1.50 ng/mL) hormones in HFDTC group. The insulin (1.65 ± 0.07 pg/mL) and C-peptide (136.48 pmol/L) hormones were slightly decreased but within normal range. The histological results showed unharmed and intact liver tissues in HFDTC group. As a conclusion, T. crispa ameliorates insulin resistance-associated with obesity in Wistar rats fed with high fat diet. PMID:25821506

  3. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:26404319

  4. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa.

    PubMed

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-10-01

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:26404319

  5. Paxillus rubicundulus (Boletales, Paxillaceae) and two new alder-specific ectomycorrhizal species, Paxillus olivellus and Paxillus adelphus, from Europe and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Jargeat, Patricia; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Gryta, Hervé; Chaumeton, Jean-Paul; Gardes, Monique

    2016-05-01

    Paxillus rubicundulus P.D. Orton has been shown to be a complex of at least three ectomycorrhizal taxa strictly associated with alders (Alnus) in Europe, P. rubicundulus s. str., and two undescribed clades. To assess the taxonomic status of these three clades and their phylogenetic relationships, phylogenetic analyses of two independent gene regions (ITS and gpd), combined with macro- and micromorphological comparisons of genetically identified specimens, were carried out. A total of 85 sequences were successfully obtained from basidiomata and alder mycorrhizae collected in France and Algeria and combined with GenBank and UNITE sequences. The phylogenetic results and estimates of genetic diversity confirmed that the three clades are distinct species, often found in sympatry. As a result, P. rubicundulus s. str. was redefined based on the revision of type material, and Paxillus adelphus and Paxillus olivellus are introduced as new Linnaean names. The often used name Paxillus filamentosus is rejected since it could not be applied to any of the new species. The three species are distinguished micromorphologically by spore size and shape. They are widely distributed in Europe, North Africa and western Asia; P. rubicundulus is rare, and all species have a limited host range. PMID:27109368

  6. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (Δ E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in Δ E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  7. Microwave-Based Reaction Screening: Tandem Retro-Diels-Alder/Diels-Alder Cycloadditions of ortho-Quinol Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Suwei; Cahill, Kath arine J.; Kang, Moon -Il; Colburn, Nancy H.; Henrich, Curtis J.; Wilson, Jennifer A.; Beutler, John A.; Johnson, Richard P.; Porco, John A.

    2011-01-01

    We have accomplished a parallel screen of cycloaddition partners for ortho-quinols utilizing a plate-based microwave system. Microwave irradiation improves the efficiency of retro-Diels-Alder/Diels-Alder cascades of ortho-quinol dimers which generally proceed in a diastereoselective fashion. Computational studies indicate that asynchronous transition states are favored in Diels-Alder cycloadditions of ortho-quinols. Subsequent biological evaluation of a collection of cycloadducts has identified an inhibitor of activator protein-1 (AP-1), an oncogenic transcription factor. PMID:21942286

  8. Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan

    1999-05-28

    The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

  9. 54. ALDER CREEK DIVERSION, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. ALDER CREEK DIVERSION, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 2 SCE drawing no. 5206858, no date (FERC no. 1933-48). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), leaf damage on Alnus species in Uganda: a blessing or curse in agroforestry?

    PubMed

    Nyeko, P; Edwards-Jones, G; Day, R K

    2002-10-01

    It is a dictum that Apis mellifera Linnaeus is innocuous in agricultural ecosystems. This study provides the first record of A. mellifera as a significant defoliator of Alnus species. Careful field observations coupled with microscopic examination provided convincing evidence implicating A. mellifera as the cause of leaf perforation on Alnus species in Uganda. Apis mellifera was observed foraging selectively on young Alnus leaves and buds in search of a sticky substance, apparently propolis. In so doing, the bee created wounds that enlarged and caused tattering of Alnus leaves as they matured. Biological surveys indicated that the damage was prevalent and occurred widely, particularly on Alnus acuminata Kunth in Uganda. Incidence of the Apis mellifera damage on Alnus acuminata peaked in the dry season, with up to 90% of leaves emerging per shoot per month damaged, and was lowest in the wet months during peak leaf emergence. Apis mellifera leaf damage was consistently higher on Alnus acuminata than A. nepalensis D. Don., on saplings than mature trees, and on sun exposed than shaded leaves. The activity of honeybees may be detrimental to the productivity of Alnus, yet the substance for which the insect forages on Alnus is a resource with potential economic importance. PMID:12241565

  11. Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages. PMID:19842431

  12. Controls on methane emissions from Alnus glutinosa saplings.

    PubMed

    Pangala, Sunitha R; Gowing, David J; Hornibrook, Edward R C; Gauci, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed significant tree-mediated methane emissions in wetlands; however, conditions and processes controlling such emissions are unclear. Here we identify factors that control the emission of methane from Alnus glutinosa. Methane fluxes from the soil surface, tree stem surfaces, leaf surfaces and whole mesocosms, pore water methane concentrations and physiological factors (assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration) were measured from 4-yr old A. glutinosa trees grown under two artificially controlled water-table positions. Up to 64% of methane emitted from the high water-table mesocosms was transported to the atmosphere through A. glutinosa. Stem emissions from 2 to 22 cm above the soil surface accounted for up to 42% of total tree-mediated methane emissions. Methane emissions were not detected from leaves and no relationship existed between leaf surface area and rates of tree-mediated methane emissions. Tree stem methane flux strength was controlled by the amount of methane dissolved in pore water and the density of stem lenticels. Our data show that stem surfaces dominate methane egress from A. glutinosa, suggesting that leaf area index is not a suitable approach for scaling tree-mediated methane emissions from all types of forested wetland. PMID:24219654

  13. Crispene A, B, C and D, Four New Clerodane Type Furanoid Diterpenes from Tinospora crispa (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hossen, Farhad; Ahasan, Rubaida; Haque, Mohammad Rashedul; Begum, Bilkis; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tinospora crispa (L.) is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. It is also used for hypertension and to treat malaria, remedy for diarrhea, and as vermifuge. Materials and Methods: Stems of T. crispa were collected, sun dried for several days followed by oven dried for 24 h at a considerably low temperature and then ground into coarse powder. The powdered stems were soaked in methanol at room temperature for 14 days with occasional shaking. The extract was collected by filtration, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator to obtain a solid residue which was then subjected to fractionation using the modified Kupchan partitioning method into n-hexane, CCl4, CHCl3 and aqueous soluble fractions. The n-hexane soluble fraction was chromatographed over sephadex (LH-20) and the column was eluted with n-hexane: CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:5:1) followed by CH2Cl2:MeOH (9:1) and MeOH (100%) in order to increase the polarities. The column fractions were then concentrated and subjected to thin layer chromatography screening and the fractions with a satisfactory resolution of compounds were rechromatographed over silica gel to isolate the pure compounds. Results: Four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, Crispene A, B, C, and D (1–4), including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside, borapetoside E (5), were isolated from the stems of T. crispa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their spectral data with closely related compounds. Conclusion: We have reported four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside. This is the first report of any clerodane diterpene having olefinic bond between C-6 and C-7. SUMMARY Crispene A, B, C, and D, four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types from Tinospora crispaCrispene C, an unusual furanoid diterpene with olifinic bond between C-6 and C

  14. Natural Products and Biological Activity of the Pharmacologically Active Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail. PMID:23586068

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. Methods T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe+2/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. Conclusions The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa. PMID:24969238

  16. Embryonic and larval development of the host sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor and Heteractis crispa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Anna; Harrison, Peter L

    2007-10-01

    Little information is available on the sexual reproductive biology of anemones that provide essential habitat for anemonefish. Here we provide the first information on the surface ultrastructural and morphological changes during development of the embryos and planula larvae of Entacmaea quadricolor and Heteractis crispa, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Newly spawned eggs of E. quadricolor and H. crispa averaged 794 microm and 589 microm diameter, respectively, and were covered by many spires of microvilli that were evenly distributed over the egg surface, except for a single bare patch. Eggs of both species contained abundant zooxanthellae when spawned, indicating vertical transmission of symbionts. Fertilization was external, and the resulting embryos displayed superficial cleavage. As development continued, individual blastomeres became readily distinguishable and a round-to-ovoid blastula was formed, which flattened with further divisions. The edges of the blastula thickened, creating a concave-convex dish-shaped gastrula. The outer margins of the gastrula appeared to roll inward, leading to the formation of an oral pore and a ciliated planula larva. Larval motility and directional movement were first observed 36 h after spawning. E. quadricolor larval survival remained high during the first 4 d after spawning, then decreased rapidly. PMID:17928518

  17. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of the Cauliflower Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Sparassis crispa (Higher Basidiomycetes), in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Bae; Hong, Sung-Yong; Joung, Eun Young; Kim, Byung Hee; Bae, Song-Hwan; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The cauliflower culinary-medicinal mushroom, Sparassis crispa, possesses various biological activities that have been widely reported to have therapeutic applications. We examined the effects of S. crispa on serum cholesterol, hepatic enzymes related to cholesterol metabolism, and fecal sterol excretion in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet for 4 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6 mice per group): normal diet (normal control [NC]), cholesterol-rich diet (cholesterol control [CC]), cholesterol-rich diet plus S. crispa fruiting body (SC), cholesterol-rich diet plus S. crispa extract (SCE), and cholesterol-rich diet plus S. crispa residue (SCR). SCE supplementation significantly enhanced hepatic cholesterol catabolism through the upregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression (2.55-fold compared with that in the NC group; P < 0.05) and the downregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA expression (0.57-fold compared with that in the NC group; P < 0.05). Additionally, the SCE diet resulted in the highest fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acid in hypercholesterolemic rats. In conclusion, mRNA expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoA reductase were significantly modulated by the absorption of SCE samples. Also, SCE samples had a significant effect on fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. These results suggest that SCE samples can induce hypocholesterolic effects through cholesterol metabolism and the reduction of circulating cholesterol levels. PMID:26756188

  18. 3D Photofixation Lithography in Diels–Alder Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adzima, Brian J.; Kloxin, Christopher J.; DeForest, Cole A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2013-01-01

    3D structures were written and developed in a crosslinked polymer initially formed by a Diels–Alder reaction. Unlike conventional liquid resists, small features cannot sediment, as the reversible crosslinks function as a support, and the modulus of the material is in the MPa range at room temperature. The support structure, however, can be easily removed by heating the material which depolymerizes the polymer into a mixture of low-viscosity monomers. Complex shapes were written into the polymer network using two-photon techniques to spatially control the photoinitiation and subsequent thiol–ene reaction to selectively convert the Diels–Alder adducts into irreversible crosslinks. PMID:23080017

  19. Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monotypic genus Occultocarpon and its species, O. ailaoshanense, was discovered on the bark of branches of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae) in Yunnan, China. A phylogeny based on three genes (LSU, rpb2, tef1-a) reveals that O. ailaoshanense belongs to the Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales, Ascomycetes) ...

  20. Spatiotemporal models for predicting high pollen concentration level of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Corylus, Alnus, and Betula trees are among the most important sources of allergic pollen in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and have a large impact on the quality of life and productivity of allergy sufferers. Therefore, it is important to predict high pollen concentrations, both in time and space. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate spatiotemporal models for predicting high Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels, based on gridded meteorological data. Aerobiological monitoring was carried out in 11 cities in Poland and gathered, depending on the site, between 2 and 16 years of measurements. According to the first allergy symptoms during exposure, a high pollen count level was established for each taxon. An optimizing probability threshold technique was used for mitigation of the problem of imbalance in the pollen concentration levels. For each taxon, the model was built using a random forest method. The study revealed the possibility of moderately reliable prediction of Corylus and highly reliable prediction of Alnus and Betula high pollen concentration levels, using preprocessed gridded meteorological data. Cumulative growing degree days and potential evaporation proved to be two of the most important predictor variables in the models. The final models predicted not only for single locations but also for continuous areas. Furthermore, the proposed modeling framework could be used to predict high pollen concentrations of Corylus, Alnus, Betula, and other taxa, and in other countries.

  1. EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON THE ROOT AND NODULE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF 'ALNUS RUBRA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alnus rubra (Bong.) was grown for three months in a greenhouse and given 0, 6, 12, 31 and 62 migrograms cadmium/liter of nitrogen-free nutrient solution for 11 weeks. Segments of nodules and secondary roots were collected from plants grown at the different Cd levels. Thin section...

  2. Spatiotemporal models for predicting high pollen concentration level of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula.

    PubMed

    Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Corylus, Alnus, and Betula trees are among the most important sources of allergic pollen in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and have a large impact on the quality of life and productivity of allergy sufferers. Therefore, it is important to predict high pollen concentrations, both in time and space. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate spatiotemporal models for predicting high Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels, based on gridded meteorological data. Aerobiological monitoring was carried out in 11 cities in Poland and gathered, depending on the site, between 2 and 16 years of measurements. According to the first allergy symptoms during exposure, a high pollen count level was established for each taxon. An optimizing probability threshold technique was used for mitigation of the problem of imbalance in the pollen concentration levels. For each taxon, the model was built using a random forest method. The study revealed the possibility of moderately reliable prediction of Corylus and highly reliable prediction of Alnus and Betula high pollen concentration levels, using preprocessed gridded meteorological data. Cumulative growing degree days and potential evaporation proved to be two of the most important predictor variables in the models. The final models predicted not only for single locations but also for continuous areas. Furthermore, the proposed modeling framework could be used to predict high pollen concentrations of Corylus, Alnus, Betula, and other taxa, and in other countries. PMID:26487352

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Mexican Alnus forests support the host co-migration hypothesis and continental-scale patterns in phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Peter G; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Higgins, Logan M; Angeles-Arguiz, Rodolfo

    2011-08-01

    To examine the geographic patterns in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal assemblages and determine how they may relate to host plant biogeography, we studied ECM assemblages associated with two Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and Alnus jorullensis) in montane Mexico and compared them with Alnus-associated ECM assemblages located elsewhere in the Americas. ECM root samples were collected from four sites in Mexico (two per host species), identified with ITS and LSU rRNA gene sequences, and assessed using both taxon- (richness, diversity, evenness indices) and sequence divergence-based (UniFrac clustering and significance) analyses. Only 23 ECM taxa were encountered. Clavulina, an ECM lineage never before reported with Alnus, contained the dominant taxon overall. ECM assemblage structure varied between hosts, but UniFrac significance tests indicated that both associated with similar ECM lineage diversity. There was a strikingly high sequence similarity among a diverse array of the ECM taxa in Mexico and those in Alnus forests in Argentina, the United States, and Europe. The Mexican and United States assemblages had greater overlap than those present in Argentina, supporting the host-ECM fungi co-migration hypothesis from a common north temperate origin. Our results indicate that Alnus-associated ECM assemblages have clear patterns in richness and composition across a wide range of geographic locations. Additional data from boreal western North America as well as the eastern United States and Canada will be particularly informative in further understanding the co-biogeographic patterns of Alnus and ECM fungi in the Americas. PMID:21331794

  4. 61. Photocopy of Engine Room Floor Plan, White Alder. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photocopy of Engine Room Floor Plan, White Alder. The Niagara Shipbuilding Corp. Engineering Department, Buffalo, New York. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-1604-10, dated February 1943; revised January 1963. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Continuous Flow of Nitroso Diels-Alder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our flow reaction systems have provided quantitative yields of nitroso Diels-Alder products with no byproducts in cases of cyclic dienes without temperature and pressure controls. Additionally, the reaction times were significantly shortened by using homogeneous catalyst (CuCl) or heterogeneous reagent (MnO2) in comparison with batch reaction. PMID:26138229

  7. High stereoselectivity on low temperature Diels-Alder reactions

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Filho, Luiz Carlos; Lacerda Júnior, Valdemar; Constantino, Mauricio Gomes; da Silva, Gil Valdo José; Invernize, Paulo Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We have found that some of the usually poor dienophiles (2-cycloenones) can undergo Diels-Alder reaction at -78°C with unusually high stereoselectivity in the presence of niobium pentachloride as a Lewis acid catalyst. A remarkable difference in reaction rates for unsubstituted and α- or β-methyl substituted 2-cycloenones was also observed. PMID:16542029

  8. High stereoselectivity on low temperature Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    da Silva Filho, Luiz Carlos; Lacerda Júnior, Valdemar; Constantino, Mauricio Gomes; da Silva, Gil Valdo José; Invernize, Paulo Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We have found that some of the usually poor dienophiles (2-cycloenones) can undergo Diels-Alder reaction at -78 degrees C with unusually high stereoselectivity in the presence of niobium pentachloride as a Lewis acid catalyst. A remarkable difference in reaction rates for unsubstituted and alpha- or beta-methyl substituted 2-cycloenones was also observed. PMID:16542029

  9. Effect on tumor necrosis factor-α production and antioxidant ability of black alder, as factors related to its anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2012-06-01

    Alders exhibit several uses in different areas and also offer some nutritional and medicinal values. The bark and leaves from black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn] are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes and other health disorders. This study assessed if an extract of A. glutinosa stem bark exhibits some biological properties linked to improving the inflammatory state, which could partly justify its ethnopharmacological use. Therefore, various aspects of antioxidant activity as well as the effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production were evaluated. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of terpenes, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones (by high-performance thin-layer chromatography). The betulinic acid content in the extract, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (validated method), was 0.72±0.027%. In addition, high amounts for total phenols as well as flavonoids were determined. The extract exhibited a 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid and had a significant effect on superoxide anion scavenging, superior to that of ascorbic acid. It was also able to protect HeLa cells from induced oxidative stress. In the TNF-α assay, levels of this citokine were depressed by the extract in HL-60 cells. To test the effect of the extract on cell proliferation, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. According to the results, the antioxidant properties displayed by the extract of A. glutinosa stem bark, together with the effect on TNF-α levels, suggest that these activities, linked to a successful reduction in inflammatory processes, may support, in part, its ethnopharmacological use. PMID:22424456

  10. Effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production and Antioxidant Ability of Black Alder, as Factors Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Acero, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Alders exhibit several uses in different areas and also offer some nutritional and medicinal values. The bark and leaves from black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn] are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes and other health disorders. This study assessed if an extract of A. glutinosa stem bark exhibits some biological properties linked to improving the inflammatory state, which could partly justify its ethnopharmacological use. Therefore, various aspects of antioxidant activity as well as the effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production were evaluated. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of terpenes, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones (by high-performance thin-layer chromatography). The betulinic acid content in the extract, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (validated method), was 0.72±0.027%. In addition, high amounts for total phenols as well as flavonoids were determined. The extract exhibited a 2,2′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid and had a significant effect on superoxide anion scavenging, superior to that of ascorbic acid. It was also able to protect HeLa cells from induced oxidative stress. In the TNF-α assay, levels of this citokine were depressed by the extract in HL-60 cells. To test the effect of the extract on cell proliferation, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. According to the results, the antioxidant properties displayed by the extract of A. glutinosa stem bark, together with the effect on TNF-α levels, suggest that these activities, linked to a successful reduction in inflammatory processes, may support, in part, its ethnopharmacological use. PMID:22424456

  11. Acylated glucosylflavones as α-glucosidase inhibitors from Tinospora crispa leaf.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Chih; Ho, Sheau Ling; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of Tinospora crispa leaf had shown inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidase. Bioassay guided fractionation and separation of this extract led to the isolation of 17 flavonoids. Among them, four acylated glycosylflavonoids (6, 8, 9, 15) are new compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, isovitexin 2″-(E)-p-coumarate (8) showed the best activity against α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 4.3±1.4μM. However, isoorientin 2″-(E)-p-coumarate (7), the 3'-hydroxylated 8, is much less active (IC50 35.7μM). Such significant difference was rationalized by CAD study on α-glucosidase. PMID:25999202

  12. The hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. roots inhibits inflammation-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ardisia crispa (Myrsinaceae) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments associated with inflammation, including rheumatism. The plant’s hexane fraction was previously shown to inhibit several diseases associated with inflammation. As there is a strong correlation between inflammation and angiogenesis, we conducted the present study to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of the plant’s roots in animal models of inflammation-induced angiogenesis. Methods We first performed phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of the hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa roots ethanolic extract (ACRH) and its quinone-rich fraction (QRF). The anti-inflammatory properties of ACRH and QRF were tested using the Miles vascular permeability assay and the murine air pouch granuloma model following oral administration at various doses. Results Preliminary phytochemical screening of ACRH revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenes, and tannins. The QRF was separated from ACRH (38.38% w/w) by column chromatography, and was isolated to yield a benzoquinonoid compound. The ACRH and QRF were quantified by HPLC. The LD50 value of ACRH was 617.02 mg/kg. In the Miles vascular permeability assay, the lowest dose of ACRH (10 mg/kg) and all doses of QRF significantly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced hyperpermeability, when compared with the vehicle control. In the murine air pouch granuloma model, ACRH and QRF both displayed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, without granuloma weight. ACRH and QRF significantly reduced the vascular index, but not granuloma tissue weight. Conclusions In conclusion, both ACRH and QRF showed potential anti-inflammatory properties in a model of inflammation-induced angiogenesis model, demonstrating their potential anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:23298265

  13. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NORMOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND DYSLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ON DIABETIC RAT.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mir Mohammad Reza Seyed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Mahmudi, Roziahanim

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa is an indigenous medicinal plant belonging to Menispermaceae family, known localy as "akar patawali" or as "akar seruntum". Different parts of this plant are used for various therapeutic purposes for treatment of hypertension, stimulation of appetite, protection from mosquito bites and to treat ailments like jaundice, wounds, intestinal worms and skin infections, tooth and stomach aches, coughs, asthma and pleurisy. The stems were washed, dried, pulverized using Wiley Laboratory Mill apparatus and stored in dry air-tight plastic containers until use. Then, they were extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and finally with water by maceration. The solvent was evaporated from each extract (using rotary evaporator), dried extract were stored at -4°C until used. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and each group having 6 animals for two sets of experiments. In the first test, healthy rats were treated orally with the plant extracts (1 g/kg) suspended in Tween 80. In the second test, the diabetic rats were fasted overnight. The test groups of 6 diabetic rats were treated orally with extracts of Tinospora crispa (1 g/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and 10% Tween 80, (10 mL/kg), respectively. In these results, there was no significant effect on blood glucose levels in normal rats treated with different extracts of Tinospora crispa. The water extract of Tinospora crispa decreased the glucose levels in diabetic rats and has the ability to reduce lipid profile in diabetic rats as compared to control diabetic rats. PMID:27008807

  14. Evidence that some Frankia sp. strains are able to cross boundaries between Alnus and Elaeagnus host specificity groups.

    PubMed

    Bosco, M; Fernandez, M P; Simonet, P; Materassi, R; Normand, P

    1992-05-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to prove the existence of Frankia strains isolated from an Elaeagnus sp. that are able to cross the inoculation barriers and infect Alnus spp. also. Repeated cycles of inoculation, nodulation, and reisolation were performed under axenic conditions. Frankia wild-type strain UFI 13270257 and three of its coisolates did exhibit complete infectivity and effectiveness on Elaeagnus spp. and Hippophaë rhamnoides and variable infectivity on Alnus spp. Microscopical observation of host plant roots showed that these strains are able to infect Alnus spp. by penetrating deformed root hairs. Reisolates obtained from nodules induced on monoxenic Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, and Elaeagnus angustifolia resembled the parent strains in host infectivity range, in planta and in vitro morphophysiology, isoenzymes, and nif and rrn restriction fragment length polymorphisms, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates on both host plant genera. Alnus and Elaeagnus group-specific polymerase chain reaction DNA amplifications, DNA-DNA hybridizations, and partial gene sequences coding for 16S rRNA provided evidence for the genetic uniformity of wild-type strains and their inclusion into one and the same genomic species, clearly belonging to the Elaeagnus group of Frankia species. PMID:1352442

  15. Greenhouse seedlings of Alnus showed low host intrageneric specificity and a strong preference for some Tomentella ectomycorrhizal associates.

    PubMed

    Nouhra, Eduardo; Pastor, Nicolás; Becerra, Alejandra; Sarrionandia Areitio, Estibaliz; Geml, József

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal associates of Alnus are relatively few in comparison with those associated with other tree hosts. The composition of ECM assemblages associated with Alnus seems to change very little across the Northern Hemisphere. However, Alnus-associated ECM assemblages from the Western United States, Mexico, and Argentina tend to differ from those in eastern North America and Europe, presumably due to their different biogeographic histories. Alnus glutinosa is a northern European species subjected to diverse environmental conditions. To address intrageneric host preference within two distantly related Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and A. glutinosa), we tested the ECM colonization on seedlings of both species inoculated with natural soil from A. acuminata forests. Two tomentelloid ECM fungi from A. acuminata natural soils were determined from the anatomotyping and molecular analysis. Both species colonized A. glutinosa seedlings and presented similar relative abundances. Additional soil sequence data from A. acuminata sites suggest that a variety of tomentelloid taxa occur, including several unidentified Tomentella lineages. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from various locations do not reflect associations of taxa based on their biogeographic origin, and clades are in general constituted by sequences from diverse regions, including South America, Mexico, USA, and Europe. Results illustrate the probable role of specific tomentelloid fungi in the early colonization of seedlings in A. acuminata forests as well as their importance in the structure of the ECM propagule community at the sites. PMID:25370884

  16. Evidence that some Frankia sp. strains are able to cross boundaries between Alnus and Elaeagnus host specificity groups.

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, M; Fernandez, M P; Simonet, P; Materassi, R; Normand, P

    1992-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to prove the existence of Frankia strains isolated from an Elaeagnus sp. that are able to cross the inoculation barriers and infect Alnus spp. also. Repeated cycles of inoculation, nodulation, and reisolation were performed under axenic conditions. Frankia wild-type strain UFI 13270257 and three of its coisolates did exhibit complete infectivity and effectiveness on Elaeagnus spp. and Hippophaë rhamnoides and variable infectivity on Alnus spp. Microscopical observation of host plant roots showed that these strains are able to infect Alnus spp. by penetrating deformed root hairs. Reisolates obtained from nodules induced on monoxenic Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, and Elaeagnus angustifolia resembled the parent strains in host infectivity range, in planta and in vitro morphophysiology, isoenzymes, and nif and rrn restriction fragment length polymorphisms, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates on both host plant genera. Alnus and Elaeagnus group-specific polymerase chain reaction DNA amplifications, DNA-DNA hybridizations, and partial gene sequences coding for 16S rRNA provided evidence for the genetic uniformity of wild-type strains and their inclusion into one and the same genomic species, clearly belonging to the Elaeagnus group of Frankia species. Images PMID:1352442

  17. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nutham, Narain; Sakulmettatham, Sakuna; Klongthalay, Suwit; Chutoam, Palatip; Somsak, Voravuth

    2015-01-01

    Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess renal damage and hemolysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and hematocrit (%Hct) levels were then evaluated, respectively. Malaria infection resulted in renal damage and hemolysis as indicated by increasing of BUN and creatinine and decreasing of %Hct, respectively. However, protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, T. crispa stem extract exerted protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria infection. This plant may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:26600953

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of Nepeta crispa Willd. in experimental rat models.

    PubMed

    Ali, Taskina; Javan, Mohammad; Sonboli, Ali; Semnanian, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of Nepeta crispa. The study was done using the tail-flick and formalin test pain models and the paw oedema model of inflammation. Male Wistar rats were used as the animal model. The essential oil dose-dependently produced analgesia in the acute pain models, including the tail-flick (p < 0.001) and the first phase of the formalin test (p < 0.01). In the late phase of the formalin test, as a model of chronic pain, the essential oil significantly reduced the pain-induced behaviour (p < 0.01). Nepeta crispa essential oil caused potent anti-inflammatory effects in the formalin-induced paw inflammation model and significantly reduced the paw oedema in all applied doses (p < 0.01). Its effects on pain in both the acute and chronic pain models and its anti-inflammatory effect suggest both central and peripheral mechanisms of action for the essential oil obtained from N. crispa. PMID:21981349

  19. Protective Effects of Tinospora crispa Stem Extract on Renal Damage and Hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nutham, Narain; Sakulmettatham, Sakuna; Klongthalay, Suwit; Chutoam, Palatip; Somsak, Voravuth

    2015-01-01

    Renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria are associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress condition induced by malaria infection is involved in its pathology. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tinospora crispa stem extract on renal damage and hemolysis during Plasmodium berghei infection. T. crispa stem extract was prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess renal damage and hemolysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and hematocrit (%Hct) levels were then evaluated, respectively. Malaria infection resulted in renal damage and hemolysis as indicated by increasing of BUN and creatinine and decreasing of %Hct, respectively. However, protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. In conclusion, T. crispa stem extract exerted protective effects on renal damage and hemolysis induced by malaria infection. This plant may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment. PMID:26600953

  20. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. PMID:24895428

  1. Physiological effects of major up-regulated Alnus glutinosa peptides on Frankia sp. ACN14a.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Poly, Franck; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Alnus glutinosa has been shown previously to synthesize, in response to nodulation by Frankia sp. ACN14a, an array of peptides called Alnus symbiotic up-regulated peptides (ASUPs). In a previous study one peptide (Ag5) was shown to bind to Frankia nitrogen-fixing vesicles and to modify their porosity. Here we analyse four other ASUPs, alongside Ag5, to determine whether they have different physiological effects on in vitro grown Frankia sp. ACN14a. The five studied peptides were shown to have different effects on nitrogen fixation, respiration, growth, the release of ions and amino acids, as well as on cell clumping and cell lysis. The mRNA abundance for all five peptides was quantified in symbiotic nodules and one (Ag11) was found to be more abundant in the meristem part of the nodule. These findings point to some peptides having complementary effects on Frankia cells. PMID:27082768

  2. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. PMID:26595095

  3. Enhanced stereocontrol in Diels-Alder reactions of chiral dienols.

    PubMed

    Cayzer, Tory N; Miller, Natalie A; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Sherburn, Michael S

    2006-05-21

    This combined experimental-computational investigation demonstrates that the presence of a removable bromine substituent on a diene leads to complete pi-diastereofacial and endo/exo stereoselection in both intermolecular and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions. The influence of the bromine upon stereoselectivity is dramatic: the cycloaddition of nonbrominated precursor 18E, for example, gives four diastereomeric products in a 55:13:16:16 ratio; the bromine-containing analogue gives one stereoisomer within the limits of detection. The examination of B3LYP/6-31+G(d) transition structures allows an interpretation of these experimental findings. A method for the completely stereoselective synthesis of complimentary diastereomeric products (30Z and 31Z) from the same simple starting materials (28 and 2) is reported. Discrepancies between calculation and experiment in an earlier investigation into the Diels-Alder reaction are explained. PMID:16688346

  4. Recent Progress in Dehydro(genative) Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbo; Zhou, Liejin; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-01-26

    In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in dehydro or dehydrogenative Diels-Alder (D-A) reactions. This Minireview gives an overview of the major two strategies for dehydro(genative) Diels-Alder reactions, which differ in dehydrogenation and D-A cyclization sequence. Reactions in which D-A cycloaddition is followed by dehydrogenation are useful methods for the synthesis of various aromatic compounds, whereas advancements in dehydro genative procedures with oxidants or catalysts prior to D-A cycloaddition offer yet further new routes to functionalized cycloadducts. Recent leading findings are highlighted and the current state of the art, scope, and limitations of these processes are discussed in this Minireview. PMID:26786814

  5. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. PMID:26399165

  6. Hirsutenone in Alnus extract inhibits akt activity and suppresses prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soouk; Kim, Jong-Eun; Li, Yan; Jung, Sung Keun; Song, Nu Ry; Thimmegowda, N R; Kim, Bo Yeon; Lee, Hyong Joo; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-11-01

    Although specific compounds found in some East Asian traditional medicines have been shown to exhibit bioactive properties, their molecular mechanisms of action remain elusive. The bark of the Alnus species has been used for the treatment of various pathological conditions including hemorrhage, alcoholism, fever, diarrhea, skin diseases, inflammation, and cancer in East Asia for centuries. In this study, we show that hirsutenone, a bioactive compound in Alnus japonica, exhibits anti-cancer effects against prostate cancer through a direct physical inhibition of Akt1/2. Hirsutenone suppressed anchorage-dependent and independent cell growth of PC3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Annexin V and Propidium iodide (PI) staining results demonstrated that hirsutenone strongly induces apoptotic cell death in both PC3 and LNCaP cells. Furthermore, treatment of hirsutenone attenuated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream substrate of Akt, without affecting Akt phosphorylation. Kinase and pull-down assay results clearly show that hirsutenone inhibits Akt1 and 2 by direct binding in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-noncompetitive manner in vitro and ex vivo. Our results show that hirsutenone suppresses human prostate cancer by targeting Akt1 and 2 as a key component to explain for anti-cancer activity of Alnus species. PMID:25213146

  7. Effect of Tinospora crispa on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kadir, Farkaad A.; Othman, Faizah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hussan, Farida; Hassandarvish, Pouya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of the dried stems of Tinospora crispa in a male rat model of hepatic fibrosis caused by the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide. Materials and Methods: The extract was gavaged daily to the rats, at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg along with thioacetamide at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice weekly. To assess the effectivity of extract, against thioacetamide, the activity of aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase (AP); and bilirubin were measured, together with morphological and histopathological indices in the liver of healthy and thioacetamide-treated rats. Results: A significant increase in the activity of liver enzymes, bilirubin and G-glutamyl transferase and gross and histopathological changes were determined. Although previous in vitro study established that this extract had strong antioxidant activity, this in vivo study establishes that this extract contains hepatotoxins whose identity may be quite different from those compounds with antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The study confirms that complete reliance on data obtained using in vitro methodologies may lead to erroneous conclusions pertaining to the safety of phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:21455425

  8. Atypical reactive center Kunitz-type inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa.

    PubMed

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Leychenko, Elena; Zelepuga, Elena; Chausova, Victoria; Isaeva, Marina; Anastyuk, Stanislav; Andreev, Yaroslav; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Kozlovkaya, Emma

    2012-07-01

    The primary structure of a new Kunitz-type protease inhibitor InhVJ from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa (Radianthus macrodactylus) was determined by protein sequencing and cDNA cloning. InhVJ amino acid sequence was shown to share high sequence identity (up to 98%) with the other known Kunitz-type sea anemones sequences. It was determined that the P1 Thr at the reactive site resulted in a decrease of the K(i) of InhVJ to trypsin and α-chymotrypsin (7.38 × 10(-8) M and 9.93 × 10(-7) M, respectively). By structure modeling the functional importance of amino acids at the reactive site as well as at the weak contact site were determined. The significant role of Glu45 for the orientation and stabilization of the InhVJ-trypsin complex was elucidated. We can suggest that there has been an adaptive evolution of the P1 residue at the inhibitor reactive site providing specialization or functional diversification of the paralogs. The appearance of a key so-called P1 Thr residue instead of Lys might lead to refinement of inhibitor specificity in the direction of subfamilies of serine proteases. The absence of Kv channel and TRPV1-receptor modulation activity was confirmed by electrophysiological screening tests. PMID:22851925

  9. [Conformational stability of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa].

    PubMed

    Vakorina, T I; Gladkikh, I N; Monastyrnaia, M M; Kozlovskaia, E P

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different environmental values of the pH and temperature on the spatial organization of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa (=Radianthus macrodactylus) on the level of tertiary and secondary structure was studied by CD spectroscopy. The molecule InhVJ was shown to possess a high conformational thermo- and pH-stability. We determined the point of conformational thermotransition of polypeptide (70 degrees C) after which the molecule gets denaturational stable state with conservation of 80% proteinase inhibitory activity. The significant partial reversible changes of molecule spatial organization were established to occur at the level of tertiary structure in the process of acid-base titration in the range of pH 11.0-13.0. This can be explained by of ionization of tyrosine residues. The molecule InhVJ is conformationally stable at the low pH values (2.0). The quenching of tyrosine residues by acrylamide showed that two of these residues are accessible to the quencher in full, while the third part is available. PMID:21899045

  10. Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade Panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Persson, Dennis K; Halberg, Kenneth A; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2012-11-01

    The position of Tardigrada in the animal tree of life is a subject that has received much attention, but still remains controversial. Whereas some think tardigrades should be categorized as cycloneuralians, most authors argue in favor of a phylogenetic position within Panarthropoda as a sister group to Arthropoda or Arthropoda + Onychophora. Thus far, neither molecular nor morphological investigations have provided conclusive results as to the tardigrade sister group relationships. In this article, we present a detailed description of the nervous system of the eutardigrade Halobiotus crispae, using immunostainings, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstructions supported by transmission electron microscopy. We report details regarding the structure of the brain as well as the ganglia of the ventral nerve cord. In contrast to the newest investigation, we find transverse commissures in the ventral ganglia, and our data suggest that the brain is partitioned into at least three lobes. Additionally, we can confirm the existence of a subpharyngeal ganglion previously called subesophagal ganglion. According to our results, the original suggestion of a brain comprised of at least three parts cannot be rejected, and the data presented supports a sister group relationship of Tardigrada to 1) Arthropoda or 2) Onychophora or 3) Arthropoda + Onychophora. PMID:22806919

  11. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. PMID:25082270

  12. Biological Properties of Tinospora crispa (Akar Patawali) and Its Antiproliferative Activities on Selected Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zulkhairi, A; Abdah, M A; M Kamal, N H; Nursakinah, I; Moklas, M Am; Hasnah, B; Fazali, F; Khairunnur, F A; Kamilah, K Ak; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M Ma

    2008-09-01

    The antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity of the aqueous crude extract of Tinospora crispa stem was investigated. The proximate composition of its stem and leaves was determined. Proximate analysis revealed that T. crispa contains - protein: leaves = 4.7%, stem = 1.2%; fat: leaves = 1.5%, stem = 0.43%; carbohydrate: leaves = 11.8%, stem = 19.4%; ash: leaves = 2.7%, stem = 1.1%; moisture: leaves = 79.3%, stem = 77.9%; fibre: leaves = 1.59%, stem = 0.65%; and energy: leaves = 1.59%, stem = 0.65%. The antioxidant activity of the extract prepared at various temperatures and incubation time was evaluated to determine the optimum extraction procedure. Based on DPPH and TBA tests, the preparation of the extract at 60oC for 6 hours was established as the best possible method as it demonstrated the highest inhibition percentage. The extract was tested against brine shrimp to evaluate its toxicity and no significant toxicity was recorded since the IC50 value was more than 1000 μg/ml. The extract produced moderate anti-proliferative activity on selected human cancer cell lines (IC50 MCF-7: 107 μg/ml, HeLa: 165 μg/ml, Caov-3: 100 μg/ml, and HepG2: 165 μg/ml). The findings from this study suggest that T. crispa has the potential to be a source of natural antioxidants and nutrients, besides having a moderate anti-proliferative effect on selected human cancer cell lines. PMID:22691774

  13. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu; Cohen, Hannah; Peay, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive) was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi. PMID:25548729

  14. Microwave-assisted isolation of essential oils from Nepeta crispa and N. racemosa and comparisons with the conventional method.

    PubMed

    Daryasari, Ameneh Porgham; Soleimani, Mojtaba; Ghorbani, Azam; Kheiri, Homayon; Daryasarie, Mohammad Porgham

    2012-11-01

    In this study microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) has been compared with the conventional method of hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oils from two Iranian Lamiaceae species: Nepeta crispa Willd and N. racemosa Lam. The essential oils extracted by MAHD for 40 min were quantitatively and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 3.5 h. The MAHD method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs in terms of time, energy and plant material. PMID:23285819

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Frankia sp. isolates from nodules of Alnus nepalensis Don.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, G; Misra, A K; Chapelon, C; Normand, P

    1994-01-01

    Nodules collected from Alnus nepalensis growing in mixed forest stands at three different sites around Shillong, were crushed in various culture media to obtain isolates of Frankia. The isolates were found to have typical Frankia morphology as revealed by the scanning electron microscope. Seedlings inoculated with isolates or crushed nodules formed nitrogen fixing nodules. Frankia specific DNA probes amplified the DNA of the tested isolate AnpUS4. Partial nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that AnpUS4 was phylogenetically distinct from all other Frankia strains characterized so far. PMID:7511370

  16. [Interaction of sea amemone Heteractis crispa Kunitz type polypeptides with pain vanilloid receptor TRPV1: in silico investigation].

    PubMed

    Zelepuga, E A; Tabakmakher, V M; Chausova, V E; monastyrnaia, M M; Isaeva, M P; Kozlovskaia, É P

    2012-01-01

    Using methods of molecular biology we defined the structures of the 31 sea anemone Heteractis crispa genes encoding polypeptides which are structurally homologous to the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor family. Identified amino acid sequences have point residue substitutions, high degree of homology with sequences of known H. crispa Kunitz family members, and represent a combinatorial library of polypeptides. We generated their three-dimensional structures by homologous modeling methods. Analysis of their molecular electrostatic potential enabled us to divide given polypeptides into three clusters. One of them includes polypeptides APHC1, APHC2 and APHC3, which were earlier shown to possess a unique property of inhibiting of the pain vanilloid receptor TRPV1 in vitro and providing the analgesic effects in vivo in addition to their trypsin inhibitory activity. Molecular docking made possible establishing the spatial structure of the complexes, the nature of the polypeptides binding with TRPV1, as well as functionally important structural elements involved in the complex formation. Structural models have enabled us to propose a hypothesis contributing to understanding the APHC1-3 impact mechanism for the pain signals transduction by TRPV1: apparently, there is an increase of the receptor relaxation time resulted in binding of its two chains with the polypeptide molecule, which disrupt the functioning of the TRPV1 and leads to partial inhibition of signal transduction in electrophysiological experiments. PMID:22792722

  17. Electron transfer-initiated Diels-Alder cycloadditions of 2'-hydroxychalcones.

    PubMed

    Cong, Huan; Ledbetter, Dustin; Rowe, Gerard T; Caradonna, John P; Porco, John A

    2008-07-23

    An efficient approach to cyclohexenyl chalcones employing highly electron rich 2'-hydroxychalcone dienophiles via electron transfer-initiated Diels-Alder cycloaddition is described. Using the methodology, the total synthesis of nicolaiodesin C has been accomplished. PMID:18576647

  18. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs. PMID:25619188

  19. Two new phenolic compounds from the leaves of Alnus sibirica Fisch. ex Turcz.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Manh Heun; Park, Kwan Hee; Kim, So Ra; Park, Kwang Jun; Oh, Myeong Hwan; Heo, Jun Hyeok; Yoon, Ki Hoon; Yin, Jun; Yoon, Kyu Hyung; Lee, Min Won

    2016-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds, 4-O-glucopyranosyl-5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1) and 2,3-digalloyl oregonin (2), were isolated along with eight known phenolic compounds (3–10) from an 80% acetone extract of Alnus sibirica leaves. The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated using 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution-MS. The anti-oxidative activities of these compounds were determined by assaying their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and nitroblue tetrazolium superoxide anion scavenging activity. All of the isolated phenolic compounds (1–10) exhibited potent anti-oxidative activities. In particular, 2 and 4, which are diarylheptanoids, and 10 which is ellagitannin exhibited excellent anti-oxidative activities with almost the same potency as that of the positive controls L-ascorbic acid and allopurinol. PMID:26211877

  20. Phytophthora polonica, a new species isolated from declining Alnus glutinosa stands in Poland.

    PubMed

    Belbahri, Lassaad; Moralejo, Eduardo; Calmin, Gautier; Oszako, Tomasz; García, Jose A; Descals, Enrique; Lefort, Francois

    2006-08-01

    In a survey of Phytophthora associated with alder decline in Poland, several isolates of a homothallic Phytophthora sp., which could not be assigned to other taxa including Phytophthora alni subspecies, were consistently recovered from rhizosphere soil samples. Their morphology and pathogenicity, as well as sequence data for three nuclear regions (internal transcribed spacer rDNA, elongation factor-1alpha and beta-tubulin) and a coding mitochondrial DNA region (nadh1), were examined. The new Phytophthora species is characterized by the moderate to slow growth rate of its colony in carrot agar at 20 degrees C, high optimal (c. 30 degrees C) and maximum (c. 38 degrees C) growth temperatures, formation of catenulate, often lateral, hyphal swellings, large chlamydospores in agar media and in soil extract, persistent, ovoid to ellipsoid nonpapillate sporangia and large oogonia with paragynous and sometimes amphigynous antheridia. Phytophthora polonica was slightly pathogenic to alder twigs and not pathogenic to trunks of several tree species. In a phylogenetic analysis using either Bayesian inference or maximum likelihood methods, P. polonica falls in clade 8 'sensu Kroon et al. (2004)' of Phytophthora. PMID:16907716

  1. Heavy metal stress in alders: Tolerance and vulnerability of the actinorhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Roy, Sébastien

    2015-11-01

    Alders have already demonstrated their potential for the revegetation of both mining and industrial sites. These actinorhizal trees and shrubs and the actinobacteria Frankia associate in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis which could however be negatively affected by the presence of heavy metals, and accumulate them. In our hydroponic assay with black alders, quantification of the roots and shoots metal concentrations showed that, in the absence of stress, symbiosis increases Mo and Ni root content and simultaneously decreases Mo shoot content. Interestingly, the Mo shoot content also decreases in the presence of Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd for symbiotic alders. In symbiotic alders, Pb shoot translocation was promoted in presence of Pb. On the other hand, Cd exclusion in symbiotic root tissues was observed with Pb and Cd. In the presence of symbiosis, only Cd and Pb showed translocation into aerial tissues when present in the nutrient solution. Moreover, the translocation of Ni to shoot was prevented by symbiosis in the presence of Cd, Ni and Pb. The hydroponic experiment demonstrated that alders benefit from the symbiosis, producing more biomass (total, root and shoot) than non nodulated alders in control condition, and in the presence of metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd). Heavy metals did not reduce the nodule numbers (SNN), but the presence of Zn or Cd did reduce nodule allocation. Our study suggests that the Frankia-alder symbiosis is a promising (and a compatible) plant-microorganism association for the revegetation of contaminated sites, with minimal risk of metal dispersion. PMID:26091871

  2. Succession on subalpine placer mine spoil: Effects of revegetation with Alnus viridis, Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Alnus viridis seedlings were planted on placer mine spoil in an Alaskan subalpine watershed to bypass a seedling establishment bottleneck for A. viridis, and to evaluate the interaction between A. viridis and the dominant riparian woody plants, Salix alaxensis and Populus balsamifera. The study area was divided into 11 replicate blocks, each on a homogeneous recontoured spoil pile. Blocks were divided into two 0.01 ha plots, and treatments without (control) and with 84 planted A. viridis seedlings were randomly assigned to plots. After 10 years, the Alnus treatment had a dense stand of A. viridis 1-2 m tall, while the control had fewer, smaller seedlings. Compared to the control, planted A. viridis had a neutral effect on S. alaxensis and inhibited P. balsamifera at the seedling establishment stage, but facilitated the growth of established plants of both species, with many plants overtopping the A. viridis canopy. Compared to the control, S. alaxensis plants in the Alnus treatment had higher levels of foliar N and ??15N values closer to those of A. viridis, indicating the importance of N fixation by A. viridis. Planting A. viridis accelerated the rate of succession by stimulating growth of woody dominants. ?? 2005 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  3. Linking Landscape Characteristics and High Stream Nitrogen in the Oregon Coast Range: Red Alder Complicates Use of Nutrient Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red alder (a nitrogen-fixing tree) and sea salt inputs can strongly influence stream nitrogen concentrations in western Oregon and Washington. We compiled a database of stream nitrogen and landscape characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Basal area of alder, expressed as a ...

