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Sample records for aldol reaction catalyzed

  1. Stereoselectivity in (Acyloxy)borane-Catalyzed Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua M; Zhang, Xin; Norrby, Per-Ola; Helquist, Paul; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    The origin of diastereo- and enantioselectivity in a Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reaction is investigated using a combination of dispersion corrected DFT calculations and transition state force fields (TSFF) developed using the quantum guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) method. The reaction proceeds via a closed transition structure involving a nontraditional hydrogen bond that is 3.3 kJ/mol lower in energy than the corresponding open transition structure. The correct prediction of the diastereoselectivity of a Mukaiyama aldol reaction catalyzed by the conformationally flexible Yamamoto chiral (acyloxy) borane (CAB) requires extensive conformational sampling at the transition structure, which is achieved using a Q2MM-derived TSFF, followed by DFT calculations of the low energy conformational clusters. Finally, a conceptual model for the rationalization of the observed diastereo- and enantioselectivity of the reaction using a closed transition state model is proposed. PMID:27247023

  2. Origins of the double asymmetric induction on proline-catalyzed aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Félix; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Houk, K N

    2008-10-17

    Computational studies to elucidate the origin of the double asymmetric induction on proline-catalyzed aldol reaction have been performed using HF/6-31G(d) calculations. The computed transition structures explain the experimental data obtained. PMID:18811197

  3. Enantioselective aldol reaction between isatins and cyclohexanone catalyzed by amino acid sulphonamides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Hao, Qing; Sun, Yanhua; Luo, Yiming; Yang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Sulphonamides derived from primary α-amino acid were successfully applied to catalyze the aldol reaction between isatin and cyclohexanone under neat conditions. More interestingly, molecular sieves, as privileged additives, were found to play a vital role in achieving high enantioselectivity. Consequently, high yields (up to 99%) along with good enantioselectivities (up to 92% ee) and diastereoselectivities (up to 95:5 dr) were obtained. In addition, this reaction was also conveniently scaled up, demonstrating the applicability of this protocol.

  4. Parameterization of the ReaxFF reactive force field for a proline-catalyzed aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Pierre O; Jacquemin, Denis; Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    A parameterization of the ReaxFF reactive FF is performed using a Monte Carlo Simulated Annealing procedure for the modeling of a proline-catalyzed aldol reaction. Emphasis is put on the accurate reproduction of the relative stabilities of several key intermediates of the reaction, as well as, on the description of the reaction path bridging these intermediates based on quantum mechanical calculations. Our training sets include new criteria based on geometry optimizations and short Molecular Dynamics simulations to ensure that the trained ReaxFF potentials adequately predict the structures of all key intermediates. The transferability of the sets of parameters obtained is assessed for various steps of the considered aldol reaction, as well as for different substrates, catalysts, and reagents. This works indeed highlights the challenge of reaching transferable parameters for several reaction steps. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sequential aldol condensation-transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions of aldehydes, methyl ketones, and arylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan-Xi; Xing, Chun-Hui; Israel, Matthew; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2011-04-15

    Sequential aldol condensation of aldehydes with methyl ketones followed by transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions of arylboronic acids to form β-substituted ketones is described. By using the 1,1'-spirobiindane-7,7'-diol (SPINOL)-based phosphite, an asymmetric version of this type of sequential reaction, with up to 92% ee, was also realized. Our study provided an efficient method to access β-substituted ketones and might lead to the development of other sequential/tandem reactions with transition metal-catalyzed addition reactions as the key step.

  6. Bifunctional Brønsted Base Catalyzes Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Amides.

    PubMed

    Echave, Haizea; López, Rosa; Palomo, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The first enantioselective direct cross-aldol reaction of α-keto amides with aldehydes, mediated by a bifunctional ureidopeptide-based Brønsted base catalyst, is described. The appropriate combination of a tertiary amine base and an aminal, and urea hydrogen-bond donor groups in the catalyst structure promoted the exclusive generation of the α-keto amide enolate which reacted with either non-enolizable or enolizable aldehydes to produce highly enantioenriched polyoxygenated aldol adducts without side-products resulting from dehydration, α-keto amide self-condensation, aldehyde enolization, and isotetronic acid formation.

  7. Bifunctional Brønsted Base Catalyzes Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Amides.

    PubMed

    Echave, Haizea; López, Rosa; Palomo, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The first enantioselective direct cross-aldol reaction of α-keto amides with aldehydes, mediated by a bifunctional ureidopeptide-based Brønsted base catalyst, is described. The appropriate combination of a tertiary amine base and an aminal, and urea hydrogen-bond donor groups in the catalyst structure promoted the exclusive generation of the α-keto amide enolate which reacted with either non-enolizable or enolizable aldehydes to produce highly enantioenriched polyoxygenated aldol adducts without side-products resulting from dehydration, α-keto amide self-condensation, aldehyde enolization, and isotetronic acid formation. PMID:26835655

  8. RUTHENIUM-CATALYZED TANDEM OLEFIN MIGRATION-ALDOL AND MANNICH-TYPE REACTIONS IN IONIC LIQUID.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of RuCl2(PPh3)3, a cross-coupling of 3-buten-2-ol with aldehydes and imines was developed via a tandem olefin migration--aldol--Mannich reaction in bmim[PF6]. With In(OAc)3 as a co-catalyst, a-vinylbenzyl alcohol and aldehydes underwent sim...

  9. Synthesis of dibenzoxepine lactams via a Cu-catalyzed one-pot etherification/aldol condensation cascade reaction: application toward the total synthesis of aristoyagonine.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hye Sun; Choi, Young Lok; Heo, Jung-Nyoung

    2013-09-20

    A general synthesis of dibenzoxepine lactams has been developed using a one-pot Cu-catalyzed etherification/aldol condensation cascade reaction. The reaction of 4-hydroxyisoindolin-1-one with a wide range of 2-bromobenzaldehydes in the presence of a copper catalyst provided various aristoyagonine derivatives in good yields. PMID:24000941

  10. CALIX[6]ARENE DERIVATIVES BEARING SULFONATE AND ALKYL GROUPS AS SURFACTANTS IN SC(OTF)3-CATALYZED MUKAIYAMA ALDOL REACTIONS IN WATER. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Amphiphilic calix[6]arene derivatives 1a¯b were found to be efficient surfactants for Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reaction of silyl enol ethers with aldehydes in water. The results indicated t...

  11. THE EFFECTS OF AROMATIC AND ALIPHATIC ANIONIC SURFACTANTS ON SC(OTF)3-CATALYZED MUKAIYAMA ALDOL REACTION IN WATER. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aromatic (2c and 2d) and aliphatic (2a and 2b) anionic surfactants were employed in Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed aldol reactions of some labile silyl enol ethers (3a and

  12. Copper-catalyzed retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes: chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-enones and (E)-acrylonitriles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Deng, Zhu-Qin

    2016-07-26

    A copper-catalyzed transfer aldol type reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes is reported, which enables chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones and (E)-acrylonitriles. A key step of the in situ copper(i)-promoted retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles is proposed to generate a reactive Cu(i) enolate or cyanomethyl intermediate, which undergoes ensuing aldol condensation with aldehydes to deliver the products. This reaction uses 1.2 mol% Cu(IPr)Cl (IPr denotes 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) as the catalyst in the presence of 6.0 mol% NaOtBu cocatalyst at room temperature or 70 °C. A range of aryl and heteroaryl aldehydes as well as acrylaldehydes are compatible with many useful functional groups being tolerated. Under the mild and weakly basic conditions, competitive Cannizzaro-type reaction of benzaldehydes and side reactions of base-sensitive functional groups can be effectively suppressed, which show synthetic advantages of this reaction compared to classic aldol reactions. The synthetic potential of this reaction is further demonstrated by the one-step synthesis of biologically active quinolines and 1,8-naphthyridine in excellent yields (up to 91%). Finally, a full catalytic cycle for this reaction has been constructed using DFT computational studies in the context of a retro-aldol/aldol two-stage mechanism. A rather flat reaction energy profile is found indicating that both stages are kinetically facile, which is consistent with the mild reaction conditions.

  13. Copper-catalyzed retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes: chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-enones and (E)-acrylonitriles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Deng, Zhu-Qin

    2016-07-26

    A copper-catalyzed transfer aldol type reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes is reported, which enables chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones and (E)-acrylonitriles. A key step of the in situ copper(i)-promoted retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles is proposed to generate a reactive Cu(i) enolate or cyanomethyl intermediate, which undergoes ensuing aldol condensation with aldehydes to deliver the products. This reaction uses 1.2 mol% Cu(IPr)Cl (IPr denotes 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) as the catalyst in the presence of 6.0 mol% NaOtBu cocatalyst at room temperature or 70 °C. A range of aryl and heteroaryl aldehydes as well as acrylaldehydes are compatible with many useful functional groups being tolerated. Under the mild and weakly basic conditions, competitive Cannizzaro-type reaction of benzaldehydes and side reactions of base-sensitive functional groups can be effectively suppressed, which show synthetic advantages of this reaction compared to classic aldol reactions. The synthetic potential of this reaction is further demonstrated by the one-step synthesis of biologically active quinolines and 1,8-naphthyridine in excellent yields (up to 91%). Finally, a full catalytic cycle for this reaction has been constructed using DFT computational studies in the context of a retro-aldol/aldol two-stage mechanism. A rather flat reaction energy profile is found indicating that both stages are kinetically facile, which is consistent with the mild reaction conditions. PMID:27397647

  14. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cichowicz, Nathan R; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-11-18

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive β,β'-enones and substituted β,β'-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ(5)-unsaturation are key controlling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones.

  15. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Cichowicz, Nathan R.; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive ββ′-enones and substituted ββ′-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ5-unsaturation are key controling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones. PMID:26491886

  16. Origins of opposite syn-anti diastereoselectivities in primary and secondary amino acid-catalyzed intermolecular aldol reactions involving unmodified alpha-hydroxyketones.

    PubMed

    Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Yuan, Shuping; Si, Hongzong; Duan, Yunbo

    2008-07-18

    The effects of different amino acid catalysts on the stereoselectivity of the direct intermolecular aldol reactions between alpha-hydroxyketones and isobutyraldehyde or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde have been studied with the aid of density functional theory methods. The transition states of the crucial C-C bond-forming step with the enamine intermediate addition to the aldehyde for the proline and threonine-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions are reported. B3LYP/6-31+G** calculations provide a good explanation for the opposite syn vs anti diastereoselectivity of these two kinds of amino acid catalysts (anti-selectivity for the secondary cyclic amino acids proline, syn-selectivity for the acyclic primary amino acids like threonine). Calculated and observed diastereomeric ratio and enantiomeric excess values are in good agreement. PMID:18549281

  17. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate.

  18. Aldol reactions catalyzed by L-proline functionalized polymeric nanoreactors in water.

    PubMed

    Lu, Annhelen; Cotanda, Pepa; Patterson, Joseph P; Longbottom, Deborah A; O'Reilly, Rachel K

    2012-10-01

    The use of functional core-shell micelles as asymmetric catalytic nanoreactors for organic reactions in water is presented. An unprecedented increase in rate of reaction was achieved, which is proposed to be associated with the ability of the nanostructures to effectively concentrate the reagents in the catalytically active micelle core.

  19. Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-01-01

    Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media have been surveyed. While the original Mukaiyama aldol reactions entailed stoichiometric use of Lewis acids in organic solvents under strictly anhydrous conditions, Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media are not only suitable for green sustainable chemistry but are found to produce singular phenomena. These findings led to the discovery of a series of water-compatible Lewis acids such as lanthanide triflates in 1991. Our understanding on these beneficial effects in the presence of water will be deepened through the brilliant examples collected in this review. 1 Introduction 2 Rate Enhancement by Water in the Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction 3 Lewis Acid Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 3.1 Water-Compatible Lewis Acids 4 Lewis-Base Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 5 The Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in 100% Water 6 Asymmetric Catalysts in Aqueous Media and Water 7 Conclusions and Perspective PMID:24971045

  20. Enantioselective aldol reactions with masked fluoroacetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Jakub; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of organofluorines as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, the stereoselective introduction of fluorine into many prominent classes of natural products and chemotherapeutic agents is difficult. One long-standing unsolved challenge is the enantioselective aldol reaction of fluoroacetate to enable access to fluorinated analogues of medicinally relevant acetate-derived compounds, such as polyketides and statins. Herein we present fluoromalonic acid halfthioesters as biomimetic surrogates of fluoroacetate and demonstrate their use in highly stereoselective aldol reactions that proceed under mild organocatalytic conditions. We also show that the methodology can be extended to formal aldol reactions with fluoroacetaldehyde and consecutive aldol reactions. The synthetic utility of the fluorinated aldol products is illustrated by the synthesis of a fluorinated derivative of the top-selling drug atorvastatin. The results show the prospects of the method for the enantioselective introduction of fluoroacetate to access a wide variety of highly functionalized fluorinated compounds.

  1. The Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Aldol Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Cheyenne S.

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetric aldol reactions are a powerful method for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds in an enantioselective fashion. Historically this reaction has been performed in a stoichiometric fashion to control the various aspects of chemo-, diastereo-, regio- and enantioselectivity, however, a more atom economical approach would unite high selectivity with the use of only a catalytic amount of a chiral promoter. This critical review documents the development of direct catalytic asymmetric aldol methodologies, including organocatalytic and metal-based strategies. New methods have improved the reactivity, selectivity and substrate scope of the direct aldol reaction and enabled the synthesis of complex molecular targets PMID:20419212

  2. Asymmetric, Three-Component, One-Pot Synthesis of Spiropyrazolones and 2,5-Chromenediones from Aldol Condensation/NHC-Catalyzed Annulation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Sun; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Philipps, Arne R; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    A novel one-pot, three-component diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of spiropyrazolones has been developed involving the aldol condensation of an enal to generate α,β-unsaturated pyrazolones, which react with a second equivalent of enal through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation. The desired spirocyclopentane pyrazolones are obtained in moderate to good yields and good to excellent stereoselectivities. Alternatively, starting from cyclic 1,3-diketones, 2,5-chromenediones are available through [2+4] annulation.

  3. Asymmetric, Three-Component, One-Pot Synthesis of Spiropyrazolones and 2,5-Chromenediones from Aldol Condensation/NHC-Catalyzed Annulation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Sun; Chauhan, Pankaj; Hack, Daniel; Philipps, Arne R; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    A novel one-pot, three-component diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of spiropyrazolones has been developed involving the aldol condensation of an enal to generate α,β-unsaturated pyrazolones, which react with a second equivalent of enal through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed [3+2] annulation. The desired spirocyclopentane pyrazolones are obtained in moderate to good yields and good to excellent stereoselectivities. Alternatively, starting from cyclic 1,3-diketones, 2,5-chromenediones are available through [2+4] annulation. PMID:26864437

  4. A Multistep Organocatalysis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: An Enantioselective Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by Methyl Prolinamide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Edmir O.; Walsh, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research concerning the area of organocatalysis. A multistep capstone laboratory project that combines traditional reactions frequently found in organic laboratory curriculums with this new field of research is described. In this experiment, the students synthesize a prolinamide-based organocatalyst…

  5. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in an aldol reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronopoulos, D. D.; Kokotos, C. G.; Karousis, N.; Kokotos, G.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-01-01

    The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was evaluated for the first time, showing to proceed almost quantitatively in aqueous media. Furthermore, several amino-modified MWCNTs were prepared and examined in the particular aldol reaction. These new hybrid materials exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity in water, contrasting with the pristine MWCNTs as well as the parent organic molecule, which failed to catalyze the reaction efficiently. Furthermore, the modified MWCNTs proved to catalyze the aldol reaction even after three repetitive cycles. Overall, a green approach for the aldol reaction is presented, where water can be employed as the solvent and modified MWCNTs can be used as catalysts, which can be successfully recovered and reused, while their catalytic activity is retained.The covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a proline-based derivative is reported. Initially, MWCNTs were oxidized in order to introduce a large number of carboxylic units on their tips followed by N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2,2'(ethylenedioxy)bis-(ethylamine) conjugation through an amide bond. Then, a proline derivative bearing a carboxylic terminal moiety at the 4-position was coupled furnishing proline-modified MWCNTs. This new hybrid material was fully characterized by spectroscopic and microscopy means and its catalytic activity in the asymmetric aldol reaction

  6. Tandem Catalysis of an Aldol-'Click' Reaction System within a Molecular Hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marco; Muñoz Capdevila, Iván; Díaz-Oltra, Santiago; Escuder, Beatriu

    2016-01-01

    A heterogeneous supramolecular catalytic system for multicomponent aldol-'click' reactions is reported. The copper(I) metallohydrogel functionalized with a phenyltriazole fragment was able to catalyze the multicomponent reaction between phenylacetylene, p-nitrobenzaldehyde, and an azide containing a ketone moiety, obtaining the corresponding aldol products in good yields. A possible mechanistic pathway responsible for this unexpected catalytic behavior has been proposed. PMID:27338313

  7. Asymmetric Aldol-Tishchenko Reaction of Sulfinimines.

    PubMed

    Foley, Vera M; McSweeney, Christina M; Eccles, Kevin S; Lawrence, Simon E; McGlacken, Gerard P

    2015-11-20

    Methods for the preparation of 1,3-amino alcohols and their derivatives containing two stereogenic centers usually involve a two-step installation of the chiral centers. An aldol-Tishchenko reaction of chiral sulfinimines which involves the first reported reduction of a C═N in this type of reaction is described. Two and even three chiral centers can be installed in one synthetic step, affording anti-1,3-amino alcohols in good diastereo- and enantioselectivity. PMID:26528888

  8. Iron-catalyzed vinylogous aldol condensation of Biginelli products and its application toward pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidinones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Qingfeng; Liu, Tongxin; Zhang, Guisheng

    2014-03-01

    A novel iron-catalyzed vinylogous aldol condensation of Biginelli products with aryl aldehydes has been developed for the syntheses of potential bioactive (E)-6-arylvinyl-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones. These materials are valuable synthetic precursors to drug-like pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives. The amide group at the 5-position of the dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones played an important role in the vinylogous aldol condensation reaction. PMID:24517724

  9. Thermodynamically driven, syn-selective vinylogous aldol reaction of tetronamides.

    PubMed

    Karak, Milandip; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Acosta, Jaime A M; Sarotti, Ariel M; Boukouvalas, John

    2016-06-01

    A stereoselective vinylogous aldol reaction of N-monosubstituted tetronamides with aldehydes is described. The procedure is simple and scalable, works well with both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, and affords mainly the corresponding syn-aldol adducts. In many cases, the latter are obtained essentially free of their anti-isomers (dr > 99 : 1) in high yields (70-90%). Experimental and computational studies suggest that the observed diastereoselectivity arises through anti-syn isomer interconversion, enabled by an iterative retro-aldol/aldol reaction.

  10. A self-assembled nanotube for the direct aldol reaction in water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Soo; Parquette, Jon R

    2015-11-01

    Nanotubes formed by the aqueous assembly of a proline-lysine dipeptide (1) were used to create the hydrophobic microenvironments required to catalyze the aldol reaction in water. The self-assembly process occurred most efficiently in the presence of the substrates, producing an array of homogeneous nanotubes under the reaction conditions. The nanotubes formed by dipeptide 1 served as an efficient catalyst for the aldol reaction that functioned at low loading levels and provided good to excellent conversions. The catalytic activity of 1 was minimal under conditions that dissociated the nanotube into soluble monomers.

  11. ALDOL- AND MANNICH-TYPE REACTIONS VIA IN SITU OLEFIN MIGRATION IN IONIC LIQUID

    EPA Science Inventory


    An aldol-type and a Mannich-type reaction via the cross-coupling of aldehydes and imines with allylic alcohols catalyzed by RuCl2(PPh3)3 was developed with ionic liquid as the solvent. The solvent/catalyst system could be reused for at least five times with no loss of reactiv...

  12. Acid-Base Pairs in Lewis Acidic Zeolites Promote Direct Aldol Reactions by Soft Enolization.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-08-17

    Hf-, Sn-, and Zr-Beta zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aldol Condensation Catalyzed by Alkylamine-Functionalized Crystalline Silica Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Chul; Moschetta, Eric G; Jones, Christopher W; Jang, Seung Soon

    2016-06-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the cooperatively catalyzed aldol condensation between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde on alkylamine (or alkylenamine)-grafted silica surfaces, focusing on the mechanism of the catalytic activation of the acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde by the acidic surface silanols followed by the nucleophilic attack of the basic amine functional group toward the activated reactant. From the analysis of the correlations between the catalytically active acid-base sites and reactants, it is concluded that the catalytic cooperativity of the acid-base pair can be affected by two factors: (1) the competition between the silanol and the amine (or enamine) to form a hydrogen bond with a reactant and (2) the flexibility of the alkylamine (or alkylenamine) backbone. Increasing the flexibility of the alkylamine facilitates the nucleophilic attack of the amine on the reactants. From the molecular dynamics simulations, it is found that C3 propylamine and C4 butylamine linkers exhibit the highest probability of reaction, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the activity of the aldol reaction on mesoporous silica depends on the length of alkylamine grafted on the silica surface. This simulation work serves as a pioneering study demonstrating how the molecular simulation approach can be successfully employed to investigate the cooperative catalytic activity of such bifunctional acid-base catalysts.

  14. Direct Catalytic Enantio- and Diastereoselective Ketone Aldol Reactions of Isocyanoacetates**

    PubMed Central

    delaCampa, Raquel; Ortín, Irene; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic asymmetric aldol addition/cyclization reaction of unactivated ketones with isocyanoacetate pronucleophiles has been developed. A quinine-derived aminophosphine precatalyst and silver oxide were found to be an effective binary catalyst system and promoted the reaction to afford chiral oxazolines possessing a fully substituted stereocenter with good diastereoselectivities and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:25735645

  15. Development of chiral catalysts for Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Shū

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of the Mukaiyama aldol reaction in 1973, tremendous efforts have been made to develop a definitive catalyst that catalyzes asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reactions under mild conditions with broad substrate tolerance. Forty years later, an exhaustive search for a water-compatible Lewis acid was able to uncover the hidden potential of iron(II) and bismuth(III), leading to the establishment of broadly applicable and versatile catalytic systems for asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media. The ternary catalytic system was able to expand the substrate generality considerably as the most distinguished catalyst ever reported. The superiority of this methodology over conventional methods has also been demonstrated in terms of high catalytic activity, simplicity of experimental procedures, and a wide substrate range including aqueous aldehydes, for which the stereochemistry had been regarded as difficult to control. Furthermore, a facile synthesis of the chiral ligand underscores its versatility. The reaction did not proceed at all without use of water. In the postulated mechanism, water plays prominent roles in: (1) producing the active metal complexes with a high water-exchange rate constant (3.2 × 10(6)) to activate substrates effectively and to catalyze the reaction through a rapid proton transfer on the order of picoseconds; (2) facilitating the catalytic turnover with simultaneous desilylation as direct access to aldol adducts or facile recovery of active metal complexes; and (3) stabilizing rigid transition states composed of metal complexes and reactants through entropy-driven aggregation derived from the highest cohesive energy density. PMID:24449534

  16. Investigating Ionic Effects Applied to Water Based Organocatalysed Aldol Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joshua P.; Henderson, Luke C.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated aqueous solutions of various common salts were examined for their effect on aqueous aldol reactions catalysted by a highly active C2-symmetric diprolinamide organocatalyst developed in our laboratory. With respect to the aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, deionised water was always a superior medium to salt solutions though some correlation to increasing anion size and depression in enantiomeric excess could be observed. Additionally, the complete inhibition of catalyst activity observed when employing tap water could be alleviated by the inclusion of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the aqueous media prior to reaction initiation. Extension of these reaction conditions demonstrated that these ionic effects vary on a case-to-case basis depending on the ketone/aldehyde combination. PMID:22272120

  17. Gold-catalyzed construction of two adjacent quaternary stereocenters via sequential C-H functionalization and aldol annulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhunzhun; Qiu, Haile; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-02-01

    Herein, a novel and efficient gold-catalyzed intermolecular C(sp(2))-H functionalization (Friedel-Crafts alkylation) and aldol annulation strategy is presented. This cascade process allows the synthesis of a series of indanol and tetrahydronaphthalenol derivatives with two adjacent quaternary stereocenters. The attractive reaction features are the use of readily available starting materials, good diastereoselectivity, good functional-group tolerance and mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that this transformation is amenable to enantioselectivitive synthesis with further chiral ligand screening and design. PMID:26725981

  18. A Study on the Base–Catalyzed Reverse Vinylogous Aldol Reaction of (4aβ,5β)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-Hexahydro-5-hydroxy-1,4a-dimethylnaphthalen-2(3H)-one under Robinson Annulation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Payette, Joshua N.; Honda, Tadashi; Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Favaloro, Frank G.; Gribble, Gordon W.

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a pathway of the base–catalyzed reverse vinylogous aldol reaction of (−)-(4aβ,5β)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-5-hydroxy-1,4a-dimethylnaphthalen-2(3H)-one ((−)-8) under Robinson annulation conditions. For confirmation, 4-(2,6-dimethyl-3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)butanal (11) and 4-(2,6-dimethyl-5-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)butanal (12), both of which potentially produce enolate I, were synthesized regioselectively. Unexpectedly, 11 gave a complex mixture including only a trace amount of (±)-8 (less than 5% yield) under these basic conditions. To the contrary, 12 cleanly afforded (±)-8 in 66% yield. This result provides evidence for our proposed mechanism of the above reaction. PMID:16388674

  19. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOEpatents

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hanson, Susan Kloek

    2013-07-30

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons. comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising chloromethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.3, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  20. Method of carbon chain extension using novel aldol reaction

    DOEpatents

    Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C; Wu, Ruilan; Hangson, Susan Kloek

    2013-08-13

    Method of producing C.sub.8-C.sub.15 hydrocarbons comprising providing a ketone starting material; providing an aldol starting material comprising hydroxymethylfurfural; mixing the ketone starting material and the aldol starting material in a reaction in the presence of a proline-containing catalyst selected from the group consisting of Zn(Pro).sub.2, Yb(Pro).sub.2, and combinations thereof, or a catalyst having one of the structures (I), (II) or (III), and in the presence of a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises water and is substantially free of organic solvents, where (I), (II) and (III) respectively are: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1 is a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl moiety, X=(OH) and n=2. ##STR00002## In (III), X may be CH.sub.2, sulfur or selenium, M may be Zn, Mg, or a lanthanide, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently may be a methyl, ethyl, phenyl moiety.

  1. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2007-07-20

    The generality of Lewis base catalyzed, Lewis acid mediated, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions has been investigated. The combination of silicon tetrachloride and chiral phosphoramides is a competent catalyst for highly selective additions of a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-, 1,3-diketone-, and alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates to aldehydes. These reactions provided high levels of gamma-site selectivity for a variety of substitution patterns on the dienyl unit. Both ketone- and morpholine amide-derived dienol ethers afforded high enantio- and diastereoselectivity in the addition to conjugated aldehydes. Although alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-derived dienolate did not react with aliphatic aldehydes, alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates underwent addition at reasonable rates affording high yields of vinylogous aldol product. The enantioselectivities achieved with the morpholine derived-dienolate in the addition to aliphatic aldehydes was the highest afforded to date with the silicon tetrachloride-chiral phosphoramide system. Furthermore, the ability to cleanly convert the morpholine amide to a methyl ketone was demonstrated.

  2. Highly Stereoselective and Scalable anti-Aldol Reactions using N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxamide: Scope and Origins of Stereoselectivities

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Mahapatra, Subham; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon; Carter, Rich G.

    2010-01-01

    A highly enantio- and diastereoselective anti-aldol process (up to >99% ee, >99:1 dr) catalyzed by a proline mimetic – N-(p-dodecylphenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide – has been developed. Catalyst loading as low as 2 mol% can be employed. Use of industry-friendly solvents for this transformation as well as neat reaction conditions have been demonstrated. The scope of this transformation on a range of aldehydes and ketones is explored. Density Functional Theory computations reveal that the origins of enhanced diastereoselectivity is due to the presence of non-classical hydrogen bonds between the sulfonamide, the electrophile and the catalyst enamine that favor the major Anti-Re aldol TS in the Houk-List model. PMID:20932013

  3. Molecular Mechanism by which One Enzyme Catalyzes Two Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    Unlike ordinary enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase (FBPA/P) catalyzes two distinct reactions : (1) the aldol condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to FBP, and (2) the dephosphorylation of FBP to fructose-6-phosphate. We solved the crystal structures of FBPA/P in complex with DHAP (its aldolase form) and FBP (its phosphatase form). The crystal structures revealed that FBPA/P exhibits the dual activities through a dramatic conformational change in the active-site architecture. Our findings expand the conventional concept that one enzyme catalyzes one reaction.

  4. Expedient synthesis of C-aryl carbohydrates by consecutive biocatalytic benzoin and aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Pohl, Martina; Clapés, Pere

    2015-02-16

    The introduction of aromatic residues connected by a C-C bond into the non-reducing end of carbohydrates is highly significant for the development of innovative structures with improved binding affinity and selectivity (e.g., C-aril-sLex). In this work, an expedient asymmetric "de novo" synthetic route to new aryl carbohydrate derivatives based on two sequential stereoselectively biocatalytic carboligation reactions is presented. First, the benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes to dimethoxyacetaldehyde is conducted, catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I. Then, the α-hydroxyketones formed are reduced by using NaBH4 yielding the anti diol. After acetal hydrolysis, the aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetone, or glycolaldehyde catalyzed by the stereocomplementary D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase is performed. Both aldolases accept unphosphorylated donor substrates, avoiding the need of handling the phosphate group that the dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases require. In this way, 6-C-aryl-L-sorbose, 6-C-aryl-L-fructose, 6-C-aryl-L-tagatose, and 5-C-aryl-L-xylose derivatives are prepared by using this methodology.

  5. l-Isoleucine in a Choline Chloride/Ethylene Glycol Deep Eutectic Solvent: A Reusable Reaction Kit for the Asymmetric Cross-Aldol Carboligation.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Mosteirín, Noé; Concellón, Carmen; Del Amo, Vicente

    2016-09-01

    l-Isoleucine is able to catalyze the cross-aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and aromatic aldehydes in a deep eutectic solvent consisting in choline chloride and ethylene glycol, rendering products with high diatereo- and enantioselectivity. This protocol is straightforward and green: the organocatalyst and the reaction medium can be recycled up to five times, allowing the preparation of different substrates with a single load of solvent and catalyst.

  6. l-Isoleucine in a Choline Chloride/Ethylene Glycol Deep Eutectic Solvent: A Reusable Reaction Kit for the Asymmetric Cross-Aldol Carboligation.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Mosteirín, Noé; Concellón, Carmen; Del Amo, Vicente

    2016-09-01

    l-Isoleucine is able to catalyze the cross-aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and aromatic aldehydes in a deep eutectic solvent consisting in choline chloride and ethylene glycol, rendering products with high diatereo- and enantioselectivity. This protocol is straightforward and green: the organocatalyst and the reaction medium can be recycled up to five times, allowing the preparation of different substrates with a single load of solvent and catalyst. PMID:27526718

  7. Domino Michael-Michael and Aldol-Aldol Reactions: Diastereoselective Synthesis of Functionalized Cyclohexanone Derivatives Containing Quaternary Carbon Center.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Manas K; Halder, Sandipan; Das, Subhomoy

    2015-10-01

    A simple strategy for the synthesis of highly functionalized cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center from α-(aryl/alkyl)methylidene-β-keto esters or β-diketones via a K-enolate mediated domino Michael-Michael reaction sequence with moderate to good yield and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%) is described. Interestingly, Li-base mediated reaction of α-arylmethylidene-β-diketones affords functionalized 3,5-dihydroxy cyclohexane derivatives as the kinetically controlled products via a domino aldol-aldol reaction sequence with excellent diastereoselectivity. Li-enolates of the β-keto esters or β-diketones undergo facile domino Michael-Michael reaction with nitro-olefins to afford the corresponding nitrocyclohexane derivatives in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%). The formation of the products and the observed stereoselectivity were explained by plausible mechanisms and supported by extensive computational study. An asymmetric version of the protocol was explored with (L)-menthol derived nonracemic substrates, and the corresponding nonracemic cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center were obtained with excellent stereoselectivity (de, ee > 99%).

  8. Characterization and mechanism insight of accelerated catalytic promiscuity of Sulfolobus tokodaii (ST0779) peptidase for aldol addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Perez, Bianca; Jian, Hui; Jensen, Mads Mørk; Gao, Renjun; Dong, Mingdong; Glasius, Marianne; Guo, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    A novel peptidase from thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus tokodaii (ST0779) is examined for its catalytic promiscuity of aldol addition, which shows comparable activity as porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL, one of the best enzymes identified for biocatalytic aldol addition) at 30 °C but much accelerated activity at elevated temperature. The molecular catalytic efficiency kcat/Km (M(-1) s(-1)) of this thermostable enzyme at 55 °C adds up to 140 times higher than that of PPL at its optimum temperature 37 °C. The fluorescence quenching analysis depicts that the binding constants of PPL are significantly higher than those of ST0779, and their numbers of binding sites show opposite temperature dependency. Thermodynamic parameters estimated by fluorescence quenching analysis unveil distinctly different substrate-binding modes between PPL and ST0779: the governing binding interaction between PPL and substrates is hydrophobic force, while the dominating substrate-binding forces for ST0779 are van der Waals and H-bonds interactions. A reasonable mechanism for ST0779-catalyzed aldol reaction is proposed based on kinetic study, spectroscopic analysis, and molecular stereostructure simulation. This work represents a successful example to identify a new enzyme for catalytic promiscuity, which demonstrates a huge potential to discover and exploit novel biocatalyst from thermophile microorganism sources. PMID:26169629

  9. Developing novel organocatalyzed aldol reactions for the enantioselective synthesis of biologically active molecules

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Mayur; Zhao, Cong-Gui

    2011-01-01

    Aldol reaction is one of the most important methods for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Because of its significance and usefulness, asymmetric versions of this reaction have been realized with different approaches in the past. Over the last decade, the area of organocatalysis has made significant progresses. As one of most studied reactions in organocatalyses, organocatalyzed aldol reaction has emerged as a powerful tool for the synthesis of a large number of useful products in optically enriched forms. In this review, we summarize our efforts on the development of novel organocatalyzed aldol reactions for the enantioselective synthesis of biological active molecules. Literatures closely related to our studies are also covered. PMID:21918584

  10. Highly active copper-network catalyst for the direct aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Uozumi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2011-09-01

    The development of a highly active solid-phase catechol-copper network catalyst for direct aldol reaction is described. The catalyst was prepared from an alkyl-chain-linked bis(catechol) and a copper(II) complex. The direct aldol reaction between carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) and methyl isocyanoacetate was carried out using 0.1-1 mol% [Cu] catalyst to give the corresponding oxazolines at yields of up to 99% and a trans/cis ratio of >99:1. The catalyst was reused with no loss of catalytic activity. A plausible reaction pathway is also described. PMID:21751405

  11. Binaphthyl-based chiral bifunctional organocatalysts for water mediated asymmetric List-Lerner-Barbas aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Veeramanoharan; Chithiraikumar, Chinnadurai; Siva, Ayyanar

    2016-10-14

    Novel binaphthyl-based chiral bifunctional organocatalysts were designed, synthesized and successfully applied to the asymmetric List-Lerner-Barbas aldol reaction in the presence of water. These organocatalysts were found to be effective catalysts for the reactions of symmetrical, unsymmetrical and cyclic ketones with different aldehydes to give the corresponding aldol products with higher yields (up to 98%) and very good ee's up to 99%. The catalytic system leads to higher yields and selectivities than the previously reported well-known proline based organocatalysts. In addition to the effect of solvent, additives, catalyst concentration, temperature and the substrate scope of the reactions were also investigated. PMID:27604169

  12. α-Hydroxyallylsilanes as propionaldehyde enolate equivalents and their use toward iterative aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Johal; Murthy, Akondi Srirama; Roisnel, Thierry; Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Grée, René

    2015-02-20

    Smooth and efficient reaction conditions have been found for the transformation of protected β-hydroxyacylsilanes into the corresponding aldehydes. This opens a new route to iterative aldol reactions, and it has been used for the synthesis of fragments of several bioactive natural products. PMID:25636066

  13. Total Synthesis of the Antimicrotubule Agent (+)-Discodermolide Using Boron-Mediated Aldol Reactions of Chiral Ketones.

    PubMed

    Paterson; Florence; Gerlach; Scott

    2000-01-01

    With a similar mechanism of action to taxol, the title compound 1 is a particularly promising candidate for development in cancer chemotherapy. This efficient synthesis, based on stereocontrolled aldol reactions, should help to overcome the scarce natural supply of 1 from the rare sponge source.

  14. Rational nanoconjugation improves biocatalytic performance of enzymes: aldol addition catalyzed by immobilized rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase.

    PubMed

    Ardao, Inés; Comenge, Joan; Benaiges, M Dolors; Álvaro, Gregorio; Puntes, Víctor F

    2012-04-17

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attractive materials for the immobilization of enzymes due to several advantages such as high enzyme loading, absence of internal diffusion limitations, and Brownian motion in solution, compared to the conventional immobilization onto porous macroscopic supports. The affinity of AuNPs to different groups present at the protein surface enables direct enzyme binding to the nanoparticle without the need of any coupling agent. Enzyme activity and stability appear to be improved when the biocatalyst is immobilized onto AuNPs. Rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA) was selected as model enzyme for the immobilization onto AuNPs. The enzyme loading was characterized by four different techniques: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) shift and intensity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AuNPs-RhuA complexes were further applied as biocatalyst of the aldol addition reaction between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and (S)-Cbz-alaninal during two reaction cycles. In these conditions, an improved reaction yield and selectivity, together with a fourfold activity enhancement were observed, as compared to soluble RhuA. PMID:22428999

  15. Aldol reactions of the trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3.

    PubMed

    Sello, Guido; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a recombinant trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens N3 was used as a new catalyst for aldol condensation reactions. The reaction of some aldehydes with a different electronic activation catalyzed by tHBP-HA is presented and discussed together with some hints on the product structure. The enzyme is strictly pyruvate-dependent but uses different aldehydes as acceptors. The structure of the products is highly dependent on the electronic characteristics of the aldehyde. The results are interesting for both their synthetic importance and the mechanism of the formation of the products. Not only the products obtained and the recognition power are reported, but also some characteristics of its mechanism are analyzed. The results clearly show that the enzyme is efficiently prepared, purified, and stored, that it recognizes many different substrates, and that the products depend on the substrate electronic nature.

  16. A practical synthesis of (+)-discodermolide and analogues: fragment union by complex aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Paterson, I; Florence, G J; Gerlach, K; Scott, J P; Sereinig, N

    2001-10-01

    A practical stereocontrolled synthesis of (+)-discodermolide (1) has been completed in 10.3% overall yield (23 steps longest linear sequence). The absolute stereochemistry of the C(1)-C(6) (7), C(9)-C(16) (8), and C(17)-C(24) (9) subunits was established via substrate-controlled, boron-mediated, aldol reactions of the chiral ethyl ketones 10, 11, and 12. Key fragment coupling reactions were a lithium-mediated, anti-selective, aldol reaction of aryl ester 8 (under Felkin-Anh induction from the aldehyde component 9), followed by in situ reduction to produce the 1,3-diol 40, and a (+)-diisopinocampheylboron chloride-mediated aldol reaction of methyl ketone 7 (overturning the inherent substrate induction from the aldehyde component 52) to give the (7S)-adduct 58. The flexibility of our overall strategy is illustrated by the synthesis of a number of diastereomers and structural analogues of discodermolide, which should serve as valuable probes for structure-activity studies.

  17. Exploring the aldol reaction using catalytic antibodies and "on water" organocatalysts from QM/MM calculations.

    PubMed

    Armacost, Kira; Acevedo, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The aldol reaction between benzaldehyde and acetone has been investigated using QM/MM Monte Carlo calculations and free-energy perturbation theory to determine the origin of the enhanced rates and enantioselectivities (% ee) derived from an enamine-based catalytic antibody 33F12 and a chiral organocatalyst. Electrostatic stabilization of the general acid/base TyrL36 by TrpH103, SerH100, and AsnL34 enabled the 33F12 active site to exclusively adopt an si-face benzaldehyde orientation for C-C bond formation with the LysH93-enamine. Whereas preorganization was responsible for the exclusive (S)-aldol product in the antibody, the organocatalyst featuring a chiral diphenyl amino alcohol moiety instead derived its preferred (R)-aldol product from an interplay between sterics and electronic stabilization. The si-face benzaldehyde conformation had unfavorable interactions with the organocatalyst in contrast to the re-face. Gas-phase calculations predicted a 73% ee; however, solution boosted the % ee values despite similar reaction geometries. An "on water" environment, defined as a reaction that proceeds in an aqueous organic emulsion, yielded a computed 94% ee (exptl 93% ee) compared to a calculated 87% ee in "neat" acetone (exptl 85% ee). Specific hydrogen bonding between the interfacial waters and an amide oxygen on the catalyst was found to control the % ee. A more compact si-face transition structure reduced solvent accessibility to the amide oxygen with a "closed state" steric barrier compared to an "open state" for the re-face. New insight into the synthetically important aldol reaction and state-of-the-art methodology is presented herein.

  18. Organocatalytic enantioselective tandem aldol-cyclization reaction of α-isothiocyanato imides and activated carbonyl compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guang, Jie; Zhao, Cong-Gui

    2011-01-01

    The organocatalytic enantioselective tandem aldol-cyclization reactions of α-isothiocyanato imides and activated carbonyl compounds, such as isatins, an α-ketolactone and a 1,2-dione, have been studied with cinchona alkaloid-derived thiourea-catalysts. This methodology provided an easy way to access enantiomerically enriched spirobicyclic thiocarbamates with high yields and good to excellent stereoselectivity, which have been demonstrated to be useful precursors for the synthesis of biologically active molecules. PMID:21921975

  19. Pd-catalyzed steroid reactions.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska-Szczykowska, Dorota; Morzycki, Jacek W; Wojtkielewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-05-01

    We review the most important achievements of the last decade in the field of steroid synthesis in the presence of palladium catalysts. Various palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, including Heck, Suzuki, Stille, Sonogashira, Negishi and others, are exemplified with steroid transformations.

  20. A One-Pot Tandem Strategy in Catalytic Asymmetric Vinylogous Aldol Reaction of Homoallylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xufeng; Jing, Zhenzhong; Bai, Xiangbin; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Reported is a rationally-designed one-pot sequential strategy that allows homoallylic alcohols to be employed in a catalytic, asymmetric, direct vinylogous aldol reaction with a series of activated acyclic ketones, including trifluoromethyl ketones, γ-ketoesters, and α-keto phosphonates, in high yields (up to 95%) with excellent regio- and enantio-selectivity (up to 99% ee). This modular combination, including Jones oxidation and asymmetric organocatalysis, has satisfactory compatibility and reliability even at a 20 mmol scale, albeit without intermediary purification. PMID:27355935

  1. Ligand-Promoted, Boron-Mediated Chemoselective Carboxylic Acid Aldol Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hideoki; Morita, Yuya; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2016-05-01

    The first carboxylic acid selective aldol reaction mediated by boron compounds and a mild organic base (DBU) was developed. Inclusion of electron-withdrawing groups in the amino acid derivative ligands reacted with BH3·SMe2 forms a boron promoter with increased Lewis acidity at the boron atom and facilitated the carboxylic acid selective enolate formation, even in the presence of other carbonyl groups such as amides, esters, ketones, or aliphatic aldehydes. The remarkable ligand effect led to the broad substrate scope including biologically relevant compounds. PMID:27104352

  2. One-Pot Domino Aldol Reaction of Indium Enolates Affording 6-Deoxy-α-D,L-altropyranose Derivatives: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Computational Results.