  4. Diels-Alder reactions: The effects of catalyst on the addition reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Özgür; Kus, Nermin Simsek; Tunç, Tuncay; Sahin, Ertan

    2015-10-01

    The reaction between 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene and dimethyl 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylate is efficiently achieved with small amounts of catalyst, i.e. phenol, AcOH, nafion, and β-cyclodextrin. Exo-diastereoselective cycloaddition reactions were observed both without catalyst and different catalysts for 48 days. As a result, different products (tricyclicmolecule 5, retro-Diels-Alder product 6, and oxidation product 7) were obtained with different catalysts. In addition, we synthesized Diels-Alders product 8 and tricyclocyclitol 10 via Diels-Alder reaction. The structures of these products were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy.

  5. Electrostatic catalysis of a Diels-Alder reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonès, Albert C.; Haworth, Naomi L.; Darwish, Nadim; Ciampi, Simone; Bloomfield, Nathaniel J.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Diez-Perez, Ismael; Coote, Michelle L.

    2016-03-01

    It is often thought that the ability to control reaction rates with an applied electrical potential gradient is unique to redox systems. However, recent theoretical studies suggest that oriented electric fields could affect the outcomes of a range of chemical reactions, regardless of whether a redox system is involved. This possibility arises because many formally covalent species can be stabilized via minor charge-separated resonance contributors. When an applied electric field is aligned in such a way as to electrostatically stabilize one of these minor forms, the degree of resonance increases, resulting in the overall stabilization of the molecule or transition state. This means that it should be possible to manipulate the kinetics and thermodynamics of non-redox processes using an external electric field, as long as the orientation of the approaching reactants with respect to the field stimulus can be controlled. Here, we provide experimental evidence that the formation of carbon-carbon bonds is accelerated by an electric field. We have designed a surface model system to probe the Diels-Alder reaction, and coupled it with a scanning tunnelling microscopy break-junction approach. This technique, performed at the single-molecule level, is perfectly suited to deliver an electric-field stimulus across approaching reactants. We find a fivefold increase in the frequency of formation of single-molecule junctions, resulting from the reaction that occurs when the electric field is present and aligned so as to favour electron flow from the dienophile to the diene. Our results are qualitatively consistent with those predicted by quantum-chemical calculations in a theoretical model of this system, and herald a new approach to chemical catalysis.

  6. Stereoselection in Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reactions of 2-Cyano-1-azadienes: Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Gidget C; Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2016-07-01

    Progress toward understanding the scope and diastereoselectivity of intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions using 2-cyano-1-azadienes is described herein. The resulting cyanoenamine products are underutilized intermediates in organic synthesis. Assembly of the Diels-Alder precursors was achieved using an improved imine condensation/oxidative cyanation protocol. By this method, several highly substituted indolizidine and quinolizidine architectures were constructed. Quantum mechanical DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory were performed for these cyclizations and provide insights into the origins of the observed diastereoselectivities. PMID:27295460

  7. Schleyer hyperconjugative aromaticity and Diels-Alder reactivity of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brian J; Zou, Lufeng; Houk, K N

    2016-01-01

    Schleyer's discovery of hyperconjugative aromaticity and antiaromaticity in 5-substituted cyclopentadienes further expanded our understanding of the pervasive influence of aromaticity. Acceptors induce antiaromatic character by Schleyer's negative hyperconjugative aromaticity, and donors have the opposite effect. We computationally explored the Diels-Alder reactivity of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes with ethylene and maleic anhydride. The predicted billionfold difference in the computed gas phase rate constants at room temperature for the Diels-Alder reactions of 5-substituted cyclopentadienes with ethylene or maleic anhydride results from differences in the transition state distortion energies, which are directly related to the hyperconjugative aromaticity of these molecules. PMID:26444427

  8. Preparation and Diels-Alder reactions of 1′-heterosubsituted vinylimidazoles

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Abhisek; Mukherjee, Sabuj; Das, Jayanta; Bhandari, Manoj K.; Du, Hongwang; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Lovely, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    A Diels-Alder/rearrangement sequence has been pursued in our lab en route to a number of oroidin dimers. In order to access the fully substituted core of these molecules, 1′,2′-disubstituted 4-vinylimidazoles were required as dienes. The preparation of a series of a 4-vinylimidazoles containing substituents on the vinyl moiety via hydroalumination/electrophilic trapping or hydrosilylation are described. These derivatives undergo Diels-Alder reactions with N-phenylmaleimide to provide the tetrahydrobenzimidazole derivatives. The cycloadducts derived from halosubstituted systems generally undergo elimination, leading to the corresponding dihydrobenzimidazole, whereas the silyl and stannyl derivatives provide the corresponding 4-substituted tetrahydrobenzimidazole. PMID:26139945

  9. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Diels–Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Hydroxy‐o‐Quinodimethanes

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Amico, Luca; Vega‐Peñaloza, Alberto; Cuadros, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The photoenolization/Diels–Alder strategy offers straightforward access to synthetically valuable benzannulated carbocyclic products. This historical light‐triggered process has never before succumbed to efforts to develop an enantioselective catalytic approach. Herein, we demonstrate how asymmetric organocatalysis provides simple yet effective catalytic tools to intercept photochemically generated hydroxy‐o‐quinodimethanes with high stereoselectivity. We used a chiral organic catalyst, derived from natural cinchona alkaloids, to activate maleimides toward highly stereoselective Diels–Alder reactions. An unconventional mechanism of stereocontrol is operative, wherein the organocatalyst is actively involved in both the photochemical pathway, by leveraging the formation of the reactive photoenol, and the stereoselectivity‐defining event. PMID:26797768

  10. Competition between classical and hexadehydro-Diels–Alder (HDDA) reactions of HDDA triynes with furan

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang Luu; Baire, Beeraiah; Hoye, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    We report here thermal reactions between furan and one of three related triyne substrates. Each triyne is capable of reacting initially in two modes: (i) unimolecular hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction or (ii) bimolecular Diels-Alder reaction between one of its alkynes with furan. The relative rates of these initial events are such that two of the substrates react essentially in only one of modes (i) or (ii). The third is intermediate in behavior; its bifurcation is dependent on the concentration of the furan reactant. These results teach, more generally, principles relevant to the design of efficient HDDA-based reaction cascades. PMID:26028780

  11. Toxicity induced by Prasiola crispa to fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea: evidence for bioinsecticide action.

    PubMed

    Zemolin, Ana Paula Pegoraro; Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Paula, Mariane Trindade; Pereira, Betina Kappel; Albuquerque, Margelli Pereira; Victoria, Filipe Carvalho; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Posser, Thaís; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of the alga Prasiola crispa extract (PcE) were investigated in a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and cockroach (Nauphoeta cinerea) model. In flies, toxicity was assessed as mortality and biochemical alterations including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress markers. The cardiotoxic action of PcE was also examined in a model of semi-isolated cockroach heart. The administration of PcE (2 mg/ml) to flies for 24 h resulted in a marked increase in mortality rate (7.6-fold rise compared to control). AChE activity, glutathione (GSH) levels, and hydroperoxide formation remained unchanged. Fly glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly altered after PcE treatment. Fraction III (ethyl acetate) of PcE was significantly more toxic to flies compared to fractions I (methanol) and II (ethanol). A significant decrease was noted in cockroach semi-isolated heart function. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), an oxidizing agent, concomitant with the extract significantly blocked this effect, suggesting that reduced compounds may be involved in the cardiotoxic action produced by PcE. Our results show for the first time the adverse effects of PcE in two insect models, Drosophila melanogaster and Nauphoetacinerea. The insecticidal properties of PcE may be related to changes in important antioxidant/detoxifying systems, as well as to changes in insect cardiac function. PMID:24555652

  12. High-Throughput Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Red and Green Forms of the Perilla frutescens var. crispa Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Nakamura, Michimi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2015-01-01

    Perilla frutescens var. crispa (Labiatae) has two chemo-varietal forms, i.e. red and green forms of perilla, that differ in the production of anthocyanins. To facilitate molecular biological and biochemical studies in perilla-specialized metabolism we used Illumina RNA-sequencing technology in our comprehensive comparison of the transcriptome map of the leaves of red and green forms of perilla. Sequencing generated over 1.2 billion short reads with an average length of 101 nt. De novo transcriptome assembly yielded 47,788 and 47,840 unigenes in the red and green forms of perilla plants, respectively. Comparison of the assembled unigenes and existing perilla cDNA sequences showed highly reliable alignment. All unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO) and Enzyme Commission numbers and entered into the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. We identified 68 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in red and green forms of perilla. GO enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that genes involved in the anthocyanin metabolic process were enriched. Differential expression analysis revealed that the transcript level of anthocyanin biosynthetic unigenes encoding flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase was significantly higher in red perilla, while the transcript level of unigenes encoding limonene synthase was significantly higher in green perilla. Our data serve as a basis for future research on perilla bio-engineering and provide a shortcut for the characterization of new functional genes in P. frutescens. PMID:26070213

  13. Analgesic Compound from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is the First Polypeptide Inhibitor of Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1)*

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Monastyrnaya, Margarita M.; Kozlovskaya, Emma P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Venomous animals from distinct phyla such as spiders, scorpions, snakes, cone snails, or sea anemones produce small toxic proteins interacting with a variety of cell targets. Their bites often cause pain. One of the ways of pain generation is the activation of TRPV1 channels. Screening of 30 different venoms from spiders and sea anemones for modulation of TRPV1 activity revealed inhibitors in tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa venom. Several separation steps resulted in isolation of an inhibiting compound. This is a 56-residue-long polypeptide named APHC1 that has a Bos taurus trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)/Kunitz-type fold, mostly represented by serine protease inhibitors and ion channel blockers. APHC1 acted as a partial antagonist of capsaicin-induced currents (32 ± 9% inhibition) with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) 54 ± 4 nm. In vivo, a 0.1 mg/kg dose of APHC1 significantly prolonged tail-flick latency and reduced capsaicin-induced acute pain. Therefore, our results can make an important contribution to the research into molecular mechanisms of TRPV1 modulation and help to solve the problem of overactivity of this receptor during a number of pathological processes in the organism. PMID:18579526

  14. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  15. Assembly of the Isoindolinone Core of Muironolide A by Asymmetric Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Beatris; Molinski, Tadeusz F.

    2011-01-01

    The hexahydro-1H-isoindolin-1-one core of muironolide A was prepared by asymmetric intramolecular Diels Alder cycloaddition using a variant of the MacMillan organocatalyst which sets the C4,C5 and C11 stereocenters. PMID:21751773

  16. The role of curvature in Diels-Alder functionalization of carbon-based materials.

    PubMed

    Willocq, B; Lemaur, V; El Garah, M; Ciesielski, A; Samorì, P; Raquez, J-M; Dubois, Ph; Cornil, J

    2016-06-18

    We have estimated theoretically the impact of curvature on the free energies of activation and reaction associated with Diels-Alder reactions on carbon-based materials. Significant reduction is observed for both energy values with increasing curvature for core-functionalization, while the opposite trend prevails for edge-functionalization, as further supported by SEM/fluorescence measurements. PMID:27226252

  17. Enantioselective Synthesis of (+)-Estrone Exploiting a Hydrogen Bond-Promoted Diels−Alder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Starting from Dane’s diene and methylcyclopentenedione, (+)-estrone is synthesized along the Quinkert−Dane route in 24% total yield. The key step is an enantioselective Diels−Alder reaction promoted by an amidinium catalyst as efficiently as by a traditional Ti-TADDOLate Lewis acid. PMID:20302330

  18. Reactions of nitroso hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadducts with azides: stereoselective formation of triazolines and aziridines.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Brian S; Miller, Marvin J

    2007-05-11

    The addition of azides to acylnitroso hetero-Diels-Alder cycloadducts derived from cyclopentadiene affords exo-triazolines in excellent yield. The reaction is greatly affected by the level of alkene strain, while sterically demanding azides do not hinder the reaction. Conversion of the triazolines to aziridines is also described. PMID:17429998

  19. Reactions of Nitroso Hetero Diels-Alder Cycloadducts with Azides: Stereoselective Formation of Triazolines and Aziridines

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    The addition of azides to acylnitroso hetero Diels-Alder cycloadducts derived from cyclopentadiene affords exo triazolines in excellent yield. The reaction is greatly affected by reducing the level of alkene strain, while sterically demanding azides do not hinder the reaction. Conversion of the triazolines to aziridines is also described. PMID:17429998

  20. A solvent-free Diels-Alder reaction of graphite into functionalized graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2014-12-01

    A solvent-free Diels-Alder reaction was carried out by heating a mixture of graphite and a typical dienophile, maleic anhydride (MA) or maleimide (MI), in a sealed glass ampoule of argon. The functionalization of graphite with dienophiles was confirmed by various characterization techniques, suggesting the efficient functionalization and delamination of graphite into a few layers of graphitic nanosheets. PMID:25314623

  1. Hydrogen-Bonding Catalysis of Tetraalkylammonium Salts in an Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumatabara, Yusuke; Kaneko, Shiho; Nakata, Satoshi; Shirakawa, Seiji; Maruoka, Keiji

    2016-08-01

    A piperidine-derived tetraalkylammonium salt with a non-coordinating counteranion worked as an effective hydrogen-bonding catalyst in an aza-Diels-Alder reaction of imines and a Danishefsky diene. The hydrogen-bonding interaction between the ammonium salt and an imine was observed as part of a (1) H NMR titration study. PMID:27311924

  2. Synthesis of a natural chromenoquinone via the Diels-Alder reaction of pyranobenzyne and furan.

    PubMed

    Katakawa, Kazuaki; Sato, Ayaka; Iwasaki, Mari; Horikawa, Tomofumi; Kumamoto, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    We describe the total synthesis of angular chromenoquinone 1 isolated from Conospermum plants. Iodophenol, a precursor of pyranobenzyne, was prepared by Claisen rearrangement of an iodoresorcinol derivative. Diels-Alder reaction of the pyranobenzyne and a substituted furan proceeded in low regioselectivity to afford desired 1 and its regioisomer. PMID:25087635

  3. A Computational Experiment of the Endo versus Exo Preference in a Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Christopher N.; Woo, Tom K.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and tested a computational laboratory that investigates an endo versus exo Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This laboratory employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the cycloaddition of N-phenylmaleimide to furan. The endo and exo stereoisomers of the product were distinguished by building the two isomers in a…

  4. Changes in sediment volume in Alder Lake, Nisqually River Basin, Washington, 1945-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Gish, Casey C.

    2012-01-01

    The Nisqually River drains the southwest slopes of Mount Rainier, a glaciated stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of western Washington. The Nisqually River was impounded behind Alder Dam when the dam was completed in 1945 and formed Alder Lake. This report quantifies the volume of sediment deposited by the Nisqually and Little Nisqually Rivers in their respective deltas in Alder Lake since 1945. Four digital elevation surfaces were generated from historical contour maps from 1945, 1956, and 1985, and a bathymetric survey from 2011. These surfaces were used to compute changes in sediment volume since 1945. Estimates of the volume of sediment deposited in Alder Lake between 1945 and 2011 were focused in three areas: (1) the Nisqually River delta, (2) the main body of Alder Lake, along a 40-meter wide corridor of the pre-dam Nisqually River, and (3) the Little Nisqually River delta. In each of these areas the net deposition over the 66-year period was 42,000,000 ± 4,000,000 cubic meters (m3), 2,000,000 ± 600,000 m3, and 310,000 ± 110,000 m3, respectively. These volumes correspond to annual rates of accumulation of 630,000 ± 60,000 m3/yr, 33,000 ± 9,000 m3/yr, and 4,700 ± 1,600 m3/yr, respectively. The annual sediment yield of the Nisqually (1,100 ± 100 cubic meters per year per square kilometer [(m3/yr)/km2]) and Little Nisqually River basins [70 ± 24 (m3/yr)/km2] provides insight into the yield of two basins with different land cover and geomorphic processes. These estimates suggest that a basin draining a glaciated stratovolcano yields approximately 15 times more sediment than a basin draining forested uplands in the Cascade Range. Given the cumulative net change in sediment volume in the Nisqually River delta in Alder Lake, the total capacity of Alder Lake since 1945 decreased about 3 percent by 1956, 8 percent by 1985, and 15 percent by 2011.

  5. [Genetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with four Alnus species in Changbai Mountains: a nested PCR-rFLP analysis].

    PubMed

    Dong, Tian; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhang, Yue; He, Xingyuan

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the root samples of 4 Alnus species in Changbai Mountains was investigated by using nested PCR-RFLP technique, and the PCR results were tested by restriction endonuclease analysis method. The results revealed that the uncultured AMF had a high genetic diversity, and the colonization had a trend from promiscuity to specialization. The AMF from Alnus mandshuica showed the greatest specialization to the host, and Glomus was the dominant colonizer of A. mandshuica. The AMF from A. sibirica var. hirsuta, A. sibirica, and A. tinctoria showed promiscuity, and host had more significant effects on the colonization of AMF than altitude. PMID:17209372

  6. Bioactivity-guided identification of antimicrobial metabolites in Alnus glutinosa bark and optimization of oregonin purification by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Amin; Chollet, Sébastien; Angelis, Apostolis; Borie, Nicolas; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Reynaud, Romain; Gangloff, Sophie C; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Hubert, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Barks from conifers and broadleaved trees constitute abundant wastes generated from wood harvesting and logging activities. Extracts of such residues obtained from Alnus trees have been reported as interesting resources with potent antibacterial activities. The present study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of a crude methanol extract prepared from the bark of Alnus glutinosa against a panel of 22 bacteria and yeasts and to optimize a purification method enabling the high production of the most active substances. Fractionation of the crude extract was performed by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) using a three-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane, methyl-ter-butyl ether, acetonitrile and water. The major known compounds contained in the fractions produced by CPC were chemically profiled by (13)C NMR dereplication, resulting in the unambiguous identification of oregonin, hirsutanonol, betulinic acid, and alusenone 1a. The antibacterial evaluation of the fractions by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus revealed that oregonin, in addition to being the major metabolite of the crude extract (∼32% w/w), was the most active with an antibacterial inhibitory effect comparable to antibiotics. The purification of oregonin was optimized at the laboratory-scale by CPC. A single injection of 3.7g of crude extract resulted in a recovery of 72% (850mg) of the available oregonin at purity higher than 94%. PMID:27428455

  7. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands

    PubMed Central

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M.; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9–140 years old), oak (11–140 years) and alder (4–76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0–15 cm and 16–30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0–30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha-1, 3.71 Mg ha-1 and 1.53 Mg ha-1, for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0–30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0–30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands. PMID:26859755

  8. The effect of re-dissolution solvents and HPLC columns on the analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in the eulittoral macroalgae Prasiola crispa and Porphyra umbilicalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, Ulf; Escoubeyrou, Karine; Charles, François

    2009-09-01

    Many macroalgal species that are regularly exposed to high solar radiation such as the eulittoral green alga Prasiola crispa and the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as UV-sunscreen compounds. These substances are typically extracted with a widely used standard protocol following quantification by various high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. However, further preparation steps prior to HPLC analysis as well as different HPLC column types have not been systematically checked regarding separation quality and reproducibility. Therefore pure methanol, distilled water and HPLC eluent were evaluated as re-dissolution solvent for dried Prasiola and Porphyra extracts, which were subsequently analyzed on three reversed-phase C8 and C18 HPLC columns. The data indicate that distilled water and the HPLC eluent gave almost identical peak patterns and MAA contents on the C8 and C18 columns. In contrast, the application of the widely used methanol led to double peaks or even the loss of specific peaks as well as to a strong decline in total MAA amounts ranging from about 35% of the maximum in P. crispa to 80% of the maximum in P. umbilicalis. Consequently, methanol should be avoided as re-dissolution solvent for the HPLC sample preparation. An improved protocol for the MAA analysis in macroalgae in combination with a reliable C18 column is suggested.

  9. Mitochondria Related Pathway Is Essential for Polysaccharides Purified from Sparassis crispa Mediated Neuro-Protection against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuang; Wang, Di; Zhang, Junrong; Du, Mengyan; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di; Wu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the neuro-protective effects of purified Sparassis crispa polysaccharides against l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cell damages and its underlying mechanisms. The Sparassis crispa water extract was purified by a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column and a Sepharose G-100 column. A fraction with a molecular weight of 75 kDa and a diameter of 88.9 nm, entitled SCWEA, was obtained. SCWEA was identified with a triple helix with (1→3)-linked Rha in the backbone, and (1→2) linkages and (1→6) linkages in the side bone. Our results indicated that the pre-treatment of DPC12 cells with SCWEA prior to l-Glu exposure effectively reversed the reduction on cell viability (by 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay) and reduced l-Glu-induced apoptosis (by Hoechst staining). SCWEA decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, blocked Ca2+ influx and prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential in DPC12 cells. Furthermore, SCWEA normalized expression of anti-apoptotic proteins in l-Glu-explored DPC12 cells. These results suggested that SCWEA protects against l-Glu-induced neuronal apoptosis in DPC12 cells and may be a promising candidate for treatment against neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26821016

  10. The population genomic signature of environmental selection in the widespread insect-pollinated tree species Frangula alnus at different geographical scales.

    PubMed

    De Kort, H; Vandepitte, K; Mergeay, J; Mijnsbrugge, K V; Honnay, O

    2015-11-01

    The evaluation of the molecular signatures of selection in species lacking an available closely related reference genome remains challenging, yet it may provide valuable fundamental insights into the capacity of populations to respond to environmental cues. We screened 25 native populations of the tree species Frangula alnus subsp. alnus (Rhamnaceae), covering three different geographical scales, for 183 annotated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Standard population genomic outlier screens were combined with individual-based and multivariate landscape genomic approaches to examine the strength of selection relative to neutral processes in shaping genomic variation, and to identify the main environmental agents driving selection. Our results demonstrate a more distinct signature of selection with increasing geographical distance, as indicated by the proportion of SNPs (i) showing exceptional patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation (outliers) and (ii) associated with climate. Both temperature and precipitation have an important role as selective agents in shaping adaptive genomic differentiation in F. alnus subsp. alnus, although their relative importance differed among spatial scales. At the 'intermediate' and 'regional' scales, where limited genetic clustering and high population diversity were observed, some indications of natural selection may suggest a major role for gene flow in safeguarding adaptability. High genetic diversity at loci under selection in particular, indicated considerable adaptive potential, which may nevertheless be compromised by the combined effects of climate change and habitat fragmentation. PMID:25944466

  11. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Chen, Amy; Davenport, Karen W.; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, J. Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Gtari, Maher; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S.

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  12. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

  13. Distortion-Controlled Reactivity and Molecular Dynamics of Dehydro-Diels-Alder Reactions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiyuan; Yang, Zhongyue; Liang, Yong; Hong, Xin; Li, Yanwei; Houk, K N

    2016-07-01

    We report density functional theory (M06-2X) studies of a series of dehydro-Diels-Alder (DDA) reactions. For these and the parent reaction, the stepwise mechanisms have similar barriers, whereas the barriers of the concerted mechanisms differ significantly. The reactivity of DDA reactions is controlled by distortion energy. The concerted and stepwise mechanisms of the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction are competitive with activation barriers of ∼36 kcal/mol. This is because a large distortion energy (∼43 kcal/mol) is required to achieve the concerted transition state geometry. MD simulations reveal that productive concerted trajectories display a strong angle bending oscillation (∼25° oscillation amplitude), while the stepwise trajectories show only a chaotic pattern and less pronounced bending vibrations. PMID:27286801

  14. Use of wetlands for production of woody plants for fuels and petrochemical substitutes. [Alders, willows, poplars

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, R.S.; Read, P.

    1981-03-01

    Work performed on this project in the past year has included the evaluations of natural stands productivity for wetland biomass species; propagation studies with alder, willow and poplar species; nursery establishment for production of cultivars and evaluation of wetland soils suitable for production of woody biomass species. Also a biomass research facility has been established in N. Minnesota suitable for long-term research and demonstration. Propagation research has included both micro and macro propagation techniques with native willows, selected willow clones from Sweden, alder seed selection from Finland and hybrid poplar clones from US Forest Service, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Approximately 100,000 rooted plants will be available for field research by June 1, 1981.

  15. Cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under mild reaction conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Sauradip; Phelan, Tyler; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the effect of cyclodextrins on the rates of aqueous Diels Alder reactions of 9-anthracenemethanol with a variety of N-substituted maleimides. These reactions occurred under mild reaction conditions (aqueous solvent, 40 °C), and were most efficient for the reaction of N-cyclohexylmaleimide with a methyl-β-cyclodextrin additive (94% conversion in 24 hours). These results can be explained on the basis of a model wherein the cyclodextrins bind the hydrophobic substituents on the maleimides and activate the dienophile via electronic modulation of the maleimide double bond. The results reported herein represent a new mechanism for cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions, and have significant potential applications in the development of other cyclodextrin-promoted organic transformations. Moreover, the ability to deplanarize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under mild conditions, as demonstrated herein, has significant applications for PAH detoxification. PMID:26692588

  16. Total synthesis of Elisabethin A: intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction under biomimetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Heckrodt, Thilo J; Mulzer, Johann

    2003-04-23

    We describe the first total synthesis of the marine diterpenoid elisabethin A. The synthesis uses (S)-hydroxy-2-methyl-propionate as the chiral starting material, which is elaborated into a dienyl-iodide and added to an aryl acetic acid ester via enolate alkylation. The hydroquinoid system is oxidized to the quinone which serves as the dienophile in a highly stereocontrolled intramolecular Diels-Alder addition. This IMDA reaction, which to our knowledge is the first one to employ a terminal (Z)-diene, proceeds under biomimetic conditions (water, ferrichloride as the oxidant, room temperature) with high yield and stereoselectivity. The Diels-Alder adduct is transformed into the natural product via a three-step sequence including selective hydrogenation, base-catalyzed epimerization of the cis- into the trans-decalin system and O-demethylation. PMID:12696865

  17. Biomass of Speckled Alder on an Air-Polluted Mountain Site and its Response to Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Ivan; Baláš, Martin; Koňasová, Tereza; Špulák, Ondřej; Balcar, Vratislav; Millerová, Kateřina Bednářová; Kacálek, Dušan; Jakl, Michal; Zahradník, Daniel; Vítámvás, Jan; Š´astná, Jaroslava; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana

    2014-12-01

    The article summarizes outcomes of a biomass study conducted in a young speckled alder plantation on a cold mountain site. At this location, the previously existing old forest was clear felled because of damage from air pollution, and present-day surface humus is in need of restoration. The intention of this study was to quantify the biomass and nutrients accumulated by alders and their components and assess whether the initial fertilization resulted in increased biomass production and nutrient accumulation in the biomass. Besides the control, two fertilized treatments were installed. In the surface treatment (SUT), the amendment was applied as a base dressing in small circles around trees. In the planting-hole treatment (PHT), the amendment was incorporated into soil inside the planting holes. Five growth seasons after planting and fertilization, six alders from each treatment were harvested including roots. Their biomass was quantified and analyzed for macroelements. The greatest pool of dry mass (DM) was branches in the control and stem wood in the fertilized treatments. The greatest pools of macroelements were leaves and branches. The most pronounced effects of fertilization were recorded in the DM and consequently in the absolute quantities of nutrients. The DM of an average tree in the control, SUT, and PHT was 85, 226, and 231 g, respectively. The absolute contents of nutrients per tree in the fertilized treatments showed the following increases, as compared with the control: (N) 2.5-2.6 times; (P) 1.6-2.4 times; (K) 1.8-2.1 times; and (Mg) 1.8-2.0 times, respectively. Speckled alder responded positively to fertilization.

  18. Biomass of speckled alder on an air-polluted mountain site and its response to fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kuneš, Ivan; Baláš, Martin; Koňasová, Tereza; Spulák, Ondřej; Balcar, Vratislav; Millerová, Kateřina Bednářová; Kacálek, Dušan; Jakl, Michal; Zahradník, Daniel; Vítámvás, Jan; Stastná, Jaroslava; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana

    2014-12-01

    The article summarizes outcomes of a biomass study conducted in a young speckled alder plantation on a cold mountain site. At this location, the previously existing old forest was clear felled because of damage from air pollution, and present-day surface humus is in need of restoration. The intention of this study was to quantify the biomass and nutrients accumulated by alders and their components and assess whether the initial fertilization resulted in increased biomass production and nutrient accumulation in the biomass. Besides the control, two fertilized treatments were installed. In the surface treatment (SUT), the amendment was applied as a base dressing in small circles around trees. In the planting-hole treatment (PHT), the amendment was incorporated into soil inside the planting holes. Five growth seasons after planting and fertilization, six alders from each treatment were harvested including roots. Their biomass was quantified and analyzed for macroelements. The greatest pool of dry mass (DM) was branches in the control and stem wood in the fertilized treatments. The greatest pools of macroelements were leaves and branches. The most pronounced effects of fertilization were recorded in the DM and consequently in the absolute quantities of nutrients. The DM of an average tree in the control, SUT, and PHT was 85, 226, and 231 g, respectively. The absolute contents of nutrients per tree in the fertilized treatments showed the following increases, as compared with the control: (N) 2.5-2.6 times; (P) 1.6-2.4 times; (K) 1.8-2.1 times; and (Mg) 1.8-2.0 times, respectively. Speckled alder responded positively to fertilization. PMID:25294419

  19. TEMPO-Mediated Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Synthesis of Tetrahydropyridazines Using Ketohydrazones and Olefins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-Long; Peng, Xie-Xue; Chen, Fei; Han, Bing

    2016-05-01

    A novel, facile, and efficient method for the synthesis of tetrahydropyridazines by a one-pot tandem reaction of easily accessible ketohydrazones and olefins in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) has been successfully developed. The reaction involves the initial generation of azoalkenes from direct oxidative dehydrogenation of ketohydrazones using TEMPO as the commercially available oxidant, followed by a subsequent aza-Diels-Alder reaction with olefins. PMID:27120574

  20. Diels-Alder Reactions of Furans with Itaconic Anhydride: Overcoming Unfavorable Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pehere, Ashok D; Xu, Shu; Thompson, Severin K; Hillmyer, Marc A; Hoye, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    Unfavorable thermodynamics often render furans reluctant to engage in high-yielding Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition reactions. Here, we report the highly efficient conversion of the biosourced reactants itaconic anhydride (IA) and furfuryl alcohol (FA) to a single DA adduct. The free energy advantages provided by anhydride ring opening and crystal lattice energy of the product overcome the loss of aromaticity of the furanoid diene. Detailed (1)H NMR studies provided valuable insights about relevant kinetic and thermodynamic features. PMID:27214494

  1. New L-Serine Derivative Ligands as Cocatalysts for Diels-Alder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Carlos A. D.; Rodríguez-Borges, José E.; Freire, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    New L-serine derivative ligands were prepared and tested as cocatalyst in the Diels-Alder reactions between cyclopentadiene (CPD) and methyl acrylate, in the presence of several Lewis acids. The catalytic potential of the in situ formed complexes was evaluated based on the reaction yield. Bidentate serine ligands showed good ability to coordinate medium strength Lewis acids, thus boosting their catalytic activity. The synthesis of the L-serine ligands proved to be highly efficient and straightforward. PMID:24383009

  2. Molecular Complexity via C–H Activation: A Dehydrogenative Diels-Alder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Erik M.; White, M. Christina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, C–H oxidation reactions install oxidized functionality onto a preformed molecular skeleton, resulting in a local molecular change. The use of C–H activation chemistry to construct complex molecular scaffolds is a new area with tremendous potential in synthesis. We report a Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide catalyzed dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction that converts simple terminal olefins into complex cycloadducts in a single operation. PMID:21842902

  3. Phytophthora alni sp. nov. and its variants: designation of emerging heteroploid hybrid pathogens spreading on Alnus trees.

    PubMed

    Brasier, Clive M; Kirk, Susan A; Delcan, Jose; Cooke, David E L; Jung, Thomas; Man in't Veld, Willem A

    2004-10-01

    In 1993 a destructive new Phytophthora pathogen of riparian Alnus trees was discovered in the UK and subsequently shown to be present in other parts of Europe. The new Phytophthora comprised a group of emergent heteroploid hybrids, probably between P. cambivora and a species related to P. fragariae. These included a common, near tetraploid standard hybrid, the presumptive allopolyploid; and four scarcer major variant types with chromosome numbers intermediate between diploid and tetraploid, named the Swedish, Dutch, German and UK variants. The standard hybrid type is formally designated here as Phytophthora alni subsp. alni. The Swedish variant is designated as P. alni subsp. uniformis; and the Dutch, German and UK variants collectively as P. alni subsp. multiformis. The properties of the Dutch, German and UK variants within subsp. multiformis are informally described. The problems of designating emergent species hybrids under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the reasons for the taxonomic choices made are discussed. PMID:15535068

  4. Single molecule spectroscopic characterization of a far-red fluorescent protein (HcRed) from the Anthozoa coral Heteractis crispa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotlet, Mircea; Habuchi, Satoshi; Whitier, Jennifer E.; Werner, James H.; De Schryver, Frans C.; Hofkens, Johan; Goodwin, Peter M.

    2006-02-01

    We report on the photophysical properties of a far-red intrinsic fluorescent protein by means of single molecule and ensemble spectroscopic methods. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria is a popular fluorescent marker with genetically encoded fluorescence and which can be fused to any biological structure without affecting its function. GFP and its variants provide emission colors from blue to yellowish green. Red intrinsic fluorescent proteins from Anthozoa species represent a recent addition to the emission color palette provided by GFPs. Red intrinsic fluorescent markers are on high demand in protein-protein interaction studies based on fluorescence-resonance energy transfer or in multicolor tracking studies or in cellular investigations where autofluorescence possesses a problem. Here we address the photophysical properties of a far-red fluorescent protein (HcRed), a mutant engineered from a chromoprotein cloned from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa, by using a combination of ensemble and single molecule spectroscopic methods. We show evidence for the presence of HcRed protein as an oligomer and for incomplete maturation of its chromophore. Incomplete maturation results in the presence of an immature (yellow) species absorbing/fluorescing at 490/530-nm. This yellow chromophore is involved in a fast resonance-energy transfer with the mature (purple) chromophore. The mature chromophore of HcRed is found to adopt two conformations, a Transoriented form absorbing and 565-nm and non-fluorescent in solution and a Cis-oriented form absorbing at 590-nm and emitting at 645-nm. These two forms co-exist in solution in thermal equilibrium. Excitation-power dependence fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of HcRed shows evidence for singlet-triplet transitions in the microseconds time scale and for cis-trans isomerization occurring in a time scale of tens of microseconds. Single molecule fluorescence data recorded from immobilized HcRed proteins, all

  5. Isolation of a quinone-rich fraction from Ardisia crispa roots and its attenuating effects on murine skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Looi Ting; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Khaza'ai, Huzwah

    2013-01-01

    Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) is an evergreen, fruiting shrub that has been traditionally used as folklore medicine. Despite a scarcity of research publications, we have succeeded in showing suppressive effects on murine skin papillomagenesis. In extension, the present research was aimed at determining the effect of a quinone-rich fraction (QRF) isolated from the same root hexane extract on both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, at the selected dose of 30 mg/kg. Mice (groups I-IV) were initiated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA, 100 μg/100 μl) followed by repeated promotion of croton oil (1%) twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, group I (anti-initiation) received QRF 7 days before and after DMBA; group II (anti-promotion) received QRF 30 minutes before each croton oil application; group III (anti-initiation/ promotion) was treated with QRF as a combination of group I and II. A further two groups served as vehicle control (group V) and treated control (group VI). As carcinogen control, group IV showed the highest tumor volume (8.79±5.44) and tumor burden (3.60±1.17). Comparatively, group III revealed only 20% of tumor incidence, tumor burden (3.00±1.00) and tumor volume (2.40±1.12), which were significantly different from group IV. Group II also showed significant reduction of tumor volume (3.11), tumor burden (3.00) and tumor incidence (11.11%), along with prominent increase of latency period of tumor formation (week 12). Group I, nonetheless, demonstrated marked increment of tumor incidence by 40% with prompted latency period of tumor formation (week 7). No tumor formation was observed in groups V and VI. This study provided clear evidence of inhibitory effects of QRF during promotion period which was in agreement with our previous findings. The mechanism(s) underlying such effects have yet to be elucidated. PMID:23725131

  6. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  7. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  8. High resource-capture and -use efficiency, and effective antioxidant protection contribute to the invasiveness of Alnus formosana plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Luo, Yiming; Yang, Rongjie; He, Chengxiang; Cheng, Qingsu; Tao, Jianjun; Ren, Bo; Wang, Maohua; Ma, Mingdong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the traits contributing to the invasiveness of Alnus formosana and the mechanisms underlying its invasiveness, we compared A. formosana with its native congener (Alnus cremastogyne) under three light treatments (13%, 56%, and 100%). The consistently higher plant height, total leaf area, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(max)), light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), respiration efficiency (RE), and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) but lower root mass fraction (RMF) and specific leaf area (SLA) of the invader than of its native congener contributed to the higher RGR and total biomass of A. formosana across light regimes. The total biomass and RGR of the invader increased markedly with increased RMF, A(max), LSP, LCP, RE, stomatal conductance (G(s)) and total leaf area. Furthermore, compared with the native species, the higher plasticity index in plant height, RMF, leaf mass fraction (LMF), SMF, SLA, A(max) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) within the range of total light contributed to the higher performance of the invader. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in the invader compared to the native, contributing to its invasion success under high/low light via photoprotection. With a decrease in light level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas total carotenoid (Car) and total chlorophyll (Chl) decreased; ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged. These responses may help the invader to spread and invade a wide range of habitats and form dense monocultures, displacing native plant species. The results suggest that both resource capture-related traits (morphological and photosynthetic) and adaptation-related traits (antioxidant protection) contribute to the competitive advantage of the invader. PMID:26433486

  9. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    PubMed

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations. PMID:26143359

  10. Phylogeny and assemblage composition of Frankia in Alnus tenuifolia nodules across a primary successional sere in interior Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M D; Taylor, D L; Ruess, R W

    2013-07-01

    In nitrogen (N) fixing symbioses, host-symbiont specificity, genetic variation in bacterial symbionts and environmental variation represent fundamental constraints on the ecology, evolution and practical uses of these interactions, but detailed information is lacking for many naturally occurring N-fixers. This study examined phylogenetic host specificity of Frankia in field-collected nodules of two Alnus species (A. tenuifolia and A. viridis) in interior Alaska and, for A. tenuifolia, distribution, diversity, spatial autocorrelation and correlation with specific soil factors of Frankia genotypes in nodules collected from replicated habitats representing endpoints of a primary sere. Frankia genotypes most commonly associated with each host belonged to different clades within the Alnus-infective Frankia clade, and for A. tenuifolia, were divergent from previously described Frankia. A. tenuifolia nodules from early and late succession habitats harboured distinct Frankia assemblages. In early succession, a single genotype inhabited 71% of nodules with no discernable autocorrelation at any scale, while late succession Frankia were more diverse, differed widely among plants within a site and were significantly autocorrelated within and among plants. Early succession Frankia genotype occurrence was strongly correlated with carbon/nitrogen ratio in the mineral soil fraction, while in late succession, the most common genotypes were correlated with different soil variables. Our results suggest that phylogenetic specificity is a significant factor in the A. tenuifolia-Frankia interaction and that significant habitat-based differentiation may exist among A. tenuifolia-infective genotypes. This is consistent with our hypothesis that A. tenuifolia selects specific Frankia genotypes from early succession soils and that this choice is attenuated in late succession. PMID:23731390

  11. Dimerization of quercetin, Diels-Alder vs. radical-coupling approach: a joint thermodynamics, kinetics, and topological study.