    PubMed

    Cinar, M Emin; Schmittel, Michael

    2015-08-21

    The domino-aldol-aldol-hemiacetal-reaction cascade of indium and other group 13 metal enolates furnished 6-deoxy-α-D,L-altropyranose derivatives in up to 99% yield under thermodynamic control. At lower temperature and thus under kinetic control, the reaction proceeded in a much less diastereoselective manner. The changeover from kinetic to thermodynamic control operating in this multistep domino-aldol-aldol-hemiacetal protocol was used for probing the efficiency of DFT computations. Calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d)/LANL2DZ level provided a mechanistic picture in full agreement with the experimental outcome. PMID:26258596

  3. One-Pot Domino Aldol Reaction of Indium Enolates Affording 6-Deoxy-α-D,L-altropyranose Derivatives: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Computational Results.

    PubMed

    Cinar, M Emin; Schmittel, Michael

    2015-08-21

    The domino-aldol-aldol-hemiacetal-reaction cascade of indium and other group 13 metal enolates furnished 6-deoxy-α-D,L-altropyranose derivatives in up to 99% yield under thermodynamic control. At lower temperature and thus under kinetic control, the reaction proceeded in a much less diastereoselective manner. The changeover from kinetic to thermodynamic control operating in this multistep domino-aldol-aldol-hemiacetal protocol was used for probing the efficiency of DFT computations. Calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d)/LANL2DZ level provided a mechanistic picture in full agreement with the experimental outcome.

  4. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  5. 1,6-asymmetric induction in boron-mediated aldol reactions: application to a practical total synthesis of (+)-discodermolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Delgado, Oscar; Florence, Gordon J; Lyothier, Isabelle; Scott, Jeremy P; Sereinig, Natascha

    2003-01-01

    By relying solely on substrate-based stereocontrol, a practical total synthesis of the microtubule-stabilizing anticancer agent (+)-discodermolide has been realized. This exploits a novel aldol bond construction with 1,6-stereoinduction from the boron enolate of (Z)-enone 3 in addition to aldehyde 2. The 1,3-diol 7 is employed as a common building block for the C(1)-C(5), C(9)-C(16), and C(17)-C(24) subunits. [reaction--see text

  6. Direct Access to 6/5/7/5- and 6/7/5/5-Fused Tetracyclic Triterpenoids via Divergent Transannular Aldol Reaction of Lanosterol-Derived Diketone

    PubMed Central

    Ignatenko, Vasily A.; Han, Yong

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to access biologically relevant chemical space, a complex natural product-derived non-symmetrical diketone was prepared as a substrate for divergent transannular aldol reactions. The use of common aldol conditions resulted in predominant syn-addition via pathway a, while the use of alumina provided access to the anti-adduct. Screening of a range of Lewis acids of varying strength unexpectedly resulted in the formation of aldol products with 6/7/5/5-fused molecular skeleton via pathway b. PMID:24161022

  7. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    López, Fernando; Mascareñas, José L

    2013-10-30

    In recent years there have been extraordinary developments of gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective processes. This includes progress in the area of cycloaddition reactions, which are of particular interest due to their potential for the rapid construction of optically active cyclic products. In this article we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, emphasizing reaction mechanisms and key intermediates involved in the processes.

  8. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Bioorthogonal Cycloaddition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maiyun; Yang, Yi; Chen, Peng R

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, bioorthogonal reactions have emerged as a powerful toolbox for specific labeling and visualization of biomolecules, even within the highly complex and fragile living systems. Among them, copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is one of the most widely studied and used biocompatible reactions. The cytotoxicity of Cu(I) ions has been greatly reduced due to the use of Cu(I) ligands, which enabled the CuAAC reaction to proceed on the cell surface, as well as within an intracellular environment. Meanwhile, other transition metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and silver are now under development as alternative sources for catalyzing bioorthogonal cycloadditions. In this review, we summarize the development of CuAAC reaction as a prominent bioorthogonal reaction, discuss various ligands used in reducing Cu(I) toxicity while promoting the reaction rate, and illustrate some of its important biological applications. The development of additional transition metals in catalyzing cycloaddition reactions will also be briefly introduced. PMID:27572985

  9. Gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective cycloaddition reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years there have been extraordinary developments of gold(I)-catalyzed enantioselective processes. This includes progress in the area of cycloaddition reactions, which are of particular interest due to their potential for the rapid construction of optically active cyclic products. In this article we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, emphasizing reaction mechanisms and key intermediates involved in the processes. PMID:24204438

  10. Surface catalyzed mercury transformation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Patanjali

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with five different oxidation catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 mug

  11. Desaturation reactions catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Lipscomb, J D

    2001-09-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) is shown to be capable of catalyzing desaturation reactions in addition to the usual hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. Dehydrogenated products are generated from MMO-catalyzed oxidation of certain substrates including ethylbenzene and cyclohexadienes. In the reaction of ethylbenzene, desaturation of ethyl C-H occurred along with the conventional hydroxvlations of ethyl and phenyl C-Hs. As a result, styrene is formed together with ethylphenols and phenylethanols. Similarly, when 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadienes were used as substrates, benzene was detected as a product in addition to the corresponding alcohols and epoxides. In all cases, reaction conditions were found to significantly affect the distribution among the different products. This new activity of MMO is postulated to be associated with the chemical properties of the substrates rather than fundamental changes in the nature of the oxygen and C-H activation chemistries. The formation of the desaturated products is rationalized by formation of a substrate cationic intermediate, possibly via a radical precursor. The cationic species is then proposed to partition between recombination (alcohol formation) and elimination (alkene production) pathways. This novel function of MMO indicates close mechanistic kinship between the hydroxylation and desaturation reactions catalyzed by the nonheme diiron clusters.

  12. The effect of the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid on the activity in catalyzing aldol condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaofang; Yu Xiaobo; Wu Shujie; Liu Bo; Liu Heng; Guan Jingqi; Kan Qiubin

    2011-02-15

    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts containing carboxylic and amine groups, which were immobilized at defined distance from one another on the mesoporous solid were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), elemental analysis, and back titration. Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance was more active than maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. It appears that the distance between acidic site and basic site immobilized on mesoporous solid should be an essential factor for catalysis optimization. -- Graphical abstract: Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance and maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance were synthesized by immobilizing lysine onto carboxyl-SBA-15. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Proximal-C-A-SBA-15 with a proximal acid-base distance. {yields} Maximum-C-A-SBA-15 with a maximum acid-base distance. {yields} Compared to maximum-C-A-SBA-15, proximal-C-A-SBA-15 was more active toward aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  13. Asymmetric total synthesis of smyrindiol employing an organocatalytic aldol key step

    PubMed Central

    Fronert, Jeanne; Bisschops, Tom; Boeck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Summary The first organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of smyrindiol, by using an (S)-proline catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular aldol reaction as the key step, is described. Smyrindiol was synthesized from commercially available 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in 15 steps, with excellent stereoselectivity (de = 99%, ee = 99%). In the course of this total synthesis a new and mild coumarin assembly was developed. PMID:23019438

  14. Tandem carbon-carbon bond insertion and intramolecular aldol reaction of benzyne with aroylacetones: novel formation of 4,4'-disubstituted 1,1'-binaphthols.

    PubMed

    Okuma, Kentaro; Itoyama, Ryoichi; Sou, Ayumi; Nagahora, Noriyoshi; Shioj, Kosei

    2012-11-21

    An efficient route to 4-aryl-2-naphthols from arynes and aroylacetones was developed by carbon-carbon bond insertion followed by an intramolecular aldol reaction and dehydration. Benzyne derived from 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflate reacted with benzoylacetones in refluxing acetonitrile to give 4-aryl-2-naphthols and 3-aryl-1-naphthols.

  15. Asymmetric petasis reactions catalyzed by chiral biphenols.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; Schaus, Scott E

    2008-06-01

    Chiral biphenols catalyze the enantioselective Petasis reaction of alkenyl boronates, secondary amines, and ethyl glyoxylate. The reaction requires the use of 15 mol % of (S)-VAPOL as the catalyst, alkenyl boronates as nucleophiles, ethyl glyoxylate as the aldehyde component, and 3 A molecular sieves as an additive. The chiral alpha-amino ester products are obtained in good yields (71-92%) and high enantiomeric ratios (89:11-98:2). Mechanistic investigations indicate single ligand exchange of acyclic boronate with VAPOL and tetracoordinate boronate intermediates. PMID:18459782

  16. Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions for Indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie Jack; Gribble, Gordon W.

    Metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions for indoles are reviewed. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are the most widely explored and applied of all metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Applications of Kumada coupling, Negishi coupling, Suzuki coupling, Stille coupling, Sonogashira reaction, the Heck reaction, carbonylation, and C-N bond formation reactions in indoles are summarized. In addition, other transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using copper, rhodium, iron, and nickel in indole synthesis are also discussed.

  17. Exploring Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions via AB Initio Reaction Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2011-06-01

    The study and prediction of chemical reactivity is one of the most influential contributions of quantum chemistry. A central concept in the theoretical treatment of chemical reactions is the reaction pathway, which can be quite difficult to integrate accurately and efficiently. This talk will outline our developments in the integration of these pathways on ab initio potential energy surfaces. We will also describe results from recent studies on the kinetics of transition metal catalyzed reactions, including the importance of vibrational coupling to the reaction coordinate and the role of this coupling in catalytic rate enhancement.

  18. Asymmetric assembly of aldose carbohydrates from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde by tandem biocatalytic aldol reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekrenyi, Anna; Garrabou, Xavier; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2015-09-01

    The preparation of multifunctional chiral molecules can be greatly simplified by adopting a route via the sequential catalytic assembly of achiral building blocks. The catalytic aldol assembly of prebiotic compounds into stereodefined pentoses and hexoses is an as yet unmet challenge. Such a process would be of remarkable synthetic utility and highly significant with regard to the origin of life. Pursuing an expedient enzymatic approach, here we use engineered D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli to prepare a series of three- to six-carbon aldoses by sequential one-pot additions of glycolaldehyde. Notably, the pertinent selection of the aldolase variant provides control of the sugar size. The stereochemical outcome of the addition was also altered to allow the synthesis of L-glucose and related derivatives. Such engineered biocatalysts may offer new routes for the straightforward synthesis of natural molecules and their analogues that circumvent the intricate enzymatic pathways forged by evolution.

  19. Efficient antibody-catalyzed oxygenation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.; Stephans, J.C.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1994-03-09

    Biological oxygen-transfer reactions are essential for the biosynthesis of steroids and neurotransmitters, the degradation of endogenous substances, and the detoxification of xenobiotics. The monooxygenase enzymes responsible for these transformations require biological cofactors such as flavin, heme and non-heme iron, copper, or pterin and typically utilize NADPH for cofactor regeneration. We now report an antibody-catalyzed sulfide oxygenation reaction mediated by the chemical cofactor sodium periodate, with turnover numbers similar to those of the corresponding enzymatic reactions. Sodium periodate NaIO[sub 4]O was chosen as the oxidant, since sulfoxide formation occurs under mild aqueous conditions with minimal overoxidation to the sulfone. Furthermore, compared to the flavin and heme cofactors required by the monooxygenase enzymes, NaIO[sub 4] is very inexpensive, obviating the need for cofactor recycling. Overall, these results raise the possibility of using antibodies as catalysts for regio- and stereoselective sulfide oxidations. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Hydroxylation and dealkylation reactions catalyzed by hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Mieyal, J J; Starke, D W

    1994-01-01

    Red blood cells contain many enzymes that are akin to those that catalyze xenobiotic metabolism in liver and other tissues. An obvious exception is the cytochrome P-450 system that is found in virtually all other tissues. In vitro studies, however, have shown that hemoglobin can be a broad monooxygenase catalyst, exhibiting the properties of a monooxygenase enzyme. Thus, catalysis by Hb displays typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, dependence on the native protein, coupling to NADPH-dependent flavoprotein reductases, and inhibition by carbon monoxide. The reconstituted system containing Hb along with P-450 reductase utilizes NADPH and O2 to catalyze typical monooxygenase reactions, including O- and N-demethylations as well as aromatic and aliphatic hydroxylations, and the catalytic cycle appears to mimic the typical P-450 mechanism. Turnover numbers for aniline hydroxylation are similar for Hb and P-450 reconstituted systems, whereas P-450 systems are more effective for other reactions. Catalysis by Hb seems to be restricted to the beta-heme sites of the tetramer, reflecting more facile substrate access. Overall the similarities and differences between Hb and P-450 provide an opportunity to examine the basis for their differential monooxygenase or peroxidase/peroxygenase activities in a comparative manner. Hb may be especially useful in delineating the early events in the respective reaction schemes, because it can be studied in various stable redox/ligand states, including the oxyferrous form. Similar hemoglobin-catalyzed oxidative biotransformations occur within intact erythrocytes, but apparent turnover numbers are much lower than those with the reconstituted Hb system, suggesting different mechanisms of catalysis. Although Hb-mediated oxidase activity in erythrocytes is low relative to other sites of xenobiotic metabolism, it may contribute to in situ activation of xenobiotics leading to oxidative stress, disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis in the erythrocytes

  1. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2011-01-01

    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of…

  2. Rh(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative alkylation of (hetero)arenes with allylic alcohols, allowing aldol condensation to indenes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhuangzhi; Boultadakis-Arapinis, Mélissa; Glorius, Frank

    2013-07-25

    Efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation of different classes of (hetero)arenes such as 2-phenylpyridine, indoles, aryl ketones and acetanilide and their dehydrogenative cross-coupling with allylic alcohols are described. Several important skeletons such as β-aryl aldehydes and ketones, 2-acetylindenes, 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one and quinoline could be produced using this protocol. PMID:23765402

  3. The role of synergic interaction in transition state formation for the aldol reaction on a metal oxide catalyst: a DFT investigation.

    PubMed

    An, Wei

    2015-09-21

    This contribution highlights an eight-membered ring transition state for the aldol reaction of propanal on O-terminated ZrO2(111) and CeO2(111) surfaces. The relative heights of activation barriers for α-H abstraction and nucleophilic addition are controlled by surface acid-base pair strength. We report the first theoretical evidence of an alternative to the Zimmerman-Traxler model.

  4. Understanding the mechanism of stereoselective synthesis of cyclopentenes via N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed reactions of enals with enones.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Zaragozá, Ramón J; Arnó, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed addition of enals to enones to yield trans-cyclopentenes has been investigated using DFT methods at B3LYP/6-31G** computational level. This NHC catalyzed reaction comprises several steps. The first one is the formation of a Breslow intermediate, which nucleophilically attacks to the conjugated position of the enone to yield an enol-enolate. This second step is responsible for the trans relationship at the final cyclopentene. An intramolecular aldolic condensation allows for the formation of the alkoxy cyclopentane intermediate, that by intramolecular nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl group yields a bicyclic ether. The extrusion of the NHC catalyst affords a bicyclic lactone, yielding by CO(2) elimination, the final trans-cyclopentene.

  5. Regulated-stereoselective construction of thirteen stereogenic centers necessary for the frame of (+)-discodermolide, based on iterative Lewis acid-promoted aldol reactions.

    PubMed

    Kiyooka, Syun-ichi; Shahid, Kazi Abdus; Goto, Fumitaka; Okazaki, Momotoshi; Shuto, Yoshihiro

    2003-10-17

    The segments C(1)-C(13) and C(15)-C(21) containing the 13 stereogenic centers required for the frame of (+)-discodermolide were synthesized in good to excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities from a common racemic aldehyde, derived from 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol. The enantioselective aldol reactions of the racemic aldehyde with a silylketene acetal, derived from ethyl 2-bromopropionate, in the presence of chiral oxazaborolidinones, prepared in situ with N-p-toluenesulfonyl-(R)- and -(S)-valine and BH(3).THF, proceeded under kinetic control to give the stereotriads with a high degree of enantioselectivity. Enantioselective (chiral borane) and diastereoselective (BF(3).OEt(2) and TiCl(4)) aldol reactions with the silylketene acetal, coupled with diastereoselective radical debrominations (Bu(3)SnH, Et(3)B, with or without MgBr(2)), were used iteratively. This aldol reaction strategy for the construction of the polypropionate frame dramatically shortened the steps needed for the construction of the final segments.

  6. Experimental evidence for chair-like transition states in aldol reactions of methyl ketone lithium enolates: stereoselective synthesis and utilization of a deuterium-labeled enolate as a probe of reaction stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Christopher M; Smith, William J; Gustin, Darin J; Roush, William R

    2005-04-27

    Aldol reactions of methyl ketone lithium enolates proceed via chairlike Zimmerman-Traxler transition states with 7:1 to 50:1 preference over alternative, boatlike transition structures, as determined by studies involving the configurationally stable deuterium-labeled enol silane 18 as the lithium enolate precursor.

  7. Amine-catalyzed direct aldol reactions of hydroxy- and dihydroxyacetone: biomimetic synthesis of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Popik, Oskar; Pasternak-Suder, Monika; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Górecki, Marcin; Frelek, Jadwiga; Mlynarski, Jacek

    2014-06-20

    This article presents comprehensive studies on the application of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines as efficient organocatalysts for the de novo synthesis of ketoses and deoxyketoses. Mimicking the actions of aldolase enzymes, the synthesis of selected carbohydrates was accomplished in aqueous media by using proline- and serine-based organocatalysts. The presented methodology also provides direct access to unnatural L-carbohydrates from the (S)-glyceraldehyde precursor. Determination of the absolute configuration of all obtained sugars was feasible using a methodology consisting of concerted ECD and VCD spectroscopy.

  8. The Aldol Addition and Condensation: The Effect of Conditions on Reaction Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David; Richardson, Amie; Howard, Jessica L.; Harker, Rebecca L.; Barker, Kathryn H.

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of a ketone and an aldehyde in aqueous Na[subscript 2]CO[subscript 2] is described. This experiment is performed in the absence of strong bases or organic solvents and offers the opportunity for students to observe the critical role that reaction temperature and base strength have in determining the product of the base-mediated…

  9. Proline catalyzed α-aminoxylation reaction in the synthesis of biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Dwivedi, Namrata

    2013-02-19

    The search for new and efficient ways to synthesize optically pure compounds is an active area of research in organic synthesis. Asymmetric catalysis provides a practical, cost-effective, and efficient method to create a variety of complex natural products containing multiple stereocenters. In recent years, chemists have become more interested in using small organic molecules to catalyze organic reactions. As a result, organocatalysis has emerged both as a promising strategy and as an alternative to catalysis with expensive proteins or toxic metals. One of the most successful and widely studied secondary amine-based organocatalysts is proline. This small molecule can catalyze numerous reactions such as the aldol, Mannich, Michael addition, Robinson annulation, Diels-Alder, α-functionalization, α-amination, and α-aminoxylation reactions. Catalytic and enantioselective α-oxygenation of carbonyl compounds is an important reaction to access a variety of useful building blocks for bioactive molecules. Proline catalyzed α-aminoxylation using nitrosobenzene as oxygen source, followed by in situ reduction, gives enantiomerically pure 1,2-diol. This molecule can then undergo a variety of organic reactions. In addition, proline organocatalysis provides access to an assortment of biologically active natural products including mevinoline (a cholesterol lowering drug), tetrahydrolipstatin (an antiobesity drug), R(+)-α-lipoic acid, and bovidic acid. In this Account, we present an iterative organocatalytic approach to synthesize both syn- and anti-1,3-polyols, both enantio- and stereoselectively. This method is primarily based on proline-catalyzed sequential α-aminoxylation and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of aldehyde to give a γ-hydroxy ester. In addition, we briefly illustrate the broad application of our recently developed strategy for 1,3-polyols, which serve as valuable, enantiopure building blocks for polyketides and other structurally diverse and

  10. Organocatalytic enantioselective Michael-Michael-Michael-aldol condensation reactions: control of five stereocenters in a quadruple-cascade asymmetric synthesis of highly functionalized hexahydrophenanthrenes.

    PubMed

    Raja, Arun; Hong, Bor-Cherng; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2014-11-01

    A cascade organocatalysis has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of a highly functionalized hexahydrophenanthrene-2-carbaldehyde containing five contiguous stereogenic centers with high diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity (>99% ee). The one-pot method comprises a cascade of organocatalytic Michael-Michael-Michael-aldol reactions of 2-methyl-1,5-dinitro-3-((E)-2-nitrovinyl)benzene and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g., cinnamaldehyde). The structure and absolute configuration of a product were confirmed by X-ray analysis of an appropriate derivative.

  11. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  12. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  13. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fengtao; Cai, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C-C, C-N, C-O and other carbon-heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C-C and carbon-heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  14. Endo-Selective Pd-Catalyzed Silyl Methyl Heck Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A palladium (Pd)-catalyzed endo-selective Heck reaction of iodomethylsilyl ethers of phenols and aliphatic alkenols has been developed. Mechanistic studies reveal that this silyl methyl Heck reaction operates via a hybrid Pd-radical process and that the silicon atom is crucial for the observed endo selectivity. The obtained allylic silyloxycycles were further oxidized into (Z)-alkenyldiols. PMID:25494921

  15. Elucidation of Mechanisms and Selectivities of Metal-Catalyzed Reactions using Quantum Chemical Methodology.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Stefano; Kalek, Marcin; Huang, Genping; Himo, Fahmi

    2016-05-17

    Quantum chemical techniques today are indispensable for the detailed mechanistic understanding of catalytic reactions. The development of modern density functional theory approaches combined with the enormous growth in computer power have made it possible to treat quite large systems at a reasonable level of accuracy. Accordingly, quantum chemistry has been applied extensively to a wide variety of catalytic systems. A huge number of problems have been solved successfully, and vast amounts of chemical insights have been gained. In this Account, we summarize some of our recent work in this field. A number of examples concerned with transition metal-catalyzed reactions are selected, with emphasis on reactions with various kinds of selectivities. The discussed cases are (1) copper-catalyzed C-H bond amidation of indoles, (2) iridium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H borylation of chlorosilanes, (3) vanadium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangement and its combination with aldol- and Mannich-type additions, (4) palladium-catalyzed propargylic substitution with phosphorus nucleophiles, (5) rhodium-catalyzed 1:2 coupling of aldehydes and allenes, and finally (6) copper-catalyzed coupling of nitrones and alkynes to produce β-lactams (Kinugasa reaction). First, the methodology adopted in these studies is presented briefly. The electronic structure method in the great majority of these kinds of mechanistic investigations has for the last two decades been based on density functional theory. In the cases discussed here, mainly the B3LYP functional has been employed in conjunction with Grimme's empirical dispersion correction, which has been shown to improve the calculated energies significantly. The effect of the surrounding solvent is described by implicit solvation techniques, and the thermochemical corrections are included using the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. The reviewed examples are chosen to illustrate the usefulness and versatility of the adopted methodology in

  16. Elucidation of Mechanisms and Selectivities of Metal-Catalyzed Reactions using Quantum Chemical Methodology.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Stefano; Kalek, Marcin; Huang, Genping; Himo, Fahmi

    2016-05-17

    Quantum chemical techniques today are indispensable for the detailed mechanistic understanding of catalytic reactions. The development of modern density functional theory approaches combined with the enormous growth in computer power have made it possible to treat quite large systems at a reasonable level of accuracy. Accordingly, quantum chemistry has been applied extensively to a wide variety of catalytic systems. A huge number of problems have been solved successfully, and vast amounts of chemical insights have been gained. In this Account, we summarize some of our recent work in this field. A number of examples concerned with transition metal-catalyzed reactions are selected, with emphasis on reactions with various kinds of selectivities. The discussed cases are (1) copper-catalyzed C-H bond amidation of indoles, (2) iridium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H borylation of chlorosilanes, (3) vanadium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangement and its combination with aldol- and Mannich-type additions, (4) palladium-catalyzed propargylic substitution with phosphorus nucleophiles, (5) rhodium-catalyzed 1:2 coupling of aldehydes and allenes, and finally (6) copper-catalyzed coupling of nitrones and alkynes to produce β-lactams (Kinugasa reaction). First, the methodology adopted in these studies is presented briefly. The electronic structure method in the great majority of these kinds of mechanistic investigations has for the last two decades been based on density functional theory. In the cases discussed here, mainly the B3LYP functional has been employed in conjunction with Grimme's empirical dispersion correction, which has been shown to improve the calculated energies significantly. The effect of the surrounding solvent is described by implicit solvation techniques, and the thermochemical corrections are included using the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. The reviewed examples are chosen to illustrate the usefulness and versatility of the adopted methodology in

  17. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  18. Diamine Ligands in Copper-Catalyzed Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Surry, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The utility of copper-mediated cross-coupling reactions has been significantly increased by the development of mild reaction conditions and the ability to employ catalytic amounts of copper. The use of diamine-based ligands has been important in these advances and in this review we discuss these systems, including the choice of reaction conditions and applications in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, natural products and designed materials. PMID:22384310

  19. Metal-catalyzed annulation reactions for π-conjugated polycycles.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tienan; Zhao, Jian; Asao, Naoki; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-03-24

    The progress of the metal-catalyzed annulation reactions toward construction of various π-conjugated polycyclic cores with high conjugation extension is described. This article gives a brief overview of various annulation reactions promoted by metal catalysts including C-H bond functionalization, [2+2+2] cycloaddition, cascade processes, ring closing metathesis, electrophilic aromatization, and various cross-coupling reactions. A variety of conjugated polycycles with planar, bowl-shaped, and helical structures have been constructed in high efficiency and selectivity.

  20. Copper bronze catalyzed Heck reaction in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Calò, Vincenzo; Nacci, Angelo; Monopoli, Antonio; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola

    2005-02-17

    Heck reaction of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides catalyzed by copper bronze in tetrabutylammonium bromide as solvent and tetrabutylammonium acetate as base was developed. The effective catalysts are Cu nanoparticles deriving from the reaction of iodobenzene with copper bronze. These nanoparticles are very stable in tetraalkylammonium salts, are easily recycled, and can be stored for months without a loss of catalytic efficiency. [reaction: see text

  1. Method for predicting enzyme-catalyzed reactions

    DOEpatents

    Hlavacek, William S.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Mu, Fangping; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-03-19

    The reactivity of given metabolites is assessed using selected empirical atomic properties in the potential reaction center. Metabolic reactions are represented as biotransformation rules. These rules are generalized from the patterns in reactions. These patterns are not unique to reactants but are widely distributed among metabolites. Using a metabolite database, potential substructures are identified in the metabolites for a given biotransformation. These substructures are divided into reactants or non-reactants, depending on whether they participate in the biotransformation or not. Each potential substructure is then modeled using descriptors of the topological and electronic properties of atoms in the potential reaction center; molecular properties can also be used. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) or classifier is trained to classify a potential reactant as a true or false reactant using these properties.

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze-Sze; Ho, Chun-Yu; Schleicher, Kristin D.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Several reactions of simple, unactivated alkenes with electrophiles under nickel(0) catalysis are discussed. The coupling of olefins with aldehydes and silyl triflates provides allylic or homoallylic alcohol derivatives, depending on the supporting ligands and, to a lesser extent, the substrates employed. Reaction of alkenes with isocyanates yields N-alkyl acrylamides. In these methods, alkenes act as the functional equivalents of alkenyl- and allylmetal reagents. PMID:21814295

  3. Cascade reactions catalyzed by metal organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-09-01

    Cascade or tandem reactions where two or more individual reactions are carried out in one pot constitute a clear example of process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial and temporal productivity with mobilization of minimum resources. In the case of catalytic reactions, cascade processes require bi-/multifunctional catalysts that contain different classes of active sites. Herein, we show that the features and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these solids very appropriate materials for the development of catalysts for cascade reactions. Due to composition and structure, MOFs can incorporate different types of sites at the metal nodes, organic linkers, or at the empty internal pores, allowing the flexible design and synthesis of multifunctional catalysts. After some introductory sections on the relevance of cascade reactions from the point of view of competitiveness, sustainability, and environmental friendliness, the main part of the text provides a comprehensive review of the literature reporting the use of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts for cascade reactions including those that combine in different ways acid/base, oxidation/reduction, and metal-organic centers. The final section summarizes the current state of the art, indicating that the development of a first commercial synthesis of a high-added-value fine chemical will be a crucial milestone in this area.

  4. Computational Studies on Cinchona Alkaloid-Catalyzed Asymmetric Organic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Tanriver, Gamze; Dedeoglu, Burcu; Catak, Saron; Aviyente, Viktorya

    2016-06-21

    Remarkable progress in the area of asymmetric organocatalysis has been achieved in the last decades. Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have emerged as powerful organocatalysts owing to their reactivities leading to high enantioselectivities. The widespread usage of cinchona alkaloids has been attributed to their nontoxicity, ease of use, stability, cost effectiveness, recyclability, and practical utilization in industry. The presence of tunable functional groups enables cinchona alkaloids to catalyze a broad range of reactions. Excellent experimental studies have extensively contributed to this field, and highly selective reactions were catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives. Computational modeling has helped elucidate the mechanistic aspects of cinchona alkaloid catalyzed reactions as well as the origins of the selectivity they induce. These studies have complemented experimental work for the design of more efficient catalysts. This Account presents recent computational studies on cinchona alkaloid catalyzed organic reactions and the theoretical rationalizations behind their effectiveness and ability to induce selectivity. Valuable efforts to investigate the mechanisms of reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and the key aspects of the catalytic activity of cinchona alkaloids in reactions ranging from pharmaceutical to industrial applications are summarized. Quantum mechanics, particularly density functional theory (DFT), and molecular mechanics, including ONIOM, were used to rationalize experimental findings by providing mechanistic insights into reaction mechanisms. B3LYP with modest basis sets has been used in most of the studies; nonetheless, the energetics have been corrected with higher basis sets as well as functionals parametrized to include dispersion M05-2X, M06-2X, and M06-L and functionals with dispersion corrections. Since cinchona alkaloids catalyze reactions by forming complexes with substrates via hydrogen bonds and long

  5. Computational Studies on Cinchona Alkaloid-Catalyzed Asymmetric Organic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Tanriver, Gamze; Dedeoglu, Burcu; Catak, Saron; Aviyente, Viktorya

    2016-06-21

    Remarkable progress in the area of asymmetric organocatalysis has been achieved in the last decades. Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have emerged as powerful organocatalysts owing to their reactivities leading to high enantioselectivities. The widespread usage of cinchona alkaloids has been attributed to their nontoxicity, ease of use, stability, cost effectiveness, recyclability, and practical utilization in industry. The presence of tunable functional groups enables cinchona alkaloids to catalyze a broad range of reactions. Excellent experimental studies have extensively contributed to this field, and highly selective reactions were catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives. Computational modeling has helped elucidate the mechanistic aspects of cinchona alkaloid catalyzed reactions as well as the origins of the selectivity they induce. These studies have complemented experimental work for the design of more efficient catalysts. This Account presents recent computational studies on cinchona alkaloid catalyzed organic reactions and the theoretical rationalizations behind their effectiveness and ability to induce selectivity. Valuable efforts to investigate the mechanisms of reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and the key aspects of the catalytic activity of cinchona alkaloids in reactions ranging from pharmaceutical to industrial applications are summarized. Quantum mechanics, particularly density functional theory (DFT), and molecular mechanics, including ONIOM, were used to rationalize experimental findings by providing mechanistic insights into reaction mechanisms. B3LYP with modest basis sets has been used in most of the studies; nonetheless, the energetics have been corrected with higher basis sets as well as functionals parametrized to include dispersion M05-2X, M06-2X, and M06-L and functionals with dispersion corrections. Since cinchona alkaloids catalyze reactions by forming complexes with substrates via hydrogen bonds and long

  6. Development of a Lewis Base Catalyzed Selenocyclization Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Lewis base activation of selenium Lewis acids has been effectively reduced to practice in the Lewis base catalyzed selenofunctionalization of unactivated olefins. In this reaction, the weakly acidic species, "N"-phenylselenyl succinimide, is cooperatively activated by the addition of a "soft" Lewis base donor (phosphine sulfides,…

  7. Cross-ligation and exchange reactions catalyzed by hairpin ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Sekiguchi, A; Ohtsuka, E

    1993-01-01

    The negative strand of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus (sTobRV(-)) contains a hairpin catalytic domain that shows self-cleavage and self-ligation activities in the presence of magnesium ions. We describe here that the minimal catalytic domain can catalyze a cross-ligation reaction between two kinds of substrates in trans. The cross-ligated product increased when the reaction temperature was decreased during the reaction from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. A two-stranded hairpin ribozyme, divided into two fragments between G45 and U46 in a hairpin loop, showed higher ligation activity than the nondivided ribozyme. The two stranded ribozyme also catalyzed an exchange reaction of the 3'-portion of the cleavage site. Images PMID:8441626

  8. Gold-catalyzed homogeneous oxidative cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhu; Peng, Yu; Cui, Li; Zhang, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Oxidizing gold? A gold(I)/gold(III) catalytic cycle is essential for the first oxidative cross-coupling reaction in gold catalysis. By using Selectfluor for gold(I) oxidation, this chemistry reveals the synthetic potential of incorporating gold(I)/gold(III) catalytic cycles into contemporary gold chemistry and promises a new area of gold research by merging powerful gold catalysis and oxidative metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

  9. Copper-Catalyzed Divergent Addition Reactions of Enoldiazoacetamides with Nitrones.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qing-Qing; Yedoyan, Julietta; Arman, Hadi; Doyle, Michael P

    2016-01-13

    Catalyst-controlled divergent addition reactions of enoldiazoacetamides with nitrones have been developed. By using copper(I) tetrafluoroborate/bisoxazoline complex as the catalyst, a [3+3]-cycloaddition reaction was achieved with excellent yield and enantioselectivity under exceptionally mild conditions, which represents the first highly enantioselective base-metal-catalyzed vinylcarbene transformation. When the catalyst was changed to copper(I) triflate, Mannich addition products were formed in high yields with near exclusivity under otherwise identical conditions.

  10. Copper-Catalyzed Divergent Addition Reactions of Enoldiazoacetamides with Nitrones.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qing-Qing; Yedoyan, Julietta; Arman, Hadi; Doyle, Michael P

    2016-01-13

    Catalyst-controlled divergent addition reactions of enoldiazoacetamides with nitrones have been developed. By using copper(I) tetrafluoroborate/bisoxazoline complex as the catalyst, a [3+3]-cycloaddition reaction was achieved with excellent yield and enantioselectivity under exceptionally mild conditions, which represents the first highly enantioselective base-metal-catalyzed vinylcarbene transformation. When the catalyst was changed to copper(I) triflate, Mannich addition products were formed in high yields with near exclusivity under otherwise identical conditions. PMID:26699516

  11. Silver and gold-catalyzed multicomponent reactions

    PubMed Central

    Abbiati, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Silver and gold salts and complexes mainly act as soft and carbophilic Lewis acids even if their use as σ-activators has been rarely reported. Recently, transformations involving Au(I)/Au(III)-redox catalytic systems have been reported in the literature. In this review we highlight all these aspects of silver and gold-mediated processes and their application in multicomponent reactions. PMID:24605168

  12. Can Chlorine Anion Catalyze the Reaction fo HOCl with HCl?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. L.; Francisco, J. S.; Mebel, A. M.; Morokuma, K.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of HOCl + HCl -> Cl2 + H20 in the presence of Cl has been studied using ab initio methods. This reaction has been shown to have a high activation barrier of 46.5 kcal/mol. The chlorine anion, Cl- is found to catalyze the reaction, viz. two mechanisms. The first involves Cl- interacting through the concerted four-center transition state of the neutral reaction. The other mechanism involves the formation of a HCl-HOCl-Cl- intermediate which dissociates into Cl2 + Cl- + H20. The steps are found to have no barriers. The overall exothermicity is 15.5 kcal/mol.

  13. Stau-catalyzed big-bang nucleosynthesis reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu; Kino, Yasushi; Hiyama, Emiko

    2010-06-01

    We study the new type of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) reactions that are catalyzed by a hypothetical long-lived negatively charged, massive leptonic particle (called X{sup -}) such as the supersymmetric (SUSY) particle stau, the scalar partner of the tau lepton. It is known that if the X{sup -} particle has a lifetime of tau{sub X} > or approx. 10{sup 3} s, it can capture a light element previously synthesized in standard BBN and form a Coulombic bound state and induces various types of reactions in which X{sup -} acts as a catalyst. Some of these X{sup -} catalyzed reactions have significantly large cross sections so that the inclusion of the reactions into the BBN network calculation can markedly change the abundances of some elements. We use a high-accuracy three-body calculation method developed by the authors and provide precise cross sections and rates of these catalyzed BBN reactions for use in the BBN network calculation.

  14. Asymmetric Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasparyan, Elena; Richter, Michael; Dresen, Carola; Walter, Lydia S; Fuchs, Georg; Leeper, Finian J; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kolter, Geraldine; Pohl, Martina; Müller, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is an almost unexplored transformation for biocatalysts. Previously reported thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent PigD from Serratia marcescens is the first enzyme identified to catalyze the Stetter reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (Michael acceptor substrates) and α-keto acids. PigD is involved in the biosynthesis of the potent cytotoxic agent prodigiosin. Here, we describe the investigation of two new ThDP-dependent enzymes, SeAAS from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and HapD from Hahella chejuensis. Both show a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of PigD (39 and 51 %, respectively). The new enzymes were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, and the yield of soluble protein was enhanced by co-expression of the chaperone genes groEL/ES. SeAAS and HapD catalyze intermolecular Stetter reactions in vitro with high enantioselectivity. The enzymes possess a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates. This provides support for a new type of ThDP-dependent enzymatic activity, which is abundant in various species and not restricted to prodigiosin biosynthesis in different strains. Moreover, PigD, SeAAS, and HapD are also able to catalyze asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of aldehydes and α-keto acids, resulting in 2-hydroxy ketones.

  15. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-S bond coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Liu, Yi-Chen; Badsara, Satpal Singh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur-containing molecules such as thioethers are commonly found in chemical biology, organic synthesis, and materials chemistry. While many reliable methods have been developed for preparing these compounds, harsh reaction conditions are usually required in the traditional methods. The transition metals have been applied in this field, and the palladium-catalyzed coupling of thiols with aryl halides and pseudo halides is one of the most important methods in the synthesis of thioethers. Other metals have also been used for the same purpose. Here, we summarize recent efforts in metal-catalyzed C-S bond cross-coupling reactions, focusing especially on the coupling of thiols with aryl- and vinyl halides based on different metals.

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  17. Bi(OTf)3-Catalyzed Multicomponent α-Amidoalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Angelika E; Manolikakes, Georg

    2015-06-19

    A bismuth(III) triflate catalyzed three-component synthesis of α-substituted amides starting from amides, aldehydes, and (hetero)arenes is reported. The reaction has a broad substrate scope, encompassing formaldehyde as well as aryl and alkyl aldehydes. Low catalyst loadings are required, and water is formed as the only side product. The scope and limitation of this method will be discussed. PMID:25996906

  18. Chemical and genomic evolution of enzyme-catalyzed reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, Minoru

    2013-09-01

    There is a tendency that a unit of enzyme genes in an operon-like structure in the prokaryotic genome encodes enzymes that catalyze a series of consecutive reactions in a metabolic pathway. Our recent analysis shows that this and other genomic units correspond to chemical units reflecting chemical logic of organic reactions. From all known metabolic pathways in the KEGG database we identified chemical units, called reaction modules, as the conserved sequences of chemical structure transformation patterns of small molecules. The extracted patterns suggest co-evolution of genomic units and chemical units. While the core of the metabolic network may have evolved with mechanisms involving individual enzymes and reactions, its extension may have been driven by modular units of enzymes and reactions.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction on acrylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R

    2013-04-19

    A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.

  20. Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Takanori; Terao, Jun

    2011-10-01

    Cross-coupling reactions have become indispensable tools for creating carbon-carbon (or heteroatom) bonds in organic synthesis. Like in other important transition metal catalyzed reactions, such as metathesis, addition, and polymerization, unsaturated compounds are usually employed as substrates for cross-coupling reactions. However during the past decade, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the use of alkyl halides as saturated compounds in cross-coupling reactions, which has resulted in significant progress in this undeveloped area by introducing new effective ligands. Many useful catalytic systems are now available for synthetic transformations based on C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)), C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) and C(sp(3))-C(sp) bond formation as complementary methods to conventional C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)), C(sp(2))-C(sp) and C(sp)-C(sp) coupling. This tutorial review summarizes recent advances in cross-coupling reactions of alkyl halides and pseudohalides catalyzed by a palladium complex.

  1. Enantio- and Diastereoselective Synthesis of syn-β-Hydroxy-α-Vinyl Carboxylic Esters via Reductive Aldol Reactions of Ethyl Allenecarboxylate with 10-TMS-9-Borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane and DFT Analysis of the Hydroboration Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kister, Jeremy; Ess, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    An enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of syn-β-hydroxy-α-vinyl carboxylate esters 3 via the reductive aldol reaction of ethyl allenecarboxylate (2) with 10-trimethylsilyl-9-borabicyclo[3.3.2]decane (1R, Soderquist’s borane) has been developed. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the allene hydroboration involves the 1,4-reduction of 2 with the chiral borane 1R, leading directly to dienolborinate Z-(O)-8a. PMID:24138187

  2. Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.

    PubMed

    Mellmer, Max A; Sener, Canan; Gallo, Jean Marcel R; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2014-10-27

    Reaction kinetics were studied to quantify the effects of polar aprotic organic solvents on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose into furfural. A solvent of particular importance is γ-valerolactone (GVL), which leads to significant increases in reaction rates compared to water in addition to increased product selectivity. GVL has similar effects on the kinetics for the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propanal and for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. Based on results obtained for homogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts that span a range of pKa values, we suggest that an aprotic organic solvent affects the reaction kinetics by changing the stabilization of the acidic proton relative to the protonated transition state. This same behavior is displayed by strong solid Brønsted acid catalysts, such as H-mordenite and H-beta. PMID:25214063

  3. Gold-catalyzed cyclization reactions of allenol and alkynol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro

    2014-03-18

    Although gold is chemically inert as a bulk metal, the landmark discovery that gold nanoparticles can be effective catalysts has opened up new and exciting research opportunities in the field. In recent years, there has been growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes [gold(I) and gold(III)], usually as homogeneous catalysts, because they are soft Lewis acids. In addition, alkynes and allenes have interesting reactivities and selectivities, notably their ability to produce complex structures in very few steps. In this Account, we describe our work in gold catalysis with a focus on the formation of C-C and C-O bonds using allenes and alkynes as starting materials. Of these, oxa- and carbo-cyclizations are perhaps the best known and most frequently studied. We have divided those contributions into sections arranged according to the nature of the starting material (allene versus alkyne). Gold-catalyzed carbocyclizations in allenyl C2-linked indoles, allenyl-β-lactams, and allenyl sugars follow different mechanistic pathways. The cyclization of indole-tethered allenols results in the efficient synthesis of carbazole derivatives, for example. However, the compound produced from gold-catalyzed 9-endo carbocyclization of (aryloxy)allenyl-tethered 2-azetidinones is in noticeable contrast to the 5-exo hydroalkylation product that results from allenyl sugars. We have illustrated the unusual preference for the 4-exo-dig cyclization in allene chemistry, as well as the rare β-hydride elimination reaction, in gold catalysis from readily available α-allenols. We have also observed in γ-allenols that a (methoxymethyl)oxy protecting group not only masks a hydroxyl functionality but also exerts directing effects as a controlling unit in a gold-catalyzed regioselectivity reversal. Our recent work has also led to a combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled

  4. Activity of formylphosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Smithers, G.W.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1986-05-01

    Formylphosphate (FP), a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase, was synthesized from formylfluoride and Pi. Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR showed that FP is very unstable with a half-life of 48 min at 20/sup 0/C and pH 7. At pH 7 hydrolysis occurs with O-P bond cleavage as shown by /sup 18/O incorporation from /sup 18/O-H/sub 2/O into Pi. The substrate activity of FP was tested in the reaction catalyzed by N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. MgATP + H/sub 4/folate + HCOO/sup -/ in equilibrium MgADP + Pi +N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate FP supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate is produced from H/sub 4/-folate and FP but only if ADP is present, and ATP is produced from FP and ADP but only if H/sub 4/folate is present. The requirements for H/sub 4/folate in the synthesis of ATP from ADP and FP and for ADP in the synthesis of N/sup 10/-formylH/sub 4/folate from FP and H/sub 4/folate, are consistent with past kinetic and isotope exchange studies which showed that the reaction proceeds by a sequential mechanism and that all three substrates must be present for any reaction to occur.

  5. Kinetics of Imidazole Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis: Use of Buffer Dilutions to Determine Spontaneous Rate, Catalyzed Rate, and Reaction Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Described is an advanced undergraduate kinetics experiment using buffer dilutions to determine spontaneous rate, catalyzed rate, and reaction order. The reaction utilized is hydrolysis of p-nitro-phenyl acetate in presence of imidazole, which has been shown to enhance rate of the reaction. (Author/JN)

  6. Synthesis of hindered biphenyls by sequential non-transition metal-catalyzed reaction/palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Dong, Cheng-Guo; Hu, Qiao-Sheng

    2008-03-17

    The sequential reaction of 1,2-dihalobenzenes with aryl lithiums followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with Grignard reagents and arylboronic acids is described. This sequential reaction provides a convenient and expeditious access to tri-ortho substituted biaryl derivatives.

  7. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamentals of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions of environmental importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Subodh Shrinivas

    Reaction kinetics and spectroscopic characterization are valuable tools for understanding heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions. The objective of this work was to apply the tools of catalysis and reaction kinetics to understand the fundamentals of chemical surface phenomena for environmentally important reactions. This thesis presents our work in two areas of catalytic reactions for pollution abatement---"chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) treatment chemistry" and "sulfur-tolerant auto exhaust catalysts." The ozone depletion potential of CFCs has resulted in a great interest in the academic and industrial communities to find replacements for these chemicals. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are amongst the best "environmentally benign" candidates for CFC replacement. One selective pathway for the synthesis of HFCs is via the hydrodechlorination of CFCs. This route has the added benefit of destroying harmful CFC stockpiles and converting them into more useful chemicals. The work in Chapter 3 shows that parallel hydrogenation pathways starting from a common CF2 species can explain the formation of the products CH2F2 and CH4 for the hydrodechlorination of CF2Cl2 over Pd/AlF3. Transient kinetics experiments using C2H4 as a trapping agent for surface carbenes have provided evidence for the presence of CH2 species on the catalyst surface during this reaction. The absence of either coupling products or trapped products containing F suggests that the rate of hydrogenation of surface CF2 species is faster than that of surface CH2 species. Another important class of CFC reactions is oxide-catalyzed disproportionations to control the number and position of halogen atoms in the CFC/HFC molecule. Chapter 4 combines the use of reaction kinetics tools and spectroscopic characterization techniques to understand the adsorption and reaction of CF3CFCl 2 over gamma-Al2O3. The CF3CFCl 2 reaction over gamma-Al2O3 lead to a modification of the gamma-Al2O3 surface due to fluorination and the

  9. Scope and mechanism of the highly stereoselective metal-mediated domino aldol reactions of enolates with aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Bernward; Panthöfer, Martin; Deiseroth, Hans-Jörg; Schlirf, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Summary A one-pot transformation, which involves the reaction of ketones with aldehydes in the presence of metal halides to furnish tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,4-diols in a highly diastereoselective manner, is investigated thoroughly by experiments and computations. The reaction was also successfully implemented on a flow micro reactor system. PMID:27340472

  10. RUTHENIUM-CATALYZED TANDEM OLEFIN MIGRATION-ALDOL AND MANNICH-TYPE REACTIONS IN WATER AND PROTIC SOLVENT. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles have received considerable attention because they represent more efficient, greener, more atom-economical, and milder bond-formation strategies over transition-metal-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. This Focus Review gives a brief summary of recent development on iodine-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions utilizing C - H and X - H as nucleophiles.

  12. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C═X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a

  13. A thermodynamic investigation of reactions catalyzed by tryptophan synthase.

    PubMed

    Kishore, N; Tewari, Y B; Akers, D L; Goldberg, R N; Miles, E W

    1998-07-27

    Microcalorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography have been used to conduct a thermodynamic investigation of the following reactions catalyzed by the tryptophan synthase alpha 2 beta 2 complex (EC 4.2.1.20) and its subunits: indole(aq) + L-serine(aq) = L-tryptophan(aq) + H2O(1); L-serine(aq) = pyruvate(aq) + ammonia(aq); indole(aq) + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate(aq) = 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate(aq); L-serine(aq) + 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate(aq) = L-tryptophan(aq) + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate(aq) + H2O(1). The calorimetric measurements led to standard molar enthalpy changes for all four of these reactions. Direct measurements yielded an apparent equilibrium constant for the third reaction; equilibrium constants for the remaining three reactions were obtained by using thermochemical cycle calculations. The results of the calorimetric and equilibrium measurements were analyzed in terms of a chemical equilibrium model that accounted for the multiplicity of the ionic states of the reactants and products. Thermodynamic quantities for chemical reference reactions involving specific ionic forms have been obtained. These quantities permit the calculation of the position of equilibrium of the above four reactions as a function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Values of the apparent equilibrium constants and standard transformed Gibbs free energy changes delta r G'(m) degree under approximately physiological conditions are given. Le Châtelier's principle provides an explanation as to why, in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of L-tryptophan, the third reaction proceeds in the direction of formation of indole and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate even though the apparent equilibrium constant greatly favors the formation of 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate. PMID:9700925

  14. The Mukaiyama aldol reaction of in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds: selective C-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage in one-pot for α-amination of ketones.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Isai; Grandhi, Gowri Sankar; Sahoo, Harekrishna; Baidya, Mahiuddin

    2015-09-21

    A practical protocol for the α-amination of ketones (up to 99% yield) has been developed via the Mukaiyama aldol reaction of in situ generated nitrosocarbonyl compounds. The reaction with silyl enol ethers having a disilane (-SiMe2TMS) backbone proceeded not only with perfect N-selectivity but concomitant N-O bond cleavage was also accomplished. Such a cascade of C-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage in a single step was heretofore unknown in the field of nitrosocarbonyl chemistry. A very high diastereoselectivity (dr = 19 : 1) was accomplished using (-)-menthol derived chiral nitrosocarbonyl compounds. PMID:26245149

  15. A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, George D.

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory exercises for the organic chemistry curriculum that emphasize enantioselective synthesis of the aldol condensation which involves the proline-catalyzed condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde are explored. The experiment illustrates some of the trade-offs involved in green chemistry like the use of acetone in large…

  16. Computational elucidation of the origins of reactivity and selectivity in non-aldol aldol rearrangements of cyclic epoxides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Houk, K N; Allen, Damian A; Jung, Michael E

    2011-06-17

    The non-aldol aldol reaction of the isomeric epoxy silyl ethers is controlled by the conformation of the transition states leading to an internal hydride shift. One isomer rearranges to the β-silyloxy ketone whereas the other isomer gives a β-elimination product. Theoretical calculations show that the substrates with substituents that favor the formation of the chairlike transition state rearrange normally while those that do not undergo elimination instead. PMID:21568276

  17. Stereodefined Acyclic Polysubstituted Silyl Ketene Aminals: Asymmetric Formation of Aldol Products with Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Nairoukh, Zackaria; Marek, Ilan

    2015-11-23

    The regio- and stereoselective formation of stereodefined polysubstituted silyl ketene aminals is easily achieved through selective combined carbometalation-oxidation-silylation reactions. These substrates are ideal candidates for Mukaiyama aldol reactions with aliphatic aldehydes as they give the aldol products with a quaternary carbon stereocenter α to the carbonyl groups in outstanding diastereoselectivities. PMID:26448575

  18. Stereodefined Acyclic Polysubstituted Silyl Ketene Aminals: Asymmetric Formation of Aldol Products with Quaternary Carbon Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Nairoukh, Zackaria; Marek, Ilan

    2015-11-23

    The regio- and stereoselective formation of stereodefined polysubstituted silyl ketene aminals is easily achieved through selective combined carbometalation-oxidation-silylation reactions. These substrates are ideal candidates for Mukaiyama aldol reactions with aliphatic aldehydes as they give the aldol products with a quaternary carbon stereocenter α to the carbonyl groups in outstanding diastereoselectivities.

  19. Access to 4-alkylaminopyridazine derivatives via nitrogen-assisted regioselective Pd-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Emilie; Kümmerle, Arthur E; Hammoud, Hassan; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Bihel, Frédéric; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Schmitt, Martine

    2014-11-01

    3-Substituted, 6-substituted, and unsymmetrical 3,6-disubstituted 4-alkylaminopyridazines were prepared from a sequence of three chemo- and regioselective reactions combining amination and palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, such as reductive dehalogenation and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Extension of the methodology to Sonogashira reaction yielded a novel class of 3-substituted pyrrolopyridazines. PMID:25310174

  20. Mechanistic insights into nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decades the transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of non-activated alkyl halides has significantly progressed. Within the context of alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling, first row transition metals spanning from iron, over cobalt, nickel, to copper have been successfully applied to catalyze this difficult reaction. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still in its infancy. Herein we outline our latest mechanistic studies that explain the efficiency of nickel, in particular nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

  1. Epoxide ring-opening and Meinwald rearrangement reactions of epoxides catalyzed by mesoporous aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mathew W C; Davies, A Matthew; Buckle, Richard; Mabbett, Ian; Taylor, Stuart H; Graham, Andrew E

    2009-06-21

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates efficiently catalyze the ring-opening of epoxides to produce beta-alkoxyalcohols in high yields under extremely mild reaction conditions. These materials also catalyze the corresponding Meinwald rearrangement in non-nucleophilic solvents to give aldehydes which can be trapped in situ to provide the corresponding acetals in an efficient tandem process.

  2. Recent developments in gold-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions.

    PubMed

    López, Fernando; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-01-01

    In the last years there have been extraordinary advances in the development of gold-catalyzed cycloaddition processes. In this review we will summarize some of the most remarkable examples, and present the mechanistic rational underlying the transformations.

  3. The enzymatic reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase exhibits one dominant reaction path

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Jean E.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are the most efficient chemical catalysts known, but the exact nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymes is not fully understood. Application of transition state theory to enzymatic reactions indicates that the rates of all possible reaction paths, weighted by their relative probabilities, must be considered in order to achieve an accurate calculation of the overall rate. Previous studies in our group have shown a single mechanism for enzymatic barrier passage in human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). To ensure that this result was not due to our methodology insufficiently sampling reactive phase space, we implement high-perturbation transition path sampling in both microcanonical and canonical regimes for the reaction catalyzed by human heart LDH. We find that, although multiple, distinct paths through reactive phase space are possible for this enzymatic reaction, one specific reaction path is dominant. Since the frequency of these paths in a canonical ensemble is inversely proportional to the free energy barriers separating them from other regions of phase space, we conclude that the rarer reaction paths are likely to have a negligible contribution. Furthermore, the non-dominate reaction paths correspond to altered reactive conformations and only occur after multiple steps of high perturbation, suggesting that these paths may be the result of non-biologically significant changes to the structure of the enzymatic active site. PMID:25368440

  4. First Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in the presence of amides.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-03-01

    The first Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction with amides as co-catalyst was realized. Results showed that neither Novozym 435 nor amide can independently catalyze the reaction. This co-catalytic system that used a catalytic amount of Novozym 435 with a corresponding amount of amide was established and optimized. The MBH reaction strongly depended on the structure of aldehyde substrate, amide co-catalyst, and reaction additives. The optimized reaction yield (43.4%) was achieved in the Novozym 435-catalyzed MBH reaction of 2, 4-dinitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexenone with isonicotinamide as co-catalyst and β-cyclodextrin as additive only in 2 days. Although enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 was not found, the results were still significant because an MBH reaction using lipase as biocatalyst was realized for the first time.

  5. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  6. Investigating the mechanism of the selective hydrogenation reaction of cinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Laicai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CAL) belongs to the group of aromatic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes; the selective hydrogenation of CAL plays an important role in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Using Ptn clusters as catalytic models, we studied the selective hydrogenation reaction mechanism for CAL catalyzed by Ptn (n = 6, 10, 14, 18) clusters by means of B3LYP in density functional theory at the 6-31+ G(d) level (the LanL2DZ extra basis set was used for the Pt atom). The rationality of the transition state was proved by vibration frequency analysis and intrinsic reaction coordinate computation. Moreover, atoms in molecules theory and nature bond orbital theory were applied to discuss the interaction among orbitals and the bonding characteristics. The results indicate that three kinds of products, namely 3-phenylpropyl aldehyde, 3-phenyl allyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol, are produced in the selective hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by Ptn clusters; each pathway possesses two reaction channels. Ptn clusters are more likely to catalyze the activation and hydrogenation of the C = O bond in CAL molecules, eventually producing cinnamic alcohol, which proves that Ptn clusters have a strong reaction selectivity to catalyze CAL. The reaction selectivity of the catalyzer cluster is closely related to the size of the Ptn cluster, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity. Graphical Abstract The reaction mechanism for the selective hydrogenation reaction ofcinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters was studied by densityfunctional theory. The reactionselectivity of cluster catalyzer was concluded to be closely related to the size of Ptn clusters, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity. PMID:27444877

  7. Investigating the mechanism of the selective hydrogenation reaction of cinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Laicai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CAL) belongs to the group of aromatic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes; the selective hydrogenation of CAL plays an important role in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Using Ptn clusters as catalytic models, we studied the selective hydrogenation reaction mechanism for CAL catalyzed by Ptn (n = 6, 10, 14, 18) clusters by means of B3LYP in density functional theory at the 6-31+ G(d) level (the LanL2DZ extra basis set was used for the Pt atom). The rationality of the transition state was proved by vibration frequency analysis and intrinsic reaction coordinate computation. Moreover, atoms in molecules theory and nature bond orbital theory were applied to discuss the interaction among orbitals and the bonding characteristics. The results indicate that three kinds of products, namely 3-phenylpropyl aldehyde, 3-phenyl allyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol, are produced in the selective hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by Ptn clusters; each pathway possesses two reaction channels. Ptn clusters are more likely to catalyze the activation and hydrogenation of the C = O bond in CAL molecules, eventually producing cinnamic alcohol, which proves that Ptn clusters have a strong reaction selectivity to catalyze CAL. The reaction selectivity of the catalyzer cluster is closely related to the size of the Ptn cluster, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity. Graphical Abstract The reaction mechanism for the selective hydrogenation reaction ofcinnamaldehyde catalyzed by Ptn clusters was studied by densityfunctional theory. The reactionselectivity of cluster catalyzer was concluded to be closely related to the size of Ptn clusters, with Pt14 clusters having the greatest reaction selectivity.

  8. Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of epoxides with organoboron compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Chu-Ting; Liu, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Qi; Lu, Xi; Lou, Xin; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2015-02-11

    A copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of epoxides with arylboronates is described. This reaction is not limited to aromatic epoxides, because aliphatic epoxides are also suitable substrates. In addition, N-sulfonyl aziridines can be successfully converted into the products. This reaction provides convenient access to β-phenethyl alcohols, which are valuable synthetic intermediates. PMID:25564373

  9. Gold(III)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction (TCC) selective toward furans.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Liu, Li; Ding, Dong; Sun, Jiangtao; Ji, Yangxuan; Dong, Jialing

    2013-06-01

    An efficient three-component coupling reaction toward a variety of furan derivatives has been developed. This cascade transformation proceeds via the gold-catalyzed coupling reaction of phenylglyoxal derivatives, secondary amines, and terminal alkynes, under the reaction conditions, that undergoes cyclization into the furan core.

  10. Tandem ring-closing metathesis/isomerization reactions for the total synthesis of violacein.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mette T; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2013-04-19

    A series of 5-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones was synthesized through a one-pot ruthenium alkylidene-catalyzed tandem RCM/isomerization/nucleophilic addition sequence. The intermediates resulting from RCM/isomerization showed reactivity toward electrophiles in aldol condensation reactions which provided a new entry for the total synthesis of the antileukemic natural product violacein.

  11. Synthesis of Cyclooctatetraenes through a Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Sarah; Gandon, Vincent; Blond, Gaëlle; Suffert, Jean

    2016-06-13

    Reported is a cascade reaction leading to fully substituted cyclooctatetraenes. This unexpected transformation likely proceeds through a unique 8π electrocyclization reaction of a ene triyne. DFT computations provide the mechanistic basis of this surprizing reaction. PMID:27135905

  12. Tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed cross-coupling: a new strategy towards heterocycle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2011-10-21

    Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions which lead to the formation of C-N, C-O, C-S and C-C bonds have been recognized as one of the most useful strategies in synthetic organic chemistry. During past decades, important breakthroughs in the study of Cu-catalyzed coupling processes demonstrated that Cu-catalyzed reactions are broadly applicable to a variety of research fields related to organic synthesis. Representatively, employing these coupling transformations as key steps, a large number of tandem reactions have been developed for the construction of various heterocyclic compounds. These tactics share the advantages of high atom economics of tandem reactions as well as the broad tolerance of Cu-catalyst systems. Therefore, Cu-catalyzed C-X (X = N, O, S, C) coupling transformation-initiated tandem reactions were quickly recognized as a strategy with great potential for synthesizing heterocyclic compounds and gained worldwide attention. In this review, recent research progress in heterocycle syntheses using tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed coupling transformations, including C-N, C-O, C-S as well as C-C coupling processes are summarized. PMID:21879127

  13. Copper-catalyzed oxidative Heck reactions between alkyltrifluoroborates and vinyl arenes.

    PubMed

    Liwosz, Timothy W; Chemler, Sherry R

    2013-06-21

    We report herein that potassium alkyltrifluoroborates can be utilized in oxidative Heck-type reactions with vinyl arenes. The reaction is catalyzed by a Cu(OTf)2/1,10-phenanthroline with MnO2 as the stoichiometric oxidant. In addition to the alkyl Heck, amination, esterification, and dimerization reactions of alkyltrifluoroborates are demonstrated under analogous reaction conditions. Evidence for an alkyl radical intermediate is presented. PMID:23734764

  14. Aldol Condensation Products and Polyacetals in Organic Films Formed from Reactions of Propanal in Sulfuric Acid at Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS) Aerosol Acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, J. V. H.; Perez-Montano, S.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.; Van Wyngarden, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt. %) which is highly reflective towards UV and visible radiation. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles may also contain a significant amount of organic material. Experiments combining organics (propanal, glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal) with sulfuric acid at concentrations typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that have the potential to impact chemical, optical and/or cloud-forming properties of aerosols. In order to assess the potential for such films to impact aerosol chemistry or climate properties, experiments were performed to identify the chemical processes responsible for film formation. Surface films were analyzed via Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies and are shown to consist primarily of aldol condensation products and cyclic and linear polyacetals, the latter of which are likely responsible for separation from the aqueous phase.

  15. Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

    2012-01-26

    Bulk gold powder (5–50 μm particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBu–N≡C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O═C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 °C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN═C═O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

  16. Molybdenum-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of 3-Alkyloxindoles: Reaction Development and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a full account of our work towards the development of Mo-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions with 3-alkyloxindoles as nucleophiles. The reaction is complementary to the Pd-catalyzed reaction with regard to the scope of oxindole nucleophiles. A number of 3-alkyloxindoles were alkylated successfully under mild conditions to give products with excellent yields and good-to-excellent enantioselectivities. Applications of this method to the preparation of indoline alkaloids such as (−)-physostigmine, ent-(−)-debromoflustramine B, and the indolinoquinoline rings of communesin B are reported. PMID:21290436

  17. Recent advances in transition metal-catalyzed N -atom transfer reactions of azides

    PubMed Central

    Driver, Tom G.

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed N-atom transfer reactions of azides provide efficient ways to construct new carbon–nitrogen and sulfur–nitrogen bonds. These reactions are inherently green: no additive besides catalyst is needed to form the nitrenoid reactive intermediate, and the by-product of the reaction is environmentally benign N2 gas. As such, azides can be useful precursors for transition metal-catalyzed N-atom transfer to sulfides, olefins and C–H bonds. These methods offer competitive selectivities and comparable substrate scope as alternative processes to generate metal nitrenoids. PMID:20617243

  18. Enzyme-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-catalyzed Henry reaction was realized using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a reaction medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger (lipase AS) showed excellent catalytic activity toward the substrates aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane in choline chloride:glycerol at a molar ratio of 1:2. Addition of 30 vol% water to DES further improved the lipase activity and inhibited DES-catalyzed transformation. A final yield of 92.2% for the lipase AS-catalyzed Henry reaction was achieved under optimized reaction conditions in only 4 h. In addition, the lipase AS activity was improved by approximately 3-fold in a DES-water mixture compared with that in pure water, which produced a final yield of only 33.4%. Structural studies with fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the established strong hydrogen bonds between DES and water may be the main driving force that affects the spatial conformation of the enzyme, leading to a change in lipase activity. The methodology was also extended to the aza-Henry reaction, which easily occurred in contrast to that in pure water. The enantioselectivity of both Henry and aza-Henry reactions was not found. However, the results are still remarkable, as we report the first use of DES as a reaction medium in a lipase-catalyzed Henry reaction.

  19. Synthesis of 2-vinylic indoles and derivatives via a Pd-catalyzed tandem coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Fayol, Aude; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Lautens, Mark

    2006-09-14

    A novel one-step synthesis of valuable 2-vinylic indoles and their tricycle derivatives is described. This reaction, which utilizes a gem-dibromovinyl unit as a readily available starting material, occurs via an efficient Pd-catalyzed tandem Buchwald-Hartwig/Heck reaction. PMID:16956187

  20. Peptide-catalyzed 1,4-addition reactions of aldehydes to nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Robert; Arakawa, Yukihiro; Duschmalé, Jörg; Wiesner, Markus; Wennemers, Helma

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate addition reactions of aldehydes to nitroolefins provide synthetically useful gamma-nitroaldehydes. Here we summarize our research on peptide-catalyzed conjugate addition reactions of aldehydes to differently substituted nitroolefins. We show that peptides of the general type Pro-Pro-Xaa (Xaa = acidic amino acid) are not only highly active, robust and stereoselective catalysts but have also remarkable chemoselectivities.

  1. Unexpected Reaction Pathway for butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed inactivation of “hunger hormone” ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Yuan, Yaxia; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Extensive computational modeling and simulations have been carried out, in the present study, to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin, demonstrating that the acylation process of BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin follows an unprecedented single-step reaction pathway and the single-step acylation process is rate-determining. The free energy barrier (18.8 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is reasonably close to the experimentally-derived free energy barrier (~19.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the obtained mechanistic insights are reasonable. The single-step reaction pathway for the acylation is remarkably different from the well-known two-step acylation reaction pathway for numerous ester hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by a serine esterase. This is the first time demonstrating that a single-step reaction pathway is possible for an ester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a serine esterase and, therefore, one no longer can simply assume that the acylation process must follow the well-known two-step reaction pathway. PMID:26922910

  2. Highly enantioselective Henry reactions of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by an amino alcohol-copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dan-Dan; Lai, Wen-Han; Hu, Di; Chen, Zheng; Wu, An-An; Ruan, Yuan-Ping; Zhou, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-08-20

    Amino alcohol-Cu(II) catalyst: Highly enantioselective Henry reactions between aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane have been developed. The reactions were catalyzed by an easily available and operationally simple amino alcohol-copper(II) catalyst. In total, 38 substrates were tested and the R-configured products were obtained in good yields with excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:22791567

  3. Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated, Iodide-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for Plasmonic Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Yiping; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines an enzymatic cascade reaction for signal transduction and amplification for plasmonic immunoassays by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). HRP-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and iodide-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine is employed to modulate the plasmonic signals of AuNPs. It agrees well with the current immunoassay platforms and allows naked-eye readout with enhanced sensitivity, which holds great promise for applications in resource-constrained settings. PMID:26460152

  4. Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediated, Iodide-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for Plasmonic Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Xianyu, Yunlei; Chen, Yiping; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines an enzymatic cascade reaction for signal transduction and amplification for plasmonic immunoassays by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). HRP-catalyzed oxidation of iodide and iodide-catalyzed oxidation of cysteine is employed to modulate the plasmonic signals of AuNPs. It agrees well with the current immunoassay platforms and allows naked-eye readout with enhanced sensitivity, which holds great promise for applications in resource-constrained settings.

  5. Towards catalyst compartimentation in combined chemo- and biocatalytic processes: immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases for the diastereoselective reduction of a β-hydroxy ketone obtained from an organocatalytic aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Giuseppe; Heidlindemann, Marcel; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2013-11-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from Lactobacillus kefir and Rhodococcus sp., which earlier turned out to be suitable for a chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis with organocatalysts, were immobilized with their cofactors on a commercially available superabsorber based on a literature known protocol. The use of the immobilized ADH from L. kefir in the reduction of acetophenone as a model substrate led to high conversion (>95%) in the first reaction cycle, followed by a slight decrease of conversion in the second reaction cycle. A comparable result was obtained when no cofactor was added although a water rich reaction media was used. The immobilized ADHs also turned out to be suitable catalysts for the diastereoselective reduction of an organocatalytically prepared enantiomerically enriched aldol adduct, leading to high conversion, diastereomeric ratio and enantioselectivity for the resulting 1,3-diols. However, at a lower catalyst and cofactor amount being still sufficient for biotransformations with "free" enzymes the immobilized ADH only showed high conversion and >99% ee for the first reaction cycle whereas a strong decrease of conversion was observed already in the second reaction cycle, thus indicating a significant leaching effect of catalyst and/or cofactor.

  6. Rhodium-catalyzed [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO: reaction design, development, application in natural product synthesis, and inspiration for developing new reactions for synthesis of eight-membered carbocycles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-08-18

    Practical syntheses of natural products and their analogues with eight-membered carbocyclic skeletons are important for medicinal and biological investigations. However, methods and strategies to construct the eight-membered carbocycles are limited. Therefore, developing new methods to synthesize the eight-membered carbocycles is highly desired. In this Account, we describe our development of three rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions for the construction of the eight-membered carbocycles, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of medium-sized ring systems. The first reaction described in this Account is our computationally designed rhodium-catalyzed two-component [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes (ene-VCPs) and CO for the diastereoselective construction of bi- and tricyclic cyclooctenones. The design of this reaction is based on the hypothesis that the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination of the eight-membered rhodacycle intermediate generated from the rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropane cleavage and alkene insertion, giving Wender's [5 + 2] cycloadduct, is not easy. Under CO atmosphere, CO insertion may occur rapidly, converting the eight-membered rhodacycle into a nine-membered rhodacycle, which then undergoes an easy C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination process and furnishes the [5 + 2 + 1] product. This hypothesis was supported by our preliminary DFT studies and also served as inspiration for the development of two [7 + 1] cycloadditions: the [7 + 1] cycloaddition of buta-1,3-dienylcyclopropanes (BDCPs) and CO for the construction of cyclooctadienones, and the benzo/[7 + 1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to synthesize the benzocyclooctenones. The efficiency of these rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions can be revealed by the application in natural product synthesis. Two eight-membered ring-containing natural products, (±)-asterisca-3(15),6-diene and (+)-asteriscanolide, have been

  7. Advances in nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions to construct carbocycles and heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ashish; Louie, Janis

    2015-08-18

    Transition-metal catalysis has revolutionized the field of organic synthesis by facilitating the construction of complex organic molecules in a highly efficient manner. Although these catalysts are typically based on precious metals, researchers have made great strides in discovering new base metal catalysts over the past decade. This Account describes our efforts in this area and details the development of versatile Ni complexes that catalyze a variety of cycloaddition reactions to afford interesting carbocycles and heterocycles. First, we describe our early work in investigating the efficacy of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands in Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions with carbon dioxide and isocyanate. The use of sterically hindered, electron donating NHC ligands in these reactions significantly improved the substrate scope as well as reaction conditions in the syntheses of a variety of pyrones and pyridones. The high reactivity and versatility of these unique Ni(NHC) catalytic systems allowed us to develop unprecedented Ni-catalyzed cycloadditions that were unexplored due to the inefficacy of early Ni catalysts to promote hetero-oxidative coupling steps. We describe the development and mechanistic analysis of Ni/NHC catalysts that couple diynes and nitriles to form pyridines. Kinetic studies and stoichiometric reactions confirmed a hetero-oxidative coupling pathway associated with this Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition. We then describe a series of new substrates for Ni-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions such as vinylcyclopropanes, aldehydes, ketones, tropones, 3-azetidinones, and 3-oxetanones. In reactions with vinycyclopropanes and tropones, DFT calculations reveal noteworthy mechanistic steps such as a C-C σ-bond activation and an 8π-insertion of vinylcyclopropane and tropone, respectively. Similarly, the cycloaddition of 3-azetidinones and 3-oxetanones also requires Ni-catalyzed C-C σ-bond activation to form N- and O-containing heterocycles. PMID:26200651

  8. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  9. Copper(II)-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reactions: Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Govindarasu; Sadhu, Pradeep; Punniyamurthy, Tharmalingam

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled copper(II) complexes are described as effective catalysts for nitroaldol (Henry) reactions on water. The protocol involves a heterogeneous process and the catalysts can be recovered and recycled without loss of activity. Further, C2-symmetric N,N'-substituted chiral copper(II) salan complexes are found to be more effective catalysts than chiral copper(II) salen complexes for reactions in homogeneous catalysis, with high enantioselectivities. The reactions involve bifunctional catalysis, bearing the properties of a Brønsted base, as well as a Lewis acid, to effect the reaction in the absence of external additives.

  10. Chromium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Dearomatization Addition Reactions of Halomethyl Heteroarenes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingshan; Bai, Jing; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Guozhu

    2016-04-15

    The first asymmetric dearomatization addition reaction of halomethyl arenes including benzofuran and benzothiophene was enabled by chromium catalysis. A variety of aldehydes served as suitable electrophiles under mild reaction conditions. Molecular complexities are quickly increased in a highly diastereo- and enantioselective manner.

  11. A General Copper-Catalyzed Vinylic Halogen Exchange Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nitelet, Antoine; Evano, Gwilherm

    2016-04-15

    An efficient and general system for the halogen exchange reaction in alkenyl halides has been developed. Upon reaction with catalytic amounts of copper iodide and trans-N,N'-dimethylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine in the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride or bromide, a wide range of easily accessible alkenyl iodides can be smoothly transformed to their far less available chlorinated and brominated derivatives in excellent yields and with full retention of the double bond geometry. This reaction also enables the chlorination of bromoalkenes and could be extended to the use of gem-dibromoalkenes. PMID:27031868

  12. Mineral catalyzed hydrothermal reactions as precursors to extant anabolic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G. D.

    Investigations into hydrothermal reactions under conditions of moderate hydrostatic pressure and in the presence of transition metal sulfides reveal reaction pathways the bear remarkable similarity with extant anabolic reactions. First, it is seen that most common transition metal sulfides are capable of promoting all of the key reactions at the core of Acetyl Co-A synthesis. These include CO reduction to methyl groups and carbonyl insertion to form transferable acetyl groups. The synthesis of alpha-keto acids are also promoted, presumably by double carbonylation. A pathway starting with CO2 and H2 has been identified leading to the synthesis of citric acid. Citric acid provides a crucial abiotic, anabolic, branch point to the prebiotic synthesis of various amino acids, as well. As the pyrimidines, orotic acid and uracil. In many cases the abiotic reaction pathways differ slightly from extant anabolic pathways by shunting past particularly reactive intermediates, e.g. oxaloacetic acid. These reactions have the capacity to provide the prebiotic world with many, but not all, of the molecular constituents to aid the emergence of an RNA world.

  13. Synthesis of polycyclic indole skeletons by a gold(I)-catalyzed cascade reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shi, Shuai; Pflästerer, Daniel; Rettenmeier, Eva; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of simple, easily available urea-substituted 3-phenylpropargyl alcohols catalyzed by a simple IPr-gold(I) catalyst in a gold(I)-catalyzed cascade reaction composing of a gold-catalyzed nucleophilic addition and a subsequent gold-catalyzed substitution reaction delivers 1H-imidazo[1,5-a]indol-3(2H)-ones. Other gold(I) catalysts or silver catalysts gave lower yields and often gave other side products. Gold(III) and copper(II) catalysts decomposed the starting material. Twelve examples, including donor and acceptor substituents on the distal nitrogen of the urea substructure, are provided. An X-ray crystal structure analysis confirmed the structural assignment. The mechanistic investigation including isolation and further conversion of intermediates and reactions with enantiopure starting materials indicated that after the nucleophilic-addition step, the substrate undergoes an S(N)1-type benzylic substitution reaction at the indolyl alcohol intermediate or an intramolecular hydroamination reaction of the 2-vinylindole intermediate. PMID:24375591

  14. Reaction progress kinetic analysis of a copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling reaction with N-phenyl tetrahydroisoquinoline.

    PubMed

    Scott, Martin; Sud, Abhishek; Boess, Esther; Klussmann, Martin

    2014-12-19

    The results from a kinetic investigation of a Cu-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction between N-phenyl tetrahydroisoquinoline and a silyl enol ether using elemental oxygen as oxidant are presented. By using reaction progress kinetic analysis as an evaluation method for the obtained data, we discovered information regarding the reaction order of the substrates and catalysts. Based on this information and some additional experiments, a refined model for the initial oxidative activation of the amine substrate and the activation of the nucleophile by the catalyst was developed. The mechanistic information also helped to understand why silyl nucleophiles have previously failed in a related Cu-catalyzed reaction using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant and how to overcome this limitation. PMID:25203932

  15. A new color of the synthetic chameleon methoxyallene: synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol derivatives: an unusual reaction mechanism, a remarkable crystal packing, and first palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Oliver; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Addition of lithiated methoxyallene to pivalonitrile afforded after aqueous workup the expected iminoallene 1 in excellent yield. Treatment of this intermediate with silver nitrate accomplished the desired cyclization to the electron-rich pyrrole derivative 2 in moderate yield. Surprisingly, trifluoroacetic acid converted iminoallene 1 to a mixture of enamide 3 and trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol 4 (together with its tautomer 5). A plausible mechanism proposed for this intriguing transformation involves addition of trifluoroacetate to the central allene carbon atom of an allenyl iminium intermediate as crucial step. Enamide 3 is converted to pyridinol 4 by an intramolecular aldol-type process. A practical direct synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinols 4, 10, 11, and 12 starting from typical nitriles and methoxyallene was established. Pyridinol 10 shows an interesting crystal packing with three molecules in the elementary cell and a remarkable helical supramolecular arrangement. Trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol 4 was converted to the corresponding pyridyl nonaflate 13, which is an excellent precursor for palladium-catalyzed reactions leading to pyridine derivatives 14-16 in good to excellent yields. The new synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridines disclosed here demonstrates a novel reactivity pattern of lithiated methoxyallene which is incorporated into the products as the unusual tripolar synthon B. PMID:15352110

  16. A new color of the synthetic chameleon methoxyallene: synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol derivatives: an unusual reaction mechanism, a remarkable crystal packing, and first palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Oliver; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Addition of lithiated methoxyallene to pivalonitrile afforded after aqueous workup the expected iminoallene 1 in excellent yield. Treatment of this intermediate with silver nitrate accomplished the desired cyclization to the electron-rich pyrrole derivative 2 in moderate yield. Surprisingly, trifluoroacetic acid converted iminoallene 1 to a mixture of enamide 3 and trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol 4 (together with its tautomer 5). A plausible mechanism proposed for this intriguing transformation involves addition of trifluoroacetate to the central allene carbon atom of an allenyl iminium intermediate as crucial step. Enamide 3 is converted to pyridinol 4 by an intramolecular aldol-type process. A practical direct synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinols 4, 10, 11, and 12 starting from typical nitriles and methoxyallene was established. Pyridinol 10 shows an interesting crystal packing with three molecules in the elementary cell and a remarkable helical supramolecular arrangement. Trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol 4 was converted to the corresponding pyridyl nonaflate 13, which is an excellent precursor for palladium-catalyzed reactions leading to pyridine derivatives 14-16 in good to excellent yields. The new synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridines disclosed here demonstrates a novel reactivity pattern of lithiated methoxyallene which is incorporated into the products as the unusual tripolar synthon B.

  17. Graphene cover-promoted metal-catalyzed reactions

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yunxi; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Y. Y.; Weng, Xuefei; Li, Huan; Chen, Mingshu; Jin, Li; Dong, Aiyi; Mu, Rentao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Li; Bluhm, Hendrik; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, S. B.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic overlayers on metals have commonly been considered as inhibitors for surface reactions due to their chemical inertness and physical blockage of surface active sites. In this work, however, we find that surface reactions, for instance, CO adsorption/desorption and CO oxidation, can take place on Pt(111) surface covered by monolayer graphene sheets. Surface science measurements combined with density functional calculations show that the graphene overlayer weakens the strong interaction between CO and Pt and, consequently, facilitates the CO oxidation with lower apparent activation energy. These results suggest that interfaces between graphitic overlayers and metal surfaces act as 2D confined nanoreactors, in which catalytic reactions are promoted. The finding contrasts with the conventional knowledge that graphitic carbon poisons a catalyst surface but opens up an avenue to enhance catalytic performance through coating of metal catalysts with controlled graphitic covers. PMID:25404332

  18. Graphene cover-promoted metal-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yunxi; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Y Y; Weng, Xuefei; Li, Huan; Chen, Mingshu; Jin, Li; Dong, Aiyi; Mu, Rentao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Li; Bluhm, Hendrik; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, S B; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-12-01

    Graphitic overlayers on metals have commonly been considered as inhibitors for surface reactions due to their chemical inertness and physical blockage of surface active sites. In this work, however, we find that surface reactions, for instance, CO adsorption/desorption and CO oxidation, can take place on Pt(111) surface covered by monolayer graphene sheets. Surface science measurements combined with density functional calculations show that the graphene overlayer weakens the strong interaction between CO and Pt and, consequently, facilitates the CO oxidation with lower apparent activation energy. These results suggest that interfaces between graphitic overlayers and metal surfaces act as 2D confined nanoreactors, in which catalytic reactions are promoted. The finding contrasts with the conventional knowledge that graphitic carbon poisons a catalyst surface but opens up an avenue to enhance catalytic performance through coating of metal catalysts with controlled graphitic covers. PMID:25404332

  19. Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  20. Eutectic salt catalyzed environmentally benign and highly efficient Biginelli reaction.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  1. The spliceosome catalyzes debranching in competition with reverse of the first chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chi-Kang; Cheng, Soo-Chen

    2013-07-01

    Splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA occurs via two steps of the transesterification reaction, forming a lariat intermediate and product. The reactions are catalyzed by the spliceosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex composed of five small nuclear RNAs and numerous protein factors. The spliceosome shares a similar catalytic core structure with that of fungal group II introns, which can self-splice using the same chemical mechanism. Like group II introns, both catalytic steps of pre-mRNA splicing can efficiently reverse on the affinity-purified spliceosome. The spliceosome also catalyzes a hydrolytic spliced-exon reopening reaction as observed in group II introns, indicating a strong link in their evolutionary relationship. We show here that, by arresting splicing after the first catalytic step, the purified spliceosome can catalyze debranching of lariat-intron-exon 2. The debranching reaction, although not observed in group II introns, has similar monovalent cation preferences as those for splicing catalysis of group II introns. The debranching reaction is in competition with the reverse Step 1 reaction influenced by the ionic environment and the structure of components binding near the catalytic center, suggesting that the catalytic center of the spliceosome can switch between different conformations to direct different chemical reactions.

  2. Energy Diagrams for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Concepts and Misconcepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aledo, J. Carlos; Lobo, Carolina; del Valle, Alicia Esteban

    2003-01-01

    Despite the utility that energy diagrams have as a teaching and learning tool, a survey of their use, in seven popular Biochemistry textbooks, reveals that there is certain confusion around this topic. In our opinion, this confusion arises from the reluctance of authors to consider and indicate the conditions under which the reaction being…

  3. Copper-catalyzed borylative allyl-allyl coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Semba, Kazuhiko; Bessho, Naoto; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Terao, Jun; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2014-08-18

    Borylative allyl-allyl coupling using allenes, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and allyl phosphates has been developed in the presence of a copper catalyst bearing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. The reaction affords boryl-substituted 1,5-diene derivatives in good to high yields with high regioselectivity and Z selectivity. PMID:24986738

  4. Particle growth by acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions of organic carbonyls on preexisting aerosols.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myoseon; Carroll, Brian; Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Kamens, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Aerosol growth by the heterogeneous reactions of different aliphatic and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls in the presence/absence of acidified seed aerosols was studied in a 2 m long flow reactor (2.5 cm i.d.) and a 0.5-m3 Teflon film bag under darkness. For the flow reactor experiments, 2,4-hexadienal, 5-methyl-3-hexen-2-one, 2-cyclohexenone, 3-methyl-2-cyclopentenone, 3-methyl-2-cyclohexenone, and octanal were studied. The carbonyls were selected based on their reactivity for acid-catalyzed reactions, their proton affinity, and their similarity to the ring-opening products from the atmospheric oxidation of aromatics. To facilitate acid-catalyzed heterogeneous hemiacetal/acetal formation, glycerol was injected along with inorganic seed aerosols into the flow reactor system. Carbonyl heterogeneous reactions were accelerated in the presence of acid catalysts (H2SO4), leading to higher aerosol yields than in their absence. Aldehydes were more reactive than ketones for acid-catalyzed reactions. The conjugated functionality also resulted in higher organic aerosol yieldsthan saturated aliphatic carbonyls because conjugation with the olefinic bond increases the basicity of the carbonyl leading to increased stability of the protonated carbonyl. Aerosol population was measured from a series of sampling ports along the length of the flow reactor using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry of either an impacted liquid aerosol layer or direct reaction of carbonyls as a thin liquid layer on a zinc selenide FTIR disk was employed to demonstrate the direct transformation of chemical functional groups via the acid-catalyzed reactions. These results strongly indicate that atmospheric multifunctional organic carbonyls, which are created by atmospheric photooxidation reactions, can contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions. Exploratory studies in 25- and 190-m3 outdoor chambers

  5. Polymer-supported siloxane transfer agents for Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh H; Smith, Amos B

    2013-08-16

    The design, synthesis, and validation of a ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) polymer supporting siloxane transfer agents have been achieved that permit efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The solubility properties of the polymer facilitate not only product purification but also polymer recycling without significant loss of cross-coupling activity.

  6. Towards Efficient and Wide-Scope Metal-Catalyzed Alkyl-Alkyl Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas

    1999-10-18

    The simplest organic fragment, C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)), is unfortunately the most difficult to prepare by metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (shown schematically) in the presence of functional groups. Recent advances show, however, that alkane moieties can be built within functionalized molecules by a careful choice of catalysts and conditions.

  7. Symmetrical bisquinolones via metal-catalyzed cross-coupling and homocoupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamshed; Glasnov, Toma N; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Kappe, C Oliver

    2006-02-17

    Functionalized 4,4'-bisquinolones can be efficiently synthesized by microwave-assisted palladium(0)-catalyzed one-pot borylation/Suzuki cross-coupling reactions or via nickel(0)-mediated homocouplings of 4-chloroquinolin-2(1H)-one precursors. Both methods are also applicable to other types of symmetrical biaryls.

  8. The effect of Mg/2+/ and Ca/2+/ on urea-catalyzed phosphorylation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuk, G. J.; Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by urea is investigated, showing that Mg(2+) improves markedly the yield of products containing pyrophosphate bonds. Yields of up to 25% of uridine diphosphate can be obtained with struvite at temperatures as low as 65 C.