    PubMed

    Fourré, Isabelle; Di Meo, Florent; Podloucká, Pavlína; Otyepka, Michal; Trouillas, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Quercetin is a prototypical antioxidant and prominent member of flavonoids, a large group of natural polyphenols. The oxidation of quercetin may lead to its dimerization, which is a paradigm of the more general polyphenol oligomerization. There exist two opposing mechanisms to describe the dimerization process, namely radical-coupling or Diels-Alder reactions. This work presents a comprehensive rationalization of this dimerization process, acquired from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is found that the two-step radical-coupling pathway is thermodynamically and kinetically preferred over the Diels-Alder reaction. This is in agreement with the experimental results showing the formation of only one isomer, whereas the Diels-Alder mechanism would yield two isomers. The evolution in bonding, occurring during these two processes, is investigated using the atoms in molecules (AIM) and electron localization function (ELF) topological approaches. It is shown that some electron density is accumulated between the fragments in the transition state of the radical-coupling reaction, but not in the transition state of the Diels-Alder process. Graphical Abstract Quantum chemistry calculations of the dimerization process of quercetin show that a radical coupling approach is preferred to a Diels-Alder type reaction, in agreement with experimental results. Analysis of the bonding evolution highlights the reaction mechanism. PMID:27449669

  12. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots <1 mm (5-6 year(-1)) and 1-2 mm (0.9-2.8 year(-1)) were not affected by changes in N or water availability. Fine root production (<1 mm) differed between Alnus and Salix, and between treatments in Salix; i.e., absolute length and biomass production increased in the order: water limited < unlimited < N limited. Few treatment effects were detected for fine roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light. PMID:23963409

  13. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloids Himandravine and GB17 Using Biomimetic Diels–Alder Reactions of Double Diene Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Reed T.; Pemberton, Ryan P.; Franke, Jenna M.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels–Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels–Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels–Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:26305231

  14. Total Synthesis of the Galbulimima Alkaloids Himandravine and GB17 Using Biomimetic Diels-Alder Reactions of Double Diene Precursors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Reed T; Pemberton, Ryan P; Franke, Jenna M; Tantillo, Dean J; Thomson, Regan J

    2015-09-01

    The enantioselective total syntheses of himandravine and GB17 were completed through a common biomimetic strategy involving Diels-Alder reactions of unusual double diene containing linear precursors. The double diene precursors, containing or lacking a C12 substituent as required to produce GB17 or himandravine, respectively, were found to undergo Diels-Alder reactions to afford mixtures of regioisomeric cycloadducts that map onto the alternative carbocyclic frameworks of both himandravine and GB17. Computational investigations revealed that these Diels-Alder reactions proceed via transition state structures of similar energy that have a high degree of bispericyclic character and that the low levels of regioselectivity observed in the reactions are a consequence of competing orbital interaction and distortion energies. The combined experimental and computational results provide valuable insights into the biosynthesis of the Galbulimima alkaloids. PMID:26305231

  15. Responses of Alnus glutinosa to anaerobic conditions--mechanisms and rate of oxygen flux into the roots.

    PubMed

    Dittert, K; Wötzel, J; Sattelmacher, B

    2006-03-01

    Upon exposure to waterlogged growing conditions two-year-old alder trees reduced total root mass. Roots were concentrated in the uppermost soil horizon, and only few coarse roots penetrated into deeper soil layers. Root porosity was only slightly affected and did not exceed 8 % in fine roots. Porosity of coarse roots was higher (27 %) but unaffected by growing conditions. The stem base area covered by lenticels increased strongly and so did the cross section diameter of the stem base. The latter showed a highly significant correlation with O (2) transport into the roots, measured by a Clark type oxygen electrode. Exposure of the lower 5 cm of the stem base, where lenticels were concentrated, to pure N (2) led to a cessation of O (2) transport, confirming that lenticels were the major site of air entry into the stem. In alder plants grown under waterlogged conditions, temperature had a pronounced effect on O (2) gas exchange of the root system. The temperature compensation point, i.e., the temperature where O (2) transport equals O (2) consumption by respiration, was 10.5 degrees C for the entire root system, when measured in a range of 0.15 - 0.20 mmol dissolved O (2) L (-1), which is typical for an open water surface equilibrated with air. O (2) net flow was inversely related to O (2) concentration in the rooting media, indicating that higher root and microbial respiration induced higher net fluxes of O (2) into the root system. With 0.04 mmol dissolved O (2) L (-1) nutrient solution, the temperature compensation point increased to 20 degrees C. Measurement of O (2) gradients in the rhizosphere of agar-embedded roots using O (2) microelectrodes showed a preference for O (2) release in the tip region of coarse roots. Increasing stem temperature over air temperature by 5 degrees C stimulated O (2) flux into the roots as suggested by the model of thermo-osmotic gas transport. However determination of stem and air temperature in a natural alder swamp in northern

  16. Recent Advances in Inverse-Electron-Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of 1-Oxa-1,3-Butadienes.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    This review is an endeavor to highlight the progress in the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes in recent years. The huge number of examples of 1-oxadienes cycloadditions found in the literature clearly demonstrates the incessant importance of this transformation in pyran ring synthesis. This type of reaction is today one of the most important methods for the synthesis of dihydropyrans which are the key building blocks in structuring of carbohydrate and other natural products. Two different modes, inter- and intramolecular, of inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxadienes are discussed. The domino Knoevenagel hetero-Diels-Alder reactions are also described. In recent years the use of chiral Lewis acids, chiral organocatalysts, new optically active heterodienes or dienophiles have provided enormous progress in asymmetric synthesis. Solvent-free and aqueous hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxabutadienes were also investigated. The reactivity of reactants, selectivity of cycloadditions, and chemical stability in aqueous solutions and under physiological conditions were taken into account to show the potential application of the described reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry. New bioorthogonal ligation by click inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition of in situ-generated 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes and vinyl ethers was developed. It seems that some of the hetero-Diels-Alder reactions described in this review can be applied in bioorthogonal chemistry because they are selective, non-toxic, and can function in biological conditions taking into account pH, an aqueous environment, and temperature. PMID:27573264

  17. Hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of hetaryl and aryl thioketones with acetylenic dienophiles.

    PubMed

    Mlostoń, Grzegorz; Grzelak, Paulina; Mikina, Maciej; Linden, Anthony; Heimgartner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Selected hetaryl and aryl thioketones react with acetylenecarboxylates under thermal conditions in the presence of LiClO4 or, alternatively, under high-pressure conditions (5 kbar) at room temperature yielding thiopyran derivatives. The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction occurs in a chemo- and regioselective manner. The initially formed [4 + 2] cycloadducts rearrange via a 1,3-hydrogen shift sequence to give the final products. The latter were smoothly oxidized by treatment with mCPBA to the corresponding sulfones. PMID:26124858

  18. On the theory of Brownian motion with the Alder-Wainwright effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Yasunori

    1986-12-01

    The Stokes-Boussinesq-Langevin equation, which describes the time evolution of Brownian motion with the Alder-Wainwright effect, can be treated in the framework of the theory of KMO-Langevin equations which describe the time evolution of a real, stationary Gaussian process with T-positivity (reflection positivity) originating in axiomatic quantum field theory. After proving the fluctuation-dissipation theorems for KMO-Langevin equations, we obtain an explicit formula for the deviation from the classical Einstein relation that occurs in the Stokes-Boussinesq-Langevin equation with a white noise as its random force. We are interested in whether or not it can be measured experimentally.

  19. Conformations of allylic fluorides and stereoselectivities of their diels-alder cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Grée, D; Vallerie, L; Grée, R; Toupet, L; Washington, I; Pelicier, J P; Villacampa, M; Pérez, J M; Houk, K N

    2001-04-01

    The preparations of new allylic fluorides from the corresponding alcohols are reported. Conformational analysis is achieved by comparison of experimental NMR measurements with theoretical (B3LYP) calculations of relative energies of conformers and J(H,H) and J(H,F) coupling constants. The Diels-Alder reactions of allylic fluorides are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The stereoselectivities of the reactions were determined by NMR analysis and, in one case, by X-ray crystallography. Theoretical predictions of stereoselectivity based upon transition state modeling provided good agreement with experiment. Theoretical models for allylic fluorides and transition state conformations are reported. PMID:11281778

  20. The Nitrosocarbonyl Hetero-Diels–Alder Reaction as a Useful Tool for Organic Syntheses

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Organic transformations that result in the formation of multiple covalent bonds within the same reaction are some of the most powerful tools in synthetic organic chemistry. Nitrosocarbonyl hetero-Diels–Alder (HDA) reactions allow for the simultaneous stereospecific introduction of carbon–nitrogen and carbon–oxygen bonds in one synthetic step, and provide direct access to 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines. This Review describes the development of the nitrosocarbonyl HDA reaction and the utility of the resulting oxazine ring in the synthesis of a variety of important, biologically active molecules. PMID:21520360

  1. Insight on mendable resin made by combining Diels-Alder epoxy adducts with DGEBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Iacono, S.; Martone, A.; Filippone, G.; Acierno, D.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.; Amendola, E.

    2016-05-01

    Formation of micro-cracks is a critical problem in polymers and polymer composites during their service in structural applications. In this context, materials endowed with self-healing features would lead to the next polymers generation. In the present paper, an epoxy system integrating Diels-Alder epoxy adducts is investigated by thermal and spectroscopic analysis. The direct and retro D-A reaction have been studied by FTIR and specific absorption bands have been identified. Finally, mechanical tests have been performed on the system. The polymer is able to heal fracture and micro-cracks recovering its stiffness after a thermal treatment.

  2. Silver Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Cycloadditions of 2′-Hydroxychalcones

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Huan; Becker, Clinton F.; Elliott, Sean J.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Porco, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles are currently being employed as catalysts for a number of classical chemical transformations. In contrast, identification of novel reactions of nanoparticles, especially towards the synthesis of complex natural products and derivatives, is highly underdeveloped and represents a bourgeoning area in chemical synthesis. Herein, we report silica-supported silver nanoparticles as solid, recyclable catalysts for Diels-Alder cycloadditions of 2′-hydroxychalcones and dienes in high yield and turnover number. The use of silver nanoparticle catalysts is further demonstrated by the total synthesis of the cytotoxic natural product panduratin A employing a highly electron-rich dienophile and Lewis acid-sensitive diene. PMID:20443601

  3. Diels-Alder reactions of five-membered heterocycles containing one heteroatom

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyuan; Nguyen, Son T.; Williams, John D.; Peet, Norton P.

    2015-01-01

    Diels-Alder reactions of five-membered heterocycles containing one heteroatom with an N-arylmaleimide were studied. Cycloaddition of 2,5-dimethylfuran (4) with 2-(4-methylphenyl)maleimide (3) in toluene at 60 °C gave bicyclic adduct 5. Cycloadditions of 3 with 2,5-dimethylthiophene (11) and 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole (14) were also studied. Interestingly, the bicyclic compound 5 cleanly rearranged, with loss of water, when treated with p-toluenesulfonic acid in toluene at 80 °C to give 4,7-dimethyl-2-p-tolylisoindoline-1,3-dione (6). PMID:25838605

  4. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Materials through Retro Diels-Alder Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    SHALTOUT,RAAFAT M.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCCLAIN,MARK D.; PRABAKAR,SHESHASAYANA; GREAVES,JOHN; SHEA,KENNETH J.

    1999-12-08

    Hydrolysis and condensation of organically bridged bis-triethoxysilanes, (EtO){sub 3}Si-R-Si(OEt){sub 3}, results in the formation of three dimensional organic/inorganic hybrid networks (Equation 1). Properties of these materials, including porosity, are dependent on the nature of the bridging group, R. Flexible groups (akylene-spacers longer than five carbons in length) polymerize under acidic conditions to give non-porous materials. Rigid groups (such as arylene-, alkynylene-, or alkenylene) form non-porous, microporous, and macroporous gels. In many cases the pore size distributions are quite narrow. One of the motivations for preparing hybrid organic-inorganic materials is to extend the range of properties available with sol-gel systems by incorporating organic groups into the inorganic network. For example, organically modified silica gels arc either prepared by co-polymerizing an organoalkoxysilane with a silica precursor or surface silylating the inorganic gel. This can serve to increase hydrophobicity or to introduce some reactive organic functionality. However, the type and orientation of these organic functionalities is difficult to control. Furthermore, many organoalkoxysilanes can act to inhibitor even prevent gelation, limiting the final density of organic functionalities. We have devised a new route for preparing highly functionalized pores in hybrid materials using bridging groups that are thermally converted into the desired functionalities after the gel has been obtained. In this paper, we present the preparation and characterization of bridged polysilsesquioxanes with Diels-Alder adducts as the bridging groups from the sol-gel polymerization of monomers 2 and 4. The bridging groups are constructed such that the retro Diela-Alder reaction releases the dienes and leaves the dienophiles as integral parts of the network polymers. In the rigid architecture of a xerogel, this loss of organic functionality should liberate sufficient space to modify the

  5. Energy storage capacity of reversible liquid phase Diels-Alder reactions as determined by drop calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.P.

    1983-01-01

    Several Diels-Alder reactions were evaluated as possible candidates for energy storage. The goal was to use simple drop calorimetry to screen reactions and to identify those with high energy storage capacities. The dienes used were furan and substituted furans. The dienophiles used were maleic anhydride and substituted maleic anhydrides. Sixteen reactions have been examined. Three had energy storage capacities that were increased due to reaction (maleic anhydride and 2-methyl furan, maleic anhydride and 2-ethyl furan, maleic anhydride and 2,5-dimethyl furan). The remaining thirteen showed no increase in apparent heat capacity due to reaction.

  6. Continuous-flow stereoselective organocatalyzed Diels-Alder reactions in a chiral catalytic "homemade" HPLC column.

    PubMed

    Chiroli, Valerio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Cozzi, Franco; Puglisi, Alessandra; Annunziata, Rita; Celentano, Giuseppe

    2013-07-19

    Continuous-flow organocatalyzed Diels-Alder reactions have been performed with excellent enantioselectivity for the first time in a chiral "homemade" HPLC column, packed with silica on which a MacMillan catalyst has been supported by a straightforward immobilization procedure. The versatility of the system was also proven by running with the same column continuous-flow stereoselective reactions with three different substrates, showing that the catalytic reactor may efficiently work in continuo for more than 150 h; the regeneration of the HPLC column was also demonstrated, allowing to further extend the activity of the reactor to more than 300 operating hours. PMID:23808663

  7. Control of femtosecond laser driven retro-Diels-Alder-like reaction of dicyclopentadiene

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipak Kumar; Goswami, Tapas; Goswami, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Using femtosecond time resolved degenerate pump-probe mass spectrometry coupled with simple linearly chirped frequency modulated pulse, we elucidate that the dynamics of retro-Diels-Alder-like reaction of diclopentadiene (DCPD) to cyclopentadiene (CPD) in supersonic molecular beam occurs in ultrafast time scale. Negatively chirped pulse enhances the ion yield of CPD, as compared to positively chirped pulse. This indicates that by changing the frequency (chirp) of the laser pulse we can control the ion yield of a chemical reaction. PMID:23814449

  8. Hetero-Diels–Alder reactions of hetaryl and aryl thioketones with acetylenic dienophiles

    PubMed Central

    Grzelak, Paulina; Mikina, Maciej; Linden, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summary Selected hetaryl and aryl thioketones react with acetylenecarboxylates under thermal conditions in the presence of LiClO4 or, alternatively, under high-pressure conditions (5 kbar) at room temperature yielding thiopyran derivatives. The hetero-Diels–Alder reaction occurs in a chemo- and regioselective manner. The initially formed [4 + 2] cycloadducts rearrange via a 1,3-hydrogen shift sequence to give the final products. The latter were smoothly oxidized by treatment with mCPBA to the corresponding sulfones. PMID:26124858

  9. The Inverse Demand Oxa-Diels-Alder Reaction of Resorcinarenes: An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Regioselectivity and Diastereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, Karolina; Jędrzejewska, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Michał; Szumna, Agnieszka; Iwanek, Waldemar

    2016-07-15

    The Diels-Alder reaction enables introduction of new functionalities onto the resorcinarene skeleton with simultaneous generation of new stereogenic centers and expansion of the internal cavity. We present highly regio- and diastereoselective inverse electron demand oxa-Diels-Alder reactions of resorcinarene ortho-quinone methide with benzofuran and indene, each generating 12 new stereogenic centers. The mechanism and reasons for regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity were analyzed using theoretical calculations (NBO charges, Fukui functions, transition state energies, and thermodynamic stability of the products). Enantiomers were separated, and their configurations were determined by comparison of experimental and theoretical electronic circular dichroism spectra. PMID:27336857

  10. Chiral Pyridinium Phosphoramide as a Dual Brønsted Acid Catalyst for Enantioselective Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Saki; Tahira, Yuu; Terazawa, Kanako; Yamazaki, Ken; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Hara, Osamu

    2016-05-01

    Chiral pyridinium phosphoramide 1·HX was designed to be a new class of chiral Brønsted acid catalyst in which both the pyridinium proton and the adjacent imide-like proton activated by the electron-withdrawing pyridinium moiety could work cooperatively as strong dual proton donors. The potential of 1·HX was shown in the enantioselective Diels-Alder reactions of 1-amino dienes with various dienophiles including N-unsubstituted maleimide, which has yet to be successfully used in an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction. PMID:27093584

  11. Medium-Ring Effects on the Endo/Exo Selectivity of the Organocatalytic Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Joel F; James, Natalie C; Bozkurt, Esra; Aviyente, Viktorya; White, Jonathan M; Holland, Mareike C; Gilmour, Ryan; Holmes, Andrew B; Houk, K N

    2015-12-18

    The intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has been used as a powerful method to access the tricyclic core of the eunicellin natural products from a number of 9-membered-ring precursors. The endo/exo selectivity of this reaction can be controlled through a remarkable organocatalytic approach, employing MacMillan's imidazolidinone catalysts, although the mechanistic origin of this selectivity remains unclear. We present a combined experimental and density functional theory investigation, providing insight into the effects of medium-ring constraints on the organocatalyzed intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to form the isobenzofuran core of the eunicellins. PMID:26560246

  12. Enantio- and periselective nitroalkene Diels-Alder reactions catalyzed by helical-chiral hydrogen bond donor catalysts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhili; Narcis, Maurice J; Takenaka, Norito

    2013-01-01

    Helical-chiral double hydrogen bond donor catalysts promote the nitroalkene Diels-Alder reaction in an enantio- and periselective manner. This represents the first asymmetric catalytic nitroalkene Diels-Alder reaction via LUMO-lowering catalysis. To gain an insight into this new process, the substrate scope of our catalyst was investigated by exploiting readily available 5-substituted pentamethylcyclopentadienes. The catalyst was found to tolerate dienes with different steric demands as well as dienes substituted with heteroatoms. The synthetic utility of 5-substituted pentamethylcyclopentadienes is rather limited, and thus we have developed a three-step route to 1,4,5,5-tetrasubstituted cyclopentadienes from commercially available ketones. PMID:23966083

  13. The Hexadehydro-Diels-Alder Cycloisomerization Reaction Proceeds by a Stepwise Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Niu, Dawen; Hoye, Thomas R

    2016-06-29

    We report here experiments showing that the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) cycloisomerization reaction proceeds in a stepwise manner-i.e., via a diradical intermediate. Judicious use of substituent effects was decisive. We prepared (i) a series of triyne HDDA substrates that differed only in the R group present on the remote terminus of the diynophilic alkyne and (ii) an analogous series of dienophilic alkynes (n-C7H15COC≡CR) for use in classical Diels-Alder (DA) reactions (with 1,3-cyclopentadiene). The R groups were CF3, CHO, COMe/Et, CO2Me, CONMe2/Et2, H, and 1-propynyl. The relative rates of both the HDDA cyclization reactions and the simple DA cycloadditions were measured. The reactivity trends revealed a dramatic difference in the behaviors of the CF3 (slowest HDDA and nearly fastest DA) and 1-propynyl (fastest HDDA and slowest DA) containing members of each series. These differences can be explained by invoking radical-stabilizing energies rather than electron-withdrawing effects as the dominating feature of the HDDA reaction. PMID:27266843

  14. New Insights into the Diels-Alder Reaction of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Brisebois, Patrick P; Kuss, Christian; Schougaard, Steen B; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Siaj, Mohamed

    2016-04-18

    Graphene oxide is regarded as a major precursor for graphene-based materials. The development of graphene oxide based derivatives with new functionalities requires a thorough understanding of its chemical reactivity, especially for canonical synthetic methods such as the Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The Diels-Alder reaction has been successfully extended with graphene oxide as a source of diene by using maleic anhydride as a dienophile, thereby outlining the presence of the cis diene present in the graphene oxide framework. This reaction provides fundamental information for understanding the exact structure and chemical nature of graphene oxide. On the basis of high-resolution (13) C-SS NMR spectra, we show evidence for the formation of new sp(3) carbon centers covalently bonded to graphene oxide following hydrolysis of the reaction product. DFT calculations are also used to show that the presence of a cis dihydroxyl and C vacancy on the surface of graphene oxide are promoting the reaction with significant negative reaction enthalpies. PMID:26953926

  15. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family. PMID:25603394

  16. Diarylheptanoids Rich Fraction of Alnus nepalensis Attenuates Malaria Pathogenesis: In-vitro and In-vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Archana; Yadav, Deepti; Mohanty, Shilpa; Cheema, Harveer Singh; Gupta, Madan M; Darokar, Mahendra P; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2016-06-01

    Diarylheptanoids from Alnus nepalensis leaves have been reported for promising activity against filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, and this has prompted us to investigate its anti-malarial and safety profile using in-vitro and in-vivo bioassays. A. nepalensis leaf extracts were tested in-vitro against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum NF54 by measuring the parasite specific lactate dehydrogenase activity. Among all, the chloroform extract (ANC) has shown promising anti-plasmodial activity (IC50 8.06 ± 0.26 µg/mL). HPLC analysis of ANC showed the presence of diarylheptanoids. Efficacy and safety of ANC were further validated in in-vivo system using Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria model and acute oral toxicity in mice. Malaria was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of P. berghei infected red blood cells to the female Balb/c mice. ANC was administered orally at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day following Peter's 4 day suppression test. Oral administration of ANC showed significant reduction of parasitaemia and increase in mean survival time. It also attributed to inhibition of the parasite induced pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as afford to significant increase in the blood glucose and haemoglobin level when compared with vehicle-treated infected mice. In-vivo safety evaluation study revealed that ANC is non-toxic at higher concentration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26969854

  17. High Genetic Diversity and Distinctiveness of Rear-Edge Climate Relicts Maintained by Ancient Tetraploidisation for Alnus glutinosa

    PubMed Central

    Lepais, Olivier; Muller, Serge D.; Ben Saad-Limam, Samia; Benslama, Mohamed; Rhazi, Laila; Belouahem-Abed, Djamila; Daoud-Bouattour, Amina; Gammar, Amor Mokhtar; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Bacles, Cécile Fanny Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Populations located at the rear-edge of a species’ distribution may have disproportionate ecological and evolutionary importance for biodiversity conservation in a changing global environment. Yet genetic studies of such populations remain rare. This study investigates the evolutionary history of North-African low latitude marginal populations of Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., a European tree species that plays a significant ecological role as a keystone of riparian ecosystems. We genotyped 551 adults from 19 populations located across North Africa at 12 microsatellite loci and applied a coalescent-based simulation approach to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of these populations. Surprisingly, Moroccan trees were tetraploids demonstrating a strong distinctiveness of these populations within a species otherwise known as diploid. Best-fitting models of demographic reconstruction revealed the relict nature of Moroccan populations that were found to have withstood past climate change events and to be much older than Algerian and Tunisian populations. This study highlights the complex demographic history that can be encountered in rear-edge distribution margins that here consist of both old stable climate relict and more recent populations, distinctively diverse genetically both quantitatively and qualitatively. We emphasize the high evolutionary and conservation value of marginal rear-edge populations of a keystone riparian species in the context of on-going climate change in the Mediterranean region. PMID:24098677

  18. Alnus peptides modify membrane porosity and induce the release of nitrogen-rich metabolites from nitrogen-fixing Frankia.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Hay, Anne E; Poly, Franck; François, Philippe; Hocher, Valerie; Mergaert, Peter; Balmand, Severine; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Actinorhizal plant growth in pioneer ecosystems depends on the symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia cells that are housed in special root organs called nodules. Nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated Frankia cells known as vesicles. Vesicles lack a pathway for assimilating ammonia beyond the glutamine stage and are supposed to transfer reduced nitrogen to the plant host cells. However, a mechanism for the transfer of nitrogen-fixation products to the plant cells remains elusive. Here, new elements for this metabolic exchange are described. We show that Alnus glutinosa nodules express defensin-like peptides, and one of these, Ag5, was found to target Frankia vesicles. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that Ag5 induces drastic physiological changes in Frankia, including an increased permeability of vesicle membranes. A significant release of nitrogen-containing metabolites, mainly glutamine and glutamate, was found in N2-fixing cultures treated with Ag5. This work demonstrates that the Ag5 peptide is central for Frankia physiology in nodules and uncovers a novel cellular function for this large and widespread defensin peptide family. PMID:25603394

  19. Anomalous Reactivity and Selectivity in the Intermolecular Diels-Alder Reactions of Multisubstituted Acyclic Dienes with Geometrical Isomers of Enals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Hui; Cai, Sai-Hu; Xu, Yun-He; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2016-05-20

    A Lewis-acid catalyzed intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction between multisubstituted acyclic dienes and the E and Z isomers of α,β-enals was studied. It was found that the diene reacted selectively with the Z-isomer of the α,β-enal. PMID:27132468

  20. A Kinetic Study of the Diels-Alder Reaction. An Experiment Illustrating Simple Second-Order Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestri, Michael G.; Dills, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment for teaching the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. Provides background information about first- and second-order reactions, experimental procedures of the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and dimethyl fumarate, and the experimental results. (YP)

  1. Microwave-Enhanced Organic Syntheses for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Reaction, and Williamson Ether Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Falcone, Danielle; Gordon, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Microwave heating enhanced the rate of three reactions typically performed in our undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory: a Diels-Alder cycloaddition, a Wittig salt formation, and a Williamson ether synthesis. Ninety-minute refluxes were shortened to 10 min using a laboratory-grade microwave oven. In addition, yields improved for the Wittig…

  2. The Preparation and Properties of Thermo-reversibly Cross-linked Rubber Via Diels-Alder Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Polgar, Lorenzo Massimo; van Duin, Martin; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A method for using Diels Alder thermo-reversible chemistry as cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. In this work, a commercial ethylene-propylene rubber, grafted with maleic anhydride, is thermo-reversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride moieties are first modified with furfurylamine to graft furan groups to the rubber backbone. These pendant furan groups are then cross-linked with a bis-maleimide via a Diels-Alder coupling reaction. Both reactions can be performed under a broad range of experimental conditions and can easily be applied on a large scale. The material properties of the resulting Diels-Alder cross-linked rubbers are similar to a peroxide-cured ethylene/propylene/diene rubber (EPDM) reference. The cross-links break at elevated temperatures (> 150 °C) via the retro-Diels-Alder reaction and can be reformed by thermal annealing at lower temperatures (50-70 °C). Reversibility of the system was proven with infrared spectroscopy, solubility tests and mechanical properties. Recyclability of the material was also shown in a practical way, i.e., by cutting a cross-linked sample into small parts and compression molding them into new samples displaying comparable mechanical properties, which is not possible for conventionally cross-linked rubbers. PMID:27583665

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic dihydropyrans via organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reactions of enolizable aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Long; Yang, Kai-Chuan; Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-23

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reaction involving aqueous acetaldehyde has been discovered. The reaction, in which cyclic enones serve as dienes in the presence of readily available secondary amine catalysts, allows facile construction of optically active bicyclic dihydropyrans. Other typical enolizable aliphatic aldehydes can also serve as competent dienophiles in the reaction. PMID:27436351

  4. Sorocenols G and H, Anti-MRSA Oxygen Heterocyclic Diels-Alder-type Adducts from Sorocea muriculata Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a root extract of Sorocea muriculata led to the isolation and identification of two new oxygen heterocyclic Diels-Alder-type adducts, sorocenols G (1) and H (2), along with lupeol-3-(3'R-hydroxytetradecanoate) and oxyresveratrol. The structures of 1 and 2 were eluci...

  5. Diversity-Oriented Approaches to Polycyclics and Bioinspired Molecules via the Diels-Alder Strategy: Green Chemistry, Synthetic Economy, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Chavan, Arjun S; Goyal, Deepti

    2015-05-11

    We describe diverse approaches to various dienes and their utilization in the Diels-Alder reaction to produce a variety of polycycles. The dienes covered here are prepared by simple alkylation reaction or via the Claisen rearrangement or by enyne metathesis of alkyne or enyne building blocks. Here, we have also included the Diels-Alder chemistry of dendralenes, a higher analog of cross-conjugated dienes. The present article is inclusive of o-xylylene derivatives that are generated in situ starting with benzosultine or benzosulfone derivatives. The Diels-Alder reaction of these dienes with various dienophiles gave diverse polycyclic systems and biologically important targets. PMID:25875156

  6. Poly /Diels-Alder/ matrix resins. [high temperature resistant graphite reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Orell, M. K.; Sheppard, C. H.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A poly (Diels-Alder) (PDA) resin approach was investigated as a means to achieve autoclavability of high-temperature resistant resin/fiber composites under mild fabrication conditions. The results of the study were highly promising and program objectives were achieved. Low-void content Type A-S graphite reinforced composites were autoclave fabricated from a PDA resin/fiber prepreg prepared from an acetone:methanol:dioxane varnish. Autoclave conditions were 400 F and 100 psi for up to two hours duration. After postcure at temperatures up to 600 F, the composites demonstrated high initial mechanical properties at temperatures up to 550 F. The results from isothermal aging studies in air for 1000 hours indicated potential for long-term (over 1000 hours) use at 500 F and shorter-term use at 550 F.

  7. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that themore » diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.« less

  8. Kondrat'eva ligation: Diels-Alder-based irreversible reaction for bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Jouanno, Laurie-Anne; Chevalier, Arnaud; Sekkat, Nawal; Perzo, Nicolas; Castel, Hélène; Romieu, Anthony; Lange, Norbert; Sabot, Cyrille; Renard, Pierre-Yves

    2014-11-01

    Diversification of existing chemoselective ligations is required to efficiently access complex and well-defined biomolecular assemblies with unique and valuable properties. The development and bioconjugation applications of a novel Diels-Alder-based irreversible site-specific ligation are reported. The strategy is based on a Kondrat'eva cycloaddition between bioinert and readily functionalizable 5-alkoxyoxazoles and maleimides that readily react together under mild and easily tunable reaction conditions to afford a fully stable pyridine scaffold. The potential of this novel bioconjugation is demonstrated through the preparation of fluorescent conjugates of biomolecules and a novel Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probe suitable for the in vivo detection and imaging of urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA), which is a key protease involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:25346140

  9. A mechanochemical study of the effects of compression on a Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sanjiv K; Brown, Katie; Todde, Guido; Subramanian, Gopinath

    2016-08-21

    We examine the effects of compressive external forces on the mechanisms of the parent Diels-Alder (DA) reaction between butadiene and ethylene. Reaction pathways and transition states were calculated using the nudged elastic band method within a mechanochemical framework at the CASSCF(6,6)/6-31G**, as well as the B3LYP/6-311++G** levels of theory. Our results suggest that compressive hydrostatic pressure lowers the energy barrier for the parent DA reaction while suppressing the undesirable side reaction, thereby leading to a direct increase in the yield of cyclohexene. Compressive pressure also increases the exothermicity of the parent DA reaction, which would lead to increased temperatures in a reaction vessel and thereby indirectly increase the yield of cyclohexene. Our estimates indicate that the compression used in our study corresponds to a range of 68 MPa-1410 MPa. PMID:27544105

  10. Dynamics of methane production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Westermann, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    1987-10-01

    The dynamics of sulfate reduction, methane production, and denitrification were investigated in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, stimulated methane production in soil slurries, thus suggesting competition for common substrates between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Acetate, hydrogen, and methanol were found to stimulate both sulfate reduction and methane production, while trimethylamine mainly stimulated methane production. Nitrate addition reduced both methane production and sulfate reduction, either as a consequence of competition of poisoning of the bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were only slightly limited by the availability of electron acceptors, while denitrifying bacteria were seriously limited by low nitrate concentrations. Arrhenius plots of the three processes revealed different responses to temperature changes in the slurries. Methane production was most sensitive to temperature changes, followed by denitrification and sulfate reduction. No significant differences between slope patterns were observed when comparing summer and winter measurements, indicating similar populations regarding temperature responses.

  11. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that the diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.

  12. Click and Patterned Functionalization of Graphene by Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhou, Li-Li; Lang, Shuang-Yan; Lu, Hai-Yan; Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan-Feng; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-06-22

    Chemical functionalization is a promising approach to controllably manipulate the characteristics of graphene. Here, we designed cis-dienes, featuring two dihydronaphthalene backbones, to decorate a graphene surface via Diels-Alder (DA) click reaction. The installation of a diene moiety into a nonplanar molecular structure to form cis-conformation enables a rapid (∼5 min) DA reaction between graphene and diene groups. Patterned graphene of sub-micrometer resolution can be obtained by easily soaking poly(methyl methacrylate)-masked graphene in solution of hydroxyl-substituted cis-diene at room temperature. The functionalization degree can be further controlled by carrying out the reaction at higher temperature. The present result gives important insight into the effect of molecular conformation on the graphene functionalization process, and provides an effective and facile method for graphene functionalization. PMID:27264112

  13. Total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine via an organocatalytic Diels-Alder approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Duan, Shengguo; Tao, Cheng; Zhai, Hongbin; Qiu, Fayang G

    2015-01-01

    The structurally complex alkaloid gelsemine was previously thought to have no significant biological activities, but a recent study has shown that it has potent and specific antinociception in chronic pain. While this molecule has attracted significant interests from the synthetic community, an efficient synthetic strategy is still the goal of many synthetic chemists. Here we report the asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine, including a highly diastereoselective and enantioselective organocatalytic Diels-Alder reaction, an efficient intramolecular trans-annular aldol condensation furnishing the prolidine ring and establishing the configuration of the C20 quaternary carbon stereochemical centre. The entire gelsemine skeleton was constructed through a late-stage intramolecular SN2 substitution. The enantiomeric excess of this total synthesis is over 99%, and the overall yield is around 5%. PMID:25995149

  14. Total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine via an organocatalytic Diels–Alder approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoming; Duan, Shengguo; Tao, Cheng; Zhai, Hongbin; Qiu, Fayang G.

    2015-01-01

    The structurally complex alkaloid gelsemine was previously thought to have no significant biological activities, but a recent study has shown that it has potent and specific antinociception in chronic pain. While this molecule has attracted significant interests from the synthetic community, an efficient synthetic strategy is still the goal of many synthetic chemists. Here we report the asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-gelsemine, including a highly diastereoselective and enantioselective organocatalytic Diels–Alder reaction, an efficient intramolecular trans-annular aldol condensation furnishing the prolidine ring and establishing the configuration of the C20 quaternary carbon stereochemical centre. The entire gelsemine skeleton was constructed through a late-stage intramolecular SN2 substitution. The enantiomeric excess of this total synthesis is over 99%, and the overall yield is around 5%. PMID:25995149

  15. Synthesis of tetrasubstituted 1-silyloxy-3-aminobutadienes and chemistry beyond Diels–Alder reactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xijian; Peng, Siyu; Li, Li; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Electron-rich dienes have revolutionized the synthesis of complex compounds since the discovery of the legendary Diels–Alder cycloaddition reaction. This highly efficient bond-forming process has served as a fundamental strategy to assemble many structurally formidable molecules. Amino silyloxy butadienes are arguably the most reactive diene species that are isolable and bottleable. Since the pioneering discovery by Rawal, 1-amino-3-silyloxybutadienes have been found to undergo cycloaddition reactions with unparalleled mildness, leading to significant advances in both asymmetric catalysis and total synthesis of biologically active natural products. In sharp contrast, this class of highly electron-rich conjugated olefins has not been studied in non-cycloaddition reactions. Here we report a simple synthesis of tetrasubstituted 1-silyloxy-3-aminobutadienes, a complementarily substituted Rawal's diene. This family of molecules is found to undergo a series of intriguing chemical transformations orthogonal to cycloaddition reactions. Structurally diverse polysubstituted ring architectures are established in one step from these dienes. PMID:25898310

  16. Dynamics of Methane Production, Sulfate Reduction, and Denitrification in a Permanently Waterlogged Alder Swamp

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of sulfate reduction, methane production, and denitrification were investigated in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, stimulated methane production in soil slurries, thus suggesting competition for common substrates between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Acetate, hydrogen, and methanol were found to stimulate both sulfate reduction and methane production, while trimethylamine mainly stimulated methane production. Nitrate addition reduced both methane production and sulfate reduction, either as a consequence of competition or poisoning of the bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were only slightly limited by the availability of electron acceptors, while denitrifying bacteria were seriously limited by low nitrate concentrations. Arrhenius plots of the three processes revealed different responses to temperature changes in the slurries. Methane production was most sensitive to temperature changes, followed by denitrification and sulfate reduction. No significant differences between slope patterns were observed when comparing summer and winter measurements, indicating similar populations regarding temperature responses. PMID:16347472

  17. Diversity and specificity of Frankia strains in nodules of sympatric Myrica gale, Alnus incana, and Shepherdia canadensis determined by rrs gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Huguet, V; Batzli, J M; Zimpfer, J F; Normand, P; Dawson, J O; Fernandez, M P

    2001-05-01

    The identity of Frankia strains from nodules of Myrica gale, Alnus incana subsp. rugosa, and Shepherdia canadensis was determined for a natural stand on a lake shore sand dune in Wisconsin, where the three actinorhizal plant species were growing in close proximity, and from two additional stands with M. gale as the sole actinorhizal component. Unisolated strains were compared by their 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction patterns using a direct PCR amplification protocol on nodules. Phylogenetic relationships among nodular Frankia strains were analyzed by comparing complete 16S rDNA sequences of study and reference strains. Where the three actinorhizal species occurred together, each host species was nodulated by a different phylogenetic group of Frankia strains. M. gale strains from all three sites belonged to an Alnus-Casuarina group, closely related to Frankia alni representative strains, and were low in diversity for a host genus considered promiscuous with respect to Frankia microsymbiont genotype. Frankia strains from A. incana nodules were also within the Alnus-Casuarina cluster, distinct from Frankia strains of M. gale nodules at the mixed actinorhizal site but not from Frankia strains from two M. gale nodules at a second site in Wisconsin. Frankia strains from nodules of S. canadensis belonged to a divergent subset of a cluster of Elaeagnaceae-infective strains and exhibited a high degree of diversity. The three closely related local Frankia populations in Myrica nodules could be distinguished from one another using our approach. In addition to geographic separation and host selectivity for Frankia microsymbionts, edaphic factors such as soil moisture and organic matter content, which varied among locales, may account for differences in Frankia populations found in Myrica nodules. PMID:11319089

  18. A possible role of an anthocyanin filter in low-intensity light stress-induced flowering in Perilla frutescens var. crispa.

    PubMed

    Miki, Satomi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2015-03-01

    The red-leaved form of Perilla frutescens var. crispa was induced to flower by low-intensity light stress. The leaves of this form are normally red, but turned green under low-intensity light due to anthocyanin depletion in the epidermis. Flowering did not occur when plants were grown under light passed through a red-colored cellophane paper, which has an absorption spectrum similar to that of anthocyanins. High-concentration anthocyanins may play the role of a red-colored optical filter under normal light conditions, and this filter effect may be lost under low-intensity light, causing a change in the wavelength characteristics of the light with which the mesophyll cells are irradiated. This change may induce a photobiological effect leading to flowering. The gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, decreased under low-intensity light. L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), which is widely used as a PAL inhibitor, inhibited low-intensity light stress-induced flowering and increased PAL activity and anthocyanin content. The inhibition of flowering by AOPP in P. frutescens may be through different mechanisms than PAL inhibition. PMID:25544591

  19. Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Dienes with Acrylic Esters: A Novel Approach to Photocured Polymer Film Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilhan, Faysal; Tyson, Daniel S.; Smith, Deedee; Meador, Mary Ann; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Diels-Alder cycloadditions have often been utilized in polymer synthesis as an alternative to condensation reactions. In our earlier efforts, we developed a new method for the preparation of linear aromatic polyimides, which employs o-quionodimethanes (o-QDMs), generated by a well-known photochemical reaction: the photoenolization of o-methylphenyl ketones. Photolysis of o-methylbenzophenone 1 produces hydroxy-o-quino- diemthane 2, which can be trapped with dienophiles, such as dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, to efficiently yield the corresponding cycloadduct (Scheme 1). Here we extend this approach to a novel photocuring process for development of polymer films. We synthesized a series of molecules with multi o-mehtylphenyl ketone functionalities. We further investigated these molecules as photoreactive monomers to obtain polyester films through Diels-Alder cycloadditions.

  20. Exploring Reaction Mechanism on Generalized Force Modified Potential Energy Surfaces (G-FMPES) for Diels-Alder Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Sanjiv; Brown, Katie; Subramanian, Gopinath

    We apply a recent formulation for searching minimum energy reaction path (MERP) and saddle point to atomic systems subjected to an external force. We demonstrate the effect of a loading modality resembling hydrostatic pressure on the trans to cis conformational change of 1,3-butadiene, and the simplest Diels-Alder reaction between ethylene and 1,3-butadiene. The calculated MERP and saddle points on the generalized force modified potential energy surface (G-FMPES) are compared with the corresponding quantities on an unmodified potential energy surface. Our study is performed using electronic structure calculations at the HF/6-31G** level as implemented in the AIMS-MOLPRO code. Our calculations suggest that the added compressive pressure lowers the energy of cis butadiene. The activation energy barrier for the concerted Diels-Alder reaction is found to decrease progressively with increasing compressive pressure.

  1. Studies on the synthesis of (-)-spinosyn a: application of the steric directing group strategy to transannular Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott A; Roush, William R

    2002-06-14

    A highly diastereoselective and enantioselective synthesis of the decahydro-as-indacene nucleus 12 of (-)-spinosyn A (1) is reported. By implementing the steric directing group strategy, tricyclic lactone 37 was produced from a remarkably diastereoselective transannular Diels-Alder reaction of lactone 9. The tricyclic core of the natural product was then obtained by using an Ireland-Claisen ring contraction of 37. Reversal of the order of these two steps resulted in an almost complete loss of diastereoselectivity. PMID:12054969

  2. Copper-Catalyzed Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction and Halogenation: An Approach To Synthesize 7-Halogenated Chromenoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jiao; Xu, Zhanwei; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Bao, Ming

    2016-05-20

    A new halogenation method to construct halogen-substituted quinoline moieties is described. The Cu-catalyzed intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder reaction and halogenation reaction proceeded smoothly under mild conditions to produce the corresponding 7-chloro-6H-chromeno[4,3-b]quinolines and 7-chloro-6H-thiochromeno[4,3-b]quinolines in satisfactory yields. PMID:27145113

  3. Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

  4. A Catalyst-Enabled Diastereodivergent Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Complementarity of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Chiral Amines.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zi-Qiang; Wang, Min; Chow, Chi Hao Eugene; Zhao, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Highly efficient and diastereodivergent aza-Diels-Alder reactions have been developed to access either diastereomeric series of benzofuran-fused δ-lactams and dihydropyridines in nearly perfect stereoselectivity (d.r. >20:1, >99 % ee for all examples). The complementarity of N-heterocyclic carbene and chiral amine as the catalyst was demonstrated for the first time, together with an excellent level of catalytic efficiency (1 mol % loading). PMID:27219298

  5. A new approach to the synthesis of monomers and polymers incorporating furan/maleimide Diels-Alder adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banella, Maria Barbara; Gioia, Claudio; Vannini, Micaela; Colonna, Martino; Celli, Annamaria; Gandini, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction between furan and maleimide moieties is a well-known and widely used strategy to build bio-based macromolecular structures with peculiar properties. The furan-maleimide adducts are thermally reversible because they can be broken above about 120°C and recombined at lower temperatures. At the moment only the monomers exhibiting the furan or the maleimide moieties on their extremity are used in order to get linear or cross-linked polymeric structures. The innovative idea described here consists in using a monomer bearing two carboxylic acidic groups on its extremities and a furan-maleimide Diels-Alder adduct within its structure. This monomer can give rise to classical polycondensation reactions leading to polymers. These polymers (which are polyesters in the present case) can be broken at high temperatures in correspondence of the furane-maleimide Diels-Alder adduct leading to segments exhibiting furan or maleimide moieties at their extremities, which at lower temperature recombine leading to random or block copolymers.