  9. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  10. Chiral holmium complex-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of silyloxyvinylindoles: stereoselective synthesis of hydrocarbazoles.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinji; Morikawa, Takahiro; Nishida, Atsushi

    2013-10-18

    The catalytic and asymmetric cycloaddition between 3-[1-(silyloxy)vinyl]indoles and electron-deficient olefins gave substituted hydrocarbazoles in up to 99% yield and 94% ee. This reaction was catalyzed by a novel chiral holmium(III) complex. Alkylation of the cycloadduct gave a tricyclic compound with four continuous chiral centers, one of which was a quaternary carbon.

  11. Influence of an internal trifluoromethyl group on the rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of vinyldiazocarbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Valerij A; Supurgibekov, Murat B; Davies, Huw M L; Sieler, Joachim; Zakharova, Valerija M

    2013-05-01

    Incorporation of a trifluoromethyl group into the structure of 4-(alkoxycarbonyl)vinyldiazocarbonyl compounds greatly decreases the tendency of the carbenoid intermediates formed during Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions to undergo intermolecular processes. Instead, they are prone to experience intramolecular [1,5]- and [1,3]-electrocyclizations to produce reactive cyclopropenes and furans, and these are capable of further transformations. PMID:23614681

  12. Asymmetric Michael addition reactions of nitroalkanes to 2-furanones catalyzed by bifunctional thiourea catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhushuang; Ji, Ling; Ge, Zemei; Wang, Xin; Li, Runtao

    2015-05-21

    The first bifunctional thiourea catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition reactions of nitroalkanes to 2-furanones are described. The highly functionalized γ-lactones with two or three consecutive stereogenic carbons were obtained in high yields (up to 99%), high diastereoselectivities (up to >20 : 1 dr) and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee).

  13. Iron-Catalyzed Stereoselective Cross-Coupling Reactions of Stereodefined Enol Carbamates with Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ana Cristina Parra; Still, Raymond; Frantz, Doug E

    2016-06-01

    A practical and highly stereoselective iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of stereodefined enol carbamates and Grignard reagents to yield tri- and tetrasubstituted acrylates is reported. A facile method for the stereoselective generation of these enol carbamates has also been developed. PMID:27088754

  14. Pd-catalyzed cascade allylic alkylation and dearomatization reactions of indoles with vinyloxirane.

    PubMed

    Gao, Run-Duo; Xu, Qing-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-09-14

    We have developed Pd-catalyzed intermolecular Friedel-Crafts-type allylic alkylation and allylic dearomatization reactions of substituted indoles bearing a nucleophilic group with vinyloxirane, providing an efficient method to synthesize structurally diverse tetrahydrocarboline and spiroindolenine derivatives under mild conditions. PMID:27511802

  15. Enantioselective [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of isocyanates and allenes catalyzed by nickel.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tomoya; Morimoto, Masao; Murakami, Masahiro

    2010-11-17

    The enantioselective intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of two molecules of isocyanate and one molecule of allene is catalyzed by a nickel(0)/(S,S)-i-Pr-FOXAP complex, providing an efficient access to enantiomerically enriched dihydropyrimidine-2,4-diones.

  16. Acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reaction of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qifan; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2015-05-01

    Acid-catalyzed heterogeneous oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to be a potential pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene and its oxidation products. However, knowledge of the chemical mechanism and kinetics for this process is still incomplete. 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol (MBO321), an aliphatic alcohol structurally similar to isoprene, is emitted by pine forests and widely used in the manufacturing industries. Herein the uptake of MBO321 into H2SO4-H2O2 mixed solution was investigated using a flow-tube reactor coupled to a mass spectrometer. The reactive uptake coefficients (γ) were acquired for the first time and were found to increase rapidly with increasing acid concentration. Corresponding aqueous-phase reactions were performed to further study the mechanism of this acid-catalyzed reaction. MBO321 could convert to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) and yield isoprene in acidic media. Organic hydroperoxides (ROOHs) were found to be generated through the acid-catalyzed route, which could undergo a rearrangement reaction and result in the formation of acetone and acetaldehyde. Organosulfates, which have been proposed to be SOA tracer compounds in the atmosphere, were also produced during the oxidation process. These results suggest that the heterogeneous acid-catalyzed reaction of MBO321 with H2O2 may contribute to SOA mass under certain atmospheric conditions.

  17. Recyclable polystyrene-supported siloxane-transfer agent for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh H; Smith, Amos B

    2014-04-01

    The rational design, synthesis, and validation of a significantly improved insoluble polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent has been achieved that permits efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The cross-linked polystyrene support facilitates product purification with excellent siloxane recycling. Drawbacks of a previous polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent, relating to reaction efficiency and polymer stability after repeated cycles, have been addressed.

  18. Advances in metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of halogenated quinazolinones and their quinazoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mphahlele, Malose Jack; Maluleka, Marole Maria

    2014-10-29

    Halogenated quinazolinones and quinazolines are versatile synthetic intermediates for the metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions such as the Kumada, Stille, Negishi, Sonogashira, Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck cross-coupling reactions or carbon-heteroatom bond formation via the Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling to yield novel polysubstituted derivatives. This review presents an overview of the application of these methods on halogenated quinazolin-4-ones and their quinazolines to generate novel polysubstituted derivatives.

  19. Gold-catalyzed Hosomi-Sakurai type reaction for the total synthesis of herboxidiene.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi, Barla; Mohapatra, Debendra K

    2016-07-14

    Total synthesis of herboxidiene/GEX1A/TAN-1609 has been accomplished in the 22 longest linear sequences starting from 2-butyne-1,4-diol following our recently developed gold-catalyzed Hosomi-Sakurai type of reaction on lactols with allyltrimethyl silane and Stille cross coupling to assemble the advanced fragment. The synthesis of the C10-C19 fragment was accomplished by means of Sharpless epoxidation and asymmetric alkylation reactions starting from (R)-methyl lactate. PMID:27193332

  20. Recyclable Polystyrene-Supported Siloxane-Transfer Agent for Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational design, synthesis, and validation of a significantly improved insoluble polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent has been achieved that permits efficient palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The cross-linked polystyrene support facilitates product purification with excellent siloxane recycling. Drawbacks of a previous polymer-supported siloxane-transfer agent, relating to reaction efficiency and polymer stability after repeated cycles, have been addressed. PMID:24661113

  1. Monitoring of Eco RI-catalyzed cleavage reaction of fluorescent-labeled heterochiral DNA.

    PubMed

    Urata, Hidehito; Tamaki, Chihiro; Matsuno, Miki; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Akagi, Masao

    2007-01-01

    We have found the unusual reactivity of a heterochiral oligodeoxynucleotide toward restriction endonuclease Eco RI. To conduct the kinetic analysis of the reaction, fluorescent-labeled single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide molecular beacons were designed and synthesized. The beacons showed a remarkable fluorescence response by addition of Eco RI. The results promise that the beacon could be an effective tool for the kinetic analysis of Eco RI-catalyzed cleavage reaction of the heterochiral oligodeoxynucleotide.

  2. Thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective iso-Pictet-Spengler reactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunmi; Klausen, Rebekka S; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2011-10-21

    A one-pot condensation of isotryptamines and aldehydes that affords enantiomerically enriched 4-substituted tetrahydro-γ-carbolines is reported. The reaction is induced by a chiral thiourea/benzoic acid dual catalyst system. Purification of the N-Boc-protected products by trituration or crystallization provides the optically pure tetrahydro-γ-carboline derivatives in a scalable and highly practical procedure. PMID:21919478

  3. Cobalt(III) porphyrin catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ryota; Kurahashi, Takuya; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2012-09-21

    An efficient protocol for the aza-Diels-Alder reaction of electron-deficient 1,3-dienes with unactivated imines in the presence of a cationic cobalt(III) porphyrin complex was developed. The transformation proceeded smoothly to afford the desired piperidine scaffold within 2 h at ambient temperature. Highly chemoselective cycloaddition of imines with dienes in the presence of a variety of carbonyl compounds was also demonstrated.

  4. Secondary alkyl halides in transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Alena; Lautens, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Enormous effort has gone into the development of metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with alkyl halides as electrophilic coupling partners. Whereas a wide array of primary alkyl halides can now be used effectively in cross-coupling reactions, the synthetic potential of secondary alkyl halides is just beginning to be revealed. This Minireview summarizes selected examples of the use of secondary alkyl halides as electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions. Emphasis is placed on the transition metals employed, the mechanistic pathways involved, and implications in terms of the stereochemical outcome of reactions.

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Carboamination Reactions of Electron-Poor Nitrogen Nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Modified reaction conditions that facilitate Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions of electron-deficient nitrogen nucleophiles are reported. Pent-4-enylamine derivatives bearing N-tosyl or N-trifluoroacetyl groups are coupled with aryl triflates to afford substituted pyrrolidines in good yield. These reactions proceed via a mechanism involving anti-aminopalladation of the alkene, which differs from previously reported analogous reactions of N-aryl and N-boc pentenylamines. The application of these conditions to a formal synthesis of (±)-aphanorphine is also described. PMID:26622222

  6. Ligand-controlled access to [4 + 2] and [4 + 3] cycloadditions in gold-catalyzed reactions of allene-dienes.

    PubMed

    Mauleón, Pablo; Zeldin, Rachel M; González, Ana Z; Toste, F Dean

    2009-05-13

    By adjustment of the electronic properties of the ancilliary ligands, high selectivity can be achieved for either [4 + 2] or [4 + 3] cycloaddition reactions of allene-dienes catalyzed by gold(I). Triarylphosphitegold(I) complexes are employed as catalysts for a [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction leading to alkylidenecyclohexenes. Conversely, di-tert-butylbiphenylphosphinegold(I)-catalyzed reactions afford cycloheptadienes via [4 + 3] cycloaddition reactions.

  7. First principle kinetic studies of zeolite-catalyzed methylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van der Mynsbrugge, Jeroen; Vandichel, Matthias; Hemelsoet, Karen; Lesthaeghe, David; Ghysels, An; Marin, Guy B; Waroquier, Michel

    2011-02-01

    Methylations of ethene, propene, and butene by methanol over the acidic microporous H-ZSM-5 catalyst are studied by means of state of the art computational techniques, to derive Arrhenius plots and rate constants from first principles that can directly be compared with the experimental data. For these key elementary reactions in the methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) process, direct kinetic data became available only recently [J. Catal.2005, 224, 115-123; J. Catal.2005, 234, 385-400]. At 350 °C, apparent activation energies of 103, 69, and 45 kJ/mol and rate constants of 2.6 × 10(-4), 4.5 × 10(-3), and 1.3 × 10(-2) mol/(g h mbar) for ethene, propene, and butene were derived, giving following relative ratios for methylation k(ethene)/k(propene)/k(butene) = 1:17:50. In this work, rate constants including pre-exponential factors are calculated which give very good agreement with the experimental data: apparent activation energies of 94, 62, and 37 kJ/mol for ethene, propene, and butene are found, and relative ratios of methylation k(ethene)/k(propene)/k(butene) = 1:23:763. The entropies of gas phase alkenes are underestimated in the harmonic oscillator approximation due to the occurrence of internal rotations. These low vibrational modes were substituted by manually constructed partition functions. Overall, the absolute reaction rates can be calculated with near chemical accuracy, and qualitative trends are very well reproduced. In addition, the proposed scheme is computationally very efficient and constitutes significant progress in kinetic modeling of reactions in heterogeneous catalysis.

  8. Enhanced Diffusion of Enzymes that Catalyze Exothermic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes have been recently found to exhibit enhanced diffusion due to their catalytic activities. A recent experiment [C. Riedel et al., Nature (London) 517, 227 (2015)] has found evidence that suggests this phenomenon might be controlled by the degree of exothermicity of the catalytic reaction involved. Four mechanisms that can lead to this effect, namely, self-thermophoresis, boost in kinetic energy, stochastic swimming, and collective heating are critically discussed, and it is shown that only the last two can be strong enough to account for the observations. The resulting quantitative description is used to examine the biological significance of the effect.

  9. Module degradation catalyzed by metal-encapsulation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Four major properties are considered to be relevant in determining service life of a photovoltaic module: (1) Mechanical: creep resistance, modulus, tensile strength; (2) Optical: integrated transmission at 0.4 to 1.1 m wavelength; (3) Chemical: inertness with respect to metals and other components, retention of stabilizers, etc. and (4) Electrical; maintaining effective isolation of conductive components. These properties were measured after exposing polymer specimens to three types of accelerated stress: thermal, ultraviolet radiation and metal catalysts. These conditions give rise to a large number of complex interrelated free-radical reactions that result in the deterioration of polymeric materials.

  10. Enantioselective TADMAP-Catalyzed Carboxyl Migration Reactions for the Synthesis of Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott A.; Aleman, Pedro; Christy, Justin; Kampf, Jeff W.; Va, Porino

    2008-01-01

    The chiral, nucleophilic catalyst TADMAP (1) has been prepared from 3-lithio-4-dimethylamino-pyridine (5) and triphenylacetaldehyde (3), followed by acylation and resolution. TADMAP catalyzes the carboxyl migration of oxazolyl, furanyl, and benzofuranyl enol carbonates with good to excellent levels of enantioselection. The oxazole reactions are especially efficient, and are used to prepare chiral lactams (23) and lactones (30) containing a quaternary asymmetric carbon. TADMAP-catalyzed carboxyl migrations in the indole series are relatively slow and proceed with inconsistent enantioselectivity. Modeling studies (B3LYP/6-31G*) have been used in qualitative correlations of catalyst conformation, reactivity, and enantioselectivity. PMID:16417383

  11. Mutagenicity screening of reaction products from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of phenolic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, I.J.; Aitken, M.D.; Ball, L.M.; Heck, P.E. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    Phenol-oxidizing enzymes such as peroxidases, laccases, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase are capable of catalyzing the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic pollutants. Although the use of these enzymes in waste-treatment applications has been proposed by a number of investigators, little information exists on the toxicological characteristics of the oxidation products. The enzymes chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase were used in this study to catalyze the oxidation of phenol, several mono-substituted phenols, and pentachlorophenol. Seventeen reaction mixtures representing selected combinations of enzyme and parent phenol were subjected to mutagenicity screening using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay; five selected mixtures were also incubated with the S9 microsomal preparation to detect the possible presence of promutagens. The majority of reaction mixtures tested were not directly mutagenic, and none of those tested with S9 gave a positive response. Such lack of mutagenicity of enzymatic oxidation products provides encouragement for establishing the feasibility of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation as a waste-treatment process. The only positive responses were obtained with reaction products from the lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol. Clear positive responses were observed when strain TA100 was incubated with 2-nitrophenol reaction-product mixtures, and when strain TA98 was incubated with the 4-nitrophenol reaction mixture. Additionally, 2,4-dinitrophenol was identified as a reaction product from 4-nitrophenol, and preliminary evidence indicates that both 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrophenol are produced from the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol. Possible mechanism by which these nitration reactions occur are discussed.

  12. Influence of Catalyst Structure and Reaction Conditions on Anti- vs. Syn-Aminopalladation Pathways in Pd-Catalyzed Alkene Carboamination Reactions of N-Allyl Sulfamides

    PubMed Central

    Fornwald, Ryan M.; Fritz, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed coupling of N-allyl sulfamides with aryl and alkenyl triflates to afford cyclic sulfamide products is described. In contrast to other known Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions, these transformations may be selectively induced to occur by way of either anti- or syn-aminopalladation mechanistic pathways by modifying catalyst structure and reaction conditions. PMID:24938206

  13. Pericyclic reactions catalyzed by chorismate-utilizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Audrey L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions of enzymology is how catalytic power is derived. This review focuses on recent developments in the structure-function relationships of chorismate-utilizing enzymes involved in siderophore biosynthesis to provide insight into the biocatalysis of pericyclic reactions. Specifically, salicylate synthesis by the two-enzyme pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is examined. The isochorismate-pyruvate lyase is discussed in the context of its homologues, the chorismate mutases, and the isochorismate synthase is compared to its homologues in the MST-family (menaquinone, siderophore or tryptophan biosynthesis) of enzymes. The tentative conclusion is that the activities observed cannot be reconciled by inspection of the active site participants alone. Instead, individual activities must arise from unique dynamic properties of each enzyme that are tuned to promote specific chemistries. PMID:21823653

  14. Copper-catalyzed selective hydroamination reactions of alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shi-Liang; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The development of selective reactions that utilize easily available and abundant precursors for the efficient synthesis of amines is a longstanding goal of chemical research. Despite the centrality of amines in a number of important research areas, including medicinal chemistry, total synthesis and materials science, a general, selective, and step-efficient synthesis of amines is still needed. In this work we describe a set of mild catalytic conditions utilizing a single copper-based catalyst that enables the direct preparation of three distinct and important amine classes (enamines, α-chiral branched alkylamines, and linear alkylamines) from readily available alkyne starting materials with high levels of chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. This methodology was applied to the asymmetric synthesis of rivastigmine and the formal synthesis of several other pharmaceutical agents, including duloxetine, atomoxetine, fluoxetine, and tolterodine. PMID:25515888

  15. Molecular Epoxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Rhenium, Molybdenum, and Iron Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kück, Jens W; Reich, Robert M; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-02-01

    Epoxidations are of high relevance in many organic syntheses, both in industry and academia. In this personal account, the development of rhenium, molybdenum, and iron complexes in molecular epoxidation catalysis is presented. Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) is the benchmark catalyst for these reactions, with a thoroughly investigated mechanism and reactivity profile. More recently, highly active molecular molybdenum and iron catalysts have emerged, challenging the extraordinary role of MTO in epoxidation catalysis with high turnover frequencies (TOFs). This development is highlighted in its use of cheaper, more readily available metals, and the challenges of using base metals in catalysis are discussed. These results show the promise that relatively cheap and abundant metals, such as molybdenum and iron, hold for the future of epoxidation catalysis. PMID:26776087

  16. Cysteine Oxidation Reactions Catalyzed by a Mononuclear Non-heme Iron Enzyme (OvoA) in Ovothiol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OvoA in ovothiol biosynthesis is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme catalyzing the oxidative coupling between histidine and cysteine. It can also catalyze the oxidative coupling between hercynine and cysteine, yet with a different regio-selectivity. Due to the potential application of this reaction for industrial ergothioneine production, in this study, we systematically characterized OvoA by a combination of three different assays. Our studies revealed that OvoA can also catalyze the oxidation of cysteine to either cysteine sulfinic acid or cystine. Remarkably, these OvoA-catalyzed reactions can be systematically modulated by a slight modification of one of its substrates, histidine. PMID:24684381

  17. Steroid hydroxylations: A paradigm for cytochrome P450 catalyzed mammalian monooxygenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, Ronald W. . E-mail: Ronald.estabrook@utsouthwestern.edu

    2005-12-09

    The present article reviews the history of research on the hydroxylation of steroid hormones as catalyzed by enzymes present in mammalian tissues. The report describes how studies of steroid hormone synthesis have played a central role in the discovery of the monooxygenase functions of the cytochrome P450s. Studies of steroid hydroxylation reactions can be credited with showing that: (a) the adrenal mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the 11{beta}-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone was the first mammalian enzyme shown by O{sup 18} studies to be an oxygenase; (b) the adrenal microsomal enzyme catalyzing the 21-hydroxylation of steroids was the first mammalian enzyme to show experimentally the proposed 1:1:1 stoichiometry (substrate:oxygen:reduced pyridine nucleotide) of a monooxygenase reaction; (c) application of the photochemical action spectrum technique for reversal of carbon monoxide inhibition of the 21-hydroxylation of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone was the first demonstration that cytochrome P450 was an oxygenase; (d) spectrophotometric studies of the binding of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone to bovine adrenal microsomal P450 revealed the first step in the cyclic reaction scheme of P450, as it catalyzes the 'activation' of oxygen in a monooxygenase reaction; (e) purified adrenodoxin was shown to function as an electron transport component of the adrenal mitochondrial monooxygenase system required for the activity of the 11{beta}-hydroxylase reaction. Adrenodoxin was the first iron-sulfur protein isolated and purified from mammalian tissues and the first soluble protein identified as a reductase of a P450; (f) fractionation of adrenal mitochondrial P450 and incubation with adrenodoxin and a cytosolic (flavoprotein) fraction were the first demonstration of the reconstitution of a mammalian P450 monooxygenase reaction.

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed Reactions Directed toward the Formation of Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Takuya; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2015-06-16

    Heterocycles have garnered significant attention because they are important functional building blocks in various useful molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, pesticides, and materials. Several studies have been conducted regarding the preparation of heterocyclic skeletons with an emphasis on selectivity and efficiency. Three strategies are typically employed to construct cyclic molecules, namely, cyclization, cycloaddition, and ring-size alterations. Although each method has certain advantages, cycloaddition may be superior from the viewpoint of divergence. Specifically, cycloadditions enable the construction of rings from several pieces. However, the construction of heterocycles via cycloadditions is more challenging than the construction of carbocycles. For heterocycle construction, simple pericyclic reactions rarely work smoothly because of the large HOMO-LUMO gap unless well-designed combinations, such as electron-rich dienes and aldehydes, are utilized. Thus, a different approach should be employed to prepare heterocycles via cycloadditions. To this end, the use of metallacycles containing heteroatoms is expected to serve as a promising solution. In this study, we focused on the preparation of heteroatom-containing nickelacycles. Because nickel possesses a relatively high redox potential and an affinity for heteroatoms, several methods were developed to synthesize heteronickelacycles from various starting materials. The prepared nickelacycles were demonstrated to be reasonable intermediates in cycloaddition reactions, which were used to prepare various heterocycles. In this Account, we introduce the following four methods to prepare heterocycles via heteronickelacycles. (1) Direct oxidative insertion of Ni(0) to α,β-unsaturated enone derivatives: treatment of 3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one with Ni(0) afforded an oxa-nickelacycle, which reacted with alkynes to give pyrans. (2) Substitution of a part of a cyclic compound with

  19. Symmetry-Driven Strategy for the Assembly of the Core Tetracycle of (+)-Ryanodine: Synthetic Utility of a Cobalt-Catalyzed Olefin Oxidation and α-Alkoxy Bridgehead Radical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Masanori; Hagiwara, Koji; Masuda, Kengo; Koshimizu, Masaki; Kawamata, Takahiro; Matsui, Yuki; Urabe, Daisuke; Inoue, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Ryanodine (1) is a potent modulator of intracellular calcium release channels, designated as ryanodine receptors. The exceptionally complex molecular architecture of 1 comprises a highly oxygenated pentacyclic system with eleven contiguous stereogenic centers, which makes it a formidable target for organic synthesis. We identified the embedded C2 -symmetric tricyclic substructure within 1. This specific recognition permitted us to design a concise synthetic route to enantiopure tricycle 9 by utilizing a series of pairwise functionalizations. The four tetrasubstituted carbon centers of 9 were effectively constructed by three key reactions, a dearomatizing Diels-Alder reaction, the kinetic resolution of the obtained racemic 14 through asymmetric methanolysis, and the transannular aldol reaction of the eight-membered diketone 10. A new combination of cobalt-catalyzed hydroperoxidation and NfF-promoted elimination enabled conversion of the hindered olefin of 9 into the corresponding ketone, thus realizing the desymmetrization. Finally, the tetrasubstituted carbon was stereospecifically installed by utilizing the α-alkoxy bridgehead radical to deliver the core tetracycle 7 with the six contiguous tetrasubstituted carbon centers. Consequently, the present work not only accomplishes efficient assembly of four out of the five fused rings of 1, but also develops two new powerful methodologies: two-step ketone formation and bridgehead radical reaction.

  20. Hydroconversion reactions catalyzed by highly stable pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, S.A.; Mosqueira, L.; Espinosa, J.; Fuentes, G.A.

    1993-12-31

    Al-pillared clays (Al-PILC) and Al-X-PILC (X = Ga, Ni), structurally stable at high temperature - in the case of Ga above 800{degrees}C-have been synthesized by controlling intercalation steps and stabilization procedures. New bidimensional materials with an interlaminar distance about 10-12{angstrom} and with different chemical reactivities in the pillars have thus been produced. The analytical techniques employed to characterize the materials and the processes involved during stabilization include N{sub 2} adsorption, AA, XRD, NH{sub 3}-TPD, TGA-DTA, HR- and MAS-NMR (Al, Si, and Ga) and in-situ IR and DRIFTS. Chemical characterization using high pressure reactions with probe molecules such as diphenylmethane and tert-butylbenzene shows selectivity patterns than can be clearly associated with the microstructure of the PILC used, as well as an effect due to the composition of the pillars. Similar studies with zeolites give patterns that differ from those of PILC, probably because of the change in dimensionality of the internal structure. Poisoning studies with metal porphyrins prove that PLIC have improved resistance compared to standard catalysts. Hydrotreatment of Maya crude results a significant reduction in total sulfur under conditions suitable for commercial operation.

  1. Organosulfur compounds: electrophilic reagents in transition-metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

    PubMed

    Dubbaka, Srinivas Reddy; Vogel, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions are among the most powerful methods in organic synthesis and play a crucial role in modern materials science and medicinal chemistry. Recent developments in the area of ligands and additives permit the cross-coupling of a large variety of reactants, including inexpensive and readily available sulfonyl chlorides. Their desulfitative carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions (Negishi, Stille, carbonylative Stille, Suzuki-Miyaura, and Sonogashira-Hagihara-type cross-couplings and Mizoroki-Heck-type arylations) are reviewed together with carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions with other organosulfur compounds as electrophilic reagents.

  2. Enantioselective Synthesis of Spirocyclohexadienones by NHC-Catalyzed Formal [3+3] Annulation Reaction of Enals.

    PubMed

    Yetra, Santhivardhana Reddy; Mondal, Santigopal; Mukherjee, Subrata; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Biju, Akkattu T

    2016-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of pyrazolone-fused spirocyclohexadienones was demonstrated by the reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with α-arylidene pyrazolinones under oxidative N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)catalysis. This atom-economic and formal [3+3] annulation reaction proceeds through a vinylogous Michael addition/spiroannulation/dehydrogenation cascade to afford spirocyclic compounds with an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter in moderate to good yields and excellent ee values. Key to the success of the reaction is the cooperative NHC-catalyzed generation of chiral α,β-unsaturated acyl azoliums from enals, and base-mediated tandem generation of dienolate/enolate intermediates from pyrazolinones. PMID:26487242

  3. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Selective Reactions of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with 2-Naphthols.

    PubMed

    Kaicharla, Trinadh; Roy, Tony; Thangaraj, Manikandan; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Biju, Akkattu T

    2016-08-16

    Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions of 2-substituted cyclopropane 1,1-dicarboxylates with 2-naphthols is reported. The reaction exhibits tunable selectivity depending on the nature of Lewis acid employed and proceed as a dearomatization/rearomatization sequence. With Bi(OTf)3 as the Lewis acid, a highly selective dehydrative [3+2] cyclopentannulation takes place leading to the formation of naphthalene-fused cyclopentanes. Interestingly, engaging Sc(OTf)3 as the Lewis acid, a Friedel-Crafts-type addition of 2-naphthols to cyclopropanes takes place, thus affording functionalized 2-naphthols. Both reactions furnished the target products in high regioselectivity and moderate to high yields. PMID:27391792

  4. Study of the mechanism of muon-catalyzed t + t fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanova, L. N.; Demin, D. L.; Filchenkov, V. V.

    2015-01-15

    The mechanism for the muon catalyzed fusion reaction t + t → {sup 4}He + 2n + 11.33 MeV is investigated. The model of the cascade reaction with {sup 5}He as an intermediate state is considered, both the ground and the first exited states being taken into account. The neutron energy spectrum measured in the recent experiment is compared with the Monte-Carlo-simulated one. Varying reaction parameters, we obtain optimum values for the relative weights of the {sup 5}He ground and excited states and for the excitation energy and width of the excited state.

  5. Enantioselective Multicomponent Condensation Reactions of Phenols, Aldehydes, and Boronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Keith S; Luan, Yi; Ramella, Daniele; Panek, James S; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Chiral diols and biphenols catalyze the multicomponent condensation reaction of phenols, aldehydes, and alkenyl or aryl boronates. The condensation products are formed in good yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds via an initial Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aldehyde and phenol to yield an ortho-quinone methide that undergoes an enantioselective boronate addition. A cyclization pathway was discovered while exploring the scope of the reaction that provides access to chiral 2,4-diaryl chroman products, the core of which is a structural motif found in natural products. PMID:26576776

  6. Peroxygenase-Catalyzed Oxyfunctionalization Reactions Promoted by the Complete Oxidation of Methanol.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Gomez Baraibar, Alvaro; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Yanase, Hideshi; Alcalde, Miguel; van Berkel, Willem J H; Hollmann, Frank

    2016-01-11

    Peroxygenases catalyze a broad range of (stereo)selective oxyfunctionalization reactions. However, to access their full catalytic potential, peroxygenases need a balanced provision of hydrogen peroxide to achieve high catalytic activity while minimizing oxidative inactivation. Herein, we report an enzymatic cascade process that employs methanol as a sacrificial electron donor for the reductive activation of molecular oxygen. Full oxidation of methanol is achieved, generating three equivalents of hydrogen peroxide that can be used completely for the stereoselective hydroxylation of ethylbenzene as a model reaction. Overall we propose and demonstrate an atom-efficient and easily applicable alternative to established hydrogen peroxide generation methods, which enables the efficient use of peroxygenases for oxyfunctionalization reactions.

  7. Dual Catalysis: Proton/Metal-Catalyzed Tandem Benzofuran Annulation/Carbene Transfer Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Chen, Kai; Fu, Hongguang; Zhang, Li; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng; Zhu, Shifa

    2016-03-18

    An efficient proton/metal-catalyzed tandem benzofuran annulation/carbene transfer reaction for the synthesis of various benzofuryl-substituted cyclopropanes and cycloheptatrienes has been developed. The reaction was proposed to proceed through two key intermediates, o-quinone methide (o-QM) and benzofuryl carbene. The DFT-based computational studies indicated that the reaction was initiated through the dehydration of o-HBA via a Brønsted acid mediated proton shuttle transition state, forming the key intermediate o-QM. PMID:26950391

  8. Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzed reactions in D2O: product release limits the rate of this sluggish enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Venkatadurga; Toth, Krisztina; Richard, John P

    2012-04-18

    The E. coli isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) catalyzed reaction of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) in D(2)O gives a 66% yield of dimethylallyl diphosphate labeled with deuterium at the (E)-methyl group (d-DMAPP) and a 34% yield of IPP labeled with 1 mol of deuterium at C-2 (d-IPP). This shows that the release to D(2)O of the initial product of the IDI-catalyzed reaction (d-DMAPP) is slower than its conversion to d-IPP. Product dissociation is therefore rate determining for isomerization of IPP with a rate constant k(dis) ≈ k(cat) = 0.08 s(-1). The data provide an estimated rate constant of k(as) = 6 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) for binding of DMAPP to E. coli IDI that is similar to rate constants determined for the binding of N-protonated 2-amino ethyl diphosphate intermediate analogs to IDI from yeast [Reardon, J. E.; Abeles, R. H. Biochemistry1986, 25, 5609-5616]. We propose that ligand binding to IDI is relatively slow because there is a significant kinetic barrier to reorganization of the initial encounter complex between enzyme, substrate, and an essential Mg(2+) to form the Michaelis complex where the metal cation bridges the protein and the substrate diphosphate group.

  9. Existence of efficient divalent metal ion-catalyzed and inefficient divalent metal ion-independent channels in reactions catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing-Min; Zhou, De-Min; Takagi, Yasuomi; Kasai, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Atsushi; Baba, Tadashi; Taira, Kazunari

    2002-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme is generally accepted as a well characterized metalloenzyme. However, the precise nature of the interactions of the RNA with metal ions remains to be fully defined. Examination of metal ion-catalyzed hammerhead reactions at limited concentrations of metal ions is useful for evaluation of the role of metal ions, as demonstrated in this study. At concentrations of Mn2+ ions from 0.3 to 3 mM, addition of the ribozyme to the reaction mixture under single-turnover conditions enhances the reaction with the product reaching a fixed maximum level. Further addition of the ribozyme inhibits the reaction, demonstrating that a certain number of divalent metal ions is required for proper folding and also for catalysis. At extremely high concentrations, monovalent ions, such as Na+ ions, can also serve as cofactors in hammerhead ribozyme-catalyzed reactions. However, the catalytic efficiency of monovalent ions is extremely low and, thus, high concentrations are required. Furthermore, addition of monovalent ions to divalent metal ion-catalyzed hammerhead reactions inhibits the divalent metal ion-catalyzed reactions, suggesting that the more desirable divalent metal ion–ribozyme complexes are converted to less desirable monovalent metal ion–ribozyme complexes via removal of divalent metal ions, which serve as a structural support in the ribozyme complex. Even though two channels appear to exist, namely an efficient divalent metal ion-catalyzed channel and an inefficient monovalent metal ion-catalyzed channel, it is clear that, under physiological conditions, hammerhead ribozymes are metalloenzymes that act via the significantly more efficient divalent metal ion-dependent channel. Moreover, the observed kinetic data are consistent with Lilley’s and DeRose’s two-phase folding model that was based on ground state structure analyses. PMID:12034824

  10. A General Palladium-Catalyzed Hiyama Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Yuen, On Ying; So, Chau Ming; Man, Ho Wing; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2016-05-01

    A general palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with aryl and heteroaryl trialkoxysilanes by a Pd(OAc)2 /L2 catalytic system is presented. A newly developed water addition protocol can dramatically improve the product yields. The conjugation of the Pd/L2 system and the water addition protocol can efficiently catalyze a broad range of electron-rich, -neutral, -deficient, and sterically hindered aryl chlorides and heteroaryl chlorides with excellent yields within three hours and the catalyst loading can be down to 0.05 mol % Pd for the first time. Hiyama coupling of heteroaryl chlorides with heteroaryl silanes is also reported for the first time. The reaction can be easily scaled up 200 times (100 mmol) without any degasification and purification of reactants; this facilitates the practical application in routine synthesis.

  11. Graphene-Catalyzed Direct Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions: Mechanism, Selectivity, and Synthetic Utility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feng; Patel, Mehulkumar; Luo, Feixiang; Flach, Carol; Mendelsohn, Richard; Garfunkel, Eric; He, Huixin; Szostak, Michal

    2015-11-18

    Transition-metal-catalyzed alkylation reactions of arenes have become a central transformation in organic synthesis. Herein, we report the first general strategy for alkylation of arenes with styrenes and alcohols catalyzed by carbon-based materials, exploiting the unique property of graphenes to produce valuable diarylalkane products in high yields and excellent regioselectivity. The protocol is characterized by a wide substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance. Notably, this process constitutes the first general application of graphenes to promote direct C-C bond formation utilizing polar functional groups anchored on the GO surface, thus opening the door for an array of functional group alkylations using benign and readily available graphene materials. Mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via a tandem catalysis mechanism in which both of the coupling partners are activated by interaction with the GO surface. PMID:26496423

  12. Synthesis of Cyclic Peptidomimetics via a Pd-Catalyzed Macroamination Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Brett A; Smith, Graham F; Sciammetta, Nunzio

    2016-08-19

    A new method to access cyclic peptidomimetics via a Pd-catalyzed macroamination reaction is presented. Natural amino acid amines are revealed as proficient coupling partners in these transformations. With a commercially available CPhos G3 catalyst system and substrates bearing diverse amino acid and aryl halide backbones, the unique head to side-chain (or side-chain mimic) macrocycles are afforded with ring sizes from 11 to 23 members in yields up to 84%. PMID:27508926

  13. Metal-Catalyzed β-Functionalization of Michael Acceptors through Reductive Radical Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Streuff, Jan; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2015-11-23

    Transition-metal-catalyzed radical reactions are becoming increasingly important in modern organic chemistry. They offer fascinating and unconventional ways for connecting molecular fragments that are often complementary to traditional methods. In particular, reductive radical additions to α,β-unsaturated compounds have recently gained substantial attention as a result of their broad applicability in organic synthesis. This Minireview critically discusses the recent landmark achievements in this field in context with earlier reports that laid the foundation for today's developments.

  14. Metal-Catalyzed β-Functionalization of Michael Acceptors through Reductive Radical Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Streuff, Jan; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2015-11-23

    Transition-metal-catalyzed radical reactions are becoming increasingly important in modern organic chemistry. They offer fascinating and unconventional ways for connecting molecular fragments that are often complementary to traditional methods. In particular, reductive radical additions to α,β-unsaturated compounds have recently gained substantial attention as a result of their broad applicability in organic synthesis. This Minireview critically discusses the recent landmark achievements in this field in context with earlier reports that laid the foundation for today's developments. PMID:26471460

  15. New insights into the mechanism of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism of the iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of alkyl halides with aryl Grignard reagents is studied by a combination of GC monitoring and DFT calculation. Herein, we investigate two possible reaction pathways, the regular oxidative addition (OA) pathway and the atom transfer (AT) pathway that might occur in the rate-limiting step. The computational studies revealed that the AT pathway requires less energy than the regular OA pathway. PMID:25649755

  16. Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Cascade Reactions Involving 1,2-Indole Migration.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Estela; Nieto Faza, Olalla; Silva López, Carlos; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; Sanz, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    A cascade reaction of indoles with propargylic diols involving an unprecedented metal-free 1,2-indole migration onto an alkyne was carried out. DFT calculations support a mechanism consisting of a concerted nucleophilic attack of the indole nucleus with loss of water, followed by the 1,2-migration and subsequent Nazarov cyclization. This Brønsted acid-catalyzed protocol affords indole-functionalized benzofulvene derivatives in high yields. PMID:26211757

  17. N-tosylhydrazones: versatile reagents for metal-catalyzed and metal-free cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhihui; Zhang, Hongbin

    2012-01-21

    Transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have been established as one of the most powerful tools for the construction of C-C and C-X bonds. In this context, the development of novel metal-catalyzed cross-coupling processes that do not require stoichiometric organometallic reagents is particularly attractive. Recently, N-tosylhydrazones have emerged as a new type of versatile coupling partners for transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions as well as metal-free cross-coupling reactions, and have attracted increasing attention. This tutorial review summarizes recent important developments in this area with N-tosylhydrazones as versatile coupling partners.

  18. Biorefining: heterogeneously catalyzed reactions of carbohydrates for the production of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Reetta; Vilonen, Kati; Niemelä, Marita

    2011-08-22

    Furfurals are important intermediates in the chemical industry. They are typically produced by homogeneous catalysis in aqueous solutions. However, heterogeneously catalyzed processes would be beneficial in view of the principles of green chemistry: the elimination of homogeneous mineral acids makes the reaction mixtures less corrosive, produces less waste, and facilitates easy separation and recovery of the catalyst. Finding an active and stable water-tolerant solid acid catalyst still poses a challenge for the production of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF). Furfural is produced in the dehydration of xylose, and HMF is formed from glucose and fructose in the presence of an acidic catalyst. Bases are not active in dehydration reaction but do catalyze the isomerization of monosaccharides, which is favorable when using glucose as a raw material. In addition to the desired dehydration of monosaccharides, many undesired side reactions take place, reducing the selectivity and deactivating the catalyst. In addition, the catalyst properties play an important role in the selectivity. In this Review, catalytic conversion approaches are summarized, focusing on the heterogeneously catalyzed formation of furfural. The attractiveness of catalytic concepts is evaluated, keeping in mind productivity, sustainability, and environmental footprint. PMID:21728248

  19. Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH. Hence, it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology. Due to the complex reaction system, the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating, and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies. Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity, low cost, negligible toxicity and easy recovery, and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. Therefore, this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials. OH, hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions (HO2/O2(-)) and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity. Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation, the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron, the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism, and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism. Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, related future research directions are also suggested. PMID:26899649

  20. More than bystanders: the effect of olefins on transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey B; Rovis, Tomislav

    2008-01-01

    Olefins and alkynes are ubiquitous in transition-metal catalysis, whether introduced by the substrate, the catalyst, or as an additive. Whereas the impact of metals and ligands is relatively well understood, the effects of olefins in these reactions are generally underappreciated, even though numerous examples of olefins influencing the outcome of a reaction, through increased activity, stability, or selectivity, have been reported. This Review provides an overview of the interaction of olefins with transition metals and documents examples of olefins influencing the outcome of catalytic reactions, in particular cross-coupling reactions. It should thus provide a basis for the improved understanding and further utilization of olefin and alkyne effects in transition-metal-catalyzed reactions.

  1. Illustrating the Utility of X-Ray Crystallography for Structure Elucidation through a Tandem Aldol Condensation/Diels-Alder Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Giang T.; Kubo, Tomohiro; Young, Victor G., Jr.; Kautzky, Jacob A.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Two introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiments are described based on the Diels-Alder reaction of 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylcyclopentadienone, which is synthesized prior to or in a one-pot reaction, with styrene. Students are presented with three possible products, the "endo" and "exo" diastereomers and the decarbonylated…

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation with Diarylmethane Pronucleophiles: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Jiang, Hui; Mao, Jianyou; Bellomo, Ana; Jeong, Soo A; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-01-18

    Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions are among the most efficient methods to construct C-C bonds between sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms. In contrast, much less work has been done with nickel catalysts, perhaps because of the different mechanisms of the allylic substitution reactions. Palladium catalysts generally undergo substitution by a "soft"-nucleophile pathway, wherein the nucleophile attacks the allyl group externally. Nickel catalysts are usually paired with "hard" nucleophiles, which attack the metal before C-C bond formation. Introduced herein is a rare nickel-based catalyst which promotes substitution with diarylmethane pronucleophiles by the soft-nucleophile pathway. Preliminary studies on the asymmetric allylic alkylation are promising.

  3. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Laboratory-Scale Carbon–Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions of Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vaneet; Stokes, Benjamin J.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene, the simplest alkene, is the most abundantly synthesized organic molecule by volume. It is readily incorporated into transitionmetal–catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions through migratory insertions into alkylmetal intermediates. Because of its D2h symmetry, only one insertion outcome is possible. This limits byproduct formation and greatly simplifies analysis. As described within this Minireview, many carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions incorporate a molecule (or more) of ethylene at ambient pressure and temperature. In many cases, a useful substituted alkene is incorporated into the product. PMID:24105881

  4. Change in heat capacity accurately predicts vibrational coupling in enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Pudney, Christopher R

    2015-08-01

    The temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) have been used to infer the vibrational coupling of the protein and or substrate to the reaction coordinate, particularly in enzyme-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions. We find that a new model for the temperature dependence of experimentally determined observed rate constants (macromolecular rate theory, MMRT) is able to accurately predict the occurrence of vibrational coupling, even where the temperature dependence of the KIE fails. This model, that incorporates the change in heat capacity for enzyme catalysis, demonstrates remarkable consistency with both experiment and theory and in many respects is more robust than models used at present.

  5. Peptide-Catalyzed Stereoselective Conjugate Addition Reactions of Aldehydes to Maleimide.

    PubMed

    Grünenfelder, Claudio E; Kisunzu, Jessica K; Wennemers, Helma

    2016-07-18

    The tripeptide H-dPro-Pro-Asn-NH2 is presented as a catalyst for asymmetric conjugate addition reactions of aldehydes to maleimide. The peptidic catalyst promotes the reaction between various aldehydes and unprotected maleimide with high stereoselectivities and yields. The obtained products were readily derivatized to the corresponding pyrrolidines, lactams, lactones, and peptide-like compounds. (1) H NMR spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational investigations provided insight into the conformational properties of H-dPro-Pro-Asn-NH2 and revealed the importance of hydrogen bonding between the peptide and maleimide for catalyzing the stereoselective C-C bond formation.

  6. Copper-Catalyzed Reaction of Trifluoromethylketones with Aldehydes via a Copper Difluoroenolate.

    PubMed

    Doi, Ryohei; Ohashi, Masato; Ogoshi, Sensuke

    2016-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed reaction of easily accessible α,α,α-trifluoromethylketones with various aldehydes affords difluoro-methylene compounds in the presence of diboron and NaOtBu. The key process of the reaction is the formation of a copper difluoroenolate by 1,2-addition of a borylcopper intermediate to α,α,α-trifluoromethylketones and subsequent β-fluoride elimination. Mechanistic studies including the isolation and characterization of a possible anionic copper alkoxide intermediate are also described. PMID:26514445

  7. Assembly of 3-Sulfenylbenzofurans and 3-Sulfenylindoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Annulation/Arylthiolation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxiao; Li, Chunsheng; Yang, Shaorong; An, Yanni; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-04-01

    A novel and efficient palladium-catalyzed cascade annulation/arylthiolation reaction has been developed to afford functionalized 3-sulfenylbenzofuran and 3-sulfenylindole derivatives in moderate to good yields from readily available 2-alkynylphenols and 2-alkynylamines in ionic liquids. This protocol provides a valuable synthetic tool for the assembly of a wide range of 3-sulfenylbenzofuran and 3-sulfenylindole derivatives with high atom- and step-economy and exceptional functional group tolerance. Moreover, the employment of ionic liquids under mild reaction conditions makes this transformation green and practical. Furthermore, this approach enriched current C-S bond formation chemistry, making a valuable and practical method in synthetic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:26980622

  8. Investigation of the complex reaction coordinate of acid catalyzed amide hydrolysis from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2004-05-01

    The rate-determining step of acid catalyzed peptide hydrolysis is the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule to the carbon atom of the amide group. Therein the addition of the hydroxyl group to the amide carbon atom involves the association of a water molecule transferring one of its protons to an adjacent water molecule. The protonation of the amide nitrogen atom follows as a separate reaction step. Since the nucleophilic attack involves the breaking and formation of several bonds, the underlying reaction coordinate is rather complex. We investigate this reaction step from path sampling Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. This approach does not require the predefinition of reaction coordinates and is thus particularly suited for investigating reaction mechanisms. From our simulations the most relevant components of the reaction coordinate are elaborated. Though the C⋯O distance of the oxygen atom of the water molecule performing the nucleophilic attack and the corresponding amide carbon atom is a descriptor of the reaction progress, a complete picture of the reaction coordinate must include all three molecules taking part in the reaction. Moreover, the proton transfer is found to depend on favorable solvent configurations. Thus, also the arrangement of non-reacting, i.e. solvent water molecules needs to be considered in the reaction coordinate.

  9. Rh(I)-catalyzed intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of 1-ene-, 1-yne- and 1-allene-vinylcyclopropanes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lei; Lin, Mu; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2010-02-21

    New Rh(I)-catalyzed intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of 1-ene-, 1-yne and 1-allene-vinylcyclopropanes have been developed, affording an efficient and versatile synthesis of cyclopentane- and cyclopentene-embedded bicyclic structures.

  10. Synthesis of marine polyacetylenes callyberynes A-C by transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions to sp centers.

    PubMed

    López, Susana; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Midón, Pilar; Castedo, Luis; Saa, Carlos

    2006-03-31

    Efficient total syntheses of the sponge-derived hydrocarbon polyacetylenes callyberynes A-C have been achieved using metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of highly unsaturated 1,3-diyne fragments as the key steps, namely: Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reaction under Alami's optimized conditions (sp-sp), sequential Sonogashira reaction of a cis,cis-divinyl dihalide (sp2-sp), and Kumada-Corriu reaction of an unactivated alkyl iodide (sp3-sp). This last approach constitutes the first application of a metal-catalyzed sp3-sp Kumada-Corriu cross-coupling reaction to the synthesis of a natural product.

  11. Keratin Protein-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reaction and Comparison with Other Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Häring, Marleen; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Díaz Díaz, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding β-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein) were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry) reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent. PMID:27571051

  12. Mechanism of silver- and copper-catalyzed decarboxylation reactions of aryl carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liqin; Su, Weiping; Lin, Zhenyang

    2011-11-28

    Silver- and copper-catalyzed decarboxylation reactions of aryl carboxylic acids were investigated with the aid of density functional theory calculations. The reaction mechanism starts with a carboxylate complex of silver or copper. Decarboxylation occurs via ejecting CO(2) from the carboxylate complex followed by protodemetallation with an aryl carboxylic acid molecule to regenerate the starting complex. Our results indicated that the primary factor to affect the overall reaction barriers is the ortho steric destabilization effect on the starting carboxylate complexes for most cases. Certain ortho substituents that are capable of coordinating with the catalyst metal center without causing significant ring strain stabilize the decarboxylation transition states and reduce the overall reaction barriers. However, the coordination effect is found to be the secondary factor when compared with the ortho effect. PMID:21979246

  13. Keratin Protein-Catalyzed Nitroaldol (Henry) Reaction and Comparison with Other Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Häring, Marleen; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Díaz Díaz, David

    2016-08-25

    Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding β-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein) were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry) reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent.

  14. Substrate activity of synthetic formyl phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Smithers, G.W.; Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1987-06-30

    Formyl phosphate, a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.3), was synthesized from formyl fluoride and inorganic phosphate, and the product was characterized by /sup 31/P, /sup 1/H, and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR indicates that formyl phosphate is particularly labile, with a half-life of 48 min in a buffered neutral solution at 20 /sup 0/C. At pH 7, hydrolysis occurs with P-O bond cleavage, as demonstrated by /sup 18/O incorporation from H/sub 2//sup 18/O into P/sub i/, while at pH 1 and pH 13 hydrolysis occurs with C-O bond cleavage. The substrate activity of formyl phosphate was tested in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. Formyl phosphate supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formyltetrahydrofolate is produced from tetrahydrofolate and formyl phosphate in a reaction mixture that contains enzyme, Mg(II), and ADP, and ATP is produced from formyl phosphate and ADP with enzyme, Mg(II), and tetrahydrofolate present. The requirements for ADP and for tetrahydrofolate as cofactors in these reactions are consistent with previous steady-state kinetic and isotope exchange studies, which demonstrated that all substrate subsites must be occupied prior to catalysis. The k/sub cat/ values for both the forward and reverse directions, with formyl phosphate as the substrate, are much lower than those for the normal forward and reverse reactions. Kinetic analysis of the formyl phosphate supported reactions indicates that the low steady-state rates observed for the synthetic intermediate are most likely due to the sequential nature of the normal reaction.

  15. Helical-Peptide-Catalyzed Enantioselective Michael Addition Reactions and Their Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Atsushi; Umeno, Tomohiro; Doi, Mitsunobu; Akagawa, Kengo; Kudo, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masakazu

    2016-08-01

    Helical peptide foldamer catalyzed Michael addition reactions of nitroalkane or dialkyl malonate to α,β-unsaturated ketones are reported along with the mechanistic considerations of the enantio-induction. A wide variety of α,β-unsaturated ketones, including β-aryl, β-alkyl enones, and cyclic enones, were found to be catalyzed by the helical peptide to give Michael adducts with high enantioselectivities (up to 99%). On the basis of X-ray crystallographic analysis and depsipeptide study, the amide protons, N(2)-H and N(3)-H, at the N terminus in the α-helical peptide catalyst were crucial for activating Michael donors, while the N-terminal primary amine activated Michael acceptors through the formation of iminium ion intermediates.

  16. Ligand- and base-free Pd(II)-catalyzed controlled switching between oxidative Heck and conjugate addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah E; Boehnke, Julian; Glen, Pauline E; Levey, Steven; Patrick, Lisa; Jordan-Hore, James A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2013-04-19

    A simple change of solvent allows controlled and efficient switching between oxidative Heck and conjugate addition reactions on cyclic Michael acceptor substrates, catalyzed by a cationic Pd(II) catalyst system. Both reactions are ligand- and base-free and tolerant of air and moisture, and the controlled switching sheds light on some of the factors which favor one reaction over the other.

  17. A general synthesis of fluoroalkylated alkenes by palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of fluoroalkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhang; Min, Qiao-Qiao; Zhao, Hai-Yang; Gu, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Xingang

    2015-01-19

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of fluoroalkyl halides, including perfluoroalkyl bromides, trifluoromethyl iodides, and difluoroalkyl bromides, has been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with high efficiency and broad substrate scope, and provides a general and straightforward access to fluoroalkylated alkenes which are of interest in life and material sciences.

  18. Sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid-catalyzed triacetone triperoxide (TATP) reaction mixtures: an aging study.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Mark; Bilusich, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The organic peroxide explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is regularly encountered by law enforcement agents in various stages of its production. This study utilizes solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to examine sulfuric acid-, hydrochloric acid-, and nitric acid-catalyzed TATP syntheses during the initial 24 h of these reactions at low temperatures (5-9°C). Additionally, aging of the reaction mixtures was examined at both low and ambient temperatures (19-21°C) for a further 9 days. For each experiment, TATP could be readily identified in the headspace above the reaction mixture 1 h subsequent to the combination of reagents; at 24 h, TATP and diacetone diperoxide (DADP) were prominent. TATP degraded more rapidly than DADP. Additionally, chlorinated acetones chloroacetone and 1,1,-dichloroacetone were identified in the headspace above the hydrochloric acid-catalyzed TATP reaction mixture. These were not present when the catalyst was sulfuric acid or nitric acid. PMID:21595692

  19. Contribution of flavin covalent linkage with histidine 99 to the reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Osbourne; Cowins, Sharonda; Gadda, Giovanni

    2009-06-19

    The FAD-dependent choline oxidase has a flavin cofactor covalently attached to the protein via histidine 99 through an 8alpha-N(3)-histidyl linkage. The enzyme catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine, forming betaine aldehyde as an enzyme-bound intermediate. The variant form of choline oxidase in which the histidine residue has been replaced with asparagine was used to investigate the contribution of the 8alpha-N(3)-histidyl linkage of FAD to the protein toward the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Decreases of 10-fold and 30-fold in the k(cat)/K(m) and k(cat) values were observed as compared with wild-type choline oxidase at pH 10 and 25 degrees C, with no significant effect on k(cat)/K(O) using choline as substrate. Both the k(cat)/K(m) and k(cat) values increased with increasing pH to limiting values at high pH consistent with the participation of an unprotonated group in the reductive half-reaction and the overall turnover of the enzyme. The pH independence of both (D)(k(cat)/K(m)) and (D)k(cat), with average values of 9.2 +/- 3.3 and 7.4 +/- 0.5, respectively, is consistent with absence of external forward and reverse commitments to catalysis, and the chemical step of CH bond cleavage being rate-limiting for both the reductive half-reaction and the overall enzyme turnover. The temperature dependence of the (D)k(red) values suggests disruption of the preorganization in the asparagine variant enzyme. Altogether, the data presented in this study are consistent with the FAD-histidyl covalent linkage being important for the optimal positioning of the hydride ion donor and acceptor in the tunneling reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase.

  20. An Upstream By-product from Ester Activation via NHC-Catalysis Catalyzes Downstream Sulfonyl Migration Reaction.

    PubMed

    Han, Runfeng; He, Liwenze; Liu, Lin; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2016-01-01

    A sequential reaction combining N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) catalysis allowed for the upstream by-product NHPI, which was generated in the NHC-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction, to act as the catalyst for a downstream nitrogen-to-carbon sulfonyl migration reaction. Enantiomeric excess of the major product in the cycloaddition reaction remained intact in the follow-up sulfonyl migration reaction.

  1. Metal-Catalyzed Cyclization Reactions of 2,3,4-Trien-1-ols: A Joint Experimental-Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Cembellín, Sara; Fernández, Israel; Martínez Del Campo, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Controlled preparation of tri- and tetrasubstituted furans, as well as carbazoles has been achieved through chemo- and regioselective metal-catalyzed cyclization reactions of cumulenic alcohols. The gold- and palladium-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions of cumulenols, including indole-tethered 2,3,4-trien-1-ols, to trisubstituted furans was effective, due to a 5-endo-dig oxycyclization by attack of the hydroxy group onto the central cumulene double bond. In contrast, palladium-catalyzed heterocyclization/coupling reactions with 3-bromoprop-1-enes furnished tetrasubstituted furans. Also studied was the palladium-catalyzed cyclization/coupling sequence involving protected indole-tethered 2,3,4-trien-1-ols and 3-bromoprop-1-enes that exclusively generated trisubstituted carbazole derivatives. These results could be explained through a selective 6-endo-dig cumulenic hydroarylation, followed by aromatization. DFT calculations were carried out to understand this difference in reactivity. PMID:27383332

  2. Imparting Catalyst-Control upon Classical Palladium-Catalyzed Alkenyl C–H Bond Functionalization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Sigman, Matthew S.; Werner, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus The functional group transformations carried out by the palladium-catalyzed Wacker and Heck reactions are radically different, but they are both alkenyl C-H bond functionalization reactions that have found extensive use in organic synthesis. The synthetic community depends heavily on these important reactions, but selectivity issues arising from control by the substrate, rather than control by the catalyst, have prevented the realization of their full potential. Because of important similarities in the respective selectivity-determining nucleopalladation and β-hydride elimination steps of these processes, we posit that the mechanistic insight garnered through the development of one of these catalytic reactions may be applied to the other. In this Account, we detail our efforts to develop catalyst-controlled variants of both the Wacker oxidation and the Heck reaction to address synthetic limitations and provide mechanistic insight into the underlying organometallic processes of these reactions. In contrast to previous reports, we discovered that electrophilic palladium catalysts with non-coordinating counterions allowed for the use of a Lewis basic ligand to efficiently promote TBHP-mediated Wacker oxidation reactions of styrenes. This discovery led to the mechanistically guided development of a Wacker reaction catalyzed by a palladium complex with a bidentate ligand. This ligation may prohibit coordination of allylic heteroatoms, thereby allowing for the application of the Wacker oxidation to substrates that were poorly behaved under classical conditions. Likewise, we unexpectedly discovered that electrophilic Pd-σ-alkyl intermediates are capable of distinguishing between electronically inequivalent C–H bonds during β-hydride elimination. As a result, we have developed E-styrenyl selective oxidative Heck reactions of previously unsuccessful electronically non-biased alkene substrates using arylboronic acid derivatives. The mechanistic insight gained

  3. Peroxygenase-Catalyzed Oxyfunctionalization Reactions Promoted by the Complete Oxidation of Methanol.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Gomez Baraibar, Alvaro; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Yanase, Hideshi; Alcalde, Miguel; van Berkel, Willem J H; Hollmann, Frank

    2016-01-11

    Peroxygenases catalyze a broad range of (stereo)selective oxyfunctionalization reactions. However, to access their full catalytic potential, peroxygenases need a balanced provision of hydrogen peroxide to achieve high catalytic activity while minimizing oxidative inactivation. Herein, we report an enzymatic cascade process that employs methanol as a sacrificial electron donor for the reductive activation of molecular oxygen. Full oxidation of methanol is achieved, generating three equivalents of hydrogen peroxide that can be used completely for the stereoselective hydroxylation of ethylbenzene as a model reaction. Overall we propose and demonstrate an atom-efficient and easily applicable alternative to established hydrogen peroxide generation methods, which enables the efficient use of peroxygenases for oxyfunctionalization reactions. PMID:26607550

  4. Chemiluminescent Reactions Catalyzed by Nanoparticles of Gold, Silver, and Gold/Silver Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abideen, Saqib Ul

    Chemiluminescence (CL) reactions are catalyzed by metals nanoparticles, which display unique catalytic properties due to an increased surface area. The present study describes the catalytic effects of nanoparticles (NP) of silver, gold, and alloys of Au/Ag nanoparticles on the chemiluminescent reaction taking place between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. It was found that silver nanoparticles and alloy nanoparticles enhance the CL process when their sizes remained in the range of 30 nm to 50 nm. The data show that the intensity and rate of chemiluminescence were influenced by the mole fraction of gold and silver in the alloy. Data to this chemiluminescence reaction are modeled by a double exponential curve, which indicates that two competing processes are occurring.

  5. Kinetic study of free fatty acid esterification reaction catalyzed by recoverable and reusable hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Hung

    2013-02-01

    The catalytic performance and recoverability of several homogeneous acid catalysts (hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids) for the esterification of enzyme-hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol were studied. Although all tested catalysts drove the reaction to a high yield, hydrochloric acid was the only catalyst that could be considerably recovered and reused. The kinetics of the esterification reaction catalyzed by hydrochloric acid was investigated under varying catalyst loading (0.1-1M), reaction temperature (303-343K), and methanol/FFA molar ratio (1:1-20:1). In addition, a pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model incorporating the above factors was developed. A good agreement (r(2)=0.98) between the experimental and calculated data was obtained, thus proving the reliability of the model. Furthermore, the reusability of hydrochloric acid in FFA esterification can be predicted by the developed model. The recoverable hydrochloric acid achieved high yields of FFA esterification within five times of reuse.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 4a,8a-azaboranaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feiye; Lv, Lily; Huang, Min; Zhou, Zhaohui; Fang, Xiangdong

    2014-10-01

    A concise and effective three-step synthesis of 4a,8a-azaboranaphthalene (ABN) has been developed in gram scale. Electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of ABN provide excellent functional-group-tolerant cross-coupling partners in various Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (e.g., Sonogashira, Suzuki-Miyaura, or Heck reaction). Photophysical, electrochemical, and DFT calculations all suggest a narrowed HOMO-LUMO gap with extended π-conjugation characters in the cross-coupled molecules. The ABN moiety as a new fluorophore has a distinct and selective fluorescence response toward Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions, demonstrating great potential for the ABN structural motif in fluorescent chemosensors.

  7. Titanocene(III)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Secondary Amides, Aldehydes, and Electrophilic Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; He, Jiang; Li, Heng-Hui; Wang, Ao; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Ai-E; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    An umpolung Mannich-type reaction of secondary amides, aliphatic aldehydes, and electrophilic alkenes has been disclosed. This reaction features the one-pot formation of C-N and C-C bonds by a titanocene-catalyzed radical coupling of the condensation products, from secondary amides and aldehydes, with electrophilic alkenes. N-substituted γ-amido-acid derivatives and γ-amido ketones can be efficiently prepared by the current method. Extension to the reaction between ketoamides and electrophilic alkenes allows rapid assembly of piperidine skeletons with α-amino quaternary carbon centers. Its synthetic utility has been demonstrated by a facile construction of the tricyclic core of marine alkaloids such as cylindricine C and polycitorol A.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of acyldiazomethane and tandem cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Qu, Shuanglin; Zhou, Lei; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Chengpeng; Cheng, Jiajia; Hossain, Mohammad Lokman; Liu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-04-01

    Palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of acyldiazomethanes with aryl iodides has been developed. This reaction is featured by the retention of the diazo functionality in the transformation, thus constituting a novel method for the introduction of diazo functionality to organic molecules. Consistent with the experimental results, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation indicates that the formation of Pd-carbene species in the catalytic cycle through dinitrogen extrusion from the palladium ethyl diazoacetate (Pd-EDA) complex is less favorable. The reaction instead proceeds through Ag2CO3 assisted deprotonation and subsequently reductive elimination to afford the products with diazo functionality remained. This C-H functionalization transformation can be further combined with the recently evolved palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of diazo compounds with aryl iodides to develop a tandem coupling process for the synthesis of α,α-diaryl esters. DFT calculation supports the involvement of Pd-carbene as reactive intermediate in the catalytic cycle, which goes through facile carbene migratory insertion with a low energy barrier (3.8 kcal/mol). PMID:25794590

  9. In situ Regeneration of NADH via Lipoamide Dehydrogenase-catalyzed Electron Transfer Reaction Evidenced by Spectroelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Tsz Kin; Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    NAD/NADH is a coenzyme found in all living cells, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. We report on characterizations of in situ regeneration of NADH via lipoamide dehydrogenase (LD)-catalyzed electron transfer reaction to regenerate NADH using UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of NADH regeneration were measured as 0.80 {+-} 0.15 mM and 1.91 {+-} 0.09 {micro}M s-1 in a 1-mm thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell using gold gauze as the working electrode at the applied potential -0.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The electrocatalytic reduction of the NAD system was further coupled with the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase to examine the coenzymatic activity of the regenerated NADH. Although the reproducible electrocatalytic reduction of NAD into NADH is known to be difficult compared to the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH, our spectroelectrochemical results indicate that the in situ regeneration of NADH via LD-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is fast and sustainable and can be potentially applied to many NAD/NADH-dependent enzyme systems.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of acyldiazomethane and tandem cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Qu, Shuanglin; Zhou, Lei; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Chengpeng; Cheng, Jiajia; Hossain, Mohammad Lokman; Liu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-04-01

    Palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of acyldiazomethanes with aryl iodides has been developed. This reaction is featured by the retention of the diazo functionality in the transformation, thus constituting a novel method for the introduction of diazo functionality to organic molecules. Consistent with the experimental results, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation indicates that the formation of Pd-carbene species in the catalytic cycle through dinitrogen extrusion from the palladium ethyl diazoacetate (Pd-EDA) complex is less favorable. The reaction instead proceeds through Ag2CO3 assisted deprotonation and subsequently reductive elimination to afford the products with diazo functionality remained. This C-H functionalization transformation can be further combined with the recently evolved palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of diazo compounds with aryl iodides to develop a tandem coupling process for the synthesis of α,α-diaryl esters. DFT calculation supports the involvement of Pd-carbene as reactive intermediate in the catalytic cycle, which goes through facile carbene migratory insertion with a low energy barrier (3.8 kcal/mol).

  11. Palladium-atom catalyzed formic acid decomposition and the switch of reaction mechanism with temperature.

    PubMed

    He, Nan; Li, Zhen Hua

    2016-04-21

    Formic acid decomposition (FAD) reaction has been an innovative way for hydrogen energy. Noble metal catalysts, especially palladium-containing nanoparticles, supported or unsupported, perform well in this reaction. Herein, we considered the simplest model, wherein one Pd atom is used as the FAD catalyst. With high-level theoretical calculations of CCSD(T)/CBS quality, we investigated all possible FAD pathways. The results show that FAD catalyzed by one Pd atom follows a different mechanism compared with that catalyzed by surfaces or larger clusters. At the initial stage of the reaction, FAD follows a dehydration route and is quickly poisoned by CO due to the formation of very stable PdCO. PdCO then becomes the actual catalyst for FAD at temperatures approximately below 1050 K. Beyond 1050 K, there is a switch of catalyst from PdCO to Pd atom. The results also show that dehydration is always favoured over dehydrogenation on either the Pd-atom or PdCO catalyst. On the Pd-atom catalyst, neither dehydrogenation nor dehydration follows the formate mechanism. In contrast, on the PdCO catalyst, dehydrogenation follows the formate mechanism, whereas dehydration does not. We also systematically investigated the performance of 24 density functional theory methods. We found that the performance of the double hybrid mPW2PLYP functional is the best, followed by the B3LYP, B3PW91, N12SX, M11, and B2PLYP functionals.

  12. Palladium-atom catalyzed formic acid decomposition and the switch of reaction mechanism with temperature.

    PubMed

    He, Nan; Li, Zhen Hua

    2016-04-21

    Formic acid decomposition (FAD) reaction has been an innovative way for hydrogen energy. Noble metal catalysts, especially palladium-containing nanoparticles, supported or unsupported, perform well in this reaction. Herein, we considered the simplest model, wherein one Pd atom is used as the FAD catalyst. With high-level theoretical calculations of CCSD(T)/CBS quality, we investigated all possible FAD pathways. The results show that FAD catalyzed by one Pd atom follows a different mechanism compared with that catalyzed by surfaces or larger clusters. At the initial stage of the reaction, FAD follows a dehydration route and is quickly poisoned by CO due to the formation of very stable PdCO. PdCO then becomes the actual catalyst for FAD at temperatures approximately below 1050 K. Beyond 1050 K, there is a switch of catalyst from PdCO to Pd atom. The results also show that dehydration is always favoured over dehydrogenation on either the Pd-atom or PdCO catalyst. On the Pd-atom catalyst, neither dehydrogenation nor dehydration follows the formate mechanism. In contrast, on the PdCO catalyst, dehydrogenation follows the formate mechanism, whereas dehydration does not. We also systematically investigated the performance of 24 density functional theory methods. We found that the performance of the double hybrid mPW2PLYP functional is the best, followed by the B3LYP, B3PW91, N12SX, M11, and B2PLYP functionals. PMID:27005983

  13. Mechanism of maltal hydration catalyzed by. beta. -amylase: Role of protein structure in controlling the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahata, Sumio ); Chiba, S. ); Brewer, C.F.; Hehre, E.J. )

    1991-07-09

    Crystalline (monomeric) soybean and (tetrameric) sweet potato {beta}-amylase were shown to catalyze the cis hydration of maltal ({alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl-2-deoxy-D-arabino-hex-1-enitol) to form {beta}-2-deoxymaltose. As reported earlier with the sweet potato enzyme, maltal hydration in D{sub 2}O by soybean {beta}-amylase was found to exhibit an unusually large solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (V{sub H}/V{sub D}=6.5), a reaction rate linearly dependent on the mole fraction of deuterium, and 2-deoxy-(2(a)-{sup 2}H)maltose as product. These results indicate (for each {beta}-amylase) that protonation is the rate-limiting step in a reaction involving a nearly symmetric one-proton transition state and that maltal is specifically protonated from above the double bond. That maltal undergoes cis hydration provides evidence in support of a general-acid-catalyzed, carbonium ion mediated reaction. Of fundamental significance is that {beta}-amylase protonates maltal from a direction opposite that assumed for protonating strach, yet creates products of the same anomeric configuration from both. Such stereochemical dichotomy argues for the overriding role of protein structures is dictating the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase, by limiting the approach and orientation of water or other acceptors to the reaction center.

  14. Convergent Synthesis of 2-Aryl-Substituted Quinolines by Gold-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Minami; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed auto-tandem catalysis has been developed for synthesizing 2-aryl-substituted quinolines. The reaction of an aniline bearing an acetal moiety with an aryl alkyne proceeded via formal [4+2]-cycloaddition, which involved the addition of gold acetylide to an oxonium ion to give amino alkyne intermediate and sequential 6-endo-dig cyclization of amino alkyne intermediate by attacking of nitrogen to alkyne moiety activated by gold catalyst. The cationic gold catalyst promoted two different processes by enhancing the nucleophilicity and electrophilicity of alkyne. This convergent synthetic methodology enabled the synthesis of a variety of 2-aryl-substituted quinolines. PMID:27373638

  15. Total Synthesis of (-)-Lepadiformine A Utilizing Hg(OTf)2-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keisuke; Kikuchi, Seiho; Ezaki, Shinnosuke; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Nokubo, Haruka; Kodama, Takeshi; Tachi, Yoshimitsu; Morimoto, Yoshiki

    2015-12-01

    A cytotoxic marine alkaloid (-)-lepadiformine A (1) possesses a unique structure characterized by the trans-1-azadecalin AB ring system fused with the AC spiro-cyclic ring. In this research, we found that a cycloisomerization reaction from amino ynone 2 to a 1-azaspiro[4.5]decane skeleton 3, corresponding to the AC ring system of 1, is promoted by Hg(OTf)(2). Thus, we have accomplished the efficient total synthesis of (-)-lepadiformine A in 28% overall yield by featuring the novel Hg(OTf)(2)-catalyzed cycloisomerization. PMID:26584002

  16. Mechanistic insights on platinum- and palladium-pincer catalyzed coupling and cyclopropanation reactions between olefins.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Ramanan; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2012-07-21

    The mechanism of M(II)-PNP-pincer catalyzed reaction between (i) ethene, (ii) trans-butene with 2-methylbut-2-ene, 2,3-dimethylbut-2-ene and tert-butylbutene is examined by using density functional theory methods (where M = Pt or Pd). All key intermediates and transition states involved in the reaction are precisely located on the respective potential energy surfaces using the popular DFT functionals such as mPW1K, M06-2X, and B3LYP in conjunction with the 6-31+G** basis set. The reaction between these olefins can lead to a linear coupling product or a substituted cyclopropane. The energetic comparison between coupling as well as cyclopropanation pathways involving four pairs of olefins for both platinum (1-4) and palladium (5-8) catalyzed reactions is performed. The key events in the lower energy pathway in the mechanistic course involves (i) a C-C bond formation between the metal bound olefin (ethene or trans-butene) and a free olefin, and (ii) two successive [1,2] hydrogen migrations in the ensuing carbocationic intermediates (1c-4c, and 1d-4d), toward the formation of the coupling product. The computed barriers for these steps in the reaction of metal bound ethene to free tert-butylbutene (or other butenes) are found to be much lower than the corresponding steps when trans-butene is bound to the metal pincer. The Gibbs free energy differences between the transition states leading to the coupling product (TS(d-e)) and that responsible for cyclopropanated product (TS(d-g)) are found to be diminishingly closer in the case of the platinum pincer as compared to that in the palladium system. The computed energetics indicate that the coupled product prefers to remain as a metal olefin complex, consistent with the earlier experimental reports.

  17. Atom-efficient metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of indium organometallics with organic electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Pérez, I; Sestelo, J P; Sarandeses, L A

    2001-05-01

    The novel metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of indium organometallics with organic electrophiles is described. Triorganoindium compounds (R(3)In) containing alkyl, vinyl, aryl, and alkynyl groups are efficiently prepared from the corresponding lithium or magnesium organometallics by reaction with indium trichloride. The cross-coupling reaction of R(3)In with aryl halides and pseudohalides (iodide 2, bromide 5, and triflate 4), vinyl triflates, benzyl bromides, and acid chlorides proceeds under palladium catalysis in excellent yields and with high chemoselectivity. Indium organometallics also react with aryl chlorides as under nickel catalysis. In the cross-coupling reaction the triorganoindium compounds transfer, in a clear example of atom economy, all three of the organic groups attached to the metal, as shown by the necessity of using only 34 mol % of indium. The feasibility of using R(3)In in reactions with different electrophiles, along with the high yields and chemoselectivities obtained, reveals indium organometallics to be useful alternatives to other organometallics in cross-coupling reactions.

  18. Metal-Catalyzed Chemical Reaction of Single Molecules Directly Probed by Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Kyu; Park, Won-Hwa; Park, Chan-Gyu; Shin, Hyun-Hang; Lee, Kang Sup; Kim, Zee Hwan

    2016-04-01

    The study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions remains a major challenge because it involves a complex network of reaction steps with various intermediates. If the vibrational spectra of individual molecules could be monitored in real time, one could characterize the structures of the intermediates and the time scales of reaction steps without ensemble averaging. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy does provide vibrational spectra with single-molecule sensitivity, but typical single-molecule SERS signals exhibit spatial heterogeneities and temporal fluctuations, making them difficult to be used in single-molecule kinetics studies. Here we show that SERS can monitor the single-molecule catalytic reactions in real time. The surface-immobilized reactants placed at the junctions of well-defined nanoparticle-thin film structures produce time-resolved SERS spectra with discrete, step-transitions of photoproducts. We interpret that such SERS-steps correspond to the reaction events of individual molecules occurring at the SERS hotspot. The analyses of the yield, dynamics, and the magnitude of such SERS steps, along with the associated spectral characteristics, fully support our claim. In addition, a model that is based on plasmonic field enhancement and surface photochemistry reproduces the key features of experimental observation. Overall, the result demonstrates that it is possible, under well-controlled conditions, to differentiate the chemical and physical processes contributing to the single-molecule SERS signals, and thus shows the use of single-molecule SERS as a tool for studying the metal-catalyzed organic reactions.

  19. Cure reaction of epoxy resins catalyzed by graphite-based nanofiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Acocella, Maria Rosaria; Giuri, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-12-01

    A significant effort was directed to the synthesis of graphene stacks/epoxy nanocomposites and to the analysis of the effect of a graphene precursor on cure reaction of a model epoxy matrix. A comparative thermal analysis of epoxy resins filled with an exfoliated graphite oxide eGO were conducted. The main aim was to understand the molecular origin of the influence of eGO on the Tg of epoxy resins. The higher Tg values previously observed for low curing temperatures, for epoxy resins with graphite-based nanofillers, were easily rationalized by a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the reaction between the epoxy and amine groups of the resin, which leads to higher crosslinking density in milder conditions. A kinetic analysis of the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin associated to the catalytical activity of the graphite based filler was performed by isothermal DSC measurements. The DSC results showed that the addition of graphite based filler greatly increased the enthalpy of epoxy reaction and the reaction rate, confirming the presence of a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the crosslinking reaction between the epoxy resin components (epoxide oligomer and di-amine). A kinetic modelling analysis, arising from an auto-catalyzed reaction mechanism, was finally applied to isothermal DSC data, in order to predict the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin in presence of the graphite based nanofiller.

  20. Stereospecific Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Benzylic Ethers with Isotopically-Labeled Grignard Reagents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we highlight the potential of stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions for applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Using an inexpensive and sustainable nickel catalyst, we report a gram-scale Kumada cross-coupling reaction. Reactions are highly stereospecific and proceed with inversion at the benzylic position. We also expand the scope of our reaction to incorporate isotopically labeled substituents. PMID:27458328

  1. Mechanism of maltal hydration catalyzed by beta-amylase: role of protein structure in controlling the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Kitahata, S; Chiba, S; Brewer, C F; Hehre, E J

    1991-07-01

    Crystalline (monomeric) soybean and (tetrameric) sweet potato beta-amylase were shown to catalyze the cis hydration of maltal (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-2-deoxy-D-arabino-hex-1-enitol) to form beta-2-deoxymaltose. As reported earlier with the sweet potato enzyme, maltal hydration in D2O by soybean beta-amylase was found to exhibit an unusually large solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (VH/VD = 6.5), a reaction rate linearly dependent on the mole fraction of deuterium, and 2-deoxy-[2(a)-2H]maltose as product. These results indicate (for each beta-amylase) that protonation is the rate-limiting step in a reaction involving a nearly symmetric one-proton transition state and that maltal is specifically protonated from above the double bond. This is a different stereochemistry than reported for starch hydrolysis. With the hydration catalyzed in H2O and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, both sweet potato and soybean beta-amylase were found to convert maltal to the beta-anomer of 2-deoxymaltose. That maltal undergoes cis hydration provides evidence in support of a general-acid-catalyzed, carbonium ion mediated reaction. Of fundamental significance is that beta-amylase protonates maltal from a direction opposite that assumed for protonating starch, yet creates products of the same anomeric configuration from both. Such stereochemical dichotomy argues for the overriding role of protein structures in dictating the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase, by limiting the approach and orientation of water or other acceptors to the reaction center. PMID:1829637

  2. Mechanism of maltal hydration catalyzed by beta-amylase: role of protein structure in controlling the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Kitahata, S; Chiba, S; Brewer, C F; Hehre, E J

    1991-07-01

    Crystalline (monomeric) soybean and (tetrameric) sweet potato beta-amylase were shown to catalyze the cis hydration of maltal (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-2-deoxy-D-arabino-hex-1-enitol) to form beta-2-deoxymaltose. As reported earlier with the sweet potato enzyme, maltal hydration in D2O by soybean beta-amylase was found to exhibit an unusually large solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effect (VH/VD = 6.5), a reaction rate linearly dependent on the mole fraction of deuterium, and 2-deoxy-[2(a)-2H]maltose as product. These results indicate (for each beta-amylase) that protonation is the rate-limiting step in a reaction involving a nearly symmetric one-proton transition state and that maltal is specifically protonated from above the double bond. This is a different stereochemistry than reported for starch hydrolysis. With the hydration catalyzed in H2O and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, both sweet potato and soybean beta-amylase were found to convert maltal to the beta-anomer of 2-deoxymaltose. That maltal undergoes cis hydration provides evidence in support of a general-acid-catalyzed, carbonium ion mediated reaction. Of fundamental significance is that beta-amylase protonates maltal from a direction opposite that assumed for protonating starch, yet creates products of the same anomeric configuration from both. Such stereochemical dichotomy argues for the overriding role of protein structures in dictating the steric outcome of reactions catalyzed by a glycosylase, by limiting the approach and orientation of water or other acceptors to the reaction center.

  3. Transition-metal-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions: a remarkable advance from palladium to nickel catalysts.

    PubMed

    Han, Fu-She

    2013-06-21

    In the transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, the use of the first row transition metals as catalysts is much more appealing than the precious metals owing to the apparent advantages such as cheapness and earth abundance. Within the last two decades, particularly the last five years, explosive interests have been focused on the nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. This has greatly advanced the chemistry of transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Most notably, a broad range of aryl electrophiles such as phenols, aryl ethers, esters, carbonates, carbamates, sulfamates, phosphates, phosphoramides, phosphonium salts, and fluorides, as well as various alkyl electrophiles, which are conventionally challenging, by applying palladium catalysts can now be coupled efficiently with boron reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. In this review, we would like to summarize the progress in this reaction.

  4. Nitrous Oxide-dependent Iron-catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Döhlert, Peter; Weidauer, Maik; Enthaler, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is one of the fundamental transformations in chemistry. In this regard the application of palladium-based catalysts has been extensively investigated during recent years, but nowadays research focuses on iron catalysis, due to sustainability, costs and toxicity issues; hence numerous examples for iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have been established, based on the coupling of electrophiles (R(1)-X, X = halide) with nucleophiles (R(2)-MgX). Only a small number of protocols deals with the iron-catalyzed oxidative coupling of nucleophiles (R(1)-MgX + R(2)-MgX) with the aid of oxidants (1,2-dihaloethanes). However, some issues arise with these oxidants; hence more recently the potential of the industrial waste product nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was investigated, because the unproblematic side product N(2) is formed. Based on that, we demonstrate the catalytic potential of easily accessible iron complexes in the oxidative coupling of Grignard reagents. Importantly, nitrous oxide was essential to obtain yields up to >99% at mild conditions (e.g. 1 atm, ambient temperature) and low catalyst loadings (0.1 mol%) Excellent catalyst performance is realized with turnover numbers of up to 1000 and turnover frequencies of up to 12000 h(-1). Moreover, a good functional group tolerance is observed (e.g. amide, ester, nitrile, alkene, alkyne). Afterwards the reaction of different Grignard reagents revealed interesting results with respect to the selectivity of cross-coupling product formation. PMID:26507477

  5. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during trichloroethene degradation in magnetite-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunde; Zhou, Aiguo; Gan, Yiqun; Liu, Cunfu; Yu, Tingting; Li, Xiaoqian

    2013-02-01

    Mineral-catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes is an attractive technique for in situ soil and groundwater remediation. Stable carbon isotope enrichment factors associated with magnetite-catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) have been determined, to study the possibility of applying stable carbon isotope analysis as a technique to assess the efficacy of remediation implemented by Fenton-like oxidation. The carbon enrichment factors (ε values) ranged from -2.7‰ to -3.6‰ with a mean value of -3.3±0.3‰, and only small differences were observed for different initial reactive conditions. The ε values were robust and reproducible, and were relatively insensitive to a number of environmental factors such as ratios of reactants and PCE co-contamination, which can reduce the uncertainty associated with application of isotope enrichment factors for quantification of in situ remediation by Fenton-like reaction. ε values for Fenton-like oxidation of TCE were intermediate in those previously reported for aerobic biological processes (ε=-1.1 to -20.7‰). Thus, field-derived ε values that are more negative than those for Fenton-like oxidation, may indicate the occurrence of aerobic biodegradation at contaminated sites undergoing in situ remediation with Fenton-like reaction. However, stable carbon isotope analysis is unable to determine whether there is the occurrence of biodegradation processes if field-derived ε values are less negative than those for Fenton-like oxidation.

  6. Mixed-ligand catalysts: a powerful tool in transition-metal- catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuting; Cong, Mei; Peng, Ling

    2014-03-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have fundamentally revolutionized organic synthesis, empowering the otherwise difficult to achieve products with rapid and convenient accesses alongside excellent yields. Within these reactions, ligands often play a critical role in specifically and effectively advocating the corresponding catalysis. Consequently, a myriad of ligands have been created and applied to make a fine tuning of electronic and steric effect of catalysts, remarkably promoting catalytic efficiency and applicability. The "mixed-ligand" concept has recently emerged; by combining and capitalizing on the superiority of each individual ligand already available, an expedient way can be achieved to reach a larger extent of catalytic diversity and efficacy. Given the availability of a wealth of ligands, it is reasonable to have great expectations for the original application of mixed-ligand catalytic systems and their important value in organic synthesis.

  7. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis.

  8. Potential Energy Surfaces for Reaction Catalyzed by Metalloenzymes from Quantum Chemical Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopoldini, Monica; Marino, Tiziana; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa

    For several decades quantum mechanical (QM) computational methods have been developed and refined so that it was possible to extend their applicability field enormously. Today, they are used generally to supplement experimental techniques because the theory also affords deeper understanding of molecular processes that cannot be obtained from experiments alone. Due to their favorable scaling when compared to the ab initiomethods, density functional theory (DFT) approach allows the treatment of very large systems such as the biomolecules. Thus, now it is possible, for instance, to study the difficult and critical reactions catalyzed by enzymes in biological systems. Here, a brief account of the studies performed on different metalloenzymes is given, focusing on methods and models used to describe their reaction mechanisms.

  9. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis. PMID:23865460

  10. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, David C.; Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T.; Ferreira, Eric M.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Caspi, Daniel D.; Trend, Raissa M.

    2010-01-01

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (−)-sparteine as chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of base and hydrogen bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 °C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good to excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones. PMID:19904777

  11. Gold-Catalyzed Reactions via Cyclopropyl Gold Carbene-like Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cycloisomerizations of 1,n-enynes catalyzed by gold(I) proceed via electrophilic species with a highly distorted cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like structure, which can react with different nucleophiles to form a wide variety of products by attack at the cyclopropane or the carbene carbons. Particularly important are reactions in which the gold(I) carbene reacts with alkenes to form cyclopropanes either intra- or intermolecularly. In the absence of nucleophiles, 1,n-enynes lead to a variety of cycloisomerized products including those resulting from skeletal rearrangements. Reactions proceeding through cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like intermediates are ideally suited for the bioinspired synthesis of terpenoid natural products by the selective activation of the alkyne in highly functionalized enynes or polyenynes. PMID:26061916

  12. Surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of hydrazines: Tubular reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilduff, Jan E.; Davis, Dennis D.; Koontz, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, symmetrical dimethylhydrazine, trimethylhydrazine and tetramethylhydrazine were investigated in a metal-powder packed turbular flow reactor at 55 plus or minus 3 C. Hydrazine was completely reacted on all surfaces studied. The major products of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) oxidation were methanol, methane and methyldiazene. The di-, tri- and tetra-methyl hydrazines were essentially unreactive under these conditions. The relative catalytic reactivities toward MMH are: Fe greater than Al2O3 greater than Ti greater than Zn greater than 316 SS greater than Cr greater than Ni greater than Al greater than 304L SS. A kinetic scheme and mechanism involving adsorption, oxidative dehydrogenation and reductive elimination reactions on a metal oxide surface are proposed.

  13. Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Transformations of β-Stereogenic-α-Keto Esters via Direct Aldolization

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Michael T.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformations (DyKAT) of racemic β-bromo-α-keto esters via direct aldolization of nitromethane and acetone provide access to fully substituted α-glycolic acid derivatives bearing a β-stereocenter. The aldol adducts are obtained in excellent yield with high relative and absolute stereocontrol under mild reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies determined that the reactions proceed through a facile catalyst-mediated racemization of the β-bromo-α-keto esters under a DyKAT Type I manifold. PMID:24222195

  14. Influence of Ionic Liquids on an Iron(III) Catalyzed Three-Component Coupling/Hydroarylation/Dehydrogenation Tandem Reaction.

    PubMed

    Muntzeck, Maren; Wilhelm, René

    2016-01-01

    A three-component oxidative dehydrogenation tandem reaction via the coupling and hydroarylation of benzaldehyde, aniline and phenylacetylene to a quinoline derivate was catalyzed by an iron-containing ionic liquid. The reaction was air mediated and could be performed under neat conditions. The iron(III) of the ionic liquid was the oxidizing species. PMID:27258264

  15. Influence of Ionic Liquids on an Iron(III) Catalyzed Three-Component Coupling/Hydroarylation/Dehydrogenation Tandem Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Muntzeck, Maren; Wilhelm, René

    2016-01-01

    A three-component oxidative dehydrogenation tandem reaction via the coupling and hydroarylation of benzaldehyde, aniline and phenylacetylene to a quinoline derivate was catalyzed by an iron-containing ionic liquid. The reaction was air mediated and could be performed under neat conditions. The iron(III) of the ionic liquid was the oxidizing species. PMID:27258264

  16. An efficient copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkyl-triflates with alkyl-Grignard reagents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly efficient method for the formation of C-C covalent bonds by cross-coupling reaction between alkyl-triflates and alkyl-Grignard reagents catalyzed by copper catalyst, Li2CuCl4, is described. The reaction works with most primary triflates in diethyl ether at low temperature within 0.5-3 h an...