  6. Design Paradigm Utilizing Reversible Diels-Alder Reactions to Enhance the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Materials.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joshua R; Appuhamillage, Gayan A; Thompson, Christina M; Voit, Walter; Smaldone, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    A design paradigm is demonstrated that enables new functional 3D printed materials made by fused filament fabrication (FFF) utilizing a thermally reversible dynamic covalent Diels-Alder reaction to dramatically improve both strength and toughness via self-healing mechanisms. To achieve this, we used as a mending agent a partially cross-linked terpolymer consisting of furan-maleimide Diels-Alder (fmDA) adducts that exhibit reversibility at temperatures typically used for FFF printing. When this mending agent is blended with commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) and printed, the resulting materials demonstrate an increase in the interfilament adhesion strength along the z-axis of up to 130%, with ultimate tensile strength increasing from 10 MPa in neat PLA to 24 MPa in fmDA-enhanced PLA. Toughness in the z-axis aligned prints increases by up to 460% from 0.05 MJ/m(3) for unmodified PLA to 0.28 MJ/m(3) for the remendable PLA. Importantly, it is demonstrated that a thermally reversible cross-linking paradigm based on the furan-maleimide Diels-Alder (fmDA) reaction can be more broadly applied to engineer property enhancements and remending abilities to a host of other 3D printable materials with superior mechanical properties. PMID:27299858

  7. Effects of fungal inocula and habitat conditions on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Javier; Galán, Javier; Descals, Enrique; Pozo, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how fungal decomposer (aquatic hyphomycetes) communities colonizing alder and eucalyptus leaf litter respond to changes in habitat characteristics (transplantation experiment). We examined the breakdown of leaf materials and the associated fungal communities at two contrasting sites, a headwater stream (H) and a midreach (M). Agroforestry increased from headwater to midreach. One month after the start of experiments at both sites, some leaf samples from the midreach site were transplanted to the headwater site (M-H treatment). Although both sites showed similar dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, eucalyptus leaves initially incubated at the midreach site (M, M-H) increased their breakdown rate compared to those incubated along the experiment at the headwater site (H). Alder breakdown rate was not enhanced, suggesting that their consumption was not limited by nutrient availability. Sporulation rates clearly differed between leaf types (alder > eucalyptus) and streams (H > M), but no transplantation effect was detected. When comparing conidial assemblages after transplantation, an inoculum effect (persistence of early colonizing species) was clear in both leaf species. Substrate preference and shifts in the relative importance of some fungal species along the process were also observed. Overall, our results support the determining role of the initial conditioning phase on the whole litter breakdown process, highlighting the importance of intrinsic leaf characteristics and those of the incubation habitat. PMID:24141942

  8. Silylium ion-catalyzed challenging Diels-Alder reactions: the danger of hidden proton catalysis with strong Lewis acids.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ruth K; Müther, Kristine; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Grimme, Stefan; Oestreich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The pronounced Lewis acidity of tricoordinate silicon cations brings about unusual reactivity in Lewis acid catalysis. The downside of catalysis with strong Lewis acids is, though, that these do have the potential to mediate the formation of protons by various mechanisms, and the thus released Brønsted acid might even outcompete the Lewis acid as the true catalyst. That is an often ignored point. One way of eliminating a hidden proton-catalyzed pathway is to add a proton scavenger. The low-temperature Diels-Alder reactions catalyzed by our ferrocene-stabilized silicon cation are such a case where the possibility of proton catalysis must be meticulously examined. Addition of the common hindered base 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine resulted, however, in slow decomposition along with formation of the corresponding pyridinium ion. Quantitative deprotonation of the silicon cation was observed with more basic (Mes)(3)P to yield the phosphonium ion. A deuterium-labeling experiment verified that the proton is abstracted from the ferrocene backbone. A reasonable mechanism of the proton formation is proposed on the basis of quantum-chemical calculations. This is, admittedly, a particular case but suggests that the use of proton scavengers must be carefully scrutinized, as proton formation might be provoked rather than prevented. Proton-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions are not well-documented in the literature, and a representative survey employing TfOH is included here. The outcome of these catalyses is compared with our silylium ion-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions, thereby clearly corroborating that hidden Brønsted acid catalysis is not operating with our Lewis acid. Several simple-looking but challenging Diels-Alder reactions with exceptionally rare dienophile/enophile combinations are reported. Another indication is obtained from the chemoselectivity of the catalyses. The silylium ion-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction is general with regard to the oxidation level of the

  9. A Single Molecular Diels-Alder Crosslinker for Achieving Recyclable Cross-Linked Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengli; Wang, Fenfen; Peng, Yongjin; Chen, Tiehong; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Pingchuan

    2015-09-01

    A triol-functional crosslinker combining the thermoreversible properties of Diels-Alder (DA) adducts in one molecule is designed, synthesized, and used as an ideal substitute of a traditional crosslinker to prepare thermal recyclable cross-linked polyurethanes with excellent mechanical properties and recyclability in a very simple and efficient way. The recycle property of these materials achieved by the DA/retro-DA reaction at a suitable temperature is verified by differential scanning calorimetry and in situ variable temperature solid-state NMR experiments during the cyclic heating and cooling processes. The thermal recyclability and remending ability of the bulk polyurethanes is demonstrated by three polymer processing methods, including hot-press molding, injection molding, and solution casting. It is notable that all the recycled cross-linked polymers display nearly invariable elongation/stress at break compared to the as-synthesized samples. Further end-group functionalization of this single molecular DA crosslinker provides the potential in preparing a wide range of recyclable cross-linked polymers. PMID:26248230

  10. Artificial Metalloenzymes with the Neocarzinostatin Scaffold: Toward a Biocatalyst for the Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Wadih; Cotchico-Alonso, Lur; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Urvoas, Agathe; Rousseau, Maëva; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Ricoux, Rémy

    2016-03-01

    A copper(II) cofactor coupled to a testosterone anchor, copper(II)-(5-(Piperazin-1-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline)testosterone-17-hemisuccinamide (10) was synthesized and associated with a neocarzinostatin variant, NCS-3.24 (KD =3 μm), thus generating a new artificial metalloenzyme by following a "Trojan horse" strategy. Interestingly, the artificial enzyme was able to efficiently catalyze the Diels-Alder cyclization reaction of cyclopentadiene (1) with 2-azachalcone (2). In comparison with what was observed with cofactor 10 alone, the artificial enzymes favored formation of the exo products (endo/exo ratios of 84:16 and 62:38, respectively, after 12 h). Molecular modeling studies assigned the synergy between the copper complex and the testosterone (KD =13 μm) moieties in the binding of 10 to good van der Waals complementarity. Moreover, by pushing the modeling exercise to its limits, we hypothesize on the molecular grounds that are responsible for the observed selectivity. PMID:26677011

  11. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  12. Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

  13. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediate ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

  14. Storing solar energy with liquid phase Diels-Alder reactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Poling, B.E.

    1983-07-28

    At the beginning of this project, a preliminary study was completed that indicated the Diels-Alder reaction between maleic anhydride and 2 methyl furan had an energy storage capacity greater than water. During the last two years when this grant was in effect, three additional projects have been completed. First, an improved calorimetric techniques was developed for determination of the energy storage capacity of a reversible liquid phase chemical reaction. This technique confirmed the validity of the earlier results for the maleic anhydride-methyl furan reaction. Second, a technique was developed for characterizing solution nonidealities for mixtures in which reversible chemical reactions occur. It was found that for the maleic anhydride-2 methyl furan reaction, these non idealities could affect equilibrium compositions by nearly 40%. Third, drop calorimetry was used as a screening method to examine sixteen reactions for their potential as energy storage candidates. Of the sixteen examined, three (all involving maleic anhydride and substituted furan) showed an increased energy storage capacity due to reaction while the remaining thirteen showed no increase. In the following report, results of these three studies are summarized. Finally, a general summary of the status of energy storage by chemical reactions is presented.

  15. Surface confined retro Diels-Alder reaction driven by the swelling of weak polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Beier; Cha, Wenli; Mao, Tingting; Wu, Yuanzi; Qian, Hujun; Zhou, Yitian; Chen, Xiuli; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Lanying; Yang, Guang; Lu, Zhongyuan; Zhu, Qiang; Ma, Hongwei

    2015-03-25

    Recently, the type of reactions driven by mechanical force has increased significantly; however, the number of methods for activating those mechanochemical reactions stays relatively limited. Furthermore, in situ characterization of a reaction is usually hampered by the inherent properties of conventional methods. In this study, we report a new platform that utilizes mechanical force generated by the swelling of surface tethered weak polyelectrolytes. An initiator with Diels-Alder (DA) adduct structure was applied to prepare the polyelectrolyte-carboxylated poly(OEGMA-r-HEMA), so that the force could trigger the retro DA reaction. The reaction was monitored in real time by quartz crystal microbalance and confirmed with atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the conventional heating method, the swelling-induced retro DA reaction proceeded rapidly with high conversion ratio and selectivity. A 23.61 kcal/mol theoretical energy barrier supported the practicability of this retro DA reaction being triggered mechanically at ambient temperature. During swelling, the tensile force was controllable and persistent. This unique feature imparts this mechanochemical platform the potential to "freeze" an intermediate state of a reaction for in situ spectroscopic observations, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and frequency generation spectroscopy. PMID:25734373

  16. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediatemore » ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.« less

  17. Stable Isotope Probing of Peat and Forest Floor Amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quideau, Sylvie; Béasse, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In Alberta, Canada, land reclamation efforts utilize peat as an organic amendment to help reclaim decommissioned oil sands mine sites to upland boreal forests. This study investigates the rhizosphere microbial communities of two pioneer species, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), a species not known for strong associations with the soil microbial community, and alder (Alnus crispa Ait.), a species well known for mutualism with actinomycetes. Specifically, the objective was to determine how different organic amendments (peat versus forest floor) influenced the rhizosphere microbial communities and how this could be linked to plant growth. Seedlings were grown for 20 weeks in forest floor material, peat, and a combination of both. They were pulse labelled with 13CO2 (g) and subsequently harvested for plant growth measurements. While analysis of plant growth attributes did not indicate any effect of the organic amendment on aspen growth, alder reported significantly less growth in peat treatments. The rhizosphere soils were extracted for compound-specific analysis of δ13C in microbial phospholipid fatty acids. Stable isotope probing showed greater carbon flow between trees and their rhizosphere communities when seedlings were grown in forest floor material.

  18. Ross operation in children and young adults: the Alder Hey case series

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Shahzad Gull; Pozzi, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Background The ideal prosthesis for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults has not been found yet. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the replacement of aortic valve with the pulmonary autograft owing to its advantages of lack of anticoagulation, potential for growth and excellent haemodynamic performance. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience at Alder Hey hospital with the Ross procedure in children and young adults. Methods From November 1996 to September 2003, 38 patients (mean age, 13.1 ± 5.7 years) underwent the Ross procedure for various aortic valve diseases using the root replacement technique. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was performed early (within 30 days), 3 to 6 months, and yearly after surgery. Medical records of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results There was 1 perioperative death. The patients were followed-up for a median interval of 36 months and up to 7 years. One patient died 3 years after surgery secondary to ventricular arrhythmia with overall mortality of 5.3%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 94 ± 2.5% and there was 100% freedom from reoperation for autograft valve dysfunction or any other cause. Balloon dilatation was required in 2 patients for pulmonary homograft stenosis. The haemodynamics at the latest follow-up were also similar to those at the time of discharge after surgery. There was no progression in the degree of aortic regurgitation for 11 patients with trivial and 3 with mild regurgitation. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that Ross operation is an attractive option for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults. Not only can the operation be accomplished with a low operative risk but the valve function stays normal over a long period of time with minimal alteration in lifestyle and no need for repeated operations to replace the valve as a result of somatic growth of the children. PMID:15096281

  19. Harnessing the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition for pretargeted PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Thomas; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    Due to their exquisite affinity and specificity, antibodies have become extremely promising vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes to cancer cells for PET imaging. However, the necessity of labeling antibodies with radionuclides with long physical half-lives often results in high background radiation dose rates to non-target tissues. In order to circumvent this issue, we have employed a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The methodology decouples the antibody from the radioactivity and thus exploits the positive characteristics of antibodies, while eschewing their pharmacokinetic drawbacks. The system is composed of four steps: (1) the injection of a mAb-trans-cyclooctene (TCO) conjugate; (2) a localization time period during which the antibody accumulates in the tumor and clears from the blood; (3) the injection of the radiolabeled tetrazine; and (4) the in vivo click ligation of the components followed by the clearance of excess radioligand. In the example presented in the work at hand, a (64)Cu-NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand and a trans-cyclooctene-conjugated humanized antibody (huA33) were successfully used to delineate SW1222 colorectal cancer tumors with high tumor-to-background contrast. Further, the pretargeting methodology produces high quality images at only a fraction of the radiation dose to non-target tissue created by radioimmunoconjugates directly labeled with (64)Cu or (89)Zr. Ultimately, the modularity of this protocol is one of its greatest assets, as the trans-cyclooctene moiety can be appended to any non-internalizing antibody, and the tetrazine can be attached to a wide variety of radioisotopes. PMID:25742199

  20. QM/QM' Direct Molecular Dynamics of Water-Accelerated Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengjiao; Yang, Zhongyue; Mei, Ye; Houk, K N

    2016-07-01

    A QM/QM' direct molecular dynamics study of a water-accelerated Diels-Alder reaction in aqueous solution is reported. Cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone are known to react faster in water than in nonpolar solvents. We have explored how polarization of water molecules afforded by PM3 influences the nature of the transition state, and the reaction dynamics. We compare the results with previous studies on QM/MM and QM/MM+3QM water simulations from our laboratory. Transition state sampling in vacuum PM3 water boxes indicates that the asynchronicity is 0.54 Å in QM/QM', as compared to 0.48 Å in QM/MM, and 0.54 Å in QM/MM+3QM water. The mean time gap between the formation of two C-C bonds is 19 fs for QM/QM', compared to 20 fs for QM/MM, and 25 fs for QM/MM+3QM water. The samplings and time gaps are qualitatively consistent, indicating that water polarization is not significant in sampling and dynamics of bonding changes. The dynamics of hydrogen bonding between reacting molecules and water molecules was also analyzed. From reactants to transition states, H-bond shortening is 0.4 Å by QM/QM', while only 0.15 Å for QM/MM and QM/MM+3QM water. From reactants to transition states, the mean value of the H-bond angle increases by 19° in QM/QM', but only 4° in QM/MM, and 10° in QM/MM+3QM water. These suggest that water polarization is essential for the correct representation of dynamical formation of hydrogen bonds in the transition state by water reorientation. QM/QM' overestimates the hydrogen bonding enhancement because of its underestimation of neutral hydrogen bonding within the reactants, a general deficiency of PM3. PMID:27092967

  1. Harnessing the Bioorthogonal Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Cycloaddition for Pretargeted PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their exquisite affinity and specificity, antibodies have become extremely promising vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes to cancer cells for PET imaging. However, the necessity of labeling antibodies with radionuclides with long physical half-lives often results in high background radiation dose rates to non-target tissues. In order to circumvent this issue, we have employed a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The methodology decouples the antibody from the radioactivity and thus exploits the positive characteristics of antibodies, while eschewing their pharmacokinetic drawbacks. The system is composed of four steps: (1) the injection of a mAb-trans-cyclooctene (TCO) conjugate; (2) a localization time period during which the antibody accumulates in the tumor and clears from the blood; (3) the injection of the radiolabeled tetrazine; and (4) the in vivo click ligation of the components followed by the clearance of excess radioligand. In the example presented in the work at hand, a 64Cu-NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand and a trans-cyclooctene-conjugated humanized antibody (huA33) were successfully used to delineate SW1222 colorectal cancer tumors with high tumor-to-background contrast. Further, the pretargeting methodology produces high quality images at only a fraction of the radiation dose to non-target tissue created by radioimmunoconjugates directly labeled with 64Cu or 89Zr. Ultimately, the modularity of this protocol is one of its greatest assets, as the trans-cyclooctene moiety can be appended to any non-internalizing antibody, and the tetrazine can be attached to a wide variety of radioisotopes. PMID:25742199

  2. Novel Diels-Alder based self-healing epoxies for aerospace composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, T. S.; Turkenburg, D. H.; Fischer, H. R.; Luterbacher, R.; van Bracht, H.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Epoxy resins containing Diels-Alder (DA) furan and maleimide moieties are presented with the capability to self-heal after exposure to an external heat source. A conventional epoxy amine system has been combined with furfuryl and maleimide functional groups in a two-step process, to avoid major side-reactions, and the concentration of a thermo-reversibly binding cross-linker was considered to balance thermoset and thermoplastic behaviours, and the subsequent self-healing performance. In the context of self-repair technologies an inbuilt ‘intrinsic’ self-healing system is deemed favourable as the healing agent can be placed in known ‘hot spot’ regions (i.e. skin-stringer run outs, ply drops and around drilled holes) where operational damage predominately occurs in load bearing aerospace structures. In this study, the mechanical and self-healing performance of furan functionalised epoxy resins containing varying amounts (10, 20, 30 or 40 pph) of bismaleimide were investigated using a bulk epoxy polymer tapered double cantilever beam test specimen geometry. Two forms, a thin film and a bulk material, were evaluated to account for future integration methods into fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. The highest healing efficiency, with respect to the obtained initial load value, was observed from the 20 pph bulk material derivative. The polymers were successful in achieving consistent multiple (three) healing cycles when heated at 150 °C for 5 min. This novel investigated DA material exhibits favourable processing characteristics for FRP composites as preliminary studies have shown successful coextrution with reinforcing fibres to form free standing films and dry fibre impregnation.

  3. The mechanism of the retro-Diels-Alder reaction in 4-vinylcyclohexene cation radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancíř, J.; Tureček, F.

    1984-06-01

    Butadiene cation radicals are produced symmetrically from the ring and side-chain of the vinylcyclohexene cation radical near the onset of the fragmentation. The appearance energies of C 4H 6+- and C 4H 2D 4+- from (3,3,6,6-D 4)vinylcyclohex ene were measured as 11.07 ± 0.05 and 11.06 ± 0.06 eV, respectively. This sets the barrier to retro-Diels-Alder decomposition at 1140 kJ mol -1 above the energy of 1 and 44 kJ mol -1 above the thermochemical threshold corresponding to C 4H 6+- + C 4H 6. Topological molecular orbital calculations indicate that this lowest-energy path involves a sequential rupture of the C 3C 4 and C 5C 6 bonds, with a calculated barrier of 211 kJ mol -1. The second, two-step reaction channel proceeds by subsequent fission of the C 5C 6 and C 3C 4 bonds with a barrier of 299 kJ mol -1. This channel is found experimentally as a break on the ionization efficiency curve at 12.1 eV. Both the supra-supra and the supra-antara pericyclic reactions go through energy maxima and are therefore forbidden. The supra-supra process is the most favorable route for decomposition from the first excited state, the activation energy being 333 kJ mol -1. The preference for the two-step mechanism is due to hyperconjugative stabilization of intermediate molecular configurations.

  4. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Joshua J.; Davis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  5. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E

    2014-06-10

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  6. Design and synthesis of polycyclic sulfones via Diels–Alder reaction and ring-rearrangement metathesis as key steps

    PubMed Central

    Gunta, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Summary Here, we describe a new and simple synthetic strategy to various polycyclic sulfones via Diels–Alder reaction and ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM) as the key steps. This approach delivers tri- and tetracyclic sulfones with six (n = 1), seven (n = 2) or eight-membered (n = 3) fused-ring systems containing trans-ring junctions unlike the conventional all cis-ring junctions generally obtained during the RRM sequence. Interestingly the starting materials used are simple and commercially available. PMID:26425192

  7. Nitroso Diels-Alder (NDA) Reaction as an Efficient Tool for the Functionalization of Diene-Containing Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Carosso, Serena; Miller, Marvin J.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the use of nitroso Diels-Alder reactions for the functionalization of complex diene-containing natural products in order to generate libraries of compounds with potential biological activity. The application of this methodology to the structural modification of a series of natural products (thebaine, steroidal dienes, rapamycin, leucomycin, colchicine, isocolchicine and piperine) is discussed using relevant examples from the literature from 1973 onwards. The biological activity of the resulting compounds is also discussed. Additional comments are provided that evaluate the methodology as a useful tool in organic, bioorganic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:25119424

  8. Concise Approach to (ent)-14 β-Hydroxysteroids through Highly Diastereo-/Enantioselective Diels-Alder Reactions.

    PubMed

    Peter, Clovis; Ressault, Blandine; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel

    2016-07-25

    14β-Hydroxysteroids, especially 14β-hydroxyandrostane derivatives are closely related to the cardenolide skeletons. The latter were readily available through highly diastero/enantioselective Diels-Alder (DA) reactions requiring high pressure or Lewis acid activation. Moreover, in the presence of (R)- or (S)-carvone as a chiral dienophile, the DA-reaction takes place under chemodivergent parallel kinetic resolution control affording highly enantiomerically enriched 14β-hydroxysteroid derivatives or the corresponding (ent)-14β-hydroxysteroid derivatives. PMID:27192692

  9. Tandem cross enyne metathesis (CEYM)–intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction (IMDAR). An easy entry to linear bicyclic scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Javier; Sánchez-Roselló, María; Sanz, Álvaro; Rabasa, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new tandem cross enyne metathesis (CEYM)–intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction (IMDAR) has been carried out. It involves conjugated ketones, esters or amides bearing a remote olefin and aromatic alkynes as the starting materials. The overall process enables the preparation of a small family of linear bicyclic scaffolds in a very simple manner with moderate to good levels of diastereoselectivity. This methodology constitutes one of the few examples that employ olefins differently than ethylene in tandem CEYM–IMDAR protocols. PMID:26425205

  10. Copper(II)-catalyzed room temperature aerobic oxidation of hydroxamic acids and hydrazides to acyl-nitroso and azo intermediates, and their Diels-Alder trapping.

    PubMed

    Chaiyaveij, Duangduan; Cleary, Leah; Batsanov, Andrei S; Marder, Todd B; Shea, Kenneth J; Whiting, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    CuCl(2), in the presence of a 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline ligand, is an effective catalyst for the room temperature, aerobic oxidation of hydroxamic acids and hydrazides, to acyl-nitroso and azo dienophiles respectively, which are efficiently trapped in situ via both inter- and intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reactions with dienes. Both inter- and intramolecular variants of the Diels-Alder reaction are suitable under the reaction conditions using a variety of solvents. Under the same conditions, an acyl hydrazide was also oxidized to give an acyl-azo dienophile which was trapped intramolecularly by a diene. PMID:21644530

  11. Insight into the informational-structure behavior of the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani; Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Kohout, Miroslav; Angulo, Juan Carlos; Dobado, José A; Dehesa, Jesús S; LópezRosa, Sheila; Soriano-Correa, Catalina

    2014-08-01

    The course of the Diels-Alder reactions of cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride were studied. Two reaction paths were modelled: endo- and exo-selective paths. All structures within the transient region were characterized and analyzed by means of geometrical descriptors, physicochemical parameters and information-theoretical measures in order to observe the linkage between chemical behavior and the carriage of information. We have shown that the information-theoretical characterization of the chemical course of the reaction is in complete agreement with its phenomenological behavior in passing from reactants to products. In addition, we were able to detect the main differences between the two reaction mechanisms. This type of informational analysis serves to provide tools to help understand the chemical reactivity of the two simplest Diels-Alder reactions, which permits the establishment of a connection between the quantum changes that molecular systems exert along reaction coordinates and standard physicochemical phenomenology. In the present study, we have shown that every reaction stage has a family of subsequent structures that are characterized not solely by their phenomenological behavior but also by informational properties of their electronic density distribution (localizability, order, uniformity). Moreover, we were able to describe the main differences between endo-adduct and exo-adduct pathways. With the advent of new experimental techniques, it is in principle possible to observe the structural changes in the transient regions of chemical reactions. Indeed, through this work we have provided the theoretical concepts needed to unveil the concurrent processes associated with chemical reactions. PMID:25086767

  12. An interpenetrating HA/G/CS biomimic hydrogel via Diels-Alder click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Cao, Xiaodong; Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-14

    In order to mimic the natural cartilage extracellular matrix, a novel biological degradable interpenetrating network hydrogel was synthesized from the gelatin (G), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by Diels-Alder "click" chemistry. HA was modified with furylamine and G was modified with furancarboxylic acid respectively. (1)H NMR spectra and elemental analysis showed that the substitution degrees of HA-furan and G-furan were 71.5% and 44.5%. Then the hydrogels were finally synthesized by cross-linking furan-modified HA and G derivatives with dimaleimide poly(ethylene glycol) (MAL-PEG-MAL). The mechanical and degradation properties of the hydrogels could be tuned simply through varying the molar ratio between furan and maleimide. Rheological, mechanical and degradation studies demonstrated that the Diels-Alder "click" chemistry is an efficient method for preparing high performance biological interpenetrating hydrogels. This biomimic hydrogel with improved mechanical properties could have great potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:23769536

  13. Synthesis of the Reported Pyranonaphthoquinone Structure of the Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase Inhibitor Annulin B by Regioselective Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Inman, Martyn; Carvalho, Catarina; Lewis, William; Moody, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Annulin B, isolated from the marine hydroid isolated from Garveia annulata, is a potent inhibitor of the tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). A synthesis of the reported pyranonaphthoquinone structure is described, in which the key step is a regioselective Diels-Alder reaction between a pyranobenzoquinone dienophile and a silyl ketene acetal diene. PMID:27513176

  14. Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder…

  15. Bicyclic Guanidine Catalyzed Asymmetric Tandem Isomerization Intramolecular-Diels-Alder Reaction: The First Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-alpha-Yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Jiang, Danfeng; Kee, Choon-Wee; Liu, Hongjun; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2016-02-01

    Hydroisoquinoline derivatives were prepared in moderate to good enantioselectivities via a bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed tandem isomerization intramolecular-Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of alkynes. With this synthetic method, the first enantioselective synthesis of (+)-alpha-yohimbine was completed in 9 steps from the IMDA products. PMID:25932622

  16. Diels-Alder Synthesis of endo-cis-N-phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Wustholz, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    A study investigated the Diels-Alder synthesis of endo-cis-N-phenylbicyclo [2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide. The amount of time taken by a reaction between the 1,3-cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide at room temperature and also whether the desired cycloadduct would precipitate directly from the reaction mixture was examined.

  17. Fast Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions Using 4-Phenyl-1,2,4-Triazoline-3,5-Dione (PTAD) as the Dienophile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celius, Tevye C.

    2010-01-01

    A hetero-Diels-Alder reaction that proceeds rapidly and only requires a simple filtration to purify the product is presented. The dienophile, 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD), is prepared by the heterogeneous oxidation of 4-phenylurazole by the bromenium ion, Br[superscript +], generated in situ by the oxidation of potassium bromide by…

  18. Illustrating the Utility of X-Ray Crystallography for Structure Elucidation through a Tandem Aldol Condensation/Diels-Alder Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Giang T.; Kubo, Tomohiro; Young, Victor G., Jr.; Kautzky, Jacob A.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Two introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiments are described based on the Diels-Alder reaction of 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, which is synthesized prior to or in a one-pot reaction, with styrene. Students are presented with three possible products, the "endo" and "exo" diastereomers and the decarbonylated…

  19. The Synthesis of "N"-Benzyl-2-Azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels-Alder Reaction: An Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of "N"-benzyl-2-azanorbornene via aqueous hetero Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and benzyliminium chloride formed in situ from benzylamine hydrochloride and formaldehyde is described. Characterization of the product was achieved by IR and NMR spectroscopies. The spectral data acquired are thoroughly discussed. Numerous…

  20. Diels-Alder Cycloadditions: A MORE Experiment in the Organic Laboratory Including a Diene Identification Exercise Involving NMR Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Roosevelt; Severin, Ashika; Balfour, Miguel; Nettles, Columbus

    2005-01-01

    Two Diels-Alder reactions are described that are suitable for a MORE (microwave-induced organic reaction enhanced) experiment in the organic chemistry laboratory course. A second experiment in which the splitting patterns of the vinyl protons in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two MORE adducts are used in conjunction with molecular…

  1. Synthesis of a Self-Healing Polymer Based on Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at the Interface of Organic Chemistry and Materials Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Haim; Nielsen, Christian; Weizman, Or S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment exposes students to the chemistry of self-healing polymers based on a Diels-Alder reaction. Students accomplish a multistep synthesis of a monomer building block and then polymerize it to form a cross-linked polymer. The healing capability of the polymer is verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments.…

  2. N,N'-Dioxide/nickel(ii)-catalyzed asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with 2,3-dioxopyrrolidines and 2-alkenoyl pyridines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Zhou, Yuhang; Lin, Lili; Zheng, Haifeng; Fu, Kai; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    A chiral N,N'-dioxide/Ni(OTf)2 complex-catalyzed asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with 2,3-dioxopyrrolidines and 2-alkenoyl pyridines has been achieved. The corresponding chiral bridged compounds were obtained in high yields with excellent dr and ee values (up to 97% yield, 95 : 5 dr and 97% ee). PMID:27284594

  3. A π-electronic covalent organic framework catalyst: π-walls as catalytic beds for Diels-Alder reactions under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Gao, Jia; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-25

    We report a strategy for developing π-electronic covalent organic frameworks as heterogeneous catalysts that enable the use of columnar π-walls as catalytic beds to facilitate organic transformations in their one-dimensional open channels. The π-frameworks exhibit outstanding catalytic activity, promote Diels-Alder reactions under ambient conditions and are robust for cycle use. PMID:26000867

  4. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants. PMID:22133352

  5. Diels-Alder attachment of a planar organic molecule to a dangling bond dimer on a hydrogenated semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Szymon; Kawai, Hiroyo; Engelund, Mads; Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafal; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Novell-Leruth, Gerard; Echavarren, Antonio M; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Joachim, Christian; Saeys, Mark

    2016-06-22

    Construction of single-molecule electronic devices requires the controlled manipulation of organic molecules and their properties. This could be achieved by tuning the interaction between the molecule and individual atoms by local "on-surface" chemistry, i.e., the controlled formation of chemical bonds between the species. We demonstrate here the reversible attachment of a planar conjugated polyaromatic molecule to a pair of unpassivated dangling bonds on a hydrogenated Ge(001):H surface via a Diels-Alder [4+2] addition using the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Due to the small stability difference between the covalently bonded and a nearly undistorted structure attached to the dangling bond dimer by long-range dispersive forces, we show that at cryogenic temperatures the molecule can be switched between both configurations. The reversibility of this covalent bond forming reaction may be applied in the construction of complex circuits containing organic molecules with tunable properties. PMID:27271337

  6. Pyrone Diels-Alder Routes to Indolines and Hydroindolines: Syntheses of Gracilamine, Mesembrine, and Δ(7) -Mesembrenone.

    PubMed

    Gan, Pei; Smith, Myles W; Braffman, Nathaniel R; Snyder, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Although the Diels-Alder reaction has long been utilized for the preparation of numerous heterocycles, opportunities to extend its power remain. Herein, we detail a simple, modular, and robust approach that combines various amines regioselectively with 4,6-dichloropyrone to create substrates which, under appropriate conditions, can directly deliver varied indolines and hydroindolines through [4+2] cycloadditions with substitution patterns difficult to access otherwise. As an initial demonstration of the power of the strategy, several different natural products have been obtained either formally or by direct total synthesis, with efforts toward one of these-the complex amaryllidaceae alkaloid gracilamine-affording the shortest route to date in terms of linear step count. PMID:26865400

  7. Catalytic Effects of Oxide Surfaces on Diels-Alder Cycloaddition between Furan and Methyl Acrylate: A DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati-Fard, Taha; Jenness, Glen; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Doren, Douglas

    Using density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions, we study the catalytic effects of oxide surfaces such as ZrO_2 and HfO_2 on Diels-Alder reaction between furan and methyl acrylate. The cycloadduct can be dehydrated later to produce methyl benzoic which is an important step toward benzoic acid production. The gas-phase and on-surface reaction mechanisms are studied in detail. The surface hydration effects on the reaction mechanism and energy profile are studied as well. Our calculations show that the oxide surfaces catalyze the reaction significantly through the interaction of metal sites with methyl acrylate. The calculations are interpreted by making use of electronic density of states and band structure of the catalyst.

  8. Factors Controlling the Reactivity and Selectivity of the Diels-Alder Reactions Involving 1,2-Azaborines.

    PubMed

    García-Rodeja, Yago; Fernández, Israel

    2016-08-01

    The factors controlling the reactivity and endo/exo selectivity of the Diels-Alder reactions involving 1,2-azaborines have been computationally explored within the density functional theory framework. It is found that the AlCl3-catalyzed [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction between these dienes and N-methylmaleimide proceeds concertedly and leads almost exclusively to the corresponding endo cycloadduct, which is in good agreement with previous experimental observations. In addition, the effect of the substituent directly attached to the boron atom of the 1,2-azaborine on the process is also analyzed in detail. To this end, the combination of the activation strain model of reactivity and the energy decomposition analysis methods has been applied to gain a quantitative understanding into the origins of the endo selectivity of the process as well as the influence of the boron and nitrogen substituent on the barrier heights of the transformations. PMID:27383907

  9. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not playmore » a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.« less

  10. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not play a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.

  11. Elucidation of Diels-Alder Reaction Network of 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Ethylene on HY Zeolite Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Do, Phuong T M; McAtee, Jesse R; Watson, Donald A; Lobo, Raul F

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethylene to produce p-xylene represents a potentially important route for the conversion of biomass to high-value organic chemicals. Current preparation methods suffer from low selectivity and produce a number of byproducts. Using modern separation and analytical techniques, the structure of many of the byproducts produced in this reaction when HY zeolite is employed as a catalyst has been identified. From these data, a detailed reaction network is proposed demonstrating that hydrolysis and electrophilic alkylation reactions compete with the desired Diels-Alder/dehydration sequence. This information will allow the rational identification of more selective catalysts and more selective reaction conditions. PMID:23316419

  12. Elucidation of Diels-Alder Reaction Network of 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Ethylene on HY Zeolite Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Do, Phuong T.M.; McAtee, Jesse R.; Watson, Donald A.; Lobo, Raul F.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethylene to produce p-xylene represents a potentially important route for the conversion of biomass to high-value organic chemicals. Current preparation methods suffer from low selectivity and produce a number of byproducts. Using modern separation and analytical techniques, the structure of many of the byproducts produced in this reaction when HY zeolite is employed as a catalyst has been identified. From these data, a detailed reaction network is proposed demonstrating that hydrolysis and electrophilic alkylation reactions compete with the desired Diels-Alder/dehydration sequence. This information will allow the rational identification of more selective catalysts and more selective reaction conditions. PMID:23316419

  13. Irreversible endo-Selective Diels–Alder Reactions of Substituted Alkoxyfurans: A General Synthesis of endo-Cantharimides

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Robert W; Benhamou, Laure; Porter, Michael J; Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Hailes, Helen C; Tame, Christopher J; Sheppard, Tom D

    2015-01-01

    The [4+2] cycloaddition of 3-alkoxyfurans with N-substituted maleimides provides the first general route for preparing endo-cantharimides. Unlike the corresponding reaction with 3H furans, the reaction can tolerate a broad range of 2-substitued furans including alkyl, aromatic, and heteroaromatic groups. The cycloaddition products were converted into a range of cantharimide products with promising lead-like properties for medicinal chemistry programs. Furthermore, the electron-rich furans are shown to react with a variety of alternative dienophiles to generate 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane derivatives under mild conditions. DFT calculations have been performed to rationalize the activation effect of the 3-alkoxy group on a furan Diels–Alder reaction. PMID:25756502

  14. Diels-Alder functionalized carbon nanotubes for bone tissue engineering: in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, D.; Amaral, M.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Colaço, B.; Gama, A.; Paiva, M. C.; Gomes, P. S.; Silva, R. F.; Fernandes, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT membranes (p,f-CNTs). The in vivo subcutaneously implanted materials showed a higher biological reactivity, thus inducing a slighter intense inflammatory response compared to non-functionalized CNT membranes (p-CNTs), but still showing a reduced cytotoxicity profile. Moreover, the in vivo biodegradation of CNTs was superior for p,f-CNT membranes, likely mediated by the oxidation-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) in neutrophil and macrophage inflammatory milieus. This proves the biodegradability faculty of functionalized CNTs, which potentially avoids long-term tissue accumulation and triggering of acute toxicity. On the whole, the proposed Diels-Alder functionalization accounts for the improved CNT biological response in terms of the biocompatibility and biodegradability profiles. Therefore, CNTs can be considered for use in bone tissue engineering without notable toxicological threats.The risk-benefit balance for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dictates their clinical fate. To take a step forward at this crossroad it is compulsory to modulate the CNT in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability via e.g. chemical functionalization. CNT membranes were functionalised combining a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction to generate cyclohexene (-C6H10) followed by a mild oxidisation to yield carboxylic acid groups (-COOH). In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblastic cells were maximized on functionalized CNT

  15. Enantio- and Diastereoselective Formal Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Trifluoromethylated Enones Catalyzed by Chiral Primary Amines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Du, Li-Na; Kang, Tai-Ran; Liu, Quan-Zhong; Chen, Ze-Qin; He, Long

    2015-08-10

    Enantioselective formal hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of trifluoromethylated enones and 2-amino-1,3-butadienes generated in situ from aliphatic acyclic enones and chiral primary amines are reported. The corresponding tetrahydropyran-4-ones are formed in up to 94 % yield and with up to 94 % ee. The reaction was carried out through a stepwise mechanism, including initial aminocatalytic aldol condensation of 2-amino-1,3-butadiene to the trifluoromethylated carbonyl group followed by an intramolecular oxa-Michael addition. Both NMR investigation and theoretical calculations on the transition state indicate that the protonated tertiary amine could effectively activate the carbonyl group of the trifluoromethyl ketone to promote the addition process through hydrogen-bonding interaction of N-H⋅⋅⋅F and N-H⋅⋅⋅O simultaneously, and thus provide a chiral environment for the approach of amino-1,3-butadienes to the activated trifluoromethyl ketone, resulting in high enantioselectivity. PMID:26179273

  16. Enhancement of the Click Chemistry for the Inverse Diels Alder Technology by Functionalization of Amide-Based Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Pipkorn, Ruediger; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Lorenz, Peter; Muehlhausen, Ute; Fleischhacker, Heinz; Koch, Mario; Braun, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In the near future personalized medicine with nucleic acids will play a key role in molecular diagnostics and therapy, which require new properties of the nucleic acids, like stability against enzymatic degradation. Here we demonstrate that the replacement of nucleobases with PNA by functional molecules harbouring either a dienophile or a diene reactivity is feasible and confers all new options for functionalization. These newly developed derivatives allow independent multi-ligations of multi-faceted components by use of the inverse Diels Alder technology. The high chemical stability and the ease of synthesis qualify these polyamide building blocks as favourites for intracellular delivery and targeting applications. This allows local drug concentrations sufficient for imaging and therapy and simultaneously a reduction of the application doses. It is important to point out that this technology is not restricted to ligation of medicament material; it is also a candidate to develop new and highly efficient active compounds for a “sustainable pharmacy”. PMID:21750642

  17. Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated o-Quinodimethane Intermediates: An Alternative Route to Photocured Polymer Film Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyson, Daniel S.; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Smith, Dee Dee; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Photolysis of o-methylphenyl ketones generates bis-o-quinodimethane intermediates that can be trapped in situ by dienophiles through Diels-Alder cycloadditions. This well-known photochemical process is applied to a series of six new photoreactive monomers containing bis-(o-methylphenyl ketone) functionalities combined with diacrylate and triacrylate ester monomers for the development of acrylic ester copolymer blends. Irradiation of cyclohexanone solutions of the bis-(o-methylphenyl ketone)s and acrylate esters produce thin polymer films. Solid state 13C NMR data indicated 47- 100% reaction of the bis-(o-methylphenyl ketone)s, depending on experimental conditions, to yield the desired products. DSC and TGA analyses were performed to determine the glass transition temperature, T,, and onset of decomposition, Td, of the resulting polymer films. A statistical Design of Experiments approach was used to obtain a systematic understanding of the effects of experimental variables on the extent of polymerization and the final polymer properties.

  18. Regioselective Synthesis of C-3-Functionalized Quinolines via Hetero-Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Azadienes with Terminal Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Saunthwal, Rakesh K; Patel, Monika; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2016-08-01

    A highly efficient metal and protection-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of C-3-functionalized quinolines from azadienes (in situ generated from 2-aminobenzyl alcohol) and terminal alkynes through [4 + 2] cycloaddition has been developed. An unprecedented reaction of 2-aminobenzyl alcohol with 1,3- and 1,4-diethynylbenzene provided the C-3 tolylquinolines via [4 + 2] HDA and oxidative decarboxylation. The -NH2 group directed mechanistic approach was well supported by the control experiments and deuterium-labeling studies and by isolating the azadiene intermediate. The reactivity and selectivity of unprotected azadiene in metal-free base-assisted hetero-Diels-Alder reaction is exploited to quickly assemble an important class of C-3-functionalized quinolines, which are difficult to access. PMID:27380814

  19. Diels-Alder reactions for the rational design of benzo[b]thiophenes: DFT-based guidelines for synthetic chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasca, Romina; Kneeteman, María N.; Mancini, Pedro M. E.; Fabian, Walter M. F.

    2012-02-01

    In this work we studied the capability of several diene/dienophile pairs to undergo Diels-Alder (DA) reactions leading to benzo[b]thiophenes. A variety of synthetically and commercially available nitrothiophenes were chosen as dienophiles. Methyl 5-nitro-3-thiophenecarboxylate was selected as a potential strong electrophilic candidate based on some DFT-based properties and the substitution pattern of the expected product. The mechanistic details concerning the participation of this dienophile in polar DA reactions were investigated through a theoretical point of view. The results were compared with the experimental outcomes. This methodology should allow synthetic chemists to analyze DA reactions in detail in a stage prior to the synthetic job.

  20. Tyrosine-Lipid Peroxide Adducts from Radical Termination: Para-Coupling and Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N.; Kim, Hye-young H.; Hatch, Duane M.; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogs of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR as well as by mass spectrometry. The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic 13C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl 13C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignment of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision induced dissociation. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion giving a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found either in the primary or the cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein crosslinks via interprotein Michael adducts. PMID:21090613

  1. Estimation of whole-tree and stand-level methane emissions from the stems of Alnus japonica in a cool-temperate forested peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazawa, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kenji; Sakata, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Ishizuka, Shigehiro

    2016-04-01

    We measured methane (CH4) fluxes at the stem surfaces of canopy trees in a forested peatland of northern Japan to estimate: 1) the CH4 emission rates from the stems of individual trees and 2) the stem CH4 emission rates at the stand level. The study site was located ca. 1 km south of Lake Tofutsu, a brackish lake in eastern Hokkaido. An experimental plot was established in an area dominated by Alnus japonica trees. For seven A. japonica, the stem CH4 fluxes were measured using a static closed-chamber method. Three of the sample trees were used to estimate the whole-tree stem CH4 emissions. The CH4 flux was measured at six heights (0.15 - 5.15 m above the ground at 1 m intervals) on the stem of each tree, using a scaffold constructed beside the tree. The stand-level stem CH4 emissions were estimated from the CH4 fluxes measured 0.15 m above the ground; the relationship between stem height and CH4 flux and the relationship between diameter at breast height and whole-tree CH4 emissions were determined. Stem CH4 emission rates were highest at the lowest measurement position on the stem (height 0.15 m), and decreased with stem height for all measurements. Nevertheless, significant CH4 emissions were detected 5.15 m above the ground. The relationship between stem height and CH4 emissions fit a power function. The estimated CH4 emission rate from the stem surface of an individual tree was 1.91 ± 1.24 and 0.68 ± 0.18 mg tree‑1 h‑1 for late-August and mid-September, respectively. The estimated stem CH4 emissions at the stand level varied seasonally, with the highest rate of 556 mg ha‑1 h‑1 in September.

  2. 40Ar/39Ar ages from the rhyolite of Alder Creek, California: age of the Cobb Mountain normal-polarity subchron revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turrin, B.D.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Hearn, B.C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations on sanidine from the rhyolite of Alder Creek, California, indicate a 1.186 ?? 0.006 Ma age for the Cobb Mountain Normal-Polarity Subchron. The hew age is statistically older (?? = 0.05) than the previously reported K-Ar age (1.12 ?? 0.02 Ma) and agrees with the age suggested by the astronomical polarity time scale. Incomplete extraction of radiogenic 40Ar (40Ar*) from the sanidine is the most likely reason for the disparity between the 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages. Because the Cobb Mountain subchron is a worldwide, short-duration event, and because no widely used interlaboratory 40Ar/39Ar standard younger than 27 Ma exists, it is proposed that sanidine from the rhyolite of Alder Creek be considered for use as a new Quaternary 40Ar/39Ar mineral standard. -Authors

  3. On the Diels-Alder approach to solely biomass-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET): conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrolein into p-xylene.