  17. On the mechanism of N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed reactions involving acyl azoliums.

    PubMed

    Mahatthananchai, Jessada; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-02-18

    Catalytic reactions promoted by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have exploded in popularity since 2004 when several reports described new fundamental reactions that extended beyond the long-studied generation of acyl anion equivalents. These new NHC-catalyzed reactions allow chemists to generate unique reactive species from otherwise inert starting materials, all under simple, mild reaction conditions and with exceptional selectivities. In analogy to transition metal catalysis, the use of NHCs has introduced a new set of elementary steps that operate via discrete reactive species, including acyl anion, homoenolate, and enolate equivalents, usually generated by oxidation state reorganization ("redox neutral" reactions). Nearly all NHC-catalyzed reactions offer operationally simple reactions, proceed at room temperature without the need for stringent exclusion of air, and do not generate reaction byproducts. Variation of the catalyst or reaction conditions can profoundly influence reaction outcomes, and researchers can tune the desired selectivities through careful choice of NHC precursor and base. The catalytically generated homoenolate and enolate equivalents are nucleophilic species. In contrast, the catalytically generated acyl azolium and α,β-unsaturated acyl azoliums are electrophilic cationic species with unique and unprecedented chemistry. For example, when generated catalytically, these species transformed an α-functionalized aldehyde to an ester under redox neutral conditions without coupling reagents or waste. In addition to providing new approaches to catalytic esterifications, acyl azoliums offer unique reactivities that chemists can exploit for selective reactions. This Account focuses on the discovery and mechanistic investigation of the catalytic generation of acyl azoliums and α,β-unsaturated acyl azoliums. These chemical species are fascinating, and their catalytic generation is an important development. Studies of their unusual chemistry

  18. Chemoselective chromium(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of dichlorinated heteroaromatics with functionalized aryl grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Steib, Andreas K; Kuzmina, Olesya M; Fernandez, Sarah; Malhotra, Sushant; Knochel, Paul

    2015-01-26

    Chromium(II) chloride catalyzes the chemoselective cross-coupling reaction of dichloropyridines with a range of functionalized (hetero)aromatic Grignard reagents at room temperature. Functional groups, such as esters and acetals, are well tolerated in this transformation. Previously challenging substrates, quinolines and isoquinolines, participate in the selective Cr-catalyzed cross-coupling in cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) as the solvent. The effective purging of Cr salts is demonstrated by using various solid supports. PMID:25470669

  19. Theory and Modeling of Asymmetric Catalytic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Yu-Hong; Grayson, Matthew N; Holland, Mareike C; Simon, Adam; Houk, K N

    2016-04-19

    Modern density functional theory and powerful contemporary computers have made it possible to explore complex reactions of value in organic synthesis. We describe recent explorations of mechanisms and origins of stereoselectivities with density functional theory calculations. The specific functionals and basis sets that are routinely used in computational studies of stereoselectivities of organic and organometallic reactions in our group are described, followed by our recent studies that uncovered the origins of stereocontrol in reactions catalyzed by (1) vicinal diamines, including cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines, (2) vicinal amidophosphines, and (3) organo-transition-metal complexes. Two common cyclic models account for the stereoselectivity of aldol reactions of metal enolates (Zimmerman-Traxler) or those catalyzed by the organocatalyst proline (Houk-List). Three other models were derived from computational studies described in this Account. Cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines and other vicinal diamines are venerable asymmetric organocatalysts. For α-fluorinations and a variety of aldol reactions, vicinal diamines form enamines at one terminal amine and activate electrophilically with NH(+) or NF(+) at the other. We found that the stereocontrolling transition states are cyclic and that their conformational preferences are responsible for the observed stereoselectivity. In fluorinations, the chair seven-membered cyclic transition states is highly favored, just as the Zimmerman-Traxler chair six-membered aldol transition state controls stereoselectivity. In aldol reactions with vicinal diamine catalysts, the crown transition states are favored, both in the prototype and in an experimental example, shown in the graphic. We found that low-energy conformations of cyclic transition states occur and control stereoselectivities in these reactions. Another class of bifunctional organocatalysts, the vicinal amidophosphines, catalyzes the (3 + 2) annulation

  20. Differential Quantum Tunneling Contributions in Nitroalkane Oxidase Catalyzed and the Uncatalyzed Proton Transfer Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Major , D.; Heroux , A; Orville , A; Valley , M; Fitzpatrick , P; Gao , J

    2009-01-01

    The proton transfer reaction between the substrate nitroethane and Asp-402 catalyzed by nitroalkane oxidase and the uncatalyzed process in water have been investigated using a path-integral free-energy perturbation method. Although the dominating effect in rate acceleration by the enzyme is the lowering of the quasiclassical free energy barrier, nuclear quantum effects also contribute to catalysis in nitroalkane oxidase. In particular, the overall nuclear quantum effects have greater contributions to lowering the classical barrier in the enzyme, and there is a larger difference in quantum effects between proton and deuteron transfer for the enzymatic reaction than that in water. Both experiment and computation show that primary KIEs are enhanced in the enzyme, and the computed Swain-Schaad exponent for the enzymatic reaction is exacerbated relative to that in the absence of the enzyme. In addition, the computed tunneling transmission coefficient is approximately three times greater for the enzyme reaction than the uncatalyzed reaction, and the origin of the difference may be attributed to a narrowing effect in the effective potentials for tunneling in the enzyme than that in aqueous solution.

  1. Coupling Reaction of Enol Derivatives with Silyl Ketene Acetals Catalyzed by Gallium Trihalides.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Kita, Yuji; Ueda, Hiroki; Imaoka, Hiroto; Chiba, Kouji; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio

    2016-08-01

    A cross-coupling reaction between enol derivatives and silyl ketene acetals catalyzed by GaBr3 took place to give the corresponding α-alkenyl esters. GaBr3 showed the most effective catalytic ability, whereas other metal salts such as BF3 ⋅OEt2 , AlCl3 , PdCl2 , and lanthanide triflates were not effective. Various types of enol ethers and vinyl carboxylates as enol derivatives are amenable to this coupling. The scope of the reaction with silyl ketene acetals was also broad. We successfully observed an alkylgallium intermediate by using NMR spectroscopy, suggesting a mechanism involving anti-carbogallation among GaBr3 , an enol derivative, and a silyl ketene acetal, followed by syn-β-alkoxy elimination from the alkylgallium. Based on kinetic studies, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction using a vinyl ether and a vinyl carboxylate involved syn-β-alkoxy elimination and anti-carbogallation, respectively. Therefore, the leaving group had a significant effect on the progress of the reaction. Theoretical calculations analysis suggest that the moderate Lewis acidity of gallium would contribute to a flexible conformational change of the alkylgallium intermediate and to the cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond in the β-alkoxy elimination process, which is the turnover-limiting step in the reaction between a vinyl ether and a silyl ketene acetal. PMID:27400389

  2. Coupling Reaction of Enol Derivatives with Silyl Ketene Acetals Catalyzed by Gallium Trihalides.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Kita, Yuji; Ueda, Hiroki; Imaoka, Hiroto; Chiba, Kouji; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio

    2016-08-01

    A cross-coupling reaction between enol derivatives and silyl ketene acetals catalyzed by GaBr3 took place to give the corresponding α-alkenyl esters. GaBr3 showed the most effective catalytic ability, whereas other metal salts such as BF3 ⋅OEt2 , AlCl3 , PdCl2 , and lanthanide triflates were not effective. Various types of enol ethers and vinyl carboxylates as enol derivatives are amenable to this coupling. The scope of the reaction with silyl ketene acetals was also broad. We successfully observed an alkylgallium intermediate by using NMR spectroscopy, suggesting a mechanism involving anti-carbogallation among GaBr3 , an enol derivative, and a silyl ketene acetal, followed by syn-β-alkoxy elimination from the alkylgallium. Based on kinetic studies, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction using a vinyl ether and a vinyl carboxylate involved syn-β-alkoxy elimination and anti-carbogallation, respectively. Therefore, the leaving group had a significant effect on the progress of the reaction. Theoretical calculations analysis suggest that the moderate Lewis acidity of gallium would contribute to a flexible conformational change of the alkylgallium intermediate and to the cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond in the β-alkoxy elimination process, which is the turnover-limiting step in the reaction between a vinyl ether and a silyl ketene acetal.

  3. Cellular consequences of copper complexes used to catalyze bioorthogonal click reactions.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David C; McKay, Craig S; Legault, Marc C B; Danielson, Dana C; Blake, Jessie A; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Stolow, Albert; Mester, Zoltan; Pezacki, John Paul

    2011-11-01

    Copper toxicity is a critical issue in the development of copper-based catalysts for copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reactions for applications in living systems. The effects and related toxicity of copper on mammalian cells are dependent on the ligand environment. Copper complexes can be highly toxic, can induce changes in cellular metabolism, and can be rapidly taken up by cells, all of which can affect their ability to function as catalysts for CuAAC in living systems. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of a number of copper complexes that are typically used to catalyze CuAAC reactions on four human cell lines by measuring mitochondrial activity based on the metabolism of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to study toxicity, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to study cellular uptake, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to study effects on lipid metabolism. We find that ligand environment around copper influences all three parameters. Interestingly, for the Cu(II)-bis-L-histidine complex (Cu(his)(2)), cellular uptake and metabolic changes are observed with no toxicity after 72 h at micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that under conditions where other copper complexes kill human hepatoma cells, Cu(I)-L-histidine is an effective catalyst for CuAAC labeling of live cells following metabolic incorporation of an alkyne-labeled sugar (Ac(4)ManNAl) into glycosylated proteins expressed on the cell surface. This result suggests that Cu(his)(2) or derivatives thereof have potential for in vivo applications where toxicity as well as catalytic activity are critical factors for successful bioconjugation reactions. PMID:21970470

  4. Effect of osmolytes on protein dynamics in the lactate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhadin, Nickolay; Callender, Robert

    2011-03-15

    Laser-induced temperature jump relaxation spectroscopy was used to probe the effect of osmolytes on the microscopic rate constants of the lactate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. NADH fluorescence and absorption relaxation kinetics were measured for the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction system in the presence of varying amounts of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a protein-stabilizing osmolyte, or urea, a protein-destabilizing osmolyte. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) at a concentration of 1 M strongly increases the rate of hydride transfer, nearly nullifies its activation energy, and also slightly increases the enthalpy of hydride transfer. In 1 M urea, the hydride transfer enthalpy is almost nullified, but the activation energy of the step is not affected significantly. TMAO increases the preference of the closed conformation of the active site loop in the LDH·NAD(+)·lactate complex; urea decreases it. The loop opening rate in the LDH·NADH·pyruvate complex changes its temperature dependence to inverse Arrhenius with TMAO. In this complex, urea accelerates the loop motion, without changing the loop opening enthalpy. A strong, non-Arrhenius decrease in the pyruvate binding rate in the presence of TMAO offers a decrease in the fraction of the open loop, pyruvate binding competent form at higher temperatures. The pyruvate off rate is not affected by urea but decreases with TMAO. Thus, the osmolytes strongly affect the rates and thermodynamics of specific events along the LDH-catalyzed reaction: binding of substrates, loop closure, and the chemical event. Qualitatively, these results can be understood as an osmolyte-induced change in the energy landscape of the protein complexes, shifting the conformational nature of functional substates within the protein ensemble.

  5. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA. PMID:22759534

  6. Synthesis of 2-monoacylglycerols and structured triacylglycerols rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by enzyme catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Esteban, Luis; Martín, Lorena; Jiménez, María José; Hita, Estrella; Castillo, Beatriz; González, Pedro A; Robles, Alfonso

    2012-08-10

    This paper studies the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) by a four-step process: (i) obtaining 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MAGs) by alcoholysis of cod liver oil with several alcohols, catalyzed by lipases Novozym 435, from Candida antartica and DF, from Rhizopus oryzae, (ii) purification of 2-MAGs, (iii) formation of STAGs by esterification of 2-MAGs with caprylic acid catalyzed by lipase DF, from R. oryzae, and (iv) purification of these STAGs. For the alcoholysis of cod liver oil, absolute ethanol, ethanol 96% (v/v) and 1-butanol were compared; the conditions with ethanol 96% were then optimized and 2-MAG yields of around 54-57% were attained using Novozym 435. In these 2-MAGs, DHA accounted for 24-31% of total fatty acids. In the operational conditions this lipase maintained a stable level of activity over at least 11 uses. These results were compared with those obtained with lipase DF, which deactivated after only three uses. The alcoholysis of cod liver oil and ethanol 96% catalyzed by Novozym 435 was scaled up by multiplying the reactant amounts 100-fold and maintaining the intensity of treatment constant (IOT=3g lipase h/g oil). In these conditions, the 2-MAG yield attained was about 67%; these 2-MAGs contained 36.6% DHA. The synthesized 2-MAGs were separated and purified from the alcoholysis reaction products by solvent extraction using solvents of low toxicity (ethanol and hexane); 2-MAG recovery yield and purity of the target product were approximately 96.4% and 83.9%, respectively. These 2-MAGs were transformed to STAGs using the optimal conditions obtained in a previous work. After synthesis and purification, 93% pure STAGs were obtained, containing 38% DHA at sn-2 position and 60% caprylic acid (CA) at sn-1,3 positions (of total fatty acids at these positions), i.e. the major TAG is the STAG with the structure CA-DHA-CA.

  7. Hydrogen generation from alcohols catalyzed by ruthenium-triphenylphosphine complexes: multiple reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Bühl, Michael

    2010-06-16

    We report a comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) study of the mechanism of the methanol dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by [RuH(2)(H(2))(PPh(3))(3)]. Using the B97-D dispersion-corrected functional, four pathways have been fully characterized, which differ in the way the critical beta-hydrogen transfer step is brought about (e.g., by prior dissociation of one PPh(3) ligand). All these pathways are found to be competitive (DeltaG(++) = 27.0-32.1 kcal/mol at 150 degrees C) and strongly interlocked. The reaction can thus follow multiple reaction channels, a feature which is expected to be at the origin of the good kinetics of this system. Our results also point to the active role of PPh(3) ligands, which undergo significant conformational changes as the reaction occurs, and provide insights into the role of the base, which acts as a "co-catalyst" by facilitating proton transfers within active species. Activation barriers decrease on going from methanol to ethanol and 2-propanol substrates, in accord with experiment. PMID:20481632

  8. Biocatalytic carbon capture via reversible reaction cycle catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zhao, Xueyan; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2014-09-12

    The practice of carbon capture and storage (CCS) requires efficient capture and separation of carbon dioxide from its gaseous mixtures such as flue gas, followed by releasing it as a pure gas which can be subsequently compressed and injected into underground storage sites. This has been mostly achieved via reversible thermochemical reactions which are generally energy-intensive. The current work examines a biocatalytic approach for carbon capture using an NADP(H)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which catalyzes reversibly carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Different from chemical carbon capture processes that rely on thermal energy to realize purification of carbon dioxide, the biocatalytic strategy utilizes pH to leverage the reaction equilibrium, thereby realizing energy-efficient carbon capture under ambient conditions. Results showed that over 25 mol of carbon dioxide could be captured and purified from its gas mixture for each gram of ICDH applied for each carboxylation/decarboxylation reaction cycle by varying pH between 6 and 9. This work demonstrates the promising potentials of pH-sensitive biocatalysis as a green-chemistry route for carbon capture.

  9. Mechanistic insights into a BINOL-derived phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric Pictet-Spengler reaction.

    PubMed

    Overvoorde, Lois M; Grayson, Matthew N; Luo, Yi; Goodman, Jonathan M

    2015-03-01

    The reaction of tryptamine and (2-oxocyclohexyl)acetic acid can be catalyzed by 3,3'-bis(triphenylsilyl)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol phosphoric acid to give an asymmetric β-carboline. This reaction was first studied by Holloway et al. ( Org. Lett. 2010 , 12 , 4720 - 4723 ), but their mechanistic work did not explain the high stereoselectivity achieved. This study uses density functional theory and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations to investigate this reaction and provide a model to explain its outcome. The step leading to diastereo- and enantioselectivity is an asymmetric Pictet-Spengler reaction involving an N-acyliminium ion bound to the catalyst in a bidentate fashion. This interaction occurs via hydrogen bonds between the two terminal oxygen atoms of the catalyst phosphate group and the hydrogen atoms at N and C2 of the substrate indole group. These bonds hold the transition structure rigidly and thus allow the catalyst triphenylsilyl groups to influence the enantioselectivity. PMID:25654215

  10. Palladium(0)/NHC-Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones: A Detailed Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Reek, Joost N H

    2015-12-14

    We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-substituted enones with 4-iodoanisole by using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic analysis have provided a detailed insight into the reaction. Progress kinetic analysis demonstrated that neither catalyst decomposition nor product inhibition occurred during the catalysis. The reaction is first order in the palladium and aryl iodide, and zero order in the activated alkene, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, and DIPEA. The experiments with deuterated solvent ([D7]DMF) and deuterated base ([D15]Et3N) supported the role of the amine as a reductant in the reaction. The palladium complex [Pd(0)(NHC)(1)] has been identified as the resting state. The kinetic experiments by stopped-flow UV/Vis also revealed that the presence of the second substrate, benzylideneacetone 1, slows down the oxidative addition of 4-iodoanisole through its competing coordination to the palladium center. The kinetic and mechanistic studies indicated that the oxidative addition of the aryl iodide is the rate-determining step. Various scenarios for the oxidative addition step have been analyzed by using DFT calculations (bp86/def2-TZVP) that supported the inhibiting effect of substrate 1 by formation of resting state [Pd(0)(NHC)(1)] species at the cost of further increase in the energy barrier of the oxidative addition step. PMID:26561034

  11. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    magnesium ProPhenol complex was used to facilitate enantioselective diazoacetate aldol reactions with aryl, α,β-unsaturated, and aliphatic aldehydes. The utility of bimetallic ProPhenol catalysts was extended to asymmetric additions with a wide range of substrate combinations. Effective pronucleophiles include oxazolones, 2-furanone, nitroalkanes, pyrroles, 3-hydroxyoxindoles, alkynes, meso-1,3-diols, and dialkyl phosphine oxides. These substrates were found to be effective with a number of electrophiles, including aldehydes, imines, nitroalkenes, acyl silanes, vinyl benzoates, and α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. A truly diverse range of enantioenriched compounds have been prepared using the ProPhenol ligand, and the commercial availability of both ligand enantiomers makes it ideally suited for the synthesis of complex molecules. To date, enantioselective ProPhenol-catalyzed reactions have been used in the synthesis of more than 20 natural products. PMID:25650587

  12. CuBr catalyzed C-N cross coupling reaction of purines and diaryliodonium salts to 9-arylpurines.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hong-Ying; Xia, Chao; Qu, Gui-Rong; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yi; Mao, Run-Ze; Li, De-Yang; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2011-07-21

    CuBr was found to be an efficient catalyst for the C-N cross coupling reaction of purine and diaryliodonium salts. 9-Arylpurines were synthesized in excellent yields with short reaction times (2.5 h). The method represents an alternative to the synthesis of 9-arylpurines via Cu(II) catalyzed C-N coupling reaction with arylboronic acids as arylating agents. PMID:21660365

  13. Organo-Iodine(III)-Catalyzed Oxidative Phenol-Arene and Phenol-Phenol Cross-Coupling Reaction.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Koji; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Ohshika, Takao; Dohi, Toshifumi; Kita, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    The direct oxidative coupling reaction has been an attractive tool for environmentally benign chemistry. Reported herein is that the hypervalent iodine catalyzed oxidative metal-free cross-coupling reaction of phenols can be achieved using Oxone as a terminal oxidant in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (HFIP). This method features a high efficiency and regioselectivity, as well as functional-group tolerance under very mild reaction conditions without using metal catalysts. PMID:26879796

  14. Evidence for Coupled Motion and Hydrogen Tunneling the Reaction Catalyzed by Glutamate Mutase:†

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mou-Chi; Marsh, E. Neil G.

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate mutase is one of a group of adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzymes that catalyze unusual isomerizations that proceed through organic radical intermediates generated by homolytic fission of coenzyme's unique cobalt-carbon bond. These enzymes are part of a larger family of enzymes that catalyze radical chemistry in which a key step is the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from an otherwise inert substrate. To gain insight into the mechanism of hydrogen transfer we previously used pre-steady state, rapid quench techniques to measure the α-secondary tritium kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects associated with the formation of 5’-deoxyadenosine when glutamate mutase was reacted with [5’-3H]-adenosylcobalamin and L-glutamate. We showed that both the kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects are large and inverse, 0.76 and 0.72 respectively. We have now repeated these measurements using glutamate deuterated in the position of hydrogen abstraction. The effect of introducing a primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect on the hydrogen transfer step is to reduce the magnitude of the secondary kinetic isotope effect to a value close to unity, 1.05 ± 0.08, whereas the equilibrium isotope effect is unchanged. The significant reduction in the secondary kinetic isotope effect is consistent with motions of the 5’-hydrogen atoms being coupled in the transition state to the motion of the hydrogen undergoing transfer, in a reaction that involves a large degree of quantum tunneling. PMID:17223710

  15. Cinchona Alkaloid Catalyzed Sulfa-Michael Addition Reactions Leading to Enantiopure β-Functionalized Cysteines.

    PubMed

    Breman, Arjen C; Telderman, Suze E M; van Santen, Roy P M; Scott, Jamie I; van Maarseveen, Jan H; Ingemann, Steen; Hiemstra, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Sulfa-Michael additions to α,β-unsaturated N-acylated oxazolidin-2-ones and related α,β-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives have been enantioselectively catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloids functionalized with a hydrogen bond donating group at the C6' position. The series of Cinchona alkaloids includes known C6' (thio)urea and sulfonamide derivatives and several novel species with a benzimidazole, squaramide or a benzamide group at the C6' position. The sulfonamides were especially suited as bifunctional organocatalysts as they gave the products in very good diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity. In particular, the C6' sulfonamides catalyzed the reaction with the α,β-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives to afford the products in a diastereomeric ratio as good as 93:7, with the major isomer being formed in an ee of up to 99%. The products of the organocatalytic sulfa-Michael addition to α,β-unsaturated α-amino acid derivatives were subsequently converted in high yields to enantiopure β-functionalized cysteines suitable for native chemical ligation.

  16. Iron-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cross-Coupling Reactions of α-Chloroesters with Aryl Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Masayoshi; Adak, Laksmikanta; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2015-06-10

    The first iron-catalyzed enantioselective cross-coupling reaction between an organometallic compound and an organic electrophile is reported. Synthetically versatile racemic α-chloro- and α-bromoalkanoates were coupled with aryl Grignard reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iron salt and a chiral bisphosphine ligand, giving the products in high yields with acceptable and synthetically useful enantioselectivities (er up to 91:9). The produced α-arylalkanoates were readily converted to the corresponding α-arylalkanoic acids with high optical enrichment (er up to >99:1) via simple deprotections/recrystallizations. The results of radical probe experiments are consistent with a mechanism that involves the formation of an alkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes subsequent enantioconvergent arylation in an intermolecular manner. The developed asymmetric coupling offers not only facile and practical access to various chiral α-arylalkanoic acid derivatives, which are of significant pharmaceutical importance, but also a basis of controlling enantioselectivity in an iron-catalyzed organometallic transformation. PMID:25955413

  17. Evidencing an inner-sphere mechanism for NHC-Au(I)-catalyzed carbene-transfer reactions from ethyl diazoacetate

    PubMed Central

    Fructos, Manuel R; Urbano, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Kinetic experiments based on the measurement of nitrogen evolution in the reaction of ethyl diazoacetate (N2CHCO2Et, EDA) and styrene or methanol catalyzed by the [IPrAu]+ core (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene) have provided evidence that the transfer of the carbene group CHCO2Et to the substrate (styrene or methanol) takes place in the coordination sphere of Au(I) by means of an inner-sphere mechanism, in contrast to the generally accepted proposal of outer-sphere mechanisms for Au(I)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:26664649

  18. Evidencing an inner-sphere mechanism for NHC-Au(I)-catalyzed carbene-transfer reactions from ethyl diazoacetate.

    PubMed

    Fructos, Manuel R; Urbano, Juan; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Pérez, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic experiments based on the measurement of nitrogen evolution in the reaction of ethyl diazoacetate (N2CHCO2Et, EDA) and styrene or methanol catalyzed by the [IPrAu](+) core (IPr = 1,3-bis(diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene) have provided evidence that the transfer of the carbene group CHCO2Et to the substrate (styrene or methanol) takes place in the coordination sphere of Au(I) by means of an inner-sphere mechanism, in contrast to the generally accepted proposal of outer-sphere mechanisms for Au(I)-catalyzed reactions.

  19. The Contribution of Electrostatic and van der Waals Interactions to the Stereospecificity of the Reaction Catalyzed by Lactate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jeroen; Callender, Robert; Gunner, M. R.

    1997-01-01

    Continuum electrostatic calculations in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the source of the stereospecificity in the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). These studies show that favorable electrostatic interactions between the carboxamide group of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme and protein residues of the active site of LDH can account for much if not all of the stereospecificity of the LDH-catalyzed reaction, with A-side hydride transfer more than 107 times greater than B-side transfer. Unfavorable steric interactions within the binding complex for B-side transfer are not found. ImagesFIGURE 2 PMID:9017191

  20. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of benzylic ethers and esters.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Emily J; Hanna, Luke E; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2015-08-18

    This Account presents the development of a suite of stereospecific alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions employing nickel catalysts. Our reactions complement related nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent cross-coupling reactions from a stereochemical and mechanistic perspective. Most reactions of alkyl electrophiles with low-valent nickel complexes proceed through alkyl radicals and thus are stereoablative; the correct enantioselective catalyst can favor the formation of one enantiomer. Our reactions, in contrast, are stereospecific. Enantioenriched ethers and esters are cleanly converted to cross-coupled products with high stereochemical fidelity. While mechanistic details are still to be refined, our results are consistent with a polar, two-electron oxidative addition that avoids the formation of radical intermediates. This reactivity is unusual for a first-row transition metal. The cross-coupling reactions engage a range of benzylic ethers and esters, including methyl ethers, tetrahydropyrans, tetrahydrofurans, esters, and lactones. Coordination of the arene substituent to the nickel catalyst accelerates the reactions. Arenes with low aromatic stabilization energies, such as naphthalene, benzothiophene, and furan, serve as the best ligands and provide the highest reactivity. Traceless directing groups that accelerate reactions of sluggish substrates are described, providing partial compensation for arene coordination. Kumada, Negishi, and Suzuki reactions provide incorporation of a broad range of transmetalating agents. In Kumada coupling reactions, a full complement of Grigard reagents, including methyl, n-alkyl, and aryl Grignard reagents, are employed. In reactions employing methylmagnesium iodide, ligation of the nickel catalyst by rac-BINAP or DPEphos provides the highest yield and stereospecificity. For all other Grignard reagents, Ni(dppe)Cl2 has emerged as the best catalyst. Negishi cross-coupling reactions employing dimethylzinc are reported as a strategy to

  1. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of benzylic ethers and esters.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, Emily J; Hanna, Luke E; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2015-08-18

    This Account presents the development of a suite of stereospecific alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions employing nickel catalysts. Our reactions complement related nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent cross-coupling reactions from a stereochemical and mechanistic perspective. Most reactions of alkyl electrophiles with low-valent nickel complexes proceed through alkyl radicals and thus are stereoablative; the correct enantioselective catalyst can favor the formation of one enantiomer. Our reactions, in contrast, are stereospecific. Enantioenriched ethers and esters are cleanly converted to cross-coupled products with high stereochemical fidelity. While mechanistic details are still to be refined, our results are consistent with a polar, two-electron oxidative addition that avoids the formation of radical intermediates. This reactivity is unusual for a first-row transition metal. The cross-coupling reactions engage a range of benzylic ethers and esters, including methyl ethers, tetrahydropyrans, tetrahydrofurans, esters, and lactones. Coordination of the arene substituent to the nickel catalyst accelerates the reactions. Arenes with low aromatic stabilization energies, such as naphthalene, benzothiophene, and furan, serve as the best ligands and provide the highest reactivity. Traceless directing groups that accelerate reactions of sluggish substrates are described, providing partial compensation for arene coordination. Kumada, Negishi, and Suzuki reactions provide incorporation of a broad range of transmetalating agents. In Kumada coupling reactions, a full complement of Grigard reagents, including methyl, n-alkyl, and aryl Grignard reagents, are employed. In reactions employing methylmagnesium iodide, ligation of the nickel catalyst by rac-BINAP or DPEphos provides the highest yield and stereospecificity. For all other Grignard reagents, Ni(dppe)Cl2 has emerged as the best catalyst. Negishi cross-coupling reactions employing dimethylzinc are reported as a strategy to

  2. Stereospecific Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Benzylic Ethers and Esters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus This Account presents the development of a suite of stereospecific alkyl–alkyl cross-coupling reactions employing nickel catalysts. Our reactions complement related nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent cross-coupling reactions from a stereochemical and mechanistic perspective. Most reactions of alkyl electrophiles with low-valent nickel complexes proceed through alkyl radicals and thus are stereoablative; the correct enantioselective catalyst can favor the formation of one enantiomer. Our reactions, in contrast, are stereospecific. Enantioenriched ethers and esters are cleanly converted to cross-coupled products with high stereochemical fidelity. While mechanistic details are still to be refined, our results are consistent with a polar, two-electron oxidative addition that avoids the formation of radical intermediates. This reactivity is unusual for a first-row transition metal. The cross-coupling reactions engage a range of benzylic ethers and esters, including methyl ethers, tetrahydropyrans, tetrahydrofurans, esters, and lactones. Coordination of the arene substituent to the nickel catalyst accelerates the reactions. Arenes with low aromatic stabilization energies, such as naphthalene, benzothiophene, and furan, serve as the best ligands and provide the highest reactivity. Traceless directing groups that accelerate reactions of sluggish substrates are described, providing partial compensation for arene coordination. Kumada, Negishi, and Suzuki reactions provide incorporation of a broad range of transmetalating agents. In Kumada coupling reactions, a full complement of Grigard reagents, including methyl, n-alkyl, and aryl Grignard reagents, are employed. In reactions employing methylmagnesium iodide, ligation of the nickel catalyst by rac-BINAP or DPEphos provides the highest yield and stereospecificity. For all other Grignard reagents, Ni(dppe)Cl2 has emerged as the best catalyst. Negishi cross-coupling reactions employing dimethylzinc are reported as

  3. Isotope Effects as Probes for Enzyme Catalyzed Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Daniel; Islam, Zahidul; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic Isotope effects (KIEs) have long served as a probe for the mechanisms of both enzymatic and solution reactions. Here, we discuss various models for the physical sources of KIEs, how experimentalists can use those models to interpret their data, and how the focus of traditional models has grown to a model that includes motion of the enzyme and quantum mechanical nuclear tunneling. We then present two case studies of enzymes, thymidylate synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase, and discuss how KIEs have shed light on the C-H bond cleavages those enzymes catalyze. We will show how the combination of both experimental and computational studieshas changed our notion of how these enzymes exert their catalytic powers. PMID:23673528

  4. Adrenodoxin supports reactions catalyzed by microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Pechurskaya, Tatiana A. . E-mail: usanov@iboch.bas-net.by

    2007-02-16

    The interaction of adrenodoxin (Adx) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) with human microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s was studied. It is found that Adx, mitochondrial electron transfer protein, is able to support reactions catalyzed by human microsomal P450s: full length CYP17, truncated CYP17, and truncated CYP21. CPR, but not Adx, supports activity of truncated CYP19. Truncated and the full length CYP17s show distinct preference for electron donor proteins. Truncated CYP17 has higher activity with Adx compared to CPR. The alteration in preference to electron donor does not change product profile for truncated enzymes. The electrostatic contacts play a major role in the interaction of truncated CYP17 with either CPR or Adx. Similarly electrostatic contacts are predominant in the interaction of full length CYP17 with Adx. We speculate that Adx might serve as an alternative electron donor for CYP17 at the conditions of CPR deficiency in human.

  5. Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions of Carbohydrates: a Nonoxidative Approach to Oxygenated Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Mark

    1997-01-08

    There is a critical need for new environmentally friendly processes in the United States chemical industry as legislative and economic pressures push the industry to zero-waste and cradle-to-grave responsibility for the products they produce. Carbohydrates represent a plentiful, renewable resource, which for some processes might economically replace fossil feedstocks. While the conversion of biomass to fuels, is still not generally economical, the selective synthesis of a commodity or fine chemical, however, could compete effectively if appropriate catalytic conversion systems can be found. Oxygenated organics, found in a variety of products such as nylon and polyester, are particularly attractive targets. We believe that with concerted research efforts, homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions could play a significant role in bringing about this future green chemistry technology.

  6. Determination of selenium via the fluorescence quenching effect of selenium on hemoglobin-catalyzed peroxidative reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Tian, Feng-Shou

    2015-05-01

    A new method for the determination of selenium based on its fluorescence quenching on the hemoglobin-catalyzed reaction of H2 O2 and l-tyrosine has been established. The effect of pH, foreign ions and the optimization of variables on the determination of selenium was examined. The calibration curve was found to be linear between the fluorescence quenching (F0 /F) and the concentration of selenium within the range of 0.16-4.00 µg/mL. The detection limit was 1.96 ng/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.14%. This method can be used for the determination of selenium in Se-enriched garlic bulbs with satisfactory results.

  7. Heterometallic Metal-Organic Frameworks That Catalyze Two Different Reactions Sequentially.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debraj; Hazra, Dipak K; Maity, Tanmoy; Koner, Subratanath

    2016-06-20

    A series of copper- and alkaline-earth-metal-based multidimensional metal-organic frameworks, {[CuMg(pdc)2(H2O)4]·2H2O}n (1), [CuCa(pdc)2]n (2), [CuSr(pdc)2(H2O)3]n (3), and {[CuBa(pdc)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n (4), where H2Pdc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. Two different metals act as the active center to catalyze two kinds of reactions, viz., olefin to its epoxide followed by epoxide ring opening to afford the corresponding vicinal diol in a sequential manner. PMID:27232433

  8. DFT studies on the palladium-catalyzed dearomatization reaction between naphthalene allyl chloride and allyltributylstannane.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Tian, Dongxu; Han, Dongxue

    2015-10-01

    The Pd-catalyzed dearomatization of naphthalene allyl chloride with allyltributylstannane has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP level. The calculations indicate that the (ŋ(1)-allyl)(ŋ(3)-allyl)Pd(PH3) complex is responsible for the formation of ortho-dearomatized product. Moreover it is easy to produce the ortho-dearomatized product when reductive elimination starts from (ŋ(3)-allylnaphthalene)(ŋ(1)-allyl)Pd complex 7, while it is easy to form the para-dearomatized product when reductive elimination starts from (ŋ(3)-allylnaphthalene)(ŋ(1)-allyl)Pd complex 9. The Stille coupling products can't be produced due to high reaction energy barrier. Graphical Abstract Two mechanisms of dearomatization are investigated by DFT, and (ŋ(1)-allyl)(ŋ(3)-allyl)Pd(PH3) complexes are the main intermediates for ortho-dearomatized product.

  9. Phosphoryl transfer reaction catalyzed by membrane diacylglycerol kinase: a theoretical mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yafei; Tan, Hongwei; Zheng, Jimin; Li, Xichen; Chen, Guangju; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-10-14

    Diacylglycerol kinase is an integral membrane protein which catalyzes phosphoryl transfer from ATP to diacylglycerol. As the smallest kinase known, it shares no sequence homology with conventional kinases and possesses a distinct trimer structure. Thus far, its catalytic mechanism remains elusive. Using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics calculations, we investigated the co-factor and the substrate binding and phosphoryl transfer mechanism. Based on the analysis of density functional theory calculations, we reveal that the phosphorylation reaction of diacylglycerol kinase features the same phosphoryl transfer mechanism as other kinases, despite its unique structural properties. Our results further show that the active site is relatively open and able to accommodate ligands in multiple orientations, suggesting that the optimization of binding orientations and conformational changes would occur prior to actual phosphoryl transfer.

  10. Transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reactions of olefins and alkynes: a personal account.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Fang, Xianjie; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Carbon monoxide was discovered and identified in the 18th century. Since the first applications in industry 80 years ago, academic and industrial laboratories have broadly explored CO's use in chemical reactions. Today organic chemists routinely employ CO in organic chemistry to synthesize all kinds of carbonyl compounds. Despite all these achievements and a century of carbonylation catalysis, many important research questions and challenges remain. Notably, apart from academic developments, industry applies carbonylation reactions with CO on bulk scale. In fact, today the largest applications of homogeneous catalysis (regarding scale) are carbonylation reactions, especially hydroformylations. In addition, the vast majority of acetic acid is produced via carbonylation of methanol (Monsanto or Cativa process). The carbonylation of olefins/alkynes with nucleophiles, such as alcohols and amines, represent another important type of such reactions. In this Account, we discuss our work on various carbonylations of unsaturated compounds and related reactions. Rhodium-catalyzed isomerization and hydroformylation reactions of internal olefins provide straightforward access to higher value aldehydes. Catalytic hydroaminomethylations offer an ideal way to synthesize substituted amines and even heterocycles directly. More recently, our group has also developed so-called alternative metal catalysts based on iridium, ruthenium, and iron. What about the future of carbonylation reactions? CO is already one of the most versatile C1 building blocks for organic synthesis and is widely used in industry. However, because of CO's high toxicity and gaseous nature, organic chemists are often reluctant to apply carbonylations more frequently. In addition, new regulations have recently made the transportation of carbon monoxide more difficult. Hence, researchers will need to develop and more frequently use practical and benign CO-generating reagents. Apart from formates, alcohols, and metal

  11. Palladium-Based Nanomaterials: A Platform to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species for Catalyzing Oxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Long, Ran; Huang, Hao; Li, Yaping; Song, Li; Xiong, Yujie

    2015-11-25

    Oxidation reactions by molecular oxygen (O2 ) over palladium (Pd)-based nanomaterials are a series of processes crucial to the synthesis of fine chemicals. In the past decades, investigations of related catalytic materials have mainly been focused on the synthesis of Pd-based nanomaterials from the angle of tailoring their surface structures, compositions and supporting materials, in efforts to improve their activities in organic reactions. From the perspective of rational materials design, it is imperative to address the fundamental issues associated with catalyst performance, one of which should be oxygen activation by Pd-based nanomaterials. Here, the fundamentals that account for the transformation from O2 to reactive oxygen species over Pd, with a focus on singlet O2 and its analogue, are introduced. Methods for detecting and differentiating species are also presented to facilitate future fundamental research. Key factors for tuning the oxygen activation efficiencies of catalytic materials are then outlined, and recent developments in Pd-catalyzed oxygen-related organic reactions are summarized in alignment with each key factor. To close, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for photocatalysis research at this unique intersection as well as the potential impact on other research fields.

  12. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  13. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  14. Novel palladium complex-catalyzed reaction of magnesium amides with allylic electrophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Ibragimov, A.G.; Minsker, D.L.; Muslukhov, R.R.

    1987-08-20

    In order to develop an efficient method for the synthesis of higher order unsaturated tertiary amines, and also to explore a new method for the formation of C-N bonds, they have investigated the transition metal complex-catalyzed reaction of magnesium amides with electrophiles; the electrophiles selected for study included allyl ethers and esters, as well as sulfones, sulfides and quaternized allylamines. The effects of the nature and structure of the catalyst components, as well as of the reaction conditions, on product yield were examined in the case of the reaction of diethyl (bromomagnesium)amine with diallyl ether, and revealed that the highest yield of diethylallyl-amine (I) was achieved using Pd(acac)/sub 2/ (3-5 mole %) and Ph/sub 3/P (1:2) as catalyst in THF solution at 50/sup 0/C for 5 h. Other transition metal (Ni, Fe, Zr, Ti, Cu) compounds were also examined as catalysts, but the yield of (I) did not exceed 15% with these compounds. Bimetallic catalysts based on Zr (Cp/sub 2/ZrCl, Py/sub 2/ZrCl/sub 6/, (RO)/sub 4/Zr) and Ni (Ni(acac)/sub 2/ and NiCl/sub 2/) were successful in forming (I) from diethyl (bromomagnesium)amine and diallyl ether in 60% yield.

  15. Palladium-Based Nanomaterials: A Platform to Produce Reactive Oxygen Species for Catalyzing Oxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Long, Ran; Huang, Hao; Li, Yaping; Song, Li; Xiong, Yujie

    2015-11-25

    Oxidation reactions by molecular oxygen (O2 ) over palladium (Pd)-based nanomaterials are a series of processes crucial to the synthesis of fine chemicals. In the past decades, investigations of related catalytic materials have mainly been focused on the synthesis of Pd-based nanomaterials from the angle of tailoring their surface structures, compositions and supporting materials, in efforts to improve their activities in organic reactions. From the perspective of rational materials design, it is imperative to address the fundamental issues associated with catalyst performance, one of which should be oxygen activation by Pd-based nanomaterials. Here, the fundamentals that account for the transformation from O2 to reactive oxygen species over Pd, with a focus on singlet O2 and its analogue, are introduced. Methods for detecting and differentiating species are also presented to facilitate future fundamental research. Key factors for tuning the oxygen activation efficiencies of catalytic materials are then outlined, and recent developments in Pd-catalyzed oxygen-related organic reactions are summarized in alignment with each key factor. To close, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for photocatalysis research at this unique intersection as well as the potential impact on other research fields. PMID:26422795

  16. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-02-01

    A time-resolved study using the freeze-trap method elucidates the mechanism of the DNA-cleaving reaction of HindIII. In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction.

  17. Electrogenic steps in the redox reactions catalyzed by photosynthetic reaction-centre complex from Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    PubMed

    Dracheva, S M; Drachev, L A; Konstantinov, A A; Semenov AYu; Skulachev, V P; Arutjunjan, A M; Shuvalov, V A; Zaberezhnaya, S M

    1988-01-15

    Electrogenic and redox events in the reaction-centre complexes from Rhodopseudomonas viridis have been studied. In contrast to the previous points of view it is shown that all the four hemes of the tightly bound cytochrome c have different Em values (-60, +20, +310 and +380 mV). The first three hemes reveal alpha absorption maxima at 554 nm, 552 nm and 556 nm respectively. The 380-mV heme displays a split alpha band with a maximum at 559 nm and a shoulder at 552 nm. Such a splitting is due to non-degenerated Qx and Qy transitions in the iron-porphyrin ring as demonstrated by magnetic circular dichroism spectra. Fast kinetic measurements show that, at redox potentials when only high-potential hemes c-559 and c-556 are reduced, heme c-559 appears to be the electron donor to P-960+ (tau = 0.32 microsecond) whereas heme c-556 serves to rereduce c-559 (tau = 2.5 microsecond). Upon reduction of the third heme (c-552), the P-960+ reduction rate increases twofold (tau = 0.17 microsecond) and all photoinduced redox events within the cytochrome appear to be complete in less than 1 microsecond after the flash. The following sequence of the redox centers is tentatively suggested: c-554, c-556, c-552, c-559, P-960. To study electrogenesis, the reaction-centre complexes from Rps. viridis were incorporated into asolectin liposomes, and fast kinetics of laser flash-induced electric potential difference has been measured in proteoliposomes adsorbed on a phospholipid-impregnated film. The electrical difference induced by a single 15-ns flash was found to be as high as 100 mV. The photoelectric response has been found to involve four electrogenic stages associated with (I) QA reduction by P-960; (II) reduction of P-960+ by heme c-559; (III) reduction of c-559 by c-556 and (IV) protonation of Q2-B. The relative contributions of stages I, II, III and IV are found to be equal to 70%, 15%, 5% and 10%, respectively, of the overall electrogenic process. At the same time, the first three

  18. An analytical method for determining relative specificities for sequential reactions catalyzed by the same enzyme: general formulation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David Alexander; Carrière, Frédéric; Krieger, Nadia

    2008-04-01

    We present a general formulation of a model that can be used to analyze reaction profiles in systems in which a single enzyme catalyzes several sequential reactions with the same molecular backbone. The analysis of these so-called "repeated-attack systems" allows estimation of the specificities that the enzyme has for the various intermediate substrates that appear in the reaction mixture, relative to the specificity that it has for the initial substrate. Our analytical method has the important advantage that it is not affected by competitive or uncompetitive inhibition, nor by denaturation of the enzyme during the reaction. We carry out case studies in three different systems, the lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of triacylglycerols, the phytase-catalyzed removal of phosphate groups from phytic acid and the beta-amylase-catalyzed removal of maltose units from maltoheptaose. Our model fits well to all reaction profiles in which the phenomenon of processivity does not occur. It can therefore be used as a general tool for characterizing the relative specificities of "repeated-attack enzymes".

  19. Cinchona Urea-Catalyzed Asymmetric Sulfa-Michael Reactions: The Brønsted Acid-Hydrogen Bonding Model.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Matthew N; Houk, K N

    2016-07-27

    The cinchona alkaloid-derived urea-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of aromatic thiols to cycloalkenones was studied using density functional theory (DFT). Deprotonation of the thiol gives a protonated amine that activates the electrophile by Brønsted acid catalysis, while the urea group binds the nucleophilic thiolate by hydrogen bonding. These results demonstrate the generality of the Brønsted acid-hydrogen bonding transition state (TS) model for cinchona alkaloid catalysis that we recently showed to be favored over Wynberg's widely accepted ion pair-hydrogen bonding model and represent the first detailed mechanistic study of a cinchona urea-catalyzed reaction. The conformation of the catalyst methoxy group has a strong effect on the TS, an effect overlooked in previous mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids.

  20. Controlling reaction specificity in pyridoxal phosphate enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes are ubiquitous in the nitrogen metabolism of all organisms. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions including racemization, transamination, decarboxylation, elimination, retro-aldol cleavage, Claisen condensation, and others on substrates containing an amino group, most commonly α-amino acids. The wide variety of reactions catalyzed by PLP enzymes is enabled by the ability of the covalent aldimine intermediate formed between substrate and PLP to stabilize carbanionic intermediates at Cα of the substrate. This review attempts to summarize the mechanisms by which reaction specificity can be achieved in PLP enzymes by focusing on three aspects of these reactions: stereoelectronic effects, protonation state of the external aldimine intermediate, and interaction of the carbanionic intermediate with the protein side chains present in the active site. PMID:21664990

  1. Diazo compounds and N-tosylhydrazones: novel cross-coupling partners in transition-metal-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-02-19

    Transition-metal-catalyzed carbene transformations and cross-couplings represent two major reaction types in organometallic chemistry and organic synthesis. However, for a long period of time, these two important areas have evolved separately, with essentially no overlap or integration. Thus, an intriguing question has emerged: can cross-coupling and metal carbene transformations be merged into a single reaction cycle? Such a combination could facilitate the development of novel carbon-carbon bond-forming methodologies. Although this concept was first explored about 10 years ago, rapid developments inthis area have been achieved recently. Palladium catalysts can be used to couple diazo compounds with a wide variety of organic halides. Under oxidative coupling conditions, diazo compounds can also react with arylboronic acids and terminal alkynes. Both of these coupling reactions form carbon-carbon double bonds. As the key step in these catalytic processes, Pd carbene migratory insertion plays a vital role in merging the elementary steps of Pd intermediates, leading to novel carbon-carbon bond formations. Because the diazo substrates can be generated in situ from N-tosylhydrazones in the presence of base, the N-tosylhydrazones can be used as reaction partners, making this type of cross-coupling reaction practical in organic synthesis. N-Tosylhydrazones are easily derived from the corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of N-tosylhydrazones is considered a complementary reaction to the classic Shapiro reaction for converting carbonyl functionalities into carbon-carbon double bonds. It can also serve as an alternative approach for the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of carbonyl compounds, which is usually achieved via triflates. The combination of carbene formation and cross-coupling in a single catalytic cycle is not limited to Pd-catalyzed reactions. Recent studies of Cu-, Rh-, Ni-, and Co-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with diazo

  2. Metal-ligand binding affinity vs reactivity: qualitative studies in Rh(I)-catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening reactions.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Gavin Chit; Dougan, Patrick; Lautens, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Rh(I)-catalyzed asymmetric ring opening (ARO) of oxabenzonorbornadiene is used as a model system to qualitatively study reactions involving multiple metal-ligand interactions. The key feature of this approach is the use of product ee as an indicator to quickly gain important information such as the relative ligand binding affinity and relative reactivity of catalysts.

  3. Nafion®-catalyzed microwave-assisted Ritter reaction: An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides by the Ritter reaction of alcohols and nitriles under microwave irradiation is reported. This green protocol is catalyzed by solid supported Nafion®NR50 with improved efficiency and reduced waste production.

  4. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions running under air.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per-Fredrik; Astvik, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2012-01-01

    A new efficient ligand, N,N''-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air. PMID:23209530

  5. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions running under air

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Per-Fredrik; Astvik, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary A new efficient ligand, N,N’’-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air. PMID:23209530

  6. Transition Path Sampling Study of the Reaction Catalyzed by Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Saen-oon, Suwipa; Schramm, Vern L.; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    The Transition Path Sampling (TPS) method is a powerful technique for studying rare events in complex systems, that allows description of reactive events in atomic detail without prior knowledge of reaction coordinates and transition states. We have applied TPS in combination with a hybrid Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) method to study the enzyme human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hPNP). This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of 6-oxypurine (deoxy)nucleosides to generate the corresponding purine base and (deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Hundreds of reactive trajectories were generated. Analysis of this transition path ensembles provides insight into the detailed mechanistic dynamics of reaction in the enzyme. Our studies have indicated a reaction mechanism involving the cleavage of the N-ribosidic bond to form transition states with substantial ribooxacarbenium ion character, that is then followed by conformational changes in the enzyme and the ribosyl group leading to migration of the anomeric carbon of the ribosyl group toward phosphate to form the product ribose 1-phosphate. This latter process is crucial in PNP, because several strong H-bonds form between active site residues in order to capture and align the phosphate nucleophile. Calculations of the commitment probability along reactive paths demonstrated the presence of a broad energy barrier at the transition state. Analysis of these transition state structures showed that bond-breaking and bond-forming distances are not a good choice for the reaction coordinate, but that the pseudorotational phase of the ribose ring is also a significant variable. PMID:20664707

  7. Configurationally Stable, Enantioenriched Organometallic Nucleophiles in Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions: An Alternative Approach to Asymmetric Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Yuan; Derosaa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Several research groups have recently developed methods to employ configurationally stable, enantioenriched organometallic nucleophiles in stereospecific Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. By establishing the absolute configuration of a chiral alkyltin or alkylboron nucleophile prior to its use in cross-coupling reactions, new stereogenic centers may be rapidly and reliably generated with preservation of the known initial stereochemistry. While this area of research is still in its infancy, such stereospecific cross-coupling reactions may emerge as simple, general methods to access diverse, optically active products from common enantioenriched organometallic building blocks. This minireview highlights recent progress towards the development of general, stereospecific Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions using configurationally stable organometallic nucleophiles. PMID:26388985

  8. Mechanistic Studies Lead to Dramatically Improved Reaction Conditions for the Cu-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydroamination of Olefins.

    PubMed

    Bandar, Jeffrey S; Pirnot, Michael T; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-11-25

    Enantioselective copper(I) hydride (CuH)-catalyzed hydroamination has undergone significant development over the past several years. To gain a general understanding of the factors governing these reactions, kinetic and spectroscopic studies were performed on the CuH-catalyzed hydroamination of styrene. Reaction profile analysis, rate order assessment, and Hammett studies indicate that the turnover-limiting step is regeneration of the CuH catalyst by reaction with a silane, with a phosphine-ligated copper(I) benzoate as the catalyst resting state. Spectroscopic, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and nonlinear effect studies are consistent with a monomeric active catalyst. With this insight, targeted reagent optimization led to the development of an optimized protocol with an operationally simple setup (ligated copper(II) precatalyst, open to air) and short reaction times (<30 min). This improved protocol is amenable to a diverse range of alkene and alkyne substrate classes. PMID:26522837

  9. Mechanism of the Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase-Catalyzed Reaction: Evidence for Substrate Destabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.; Wood, M; Fedorov, A; Fedorov, E; Imker, H; Amyes, T; Richard, J; Almo, S; Gerlt, J

    2009-01-01

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (kcat/knon, 7.1 x 1016) and proficiency (kcat/KM)/knon, 4.8 x 1022 M-1 is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (=1010). The origin of the 'missing' contribution, =107 (1017 total - =1010), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of kcat for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analogue) but have little effect on the value of kex for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild-type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild-type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and exchange provide additional evidence for a carbanionic intermediate as well as the involvement of Asp 70 in substrate destabilization.

  10. Mechanism of the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase-catalyzed reaction: evidence for substrate destabilization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kui K; Wood, B McKay; Fedorov, Alexander A; Fedorov, Elena V; Imker, Heidi J; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2009-06-23

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (k(cat)/k(non), 7.1 x 10(16)) and proficiency [(k(cat)/K(M))/k(non), 4.8 x 10(22) M(-1)] is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (>or=10(10)). The origin of the "missing" contribution, or=10(10)), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency [Wu, N., Mo, Y., Gao, J., and Pai, E. F. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 2017-2022]. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of k(cat) for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analogue) but have little effect on the value of k(ex) for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild-type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild-type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis a vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Zinc Enolates of Esters: Reaction Conditions and Substrate Scope

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The intermolecular α-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. α-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from α-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching lithium enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, α-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

  12. Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C–O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-09-06

    Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C-O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C-O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C-O cleavage occurs via a C-H → O-H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C-O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C-O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

  13. Probing Nonadiabaticity in the Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reaction Catalyzed by Soybean Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) plays a vital role in many biological and chemical processes. PCET rate constant expressions are available for various well-defined regimes, and determining which expression is appropriate for a given system is essential for reliable modeling. Quantitative diagnostics have been devised to characterize the vibronic nonadiabaticity between the electron–proton quantum subsystem and the classical nuclei, as well as the electron–proton nonadiabaticity between the electrons and proton(s) within the quantum subsystem. Herein these diagnostics are applied to a model of the active site of the enzyme soybean lipoxygenase, which catalyzes a PCET reaction that exhibits unusually high deuterium kinetic isotope effects at room temperature. Both semiclassical and electronic charge density diagnostics illustrate vibronic and electron–proton nonadiabaticity for this PCET reaction, supporting the use of the Golden rule nonadiabatic rate constant expression with a specific form of the vibronic coupling. This type of characterization will be useful for theoretical modeling of a broad range of PCET processes. PMID:25258676

  14. Computational study of gold-catalyzed homo- and cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Nieto Faza, Olalla; Silva López, Carlos

    2013-05-17

    The role of gold as the organizing metal in homo- and cross-coupling reactions is explored in this paper combining DFT calculations with QTAIM, NBO, and the energetic span model analysis. For the gold(III) complex 7, a key intermediate in the experimental oxidative coupling scheme by Zhang et al., we describe the mechanisms corresponding to a cross-coupling after transmetalation with boron compounds and to a homocoupling after transmetalation with the original gold(I) complex 6, a new example of dual role of this metal in homogeneous catalysis. We predict for the first path a two-step transmetalation with a low energy rate-limiting step characterized by a four-center transition structure, where fluorine plays an essential role, followed by a reductive elimination where the C-C bond formation is coupled to the departure of fluorine from the gold center. The homocoupling path follows a similar mechanism, with a two-step transmetalation with interesting changes in bonding around the Au(I) center and a rate-limiting reductive elimination. Our findings on the competition between mechanisms, and the effect of ligands and solvent, agree with the experimental results and provide new insights into the mechanism of gold-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. PMID:23597253

  15. Analysis of the HindIII-catalyzed reaction by time-resolved crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by HindIII, structures of HindIII–DNA complexes with varying durations of soaking time in cryoprotectant buffer containing manganese ions were determined by the freeze-trap method. In the crystal structures of the complexes obtained after soaking for a longer duration, two manganese ions, indicated by relatively higher electron density, are clearly observed at the two metal ion-binding sites in the active site of HindIII. The increase in the electron density of the two metal-ion peaks followed distinct pathways with increasing soaking times, suggesting variation in the binding rate constant for the two metal sites. DNA cleavage is observed when the second manganese ion appears, suggesting that HindIII uses the two-metal-ion mechanism, or alternatively that its reactivity is enhanced by the binding of the second metal ion. In addition, conformational change in a loop near the active site accompanies the catalytic reaction. PMID:25664735

  16. Polyoxymetalate liquid-catalyzed polyol fuel cell and the related photoelectrochemical reaction mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weibing; Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2016-06-01

    A novel design of liquid catalyzed fuel cell (LCFC), which uses polyoxometalates (POMs) as the photocatalyst and charge carrier has been reported previously. In this paper, the adaptability of biomass fuels (e.g., glycerol and glucose) to the LCFC and corresponding cell performance were studied in detail here. An interesting finding that greatly differs from conventional fuel cell is that high molecular weight fuels rather than small molecule fuels (e.g., methanol and ethylene glycol) are favored by the novel LCFC with respect to the power densities. The power output of LCFC strongly depends on the number and structure of hydroxyl groups in the biomass fuels. The evidence of UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectra shows that the preassociation between POM and alcohol fuels, which determines the photoelectrochemical reaction pathway of POM, is enhanced as the number of hydroxyl increases. Experimental results also demonstrate that more hydroxyl groups in the molecules lead to faster photoelectrochemical reaction between POM and fuels, higher reduction degree of POM, and further higher power output of LCFC. Our study reveals that biomass-based polyhydroxyl compounds such as starch, hemicellulose and cellulose are potential high-performance fuels for LCFC.

  17. Unusual Peroxide-Dependent, Heme-Transforming Reaction Catalyzed by HemQ.

    PubMed

    Celis, Arianna I; Streit, Bennett R; Moraski, Garrett C; Kant, Ravi; Lash, Timothy D; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Rodgers, Kenton R; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    A recently proposed pathway for heme b biosynthesis, common to diverse bacteria, has the conversion of two of the four propionates on coproheme III to vinyl groups as its final step. This reaction is catalyzed in a cofactor-independent, H2O2-dependent manner by the enzyme HemQ. Using the HemQ from Staphylococcus aureus (SaHemQ), the initial decarboxylation step was observed to rapidly and obligately yield the three-propionate harderoheme isomer III as the intermediate, while the slower second decarboxylation appeared to control the overall rate. Both synthetic harderoheme isomers III and IV reacted when bound to HemQ, the former more slowly than the latter. While H2O2 is the assumed biological oxidant, either H2O2 or peracetic acid yielded the same intermediates and products, though amounts significantly greater than the expected 2 equiv were required in both cases and peracetic acid reacted faster. The ability of peracetic acid to substitute for H2O2 suggests that, despite the lack of catalytic residues conventionally present in heme peroxidase active sites, reaction pathways involving high-valent iron intermediates cannot be ruled out. PMID:26083961

  18. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Regiospecific Cross-Dehydrative Coupling Reaction of 2-Furylcarbinols with β-Keto Amides or 4-Hydroxycoumarins: A Route to Furyl Enols.

    PubMed

    Miao, Maozhong; Luo, Yi; Li, Hongli; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhengkai; Xu, Jianfeng; Ren, Hongjun

    2016-06-17

    Lewis acid catalyzed directly dehydrative carbon-carbon bond formation reaction of 2-furylcarbinols with β-keto amides provides a straightforward method for regioselective synthesis of (Z)-furyl enols. Moreover, this Lewis acid catalyzed cross-coupling reaction can be extended to an interesting heterocyclic version featuring a functionalized 3-furyl-4-hydroxycoumarin synthesis. PMID:27224045

  19. Rapid formation of triarylphosphines by microwave-assisted transition metal-catalyzed C-p cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Alexander; Kappe, C Oliver

    2002-10-01

    Rapid, direct transition metal-catalyzed C-P(III) cross-coupling reactions were performed by microwave dielectric heating, employing diphenylphosphine and aryl halides/triflates as substrates. Depending on the specific aryl halide/triflate precursor, the highest yields were obtained utilizing heterogeneous or homogeneous Pd or Ni catalysts in DMF or NMP in the presence of KOAc or DABCO as a base. [reaction: see text

  20. Pd(Quinox)-Catalyzed Allylic Relay Suzuki Reactions of Secondary Homostyrenyl Tosylates via Alkene-Assisted Oxidative Addition.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Benjamin J; Bischoff, Amanda J; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-06-01

    Pd-catalyzed allylic relay Suzuki cross-coupling reactions of secondary alkyl tosylates, featuring a sterically-hindered oxidative addition and precise control of β-hydride elimination, are reported. The identification of a linear free energy relationship between the relative rates of substrate consumption and the electronic nature of the substrate alkene suggests that the oxidative addition requires direct alkene involvement. A study of the effect of chain length on the reaction outcome supports a chelation-controlled oxidative addition.

  1. From a Sequential to a Concurrent Reaction in Aqueous Medium: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Allylic Alcohol Isomerization and Asymmetric Bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Liardo, Elisa; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2016-07-18

    The ruthenium-catalyzed redox isomerization of allylic alcohols was successfully coupled with the enantioselective enzymatic ketone reduction (mediated by KREDs) in a concurrent process in aqueous medium. The overall transformation, formally the asymmetric reduction of allylic alcohols, took place with excellent conversions and enantioselectivities, under mild reaction conditions, employing commercially and readily available catalytic systems, and without external coenzymes or cofactors. Optimization resulted in a multistep approach and a genuine cascade reaction where the metal catalyst and biocatalyst coexist from the beginning.

  2. I2-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reactions for Accessing Densely Functionalized Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and Their Disulphenylated Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Qiu, Jiang-Kai; Jiang, Bo; Hao, Wen-Juan; Guo, Cheng; Tu, Shu-Jiang

    2016-04-15

    New I2-catalyzed multicomponent bicyclization reactions of β-ketonitriles with sulfonyl hydrazides have been established, providing a direct and metal-free access toward unreported pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-4-ium sulfonates. The latter could be quantitatively converted into densely functionalized pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines in the presence of bases. Using sulfonyl hydrazides as a sulfenylating agent, the resulting pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines enabled I2-catalyzed unprecedented disulphenylations to access fully substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines through direct C(sp(2))-H bond bifunctionalization. PMID:26991413

  3. Structural characterization of tartrate dehydrogenase: a versatile enzyme catalyzing multiple reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Radhika; Viola, Ronald E.

    2010-10-28

    The first structure of an NAD-dependent tartrate dehydrogenase (TDH) has been solved to 2 {angstrom} resolution by single anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing as a complex with the intermediate analog oxalate, Mg{sup 2+} and NADH. This TDH structure from Pseudomonas putida has a similar overall fold and domain organization to other structurally characterized members of the hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase family. However, there are considerable differences between TDH and these functionally related enzymes in the regions connecting the core secondary structure and in the relative positioning of important loops and helices. The active site in these complexes is highly ordered, allowing the identification of the substrate-binding and cofactor-binding groups and the ligands to the metal ions. Residues from the adjacent subunit are involved in both the substrate and divalent metal ion binding sites, establishing a dimer as the functional unit and providing structural support for an alternating-site reaction mechanism. The divalent metal ion plays a prominent role in substrate binding and orientation, together with several active-site arginines. Functional groups from both subunits form the cofactor-binding site and the ammonium ion aids in the orientation of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. A lysyl amino group (Lys192) is the base responsible for the water-mediated proton abstraction from the C2 hydroxyl group of the substrate that begins the catalytic reaction, followed by hydride transfer to NAD. A tyrosyl hydroxyl group (Tyr141) functions as a general acid to protonate the enolate intermediate. Each substrate undergoes the initial hydride transfer, but differences in substrate orientation are proposed to account for the different reactions catalyzed by TDH.

  4. Mechanistic study of chemoselectivity in Ni-catalyzed coupling reactions between azoles and aryl carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qianqian; Yu, Haizhu; Fu, Yao

    2014-06-11

    Itami et al. recently reported the C-O electrophile-controlled chemoselectivity of Ni-catalyzed coupling reactions between azoles and esters: the decarbonylative C-H coupling product was generated with the aryl ester substrates, while C-H/C-O coupling product was generated with the phenol derivative substrates (such as phenyl pivalate). With the aid of DFT calculations (M06L/6-311+G(2d,p)-SDD//B3LYP/6-31G(d)-LANL2DZ), the present study systematically investigated the mechanism of the aforementioned chemoselective reactions. The decarbonylative C-H coupling mechanism involves oxidative addition of C(acyl)-O bond, base-promoted C-H activation of azole, CO migration, and reductive elimination steps (C-H/Decar mechanism). This mechanism is partially different from Itami's previous proposal (Decar/C-H mechanism) because the C-H activation step is unlikely to occur after the CO migration step. Meanwhile, C-H/C-O coupling reaction proceeds through oxidative addition of C(phenyl)-O bond, base-promoted C-H activation, and reductive elimination steps. It was found that the C-O electrophile significantly influences the overall energy demand of the decarbonylative C-H coupling mechanism, because the rate-determining step (i.e., CO migration) is sensitive to the steric effect of the acyl substituent. In contrast, in the C-H/C-O coupling mechanism, the release of the carboxylates occurs before the rate-determining step (i.e., base-promoted C-H activation), and thus the overall energy demand is almost independent of the acyl substituent. Accordingly, the decarbonylative C-H coupling product is favored for less-bulky group substituted C-O electrophiles (such as aryl ester), while C-H/C-O coupling product is predominant for bulky group substituted C-O electrophiles (such as phenyl pivalate). PMID:24823646

  5. Haloperoxidase reactions catalyzed by lignin peroxidase, an extracellular enzyme from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Renganathan, V.; Miki, K.; Gold, M.H.

    1987-08-11

    Lignin peroxidase (ligninase, LiP) an H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-dependent lignin-degrading heme enzyme from the basidiomycetous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of lignin model compounds. In this paper the authors examine the haloperoxidase reactions of LiP. In the presence of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, homogeneous LiP oxidized bromide and iodide but not chloride. Halide oxidation was measured by the halogenation of monochlorodimedone (MCD) and a variety of other aromatic compounds. Bromination of MCD produced monochloromonobromodimedone. The pH optimum for the bromination of MCD was 3.5. Both chloride and fluoride inhibited the bromination reaction. LiP binds halides to produce characteristic optical difference spectra. From these spectra apparent dissociation constants for fluoride and chloride were determined to be 0.3 and 20 mM, respectively. Incubation of LiP with bromide and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the absence of organic substrate led to the bleaching of the heme as measured by a decrease in Soret maximum. LiP brominated a variety of aromatic substrates including 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol (veratryl alcohol) to produce 6-bromoveratryl alcohol (VII). LiP hydrobrominated cinnamic acid (IV) to produce 2-bromo-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (XII). In an analogous reaction LiP hydrobrominated 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propene (II) to produce 2-bromo-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxypropane (XIII). Finally, with 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid as the substrate, three bromination products were identified: trans-2-bromo-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylene (IX), 2,2-dibromo-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxyethane (X), and 2-bromo-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (XI).

  6. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction.

    PubMed

    Algasaier, Sana I; Exell, Jack C; Bennet, Ian A; Thompson, Mark J; Gotham, Victoria J B; Shaw, Steven J; Craggs, Timothy D; Finger, L David; Grasby, Jane A

    2016-04-01

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5'-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5'-terminiin vivo Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5'-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5'-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr(40), Asp(181), and Arg(100)and a reacting duplex 5'-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5'-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage.

  7. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    Algasaier, Sana I.; Exell, Jack C.; Bennet, Ian A.; Thompson, Mark J.; Gotham, Victoria J. B.; Shaw, Steven J.; Craggs, Timothy D.; Finger, L. David; Grasby, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5′-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5′-termini in vivo. Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5′-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5′-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr40, Asp181, and Arg100 and a reacting duplex 5′-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5′-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage. PMID:26884332

  8. Pd(II)-Catalyzed C–H Activation/C–C Cross-Coupling Reactions: Versatility and Practicality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Engle, Keary M.; Wang, Dong-Hui; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, palladium-catalyzed C–H activation/C–C bond forming reactions have emerged as promising new catalytic transformations; however, development in this field is still at an early stage compared to the state of the art in cross-coupling reactions using aryl and alkyl halides. This Review begins with a brief introduction of four extensively investigated modes of catalysis for forming C–C bonds from C–H bonds: Pd(II)/Pd(0), Pd(II)/Pd(IV), Pd(0)/Pd(II)/Pd(IV) and Pd(0)/Pd(II) catalysis. More detailed discussion is then directed towards the recent development of Pd(II)-catalyzed coupling of C–H bonds with organometallic reagents through a Pd(II)/Pd(0) catalytic cycle. Despite much progress made to date, improving the versatility and practicality of this new reaction remains a tremendous challenge. PMID:19557755

  9. Rhodium catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H bond functionalization reactions.

    PubMed

    Colby, Denise A; Tsai, Andy S; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2012-06-19

    Over the last several decades, researchers have achieved remarkable progress in the field of organometallic chemistry. The development of metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions represents a paradigm shift in chemical synthesis, and today synthetic chemists can readily access carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds from a vast array of starting compounds. Although we cannot understate the importance of these methods, the required prefunctionalization to carry out these reactions adds cost and reduces the availability of the starting reagents. The use of C-H bond activation in lieu of prefunctionalization has presented a tantalizing alternative to classical cross-coupling reactions. Researchers have met the challenges of selectivity and reactivity associated with the development of C-H bond functionalization reactions with an explosion of creative advances in substrate and catalyst design. Literature reports on selectivity based on steric effects, acidity, and electronic and directing group effects are now numerous. Our group has developed an array of C-H bond functionalization reactions that take advantage of a chelating directing group, and this Account surveys our progress in this area. The use of chelation control in C-H bond functionalization offers several advantages with respect to substrate scope and application to total synthesis. The predictability and decreased dependence on the inherent stereoelectronics of the substrate generally result in selective and high yielding transformations with broad applicability. The nature of the chelating moiety can be chosen to serve as a functional handle in subsequent elaborations. Our work began with the use of Rh(I) catalysts in intramolecular aromatic C-H annulations, which we further developed to include enantioselective transformations. The application of this chemistry to the simple olefinic C-H bonds found in α,β-unsaturated imines allowed access to highly substituted olefins, pyridines, and piperidines. We

  10. Practical Iron- and Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions between N-Heterocyclic Halides and Aryl or Heteroaryl Magnesium Reagents.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Olesya M; Steib, Andreas K; Fernandez, Sarah; Boudot, Willy; Markiewicz, John T; Knochel, Paul

    2015-05-26

    The reaction scope of iron- and cobalt-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions in the presence of isoquinoline (quinoline) in the solvent mixture tBuOMe/THF has been further investigated. Various 2-halogenated pyridine, pyrimidine, and triazine derivatives were arylated under these mild conditions in excellent yields. The presence of isoquinoline allows us to perform Fe-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions between 6-chloroquinoline and aryl magnesium reagents. Furthermore, it was found that the use of 10% N,N-dimethylquinoline-8-amine increases the yields of some Co-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with chloropyridines bearing electron-withdrawing substituents. PMID:25899175

  11. Reaction pathway of tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2011-11-01

    Tryptophanase, L-tryptophan indole-lyase with extremely absolute stereospecificity, can change the stereospecificity in concentrated diammonium hydrogenphosphate solution. While tryptophanase is not inert to D-serine in the absence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate, it can undergo L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine along with indole in the presence of it. It has been well known that tryptophanase synthesizes L-tryptophan from L-serine through a β-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type. However, a metabolic pathway of L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine has remained unclear. The present study aims to elucidate it. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate plays a role in the emergence of catalytic activity on D-serine. The salt gives tryptophanase a small conformational change, which makes it possible to catalyze D-serine. Tryptophanase-bound D-serine produces L-tryptophan synthesis by β-replacement reaction via the enzyme-bound aminoacrylate intermediate. Our result will be valuable in studying the origin of homochirality.

  12. Effect of carbon on the Ni catalyzed methane cracking reaction: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingde; Croiset, Eric; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis

    2014-08-01

    To understand the effects of carbon atoms on the Ni catalyzed methane cracking reactions, methane dissociation on clean, surface-carbon-covered, and subsurface-carbon-accumulated Ni(1 1 1) surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the existence of surface and subsurface C atoms destabilized the adsorption of the surface hydrocarbon species when compared to the clean Ni(1 1 1) surface. The projected density state (PDOS) analysis shows that the deposition of C atoms on and into the Ni surface modified the electronic structure of the Ni surface, and thus reduced the catalytic activity of the bonded Ni atoms. Moreover, it was found that the presence carbon atoms increase the CHx (x = 4-1) species activation barriers especially on the surface carbon covered (1/4 ML) Ni(1 1 1) surface, where CHx (x = 4-1) species encounter highest energy barrier for dissociation due to the electronic deactivation induced by Csbnd Ni bonding and the strong repulsive carbon sbnd CHx interaction. The calculations also show that CHx dissociation barriers are not affected by its neighboring C atom at low surface carbon coverage (1/9 ML). This work can be used to estimate more realistic kinetic parameters for this system.

  13. The Origin of Anti-Markovnikov Regioselectivity in Alkene Hydroamination Reactions Catalyzed by [Rh(DPEphos)](.).

    PubMed

    Couce-Rios, Almudena; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori

    2016-06-27

    The development of regioselective anti-Markovnikov alkene's hydroamination is a long-standing goal in catalysis. The [Rh(COD)(DPEphos)](+) complex is the most general and regioselective group 9 catalyst for such a process. The reaction mechanism for intermolecular hydroamination of alkenes catalyzed by [Rh(DPEphos)](+) complex is analyzed by means of DFT calculations. Hydroamination (alkene vs. amine activation routes) as well as oxidative amination pathways are analyzed. According to the computational results the operating mechanism can be generally described by alkene coordination, amine nucleophilic addition, proton transfer through the metal center and reductive elimination steps. The mechanism for the formation of the oxidative amination side product goes via a β-elimination after the nucleophilic addition and metal center protonation steps. The origin of the regioselectivity for the addition process (Markovnikov vs. anti-Markovnikov additions) is shown to be not charge but orbitally driven. Remarkably, η(2) to η(1) slippage degree on the alkene coordination mode is directly related to the regioselective outcome.

  14. Acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose, xylan and straw into furfural by microwave-assisted reaction.

    PubMed

    Yemiş, Oktay; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose and xylan to furfural by microwave-assisted reaction was investigated at selected ranges of temperature (140-190°C), time (1-30 min), substrate concentration (1:5-1:200 solid:liquid ratio), and pH (2-0.13). We found that a temperature of 180°C, a solid:liquid ratio of 1:200, a residence time of 20 min, and a pH of 1.12 gave the best furfural yields. The effect of different Brønsted acids on the conversion efficiency of xylose and xylan was also evaluated, with hydrochloric acid being found to be the most effective catalyst. The microwave-assisted process provides highly efficient conversion: furfural yields obtained from wheat straw, triticale straw, and flax shives were 48.4%, 45.7%, and 72.1%, respectively. PMID:21620690

  15. A review on lipase-catalyzed reactions in ultrasound-assisted systems.

    PubMed

    Lerin, Lindomar A; Loss, Raquel A; Remonatto, Daniela; Zenevicz, Mara Cristina; Balen, Manuela; Netto, Vendelino Oenning; Ninow, Jorge L; Trentin, Cláudia M; Oliveira, J Vladimir; de Oliveira, Débora

    2014-12-01

    The named "green chemistry" has been receiving increasing prominence due to its environmentally friendly characteristics. The use of enzymes as catalysts in processes of synthesis to replace the traditional use of chemical catalysts present as main advantage the fact of following the principles of the green chemistry. However, processes of enzymatic nature generally provide lower yields when compared to the conventional chemical processes. Therefore, in the last years, the ultrasound has been extensively used in enzymatic processes, such as the production of esters with desirable characteristics for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industry, for the hydrolysis and glycerolysis of vegetable oils, production of biodiesel, etc. Several works found in the open literature suggest that the energy released by the ultrasound during the cavitation phenomena can be used to enhance mass transfer (substrate/enzyme), hence increasing the rate of products formation, and also contributing to enhance the enzyme catalytic activity. Furthermore, the ultrasound is considered a "green" technology due to its high efficiency, low instrumental requirement and significant reduction of the processing time in comparison to other techniques. The main goal of this review was to summarize studies available to date regarding the application of ultrasound in enzyme-catalyzed esterification, hydrolysis, glycerolysis and transesterification reactions. PMID:24906428

  16. The Origin of Anti-Markovnikov Regioselectivity in Alkene Hydroamination Reactions Catalyzed by [Rh(DPEphos)](.).

    PubMed

    Couce-Rios, Almudena; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori

    2016-06-27

    The development of regioselective anti-Markovnikov alkene's hydroamination is a long-standing goal in catalysis. The [Rh(COD)(DPEphos)](+) complex is the most general and regioselective group 9 catalyst for such a process. The reaction mechanism for intermolecular hydroamination of alkenes catalyzed by [Rh(DPEphos)](+) complex is analyzed by means of DFT calculations. Hydroamination (alkene vs. amine activation routes) as well as oxidative amination pathways are analyzed. According to the computational results the operating mechanism can be generally described by alkene coordination, amine nucleophilic addition, proton transfer through the metal center and reductive elimination steps. The mechanism for the formation of the oxidative amination side product goes via a β-elimination after the nucleophilic addition and metal center protonation steps. The origin of the regioselectivity for the addition process (Markovnikov vs. anti-Markovnikov additions) is shown to be not charge but orbitally driven. Remarkably, η(2) to η(1) slippage degree on the alkene coordination mode is directly related to the regioselective outcome. PMID:27226329

  17. New insights into atrazine degradation by cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation: kinetics, reaction products and transformation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuefei; Dong, Changxun; Kong, Deyang; Lu, Junhe

    2015-03-21

    The widespread occurrence of atrazine in waters poses potential risk to ecosystem and human health. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and transformation pathways of atrazine degradation by cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (Co(II)/PMS). Co(II)/PMS was found to be more efficient for ATZ elimination in aqueous solution than Fe(II)/PMS process. ATZ oxidation by Co(II)/PMS followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the reaction rate constant (k(obs)) increased appreciably with increasing Co(II) concentration. Increasing initial PMS concentration favored the decomposition of ATZ, however, no linear relationship between k(obs) and PMS concentration was observed. Higher efficiency of ATZ oxidation was observed around neutral pH, implying the possibility of applying Co(II)/PMS process under environmental realistic conditions. Natural organic matter (NOM), chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) showed detrimental effects on ATZ degradation, particularly at higher concentrations. Eleven products were identified by applying solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS) techniques. Major transformation pathways of ATZ included dealkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, and alkyl chain oxidation. Detailed mechanisms responsible for these transformation pathways were discussed. Our results reveal that Co(II)/PMS process might be an efficient technique for remediation of groundwater contaminated by ATZ and structurally related s-triazine herbicides.

  18. Photoinduced Vesicle Formation via the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Konetski, Danielle; Gong, Tao; Bowman, Christopher N

    2016-08-16

    Synthetic vesicles have a wide range of applications from drug and cosmetic delivery to artificial cell and membrane studies, making simple and controlled formation of vesicles a large focus of the field today. Here, we report the use of the photoinitiated copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction using visible light to introduce spatiotemporal control into the formation of vesicles. Upon the establishment of the spatiotemporal control over vesicle formation, it became possible to adjust initiation conditions to modulate vesicle sizes resulting in the formation of controllably small or large vesicles based on light intensity or giant vesicles when the formation was initiated in flow-free conditions. Additionally, this photoinitiated method enables vesicle formation at a density 400-fold higher than initiation using sodium ascorbate as the catalyst. Together, these advances enable the formation of high-density, controlled size vesicles using low-energy wavelengths while producing enhanced control over the formation characteristics of the vesicle. PMID:27443396

  19. Synthesis of Branched Alkylboronates by Copper-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution Reactions of Allylic Chlorides with 1,1-Diborylalkanes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoon; Park, Sangwoo; Park, Jinyoung; Cho, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-22

    Reported herein is a copper-catalyzed S(N)2'-selective allylic substitution reaction using readily accessible allylic chlorides and 1,1-diborylalkanes, a reaction which proceeds with chemoselective C-B bond activation of the 1,1-diborylalkanes. In the presence of a catalytic amount of [Cu(IMes)Cl] [IMes=1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene] and LiOtBu as a base, a range of primary and secondary allylic chlorides undergo the S(N)2'-selective allylic substitution reaction to produce branched alkylboronates. The synthetic utilities of the obtained alkylboronates are also presented. PMID:26666468

  20. Nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes via heck reactions and radical conjugate addition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qun; Zang, Zhenhua; Chen, Yang; Tong, Weiqi; Gong, Hegui

    2013-05-01

    Cross-coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes leading to Heck-type and addition products is summarized. The development of Heck reaction with aliphatic halides although has made significant progress in the past decade and particularly recently, it was much less explored in comparison with the aryl halides. The use of Ni- and Co-catalyzed protocols allowed efficient Heck coupling of activated and unactivated alkenes with 1°, 2° and 3° alkyl halides. In addition, radical conjugate addition to activated alkenes has become a well-established method that has led to efficient construction of many natural products. The utilization of Ni- and Co-catalyzed strategies would avoid toxic tin reagents, and therefore worth exploring. The recent development of Ni- and Co-catalyzed addition of alkyl halides to alkenes displays much improved reactivity and functional group tolerance. In this mini-review, we also attempt to overview the mechanisms that are proposed in the reactions, aiming at providing insight into the nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes.

  1. Access to Isoquinolines and Isoquinolin-3-ols via Rh(III)-Catalyzed Coupling/Cyclization Cascade Reaction of Arylimidates and Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing Guang; Sun, Min; Jin, Qiao; Liu, Kai; Liu, Pei Nian

    2016-05-01

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling/cyclization cascade reaction is described, which involves arylimidates and diazo compounds and proceeds via intermolecular C-C bond formation and subsequent intramolecular C-N bond formation. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the reaction is a two-step process: the initial Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling/cyclization proceeds very fast and the following dehydration is rather slow. The reaction provides a direct approach to isoquinolines and isoquinolin-3-ols without any oxidants. PMID:27042947

  2. Synthesis of chiral biphenol-based diphosphonite ligands and their application in palladium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ce; Chien, Chih-Wei; Ojima, Iwao

    2011-02-01

    A library of new 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphinoyloxy)-1,1'-binaphthyl (binapo)-type chiral diphosphonite ligands was designed and synthesized based on chiral 3,3',5,5',6,6'-hexasubstituted biphenols. These bop ligands have exhibited excellent efficiency in a palladium-catalyzed intermolecular allylic amination reaction, which provides a key intermediate for the total synthesis of Strychnos indole alkaloids with enantiopurities of up to 96% ee. PMID:21254441

  3. Convergent Synthesis of Diverse Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Conjugate Addition/Cyclization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Adam B; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-07-01

    The development of Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H conjugate addition/cyclization reactions that provide access to synthetically useful fused bi- and tricyclic nitrogen heterocycles is reported. A broad scope of C-H functionalization substrates and electrophilic olefin coupling partners is effective, and depending on the nature of the directing group, cyclic imide, amide, or heteroaromatic products are obtained. An efficient synthesis of a pyrrolophenanthridine alkaloid natural product, oxoassoanine, highlights the utility of this method.

  4. Unified mechanism of alkali and alkaline earth catalyzed gasification reactions of carbon by CO2 and H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, S.G.; Yang, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    From molecular orbital calculations, a unified mechanism is proposed for the gasification reactions of graphite by CO2 and H2O, both uncatalyzed and catalyzed by alkali and alkaline earth catalysts. In this mechanism, there are two types of oxygen intermediates that are bonded to the active edge carbon atoms: an in-plane semiquinone type, Cf(O), and an off-plane oxygen bonded to two saturated carbon atoms that are adjacent to the semiquinone species, C(O)Cf(O). The rate-limiting step is the decomposition of these intermediates by breaking the C-C bonds that are connected to Cf(O). A new rate equation is derived for the uncatalyzed reactions, and that for the catalyzed reactions is readily available from the proposed mechanism. The proposed mechanism can account for several unresolved experimental observations: TPD and TK (transient kinetics) desorption results of the catalyzed systems, the similar activation energies for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions, and the relative activities of the alkali and alkaline earth elements. The net charge of the edge carbon active site is substantially changed by gaining electron density from the alkali or alkaline earth element (by forming C-O-M, where M stands for metal). The relative catalytic activities of these elements can be correlated with their abilities of donating electrons and changing the net charge of the edge carbon atom. As shown previously (Chen, S. G.; Yang, R. T. J. Catal. 1993, 141, 102), only clusters of the alkali compounds are active. This derives from the ability of the clusters to dissociate CO2 and H2O to form O atoms and the mobility of the dissociated O atoms facilitated by the clusters.

  5. In Vivo and in Vitro Evidence for Biochemical Coupling of Reactions Catalyzed by Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase and Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Guanqun; Kazachkov, Michael; Greer, Michael S.; Caldo, Kristian Mark P.; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed oils of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and many other plant species contain substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major site for PUFA synthesis. The exact mechanisms of how these PUFAs are channeled from PC into triacylglycerol (TAG) needs to be further explored. By using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that the PC deacylation reaction catalyzed by the reverse action of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) can transfer PUFAs on PC directly into the acyl-CoA pool, making these PUFAs available for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-catalyzed reaction for TAG production. Two types of yeast mutants were generated for in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively. Both mutants provide a null background with no endogenous TAG forming capacity and an extremely low LPCAT activity. In vivo experiments showed that co-expressing flax DGAT1-1 and LPCAT1 in the yeast quintuple mutant significantly increased 18-carbon PUFAs in TAG with a concomitant decrease of 18-carbon PUFAs in phospholipid. We further showed that after incubation of sn-2-[14C]acyl-PC, formation of [14C]TAG was only possible with yeast microsomes containing both LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1. Moreover, the specific activity of overall LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1 coupling process exhibited a preference for transferring 14C-labeled linoleoyl or linolenoyl than oleoyl moieties from the sn-2 position of PC to TAG. Together, our data support the hypothesis of biochemical coupling of the LPCAT1-catalyzed reverse reaction with the DGAT1-1-catalyzed reaction for incorporating PUFAs into TAG. This process represents a potential route for enriching TAG in PUFA content during seed development in flax. PMID:26055703

  6. Convergent Synthesis of Diverse Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Conjugate Addition/Cyclization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Adam B; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-07-01

    The development of Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H conjugate addition/cyclization reactions that provide access to synthetically useful fused bi- and tricyclic nitrogen heterocycles is reported. A broad scope of C-H functionalization substrates and electrophilic olefin coupling partners is effective, and depending on the nature of the directing group, cyclic imide, amide, or heteroaromatic products are obtained. An efficient synthesis of a pyrrolophenanthridine alkaloid natural product, oxoassoanine, highlights the utility of this method. PMID:27337641

  7. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields. PMID:25541815

  8. In Vivo and in Vitro Evidence for Biochemical Coupling of Reactions Catalyzed by Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase and Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Guanqun; Kazachkov, Michael; Greer, Michael S; Caldo, Kristian Mark P; Zou, Jitao; Weselake, Randall J

    2015-07-17

    Seed oils of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and many other plant species contain substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major site for PUFA synthesis. The exact mechanisms of how these PUFAs are channeled from PC into triacylglycerol (TAG) needs to be further explored. By using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrated that the PC deacylation reaction catalyzed by the reverse action of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) can transfer PUFAs on PC directly into the acyl-CoA pool, making these PUFAs available for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-catalyzed reaction for TAG production. Two types of yeast mutants were generated for in vivo and in vitro experiments, respectively. Both mutants provide a null background with no endogenous TAG forming capacity and an extremely low LPCAT activity. In vivo experiments showed that co-expressing flax DGAT1-1 and LPCAT1 in the yeast quintuple mutant significantly increased 18-carbon PUFAs in TAG with a concomitant decrease of 18-carbon PUFAs in phospholipid. We further showed that after incubation of sn-2-[(14)C]acyl-PC, formation of [(14)C]TAG was only possible with yeast microsomes containing both LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1. Moreover, the specific activity of overall LPCAT1 and DGAT1-1 coupling process exhibited a preference for transferring (14)C-labeled linoleoyl or linolenoyl than oleoyl moieties from the sn-2 position of PC to TAG. Together, our data support the hypothesis of biochemical coupling of the LPCAT1-catalyzed reverse reaction with the DGAT1-1-catalyzed reaction for incorporating PUFAs into TAG. This process represents a potential route for enriching TAG in PUFA content during seed development in flax.