    PubMed

    Shiramizu, Mika; Toste, F Dean

    2011-10-24

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a polymeric material with high global demand. Conventionally, PET is produced from fossil-fuel-based materials. Herein, we explored the feasibility of a sustainable method for PET production by using solely bio-renewable resources. Specifically, 2,5-dimethylfuran (derived from lignocellulosic biomass through 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) and acrolein (produced from glycerol, a side product of biodiesel production) were converted into the key intermediate p-xylene (a precursor of terephthalic acid). This synthesis consists of a sequential Diels-Alder reaction, oxidation, dehydration, and decarboxylation. In particular, the pivotal first step, the Diels-Alder reaction, was studied in detail to provide useful kinetic and thermodynamic data. Although it was found that this reaction requires low temperature to proceed efficiently, which presents a limitation on economic feasibility on an industrial scale, the concept was realized and bio-derived p-xylene was obtained in 34% overall yield over four steps. PMID:21922576

  4. Cyclopropanation of nitroso Diels–Alder cycloadducts and application to the synthesis of a 2’,3’-methano carbocyclic nucleoside

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cheng; Miller, Marvin J.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of nitroso Diels–Alder cycloadducts 1 with diazomethane in the presence of palladium acetate gives synthetically useful exo-6-oxa-7-azatricyclo[3.2.1.02,4]octane derivatives 7 in good to excellent yield. Using this methodology, a conformationally restricted 2’,3’-methano carbocyclic nucleoside was efficiently synthesized from nitroso cycloadduct 1a in 7 steps. PMID:20607121

  5. Adaptation of a Small-Molecule Hydrogen-Bond Donor Catalyst to an Enantioselective Hetero-Diels–Alder Reaction Hypothesized for Brevianamide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chiral diamine-derived hydrogen-bond donors were evaluated for their ability to effect stereocontrol in an intramolecular hetero-Diels–Alder (HDA) reaction hypothesized in the biosynthesis of brevianamides A and B. Collectively, these results provide proof of principle that small-molecule hydrogen-bond catalysis, if even based on a hypothetical biosynthesis construct, holds significant potential within enantioselective natural product synthesis. PMID:25697748

  6. New and Concise Syntheses of the Bicyclic Oxamazin Core Using an Intramolecular Nitroso Diels-Alder Reaction and Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Kyle D.; Carosso, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Herein two new and concise synthetic approaches for making an unsaturated bicyclic oxamazin core are reported. The first involves the use of an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to form both of the fused rings in one step. The second approach incorporates ring-closing olefin metathesis in the final step to form the second fused ring of the core. The scope of the second approach was also expanded further to afford larger ringed bicyclic systems. PMID:23276301

  7. Anti-adipogenic activity of a new cyclic diarylheptanoid isolated from Alnus japonica on 3T3-L1 cells via modulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP1c signaling.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sang Hyun; Lee, Mina

    2015-10-15

    Total methanolic extract of Alnus japonica fruits exhibited significant anti-adipogenic activities in 3T3-L1 cells. A new cyclic diarylheptanoid (1) along with ten known compounds (2-11) were isolated by activity-guided fractionation. Compound 1, determined to be 4-hydroxy-alnus-3,5-dione, showed the most potent anti-adipogenic effect. Compound 1 significantly down-regulated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1c) in 3T3-L1 cells, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, compound 1 suppressed mRNA expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ during the early stage of adipogenesis as well as stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), target genes of SREBP1c. Upon investigating the mechanism of natural products, we propose that cyclic diarylheptanoid (1), the most potent constituent of A. japonica, can be a potent therapeutic agent against obesity through anti-adipogenesis via down-regulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1c signaling. PMID:26341132

  8. Revisiting the concept of the (a)synchronicity of diels-alder reactions based on the dynamics of quasiclassical trajectories.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Miguel A F; Ventura, Elizete; do Monte, Silmar A; Riveros, José M; Longo, Ricardo L

    2016-03-30

    A number of model Diels-Alder (D-A) cycloaddition reactions (H2 CCH2  + cyclopentadiene and H2 CCHX + 1,3-butadiene, with X = H, F, CH3 , OH, CN, NH2 , and NO) were studied by static (transition state - TS and IRC) and dynamics (quasiclassical trajectories) approaches to establish the (a)synchronous character of the concerted mechanism. The use of static criteria, such as the asymmetry of the TS geometry, for classifying and quantifying the (a)synchronicity of the concerted D-A reaction mechanism is shown to be severely limited and to provide contradictory results and conclusions when compared to the dynamics approach. The time elapsed between the events is shown to be a more reliable and unbiased criterion and all the studied D-A reactions, except for the case of H2 CCHNO, are classified as synchronous, despite the gradual and quite distinct degrees of (a)symmetry of the TS structures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26575321

  9. Role of encapsulated metal cation in the reactivity and regioselectivity of the C₆₀ Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Cheng-Xing; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2015-03-26

    Endohedral metallofullerene has novel properties because of the interaction between the encapsulated metal atom or cation and fullerene. Experiments have demonstrated that the insertion of Li(+) into C60 can greatly promote the reactivity of the Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene (CpH) to C60. However, the reaction is sufficiently fast that its quantitative kinetic data cannot be obtained experimentally. In addition, knowledge regarding the effects of other alkali metal cations and metal cations with more charges on the reactivity and regioselectivity of C60 is almost nonexistent. In the current study, DA cycloadditions of CpH to M(+)@C60 (where M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) and Ca(2+)@C60 were investigated via density functional theory in the gas phase and in solvent. Via careful discussion and comparison with the results of C60, we concluded the following for the DA reaction of CpH to C60 and, more generally, for DA reactions of other fullerenes: (1) the encapsulated metal cations enhance the reactivity; (2) among alkali metal cations, Na(+) could be the best catalyst; (3) Ca(2+) is more favorable in promoting the reactivity than any alkali metal cation; (4) encapsulated metal cations with more positive charges enhance the reactivity of the 6-5 bond in C60, which is significant when the 6-5 adduct is the target product. PMID:25714730

  10. N-(furfural) chitosan hydrogels based on Diels-Alder cycloadditions and application as microspheres for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Herrera, Marcelino; Gandini, Alessandro; Goycoolea, Francisco M; Jacobsen, Neil E; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Recillas-Mota, Maricarmen; Argüelles-Monal, Waldo M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, chitosan was chemically modified by reductive amination in a two-step process. The synthesis of N-(furfural) chitosan (FC) was confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR analysis, and the degrees of substitution were estimated as 8.3 and 23.8%. The cross-linkable system of bismaleimide (BM) and FC shows that FC shared properties of furan-maleimide chemistry. This system produced non-reversible hydrogel networks by Diels-Alder cycloadditions at 85 °C. The system composed of BM and FC (23.8% substitution) generated stronger hydrogel networks than those of FC with an 8.3% degree of substitution. Moreover, the FC-BM system was able to produce hydrogel microspheres. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed the surface of the microspheres to be non-porous with small protuberances. In water, the microspheres swelled, increasing their volume by 30%. Finally, microspheres loaded with methylene blue were able to release the dye gradually, obeying second-order kinetics for times less than 600 min. This behavior suggests that diffusion is governed by the relaxation of polymer chains in the swelled state, thus facilitating drug release outside the microspheres. PMID:26005158

  11. Self-healable interfaces based on thermo-reversible Diels-Alder reactions in carbon fiber reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Duchet, J; Gérard, J F

    2014-09-15

    Thermo-reversible Diels-Alder (DA) bonds formed between maleimide and furan groups have been used to generate an interphase between carbon fiber surface and an epoxy matrix leading to the ability of interfacial self-healing in carbon:epoxy composite materials. The maleimide groups were grafted on an untreated T700 carbon fiber from a three step surface treatment: (i) nitric acid oxidization, (ii) tetraethylenepentamine amination, and (iii) bismaleimide grafting. The furan groups were introduced in the reactive epoxy system from furfuryl glycidyl ether. The interface between untreated carbon fiber and epoxy matrix was considered as a reference. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was evaluated by single fiber micro-debonding test. The debonding force was shown to have a linear dependence with embedded length. The highest healing efficiency calculated from the debonding force was found to be about 82% more compared to the value for the reference interface. All the interphases designed with reversible DA bonds have a repeatable self-healing ability. As after the fourth healing, they can recover a relatively high healing efficiency (58% for the interphase formed by T700-BMI which is oxidized for 60 min during the first treatment step). PMID:24998055

  12. Microwave-assisted Intramolecular Dehydrogenative Diels-Alder Reactions for the Synthesis of Functionalized Naphthalenes/Solvatochromic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Kocsis, Laura S.; Benedetti, Erica; Brummond, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized naphthalenes have applications in a variety of research fields ranging from the synthesis of natural or biologically active molecules to the preparation of new organic dyes. Although numerous strategies have been reported to access naphthalene scaffolds, many procedures still present limitations in terms of incorporating functionality, which in turn narrows the range of available substrates. The development of versatile methods for direct access to substituted naphthalenes is therefore highly desirable. The Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction is a powerful and attractive method for the formation of saturated and unsaturated ring systems from readily available starting materials. A new microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative DA reaction of styrenyl derivatives described herein generates a variety of functionalized cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes that could not be prepared using existing synthetic methods. When compared to conventional heating, microwave irradiation accelerates reaction rates, enhances yields, and limits the formation of undesired byproducts. The utility of this protocol is further demonstrated by the conversion of a DA cycloadduct into a novel solvatochromic fluorescent dye via a Buchwald-Hartwig palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Fluorescence spectroscopy, as an informative and sensitive analytical technique, plays a key role in research fields including environmental science, medicine, pharmacology, and cellular biology. Access to a variety of new organic fluorophores provided by the microwave-assisted dehydrogenative DA reaction allows for further advancement in these fields. PMID:23609566

  13. A new insight on the gas phase retro-Diels-Alder reaction of bicyclic compounds: density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Jose R.; Lezama, Jesús; Córdova-Sintjago, Tania C.; Chuchani, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of the gas-phase thermal decomposition of bicyclo[2.2.1]heptadiene and 3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene were examined by density functional theory calculations with the hybrid functionals: B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, MPW1PW91, and PBEPBE. Reasonable agreements were found between theoretical and experimental values with the B3LYP hybrid functional. Three molecular concerted pathways for bicyclo[2.2.1]heptadiene decomposition are proposed. The retro-Diels-Alder (retro-DA) pathway yields cyclopentadiene and acetylene through a nearly synchronous transition state structure (Sy = 0.97). The other two reaction channels are stepwise with a common step with the formation of the intermediate bicyclo[4.1.0] heptadiene. This reaction is dominated by C-C bond breaking leading to the methylene migration by an early transition state in the reaction coordinate (Sy = 0.91). The rearrangements of the latter intermediate producing toluene were also studied. The retro-DA elimination of 3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene gives 1,5,5-trimethyl-cyclopenta-1,3-diene in a less synchronous process (Sy = 0.77). This fact may be due to the electronic effects of the methyl substituent. The latter product is unstable and undergoes methyl migrations to give a more stable isomer 1,2,3-trimethylcyclopenta-1,3-diene. The stepwise mechanism for the retro-DA reaction through a biradical intermediate appears to be unfavourable because the barrier is bigger than that for the concerted reaction.

  14. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1985. [Sycamore, alders, black locust, larch, poplars, saltbush

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Wenzel, C.R.; Trimble, J.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This report covers the progress of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) during the third quarter of fiscal year 1985. This report summarizes ORNL management activities, technical activities at ORNL and subcontract institutions, and the technology transfer that is occurring as a result of subcontractor and ORNL activities. Third-year results of a nutrient utilization study confirmed that there were no benefits to quarterly fertilization with urea nitrogen. Testing of one prototype short-rotation intensive culture harvester was conducted on a sycamore plantation on Scott Paper Company land in southern Alabama. Coppice yields of European black alder reported by Iowa State University indicate potential productivity of about 7.2 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ if the best trees are selected. Coppice yields were more than double first-rotation yields. About 31,000 black locust and larch trees were established in 12 genetic tests at 4 sites in Michigan. Seedling rotation productivity rates of 4-year-old hybrid poplar, based on harvest data, were reported by Pennsylvania State University. Rates varied from 4.8 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ to 10.7 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/, depending on site, management strategy, and planting year. An efficient method for in vitro micropropagation of elite genotypes of fourwing saltbush was developed by Plant Resources Institute. A new study to evaluate yield/density relationships was established by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Dissertation research on the crown geometry of plantation-grown American sycamore was completed.

  15. Multicomponent Double Diels-Alder/Nazarov Tandem Cyclization of Symmetric Cross-Conjugated Diynones to Generate [6-5-6] Tricyclic Products.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Rachael A; Chalifoux, Wesley A

    2016-06-20

    The construction of complex polycyclic terpenoid products in an efficient and step-economical manner using multicomponent and tandem processes is highly valuable. Herein, we report a tandem cyclization sequence that initiates with a multicomponent double Diels-Alder reaction of cross-conjugated diynones, followed by a Nazarov cyclization to efficiently produce [6-5-6] tricyclic products with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity. This methodology generates five new carbon-carbon bonds, three rings, quaternary or vicinal quaternary carbons, and stereogenic centers in a one-pot reaction. PMID:27124516

  16. Regio- and stereochemically controlled formation of hydroxamic acids from indium triflate-mediated nucleophilic ring-opening reactions with acylnitroso-Diels–Alder adducts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baiyuan; Miller, Marvin J.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of acylnitroso-Diels–Alder [2.2.1] bicyclic adducts 2a–b with indium triflate in an alcohol solvent induces ring opening reactions to afford monocyclic anti-1,2-, anti-1,4- and syn-1,4-hydroxamic acids with good to excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (up to 7:86:7). Treatment of [2.2.2] bicyclic nitroso adducts 2c–d under similar reaction conditions generates only anti-1,2- and anti-1,4-hydroxamic acids with anti-1,4-product predominant (up to 17:83). PMID:20209116

  17. Enantioselective synthesis of allenylenol silyl ethers via chiral lithium amide mediated reduction of ynenoyl silanes and their Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michiko; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Moto-ishi, Ta-ichi; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Takeda, Kei

    2015-03-01

    An enantioselective Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley-type reduction of ynenoylsilanes by a chiral lithium amide followed by a Brook rearrangement and anti-mode protonation across conjugated 1,3-enynes provides allene derivatives bearing a 2-siloxyvinyl moiety in high enantioselectivity. The E/Z geometry of enol silyl ethers is controlled by the geometry of the starting enyne moiety. Thus, (E)- and (Z)-enol silyl ethers are obtained from (Z)- and (E)-ynenoylsilans, respectively. The 2-siloxyvinylallene products can participate in Diels-Alder reactions with reactive dienophiles such as PTAD, which can be achieved in a one-pot operation from ynenoylsilanes. PMID:25689472

  18. A Base-Catalyzed, Domino Aldol/hetero-Diels-Alder Synthesis of Tricyclic Pyrano[3,4-c]chromenes in Glycerol.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Bhagyashri D; Sutariya, Tushar R; Brahmbhatt, Gaurangkumar C; Parmar, Narsidas J; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek K

    2016-06-17

    The domino aldol/hetero-Diels-Alder synthesis of some new tricyclic pyrano[3,4-c]chromene derivatives has been achieved successfully after assembling a variety of acyclic or cyclic monoketones with prenyl ether-tethered aldehydes in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in glycerol at 120 °C. The hitherto unreported stereochemical outcome of this synthetic sequence was studied and established on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and 2D NMR NOESY spectroscopy along with the isolation and characterization of the intermediate Aldol condensation product. PMID:27171909

  19. Bisadducts from the Diels-Alder Trapping of Bis(o-Xylenols) Photochemically Generated from 2,5-Dibenzoyl-p-xylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Kinder, James D.; Kirby, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Photolysis of 2,5-dibenzoyl-p-xylene produces two discrete o-xylenols which undergo Diels-Alder cycloadditions with standard dienophiles, such as methyl acrylate, to produce 1,5-dihydroxy-1,5-diphenyl-l,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroanthracenes, 2a, in good yield (greater than 80%). The anti bisadduct crystallizes into hydrogen bonded stacks. Conversion of both syn- and anti-bisadducts to the corresponding anthracenes was achieved through the use of standard dehydration and aromatization chemistry.

  20. Use of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Immunoassay for the Detection and Quantification of Heliscus lugdunensis Colonizing Alder Leaves and Roots.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, S.; Dewey, F.M.; Fisher, P.J.; Maltby, L.

    2001-12-01

    A genus-specific monoclonal antibody, NG-CF10, raised in a previous study to the fungal pathogen Nectria galligena, was found to recognize the aquatic hyphomycete Heliscus lugdunensis (anamorph) and its teleomorph Nectria lugdunensis. Using this MAb in a plate trapped antigen- ELISA we could detect and determine the biomass of Heliscus lugdunensis in mixed assemblages in both naturally occurring and artificially inoculated leaves and roots of Alnus glutinosa trees. Initial studies indicate that the biomass associated with naturally occurring leaf material is significantly lower than that recorded with laboratory inoculated leaves, suggesting that biomass production is limited in the natural environment. Significantly lower biomass was associated with roots when compared with leaf material, which supports the proposition that rather than a major substrate for the growth of aquatic hyphomycetes, roots act as a refugium for fungal growth. PMID:12024233

  1. Root-Associated Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Shared by Various Boreal Forest Seedlings Naturally Regenerating after a Fire in Interior Alaska and Correlation of Different Fungi with Host Growth Responses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Elizabeth; Kiekel, Preston; Brenton, Rebecca; Taylor, D. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) in postfire boreal forest successional trajectories is unknown. We investigated this issue by sampling a 50-m by 40-m area of naturally regenerating black spruce (Picea mariana), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings at various distances from alder (Alnus viridis subsp. crispa), a nitrogen-fixing shrub, 5 years after wildfire in an Alaskan interior boreal forest. Shoot biomasses and stem diameters of 4-year-old seedlings were recorded, and the fungal community associated with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tips from each seedling was profiled using molecular techniques. We found distinct assemblages of fungi associated with alder compared with those associated with the other tree species, making the formation of CMNs between them unlikely. However, among the spruce, aspen, and birch seedlings, there were many shared fungi (including members of the Pezoloma ericae [Hymenoscyphus ericae] species aggregate, Thelephora terrestris, and Russula spp.), raising the possibility that these regenerating seedlings may form interspecies CMNs. Distance between samples did not influence how similar ECM root tip-associated fungal communities were, and of the fungal groups identified, only one of them was more likely to be shared between seedlings that were closer together, suggesting that the majority of fungi surveyed did not have a clumped distribution across the small scale of this study. The presence of some fungal ribotypes was associated with larger or smaller seedlings, suggesting that these fungi may play a role in the promotion or inhibition of seedling growth. The fungal ribotypes associated with larger seedlings were different between spruce, aspen, and birch, suggesting differential impacts of some host-fungus combinations. One may speculate that wildfire-induced shifts in a given soil fungal community could result in variation in the growth response of different plant species

  2. The Holocene vegetation history of the Khibiny Mountains: implications for the post-glacial expansion of spruce and alder on the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremenetski, Constantin; Vaschalova, Tatiana; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold

    1999-02-01

    Pollen and peat botanical investigations of the Lutnermayok peat bog, Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia, were carried out, and 21 surface pollen samples were studied. Combined with previous studies our data form the basis for the vegetation history over the last 7000 yr of the Khibiny Mountains. Pinus sylvestris was the dominant species between 7000 and 5000 yr BP and Picea obovata penetrated to the Khibiny Mountains ca. 5500/5300 yr BP. Since 4500 yr BP, Picea replaced Pinus in major parts of the area and dominated the forest cover. Picea immigrated to the Kola Peninsula after 7000 yr BP. There were two paths of spruce migration: from the southeast and the southwest. Grey alder, Alnusincana, immigrated to the Kola Peninsula from the southwest and northwest about ca. 8000 yr BP. Grey alder has been restricted to its modern range since 4000 yr BP. The range of vertical movement of the treeline in Khibiny Mountains during the last 700 yr was 240-260 m, which corresponds to an amplitude of summer temperature change of 2°C.

  3. Application of an enyne metathesis/Diels-Alder cycloaddition sequence: a new versatile approach to the syntheses of C-aryl glycosides and spiro-C-aryl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Ayyagari V; Palanichamy, Kalanidhi; Kaliappan, Krishna P

    2010-07-26

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of a variety of C-aryl and spiro-C-aryl glycosides is described. This diversity-oriented strategy employed here relies on a sequential enyne metathesis to generate the 1,3-diene moiety and Diels-Alder reaction with different dienophiles followed by aromatisation. Whereas cross-enyne metathesis with ethylene gas is used to install the 1,3-diene moiety at the anomeric centre for the synthesis of C-aryl glycosides, an intramolecular enyne metathesis on the sugar enyne is performed to generate the 1,3-diene moiety for the synthesis of spiro-C-aryl glycosides. Efforts to extend this strategy to the synthesis of the core structure of natural C-aryl glycoside gilvocarcin are also described. A combination of both C-aryl and spiro-C-aryl glycosides in the same moiety to combine the features thereof has also been accomplished. A tandem enyne metathesis/Diels-Alder reaction/aromatisation has also been attempted to directly access the C-aryl glycosides in one pot albeit in low yield. PMID:20549721

  4. Total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A: examination of structural features that govern the stereoselectivity of the key transannular Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Winbush, SusAnn M; Mergott, Dustin J; Roush, William R

    2008-03-01

    A study of elements of stereochemical control in transannular Diels-Alder reactions leading to the decahydro-as-indacene core of (-)-spinosyn A is described. Initial studies focused on macrocyclic pentaene 9, which includes C(6)-Br and C(8)-OTBS substituents. Excellent selectivity (>95:5) was observed in the cycloaddition of 9 as a consequence of 1,3-allylic strain interactions involving the C(6) and C(8) substituents in the disfavored TS-2. The major cycloadduct 22 was used in a formal synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A. The TDA cyclizations of 12 (which lacks the C(8)-OTBS unit of 9), 13 (which lacks the C(6)-Br substituent of 12), and 14 (which lacks the C(6)-Br and C(21)-Et substituents of 12) were also studied. Macrocycles 12 and 13 served as precursors to (-)-spinosyn A and the (-)-spinosyn A aglycon (34), respectively. It is striking that substrates 12-14 give very similar distributions of transannular Diels-Alder cycloadducts, indicating that the C(6)-Br and C(21)-stereocenter do not play a significant role in the diastereoselectivity of the TDA cycloaddition of spinosyn A precursor 12. It is likely that some as yet unidentified conformational or structural features of macrocycles 12-14 contribute to the levels of diastereoselectivity achieved, since these TDA reactions are more selective for the C(7)-C(9) stereochemical relationship found in the natural product than are the IMDA reactions of trienes 4 and 7. PMID:18215065

  5. Isotopologue ratios of N2O and N2 measurements underpin the importance of denitrification in differently N-loaded riparian alder forests.

    PubMed

    Mander, Ulo; Well, Reinhard; Weymann, Daniel; Soosaar, Kaido; Maddison, Martin; Kanal, Arno; Lõhmus, Krista; Truu, Jaak; Augustin, Jürgen; Tournebize, Julien

    2014-10-21

    Known as biogeochemical hotspots in landscapes, riparian buffer zones exhibit considerable potential concerning mitigation of groundwater contaminants such as nitrate, but may in return enhance the risk for indirect N2O emission. Here we aim to assess and to compare two riparian gray alder forests in terms of gaseous N2O and N2 fluxes and dissolved N2O, N2, and NO3(-) in the near-surface groundwater. We further determine for the first time isotopologue ratios of N2O dissolved in the riparian groundwater in order to support our assumption that it mainly originated from denitrification. The study sites, both situated in Estonia, northeastern Europe, receive contrasting N loads from adjacent uphill arable land. Whereas N2O emissions were rather small at both sites, average gaseous N2-to-N2O ratios inferred from closed-chamber measurements and He-O laboratory incubations were almost four times smaller for the heavily loaded site. In contrast, groundwater parameters were less variable among sites and between landscape positions. Campaign-based average (15)N site preferences of N2O (SP) in riparian groundwater ranged between 11 and 44 ‰. Besides the strong prevalence of N2 emission over N2O fluxes and the correlation pattern between isotopologue and water quality data, this comparatively large range highlights the importance of denitrification and N2O reduction in both riparian gray alder stands. PMID:25264900

  6. DFT Study of Solvent Effects in Acid-Catalyzed Diels-Alder Cycloadditions of 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Maleic Anhydride.

    PubMed

    Salavati-fard, Taha; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Doren, Douglas J

    2015-09-24

    Density functional theory electronic structure calculations were used to explore the mechanism for the Diels-Alder reaction between 2,5-dimethylfuran and maleic anhydride (MA). Reaction paths are reported for uncatalyzed and Lewis and Brønsted acid-catalyzed reactions in vacuum and in a broad range of solvents. The calculations show that, while the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reaction is thermally feasible in vacuum, a Lewis acid (modeled as Na(+)) lowers the activation barrier by interacting with the dienophile (MA) and decreasing the HOMO-LUMO gap of the reactants. A Brønsted acid (modeled as a proton) can bind to a carbonyl oxygen in MA, changing the reaction mechanism from concerted to stepwise and eliminating the activation barrier. Solvation effects were studied with the SMD model. Electrostatic effects play the largest role in determining the solvation energy of the transition state, which tracks the net dipole moment at the transition state. For the uncatalyzed reaction, the dipole moment is largely determined by charge transfer between the reactants, but in the reactions with ionic catalysts, there is no simple relationship between solvation of the transition state and charge transfer between the reactants. Nonelectrostatic contributions to solvation of the reactants and transition state also make significant contributions to the activation energy. PMID:26331220

  7. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  8. Reactivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction: Distortion-Interaction Analysis along the Reaction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingzi; Osuna, Sílvia; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Qi, Xiaotian; Liu, Song; Houk, Kendall N; Lan, Yu

    2016-08-26

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition is one of the most powerful tools for the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Density functional theory at the B3-LYP level of theory has been used to investigate the reactivity of different-diameter SWCNTs (4-9,5) in Diels-Alder reactions with 1,3-butadiene; the reactivity was found to decrease with increasing SWCNT diameter. Distortion/interaction analysis along the whole reaction pathway was found to be a better way to explore the reactivity of this type of reaction. The difference in interaction energy along the reaction pathway is larger than that of the corresponding distortion energy. However, the distortion energy plots for these reactions show the same trend. Therefore, the formation of the transition state can be determined from the interaction energy. A lower interaction energy leads to an earlier transition state, which indicates a lower activation energy. The computational results also indicate that the original distortion of the SWCNTs leads to an increase in the reactivity of the SWCNTs. PMID:27465519

  9. Intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction and its impact on the structure-function properties of environmentally sensitive fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Brummond, Kay M; Kocsis, Laura S

    2015-08-18

    Reaction discovery plays a vital role in accessing new chemical entities and materials possessing important function.1 In this Account, we delineate our reaction discovery program regarding the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of styrene-ynes. In particular, we highlight our studies that lead to the realization of the diverging reaction mechanisms of the intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder (IMDDA) reaction to afford dihydronaphthalene and naphthalene products. Formation of the former involves an intermolecular hydrogen atom abstraction and isomerization, whereas the latter is formed via an unexpected elimination of H2. Forming aromatic compounds by a unimolecular elimination of H2 offers an environmentally benign alternative to typical oxidation protocols. We also include in this Account ongoing work focused on expanding the scope of this reaction, mainly its application to the preparation of cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes. Finally, we showcase the synthetic utility of the IMDDA reaction by preparing novel environmentally sensitive fluorophores. The choice to follow this path was largely influenced by the impact this reaction could have on our understanding of the structure-function relationships of these molecular sensors by taking advantage of a de novo construction and functionalization of the aromatic portion of these compounds. We were also inspired by the fact that, despite the advances that have been made in the construction of small molecule fluorophores, access to rationally designed fluorescent probes or sensors possessing varied and tuned photophysical, spectral, and chemical properties are still needed. To this end, we report our studies to correlate fluorophore structure with photophysical property relationships for a series of solvatochromic PRODAN analogs and viscosity-sensitive cyanoacrylate analogs. The versatility of this de novo strategy for fluorophore synthesis was demonstrated by showing that a number of functional groups could be installed at

  10. endo/exo stereoselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of α,β-dialkylated conjugated enals to cyclic 1,3-dienes: intermediates in the synthesis of (-)-β-santalol and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Christian; Skuy, David; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Brauchli, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Highly exo-selective [4+2] cycloadditions of cyclopenta-1,3-diene 2a to α,β-dialkyl conjugated enals 5 are compared with the analogous endo-favored Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexa-1,3-diene 7. The exo-stereoselectivity is lower in the homologous case of methylcyclopenta-1,3-diene 9. This diastereoselectivity is discussed either in terms of a retro-homo-Diels-Alder reaction, associated with thermodynamic control, or with respect to either a competing hetero-Diels-Alder/Claisen or Cope domino pathway, or retro-Claisen/retro-hetero-Diels-Alder of the endo-homo-cycloadducts. These hypothetical mechanisms have been examined by DFT calculations at the MPW1K(CH2 Cl2 )/6-31+G** level of theory for the AlCl3 -mediated cycloadditions of 5d to 2a and 7. Application of Corey's methodology to the γ-halogeno-α-methyl-substituted dienophiles 5a and 5b allowed an enantioselective preparation of known and useful intermediates for the synthesis of either the naturally occurring (-)-β-santalol or its potentially olfactive structural analogs. PMID:25329781

  11. Design of cross-linked semicrystalline poly(ε-caprolactone)-based networks with one-way and two-way shape-memory properties through Diels-Alder reactions.

    PubMed

    Raquez, Jean-Marie; Vanderstappen, Sophie; Meyer, Franck; Verge, Pierre; Alexandre, Michael; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jérôme, Christine; Dubois, Philippe

    2011-08-29

    Cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-based polyesterurethane (PUR) systems have been synthesized through Diels-Alder reactions by reactive extrusion. The Diels-Alder and retro-Diels-Alder reactions proved to be useful for enhancing the molecular motion of PCL-based systems, and therefore their crystallization ability, in the design of cross-linked semicrystalline polymers with one-way and two-way shape-memory properties. Successive reactions between α,ω-diol PCL (PCL(2) ), furfuryl alcohol, and methylene diphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate straightforwardly afforded the α,ω-furfuryl PCL-based PUR systems, and subsequent Diels-Alder reactions with N,N-phenylenedimaleimide afforded the thermoreversible cycloadducts. The cross-linking density could be modulated by partially replacing PCL-diol with PCL-tetraol. Interestingly, the resulting PUR systems proved to be semicrystalline cross-linked polymers, the melting temperature of which (close to 45 °C) represented the switching temperature for their shape-memory properties. Qualitative and quantitative measurements demonstrated that these PUR systems exhibited one-way and two-way shape-memory properties depending on their cross-linking density. PMID:21744399

  12. Diels-Alder Reaction of Anthranilic Acids: A Versatile Route to Dense Monolayers on Flat Edge and Basal Plane Graphitic Carbon Substrates.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Anna K; Fitchett, Christopher M; Dykstra, Haidee M; Waterland, Mark R; Brooksby, Paula A; Downard, Alison J

    2016-09-01

    Methods that reliably yield monolayers of covalently anchored modifiers on graphene and other planar graphitic materials are in demand. Covalently bonded groups can add functionality to graphitic carbon for applications ranging from sensing to supercapacitors and can tune the electronic and optical properties of graphene. Limiting modification to a monolayer gives a layer with well-defined concentration and thickness providing a minimum barrier to charge transfer. Here we investigate the use of anthranilic acid derivatives for grafting aryl groups to few layer graphene and pyrolyzed photoresist film (PPF). Under mild conditions, anthranilic acids generate arynes, which undergo Diels-Alder cycloadditions. Using spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate that the reaction yields monolayers of aryl groups on graphene and PPF with maximum surface coverages consistent with densely packed layers. Our study confirms that anthranilic acids offer a convenient route to covalent modification of planar graphitic carbons (both basal and edge plane materials). PMID:27529723

  13. An enantioselective central-axial-central chiral element transfer process leading to a concise synthesis of (+)-sterpurene: Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of vinylallene sulfoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, R.A.; Bartels, K.; Lee, R.W.K.; Okamura, W.H. )

    1989-05-10

    The intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reaction of vinylallene sulfoxide 19 as the diene component occurs in a rapid and stereoselective manner at room temperature to give tricyclic 20 in good yield. Sulfoxide 19 cyclizes {approximately} 140 times faster than the corresponding hydrocarbon 15a. It was also shown that gem-dimethyl substitution on the tether linking the vinylallene and vinyl group accelerates the rate of cyclization by only a factor of {approximately} 2.6. Treatment of enantiomerically enriched diene propargyl alcohol 6 with benzenesulfenyl chloride gave vinyallene sulfoxide 4 which cyclized in a highly enantio- and diastereoselective fashion to afford optically active tricyclic sulfoxide 5. Sulfoxide 5 was converted in two steps to the novel sesquiterpene fungal metabolite (+)-sterpurene, thus establishing its absolute configuration. By use of 2D NMR techniques, most of the proton and carbon signals in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of sterpurene (8) and the precursor diene 33 were assigned.

  14. Aza-Diels–Alder reaction between N-aryl-1-oxo-1H-isoindolium ions and tert-enamides: Steric effects on reaction outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ting-Yi; ALJaroudi, Zainab; Ellis, Bobby D; Cameron, T Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of 5-substituted 6,6a-dihydroisoindolo[2,1-a]quinolin-11(5H)-ones via [4 + 2] imino-Diels–Alder cyclization from N-aryl-3-hydroxyisoindolinones and N-vinyl lactams under Lewis acid-catalysed anhydrous conditions is reported. Reactions of N-(2-substituted-aryl)-3-hydroxyisoindolinones with N-vinylpyrrolidone under identical conditions resulted in the formation of 2-(2-substitued-aryl)-3-(2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)vinyl)isoindolin-1-one analogues indicating steric hinderance as the cause of deviation. The probable mechanism of the reaction based on the results from X-ray crystallography and molecular modelling is discussed. PMID:24778740

  15. ent-Kaurane-Based Regio- and Stereoselective Inverse Electron Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions: Synthesis of Dihydropyran-Fused Diterpenoids†

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chunyong; Wang, Lili; Chen, Haijun; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wang, Tianzhi; White, Mark A.; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A mild and concise approach for the construction of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran ring integrated into the A-ring of the natural product oridonin using an optimized inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IED HDA) reaction is reported herein. A self-dimerization of the exocyclic enone installed in the A-ring through a homo-HDA reaction was identified to exclusively give a dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoid with the spirochroman core. Moreover, the efficient cross-HDA cycloadditions of this enone with various vinyl ethers or vinyl sulfides, instead of its own homo-HDA dimerization, were achieved in regio- and stereoselective manners, thus providing the access to novel dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids as potential anticancer agents to overcome chemoresistance. PMID:25225052

  16. Phomanolides A and B from the Fungus Phoma sp.: Meroterpenoids Derived from a Putative Tropolonic Sesquiterpene via Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinyu; Liu, Ling; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lili; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng

    2015-12-24

    Phomanolides A (1) and B (2), unique meroterpenoids with new pentacyclic and tetracyclic skeletons, respectively, and phomanoxide (3), the double-epoxidation product of a putative biosynthetic precursor of 1 and 2, were isolated from the solid substrate fermentation cultures of the fungus Phoma sp., along with the known compound eupenifeldin (4). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism calculations and further secured by X-ray crystallography. Biogenetically, compounds 1 and 2 could be derived from a hypothetical monotropolonic sesquiterpene intermediate via hetero-Diels-Alder reactions. Compound 4 showed potent antiproliferative effects against three human glioma cell lines, with IC50 values of 0.08-0.13 μM. PMID:26651221

  17. Metalloporphyrin-Based Hypercrosslinked Polymers Catalyze Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of Unactivated Aldehydes with Simple Dienes: A Fascinating Strategy for the Construction of Heterogeneous Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhiyu; Xu, Li; Zhi, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yuwei; Xia, Hong; Mu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-07-11

    We describe a novel and intriguing strategy for the construction of efficient heterogeneous catalysts by hypercrosslinking catalyst molecules in a one-pot Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. The new hypercrosslinked polymers (HCPs) as porous solid catalysts exhibit the combined advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, owing to their high surface area, good stability, and tailoring of catalytic centers on the frameworks. Indeed, a new class of metalloporphyrin-based HCPs were successfully synthesized using modified iron(III) porphyrin complexes as building blocks, and the resulting networks were found to be excellent recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated aldehydes with 1,3-dienes. Moreover, this new strategy showed wide adaptability, and many kinds of homogeneous-like solid-based catalysts with high catalytic performance and excellent recyclability were also constructed. PMID:27147500

  18. Catalytic effect of gallium chloride in the diels-alder reaction between maleic anhydride and its derivatives and unsubstituted and substituted anthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V.D.; Konovalov, A.I.; Shakirov, I.M.

    1985-11-10

    The stability of n, v complexes between gallium chloride and unsubstituted and substituted maleic anhydrides was determined in benzene by a thermochemical method; it was shown that the stability of the complexes decreases in the transition from maleic anhydrides with electron-donating substituents to maleic anhydrides with electron-withdrawing substituents. The reactivity of these dienophiles in the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reactions with unsubstituted and substituted anthracenes in benzene and in the reactions catalyzed by gallium chloride was studied. The reactivity of the dienophiles varies similarly in the reactions with the investigated dienes, and this rules out treatment of steric hindrances as the reason for the reduced reactivity of the substituted dienophiles. A decrease in the catalytic effect was observed for the unreactive diene-dienophile pairs.

  19. ent-Kaurane-based regio- and stereoselective inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions: synthesis of dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunyong; Wang, Lili; Chen, Haijun; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wang, Tianzhi; White, Mark A; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-11-14

    A mild and concise approach for the construction of a 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran ring integrated into the A-ring of the natural product oridonin using an optimized inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IED HDA) reaction is reported herein. A self-dimerization of the exocyclic enone installed in the A-ring through a homo-HDA reaction was identified to exclusively give a dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoid with the spirochroman core. Moreover, efficient cross-HDA cycloadditions of this enone with various vinyl ethers or vinyl sulfides, instead of its own homo-HDA dimerization, were achieved in a regio- and stereoselective manner, thus providing access to novel dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids as potential anticancer agents to overcome chemoresistance. PMID:25225052

  20. Development of an Enyne Metathesis/Isomerization/Diels-Alder One-Pot Reaction for the Synthesis of a Novel Near-Infrared (NIR) Dye Core.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kohei; Fujii, Yuki; Yoshioka, Shohei; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Tsujino, Hirofumi; Uno, Tadayuki; Fujioka, Hiromichi; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-23

    N-Alkyl-N-allyl-2-alkynylaniline derivatives undergo a tandem ring-closing enyne metathesis/isomerization/Diels-Alder cycloaddition sequence in the presence of a second-generation Grubbs catalyst and dienophiles. In practice, the acyclic enyne in the presence of the ruthenium alkylidene first undergoes ring-closing metathesis to generate cyclic 4-vinyl-1,2-dihydroquinolines; following diene isomerization and then the addition of a dienophile, these ring-closing metathesis products are selectively converted into a 7-methyl-4H-naphtho[3,2,1-de]quinoline-8,11-dione core. Overall, the reaction sequence converts simple aniline derivatives into π-conjugated small molecules, which have characteristic absorption in the near-infrared region, in a single operation through three unique ruthenium-catalyzed transformations. PMID:26449517

  1. Understanding reactivity and regioselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of a sugar-derived dienophile bearing two competing EWGs. An experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Giri, Germán F; Sarotti, Ariel M; Spanevello, Rolando A

    2015-10-13

    The effect of an extra EWG in the reactivity and regioselectivity in Diels-Alder reactions of β-cyanolevoglucosenone and 4 different dienes was studied by a joint computational and experimental study. Conceptual DFT analysis successfully predicted an important enhancement in the reactivity, and correctly anticipated the regioselectivity in the reactions with isoprene. However, this static treatment failed when dealing the regiochemical preference of the reactions involving a substituted anthracene as diene. MPW1K/6-31G* calculations correctly reproduced the experimental observations. Based on the collected data, we found that when dealing with dienes and dienophiles with no clear electronically activated position, the ease of pyramidalization of the interacting atoms dictates the regioselectivity of the DA reaction. PMID:26318382

  2. Modification of the protein expression pattern induced in the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. strain ACN14a-tsr by root exudates of its symbiotic host Alnus glutinosa and cloning of the sodF gene.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Y; Maréchal, J; Cournoyer, B; Normand, P; Domenach, A M

    2001-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect proteins induced in Frankia sp. strain ACN14a-tsr by root exudates of its symbiotic host, Alnus glutinosa. The 5 most prominent proteins were purified from 2-D gels and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. All of these proteins had a high percentage of similarity with known stress proteins. One protein match was the Fe superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD), another was a tellurite resistance protein (Ter), the third was a bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp); and two matches, differing only by their isoelectric point, were the same small heat shock protein (Hsp), a major immune reactive protein found in mycobacteria. This suggests that the symbiotic microorganism Frankia, first responds with a normal stress response to toxic root products of its symbiotic host plant. To confirm its identity, the gene corresponding to the Fe-SOD protein, sodF was isolated from a genomic library by a PCR-approach and sequenced. It is the first stress response gene characterized in Frankia. PMID:11467730

  3. Recent similarity in distribution ranges does not mean a similar postglacial history: a phylogeographical study of the boreal tree species Alnus incana based on microsatellite and chloroplast DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Mandák, Bohumil; Havrdová, Alena; Krak, Karol; Hadincová, Věroslava; Vít, Petr; Zákravský, Petr; Douda, Jan

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed the historical pattern of postglacial biogeographic range expansion of the boreal tree species Alnus incana in Europe. To assess population genetic structure and diversity, we performed a combined analysis of nuclear microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA sequences (65 populations, 1004 individuals). Analysis of haplotype and microsatellite diversity revealed that southeastern refugial populations situated in the Carpathians and the Balkan Peninsula did not spread north and cannot be considered as important source populations for postglacial recolonization of Europe; populations in Eastern Europe did not establish Fennoscandian populations; populations in Fennoscandia and Eastern Europe have no unique genetic cluster, but represent a mix with a predominant cluster typical for Central Europe; and that colonization of Fennoscandia and Eastern Europe took place from Central Europe. Our findings highlight the importance of an effective refugium in Central Europe located outside classical southern refugia confirming the existence of northern refugia for boreal trees in Europe. The postglacial range expansion of A. incana did not follow the model established for Picea abies. Fennoscandian populations are not derived from Eastern European ones, but from Central European ones. PMID:26831816

  4. The Diels-Alder-Reaction with inverse-Electron-Demand, a very efficient versatile Click-Reaction Concept for proper Ligation of variable molecular Partners

    PubMed Central

    Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Kliem, Christian; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The ligation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for working with image processing systems in diagnostics (MRT) attracts increasing notice and scientific interest. The Diels-Alder ligation Reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv) turns out to be an appropriate candidate. The DARinv is characterized by a specific distribution of electrons of the diene and the corresponding dienophile counterpart. Whereas the reactants in the classical Diels-Alder Reaction feature electron-rich diene and electron-poor dienophile compounds, the DARinv exhibits exactly the opposite distribution of electrons. Substituents with pushing electrones increase and, with pulling electrons reduce the electron density of the dienes as used in the DARinv. We report here that the DARinv is an efficient route for coupling of multifunctional molecules like active peptides, re-formulated drugs or small molecules like the alkyalting agent temozolomide (TMZ). This is an example of our contribution to the "Click chemistry" technology. In this case TMZ is ligated by DARinv as a cargo to transporter molecules facilitating the passage across the cell membranes into cells and subsequently into subcellular components like the cell nucleus by using address molecules. With such constructs we achieved high local concentrations at the desired target site of pharmacological action. The DARinv ligation was carried out using the combination of several technologies, namely: the organic chemistry and the solid phase peptide synthesis which can produce 'tailored' solutions for questions not solely restricted to the medical diagnostics or therapy, but also result in functionalizations of various surfaces qualified amongst others also for array development. We like to acquaint you with the DARinv and we like to exemplify that all ligation products were generated after a rapid and complete reaction in organic solutions at room temperature, in high purity, but also, hurdles and difficulties on the way to the

  5. Healable capacitive touch screen sensors based on transparent composite electrodes comprising silver nanowires and a furan/maleimide diels-alder cycloaddition polymer.

    PubMed

    Li, Junpeng; Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Ren, Fengbo; Hu, Wei; Li, Juan; Qi, Shuhua; Pei, Qibing

    2014-12-23

    A healable transparent capacitive touch screen sensor has been fabricated based on a healable silver nanowire-polymer composite electrode. The composite electrode features a layer of silver nanowire percolation network embedded into the surface layer of a polymer substrate comprising an ultrathin soldering polymer layer to confine the nanowires to the surface of a healable Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymer and to attain low contact resistance between the nanowires. The composite electrode has a figure-of-merit sheet resistance of 18 Ω/sq with 80% transmittance at 550 nm. A surface crack cut on the conductive surface with 18 Ω is healed by heating at 100 °C, and the sheet resistance recovers to 21 Ω in 6 min. A healable touch screen sensor with an array of 8×8 capacitive sensing points is prepared by stacking two composite films patterned with 8 rows and 8 columns of coupling electrodes at 90° angle. After deliberate damage, the coupling electrodes recover touch sensing function upon heating at 80 °C for 30 s. A capacitive touch screen based on Arduino is demonstrated capable of performing quick recovery from malfunction caused by a razor blade cutting. After four cycles of cutting and healing, the sensor array remains functional. PMID:25486240

  6. Mechanism and regioselectivity of the reversible Diels-Alder cycloaddition of 2-methyl-1,3 butadiene with C48B6N6 heterofullerene: a DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Ehsan

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study of the mechanism and regioslectivity of Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition reactions between 2-methyl-1,3 butadiene and hetero bonds of the most stable isomer of C48B6N6 heterofullerene have been studied at the B3LYP/6-31G(*) level. Three heterobond pathways BC, BN and NC including two regioisomers for each one are considered by different approaches. All studied reactions have normal electron demand nature and corresponding regioisomers are produced via asynchronous processes. Predicted regioselectivities using electronic and energetic results are in complete agreement with each other and show that BC heterobond pathway is more active than others and regioisomer 16 is the major. The local reactivity difference values (Rk) show that all reaction sites at C48B6N6 present ambiphilic activation while reaction sites at 2-methyl-1,3 butadiene show nucleophilic activation. Therefore, it is predictable that C48B6N6 should present electrophilic nature. Plotting of ΔRk and Δs values of six studied channels toward corresponding activation Gibbs free energies showed that the regioisomeric channel with lower ΔRk and Δs values is faster and vice versa. PMID:25203975

  7. A Near-Infrared Photothermal Effect-Responsive Drug Delivery System Based on Indocyanine Green and Doxorubicin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Mediated by Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared light (NIR) possesses great advantages for light-responsive controllable drug release, such as deep tissue penetration and low damage to healthy tissues. Herein, a NIR-responsive drug delivery system is developed based on a NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG), and anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded thermoresponsive block copolymer micelles, in which the drug release can be controlled via NIR irradiation. First, block copolymers, poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-block-poly(furfuryl methacrylate) (POEGMA-b-PFMA), are synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization, followed by modification with N-octyl maleimide through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction to produce POEGMA-b-POMFMA. The self-assembly of POEGMA-b-POMFMA by nano-precipitation in aqueous solution affords the polymeric micelles which are used to simultaneously encapsulate ICG and DOX. Upon irradiation by NIR light (805 nm), the loaded DOX is released rapidly from the micelles due to partial retro DA reaction and local temperature increase-induced faster drug diffusion by the photothermal effect. Cytotoxicity evaluation and intracellular distribution observation demonstrate significant synergistic effects of NIR-triggered drug release, photothermal, and chemotherapy toward cancer cells under NIR irradiation. PMID:26274805

  8. Kinetic and spectrophotometric investigation of the diels-alder reaction between maleic anhydride derivatives and substituted anthracenes in the presence of gallium and aluminum chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V.D.; Konovalov, A.I.; Shakirov, I.M.

    1986-10-01

    A comparison was made of the kinetic data for the normal Diels-Alder reaction of para-substituted N-arylmaleimides and substituted maleic anhydrides with meso-substituted anthracenes and of the reaction catalyzed by gallium and aluminum chlorides. The largely constant effects of gallium chloride (10/sup 4/) and aluminum chloride (10/sup 5/) in the acceleration of the reactions between the various pairs were demonstrated. The energies of charge transfer in the complexes between hexamethylbenzene and the dienophiles in the presence and absence of Lewis acids were determined by spectrophotometry. A significant decrease (to 1.2 eV) of the charge-transfer energy was found in the ..pi.., ..pi..-complexes and was attributed to the stabilization of the LUMO of the dienophile. From analysis of the obtained data it was concluded that the observed catalytic effect in the presence of Lewis acids can be explained by the approach of the frontier orbital levels and by a favorable change in the coefficients at the atomic orbitals responsible for the reaction.

  9. Determination of the energy storage capacity of the Diels-Alder reaction between methylfuran and maleic anhydride as applied to storing solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The heat storage capacity of the Diels-Alder reaction between 2-methylfuran and maleic anhydride is calculated using reaction parameters obtained from solution calorimetry. An equilibrium constant of .614 1/mol and a heat of reaction of 14.33 kcal/mole were obtained from experiments at 45/sup 0/C. A reaction ..delta..C/sub p/ of -21.8 cal/mole was calculated from heat capacity information at 25/sup 0/C. From these parameters, a solution initially seven molar in methylfuran and maleic anhydride was found to have a maximum apparent volumetric heat capacity of about 1.85 times that of water. This maximum occurs at about 335/sup 0/K. Typical active solar energy schemes operate between 300 and 400/sup 0/K. When cycled between these temperatures, this system has an overall apparent heat capacity about 1.5 times that of water. The apparent heat capacity increases as the temperature range is narrowed.

  10. Origin of the synchronicity in bond formation in polar Diels-Alder reactions: an ELF analysis of the reaction between cyclopentadiene and tetracyanoethylene.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Pérez, Patricia; Sáez, Jose A

    2012-05-21

    The origin of the synchronicity in C-C bond formation in polar Diels-Alder (P-DA) reactions involving symmetrically substituted electrophilic ethylenes has been studied by an ELF analysis of the electron reorganization along the P-DA reaction of cyclopentadiene (Cp) with tetracyanoethylene (TCE) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. The present study makes it possible to establish that the synchronicity in C-C bond formation in P-DA reactions is controlled by the symmetric distribution of the electron-density excess reached in the electrophile through the charge transfer process, which can be anticipated by an analysis of the spin electron-density at the corresponding radical anion. The ELF comparative analysis of bonding along the DA reactions of Cp with ethylene and with TCE asserts that these DA reactions, which have a symmetric electron reorganization, do not have a cyclic electron reorganization as the pericyclic mechanism states. Due to the very limited number of cases of symmetrically substituted ethylenes, we can conclude that the synchronous mechanism is an exception of DA reactions. PMID:22527420

  11. On-resin Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand: an efficient ligation method for complex peptides with a varying spacer to optimize cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Mareen; Meier, René; Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2016-06-01

    Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is the method of choice to produce peptides. Several protecting groups enable specific modifications. However, complex peptide conjugates usually require a rather demanding conjugation strategy, which is mostly performed in solution. Herein, an efficient strategy is described using an on-resin Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv). This method is compatible with the standard Fmoc/tBu strategy and is easy to monitor. As a proof of concept a titanium binding peptide was modified with a cyclic cell binding peptide (RGD) by DARinv on a solid support applying different tetrazines and alkenes. The generated bulky DARinv linkers were employed to act as the required spacer for RGD mediated cell adhesion on titanium. In vitro studies demonstrated improved cell spreading on DARinv-conjugated peptides and revealed, in combination with molecular dynamics-simulation, new insights into the design of spacers between the RGD peptide and the surface. Performing the DARinv on resin expands the toolbox of SPPS to produce complex peptide conjugates under mild, catalyst free conditions with reduced purification steps. The resulting conjugate can be effectively exploited to promote cell adhesion on biomaterials. PMID:27117044

  12. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2003-07-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ≥30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (≥30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ≥30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.

  13. Dark CO/sub 2/ fixation and amino acid metabolism in symbiotic N/sub 2/-fixing systems. Labeling studies with /sup 14/C and /sup 13/N-labeled tracers. [Roots of soybean plants and alders

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, G.T. III

    1982-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism was examined by monitoring the amino acids labeled with (/sup 14/C) incorporated during dark CO/sub 2/ fixation and with (/sup 13/N) incorporated from /sup 13/NH/sub 4/+, /sup 13/NO/sub 3/- or (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/. Label from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was directly incorporated in soybean roots and the N/sub 2/-fixing root nodules of soybeans and alders. The products of dark CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily amino and organic acids. The distribution of label incorporated from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into amino acids depended on the plant species and the nitrigen source. The major labeled amino acids in roots and nodules of soybean plants dependent on N/sub 2/ were aspartate and glutamate; in alder nodules, citrulline; in roots of soybean plants treated with NO/sub 3/-, asparagine; and in roots of soybean plants treated with NH/sub 4/+, asparagine and glutamine. Asparagine was the major amino acid transported out of the soybean root system. Experiments indicated that asparagine was synthesized directly from aspartate. After exposure to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, the specific activity of glutamine was consistently higher than that of glutamate in soybean nodules and roots of plants treated with NO/sub 3/-. This was taken as evidence that there were two pools of glutamate, only one of which was associated with glutamine synthesis. Alder and soybean nodules and roots were incubated with /sup 13/N-labeled tracers. Those tissues incubated with /sup 13/NH/sub 4/+ had a higher ratio of (/sup 13/N)glutamine to (/sup 13/N)glutamate that similar tissues exposed to /sup 13/NO/sub 3/- or (/sup 13/N)N/sub 2/. An explanation for these results based on the relative rates of glutamine and glutamate synthesis is discussed.

  14. An unexpected double Diels-Alder reaction of (E)-2-bromo-4-aryl-1,3-pentadiene involving [1,5]-hydrogen migration and HBr elimination: synthesis of bicyclo[2.2.2]octene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pingping; Liu, Lingyan; Chang, Weixing; Li, Jing

    2015-03-01

    An unexpected double Diels-Alder (DDA) reaction of (E)-2-bromo-4-aryl-1,3-pentadiene was developed and resulted in a series of "butterfly-like" bicyclo[2.2.2]octene derivatives in moderate to good yields without the need for a metal catalyst. The proposed mechanism involves a [1,5]-sigmatropic hydrogen migration and HBr elimination. Through this decisive [1,5]-hydrogen shift step, the electronic properties and steric hindrance of the conjugated diene substrate are completely altered and the DDA reaction of this potential diene synthon is successfully achieved. PMID:25620015

  15. Characterization of an effective actinorhizal microsymbiont, Frankia sp. AvcI1 (Actinomycetales).

    PubMed

    Baker, D; Torrey, J G

    1980-09-01

    The actinomycete, Frankia sp. AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa was grown in axenic culture and used to inoculate host seedlings. This bacterium has been shown to be an infective and effective nitrogen-fixing microsymbiont which can be distinguished from other frankiae, in vitro, on the basis of size, distinctive morphology, and growth characteristics. Cross-inoculation studies indicated that the host range of this symbiont encompasses all of the members of the genera Alnus, Myrica, and Comptonia tested. In all cases, the symbioses developed were effective in fixing atmospheric dinitrogen. PMID:7459721

  16. Linear-dendritic supramolecular complexes as nanoscale reaction vessels for "green" chemistry. Diels-Alder reactions between fullerene C60 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Arsen; Gitsov, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This study describes the first Diels-Alder (DA) reaction performed in aqueous medium with highly hydrophobic compounds-fullerene (C 60) as the dienophile and anthracene (An) or tetracene (Tet) as the dienes, respectively. The reactions are performed in nanocontainers, constructed by self-assembly of linear-dendritic amphiphilic copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol), PEG or poly(ethylene oxide), PEO as the hydrophilic blocks and poly(benzyl ether) monodendrons as the hydrophobic fragments: G3PEO13k, dG3 and dG2. Comparative studies under identical conditions are carried out with an amphiphilic linear-linear copolymer, poly(styrene)1800- block-PEO2100, PSt-PEO, and the nonionic surfactant Igepal CO-720, IP720. The binding affinity of supermolecules built of these amphiphiles toward the DA reagents decreases in the following order: G3PEO13k > dG3 > PSt-PEO > dG2 > IP720. The kinetic constant of binding is evaluated for tetracene and decreases in a similar fashion: 5 x 10 (-7) M/min (G3PEO13k), through 4 x 10 (-7) M/min (PSt-PEO) down to 1.5 x 10 (-7) M/min for IP720. The mobility of substrates encapsulated in the micellar core, estimated by pyrene fluorescence decay, is 95-121 ns for the micelles of the linear-dendritic copolymers and notably higher for PSt-PEO (152 ns), revealing the much denser interior of the linear analogue. The apparent kinetic constant for the DA reaction of C 60 and Tet within the G3PEO13k supermolecule in aqueous medium is markedly higher than in organic solvent (toluene), 208 vs 1.82 M /min. With G3PEO13k the conversions reach 49% for the DA reaction between C 60 and An, and 55% for C 60 and Tet. Besides the monoadduct (26.5% yield) the reaction with An produces exclusively increasing amounts of D 2 h -symmetric antipodal bis-adduct, whose yield reaches up to 22.5% after 48 h. In addition to the environmentally friendly conditions notable advantages of the synthetic strategy described are the extended stability of the linear

  17. Direct and Indirect Determinations of Elementary Rate Constants H + O2: Chain Branching; the Dehydration of tertiary-Butanol; the Retro Diels-Alder Reaction of Cyclohexene; the Dehydration of Isopropanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyne, Joshua S.

    Due to growing environmental concern over the continued use of fossil fuels, methods to limit emissions and partially replace fossil fuel use with renewable biofuels are of considerable interest. Developing chemical kinetic models for the chemistry that affects combustion properties is important to understanding how new fuels affect combustion energy conversion processes in transportation devices. This thesis reports the experimental study of several important reactions (the H + O2 branching reaction, the key decomposition reactions of tertiary-butanol, the dehydration reaction of isopropanol, and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene) and develops robust analysis methods to estimate the absolute uncertainties of specific elementary rate constants derived from the experimental data. In the study of the above reactions, both a direct and indirect rate constant determination technique with associated uncertainty estimation methodologies are developed. In the study of the decomposition reactions, a direct determination technique is applied to experimental data gathered in preparation of this thesis. In the case of the dehydration reaction of tertiary-butanol and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene, both of which are used as internal standards for relative rate studies (Herzler et al. 1997) and chemical thermometry (Rosado-Reyes et al. 2013) , analysis showed an ˜20 K difference in the reaction rate between the reported results and the previous recommendations. In light of these discrepancies, an uncertainty estimation of previous recommendations illuminated an uncertainty of at least 20 K for the dehydration reaction of tertiary-butanol and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene, thus resolving the discrepancies. The determination of the H + O2 branching reaction and decomposition reactions of isopropanol used an indirect determination technique. The uncertainty of the H + O2 branching reaction rate is shown to be underestimated by previous

  18. Dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takuya; Kurahashi, Takuya; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2011-10-01

    The dehydrogenative cycloaddition of dieneynes, which possess a diene in the form of a styrene moiety and a dienophile in the form of an alkyne moiety, produces naphthalene derivatives when heated. It was found that a key requirement of this process is the presence of a silyl group attached to the alkyne moiety, which forces a dehydrogenation reaction to occur. PMID:21905638

  19. Pressure Dependent Mass Fraction in Noble Gas Mass Spectrometers: A Possible Explanation for the Excessive Dispersion in the EARTHTIME Fish Canyon/Alder Creek Inter-Calibration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, B. D.; Swisher, C. C.; Mana, S.

    2011-12-01

    Mass spectrometer fractionation bias (mass discrimination) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in noble gas mass spectroscopy and must be corrected for in order to obtain accurate-high precision isotopic ratios that are used in isotopic age calculations. Temporal variations in mass fractionation are well known phenomena and have been reported in several studies (eg. Turrin et al., 2010 and references therein). Here we report on the pressure dependency on mass spectrometer fractionation bias. In our experiment, we varied by a factor of five the signal size of aliquots of atmospheric argon delivered from an automated air pipette system. The measured mass discrimination difference (MD) as determined by the 40Ar/36Ar ratio between the 1-fold and 5-fold air pipette shots is ~5%. The air 40Ar/36Ar aliquots were measured using a MAP 215-50 operating in pulse counting mode. The air measurements were interspersed with measurements of Alder Creek (AC) sanidine and Fish Canyon (FC) sanidine that were co-irradiated for 0.75 hours. The grain sizes for the two mineral standards were chosen such that the AC sample yielded 40Ar signals of about 50 kcps, similar to that delivered by a single aliquot delivered by the air pipette. The FC grains were about 5-10 times greater (150-600 kcps) than the single air aliquot. Following the analyses, we applied the MD correction to both the FC and AC analyses. When the MD as determined from the single pipette data (which matches 40Ar beam intensity of the AC sample) is applied to both the AC and FC data a "J" of 1.579±0.001x10-4 is obtained from the FC data and an age of 1183 ±4 ka for AC. However, when the MD as determined from the multiple aliquot pipette data (with an 40Ar beam similar to that of the FC analyses) is applied to the FC data a "J" of 1.588±0.001x10-4 is obtained and an AC age of 1189 ±4 ka the same age at the 95% confidence level, the reported age for AC. We conclude that variation in MD over signal sizes typically analyzed in 40Ar

  20. Root tensile strength of grey alder and mountain maple grown on a coarse grained eco-engineered slope in the Swiss Alps related to wood anatomical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kink, Dimitri; Bast, Alexander; Meyer, Christine; Meier, Wolfgang; Egli, Markus; Gärtner, Holger

    2014-05-01

    . In order to confirm this assumption and possibly find more important root properties which have an influence on soil stabilization, the root systems of seven trees (three grey alder, four mountain maple) were excavated and analyzed. The study site is a catchment, where shallow landslides are common. It is located in the Prättigau valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps and was eco-engineered in 1997. The substrate is coarse-grained morainic material, mean annual air temperature reaches 4.64°C, average precipitation is 1170 mm, and the altitude is about 1000 m a.s.l.. The root system of each tree was uncovered carefully by hand to keep the roots undamaged, before removal it was photographed in situ to document the root distribution. The root systems were then cut into single root pieces of about 20 cm length and the position of each sample was documented. The root samples were then hierarchically classified in several root classes. The tensile strength of more than 500 samples was determined. In addition, the values for age, diameter, and root moisture were ascertained. Since it was assumed, that the cellular structure of the roots has an influence on the tensile strength, two microscopic thin-sections were prepared from all successfully tested root samples. The microscopic analysis focused on anatomical parameters such as the size and number of vessels, their distribution as well as their conductivity. The results for the final correlation between the anatomical characteristics and the root's tensile strength are presented for both tree species.

  1. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  2. High pressure Diels-Alder approach to hydroxy-substituted 6a-cyano-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-ones: a route to delta(6)-cis-cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, Eleonora; Minuti, Lucio; Piermatti, Oriana; Pizzo, Ferdinando

    2009-06-01

    Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of 3-cyanocoumarin, hydroxy-substituted 3-cyanocoumarins and mesyl-substituted 3-cyano-coumarins with methyl-1,3-butadienes carried out under high pressure (11 kbar) are reported. Activation by high pressure allows these reactions to proceed satisfactorily under mild conditions to produce 6a-cyano-hydroxy- and 6a-cyano-mesyl-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-ones in moderate to excellent yield. The synthesis of cis-1-hydroxy-9-methyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-benzo[c]chromen-6-one as precursor of Delta(6)-3,4-cis-cannabidiol (Delta(6)-cis-CBD) and Delta(8)-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(8)-cis-THC) is outlined. PMID:19402693

  3. Multilocus Sequence Typing Confirms the Close Genetic Interrelatedness of Three Distinct Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma Strain Clusters and Group 16SrV Phytoplasmas Infecting Grapevine and Alder in Europe▿

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Guillaume; Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Salar, Pascal; Bonnet, Patrick; Maixner, Michael; Marcone, Carmine; Boudon-Padieu, Elisabeth; Foissac, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Vineyards of southern France and northern Italy are affected by the flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasma, a quarantine pathogen transmitted by the leafhopper of Nearctic origin Scaphoideus titanus. To better trace propagation of FD strains and identify possible passage between the vineyard and wild plant compartments, molecular typing of phytoplasma strains was applied. The sequences of the two genetic loci map and uvrB-degV, along with the sequence of the secY gene, were determined among a collection of FD and FD-related phytoplasmas infecting grapevine, alder, elm, blackberry, and Spanish broom in Europe. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses consistently indicated the existence of three FD phytoplasma strain clusters. Strain cluster FD1 (comprising isolate FD70) displayed low variability and represented 17% of the disease cases in the French vineyard, with a higher incidence of the cases in southwestern France. Strain cluster FD2 (comprising isolates FD92 and FD-D) displayed no variability and was detected both in France (83% of the cases) and in Italy, whereas the more-variable strain cluster FD3 (comprising isolate FD-C) was detected only in Italy. The clonal property of FD2 and its wide distribution are consistent with diffusion through propagation of infected-plant material. German Palatinate grapevine yellows phytoplasmas (PGY) appeared variable and were often related to some of the alder phytoplasmas (AldY) detected in Italy and France. Finally, phylogenetic analyses concluded that FD, PGY, and AldY were members of the same phylogenetic subclade, which may have originated in Europe. PMID:17468266

  4. DIRECT-SEEDING OF COMMERCIAL TREES ON SURFACE-MINE SPOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two small-seeded species, Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) and three large seeded species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) were direct-seeded on three aspects on minesoil in easte...

  5. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON TWO MODEL HARDWOOD FORESTS: THROUGHFALL, LITTER LEACHATE, AND SOIL SOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulated sulfuric acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.6) was applied to model forests containing either sugar maple (Acer saccharum) or red alder (Alnus rubra). Water samples were collected above and below the canopy, below the litter, and from 20 cm and 1 m below the surface of ...

  6. TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS TO AN OREGON COASTAL RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest of North America, anadromous fish can transport significant quantities of nutrients and energy from the ocean to the watersheds where they return, reproduce and die. In addition, the widespread distribution of N2-fixing alders (Alnus spp.) can influence ...

  7. From the forest to the sea and back again: Biogeochemistry in the Oregon Coast Range

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. A...

  8. Linking landscape characteristics and stream nitrogen in the Oregon Coast Range: Empirical modeling of water quality monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background sources of nitrogen (N) provide a challenge for setting stream nutrient criteria in the Pacific Northwest US. Red alder (Alnus rubra), an early successional nitrogen fixing tree, and sea salt inputs can strongly influence stream N concentrations observed in individual...

  9. Bounding salt marsh nitrogen fluxes: development of an ecohydrological salt marsh model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-balance approach to characterize nitrogen flux in a 2-hectare, meso-haline saltmarsh yielded extensive flow and water chemistry data. However, a significant, unevenly distributed population of the nitrogen fixer Alnus rubra (red alder) in the 20-hectare upland catchment l...

  10. N-O Chemistry for Antibiotics: Discovery of N-Alkyl-N-(pyridin-2-yl)hydroxylamine Scaffolds as Selective Antibacterial Agents Using Nitroso Diels-Alder and Ene Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Wencewicz, Timothy A.; Yang, Baiyuan; Rudloff, James R.; Oliver, Allen G.; Miller, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery, syntheses, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a new family of heterocyclic antibacterial compounds based on N-alkyl-N-(pyridin-2-yl)hydroxylamine scaffolds are described. A structurally diverse library of ~100 heterocyclic molecules generated from Lewis acid-mediated nucleophilic ring opening reactions with nitroso Diels-Alder cycloadducts and nitroso ene reactions with substituted alkenes was evaluated in whole cell antibacterial assays. Compounds containing the N-alkyl-N-(pyridin-2-yl)hydroxylamine structure demonstrated selective and potent antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 (MIC90 = 2.0 μM or 0.41 μg/mL) and moderate activity against other Gram-positive strains including antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). A new synthetic route to the active core was developed using palladium-catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig amination reactions of N-alkyl-O-(4-methoxybenzyl)hydroxylamines with 2-halo-pyridines that facilitated SAR studies and revealed the simplest active structural fragment. This work shows the value of using a combination of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) and parallel synthesis for identifying new antibacterial scaffolds. PMID:21859126

  11. EFFECT OF SIMULATED SULFURIC ACID RAIN ON THE CHEMISTRY OF A SULFATE-ADSORBING FOREST SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulated H2SO4 rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0) or control rain (pH 5.6) was applied for 3.5 yr to large lysimeter boxes containing a sulfate-adsorbing forest soil and either red alder (Alnus rubra) or sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings. After removal of the plants and the litter lay...

  12. Tall shrub expansion facilitated by patterned ground in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.; Ermokhina, K.

    2011-12-01

    We integrated field observations with a time-series of satellite imagery to identify key biophysical attributes associated with tall shrub expansion and increased vegetation productivity within a forest-tundra ecotone near Kharp, northwest Siberia. Comparison of high-resolution Corona and QuickBird satellite photography indicates that alder (Alnus fruticosa) cover increased by ~10% since 1968. Additionally, areas of sharply increasing productivity detected using a Landsat TM/ETM+ time-series for 1985-2009 are consistently co-located with expanding shrub stands. Field observations made in 2011 revealed that most of the shrub expansion has occurred in areas of patterned ground in which abundant mineral-dominated microsites ("circles") have been maintained by cryogenic disturbance. In order to test whether shrub expansion was facilitated by circles, we established a series of transects according to categories of alder stand age and circle density. Along the transects, we mapped the location of alders and circles, measured soil organic depth and leaf area index (LAI), and characterized plant communities. In recent expansion areas, young alders occur almost exclusively on silt-rich circles that lack vegetation and surface organic matter. Alder abundance and LAI increased with the total area occupied by exposed circles. Analyses using spatial statistics indicate that young alders tend to occur in evenly-spaced groups that mirror the spacing of circles. This distribution pattern persists in older alder stands, especially where circles are large and widely-spaced. Stands on closely-spaced circles quickly develop dense canopies and low species-diversity. Based on ground- and satellite-based observations, we conclude that the abundance of mineral-dominated circles at Kharp has facilitated rapid alder expansion and associated alterations in plant community structure, composition, and productivity. Physical processes in areas of patterned ground promote continuous, rather than

  13. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  14. Holocene vegetation histories from three sites in the Tundra of Northwestern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, K. ); Garralla, S.

    1992-11-01

    Two pollen diagrams from lakes north of treeline in northwestern Quebec indicate that Picea never extended north of its present-day limit during the past 6000 yr BP. Alnus crispa was slightly more abundant around 5000 BP, but there are few major changes in the vegetation of the region during the Holocene. A third site in the tundra along Hudson Bay has a slightly longer sequence (7000 yr BP) which indicates more open conditions in the early and recent part of the record. Picea may have been more abundant locally around 3000 BP. Few major changes in these diagrams can be unequivocally attributed to local changes in plant abundance; changes in tree and shrub pollen abundance parallel those seen south of treeline.

  15. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  16. Do Invertebrate Activity and Current Velocity Affect Fungal Assemblage Structure in Leaves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Verónica; Graça, Manuel A. S.

    2006-02-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of current velocity and shredder presence, manipulated in artificial channels, on the structure of the fungal assemblage colonizing alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner) leaves incubated in coarse and fine mesh bags. Fungal sporulation rates, cumulative conidial production and number of species of aquatic hyphomycetes were higher in leaves exposed to high rather than to low current velocity. The opposite was observed regarding Simpson's index (D) on the fungal assemblage. Some species of aquatic hyphomycetes were consistently stimulated in high current channels. No effect of shredders or of mesh type was observed.

  17. Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

    2015-02-15

    The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes. PMID:25236195

  18. Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?

    PubMed

    English, V; Sommerville, A

    2003-06-01

    In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant. PMID:12796433

  19. Widespread Expansion of Boreal Shrublands in the Siberian Low Arctic Is Linked to Cryogenic Disturbance and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Declassified imagery from the KH-4B "Corona" and KH-7 "Gambit" Cold War satellite surveillance systems (1963-1972) are a unique, high-resolution dataset that establishes a baseline for landcover-change studies in the Russian Arctic spanning 6 decades. We co-registered Corona/Gambit and modern high-resolution imagery for seven ~65 km2 Low Arctic sites in northwest Siberia and Chukotka and quantified changes in the extent of tall shrublands dominated by Siberian alder (Alnus fruticosa) using a point-intercept sampling approach. We made ground observations at two sites to identify important geomorphic processes and physiographic units associated with shrub expansion. Alder shrubland cover increased at all sites; relative to the 1960s extent, shrubland extent increased by 5-31% at the northwest Siberian sites and by 9% at both Chukotkan sites,. In northwest Siberia, alder expansion was closely linked to cryogenic disturbances related to patterned-ground and active-layer detachments. At the Chukotkan sites, most alder expansion occurred on hillslope colluvium and floodplains; we also observed modest increases in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila). The close correspondence between expanding shrub patches and disturbance processes indicates that sparsely-vegetated, mineral-rich seedbeds strongly facilitate alder recruitment, and that the spatio-temporal attributes of disturbance mechanisms are a key determinant of landscape susceptibility to shrub expansion. Shrub expansion, in turn, initiates a cascade of effects on permafrost thermal regime and disturbance, promoting the accumulation of biomass and potentially buffering permafrost from climate warming.; Recently-established alder shrubs growing on non-sorted circles in patterned ground near Obskaya, northwest Siberia.

  20. Recent and Holocene climate change controls on vegetation and carbon accumulation in Alaskan coastal muskegs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.; Nichols, Jonathan E.; Moy, Christopher M.; McGeachy, Alicia; Perez, Max

    2016-01-01

    Pollen, spore, macrofossil and carbon data from a peatland near Cordova, Alaska, reveal insights into the climate-vegetation-carbon interactions from the initiation of the Holocene, c. the last 11.5 ka, to the present (1 ka = 1000 calibrated years before present where 0 = 1950 CE). The Holocene period is characterized by early deposition of gyttja in a pond environment with aquatics such as Nuphar polysepalum and Potamogeton, and a significant regional presence of Alnus crispa subsp. sinuata. Carbon accumulation (50 g/m2/a) was high for a short interval in the early Holocene when Sphagnum peat accumulated, but was followed by a major decline to 13 g/m2/a from 7 to 3.7 ka when Cyperaceae and ericads such as Rhododendron (formerly Ledum) groenlandicum expanded. This shift to sedge growth is representative of many peatlands throughout the south-central region of Alaska, and indicates a drier, more evaporative environment with a large decline in carbon storage. The subsequent return to Sphagnum peat after 4 ka in the Neoglacial represents a widespread shift to moister, cooler conditions, which favored a resurgence of ericads, such as Andromeda polifolia, and increased carbon accumulation rate. The sustained Alnus expansion visible in the top 10 cm of the peat profile is correlative with glacial retreat and warming of the region in the last century, and suggests this colonization will continue as temperature increases and ice melts.

  1. Paleoecology of late-glacial terrestrial deposits with in situ conifers from the submerged continental shelf of western canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Fedje, Daryl W.

    2003-09-01

    Extensive portions of the continental shelf off the coast of British Columbia were subaerially exposed during Late Wisconsinan deglaciation due to lowering of relative sea level by as much as 150 m. Paleoecological analyses were conducted at two sites on the emergent continental shelf where terrestrial surfaces with in situ conifers are preserved. The woody plant remains confirm that, during the latest period of subaerial exposure, terrestrial vegetation was established on the continental shelf. Microscopic identification of fossil wood, and analyses of pollen and plant macrofossils from the associated paleosols and overlying shallow pond sediments indicate that productive Pinus contorta-dominated communities with abundant Alnus crispa and ferns grew on the shelf adjacent to and on the Queen Charlotte Islands around 12,200 14C yr B.P. Dwarf shrubs including Salix and Empetrum, and herbaceous plants such as Heracleum lanatum and Hippuris vulgaris, were also important components of the shelf vegetation. Near northern Vancouver Island, mixed coniferous forests dominated by Pinus contorta with Picea, Tsuga spp., Alnus spp., and ferns occupied the shelf at 10,500 14C yr B.P.

  2. Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Everett, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

  3. Effects of soil type, irrigation volume and plant species on treatment of log yard run-off in lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Elowson, Torbjörn

    2004-09-01

    Wet storage of timber and pulpwood produces large quantities of run-off water. A study was conducted to determine the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems for log yard run-off. Sixteen 1200-l lysimeters (1.2 m deep soil columns) with clay or sand soil were planted with willow (Salix sp.) or alder (Alnus glutinosa), and irrigated with run-off from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. Drainage water was analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), phenols, total P and total N in order to determine concentrations and levels of retention. High retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred in the lysimeters, but no clear differences between willows and alder or clay and sand were identified. Lysimeters with high levels of irrigation showed greater retention than those with low levels. Soil-plant systems using willow and alder could provide an alternative for log yard run-off purification: the key requirement is to optimise irrigation rather than manipulate the plants or soils. PMID:15325190

  4. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  5. Leaf litter dynamics and nitrous oxide emission in a Mediterranean riparian forest: implications for soil nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bernal, S; Butturini, A; Nin, E; Sabater, F; Sabater, S

    2003-01-01

    Mediterranean riparian zones can experience severe drought periods that lead to low soil moisture content, which dramatically affects their performance as nitrate removal systems. In the Mediterranean riparian zone of this study, we determined that N2O emission was practically nil. To understand the role of forest floor processes in nitrogen retention of a Mediterranean riparian area, we studied leaf litter dynamics of two tree species, London planetree [Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.] and alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.], for two years, along with soil nitrogen mineralization rates. Annual leaf litter fall equaled 562.6 +/- 10.1 (standard error) g dry wt. m(-2), 68% of which was planetree and 32% of which was alder. The temporal distribution of litterfall showed a two-peak annual cycle, one occurring in midsummer, the other in autumn. Planetree provided the major input of organic nitrogen to the forest floor, and the amount of planetree leaves remaining on the forest floor was equivalent to approximately four years of stock. Leaf litter decomposition was three times higher for alder (decay coefficient [k] = 1.13 yr(-1)) than for planetree (k = 0.365 yr(-1)). Mineralization rates showed a seasonal pattern, with the maximum rate in summer (1.92 mg N kg(-1) d(-1)). Although the forest floor was an important sink for nitrogen due to planetree leaf accumulation, 7.5% of this leaf litter was scoured to the streambed by wind. This loss was irrelevant for alder leaves. Due to the litter quality, the forest floor of this Mediterranean riparian forest acts as a nitrogen sink. PMID:12549558

  6. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes over a hemiboreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Noe, Steffen M.; Krasnov, Dmitrii; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Forest ecosystems are a major part of the biosphere and control land surface-atmosphere interactions. They influence atmospheric composition and climate significantly being sources and sinks of trace gases and energy. Hemiboreal forests are located in the transitional zone between boreal and temperate forest bioms. Mixed stands of both coniferous and deciduous tree species are characterized by a greater seasonal variability of forest microclimate, canopy shape and density compared to boreal forests. A 20 m height scaffolding tower located in Järvselja (58°16'N 27°16'E) in a forest stand dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with co-domination of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) was used for the CO2 flux measurements. We present two years (2011-2012) of continuous eddy covariance CO2 fluxes over a mixed hemiboreal forest at the SMEAR Estonia (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations).

  8. Structure and function of Frankia vesicles in dinitrogen fixing actinorhizal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Torrey, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Frankia, a filamentous bacterium which induces N{sub 2}-fixing root nodules on the roots of a wide range of woody dicotyledonous plants, is the first known actinomycete which fixes dinitrogen when growing in free-living culture. The nitrogenase enzyme is induced in many strains of this organism by withholding fixed nitrogen compounds from its nutrient medium. Our studies have concerned the physiology, biochemistry and structural development of the N{sub 2}-fixing apparatus in Frankia grown in vitro and in root nodules of host plants. Diverse strains of Frankia were isolated and cultured from different host plants and vesicle form and function were studied. Two strains were studied, HFPArI3, an isolate from nodules of the red alder Alnus rubra and HFPCcI3 isolated from root nodules of the tropical tree Casuarina cunninghamiana. The goal was to understand the structure and function which leads to optimum effectiveness for dinitrogen fixation. 13 refs.

  9. ADVANCED INTRAMOLECULAR DIELS-ALDER STUDY TOWARD THE SYNTHESIS OF (-)-MORPHINE: STRUCTURE CORRECTION OF A PREVIOUSLY REPORTED DIELS-ALDER PRODUCT. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Physiological performance of an Alaskan shrub (Alnus fruticosa) in response to disease (Valsa melanodiscus) and water stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At northern latitudes, plants are being exposed to multiple climate-related stresses as warming temperatures push plants beyond the physiological limits of their current range. Our study focused on two stresses related to the warming and drying of the Alaskan boreal forest: drought and disease. We e...

  11. A 12,000-year history of vegetation and climate for Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Marjorie Green

    1985-05-01

    Pollen and charcoal analysis of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from Duck Pond in the Cape Cod National Seashore provide a continuous 12,000-yr vegetation and climate history of outer Cape Cod. A Picea-Hudsonia parkland and then a Picea-Pinus banksiana-Alnus crispa boreal forest association grew near the site between 12,000 and 10,000 yr B.P. This vegetation was replaced by a northern conifer forest of Pinus strobus-P. banksiana, and, subsequently, by a more mesophytic forest ( Pinus strobus, Tsuga, Quercus, Fagus, Acer, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Ostrya) as the climate became warmer and wetter by 9500 yr B.P. By 9000 yr B.P. a Pinus rigida-Quercus association dominated the landscape. High charcoal frequencies from this and subsequent levels suggest that the pine barrens association developed during a warmer and drier climate that lasted from 9000 to about 5000 yr B.P. Increased percentages of Pinus strobus pollen indicate a return to moister and cooler conditions by about 3500 yr B.P. A doubled sedimentation rate, increased charcoal, and increased herb pollen suggest land disturbance near the pond before European settlement. These results suggest a rapid warming in the northeast in the early Holocene and support a hypothesis of a rapid sea level rise at that time. Comparison of the pollen results from Duck Pond with those from Rogers Lake, Connecticut, illustrates the importance of edaphic factors in determining the disturbance frequency and vegetation history of an area.

  12. Late Stage 5 Glacio-isostatic Sea in the St. Lawrence Valley, Canada and United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Occhietti, S.; Balescu, S.; Lamothe, M.; Clet, M.; Cronin, T.; Ferland, P.; Pichet, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although post-glacial marine sediments of late Wisconsinan and early Holocene age are common in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, remnants of older Pleistocene marine sediments are scarce. A fossiliferous marine clay that predates the classical Wisconsinan was recently discovered in the St. Lawrence Valley. A dominantly estuarine environment is inferred from the geochemistry of the shells (??18O = -7.1) and from benthic foraminifer and ostracode assemblages. The clay indicates a marine invasion (Cartier Sea) shallower and probably shorter than that during the upper late Wisconsinan Champlain Sea episode (12,000-9,500 yr B.P.). The pollen content shows that regional vegetation during the marine episode began as open tundra, then became a Betula and Alnus crispa forest, reached a climatic optimum with Quercus, Corylus, and Abies, and concluded as a Pinus/Picea boreal forest. A corrected infrared stimulated luminescence age of 98,000 ?? 9000 yr is compatible with the epimerization ratio of shells. The Cartier Sea resulted from a post-glacial glacio-isostatic marine invasion in the St. Lawrence lowlands. It probably occurred during late stage 5 and is tentatively assigned to the transition of oxygen isotope substages 5b/5a. This marine episode dates to stage 5 of the preceding continental glacier which extended to middle latitudes in NE America. ?? 1996 University of Washington.

  13. A molecular identification protocol for roots of boreal forest tree species1

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Morgan J.; Karst, Justine; Pec, Gregory J.; Davis, Corey S.; Hall, Jocelyn C.; Cahill, James F.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Roots play a key role in many ecological processes, yet our ability to identify species from bulk root samples is limited. Molecular tools may be used to identify species from root samples, but they have not yet been developed for most systems. Here we present a PCR-based method previously used to identify roots of grassland species, modified for use in boreal forests. • Methods: We used repeatable interspecific size differences in fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms of three noncoding chloroplast DNA regions to identify seven woody species common to boreal forests in Alberta, Canada. • Results: Abies balsamea, Alnus crispa, Betula papyrifera, Pinus contorta, and Populus tremuloides were identifiable to species, while Picea glauca and Picea mariana were identifiable to genus. In mixtures of known composition of foliar DNA, species were identified with 98% accuracy using one region. Mixed root samples of unknown composition were identified with 100% accuracy; four species were identified using one region, while three species were identified using two regions. • Discussion: This methodology is accurate, efficient, and inexpensive, and thus a valuable approach for ecological studies of roots. Furthermore, this method has now been validated for both grassland and boreal forest systems, and thus may also have applications in any plant community. PMID:25383267

  14. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  15. Experimental woodcock management at the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepik, G.F.; Owen, R.B.; Coulter, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop woodcock(Philohela minor) management techniques that can be easily used by the small landowner or incorporated with other land management operations such as commercial timber harvesting. The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge contains areas which are characteristic of the abandoned farms now being purchased for recreation or retirement as well as areas suitable for commercial forest management. Woodcock management, beginning in 1973, has centered on rejuvenation of diurnal habitat and creation of summer fields and singing grounds. Strips (10 mwide, 25 to 125 mlong and separated by 40 m) were clear~cut in two alder (Alnus sp.) stands resulting in increased diurnal use in at least one cover, increased singing male use and good alder regeneration. Small clear-cuts (30 X30 m) in a large contiguous woodland (1200 ha) with a history of few singing males resulted in an increased number of singing males despite an overall decrease in the number of singing males throughout the refuge. Management strategies and recommendations also are given.

  16. Direct amplification of DNA from fresh and preserved ectomycorrhizal root tips.

    PubMed

    Bent, Elizabeth; Taylor, D Lee

    2010-02-01

    Methods are described by which DNA can be amplified directly from ectomycorrhizal root tip homogenates of a variety of plant species (Picea mariana (black spruce), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) and Alnus sp.(alder)), including root tips that have been preserved in RNA Later (Ambion, Austin, TX). In most cases for extracts and homogenates diluted 10-fold prior to PCR, and in all cases for 100-fold dilutions, direct amplification of DNA from fresh root tip homogenates yielded as many or more ng of PCR amplicon (fungal ITS region) than amplification of DNA extracted from the same tips using a commercial kit or a manual ethanol precipitation-based method. For alder root tip extracts diluted 10-fold, the commercial kit method yielded more ng of PCR amplicon than 10-fold diluted, although direct use of homogenates still resulted in amplification in all tips tested. We also demonstrate consistent amplification of DNA from homogenates of birch, spruce and aspen ectomycorrhizal root tips preserved for 4months in RNA Later. PMID:19963016

  17. Range of phytoplasma concentrations in various plant hosts as determined by competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Berges, R; Rott, M; Seemüller, E

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT For competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an internal standard DNA template was developed that consisted of a highly conserved, internally deleted 16S rDNA fragment of an aster yellows phytoplasma. The internal standard was calibrated using a quantified culture of Acholeplasma laidlawii. Serial dilutions of the internal standard and fixed amounts of target templates from infected plants were coamplified with the same primers, and the products obtained were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. Analysis of the data revealed that the phytoplasma concentration in the plants examined differed by a factor of about 4 x 10(6). Phytoplasma concentrations of 2.2 x 10(8) to 1.5 x 10(9) cells per g of tissue were identified in periwinkles infected with various phytoplasmas. High to moderate concentrations were detected in Malus domestica (apple) genotypes infected with the apple proliferation phytoplasma, Alnus glutinosa (alder) genotypes infected with the alder yellows phytoplasma, and most aster yellows-infected Populus (poplar) genotypes examined. Very low phytoplasma concentrations, ranging from 370 to 34,000 cells per g of tissue, were identified in proliferation-diseased apple trees on resistant rootstocks 4551 and 4608, yellows-diseased Quercus robur (oak) trees, and Carpinus betulus (hornbeam) trees. Such low concentrations, which corresponded to about 4 to 340 cells in the reaction mixture, could only be detected and quantified by nested PCR. PMID:18944479

  18. Trees are important conduits for emission of methane from temperate and tropical wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Vincent; Pangala, Sunitha; Gowing, David; Hornibrook, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Methane produced in wetland soil generally is thought to be emitted to the atmosphere primarily via diffusion through pore water, release of gas bubbles (i.e., ebullition), and gas phase diffusion through the aerenchyma of herbaceous plants. The role of trees as a conduit for methane export from soil to the atmosphere has received limited attention despite evidence from mesocosm experiments showing that seedlings and saplings of wetland trees have a significant capacity to transport soil-produced gases. Notably ~60% of global wetlands are forested. We present in situ measurements of methane flux from a temperate carr (swamp) composed of alder (Alnus glutinosa) and birch (Betula pubescens) situated in the United Kingdom and a tropical forested peat swamp located in Borneo. The in situ data are complemented by a mesocosm experiment in which methane emissions were measured from alder saplings subjected to two water-regime treatments. In both the in situ and mesocosm studies, emissions from trees are compared to methane flux from the ground surface, the latter occurring via pore water diffusion, ebullition or the aerenchyma of herbaceous plants. We show that tree stem emissions are controlled by a number of factors including tree species, soil pore-water concentration and stem lenticel density. Our results demonstrate that the omission of tree-mediated methane fluxes from measurement campaigns conducted in forested wetland can significantly underestimate total ecosystem flux of methane.

  19. Methane Emission through Trees in Temperate and Tropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangala, S. R.; Gauci, V.; Hornibrook, E. R.; Gowing, D.

    2012-12-01

    Methane produced in wetland soil generally is thought to be emitted by a combination of three key processes: 1) diffusion through water-filled pores, 2) abrupt release of bubbles (ebullition), and 3) via internal spaces within the stems of herbaceous plants adapted to live in waterlogged soils. The capacity for trees to mediate methane emissions has received limited attention despite mesocosm studies of seedlings and saplings demonstrating that wetland trees have a significant capacity to transport soil-produced methane to the atmosphere. Notably ~60% of global wetlands are forested. We present in situ measurements of methane flux from a temperate carr (swamp) composed of alder (Alnus glutinosa) and birch (Betula pubescens) situated in the United Kingdom and a tropical forested peat swamp located in Borneo. The in situ data are complemented by a mesocosm experiment in which methane emissions were measured from alder saplings subjected to two water-regime treatments. In both the in situ and mesocosm studies, emissions from trees are compared to methane flux from the ground surface, the latter occurring via pore water diffusion, ebullition or via the aerenchyma of herbaceous plants. We show that tree stem emissions are controlled by a number of factors including tree species, soil pore-water concentration and stem lenticel density. Our results demonstrate that the omission of tree-mediated methane fluxes from measurement campaigns conducted in forested wetland can significantly underestimate the total ecosystem flux of methane.

  20. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study.

    PubMed

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A; Graça, Manuel A S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Albariño, Ricardo J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A; Boulton, Andrew J; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M

    2016-04-27

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons. PMID:27122551

  1. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of 5-Lipoxygenase Translocation Inhibitors from Acylnitroso Hetero-Diels-Alder Cycloadducts†

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Joshua K.; Tian, Wen; Wolter, William R.; Cho, Wonhwa; Suckow, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Acylnitroso cycloadducts have proven to be valuable intermediates in the syntheses of a plethora of biologically active molecules. Recently, organometallic reagents were shown to open bicyclic acylnitroso cycloadducts and, more interestingly, the prospect of highly regioselective openings was raised. This transformation was employed in the synthesis of a compound with excellent inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase ((±)-4a, IC50 51 nM), an important mediator of inflammation intimately involved in a number of disease states including asthma and cancer. Optimization of the copper-mediated organometallic ring opening reaction was accomplished allowing the further exploration of the biological activity. Synthesis of a number of derivatives with varying affinity for metal binding as well as pendant groups in a range of sizes was accomplished. Analogues were tested in a whole cell assay which revealed a subset of the compounds to be inhibitors of enzyme translocation, a mode of action not previously known and, potentially, extremely important for better understanding of the enzyme and inhibitor development. Additionally, the lead compound was tested in vivo in an established colon cancer model and showed very encouraging anti-tumorogenic properties. PMID:21365098

  3. FATE AND EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONS IN SOILS UNDER N2-FIXING RED ALDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil phosphorus (P) dynamics are controlled by the interaction of geochemical, biochemical and biological processes, and changing species composition or management may alter the relative importance of these processes. We examined the role of these processes in two plantations of...

  4. AQUEOUS AZA-DIELS-ALDER REACTIONS CATALYZED BY LANTHANIDE(III) TRIFLUOROMETHANESULFONATES. (R826123)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby

    2015-01-01

    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate…

  6. Discussion of Alfred Alder's preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky.

    PubMed

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    In his preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky, Alfred Adler (1) found his theory of the dynamics of schizophrenia supported in the Diary, (2) alluded to Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, and (3) briefly touched on the possibility and conditions of recovery. To add to the understanding of Adler's "Preface," this discussion (1) expands his theory of schizophrenia, (2) gives some concrete data of Nijinsky's prepsychotic personality, (3) describes two episodes of recovery subsequent to the "Preface," and (4) introduces an important aspect of Adler's theory, which he had to omit out of consideration for Nijinsky's wife, Romola-namely, her role in her husband's disorder. With the larger theoretical and historical context established. Adler's "Preface" can be appreciated for its predictive validity. PMID:7018451

  7. ISOPRENE/METHYL ACRYLATE DIELS-ALDER REACTION IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE. (R822721C640)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Synthesis of novel plant oil derivatives: Furan and Diels-Alder reaction products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. In this work epoxidized soybean oil was treated with different acids, and variable amounts of furan structures were produced from the epoxidized linoleate moiety. From process studies, the highest yields of...

  9. An intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels–Alder approach to annulated α-carbolines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Ni, Feng; Woo, Grace H C; Lo, Sie-Mun; Roveto, Philip M; Schaus, Scott E

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intramolecular inverse electron demand cycloadditions of isatin-derived 1,2,4-triazines with acetylenic dienophiles tethered by amidations or transesterifications proceed in excellent yields to produce lactam- or lactone-fused α-carbolines. Beginning with various isatins and alkynyl dienophiles, a pilot-scale library of eighty-eight α-carbolines was prepared by using this robust methodology for biological evaluation. PMID:23015831

  10. Chiral holmium complex-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of silyloxyvinylindoles: stereoselective synthesis of hydrocarbazoles.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinji; Morikawa, Takahiro; Nishida, Atsushi

    2013-10-18

    The catalytic and asymmetric cycloaddition between 3-[1-(silyloxy)vinyl]indoles and electron-deficient olefins gave substituted hydrocarbazoles in up to 99% yield and 94% ee. This reaction was catalyzed by a novel chiral holmium(III) complex. Alkylation of the cycloadduct gave a tricyclic compound with four continuous chiral centers, one of which was a quaternary carbon. PMID:24079531

  11. Catalysis of the Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction by Hydrogen and Halogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nziko, Vincent de Paul N; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-03-18

    The combination of H2C═NH and cis-1,3-butadiene to form a six-membered ring was examined by quantum calculations. The energy barrier for this reaction is substantially lowered by the introduction of an imidazolium catalyst with either a H or halogen (X) atom in the 2-position, which acts via a H or halogen bond to the N atom of the imine, respectively. X = I has the largest effect, and Cl the smallest; Br and H are roughly equivalent. The catalyst retards the formation of the incipient N-C bond from imine to diene while simultaneously accelerating the C-C bond formation. The energy of the π* LUMO of the imine is lowered by the catalyst, which thereby enhances charge transfer from the diene to the imine. Assessment of free energies suggests catalytic rate acceleration by as much as 4-6 orders of magnitude. PMID:26907727

  12. Evidence contrary to the accepted Diels-Alder mechanism in the thermal modification of vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A transesterified oleochemical product has been made using two routes. Soybean oil was thermally polymerized anaerobically at 330 deg C. and the material was then transesterified using base catalyst and methanol. Alternatively, a similar product can be obtained by heating methyl linoleate to the sam...

  13. Distinct temperature sensitivity among taiga and tundra shrubs in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu-Hayles, L.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; D'Arrigo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Shrub expansion into Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystems is well documented, mostly over the last 50 years, based on remote sensing data, aerial photography, and in-situ observations. Warming temperatures are considered the main driver of the observed change in shrub vegetation patterns. Here, we assess the relationship between temperatures and shrub growth from five populations of Salix spp. (willow) and Alnus spp. (alder) in Alaska growing within the tundra and the boreal forest (~taiga) using dendrochronological techniques. The three tundra shrub sites are located on the Dalton Highway north from Toolik Lake (~69ºN 148ºW), whereas the two taiga shrub sites are located closer to Fairbanks at the Twelve Mile Summit site (~65ºN 146ºW). Because shrub ages vary among the studied populations lead to different time spans for the ring-width chronologies generated, a common period with available satellite data spanning from 1982 to 2010 was selected for this study. All tundra shrub chronologies shared a strong positive response to summer temperatures despite growing in heterogeneous site conditions and belonging to different species. In contrast, in the taiga, summer temperatures enhance willow growth, whereas alder growth appears almost insensitive to temperature over the interval studied. Extending the analyses back in time, a very strong positive relationship was found between alder ring-width and June temperatures prior to 1970. This phenomenon, a weakening of the previously existing relationship between growth and temperatures, was also detected in white spruce (Picea glauca) growing at the same site, and it is known in the literature as the 'divergence problem'. Thus, at this taiga location, alder shrubs and trees seem to have similar growth patterns. Summer temperatures no longer seem to enhance taiga alder growth. Shrubs of different species exposed to the same climatic conditions can exhibit varied growth responses. The distinct temperature sensitivities

  14. The effect of saprophagous macrofauna on litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous experiments show that feeding of the larvae of Bibionidae on lef litter cause short term increase of respiration but in long term the decomposition of bibio feces is slower than decomposition of litter from which feces were produced. To understand why excrements of decompose more slowly than leaf litter, we fed Bibio marci larvae the litter of tree species differing in litter quality (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and then measured respiration induced by litter and excrements. We also measured respiration induced by the same litter artificially modified to mimic faunal effects; the litter was modified by grinding, grinding with alkalinization to pH 11, grinding with coating by kaolinite, and grinding with both alkalinization and coating. Decomposition of excrements tended to be slower for willow and was significantly slower for oak and alder than for the corresponding litter. With oak, decomposition was slower for all artificially modified litter than for non-modified litter. The reduction in the decomposition was similar for excrements and for alder and willow litter that was ground, coated, and alkalinized. In alder, a similar reduction was found in ground and alkalinized litter. 13C NMR indicated that gut passage increases aliphatic components and decreases polysaccharides. Pyrolysis indicated that gut passage increases the ratio of guaiacyl to hydroxymethyl derivatives in lignin. Our findings indicate that the decreased decomposition rate of excrements might result from the removal of easily available polysaccharides, the increase in aliphatic components, an increase in the resistant components of lignin, the accumulation of microbial cell walls, and the binding of nitrogen into complexes with aromatic components. Several of these mechanisms are supported or determined by litter alkalinization during gut passage.

  15. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Sara L.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  16. Incidence of Betulaceae pollen and pollinosis in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Milanović, Sanja Musić; Hrga, Ivana; Mileta, Tatjana; Culig, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Pollen allergy is characterized by seasonal allergic manifestations affecting patients during the plant pollen season. The aim of this study was to analyze the Betulaceae pollen pattern in Zagreb (2002-2005) and to determine the incidence of sensitization to these pollen types in patients with seasonal respiratory allergy. Twenty-four-hour pollen counts were carried out using volumetric procedure. Skin prick test were performed on a total of 864 patients aged 18-80< in Zagreb between 2 January-31 December 2004. Pollen of the representatives of the family Betulaceae accounted for a significant proportion of total pollen (34% on an average), predominated by Betula pollen and considerably lower proportion of Alnus sp. and Corylus sp. pollen. Alder and hazel pollen first occurred in the air in February throughout the study period. The highest airborne pollen concentration of these taxa was recorded in February and March. The birch pollen season generally peaked in April. Only 2.67% of patients showed birch pollen monosensitization. The proportion of patients with polysensitization to Betulaceae pollen was considerably greater (12.88%), whereas polysensitization to Betulaceae, Poaceae and Ambrosia pollen was recorded in the highest proportion of patients (26.23%). According to age, the highest and lowest rate of allergy was recorded in the 31-50 and >51 age groups, respectively (46.22% vs 23.12%). Female predominance was observed across all age groups. The patients with monosensitization to birch pollen had the most severe symptoms in April. In the patients with poylsensitization to alder, hazel and birch pollen who developed cross-reaction, initial symptoms occurred as early as February, with abrupt exacerbation in March and April. The most severe condition was observed in the patients allergic to birch, hazel, alder, grass and ragweed pollen, with symptoms present throughout the year and exacerbation in spring and late summer months. PMID:17655183

  17. Phytophthora pseudosyringae sp. nov., a new species causing root and collar rot of deciduous tree species in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jung, Thomas; Nechwatal, Jan; Cooke, David E L; Hartmann, Günther; Blaschke, Markus; Osswald, Wolfgang F; Duncan, James M; Delatour, Claude

    2003-07-01

    In several studies of oak decline in Europe, a semi-papillate homothallic Phytophthora taxon was consistently isolated, together with other Phytophthora species, from rhizosphere soil samples. It was also found associated with necrotic fine roots and stem necroses of Fagus sylvatica and Alnus glutinosa. Due to morphological and physiological similarities, the semi-papillate isolates were previously identified as P. syringae by various authors. The morphology, physiology and pathogenicity against fine roots of Quercus robur, Q. petraea and F. sylvatica, bark of A. glutinosa, leaves of Ilex aquifolium and apple fruits of this Phytophthora species are described and compared with those of related and similar Phytophthora species, namely P. ilicis, P. psychrophila, P. quercina, P. citricola and P. syringae. The phylogenetic placement on the basis of ITS and mtDNA sequence data was also examined. Isolates of this taxon produce colonies with stellate to rosaceous growth patterns and limited aerial mycelium on various agar media. Antheridia are predominantly paragynous. In water culture catenulate hyphal swellings and semi-papillate caducous sporangia, that are usually limoniform, ellipsoid or ovoid, are formed abundandly, mostly in lax or dense sympodia. This taxon is a moderately slow growing, low temperature species with optimum and maximum temperatures around 20 and 25 degrees C, respectively. Tested isolates are moderately aggressive to fine roots of oaks and beech, highly aggressive to holly leaves and apple fruits, and slightly pathogenic to alder bark. Thirteen tested isolates had an identical and distinct ITS sequence which was more similar to that of P. ilicis and P. psychrophila than any other known taxa. On the basis of their unique combination of morphological characters, colony growth patterns, cardinal temperatures for growth, growth rates, pathogenicity to oaks, beech, alder, apple and holly, their host range, and ITS and mtDNA sequences the semi

  18. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra), vine maple (Acer cinereus), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In contrast to

  19. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Litter Chemistry and Subsequent Invertebrate Detritivore Feeding Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dray, Matthew W.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Thomas, Stephen M.; A’Bear, A. Donald; Godbold, Douglas L.; Ormerod, Steve J.; Hartley, Susan E.; Jones, T. Hefin

    2014-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder) or Betula pendula (silver birch) trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm) or elevated (ambient +200 ppm) CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i) two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment (‘choice’), or (ii) one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone (‘no-choice’). Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species’ responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing–a key ecosystem function–under atmospheric change. PMID:24465985

  20. Leaf litter decomposition of four different deciduous tree species - resource stoichiometry, nutrient release and microbial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, S.; Keiblinger, K. M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of microbial communities for ecosystem processes like litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. For example, fungi are thought to be key players during litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems because they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds like lignin and also dominate the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas bacteria seem to play an important role for lignin decomposition especially under anaerobic conditions. However, our knowledge about the contribution of bacteria and fungi to decomposition is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the microbial decomposer community is affected by resource stoichiometry and how changes in community composition affect litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. To this end, we collected leaf litter of four deciduous tree species (beech (Fagus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and ash tree (Fraxinus)) at four different seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in an Austrian forest (Schottenwald, 48°14'N16°15'E; MAT=9°C; soil type: dystric cambiosol; soil C:N=16) in 2010. We determined litter nutrient content (micro- and macronutrients) and extractable nutrients and assessed the microbial community by PFLA analysis to test the following hypotheses: (i) tree species affects microbial community composition, (ii) microbial community composition changes over the course of the year, and (iii) narrow litter C:nutrient ratios favour nutrient release. Our data show that litter of different tree species varied in their stoichiometry, with C:N ratios between 16 (alder) and 46 (beech) and C:P ratios between 309 (ash) and 1234 (alder). Tree species had a significant impact on microbial community composition: highest amounts of actinomycetes and protozoa were observed for alder, while arbuscular mycorrhizae were lowest for oak. Bacteria were favoured by litter with narrow C:N shortly after litterfall. During litter decomposition

  1. Soil aggregation and slope stability related to soil density, root length, and mycorrhiza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Frank; Frei, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Eco-engineering measures combine the use of living plants and inert mechanical constructions to protect slopes against erosion and shallow mass movement. Whereas in geotechnical engineering several performance standards and guidelines for structural safety and serviceability of construction exist, there is a lack of comparable tools in the field of ecological restoration. Various indicators have been proposed, including the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution, microbiological parameters, and soil aggregate stability. We present results of an soil aggregate stability investigation and compare them with literature data of the angle of internal friction ?' which is conventionally used in slope stability analysis and soil failure calculation. Aggregate stability tests were performed with samples of differently treated moraine, including soil at low (~15.5 kN/m³) and high (~19.0 kN/m³) dry unit weight, soil planted with Alnus incana (White Alder) as well as the combination of soil planted with alder and inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Melanogaster variegatus s.l. After a 20 weeks growth period in a greenhouse, a total of 100 samples was tested and evaluated. Positive correlations were found between the soil aggregate stability and the three variables dry unit weight, root length per soil volume, and degree of mycorrhization. Based on robust statistics it turned out that dry unit weight and mycorrhization degree were strongest correlated with soil aggregate stability. Compared to the non-inoculated control plants, mycorrhized White Alder produced significantly more roots and higher soil aggregate stability. Furthermore, the combined biological effect of plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelia on aggregate stability on soil with low density (~15.5 kN/m³) was comparable to the compaction effect of the pure soil from 15.5 to ~19.0 kN/m³. Literature data on the effect of vegetation on the angle of internal friction ?' of the same moraine showed

  2. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  3. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain ACN1ag, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain ACN1(ag) is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which are able to re-infect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.5-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.35% and 5,687 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26679592

  4. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain ACN1ag, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus glutinosa

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain ACN1ag is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which are able to re-infect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.5-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.35% and 5,687 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26679592

  5. A tree species inventory over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the

  6. The effects of experimental warming on the timing of a plant-insect herbivore interaction.

    PubMed

    Kharouba, Heather M; Vellend, Mark; Sarfraz, Rana M; Myers, Judith H

    2015-05-01

    The phenology of many species is shifting in response to climatic changes, and these shifts are occurring at varying rates across species. This can potentially affect species' interactions and individual fitness. However, few studies have experimentally tested the influence of warming on the timing of species interactions. This is an important gap in the literature given the potential for different direct and indirect effects of temperature via phenological change. Our aim was to test the effects of warming on the western tent caterpillar (Malacosoma californicum pluviale). In addition to the direct effects of warming, we considered the two primary indirect effects mediated by warming-driven changes in its host plant, red alder (Alnus rubra): changes in resource availability due to phenological mismatch (i.e. changes in the relative timing of the interaction), and changes in resource quality associated with leaf maturation. We experimentally warmed egg masses and larvae of the western tent caterpillar placed on branches of red alder in the field. Warming advanced the timing of larval but not leaf emergence. This led to varying degrees of phenological mismatch, with larvae emerging as much as 25 days before to 10 days after the emergence of leaves. Even the earliest-emerging larvae, however, had high survival in the absence of leaves for up to 3 weeks, and they were surprisingly resistant to starvation. In addition, although warming created phenological mismatch that initially slowed the development of larvae that emerged before leaf emergence, it accelerated larval development once leaves were available. Therefore, warming had no net effect on our measures of insect performance. Our results demonstrate that the indirect effects of warming, in creating phenological mismatch, are as important to consider as the direct effects on insect performance. Although future climatic warming might influence plants and insects in different ways, some insects may be well adapted

  7. Paleontological records indicate the occurrence of open woodlands in a dry inland climate at the present-day Arctic coast in western Beringia during the Last Interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast, Frank; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Andreev, Andrei A.; Tarasov, Pavel; Nazarova, Larisa; Kossler, Annette; Frolova, Larisa; Kunitsky, Viktor V.

    2011-08-01

    Permafrost records, accessible at outcrops along the coast of Oyogos Yar at the Dmitry Laptev Strait, NE-Siberia, provide unique insights into the environmental history of Western Beringia during the Last Interglacial. The remains of terrestrial and freshwater organisms, including plants, coleopterans, chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods and molluscs, have been preserved in the frozen deposits of a shallow paleo-lake and indicate a boreal climate at the present-day arctic mainland coast during the Last Interglacial. Terrestrial beetle and plant remains suggest the former existence of open forest-tundra with larch ( Larix dahurica), tree alder ( Alnus incana), birch and alder shrubs ( Duschekia fruticosa, Betula fruticosa, Betula divaricata, Betula nana), interspersed with patches of steppe and meadows. Consequently, the tree line was shifted to at least 270 km north of its current position. Aquatic organisms, such as chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods, molluscs and hydrophytes, indicate the formation of a shallow lake as the result of thermokarst processes. Steppe plants and beetles suggest low net precipitation. Littoral pioneer plants and chironomids indicate intense lake level fluctuations due to high evaporation. Many of the organisms are thermophilous, indicating a mean air temperature of the warmest month that was greater than 13 °C, which is above the minimum requirements for tree growth. These temperatures are in contrast to the modern values of less than 4 °C in the study area. The terrestrial and freshwater organism remains were found at a coastal exposure that was only 3.5 m above sea level and in a position where they should have been under sea during the Last Interglacial when the global sea level was 6-10 m higher than the current levels. The results suggest that during the last warm stage, the site was inland, and its modern coastal situation is the result of tectonic subsidence.

  8. Effects of a natural dam-break flood on geomorphology and vegetation on the Elwha River, Washington, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acker, S.A.; Beechie, T.J.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    Ephemeral dams caused by landslides have been observed around the world, yet little is known about the effects of their failure on landforms and vegetation. In 1967, a landslide-dam-break flood in a pristine reach of the Elwha River valley filled the former channel and diverted the river. The reach is a reference site for restoration following the planned removal of dams on the river. We identified five surfaces on the 25 ha debris fan deposited by the flood. Based on tree ages and historic air photos, three of the surfaces formed in 1967, while two formed later. The surfaces varied in substrate (silt and sand, to boulders), and height above the river channel. Tree mortality resulted from tree removal and burial by sediment, the latter leaving snags and some surviving trees. Tree species composition was generally consistent within each surface. Dominant species included red alder (Alnus rubra) and Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis), alone or in combination, a combination of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa), or a combination of alder and Cottonwood. There were significant differences between surfaces in stem density, basal area, and rate of basal area growth. The large degree of heterogeneity in forest structure, composition, and productivity within a relatively small floodplain feature is in part due to spatial variability in the intensity of a single disturbance event, and in part due to the occurrence of subsequent, smaller events. To recreate natural diversity of riparian forests may require mimicking the variety of physical and biotic habitats that a single, complex disturbance event may create.

  9. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  10. What are the patterns of carbon allocation in Arctic shrub tundra: do species differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Lorna; Subke, Jens-Arne; Baxter, Robert; Billett, Mike; Dinsmore, Kerry; Lessels, Jason; Wookey, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Arctic "greening" is now a well-accepted phenomenon; multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant productivity has increased, driven by increases in shrub abundance. There is very little understanding, however, of how this "shrubification" will impact biogeochemical cycling, including the allocation and turnover of carbon. Recent research has shown, for example, that greater plant productivity is not necessary associated with greater ecosystem C storage. Proliferation of a number of shrub species has been observed in different regions; for example increased willow growth in Arctic Russia, as opposed to primarily alder expansion in NW Canada, where stem density increased 68 % between 1968 and 2004. The degree to which shrub type will determine the impacts of shrub expansion on the carbon cycle is unknown. We use 13C pulse-labelling to trace the fate of recently photosynthesised carbon in vegetation dominated by two common Arctic shrubs, Betula nana (dwarf birch) and Alnus viridis (green alder) just above the Arctic treeline in NW Canada. We quantify the amount of 13C assimilated, and the proportion of assimilate returned to the atmosphere via respiration versus that allocated to plant tissues. This enables an analysis of the contrasting carbon-use-efficiencies and aboveground versus belowground allocation patterns in the two vegetation types. We use these novel field data to address the hypothesis that belowground C allocation in A. viridis (a symbiotic nitrogen fixing species) is a smaller proportion of total C assimilation, as this species supports less extensive ectomycorrhizal networks compared to B. nana. This is the first tracer study of carbon allocation in N-fixing and non-N-fixing vegetation types in a natural system and provides crucial data for predictive modelling of the Arctic carbon cycle.

  11. Design and preparation of novel polyarylene ether materials based on Diels-Alder reaction as the crosslinker for electrooptical modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wu; Hou, Wenjun; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xinhou; Liu, Jialei; Fedorchuk, A. A.; Czaja, P.

    2016-07-01

    Novel crosslinkable organic linear electro-optical (EO) material based on polyarylene ether as the main chain host polymer was designed and prepared. The host polymer with rigid aromatic has demonstrated a good compatibility with the guest chromophore. Long side chain with anthracene ensured the crosslinkable reaction and appropriate glass transition temperature of the host polymer (55 °C). The EO r33 tensor coefficient for this novel EO material has been magnitude of 66 pm/V at 1310 nm and the excellent long term stability at 85 °C. These parameters permit to consider their application in fabrication of organic electro optical devices. The semi-empirical and DFT quantum chemical simulations were performed for 4 principal chromophores to clarify a role of cross-linker in the enhancement of the ground state dipole moments and effective hyperpolarizabilities.

  12. Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated o-Xylenols: Application in the Synthesis of Novel Organic Molecules and Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Bis(o-xylenol) equivalents are useful synthetic intermediates in the construction of polymers and hydroxyl substituted organic molecules which can organize by hydrogen bonded self-assembly into unique supramolecular structures. These polymers and supramolecular materials have potential use as coatings and thin films in aerospace, electronic and biomedical applications.

  13. Energy storage capacity of reversible liquid-phase Diels Alder reaction between maleic anhydride and 2- methyl furan

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, B.G.; Poling, B.E.

    1983-07-01

    Calorimetry was used to determine the heat of reaction and equilibrium constant at 318 K for the reaction between maleic anhydride (A) and 2-methyl furan (B). The values were-60 kJ/gmol and 614 cm/sup 3//gmol, respectively. The motivation for this work was to find a single phase-reacting system that could be used to store solar energy. Thus, the energy storage capacity was calculated for a mixture of A and B, both initially at 7 kmol/m/sup 3/, in dioxane. The maximum apparent heat capacity of 7.37 J/cm/sup 3/ X K occurred at 334 K. This maximum value is 76% higher than the heat capacity of pure water.

  14. Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme cells with temozolomide-BioShuttle ligated by the inverse Diels-Alder ligation chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Koch, Mario; Muller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), insensitive against most therapeutic interventions, has low response and survival rates. Temozolomide (TMZ) was approved for second-line therapy of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma. However, TMZ therapy in GBM patients reveals properties such as reduced tolerability and inauspicious hemogram. The solution addressed here concerning GBM therapy consolidates and uses the potential of organic and peptide chemistry with molecular medicine. We enhanced the pharmacologic potency with simultaneous reduction of unwanted adverse reactions of the highly efficient chemotherapeutic TMZ. The TMZ connection to transporter molecules (TMZ-BioShuttle) was investigated, resulting in a much higher pharmacological effect in glioma cell lines and also with reduced dose rate. From this result we can conclude that a suitable chemistry could realize the ligation of pharmacologically active, but sensitive and highly unstable pharmaceutical ingredients without functional deprivation. The TMZ-BioShuttle dramatically enhanced the potential of TMZ for the treatment of brain tumors and is an attractive drug for combination chemotherapy. PMID:19920915

  15. Extension of the PNA world by functionalized PNA monomers eligible candidates for inverse Diels Alder Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Kliem, Christian; Lorenz, Peter; Fleischhacker, Heinz; Hafner, Manuel; Braun, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Progress in genome research led to new perspectives in diagnostic applications and to new promising therapies. On account of their specificity and sensitivity, nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) increasingly are in the focus of the scientific interest. While nucleic acids were a target of therapeutic interventions up to now, they could serve as excellent tools in the future, being highly sequence-specific in molecular diagnostics. Examples for imaging modalities are the representation of metabolic processes (Molecular Imaging) and customized therapeutic approaches (“Targeted Therapy”). In the individualized medicine nucleic acids could play a key role; this requires new properties of the nucleic acids, such as stability. Due to evolutionary reasons natural nucleic acids are substrates for nucleases and therefore suitable only to a limited extent as a drug. To use DNA as an excellent drug, modifications are required leading e.g. to a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Here we show that an easy substitution of nucleobases by functional molecules with different reactivity like the Reppe anhydride and pentenoic acid derivatives is feasible. These derivatives allow an independent multi-ligation of functionalized compounds, e.g. pharmacologically active ones together with imaging components, leading to local concentrations sufficient for therapy and diagnostics at the same time. The high chemical stability and ease of synthesis could enhance nucleic chemistry applications and qualify PNA as a favourite for delivery. This system is not restricted to medicament material, but appropriate for the development of new and highly efficient drugs for a sustainable pharmacy. PMID:20617125

  16. LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS AND HIGH STREAM NITROGEN IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE: RED ALDER COMPLICATES USE OF NUTRIENT CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream nitrogen concentrations are variable and often high in the Oregon Coast Range, uncharacteristic for a predominantly forested region. We compiled stream nitrogen data and GIS-derived landscape characteristics in order to examine variation in nitrogen across the region. In s...

  17. The skin prick test - European standards.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 - 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  18. Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.; Binckley, Chris; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion

    2010-01-01

    Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management (logged-roaded vs. unlogged-unroaded, hereafter logged and unlogged) within two ecological sub-regions (wet versus dry) within the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. In both ecoregions, total macroinvertebrate density was highest at logged sites (P = 0.001) with gathering-collectors and shredders dominating. Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) riparian cover. Further, differences in shredder density between logged and unlogged sites were greater in the wet ecoregion (logging × ecoregion interaction; P = 0.006) suggesting that differences in post-logging forest succession between ecoregions were responsible for differences in shredder abundance. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.

  19. Paleoclimatological analysis of Late Eocene core, Manning Formation, Brazos County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, T.; Elsik, W.

    1994-09-01

    A core of the basal part of the Manning Formation was drilled to provide a baseline for paleoclimate analysis of the expanded section of siliciclastic sediments of late Eocene age in the outcrop belt. The interdeltaic Jackson Stage deposits of this area include 20+ cyclic units containing both lignite and shallow marine sediments. Depositional environments can be determined with precision and the repetitive nature of cycles allows comparisons of the same environment throughout, effectively removing depositional environment as a variable in interpretation of climate signal. Underlying Yegua strata contain similar cycles, providing 35+ equivalent environmental transacts within a 6 m.y. time interval of Jackson and Yegua section, when additional cores are taken. The core is from a cycle deposited during maximum flooding of the Jackson Stage, with deposits ranging from shoreface (carbonaceous) to midshelf, beyond the range of storm sand deposition. Sediments are leached of carbonate, but contain foram test linings, agglutinated forams, fish debris, and rich assemblages of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs. All samples examined contain marine dinoflagellates, which are most abundant in transgressive and maximum flood zones, along with agglutinated forams and fish debris. This same interval contains two separate pulses of reworked palynomorphs. The transgressive interval contains Glaphyrocysta intricata, normally present in Yegua sediments. Pollen indicates fluctuating subtropical to tropical paleoclimates, with three short cycles of cooler temperatures, indicated by abundance peaks of alder pollen (Alnus) in transgressive, maximum flood, and highstand deposits.

  20. Pollen, vegetation, and climate relationships along the Dalton Highway, Alaska, USA: a basis for holocene paleoecological and paleoclimatic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.K.; Andrews, J.T.; Webber, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Dalton Highway extends from Fairbanks, in the interior of Alaska, to Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Over this 600-km transect, July temperatures vary from 17 to 5/sup 0/C. Studies of vegetation along the Dalton Highway identified nine major zones. During the vegetation survey moss polsters were collected within the survey quadrats. Two hundred and nineteen individual moss polsters document regional variations in the modern pollen spectra along this vegetation/climate transect. Treeline is distinguished by a change from dominance by spruce and shrub (especially alder) pollen to the south to herb and shrub (especially willow) pollen dominance to the north; a shift from high modern pollen concentration values to very low values is also noted. Discriminant analysis indicated that the vegetation zones are also defined by different pollen assemblages, suggesting that former changes in vegetation during the Holocene, as recorded in peat deposits, could be interpreted from pollen diagrams. Transfer functions were developed to examine the statistical association between the modern pollen rain and several climatic parameters. The correlation between pollen taxa and mean July temperature was r = 0.84. The most important taxa in the equation are Picea, Alnus, Pinus, Sphagnum, and Betula. 59 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  2. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  3. Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

  4. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Pearce, J.M.; Ruess, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in interior Alaska. Fieldwork was conducted in May of 2003, and consisted of locating nests along the riparian corridor between Fairbanks and Northpole, Alaska. Nests were found on gravel islands and shore habitats along the Tanana River, and were most commonly observed among driftwood logs associated with patches of alder (Alnus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.). Peak of nest initiation was 3-8 May, with a range from 27 April to 20 May; renesting was likely. Clutches ranged in size from 2 to 7 eggs and averaged 4.6 eggs. There was a negative correlation between clutch size and date of nest initiation. Egg size (X?? mass = 128 g) was similar to other medium-sized Canada Geese. A positive correlation between egg size and clutch size was likely related to female age. Nineteen of 28 nests (68%) were active when visited; nests located on islands with nesting Mew Gulls (Larus canus) were more likely to be active than nests located elsewhere. Evidence at nest sites implicated Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as nest predators.

  5. The β-richness of two detritivore caddisflies affects fine organic matter export.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher J; Fernandez, Dylan H

    2013-08-01

    We used stream networks as a model system to test whether the ecosystem function, upstream production, and export of fine organic particles, an important subsidy to downstream habitats, would vary between two stream networks with identical detritivore species but different spatial distributions (i.e. high or low β-richness). Our experiment employed artificial stream networks with two simulated tributaries. We used two species of detritivorous caddisflies, Lepidostoma sp. and Pycnopsyche guttifer, in either sympatry (low β-richness) or allopatry (high β-richness) in the tributaries of each network. The tributaries were given either senesced or green speckled alder (Alnus incana rugosa). In the networks with senesced leaves, particle export was more than twice as great when the detritivores were in allopatry whereas interference competition in sympatry reduced particle export. In the networks with green leaves, particle export did not significantly vary between the allopatric and sympatric distributions because the interference competition was reduced and the two species had similar feeding rates on green leaves. Humans are altering β-richness by homogenizing or differentiating flora and fauna across habitats; however, little is known about how altering this type of biodiversity will affect ecosystem functions. Our experimental manipulation is a simple version of a change in the β-richness of the detritivores in a more complex stream network in nature. These results may indicate that shifts in species distributions across sites may significantly affect ecosystem functions, even when no species are lost from a watershed. PMID:23247687

  6. Aquatic hyphomycetes in polluted groundwater habitats of central Germany.

    PubMed

    Krauss, G; Sridhar, K R; Jung, K; Wennrich, R; Ehrman, J; Bärlocher, F

    2003-05-01

    Polluted groundwater wells located in a former copper shale mining district (11 sites; Mansfelder Land, Central Germany) and in meadows of the Mulde and Elbe rivers (2 sites) were assessed for occurrence and species richness of aquatic hyphomycetes. Water temperatures at all sites were relatively low and fluctuated less than in surface waters. Oxygen concentrations were always below saturation, whereas sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate levels reached extremely high values in several of the wells. Relatively high levels of Pb, Mn, and Fe were found in some of the wells, but overall few concentrations of individual metals and metalloids exceeded European guidelines for drinking water. Pollen tube growth inhibition, used to assess cytotoxicity of the water, ranged between 4 and 50%. Between 1 and 10 distinct species of aquatic hyphomycetes colonized sterile Alnus glutinosa leaves exposed at the Mansfelder Land sites; for the meadow sites, 8-20 species were found. Heliscus lugdunensis and Anguillospora sp. were the two most widespread species. Fungal colonization occurred much more slowly than in surface water, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and the release of conidia from recovered leaves. The conidial output from exposed alder leaves ranged from 0.2 to 95 conidia mg (-1) dry mass, corresponding to 10% of the values for contaminated surface waters in the same region. Overall, groundwater appears to be a marginal habitat for aquatic hyphomycetes, but may nevertheless play a vital role as long-term reservoir facilitating rapid recolonization following a collapse in fungal communities in surface waters. PMID:12704555

  7. Tent caterpillars are robust to variation in leaf phenology and quality in two thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Sarfraz, Rana M; Kharouba, Heather M; Myers, Judith H

    2013-10-01

    The synchrony between emergence of spring-active, insect herbivores and the budburst of their host plants could be affected by warming temperatures with influences on the availability and quality of foliage as it undergoes physical and chemical changes. This can affect the growth and survival of insects. Here, we used sun-exposed and shaded trees to determine whether the synchrony between egg hatch of western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale Dyar (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae) and budburst of its host red alder, Alnus rubra Bongard (Betulaceae)changes with different thermal environments (temperature and light together). To explore the potential outcome of a shift in phenological synchrony, we used laboratory assays of larval growth and survival to determine the effect of variation in young, youthful and mature leaves from sun-exposed and shaded trees. While the average higher temperature of sun-exposed trees advanced the timing of budburst and egg hatch, synchrony was not disrupted. Leaf quality had no significant influence on growth or survival in the laboratory for early instars reared as family groups. Later instar larvae, however, performed best on mature leaves from sun-exposed trees. The robust relationship between leaf and larval development of western tent caterpillars suggests that warming climates may not have a strong negative impact on their success through shifts in phenological synchrony, but might influence other aspects of leaf quality and larval condition. PMID:23464617

  8. Stages of the development of alluvial soils in the Bikin River valley (the Amur River basin) in the Middle and Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarkina, A. V.; Belyanin, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of alluvial soils in the Bikin River basin in the Middle and the Late Holocene is discussed. On the basis of biostratigraphic data, four pollen zones have been identified in the soils: Pinus koraiensis- Picea, Pinus koraiensis- Quercus- Sphagnum, Betula- Alnus- Alnaster, and Quercus. A set of soil characteristics (texture, acid-base properties, and the organic matter content and group composition) have also been determined. These data allow us to distinguish between four stages of alluvial soil formation in the Bikin River basin. They characterize humus-forming conditions in the Middle and the Late Holocene. Reconstruction of ancient vegetation conditions makes it possible to conclude that climatic fluctuations were synchronous with changes in the soil characteristics. During the Holocene climatic optimum, humus was formed in a slightly acid medium, and humic acids predominated. In cold periods with increased precipitation, fulvic acids predominated in the composition of humus, and the portion of insoluble residue was high because of the more acid medium. The stages of alluvial pedogenesis in the Bikin River valley follow the sedimentation model of soil evolution. Alluvial gray humus soils evolved from typical gray humus soils under meadow communities during warm periods to gleyic and gleyed soils under birch shrubs and alder groves in colder and wetter periods.

  9. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  10. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter Source on Wetland Bacterial Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. K.

    2005-05-01

    Wetlands are rich environments for organic matter production from a variety of wetland plant types. Investigations of the Talladega Wetland Ecosystem (TWE) in the southeastern U.S. show that bacterioplankton productivity is driven by dissolved organic carbon derived from wetland plants. The TWE is formed from a small coastal plain stream that has been dammed by beaver activity and resides in a forested catchment. In this study, bacterioplankton communities sampled from the wetland were amended with leachate from two different plants common in the TWE, the soft rush, Juncus effusus, and hazel alder, Alnus serrulata, and compared to unamended controls. The bacterioplankton response was examined by measuring bacterial carbon productivity and by an array of fluorescent microscope techniques used to distinguish metabolically active and non-active cells. Both plant leachates elicited rapid and significant increases in productivity and numbers of metabolically active bacterial cells. However, the timeframe of response, the magnitude of response, and the bacterial morphotypes varied depending on the leachate source. This study suggests that wetland bacterial communities contain different sub-component populations that may generally occur in low numbers, but that can adapt and respond rapidly to different sources of organic matter native to the wetland.

  11. Response of Aquatic Hyphomycete Communities to Changes in Heavy Metal Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Bärlocher, Felix; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Krauss, Gudrun

    2005-02-01

    Decomposition of Alnus glutinosa (alder) leaves was studied in a severely (site H4) and a moderately (site H8) heavy metal polluted stream in the former copper shale mining district of Mansfeld, Central Germany. Leaves at H8 had reduced fungal diversity and spore production but a high exponential decay rate (k = 0.065). No further mass loss of leaves occurred at H4 after 4-6 weeks, and fungal diversity and spore production were lower than in H8. Decay and sporulation rates gradually increased to values of H8 control leaves in leaves preincubated in H4 and then transferred to H8. These increases correlated with the invasion of transplanted leaves by Tetracladium marchalianum and Tricladium angulatum. In the reverse transplant experiment (H8 to H4), mass loss appeared to stop immediately. Sporulation rates also declined, but remained consistently above levels in H4 control leaves. Leaves precolonized in the laboratory by one of three aquatic hyphomycete species exhibited increased decay rates in both streams. Sporulation rates on these leaves were greater than those of control leaves in H4, but smaller than those of control leaves in H8.

  12. The skin prick test – European standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  13. Incorporating spatially explicit crown light competition into a model of canopy transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, M. M.; Mackay, D. S.; Roberts, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.; Traver, E.

    2006-12-01

    Stomatal conductance parameterized in a transpiration model has been shown to vary spatially for aspen ( Populus tremuloides) and alder (Alnus incana) growing along a moisture gradient. We hypothesized that competition for light within the canopy would explain some of this variation. Sap flux data was collected over 10 days in 2004, and 30 days in 2005 at a 1.5 ha site near the WLEF AmeriFlux tower in the Chequmegon National Forest near Park Falls, Wisconsin. We used inverse modeling with the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) to estimate values of GSref for individual trees. Competition data for individual aspen sampled for sap flux was collected in August 2006. The number, height, DBH, and location of all competitors within 5 meters of each flux tree were recorded. Preliminary geostatistical analysis indicates that the number of competitor trees varies spatially for aspen. We hypothesize that height and species specific crown characteristics of competitor trees will have a spatially variable affect on transpiration via light attenuation. Furthermore, a simple light competition term will be able to incorporate this variability into the TREES transpiration model.

  14. Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

    2009-08-01

    The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

  15. Dynamics of carbon fluxes above a hemiboreal mixed forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Krasnov, Dmitrii

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are a major part of the biosphere and control land surface-atmosphere interactions. They influence atmospheric composition and climate significantly being sources and sinks of trace gases and energy. Mixed stands of both coniferous and deciduous tree species are characterized by greater seasonal variability of forest microclimate, canopy shape and density, length of growing season and plant activity and higher biota diversity and compared to pure boreal forests. These factors coupled with physical environment (atmospheric and meteorological conditions, soil properties) influence CO2 exchange between forest and the atmosphere. To explore complex interactions within ecosystem-atmosphere continuum of hemiboreal forest SMEAR Estonia station was established in Järvselja, Estonia. A 24 m height scaffolding tower located in a forest stand dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with co-domination of Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.) was used to study eddy-covariance fluxes of CO2. We present the results from the first continuous EC measurements over a hemiboreal mixed forest performed in 2011-2012. The focus of the study is on diurnal and annual dynamics of carbon fluxes and the influence of main environmental drivers.

  16. Fluorescence responses and photosynthetic rates of sunlit and shaded leaves of Italian alpine forest species: Summer 1997 ATOM-LIFT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Cecchi, Giovanna; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Bazzani, Marco; McMurtrey, James E., III; Corp, Lawrence A.; Sandu, R.; Tirelli, Daniele

    1998-07-01

    Terrestrial vegetation studies were carried out in the Italian Northeastern Alps in Val Visdende. The measurement site was 15 Kilometers Northeast of the town of St. Stefano di Calore (Belluno), Italy. Measurements were acquired on a wooded site at the Italian Department of Forestry Station on species native to the Italian Alps. The species included spruce (Picea abies) and alder (Alnus incana) trees. Characterization was also made of the fluorescence responses of several under-story species such as Dactylorhiza fuchsii of the Orchidaceae family, Caltha palustris and Ranunculus ficaria of the Ranuncolcee family, and Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens of the Leguminosae family. Terrestrial vegetation monitoring was conducted with the Italian FLIDAR remote sensing instrument mounted in a mobile van, the NASA/USDA Fluorescence Imaging System (FIS), and the Spectron SE-590 for optical properties. Photosynthetic CO2 gas exchange rates we made with LI-COR 6400 infrared gas analyzer. Pigments from the samples were extracted and analyzed with a Perkin Elmer Lamda 7 Spectrometer to determine pigment concentrations. Fluorescence responses were collected from vegetation samples grown under different ambient light regimes of sun-lit versus shaded. The vegetation showed different fluorescence characteristics. A fluorescence algorithm, (F740/F680)/F550, and rate of photosynthesis showed a strong linear relationship.

  17. Structure and function of Frankia vesicles in dinitrogen fixation by actinorhizal plants. Final report, April 1, 1982-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Torrey, J.G.

    1985-11-01

    Frankia, a filamentous bacterium which induces N/sub 2/-fixing root nodules on the roots of a wide range of woody dicotyledonous plants, is the first known actinomycete which fixes dinitrogen when growing in free-living culture. The nitrogenase enzyme is induced in many strains of this organism by withholding fixed nitrogen compounds from its nutrient medium. Terminal swellings of the bacterial filaments develop rapidly and acetylene reduction activity (= nitrogenase) increases in proportion to the number of terminal vesicles formed. The induction of vesicles and establishment of acetylene reduction occurs under aerobic conditions, and the evidence is accumulating which demonstrates the existence of a multilaminate vesicle envelope which serves as a physical barrier protecting the oxygen-labile nitrogenase from denaturation. Our studies are concerned with the physiology, biochemistry and structural development of the N/sub 2/-fixing apparatus in Frankia grown in vitro and in root nodules of host plants. Diverse strains of Frankia are under study isolated and cultured from different host plants. Two strains have been studied, especially HFPArI3, an isolate from nodules of the red alder Alnus rubra, and HFPCcI3, isolated from root nodules of the tropical tree Casuarina cunninghamiana. The goal is to understand the structure and function which leads to optimum effectiveness for dinitrogen fixation. 9 refs.

  18. Late-glacial pollen, macrofossils and fish remains in northeastern U.S.A. — The Younger Dryas oscillation. A contribution to the 'North Atlantic seaboard programme' of IGCP-253, 'Termination of the Pleistocene'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Daniels, R. A.; Heusser, L. E.; Vogel, J. S.; Southon, J. R.; Nelson, D. E.

    The late-glacial environmental histories of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey and Linsley Pond, Connecticut are reconstructed from pollen, macrofossil and fish scale remains. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of seeds and needles indicates that the first organic deposition, evidenced by fossil Picea (spruce) needles, occurred approximately 12,400 BP. A major regional warming began in the northeastern United States at this time, correlative with the Bølling/Allerød warming of Europe and Greenland. The increase in Quercus (oak) pollen and presence of Pinus strobus (white pine) needles demonstrates the magnitude of warming reached at about 11,000 BP. The subsequent decline of thermophilous species and increase in boreal Picea, Abies (fir), Larix (larch), Betula papyrifera (paper birch) and Alnus (alder) from 10,800-10,000 BP was a regional vegetational reversal. Thus we find a North American expression of the Younger Dryas with a mean annual temperature depression of 3-4° C. The subsequent classical southern New England pine pollen zone 'B' and Pinus strobus macrofossils signalled a return to warmer conditions at approximately 10,000 BP, regionally, within approximately 50-100 years. A large increase in Quercus follows. This study is unique in documenting a continuous late-glacial record of fish remains from Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey sediments, indicating that members of the families Centrarchidae (sunfish), Salmonidae (trout), Percidae (perch) and Cyprinidae (minnow) were regionally present.

  19. The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

  20. Stable-Isotope Perspectives on Holocene Environmental Change at Archaeological Sites in the Middle Tanana Valley, Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Gaines, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Summer of 2009, Colorado State University Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands conducted test excavations of 29 prehistoric archaeological sites situated on a loess-mantled morainal ridge complex within the Jarvis Creek valley of the Tanana River system at Fort Wainwright in Interior Alaska. Initial loess deposition on the moraines began about 13,000 cal yr BP, with subsequent long-term, nomadic occupation of the area occurring from 9,500 to 1,060 cal yr BP. An array of data were extracted from bulk-sediment samples and used to assess past environmental conditions. Parameters and approaches used to generate these data included stable carbon isotope ratios, magnetic susceptibility, biogenic opal analysis, detrital charcoal content, quantitative color (L*a*b), and particle-size distribution. Stable carbon isotope trends, in combination with the other environmental proxy data, document major environmental changes. Data from the glacial till-loess transition and lower silt mantle indicate that the area was cold and slightly mesic, and dominated by treeless C3-dominated grassland immediately after the terminal Pleistocene glacial retreat (~12,700 cal yr BP). A dearth of particulate charcoal and charred phytoliths from sediments of this period suggests a minor role for fire, e.g., only localized, small fires. Cold, treeless environmental conditions continued throughout the Early Holocene (~12,000-7,000 cal yr BP), though it was more mesic than earlier. Middle Holocene (~7000-5000 cal yr BP) data display a shift in C3 grass species (increased δ13C values), the appearance of a shrub component to the plant community, significant surface stability, and more widespread fire occurrence. Picea glauca (white spruce) and Alnus sp. (alder) appear in the later parts of the Middle Holocene, and charcoal concentration increases. The Late Holocene (since ~5,000 cal yr BP) witnessed a decline in P. glauca by about 50%, a tenfold increase in Alnus, and the appearance

  1. Leaf nitrate assimilation during leaf expansion period: comparison of temperate and boreal tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, L.; Tokuchi, N.; Kielland, K.

    2011-12-01

    We examined nitrate assimilation in several tree species to test the hypothesis that plant N acquisition is highest in early spring due to the N demands of leaf growth and the seasonal availability of soil N. Specifically, we advance the idea that trees acquire N most actively during the leaf expansion period, which serves to offset growth-dilution of foliar N. However, it has been observed that boreal species expand their leaves more rapidly than do temperate species, suggesting that they exhibit a different seasonal pattern of N acquisition than do temperate species. To examine these relationships we measured leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA) as a proxy for nitrate assimilation, leaf expansion rates, and foliar N concentrations on three boreal tree species and three temperate tree species throughout their leaf expansion period. An evergreen species (Quercus glauca) and two deciduous species (Acer palmatum and Zelkova serrata) were investigated in temperate Japan, and three deciduous species Alnus crispa, Betula papyrifera and Populus tremuloides were chosen in a boreal forest in interior Alaska, US. The patterns of foliar N concentrations were very similar across all six species, but the mean leaf expansion period was shorter in the boreal species (about 25 days) than in temperate species (about 29 days). All temperate species showed clear peaks of leaf NRA in the middle of leaf expansion period, suggesting that leaves partly compensate for the N dilution during expansion via foliar nitrate assimilation, and that plant nitrate acquisition was effectively timed to coincide with soil N availability generally increased in early spring. By contrast, peak NRA in the boreal species were observed in different stage of leaf expansion, but as in the temperate species declined to very low levels after the leaves were fully expanded. Our results demonstrate that plant nitrate assimilation is concentrated during leaf expansion in spring and early summer, but declines to

  2. Adverse effects of bisphenol A on water louse (Asellus aquaticus).

    PubMed

    Plahuta, Maja; Tišler, Tatjana; Pintar, Albin; Toman, Mihael Jožef

    2015-07-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effects of short and long-term exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on a freshwater crustacean isopod Asellus aquaticus (L.). Two life stages of isopods were exposed to a range of BPA concentrations, from aqueous and two dietary sources, in the form of with BPA spiked conditioned alder leaf (Alnus glutinosa) discs, or spiked formulated sediment, to determine the relative importance of each source of exposure on the uptake of this contaminant. Several lethal and sublethal endpoints were evaluated in this study to measure the potential effects of BPA on A. aquaticus, including mortality, growth and feeding rate inhibition, mobility inhibition, de-pigmentation and molting disturbances. They signify a correlation to BPA levels and a difference in BPA uptake efficiency from different uptake sources. Results of acute exposure to BPA show a greater sensitivity of test systems using juvenile specimens with a 96 h LC₅₀ of 8.6 mg L(-1) BPA in water medium and a 96 h LC₅₀ of 13.5 mg L(-1) BPA in sediment. In comparison, adult isopods show a 96 h LC₅₀ of 25.1 mg L(-1) BPA in water medium and a 96 h LC₅₀ of 65.1 mg L(-1) BPA in sediment. Observed endpoints of chronic exposures suggest the alder leave discs to be the most efficient uptake source of BPA, in contrast to uptake from water or heterogeneous sediment. Significant (p<0.05) growth inhibition, with a 21d NOEC of 0.5/2.5 mg L(-1) (for juvenile/adult organisms), and feeding rate inhibition, with a 21d NOEC of 0.5/1.0 mg L(-1) (for juvenile/adult organisms), were proven to be the most sensitive toxicity endpoints. An even more sensitive effect turned out to be molting frequency, which was significantly reduced; a 21d NOEC was 1.0 mg L(-1) of BPA for adult organisms and an even lower 21d NOEC of 0.05 mg L(-1) of BPA for juveniles. The observed endpoints are recorded at very low, non-toxic exposure concentrations, indicating that BPA acts as an endocrine disrupting compound, as

  3. Effects of Debris Flows on Stream Ecosystems of the Klamath Mountains, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, M. R.; Delafuente, J. A.; Resh, V. H.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the long-term effects of debris flows on channel characteristics and aquatic food webs in steep (0.04-0.06 slope), small (4-6 m wide) streams. A large rain-on-snow storm event in January 1997 resulted in numerous landslides and debris flows throughout many basins in the Klamath Mountains of northern California. Debris floods resulted in extensive impacts throughout entire drainage networks, including mobilization of valley floor deposits and removal of vegetation. Comparing 5 streams scoured by debris flows in 1997 and 5 streams that had not been scoured as recently, we determined that debris-flows decreased channel complexity by reducing alluvial step frequency and large woody debris volumes. Unscoured streams had more diverse riparian vegetation, whereas scoured streams were dominated by dense, even-aged stands of white alder (Alnus rhombiflia). Benthic invertebrate shredders, especially nemourid and peltoperlid stoneflies, were more abundant and diverse in unscoured streams, reflecting the more diverse allochthonous resources. Debris flows resulted in increased variability in canopy cover, depending on degree of alder recolonization. Periphyton biomass was higher in unscoured streams, but primary production was greater in the recently scoured streams, suggesting that invertebrate grazers kept algal assemblages in an early successional state. Glossosomatid caddisflies were predominant scrapers in scoured streams; heptageniid mayflies were abundant in unscoured streams. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were of similar abundance in scoured and unscoured streams, but scoured streams were dominated by young-of-the-year fish while older juveniles were more abundant in unscoured streams. Differences in the presence of cold-water (Doroneuria) versus warm-water (Calineuria) perlid stoneflies suggest that debris flows have altered stream temperatures. Debris flows have long-lasting impacts on stream communities, primarily through the cascading effects of

  4. Source and Export of Particulate Nitrogen in Forested Catchments: Two Case Studies from the Oregon Coast Range and Gulf Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B.; Hatten, J. A.; Mangum, C. N.; Dewey, J.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate nitrogen is an important but often neglected flux of nitrogen in many watershed studies. As a constituent of sediment, particulate nitrogen is highly dependent on storms and high discharge events for mobilization and transport. We present two case studies on the source and export of particulate nitrogen from two systems during base and storm flow over one year. We measured the concentration of particulate nitrogen and multiplied that by discharge to calculate the particulate nitrogen flux from each of the watersheds. Source of particulate N was determined through stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of suspended sediments and end-member soils. In the first case study we examine the Alsea River, a small mountainous river in the Oregon Coast Range with a 1,220 km2 basin. In this study we collected suspended sediment from the lowermost USGS gaging station. We found that the watershed exported 2.35 kg N ha-1 during the 2008 water year. This is roughly equivalent to 15-60% of all the nitrogen fixed by red alder (Alnus rubra) in the watershed on an annual basis. Subsequent analysis of the lignin biomarkers suggest that areas dominated by hardwoods (e.g. red alder) play a disproportionate role in the source of particulate nitrogen. The second case study took place in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain in Mississippi State. We studied the flux of water, particulate nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen from 4 ephemeral headwater streams (1.8-3.8 ha) and 1 perennial stream (~32 ha and downstream from the ephemeral streams). Particulate nitrogen comprised 18-100% of the total nitrogen (particulate plus dissolved) concentration of both classes (ephemeral and perennial) of streams studied. The fraction of total N as particulate does not appear to be dependent on discharge or total suspended sediment concentration. The stable isotopic signature of particulate N suggests that it is derived from clay sized particles from surface mineral soil horizons (e.g. A horizons). Both these

  5. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data

  6. Seasonal relationships between precipitation, forest floor, and streamwater nitrogen, Isle Royale, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stottlemyer, R.; Toczydlowski, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Great Lakes receive large amounts of precipitation-NH4/+ and moderate NO3/- inputs. Increased atmospheric inorganic N input has led to concern about ecosystem capacity to utilize excess N. This paper summarizes a 5-yr study of seasonal N content and flux in precipitation, snowpack, forest floor, and streamwater in order to assess the source of inorganic N outputs in streamflow from a small boreal watershed. Average precipitation N input was 3 kg ha-1 yr-1. The peak snowpack N content averaged 0.55 kg ha-1. The forest floor inorganic N pool was ???2 kg ha-1, eight times larger than monthly precipitation N input. The inorganic N pool size peaked in spring and early summer. Ninety percent of the forest floor inorganic N pool was made up of NH4/+-N. Forest floor inorganic N pools generally increased with temperature. Net N mineralization was 15 kg ha-1 yr-1, and monthly rates peaked in early summer. During winter, the mean monthly net N mineralization rate was twice the peak snowpack N content. Streamwater NO3/- concentration peaked in winter, and inorganic N output peaked in late fall. Beneath the dominant boreal forest species, net N mineralization rates were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with streamwater NO3/- concentrations. Forest floor NO3/- pools beneath alder [Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng] were positively correlated (P < 0.01) to streamwater NO3/- output. At the watershed mouth, streamwater NO3/- concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with precipitation NO3/- input and precipitation amount. The relatively small snowpack N content and seasonal precipitation N input compared to forest floor inorganic N pools and net N mineralization rates, the strong ecosystem retention of precipitation N inputs, and the seasonal streamwater NO3/- concentration and output pattern all indicated that little streamwater NO3/- came directly from precipitation or snowmelt.The Upper Great Lakes receive large amounts of precipitation-NH4+ and moderate NO3

  7. Sequential Diels–Alder/[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement reactions of β-nitrostyrene with 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene

    PubMed Central

    Pipic, Alma; Zeller, Matthias; Tsetsakos, Panagiota

    2013-01-01

    Summary The tin(IV)-catalyzed reaction of β-nitrostyrene with (E)-3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene in toluene afforded two major nitronic ester cycloadducts in 27% and 29% yield that arise from the reaction at the less substituted diene double bond. Also present were four cycloadducts from the reaction at the higher substituted diene double bond, two of which were the formal cycloadducts of (Z)-3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene. A Friedel–Crafts alkylation product from the reaction of the diene, β-nitrostyrene, and toluene was also obtained in 10% yield. The tin(IV)-catalyzed reaction of β-nitrostyrene with (Z)-3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene in dichloromethane afforded four nitronic ester cycloadducts all derived from the reaction at the higher substituted double bond. One cycloadduct was isolated in 45% yield and two others are formal adducts of the E-isomer of the diene. The product formation in these reactions is consistent with a stepwise mechanism involving a zwitterionic intermediate. The initially isolated nitronic ester cycloadducts underwent tin(IV)-catalyzed interconversion, presumably via zwitterion intermediates. Cycloadducts derived from the reaction at the less substituted double bond of (E)-3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene underwent a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement on heating to afford 4-nitrocyclohexenes. Cycloadducts derived from the reaction at the higher substituted diene double bond of either diene failed to undergo a thermal rearrangement. Rates and success of the rearrangement are consistent with a concerted mechanism possessing a dipolar transition state. An initial assessment of substituent effects on the rearrangement process is presented. PMID:24204426

  8. Identifying important spatial and temporal scales and patterns of soil properties in a tidal saltmarsh situated in a mixed red alder and Douglas fir watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea level rise is expected to drive a loss in salt marsh area and a change in marsh habitat composition, potentially leading to changes in the nitrogen source/sink dynamics of these systems. Estuaries in the Pacific Northwest might be particularly vulnerable to the effect of sal...

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Major Vitamin D Metabolites Using Diels-Alder Derivatization and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically active forms of vitamin D are important analytical targets both in research and in clinical practice. Typically, each of the vitamin D metabolites is best analyzed by individual assay. However, current LC-MS technologies allow simultaneous metabolic profiling of entire biochemical pathw...

  10. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  11. Effects of multiple but low pesticide loads on aquatic fungal communities colonizing leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Talk, Anne; Kublik, Susanne; Uksa, Marie; Engel, Marion; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Welzl, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Mohr, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm. For that, fungi colonizing black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves were exposed to multiple, low pulses of 11 different pesticides over a period of 60days using a real farmer's pesticide application protocol for apple cropping. Four pond mesocosms served as treatments and 4 as controls. The composition of fungal communities colonizing the litter material was analyzed using a molecular fingerprinting approach based on the terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (t-RFLP) of the fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene(s). Our data indicated a clear fluctuation of fungal communities based on the degree of leaf litter degradation. However significant effects of the applied spraying sequence were not observed. Consequently also degradation rates of the litter material were not affected by the treatments. Our results indicate that the nutrient rich environment of the leaf litter material gave fungal communities the possibility to express genes that induce tolerance against the applied pesticides. Thus our data may not be transferred to other fresh water habitats with lower nutrient availability. PMID:27521943

  12. Effects of Recent Debris Flows on Stream Ecosystems and Food Webs in Small Watersheds in the Central Klamath Mountains, NW California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, M. R.; de La Fuente, J.

    2008-12-01

    Debris flows are common erosional processes in steep mountain areas throughout the world, but little is known about the long-term ecological effects of debris flows on stream ecosystems. Based on debris flow histories that were developed for each of ten tributary basins, we classified channels as having experienced recent (1997) or older (pre-1997) debris flows. Of the streams classified as older debris flow streams, three streams experienced debris flows during floods in 1964 or 1974, while two streams showed little or no evidence of debris flow activity in the 20th century. White alder (Alnus rhombifolia) was the dominant pioneer tree species in recent debris flow streams, forming localized dense patches of canopy cover. Maximum temperatures and daily temperature ranges were significantly higher in recent debris flow streams than in older debris flow streams. Debris flows resulted in a shift in food webs from allochthonous to autochthonous energy sources. Primary productivity, as measured by oxygen change during the day, was greater in recent debris flow streams, resulting in increased abundances of grazers such as the armored caddisfly Glossosoma spp. Detritivorous stoneflies were virtually absent in recent debris flow streams because of the lack of year-round, diverse sources of leaf litter. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were abundant in four of the recent debris flow streams. Poor recolonizers, such as the Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus), coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei), and signal crayfish (Pacifistacus leniusculus), were virtually absent in recent debris flow streams. Forest and watershed managers should consider the role of forest disturbances, such as road networks, on debris flow frequency and intensity, and the resulting ecological effects on stream ecosystems.

  13. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  14. Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Sara L.; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Herbivores induce plants to undergo diverse processes that minimize costs to the plant, such as producing defences to deter herbivory or reallocating limited resources to inaccessible portions of the plant. Yet most plant tissue is consumed by decomposers, not herbivores, and these defensive processes aimed to deter herbivores may alter plant tissue even after detachment from the plant. All consumers value nutrients, but plants also require these nutrients for primary functions and defensive processes. We experimentally simulated herbivory with and without nutrient additions on red alder (Alnus rubra), which supplies the majority of leaf litter for many rivers in western North America. Simulated herbivory induced a defence response with cascading effects: terrestrial herbivores and aquatic decomposers fed less on leaves from stressed trees. This effect was context dependent: leaves from fertilized-only trees decomposed most rapidly while leaves from fertilized trees receiving the herbivory treatment decomposed least, suggesting plants funnelled a nutritionally valuable resource into enhanced defence. One component of the defence response was a decrease in leaf nitrogen leading to elevated carbon : nitrogen. Aquatic decomposers prefer leaves naturally low in C : N and this altered nutrient profile largely explains the lower rate of aquatic decomposition. Furthermore, terrestrial soil decomposers were unaffected by either treatment but did show a preference for local and nitrogen-rich leaves. Our study illustrates the ecological implications of terrestrial herbivory and these findings demonstrate that the effects of selection caused by terrestrial herbivory in one ecosystem can indirectly shape the structure of other ecosystems through ecological fluxes across boundaries. PMID:25788602

  15. Marine-derived nitrogen and carbon in freshwater-riparian food webs of the Copper River Delta, southcentral Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brendan J; Wipfli, Mark S; Lang, Dirk W; Lang, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    After rearing to adulthood at sea, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) return to freshwater to spawn once and then die on or near their spawning grounds. We tested the hypothesis that spawning coho salmon return marine N and C to beaver (Castor canadensis) ponds of the Copper River Delta (CRD), Cordova, southcentral Alaska, thereby enhancing productivity of the aquatic food webs that support juvenile coho salmon. We sampled three types of pond treatment: (1) natural enrichment by spawning salmon, (2) artificial enrichment via addition of salmon carcasses and eggs, and (3) ponds with no salmon enrichment. All ponds supported juvenile coho salmon. Seasonal samples of stable isotopes revealed that juvenile coho salmon, threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), caddisfly larvae, leeches, and chironomid midge larvae were enriched with marine N and C. The aquatic vascular plants bur reed (Sparganium hyperboreum), pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus), and mare's tail (Hippuris vulgaris) were enriched with marine N only. Riparian vegetation (Sitka alder Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata and willow Salix spp.) did not show enrichment. Artificial additions of adult carcasses and eggs of coho salmon increased the delta15N and delta13C values of juvenile coho salmon. In this dynamic and hydrologically complex coastal environment, spawning coho salmon contributed marine N and C comprising 10-50% of the dietary needs of juvenile coho salmon through direct consumption of eggs and carcass material. Invertebrates that have assimilated marine N and C yield a further indirect contribution. This perennial subsidy maintains the productivity of the ecosystem of the coho salmon on the CRD. PMID:15891853

  16. Assessing habitat selection in Spring by male American Woodcock in Maine with a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprankle, K.E.; Sepik, G.F.; McAuley, D.G.; Longcore, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology was used to identify habitats available to and used by male American woodcock (Scolopax minor) equipped with radio transmitters--54 in 1987, 51 in 1988, 46 in 1989 at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Woodcock were monitored from time of capture (25 March-15 April) to 15 June each year. To determine habitat selection by male woodcock, the following habitat characteristics were measured: land cover, age and stocking density of the forest overstory, soil drainage and texture, aspect, and percent slope. Habitat selection was examined as affected by the covariates weather and age-class of woodcock, and among years for diurnal and crepuscular periods of the breeding period. Multivariate techniques that compare use and availability of habitats were not available, so a statistical model was developed to rate importance of multiple habitat characteristics selected by woodcock. The most critical period for woodcock in terms of survival was from arrival to: mid-April. Second-year and after-second-year woodcock did not select different (P > 0.05) habitat types, but they did select different types among years and within breeding intervals (P < 0.05). In years when weather was moderate, woodcock selected young, dense stands of speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) and hardwoods, interspersed with forest openings. Suitable habitat can be maintained by creating an uneven-aged forest managed in even-aged blocks composed of several hardwood species. Managers can now quantify suitable woodcock habitat in a GIS and plan large-scale forest-harvesting strategies using data on several habitat characteristics (e.g., land cover, stand age, stocking density, soil drainage and texture, and aspect).

  17. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  18. Cascading effects of induced terrestrial plant defences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Sara L; Wootton, J Timothy

    2015-04-22

    Herbivores induce plants to undergo diverse processes that minimize costs to the plant, such as producing defences to deter herbivory or reallocating limited resources to inaccessible portions of the plant. Yet most plant tissue is consumed by decomposers, not herbivores, and these defensive processes aimed to deter herbivores may alter plant tissue even after detachment from the plant. All consumers value nutrients, but plants also require these nutrients for primary functions and defensive processes. We experimentally simulated herbivory with and without nutrient additions on red alder (Alnus rubra), which supplies the majority of leaf litter for many rivers in western North America. Simulated herbivory induced a defence response with cascading effects: terrestrial herbivores and aquatic decomposers fed less on leaves from stressed trees. This effect was context dependent: leaves from fertilized-only trees decomposed most rapidly while leaves from fertilized trees receiving the herbivory treatment decomposed least, suggesting plants funnelled a nutritionally valuable resource into enhanced defence. One component of the defence response was a decrease in leaf nitrogen leading to elevated carbon : nitrogen. Aquatic decomposers prefer leaves naturally low in C : N and this altered nutrient profile largely explains the lower rate of aquatic decomposition. Furthermore, terrestrial soil decomposers were unaffected by either treatment but did show a preference for local and nitrogen-rich leaves. Our study illustrates the ecological implications of terrestrial herbivory and these findings demonstrate that the effects of selection caused by terrestrial herbivory in one ecosystem can indirectly shape the structure of other ecosystems through ecological fluxes across boundaries. PMID:25788602

  19. Impacts of a recent storm surge on an Arctic delta ecosystem examined in the context of the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Pisaric, Michael F J; Thienpont, Joshua R; Kokelj, Steven V; Nesbitt, Holly; Lantz, Trevor C; Solomon, Steven; Smol, John P

    2011-05-31

    One of the most ominous predictions related to recent climatic warming is that low-lying coastal environments will be inundated by higher sea levels. The threat is especially acute in polar regions because reductions in extent and duration of sea ice cover increase the risk of storm surge occurrence. The Mackenzie Delta of northwest Canada is an ecologically significant ecosystem adapted to freshwater flooding during spring breakup. Marine storm surges during the open-water season, which move saltwater into the delta, can have major impacts on terrestrial and aquatic systems. We examined growth rings of alder shrubs (Alnus viridis subsp. fruticosa) and diatoms preserved in dated lake sediment cores to show that a recent marine storm surge in 1999 caused widespread ecological changes across a broad extent of the outer Mackenzie Delta. For example, diatom assemblages record a striking shift from freshwater to brackish species following the inundation event. What is of particular significance is that the magnitude of this recent ecological impact is unmatched over the > 1,000-year history of this lake ecosystem. We infer that no biological recovery has occurred in this lake, while large areas of terrestrial vegetation remain dramatically altered over a decade later, suggesting that these systems may be on a new ecological trajectory. As climate continues to warm and sea ice declines, similar changes will likely be repeated in other coastal areas of the circumpolar Arctic. Given the magnitude of ecological changes recorded in this study, such impacts may prove to be long lasting or possibly irreversible. PMID:21576496

  20. Vegetation of the Central Beringian Lowlands: Evidence of a Glacial Refugium Found in IODP Expedition 323 Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, R.; Fowell, S. J.; Bigelow, N. H.; VanLaningham, S.

    2011-12-01

    The lowlands of central Beringia may have acted as a glacial refugium for boreal vegetation, which expanded into eastern and western Beringia as climate changed and glaciers retreated. Persistence of trees, shrubs and mesic-adapted vegetation in the vicinity of the modern Bering Strait and Bering Sea Shelf could have presented a barrier to migrating fauna during Pleistocene glacial stages. These hypotheses have been difficult to test, because sampling has been restricted to lacustrine sediment and peat deposits accessible in eastern and western Beringia. Pollen analysis of cores from IODP Expedition 323 (Bering Sea Expedition) sites U1339 and U1343, on the edge of the Bering Sea Shelf, permits reconstruction of the terrestrial vegetation of adjacent south-central Beringia. Palynological assemblages extracted from sediment that accumulated during Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 6 are dominated by grass (Poaceae ≥ 15%) and sedge (Cyperaceae ≥ 20%). Spruce (Picea ≥ 5%), birch (Betula ≥ 10%) and alder (Alnus ≥ 5%) are also consistently present throughout glacial/interglacial cycles, suggesting that small populations of trees and shrubs remained in central Beringia during glacial maxima. These results support the refugium hypothesis. Although it is possible that some of the boreal plant pollen deposited during glacial stages is derived from interglacial sediment reworked by rivers flowing across the emergent shelf, we postulate that such sources only contribute about 1-5% of the total sediment found at these Bering slope sites. Thus we consider the palynological assemblages from IODP Expedition 323 a robust proxy for the glacial vegetation of central Beringia.

  1. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  2. Vegetation and climate history in the Laptev Sea region (arctic Siberia) during Late Quaternary inferred from pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A.; Schirrmeister, L.; Tarasov, P.

    2009-04-01

    A number of permafrost sections dated by 14C, TL, IRSL, and 230U/Th were analysed for pollen. Pollen spectra suggest that wet grass-sedge tundra habitats dominated during an interstadial c. 200-170 ka ago. The climate was rather wet and cold. The pollen spectra reflect sparser grass-sedge vegetation cover during the Late Saalian stadial, c. 170-130 ka BP. Environmental conditions were much more severe compared with the previous interstadial. Open Poaceae and Artemisia communities dominated at the beginning of the Last Interglacial. Some shrubs (Alnus fruticosa, Salix, Betula nana) grew in more protected and wetter places. Climate was rather warm (similar to modern conditions)during this time. Shrub tundra with Alnus fruticosa and Betula nana s.l. dominated in the area during the Eemian climatic optimum, when summer temperatures were 4-5°C higher than today. Early Weichselian pollen records reflect harsh environmental conditions; sparser vegetation (mostly grass and sedge communities) during this time. Middle Weichselian (Karginsky) Interstadial records with dominance of Cyperaceae and Poaceae with some Artemisia and Salix reflects tundra- and steppe-like associations with willow shrubs dominated the area. The climate was relatively moist and warm. A rather high content of algae colonies in the sediments indicates shallow water habitats (e.g. centres of ice wedge polygons). Dominance of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, and Caryophyllaceae pollen with some other herbs is typical for the 40-32 ka BP (climatic optimum) old sediments when open herb dominated the area. High pollen concentrations reflect that dense grass-sedge dominated vegetation; presence of Salix is also characteristic. The records point to climate amelioration during the Middle Weichselian compared to the Early Weichselian. Climate conditions became colder and drier c. 30-26 ka BP. Pollen spectra reflect that sedge-grass-Artemisia with some Caryophyllaceae and Asteraceae dominated the vegetation

  3. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  4. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  5. Interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven tree species.

    PubMed

    Ewers, B E; Mackay, D S; Samanta, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (E (C)) and per unit leaf area (E (L)) across seven tree species in northern Wisconsin over two years. These species have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. Our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. Three species, wetland balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), basswood (Tilia Americana L.) and speckled alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng), had no change in E (C) or E (L) between 2000 and 2001. Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) had a 57 and 19% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) had an 83 and 41% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) had a 50 and 21% decrease in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001 in response to complete defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malascoma distria Hüber) and subsequent lower total leaf area index of the reflushed foliage. White cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) had a 20% decrease in both E (C) and E (L) caused by lowered surface water in wetlands in 2001 because of lower precipitation and wetland flow management. Upland A. balsamea increased E (L) and E (C) by 55 and 53%, respectively, as a result of release from light competition of the defoliated, overstory P. tremuloides. We hypothesized that regardless of different drivers of interannual variability in E (C) and E (L), minimum leaf water potential would be regulated at the same value. Minimum midday water potentials were consistent over the two years within each of the seven species despite large changes in transpiration between years. This regulation was independently verified by the exponential saturation between daily E (C) and vapor pressure deficit (D) and the tradeoff between a reference canopy stomatal

  6. Approximating Reflectance and Transmittance of Vegetation Using Multiple Spectral Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottus, M.

    2011-12-01

    irradiation levels on leaf surfaces for direct and diffuse incidence, thus (in theory) allowing more accurate calculation of potential photosynthesis rates. Similarly to the p-theory, the use of multiple spectral invariants facilitates easy parametrization of canopy structure and scaling between different structural levels (leaf-shoot-stand). Spectral invariant-based remote sensing approaches are well suited for relatively large pixels even when no detailed ground truth information is available. In a case study, the theory of multiple spectral invariants was applied to measured canopy scattering. Spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements were carried out in gray alder (Alnus incana) plantation at Tartu Observatory, Estonia, in August 2006. The equations produced by the theory of spectral invariants were fitted to measured radiation fluxes. Preliminary results indicate that quantities with invariant-like behavior may indeed be used to approximate canopy scattering directionality.

  7. Seasonal and vertical changes in leaf angle distribution for selected deciduous broadleaf tree species common to Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan; Sonnentag, Oliver; Annuk, Kalju

    2014-05-01

    Leaf inclination angle distribution is a key parameter in determining the transmission and reflection of radiation by vegetation canopies. It has been previously observed that leaf inclination angle might change gradually from more vertical in the upper canopy and in high light habitats to more horizontal in the lower canopy and in low light habitats [1]. Despite its importance, relatively few measurements on actual leaf angle distributions have been reported for different tree species. Even smaller number of studies have dealt with the possible seasonal changes in leaf angle distribution [2]. In this study the variation of leaf inclination angle distributions was examined both temporally throughout the growing season and vertically at different heights of trees. We report on leaf inclination angle distributions for five deciduous broadleaf species found commonly in several parts of Europe: grey alder (Alnus incana), Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), chestnut (Castanea), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and aspen (Populus tremula). The angles were measured using the leveled camera method [3], with the data collected at several separate heights and four times during the period of May-September 2013. The results generally indicate the greatest change in leaf inclination angles for spring, with the changes usually being the most pronounced at the top of the canopy. It should also be noted, however, that whereas the temporal variation proved to be rather consistent for different species, the vertical variation differed more between species. The leveled camera method was additionally tested in terms of sensitivity to different users. Ten people were asked to measure the leaf angles for four different species. The results indicate the method is quite robust in providing coinciding distributions irrespective of the user and level of previous experience with the method. However, certain caution must be exercised when measuring long narrow leaves. References [1] G.G. Mc

  8. High-resolution paleoclimatology of the coastal margin of northernmost California during the past 7,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Heusser, L. E.; Addison, J. A.; Burky, D.; Kusler, J. E.; Finney, B.

    2013-12-01

    Piston core TN062 0550, located 13 km offshore of Eureka, California (40.866 deg. N, 124.572 deg. W, 550 m water depth), contains a continuous high-resolution climate record of the past 7,300 yr. Deposition occurred at nearly constant sedimentation rates averaging 94 cm/kyr based on 14C AMS dating of planktonic foraminifers. Pollen and marine ecosystem proxies (diatoms, silicoflagellates, wt. percent biogenic silica) studied at 50-70 yr sample resolution show a stepwise development of the climate/ oceanographic system off northernmost California. The relative contributions of Sequoia sempervirens (coastal redwood) pollen, a proxy for coastal fog associated with offshore upwelling, and biogenic silica concentrations (a proxy for siliceous export productivity) increase (two fold and three fold, respectively) in successive steps at ~5,000 yr BP and from ~2,400 to 2,000 yr BP. These increases are interpreted to reflect a progressive intensification of spring upwelling based on modern observations of the California Current system. At 5,000 yr BP diatom assemblages change from an assorted mixture of warm, temperate, and cool-water taxa to a low diversity temperate-oceanic assemblage dominated by Thalassionema spp. At ~2,400 yr BP the diatom assemblage transitions to a mixture of nearshore upwelling taxa and taxa associated with the central North Pacific Gyre. Silicoflagellate assemblages undergo a similar increase in the representation of modern seasonal proxies at ~3,000 yr BP that may reflect intensified ENSO variability. A two-fold increase in the relative contributions of Quercus (oak) and riparian Alnus (alder) pollen between ~3,800 and 2,000 yr BP likely signals a period of enhanced fluvial runoff associated with increased winter precipitation. Given the present day association of the Eel River system with the northwestern half of the western US winter precipitation dipole, these pollen data suggest that the ~3,800 and 2,000 yr interval was dominated by protracted

  9. Soil stability and plant diversity in eco-engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böll, Albert; Gerber, Werner; Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Slopes affected by superficial sliding and subsequently re-stabilised with eco-engineering measures were investigated, particularly related to soil stability and plant diversity. The sites are situated in three different areas of beech-fir-spruce forest associations of the higher montane zone of Switzerland. Climatic and site characteristics, in paraticular soil properties after the sliding event, of the three investigation areas are very similar. However, the number of species (shrubs and trees) used for the initial planting as well as the year of application of the eco-engineering measures differ substantially. In the investigation area Dallenwil-Wirzweli the biological measures taken in 1981 were restricted to one tree species, namely White Alder (Alnus incana). In Klosters, where measures were taken in 1983 as well as in the Arieschbach valley, where eco-engineering was applied in 1998, the initial planting consisted of 15 species either. Investigations in 2005/2006 revealed neither obvious differences among the three areas nor distinct correlations related to the diversity of the initial planting on the on hand and the development of the vegetation cover and soil stability on the other hand. During the available time of development, the soil aggregate stability increased by 30 to 39%. Compared to the corresponding climax association, the relative values of soil aggregate stability varied between 90 and 120%. Concurrently, the dry unit weight decreased between 1.1 and 3.1 kN/m3. The cumulative vegetation cover varied from 110 to 150%. Due to processes of soil development a distinct shift in the grain size distribution was noticed, from a well sorted gravel with clay and sand (GW-GC) to a silty gravel with sand (GM) in Dallenwil-Wirzweli and a silty to clayey gravel with sand (GC-GM) in Klosters and the Arieschbach valley. Furthermore, in all three investigation areas succession processes were observed that are comparable to average rates of natural secondary

  10. Mid-Pliocene to Early Quaternary Evolution of the Beringian Arctic from Deep Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, Chukotka: initial results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; Minyuk, P.; Andreev, A.; Snyder, J.; Wennrich, V.; Lake El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    One of the primary objectives for deep drilling at Lake El’gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°05' E), formed 3.6 Ma ago by a meteorite impact event, was to recover lacustrine sediments that would provide the first high resolution Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimate record from the terrestrial Arctic. While discontinuous, spatially diverse Pliocene marine records are known from the arctic borderlands at the outcrop scale, the Lake El’gygytgyn record is critically important for balancing the inherent marine bias we currently have in understanding the climate variability of a world warmer than today. Moreover, this continuous land record contributes to our knowledge of the terminal Pliocene transition, be it steps, jolts or plunges, into the early Quaternary. The Pliocene portion of the lake record recovered extends from 130 m to 315 m depth below lake floor with nearly twice the sedimentation rate of Quaternary interval, presumably due to enhanced hydrologic systematics. The lower most, initial 15 m of the lake sequence directly after the meteorite impact appear to be sterile perhaps due to the intense heat generated by the impact that would have taken thousands of years to dissipate. The remaining portion of the Pliocene sequence is characterized by sequences of lacustrine mud overlain by coarser facies. Palynologically studied portions of the core are mostly dominated by tree pollen, providing us with a compositional idea of changes in Pliocene El’gygtgyn forests of pine (Pinus), larch (Larix) spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), alder (Alnus), and, hemlock (Tsuga), not just scrubs. However, sediments paleomagnetically dated between 3.11 and 3.04 Ma ago show dramatic decrease in tree pollen contents, while pollen of Artemisia and spores of Selaginella rupestris and coprophiluous fungi became common elements in the record. Such changes point to treeless environments that can be described as early tundra-steppe. We present here a very preliminary compilation of the collective

  11. Record of Late Quaternary Glacial/Interglacial Variability in the Amerasian Basin (Arctic Ocean) with Improved Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenova, E.; Frederichs, T.; Wollenburg, J.; Stein, R. H.; Vogt, C. M.; Krylov, A.; Kostygov, S.

    2011-12-01

    Piston core TN062 0550, located 13 km offshore of Eureka, California (40.866 deg. N, 124.572 deg. W, 550 m water depth), contains a continuous high-resolution climate record of the past 7,300 yr. Deposition occurred at nearly constant sedimentation rates averaging 94 cm/kyr based on 14C AMS dating of planktonic foraminifers. Pollen and marine ecosystem proxies (diatoms, silicoflagellates, wt. percent biogenic silica) studied at 50-70 yr sample resolution show a stepwise development of the climate/ oceanographic system off northernmost California. The relative contributions of Sequoia sempervirens (coastal redwood) pollen, a proxy for coastal fog associated with offshore upwelling, and biogenic silica concentrations (a proxy for siliceous export productivity) increase (two fold and three fold, respectively) in successive steps at ~5,000 yr BP and from ~2,400 to 2,000 yr BP. These increases are interpreted to reflect a progressive intensification of spring upwelling based on modern observations of the California Current system. At 5,000 yr BP diatom assemblages change from an assorted mixture of warm, temperate, and cool-water taxa to a low diversity temperate-oceanic assemblage dominated by Thalassionema spp. At ~2,400 yr BP the diatom assemblage transitions to a mixture of nearshore upwelling taxa and taxa associated with the central North Pacific Gyre. Silicoflagellate assemblages undergo a similar increase in the representation of modern seasonal proxies at ~3,000 yr BP that may reflect intensified ENSO variability. A two-fold increase in the relative contributions of Quercus (oak) and riparian Alnus (alder) pollen between ~3,800 and 2,000 yr BP likely signals a period of enhanced fluvial runoff associated with increased winter precipitation. Given the present day association of the Eel River system with the northwestern half of the western US winter precipitation dipole, these pollen data suggest that the ~3,800 and 2,000 yr interval was dominated by protracted

  12. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying and monitoring the contribution of vegetation to the stability of the slopes is a key issue for implementing effective soil bioengineering measures. This topic is being widely investigated both from the hydrological and mechanical point of view. Nevertheless, due to the high variability of the biological components, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the role of plants in slope stabilization, especially if the different succession phases and the temporal development of vegetation is considered. Graf et al., 2014, found within the scope of aggregate stability investigations that the root length per soil volume of alder specimen grown for 20 weeks under laboratory conditions is comparable to the one of 20 years old vegetation in the field. This means that already relatively short time scales can provide meaningful information at least for the first stage of colonization of soil bioengineering measures, which is also the most critical. In the present study we analyzed the effect of root growth on two soil properties critical to evaluate the performance of vegetation in restoring and re-stabilizing slopes: permeability and soil aggregate stability. We set up a laboratory experiment in order to work under controlled conditions and limit as much as possible the natural variability. Alnus incana was selected as the study species as it is widely used in restoration projects in the Alps, also because of its capacity to fix nitrogen and its symbiosis with both ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After the first month of growth in germination pots, we planted one specimen each in big quasi cylindrical pots of 34 cm diameter and 35 cm height. The pots were filled with the soil fraction smaller than 10 mm coming from an oven dried moraine collected in a subalpine landslide area (Hexenrübi catchment, central Switzerland). The targeted dry unit weight was 16 kN/m3. The plants have been maintained at a daily temperature of 25°C and relative

  13. Iptycene synthesis: A new method for attaching a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of another anthracene moiety - Exceptional conditions for a Lewis acid catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yong-Shing; Hart, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An efficient three-step method for appending a 2,3-anthracene moiety to the 9,10-positions of an existing anthracene moiety is described. The first step uses excess 1,4-anthraquinone (3 equiv) and aluminum chloride (6 equiv) to obtain the anthracene-quinone cycloadduct (omission of the AlCl3 resulted in no adduct). The resulting diketone was reduced to the corresponding diol (excess LiAlH4), which was dehydrated to the arene with phosphorus oxychloride and pyridine. Specific examples include the preparation of heptipycene 8 from pentiptycene 6 (66 percent overall yield) and a similar conversion of 8 to the noniptycene 13 (75 percent overall yield). The methodology led to a markedly improved synthesis of tritriptycene 9 and the first synthesis of undecaiptycene 14.

  14. Protective and therapeutic effects of an extract mixture of alder tree, labiate herb, milk thistle green bean-rice bran fermentation, and turnip against ethanol-induced toxicity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min-Won; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong Jae; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Huh, Chul-Sung

    2008-01-01

    An herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were tested for their protective and therapeutic effects on ethanol-induced liver injury. The herbal extract mixture, yogurt and commercial drugs were used for treatment for two weeks prior to administering a single oral dose of ethanol (3 g/kg body weight). The herbal extract mixture and yogurt added to the herbal extract mixture were found to provide protection against ethanol-induced toxicity comparable to the commercial drug treatment, according to the serum and histopathological analysis. It was also shown that co-treatment with herbal extract mixture and yogurt against a triple oral dose of ethanol (2 g/kg body weight, over one week) provided protection against ethanol toxicity. After the initial set of experiments, the herbal extract mixture and yogurt treatments were extended for three more weeks. When compared to the positive control, further treatment with both the herbal extract and yogurt significantly reduced liver injury and resulted in a lower grade of lipid deposition. PMID:18296886

  15. Pedagogical Comparison of Five Reactions Performed under Microwave Heating in Multi-Mode versus Mono-Mode Ovens: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Salt Formation, E2 Dehydrohalogenation to Form an Alkyne, Williamson Ether Synthesis, and Fischer Esterification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Gammerdinger, William; Leap, Jennifer; Morales, Erin; Shikora, Jonathan; Weber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Five reactions were rate-accelerated relative to the standard reflux workup in both multi-mode and mono-mode microwave ovens, and the results were compared to determine whether the sequential processing of a mono-mode unit could provide for better lab logistics and pedagogy. Conditions were optimized so that yields matched in both types of…

  16. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum. PMID:11585692

  17. Testing the link between community structure and function for ectomycorrhizal fungi involved in a global tripartite symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer K M; Cohen, Hannah; Higgins, Logan M; Kennedy, Peter G

    2014-04-01

    Alnus trees associate with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria and, although their ECM fungal communities are uncommonly host specific and species poor, it is unclear whether the functioning of Alnus ECM fungal symbionts differs from that of other ECM hosts. We used exoenzyme root tip assays and molecular identification to test whether ECM fungi on Alnus rubra differed in their ability to access organic phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) when compared with ECM fungi on the non-Frankia host Pseudotsuga menziesii. At the community level, potential acid phosphatase (AP) activity of ECM fungal root tips from A. rubra was significantly higher than that from P. menziesii, whereas potential leucine aminopeptidase (LA) activity was significantly lower for A. rubra root tips at one of the two sites. At the individual species level, there was no clear relationship between ECM fungal relative root tip abundance and relative AP or LA enzyme activities on either host. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that ECM fungal communities associated with Alnus trees have enhanced organic P acquisition abilities relative to non-Frankia ECM hosts. This shift, in combination with the chemical conditions present in Alnus forest soils, may drive the atypical structure of Alnus ECM fungal communities. PMID:24320607

  18. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Malvaceae Family Species

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes; Pinheiro, Lilian Sousa; Pereira, Charlane Kelly Souto; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Assis, Temilce Simões

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay. PMID:26787614

  19. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ANTARCTIC PRASIOLA (PRASIOLALES, TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE) REVEALS EXTENSIVE CRYPTIC DIVERSITY(1).

    PubMed

    Moniz, Mónica B J; Rindi, Fabio; Novis, Phil M; Broady, Paul A; Guiry, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Trebouxiophytes of the genus Prasiola are well known in Antarctica, where they are among the most important primary producers. Although many aspects of their biology have been thoroughly investigated, the scarcity of molecular data has so far prevented an accurate assessment of their taxonomy and phylogenetic position. Using sequences of the chloroplast genes rbcL and psaB, we demonstrate the existence of three cryptic species that were previously confused under Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing. Genuine P. crispa occurs in Antarctica; its presence was confirmed by comparison with the rbcL sequence of the type specimen (from the Isle of Skye, Scotland). Prasiola antarctica Kützing is resurrected as an independent species to designate algae with gross morphology identical to P. crispa but robustly placed in a separate lineage. The third species is represented by specimens identified as P. calophylla (Carmichael ex Greville) Kützing in previous studies, but clearly separated from European P. calophylla (type locality: Argyll, Scotland); this alga is described as P. glacialis sp. nov. The molecular data demonstrated the presence of P. crispa in Maritime and Continental Antarctica. P. antarctica was recorded from the Antarctic Peninsula and Shetland Islands, and P. glacialis from the Southern Ocean islands and coast. Such unexpected cryptic diversity highlights the need for a taxonomic reassessment of many published Antarctic records of P. crispa. The results also indicate that marine species of Prasiola form a well-supported monophyletic group, whereas the phylogenetic diversity of freshwater species is higher than previously suspected (at least three separate lineages within the genus include species living in this type of environments). PMID:27009004

  20. Total synthsis of (+)-ambuic acid: α-bromination with 1,2-dibromotetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun Hee; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Lee, Sung Il; Ryu, Do Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Total synthesis of (+)-ambuic acid has been accomplished from the readily available stereocontrolled Diels-Alder adduct of cyclopentadiene and iodo-1,4-benzoquinone monoketal through an efficient series of steps. A new method for the highly commendable synthesis of α-brominated Diels-Alder adduct is described. PMID:22280015