  9. Total synthesis of resveratrol-based natural products using a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative arylation and an oxidative Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Klotter, Felix; Studer, Armido

    2014-02-24

    Controlled access to resveratrol-based natural products is offered by a novel, modular concept. A common building block readily available on a large scale serves as the starting material for the introduction of structurally important aryl groups by a Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative arylation and an oxidative Heck reaction with good yields and high stereoselectivity. The modular approach is convincingly documented by the successful synthesis of three racemic resveratrol-based natural products (quadrangularin A, ampelopsin D, and pallidol).

  10. Recent Advances in Recoverable Systems for the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction (CuAAC).

    PubMed

    Mandoli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The explosively-growing applications of the Cu-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between organic azides and alkynes (CuAAC) have stimulated an impressive number of reports, in the last years, focusing on recoverable variants of the homogeneous or quasi-homogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in the field are reviewed, with particular emphasis on systems immobilized onto polymeric organic or inorganic supports. PMID:27607998

  11. Effects of Molecular Oxygen, Solvent, and Light on Iridium-Photoredox/Nickel Dual-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Oderinde, Martins S; Varela-Alvarez, Adrian; Aquila, Brian; Robbins, Daniel W; Johannes, Jeffrey W

    2015-08-01

    In order to achieve reproducibility during iridium-photoredox and nickel dual-catalyzed sp(3)-sp(2) carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, we investigated the role that molecular oxygen (O2), solvent and light-source (CF lamp or blue LED) play in a variety of Ir-photoredox mediated transformations. The presence of O2 was discovered to be important for catalyst activation when air-stable Ni(II) precatalysts were used in DMF under CF lamp irradiation; however, O2 was not required for catalysis when conducted with Ni(COD)2 in the same reaction system. O2 is believed to promote rapid reduction of the Ni(II) precatalyst by Ir(II) to Ni(0). In addition to O2, the effects that solvent and light-source have on the dual-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling reactions will be discussed. These findings have enabled us to develop a more robust dual-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling protocol.

  12. Troglitazone quinone formation catalyzed by human and rat CYP3A: an atypical CYP oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    He, K; Woolf, T F; Kindt, E K; Fielder, A E; Talaat, R E

    2001-07-15

    Oxidative ring opening of troglitazone (TGZ)(1) a thiazolidine 2,4-dione derivative used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, leads to the formation of a quinone metabolite. The formation of TGZ quinone was shown to be NADPH dependent and to require active microsomal enzymes. Quinone formation was not affected by co-incubation with catalase or sodium azide and was partially inhibited (25%) by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Kinetic analysis of TGZ quinone formation in human liver microsomes implied single enzyme involvement. CYP3A isoforms were characterized as the primary enzymes involved in quinone formation by several lines of evidence including: (a) troleandomycin and ketoconazole almost completely inhibited microsomal quinone formation when SOD was present, whereas other CYP inhibitors had minimal effects (<20%); (b) TGZ quinone formation was highly correlated with regard to both contents (r(2): 0.9374) and activities (r(2): 0.7951) of CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes (HLM); (c) baculovirus insect cell-expressed human CYP3A4 was able to catalyze TGZ quinone formation at a higher capacity (V(max)/K(m)) than other human CYPs with the relative contribution of CYP3A4 in HLM estimated to be 20-fold higher than that of other CYPs; (d) TGZ quinone formation was increased by 350% in liver microsomes from rats pretreated with dexamethasone (DEX); and (e) plasma concentrations of TGZ quinone were increased by 260-680% in rats pretreated with DEX. The chemical nature of the quinone metabolite suggests an atypical CYP reaction consistent with a one-electron oxidation mechanism where an intermediate phenoxy radical combines with ferryl oxygen to subsequently form the quinone metabolite.

  13. Effect of mass transfer on the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by platinum dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Ioana; Crooks, Richard M

    2012-07-17

    Here we report on the effect of the mass transfer rate (k(t)) on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) comprised of 147 and 55 atoms (Pt(147) and Pt(55)). The experiments were carried out using a dual-electrode microelectrochemical device, which enables the study of the ORR under high k(t) conditions with simultaneous detection of H(2)O(2). At low k(t) (0.02 to 0.12 cm s(-1)) the effective number of electrons involved in ORR, n(eff), is 3.7 for Pt(147) and 3.4 for Pt(55). As k(t) is increased, the mass-transfer-limited current for the ORR becomes significantly lower than the value predicted by the Levich equation for a 4-electron process regardless of catalyst size. However, the percentage of H(2)O(2) detected remains constant, such that n(eff) barely changes over the entire k(t) range explored (0.02 cm s(-1)). This suggests that mass transfer does not affect n(eff), which has implications for the mechanism of the ORR on Pt nanoparticles. Interestingly, there is a significant difference in n(eff) for the two sizes of Pt DENs (n(eff) = 3.7 and 3.5 for Pt(147) and Pt(55), respectively) that cannot be assigned to mass transfer effects and that we therefore attribute to a particle size effect.

  14. Synthesis of steroid-ferrocene conjugates of steroidal 17-carboxamides via a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation--copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction sequence.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Balogh, János; Csók, Zsolt; Kollár, László; Gömöry, Agnes; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2011-11-01

    Steroids with the 17-iodo-16-ene functionality were converted to ferrocene labeled steroidal 17-carboxamides via a two step reaction sequence. The first step involved the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of the alkenyl iodides with prop-2-yn-1-amine as the nucleophile in the presence of the Pd(OAc)(2)/PPh(3) catalyst system. In the second step, the product N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamides underwent a facile azide-alkyne cycloaddition with ferrocenyl azides in the presence of CuSO(4)/sodium ascorbate to produce the steroid-ferrocene conjugates. The new compounds were obtained in good yield and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis. PMID:21787798

  15. Mechanistic insights into the rhenium-catalyzed alcohol-to-olefin dehydration reaction.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2013-09-23

    Rhenium-based complexes are powerful catalysts for the dehydration of various alcohols to the corresponding olefins. Here, we report on both experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies into the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols to olefins in general, and the methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to styrene in particular. The experimental and theoretical studies are in good agreement, both showing the involvement of several proton transfers, and of a carbenium ion intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  16. From a Sequential to a Concurrent Reaction in Aqueous Medium: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Allylic Alcohol Isomerization and Asymmetric Bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Liardo, Elisa; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2016-07-18

    The ruthenium-catalyzed redox isomerization of allylic alcohols was successfully coupled with the enantioselective enzymatic ketone reduction (mediated by KREDs) in a concurrent process in aqueous medium. The overall transformation, formally the asymmetric reduction of allylic alcohols, took place with excellent conversions and enantioselectivities, under mild reaction conditions, employing commercially and readily available catalytic systems, and without external coenzymes or cofactors. Optimization resulted in a multistep approach and a genuine cascade reaction where the metal catalyst and biocatalyst coexist from the beginning. PMID:27258838

  17. Formation of C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) Bonds through Nickel-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Olefin Hydroalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Xiao, Bin; Liu, Lei; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    Olefins and carboxylic acids are among the most important feedstock compounds. They are commonly found in natural products and drug molecules. We report a new reaction of nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative olefin hydroalkylation, which provides a novel practical strategy for the construction of C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bonds. This reaction can tolerate a variety of synthetically relevant functional groups and shows good chemo- and regioselectivity. It enables cross-coupling of complex organic molecules containing olefin groups and carboxylic acid groups in a convergent fashion. PMID:27245257

  18. Non-Catalyzed Click Reactions of ADIBO Derivatives with 5-Methyluridine Azides and Conformational Study of the Resulting Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Smyslova, Petra; Popa, Igor; Lyčka, Antonín; Tejral, Gracian; Hlavac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Copper-free click reactions between a dibenzoazocine derivative and azides derived from 5-methyluridine were investigated. The non-catalyzed reaction yielded both regioisomers in an approximately equivalent ratio. The NMR spectra of each regioisomer revealed conformational isomery. The ratio of isomers was dependent on the type of regioisomer and the type of solvent. The synthesis of various analogs, a detailed NMR study and computational modeling provided evidence that the isomery was dependent on the interaction of the azocine and pyrimidine parts. PMID:26673606

  19. Rh-Catalyzed reductive Mannich-type reaction and its application towards the synthesis of (±)-ezetimibe

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Motoyuki; Sato, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Yurika; Tokonishi, Satsuki; Tarui, Atsushi; Minami, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Summary An effective synthesis for syn-β-lactams was achieved using a Rh-catalyzed reductive Mannich-type reaction. A rhodium–hydride complex (Rh–H) derived from diethylzinc (Et2Zn) and a Rh catalyst was used for the 1,4-reduction of an α,β-unsaturated ester to give a Reformatsky-type reagent, which in turn, reacted with an imine to give the syn-β-lactam. Additionally, the reaction was applied to the synthesis of (±)-ezetimibe, a potent β-lactamic cholesterol absorption inhibitor. PMID:27559413

  20. Non-Catalyzed Click Reactions of ADIBO Derivatives with 5-Methyluridine Azides and Conformational Study of the Resulting Triazoles

    PubMed Central

    Smyslova, Petra; Popa, Igor; Lyčka, Antonín; Tejral, Gracian; Hlavac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Copper-free click reactions between a dibenzoazocine derivative and azides derived from 5-methyluridine were investigated. The non-catalyzed reaction yielded both regioisomers in an approximately equivalent ratio. The NMR spectra of each regioisomer revealed conformational isomery. The ratio of isomers was dependent on the type of regioisomer and the type of solvent. The synthesis of various analogs, a detailed NMR study and computational modeling provided evidence that the isomery was dependent on the interaction of the azocine and pyrimidine parts. PMID:26673606

  1. Transition-metal catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reactions to form C-C bonds involving organometallic reagents as nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Chao; Lei, Aiwen

    2011-05-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed coupling reactions have become a versatile tool for chemical bond formation. From the variation of the coupling partners, coupling reactions can be classified into three models: traditional coupling, reductive coupling and oxidative coupling. The oxidative coupling, which is different from the traditional coupling, occurs between two nucleophiles. This critical review focuses on transition-metal-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions involving organometallic reagents as nucleophiles. Since the scope of the oxidative coupling is highly diversified, this paper only reviews the oxidative coupling reactions concerning C-C bond formation, including the coupling between organometal reagents and hydrocarbons as well as coupling between two organometal reagents. Since terminal alkynes are normally activated by metal salts and in situ form the alkynyl metal reagents in coupling reactions, they are directly considered as organometal reagents in this review. Intramolecular oxidative couplings and oxidative cyclizations are not included in this critical review. Moreover, there are many examples of oxidative coupling leading to the formation of functional materials, such as the oxidative polymerization of thiophenes. Since several reviews in these areas have been published they are not included in this review either (99 references).

  2. Efficient access to substituted silafluorenes by nickel-catalyzed reactions of biphenylenes with Et₂SiH₂.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Jens Michael; Gupta, Puneet; Das, Animesh; Tussupbayev, Samat; Diefenbach, Martin; Bolte, Michael; Wagner, Matthias; Holthausen, Max C; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram

    2014-11-01

    The reaction of biphenylene (1) with Et2SiH2 in the presence of [Ni(PPhMe2)4] results in the formation of a mixture of 2-diethylhydrosilylbiphenyl [2(Et2HSi)] and 9,9,-diethyl-9-silafluorene (3). Silafluorene 3 was isolated in 37.5% and 2(Et2HSi) in 36.9% yield. The underlying reaction mechanism was elucidated by DFT calculations. 4-Methyl-9,9-diethyl-9-silafluorene (7) was obtained selectively from the [Ni(PPhMe2)4]-catalyzed reaction of Et2SiH2 and 1-methylbiphenylene. By contrast, no selectivity could be found in the Ni-catalyzed reaction between Et2SiH2 and the biphenylene derivative that bears tBu substituents in the 2- and 7-positions. Therefore, two pairs of isomers of tBu-substituted silafluorenes and of the related diethylhydrosilylbiphenyls were formed in this reaction. However, a subsequent dehydrogenation of the diethylhydrosilylbiphenyls with Wilkinson's catalyst yielded a mixture of 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-diethyl-9-silafluorene (8) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-9,9-diethyl-9-silafluorene (9). Silafluorenes 8 and 9 were separated by column chromatography. PMID:25205601

  3. Enantioselective tandem reaction of chromone-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with benzylamines catalyzed by a trifunctional organocatalyst: the synthesis of chiral 3-aminomethylene-flavanones.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Neng-jun; Liu, Li; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yong-Jun

    2013-05-01

    An enantioselective tandem reaction of chromones-derived MBH carbonates (1) with benzylamines (2) catalyzed by a trifunctional organocatalyst, cinchonidine-amide-thiourea, has been developed in moderate to good yields (50-87%) and enantioselectivities (up to 89% ee).

  4. Reactivity of Cations and Zwitterions Formed in Photochemical and Acid-Catalyzed Reactions from m-Hydroxycycloalkyl-Substituted Phenol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cindro, Nikola; Antol, Ivana; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Halasz, Ivan; Wan, Peter; Basarić, Nikola

    2015-12-18

    Three m-substituted phenol derivatives, each with a labile benzylic alcohol group and bearing either protoadamantyl 4, homoadamantyl 5, or a cyclohexyl group 6, were synthesized and their thermal acid-catalyzed and photochemical solvolytic reactivity studied, using preparative irradiations, fluorescence measurements, nanosecond laser flash photolysis, and quantum chemical calculations. The choice of m-hydroxy-substitution was driven by the potential for these phenolic systems to generate m-quinone methides on photolysis, which could ultimately drive the excited-state pathway, as opposed to forming simple benzylic carbocations in the corresponding thermal route. Indeed, thermal acid-catalyzed reactions gave the corresponding cations, which undergo rearrangement and elimination from 4, only elimination from 5, and substitution and elimination from 6. On the other hand, upon photoexcitation of 4-6 to S1 in a polar protic solvent, proton dissociation from the phenol, coupled with elimination of the benzylic OH (as hydroxide ion) gave zwitterions (formal m-quinone methides). The zwitterions exhibit reactivity different from the corresponding cations due to a difference in charge distribution, as shown by DFT calculations. Thus, protoadamantyl zwitterion has a less nonclassical character than the corresponding cation, so it does not undergo 1,2-shift of the carbon atom, as observed in the acid-catalyzed reaction. PMID:26595342

  5. Manganese(III)-catalyzed free radical reactions on trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerenes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chunying; Cai, Ting; Xu, Liaosa; Zuo, Tianming; Reid, Jonathan; Harich, Kim; Dorn, Harry C; Gibson, Harry W

    2007-12-19

    The first reactions of trimetallic nitride templated endohedral metallofullerenes (TNT EMFs) with carbon radicals generated from diethyl malonate catalyzed by manganese(III) acetate are reported. Two methano monoadducts, Sc3N@C80-A and Sc3N@C80-B, were isolated and characterized. Sc3N@C80-A contains two ester moieties, whereas Sc3N@C80-B contains only one ester group and a hydrogen atom on the central carbon of the addend. NMR spectroscopy of the two monoadducts suggests that the addition occurs regioselectively at a 6,6-ring juncture on the surface of the icosahedrally (Ih) symmetric Sc3N@C80, forming the first 6,6-ring-bridged methano Ih Sc3N@C80 derivatives. The measured 1J(C,H) = 147 Hz for the methano carbon with its hydrogen in monoadduct Sc3N@C80-B nearly perfectly matches the data for pi-homoaromatic systems, indicating an open [6,6]-methano structure. Geometry optimization also found that the "closed" [6,6]-methano structures were energetically unstable and always led to the open forms. Thus, an "open" [6,6]-methanofulleride structure is proposed, which was induced by the norcaradiene rearrangement, resulting in the cleavage of the cyclopropane ring and the formation of energetically stable open cage fullerene derivatives. These are the first examples of thermodynamically stable adducts of the "open" type at the 6,6-ring juncture of Ih Sc3N@C80, differing greatly from the "closed" 5,6-ring juncture adducts reported previously. In addition, bis-, tri-, and up to octaadducts of Sc3N@C80 were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry; this synthetic method was also applied to Lu3N@C80, producing adducts with up to 10 substituents on the carbon cage. These are the highest levels of substitution of TNT metallofullerenes reported so far.

  6. Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by isoaspartyl dipeptidase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martí-Arbona, Ricardo; Fresquet, Vicente; Thoden, James B; Davis, Melissa L; Holden, Hazel M; Raushel, Frank M

    2005-05-17

    Isoaspartyl dipeptidase (IAD) is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily and catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of beta-aspartyl dipeptides. Structural studies of the wild-type enzyme have demonstrated that the active site consists of a binuclear metal center positioned at the C-terminal end of a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel domain. Steady-state kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of beta-aspartyl dipeptides were obtained at pH 8.1. The pH-rate profiles for the hydrolysis of beta-Asp-Leu were obtained for the Zn/Zn-, Co/Co-, Ni/Ni-, and Cd/Cd-substituted forms of IAD. Bell-shaped profiles were observed for k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) as a function of pH for all four metal-substituted forms. The pK(a) of the group that must be unprotonated for catalytic activity varied according to the specific metal ion bound in the active site, whereas the pK(a) of the group that must be protonated for catalytic activity was relatively independent of the specific metal ion present. The identity of the group that must be unprotonated for catalytic activity was consistent with the hydroxide that bridges the two divalent cations of the binuclear metal center. The identity of the group that must be protonated for activity was consistent with the free alpha-amino group of the dipeptide substrate. Kinetic constants were obtained for the mutant enzymes at conserved residues Glu77, Tyr137, Arg169, Arg233, Asp285, and Ser289. The catalytic properties of the wild-type and mutant enzymes, coupled with the X-ray crystal structure of the D285N mutant complexed with beta-Asp-His, are consistent with a chemical reaction mechanism for the hydrolysis of dipeptides that is initiated by the polarization of the amide bond via complexation to the beta-metal ion of the binuclear metal center. Nucleophilic attack by the bridging hydroxide is facilitated by abstraction of its proton by the side chain carboxylate of Asp285. Collapse of the tetrahedral intermediate and cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond occur

  7. Mechanism of the intramolecular Claisen condensation reaction catalyzed by MenB, a crotonase superfamily member.

    PubMed

    Li, Huei-Jiun; Li, Xiaokai; Liu, Nina; Zhang, Huaning; Truglio, James J; Mishra, Shambhavi; Kisker, Caroline; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Tonge, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    MenB, the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase from the bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis pathway, catalyzes an intramolecular Claisen condensation (Dieckmann reaction) in which the electrophile is an unactivated carboxylic acid. Mechanistic studies on this crotonase family member have been hindered by partial active site disorder in existing MenB X-ray structures. In the current work the 2.0 Å structure of O-succinylbenzoyl-aminoCoA (OSB-NCoA) bound to the MenB from Escherichia coli provides important insight into the catalytic mechanism by revealing the position of all active site residues. This has been accomplished by the use of a stable analogue of the O-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) substrate in which the CoA thiol has been replaced by an amine. The resulting OSB-NCoA is stable, and the X-ray structure of this molecule bound to MenB reveals the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex poised for carbon-carbon bond formation. The structural data support a mechanism in which two conserved active site Tyr residues, Y97 and Y258, participate directly in the intramolecular transfer of the substrate α-proton to the benzylic carboxylate of the substrate, leading to protonation of the electrophile and formation of the required carbanion. Y97 and Y258 are also ideally positioned to function as the second oxyanion hole required for stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate formed during carbon-carbon bond formation. In contrast, D163, which is structurally homologous to the acid-base catalyst E144 in crotonase (enoyl-CoA hydratase), is not directly involved in carbanion formation and may instead play a structural role by stabilizing the loop that carries Y97. When similar studies were performed on the MenB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a twisted hexamer was unexpectedly observed, demonstrating the flexibility of the interfacial loops that are involved in the generation of the novel tertiary and quaternary structures found in the crotonase superfamily. This

  8. Regio- and enantiospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic etherification reactions using copper(I) alkoxides: influence of the copper halide salt on selectivity.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Leahy, David K

    2002-07-10

    The transition metal-catalyzed allylic etherification represents a fundamentally important cross-coupling reaction for the construction of allylic ethers. We have developed a new regio- and enantiospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic etherification of acyclic unsymmetrical allylic alcohol derivatives using copper(I) alkoxides derived from primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. This study demonstrates that the choice of copper(I) halide salt is crucial for obtaining excellent regio- and enantiospecificity, providing another example of the effect of halide ions in asymmetric transition metal-catalyzed reactions. Finally, the ability to alter the reactivity of the alkali metal alkoxides in this manner may provide a useful method for related metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions involving heteroatoms.

  9. Beta-D-xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium: thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed and noncatalyzed reactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-D-xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA) is the most active enzyme known for catalyzing hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharides to D-xylose. Temperature dependence for hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (4NPX), 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabi...

  10. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling reactions: a route for regioselective functionalization of coumarins.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Farnaz; Zarei, Samaneh; Olia, Mina Barzegar Amiri; Jalalimanesh, Nafiseh; Rahiminejadan, Soraya

    2013-04-01

    A straightforward, regioselective, and step-economical ligand-free palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative functionalization of coumarin-3-carboxylic acids is devised. This protocol is compatible with a wide variety of electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents and allows for construction of various biologically important π-electron extended coumarins. PMID:23445254

  11. Construction of Quaternary Stereocenters by Nickel-Catalyzed Heck Cyclization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Jean-Nicolas; Hie, Liana; Biswas, Soumik; Zatolochnaya, Olga V; Rodriguez, Sonia; Lee, Heewon; Grinberg, Nelu; Haddad, Nizar; Yee, Nathan K; Garg, Neil K; Senanayake, Chris H

    2016-09-19

    A nickel-catalyzed Heck cyclization for the construction of quaternary stereocenters is reported. This transformation is demonstrated in the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles, which are prevalent motifs seen in numerous biologically active molecules. The method shows broad scope, proceeds in synthetically useful yields, and provides a rare means to construct stereochemically complex frameworks by nonprecious-metal catalysis. PMID:27600647

  12. Cu-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of primary and secondary benzyl halides with arylboronates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Yi, Jun; Lu, Xi; Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2014-09-28

    A copper-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of benzyl halides with arylboronates is described. Varieties of primary benzyl halides as well as more challenging secondary benzyl halides with β hydrogens or steric hindrance could be successfully converted into the corresponding products. Thus it provides access to diarylmethanes, diarylethanes and triarylmethanes. PMID:25102380

  13. Catalytic Fehling's Reaction: An Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Aldehyde Catalyzed by Copper in Water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-08-26

    The first example of homogeneous copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes is reported. This method utilizes atmospheric oxygen as the sole oxidant, proceeds under extremely mild aqueous conditions, and covers a wide range of various functionalized aldehydes. Chromatography is generally not necessary for product purification. PMID:27505714

  14. Optimizing Metalloporphyrin-Catalyzed Reduction Reactions for In Situ Remediation of DOE Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Schlautman, Mark A.

    2013-07-14

    Past activities have resulted in a legacy of contaminated soil and groundwater at Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Uranium and chromium are among the most frequently encountered and highest-priority metal and radionuclide contaminants at DOE installations. Abiotic chemical reduction of uranium and chromium at contaminated DOE sites can be beneficial because the reduced metal species are less soluble in water, less mobile in the environment, and less toxic to humans and ecosystems. Although direct biological reduction has been reported for U(VI) and Cr(VI) in laboratory studies and at some field sites, the reactions can sometimes be slow or even inhibited due to unfavorable environmental conditions. One promising approach for the in-situ remediation of DOE contaminants is to develop electron shuttle catalysts that can be delivered precisely to the specific subsurface locations where contaminants reside. Previous research has shown that reduction of oxidized organic and inorganic contaminants often can be catalyzed by electron shuttle systems. Metalloporphyrins and their derivatives are well known electron shuttles for many biogeochemical systems, and thus were selected to study their catalytic capabilities for the reduction of chromium and uranium in the presence of reducing agents. Zero valent iron (ZVI) was chosen as the primary electron donor in most experimental systems. Research proceeded in three phases and the key findings of each phase are reported here. Phase I examined Cr(VI) reduction and utilized micro- and nano-sized ZVI as the electron donors. Electron shuttle catalysts tested were cobalt- and iron-containing metalloporphyrins and Vitamin B12. To aid in the recycle and reuse of the nano-sized ZVI and soluble catalysts, sol-gels and calcium-alginate gel beads were tested as immobilization/support matrices. Although the nano-sized ZVI could be incorporated within the alginate gel beads, preliminary attempts to trap it in sol-gels were not

  15. Synthesis of the Cores of Hypocrellin and Shiraiachrome: Diastereoselective 1,8-Diketone Aldol Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Erin M.; Li, Jingxian; Carroll, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Intramolecular 1,8-diketone aldol reactions were studied as a tool for the construction of the 7-membered rings of hypocrellin and shiraiachrome. Conditions were identified to obtain the relative stereochemistries present in the two natural products with excellent diastereoselectivity. In addition, a nine-membered ring congener, which has yet to be observed in nature, formed with high selectivity when a hindered amine was used in conjunction with silazide bases. PMID:19894740

  16. Reactions of organometallic compounds catalyzed by transition metal complexes. XIII. Comparison of the reactivity of organometallic compounds in aryldemetallation reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bumagin, N.A.; Ponomarev, A.B.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1987-12-10

    The effect of the nature of the metal M and the organic group R on the reaction of organometallic compounds RM (R = Ph, PhC triple bond C, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/, Allyl; M = Li, Mg, Zn, Cd, Cu Al), produced in situ from Grignard reagents or organolithium compounds and the respective salts, with p-iodoanisole in the presence of palladium complexes PdCl/sub 2/L/sub 2/ (L = PPh/sub 3/, MeCN, dppf) was studied. The organozinc and organoaluminum compounds react with a high degree of selectivity. In the reactions of C/sub 3/H/sub 7/M with p-MeOC/sub 6/H/sub 4/I the highest yield from cross-coupling is obtained with catalysis by the PdCl/sub 2/ (dppf) complex. The mechanism of the formation of the homocoupling products is discussed.

  17. Degradation of trichloroethene by siderite-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide and persulfate: Investigation of reaction mechanisms and degradation products

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ni; Liu, Fei; Xue, Qiang; Brusseau, Mark L.; Liu, Yali; Wang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    A binary catalytic system, siderite-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) coupled with persulfate (S2O82−), was investigated for the remediation of trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate reaction mechanisms, oxidant decomposition rates, and degradation products. By using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we identified four radicals (hydroxyl (HO·), sulfate (SO4−·), hydroperoxyl (HO2·), and superoxide (O2−·)) in the siderite-catalyzed H2O2-S2O82− system. In the absence of S2O82− (i.e., siderite-catalyzed H2O2), a majority of H2O2 was decomposed in the first hour of the experiment, resulting in the waste of HO·. The addition of S2O82− moderated the H2O2 decomposition rate, producing a more sustainable release of hydroxyl radicals that improved the treatment efficiency. Furthermore, the heat released by H2O2 decomposition accelerated the activation of S2O82−, and the resultant SO4−· was the primary oxidative agent during the first two hours of the reaction. Dichloroacetic acid was firstly detected by ion chromatography (IC). The results of this study indicate a new insight to the reaction mechanism for the catalytic binary H2O2-S2O82− oxidant system, and the delineation of radicals and the discovery of the chlorinated byproduct provide useful information for efficient treatment of chlorinated-solvent contamination in groundwater. PMID:26236152

  18. Direct detection and kinetic analysis of covalent intermediate formation in the 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase catalyzed reaction.

    PubMed

    He, Ze; Toney, Michael D

    2006-04-18

    Chorismate-utilizing enzymes catalyze diverse reactions, providing critical physiological functions unique to plants, bacteria, fungi, and some parasites. Their absence in animals makes them excellent targets for antimicrobials and herbicides. 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase (ADCS) catalyzes the first step in folate biosynthsis and shares a common core mechanism with isochorismate synthase (IS) and anthranilate synthase (AS), in which nucleophile addition at C2 initiates these reactions. Evidence was presented previously [He, Z., Stigers Lavoie, K. D., Bartlett, P. A., and Toney, M. D. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2378-2385] that K274 is the nucleophile in ADCS, implying formation of a covalent intermediate. Herein, we report the direct detection of this covalent intermediate formed in ADCS-catalyzed reactions by ESI-MS. Difference spectra show the covalent intermediate has an absorption maximum at 310 nm. This was used to study the pre-steady-state kinetics of covalent intermediate formation under various conditions. Additionally, E258 in ADCS was shown to be critical to formation of the covalent intermediate by acting as a general acid catalyst for loss of the C4 hydroxyl group. The E258A/D mutants both exhibit very low activity. Acetate is a poor chemical rescue agent for E258D but an excellent one for E258A, with a 20000-fold and 3000-fold rate increase for Gln-dependent and NH(4)(+)-dependent activities, respectively. Lastly, A213 in IS (structurally homologous to K274 in ADCS) was changed to lysine in an attempt to convert IS to an ADCS-like enzyme. HPLC studies support the formation of a covalent intermediate with this mutant. PMID:16605270

  19. A mechanistic hypothesis for the cytochrome P450-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of 4-hydroxytamoxifen: an unusual redox reaction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Tu, Yaoquan; Wegman, Pia; Wingren, Sten; Eriksson, Leif A

    2011-09-26

    We provide a detailed description of the cis-trans isomerization of 4-hydroxytamoxifen/endoxifen catalyzed by several isoforms from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, including CYP1B1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19. We show that the reactions mainly involve redox processes catalyzed by CYP. DFT calculation results strongly suggest that the isomerization occurs via a cationic intermediate. The cationic cis-isomer is more than 3 kcal/mol more stable than the trans form, resulting in an easier conversion from trans-to-cis than cis-to-trans. The cis-trans isomerization is a rarely reported CYP reaction and is ascribed to the lack of a second abstractable proton on the ethenyl group of the triarylvinyl class of substrates. The cationic intermediates thus formed instead of the stable dehydrogenation products allow for isomerization to occur. As a comparison, the reactions for the tamoxifen derivatives are compared to those of other substrates, 4-hydroxyacetanilide and raloxifene, for which the stable dehydrogenation products are formed. PMID:21870861

  20. Lanthanum(III)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Coumarin-3-carboxylates for the Synthesis of Indolylmalonamides and Analysis of Their Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Julia J; Bhatt, Chinmay P; Franz, Annaliese K

    2016-08-01

    New methodology has been developed for the Lewis acid catalyzed synthesis of malonamides. First, the scandium(III)-catalyzed addition of diverse nucleophiles (e.g., indoles, N,N-dimethyl-m-anisidine, 2-ethylpyrrole, and 2-methylallylsilane) to coumarin-3-carboxylates has been developed to afford chromanone-3-carboxylates in high yields as a single diastereomer. Upon investigating a subsequent lanthanum(III)-catalyzed amidation reaction, a new multicomponent reaction was designed by bringing together coumarin-3-carboxylates with indoles and amines to afford indolylmalonamides, which were identified to exhibit fluorescent properties. The photophysical properties for selected compounds have been analyzed, including quantum yield, molar absorptivity, and Stokes shift. Synthetic studies of several reaction byproducts involved in the network of reaction equilibria for the three-component reaction provide mechanistic insight for the development of this methodology. PMID:27304909

  1. Transformation and removal of tetrabromobisphenol A from water in the presence of natural organic matter via laccase-catalyzed reactions: reaction rates, products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yiping; Colosi, Lisa M; Gao, Shixiang; Huang, Qingguo; Mao, Liang

    2013-01-15

    The widespread occurrence of the brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) makes it a possible source of concern. Our experiments suggest that TBBPA can be effectively transformed by the naturally occurring laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor. These reactions follow second-order kinetics, whereby apparent removal rate is a function of both substrate and enzyme concentrations. For reactions at different initial concentrations and with or without natural organic matter (NOM), reaction products are identified using liquid or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Detailed reaction pathways are proposed. It is postulated that two TBBPA radicals resulting from a laccase-mediated reaction are coupled together via interaction of an oxygen atom on one radical and a propyl-substituted aromatic carbon atom on the other. A 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation is then eliminated from the radical dimer. All but one of the detected products arise from either substitution or proton elimination of the 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropylphenol carbocation. Three additional products are identified for reactions in the presence of NOM, which suggests that reaction occurs between NOM and TBBPA radical. Data from acute immobilization tests with Daphnia confirm that TBBPA toxicity is effectively eliminated by laccase-catalyzed TBBPA removal. These findings are useful for understanding laccase-mediated TBBPA reactions and could eventually lead to development of novel methods to control TBBPA contamination. PMID:23256593

  2. Laccase-catalyzed removal of the antimicrobials chlorophene and dichlorophen from water: Reaction kinetics, pathway and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huanhuan; Peng, Jianbiao; Li, Jianhua; Mao, Liang; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-11-01

    As active agents in cleaning and disinfecting products, antimicrobials have been widely spread in the environment and have drawn extensive attention as potential threats to the ecological system and human health. In this study, the laccase-catalyzed removal of two emerging antimicrobials, chlorophene (CP) and dichlorophen (DCP), was investigated under simulated environmental conditions. Intrinsic reaction kinetics showed that the removal of CP and DCP followed second-order reaction kinetics, first-order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate concentration. It was also found that fulvic acid could suppress the transformation of CP and DCP by reversing the oxidation reactions through its action as a scavenger of the free radical intermediates produced from reactions between laccase and the substrates. Several reaction products were identified by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and detailed reaction pathways were proposed. For both CP and DCP, direct polymerization was the principal pathway, and the coupling patterns were further corroborated based on molecular modeling. The nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by the hydroxyl group was observed, and further oxidation products capable of coupling with each other were also found. Additionally, toxicity evaluation tests using Scenedesmus obliquus confirmed that the toxicity of CP and DCP was effectively eliminated during the reaction processes.

  3. Laccase-catalyzed removal of the antimicrobials chlorophene and dichlorophen from water: Reaction kinetics, pathway and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huanhuan; Peng, Jianbiao; Li, Jianhua; Mao, Liang; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-11-01

    As active agents in cleaning and disinfecting products, antimicrobials have been widely spread in the environment and have drawn extensive attention as potential threats to the ecological system and human health. In this study, the laccase-catalyzed removal of two emerging antimicrobials, chlorophene (CP) and dichlorophen (DCP), was investigated under simulated environmental conditions. Intrinsic reaction kinetics showed that the removal of CP and DCP followed second-order reaction kinetics, first-order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate concentration. It was also found that fulvic acid could suppress the transformation of CP and DCP by reversing the oxidation reactions through its action as a scavenger of the free radical intermediates produced from reactions between laccase and the substrates. Several reaction products were identified by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and detailed reaction pathways were proposed. For both CP and DCP, direct polymerization was the principal pathway, and the coupling patterns were further corroborated based on molecular modeling. The nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by the hydroxyl group was observed, and further oxidation products capable of coupling with each other were also found. Additionally, toxicity evaluation tests using Scenedesmus obliquus confirmed that the toxicity of CP and DCP was effectively eliminated during the reaction processes. PMID:27262275

  4. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klobukowski, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and

  5. Collective Synthesis of Phenanthridinone through C-H Activation Involving a Pd-Catalyzed Aryne Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Minghao; Tang, Bingqing; Xu, Hong-Xi; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    A palladium-catalyzed multicomponent reaction (MCR) involving aryne, CO, and aniline is established for straightforward assembly of a phenanthridinone scaffold through C-H bond activation. Free combination with multiple kinds of readily available anilines and arynes is facilely achieved for phenanthridinone construction without prefunctionalization. Representative natural products were subsequently synthesized through this MCR strategy highly efficiently. Control experiments and interval NMR tracking revealed the mechanism, particularly the key role of CuF2 in determining the aryne-releasing rate from the precursor in this transformation. PMID:27529796

  6. Rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed Finkelstein reaction of (hetero)aromatics under continuous-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao; Ichikawa, Saki; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    A general, rapid, and efficient method for the copper-catalyzed Finkelstein reaction of (hetero)aromatics has been developed using continuous flow to generate a variety of aryl iodides. The described method can tolerate a broad spectrum of functional groups, including N-H and O-H groups. Additionally, in lieu of isolation, the aryl iodide solutions were used in two distinct multistep continuous-flow processes (amidation and Mg-I exchange/nucleophilic addition) to demonstrate the flexibility of this method.

  7. Single-Molecule Imaging of Iron-Phthalocyanine-Catalyzed Oxygen Reduction Reaction by in Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jing-Ying; Cai, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-09-27

    We report herein an in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) investigation of iron-phthalocyanine (FePc)-catalyzed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A highly ordered FePc adlayer is revealed on a Au(111) electrode. The center ions in the FePc adlayer show uniform high contrast in an oxygen-saturated electrolyte, which is attributed to the formation of an FePc-O2 complex. In situ STM results reveal the sharp contrast change upon shifting the electrode potential to trigger the ORR. Theoretical simulation has supplied further evidence for the contrast difference of the adsorbed FePc species. PMID:27508323

  8. Cu-catalyzed esterification reaction via aerobic oxygenation and C-C bond cleavage: an approach to α-ketoesters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Feng, Peng; Jiao, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The Cu-catalyzed novel aerobic oxidative esterification reaction of 1,3-diones for the synthesis of α-ketoesters has been developed. This method combines C-C σ-bond cleavage, dioxygen activation and oxidative C-H bond functionalization, as well as provides a practical, neutral, and mild synthetic approach to α-ketoesters which are important units in many biologically active compounds and useful precursors in a variety of functional group transformations. A plausible radical process is proposed on the basis of mechanistic studies.

  9. Single-Molecule Imaging of Iron-Phthalocyanine-Catalyzed Oxygen Reduction Reaction by in Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jing-Ying; Cai, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-09-27

    We report herein an in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) investigation of iron-phthalocyanine (FePc)-catalyzed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A highly ordered FePc adlayer is revealed on a Au(111) electrode. The center ions in the FePc adlayer show uniform high contrast in an oxygen-saturated electrolyte, which is attributed to the formation of an FePc-O2 complex. In situ STM results reveal the sharp contrast change upon shifting the electrode potential to trigger the ORR. Theoretical simulation has supplied further evidence for the contrast difference of the adsorbed FePc species.

  10. Exhaustive study of the noise-induced phase transition in a stochastic model of self-catalyzed reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, T. M.; Virchenko, Yu. P.

    2016-08-01

    We completely investigate the stationary distribution density in the space of relative concentrations for the three-parameter stochastic Horsthemke-Lefever model of a binary self-catalyzed cyclic chemical reaction with perturbations produced by thermal fluctuations of reagents taken into account. This model is a stationary diffusion random process generated by a stochastic equation with the Stratonovich differential, whose marginal distribution density admits a bifurcation restructuring from the unimodal to the bimodal phase with increasing noise intensity, which is interpreted physically as a dynamical phase transition induced by fluctuations in the system.

  11. The reaction mechanism for dehydration process catalyzed by type I dehydroquinate dehydratase from Gram-negative Salmonella enterica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental reaction mechanism for the dehydration process catalyzed by type I dehydroquinate dehydratase from Gram-negative Salmonella enterica has been studied by density functional theory calculations. The results indicate that the dehydration process undergoes a two-step cis-elimination mechanism, which is different from the previously proposed one. The catalytic roles of both the highly conserved residue His143 and the Schiff base formed between the substrate and Lys170 have also been elucidated. The structural and mechanistic insight presented here may direct the design of type I dehydroquinate dehydratase enzyme inhibitors as non-toxic antimicrobials, anti-fungals, and herbicides.

  12. Synthesis of 5-alkenylated D4T analogues via the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A; Fossey, C; Benzaria, S; Gavriliu, D; Delbederi, Z; Lelong, B; Ladurée, D; Aubertin, A M; Kirn, A

    2001-09-01

    The target compounds 5-[N-(6-amino-hexyl)-acrylamide]-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-uridine (12) and 5-[N-[5-(methoxycarbonyl)-pentyl]-acrylamide]-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'- dideoxy-uridine (15) were prepared by the palladium acetate-triphenylphosphine-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-O-acetyl-5-iodo-d4T analogue (3). These compounds 12 and 15 can be used to prepare nucleotide probes carrying fluorescent labels and were nevertheless screened for their anti-HIV activity. The biological data demonstrated that none of them were active against HIV-1. PMID:11580192

  13. Computational Catalysis Using the Artificial Force Induced Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Sameera, W M C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-04-19

    The artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method in the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy is an automatic approach to explore all important reaction paths of complex reactions. Most traditional methods in computational catalysis require guess reaction paths. On the other hand, the AFIR approach locates local minima (LMs) and transition states (TSs) of reaction paths without a guess, and therefore finds unanticipated as well as anticipated reaction paths. The AFIR method has been applied for multicomponent organic reactions, such as the aldol reaction, Passerini reaction, Biginelli reaction, and phase-transfer catalysis. In the presence of several reactants, many equilibrium structures are possible, leading to a number of reaction pathways. The AFIR method in the GRRM strategy determines all of the important equilibrium structures and subsequent reaction paths systematically. As the AFIR search is fully automatic, exhaustive trial-and-error and guess-and-check processes by the user can be eliminated. At the same time, the AFIR search is systematic, and therefore a more accurate and comprehensive description of the reaction mechanism can be determined. The AFIR method has been used for the study of full catalytic cycles and reaction steps in transition metal catalysis, such as cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation and iron-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in aqueous media. Some AFIR applications have targeted the selectivity-determining step of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, including stereoselective water-tolerant lanthanide Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reactions. In terms of establishing the selectivity of a reaction, systematic sampling of the transition states is critical. In this direction, AFIR is very useful for performing a systematic and automatic determination of TSs. In the presence of a comprehensive description of the transition states, the selectivity of the reaction can be calculated more accurately

  14. Computational Catalysis Using the Artificial Force Induced Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Sameera, W M C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-04-19

    The artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method in the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy is an automatic approach to explore all important reaction paths of complex reactions. Most traditional methods in computational catalysis require guess reaction paths. On the other hand, the AFIR approach locates local minima (LMs) and transition states (TSs) of reaction paths without a guess, and therefore finds unanticipated as well as anticipated reaction paths. The AFIR method has been applied for multicomponent organic reactions, such as the aldol reaction, Passerini reaction, Biginelli reaction, and phase-transfer catalysis. In the presence of several reactants, many equilibrium structures are possible, leading to a number of reaction pathways. The AFIR method in the GRRM strategy determines all of the important equilibrium structures and subsequent reaction paths systematically. As the AFIR search is fully automatic, exhaustive trial-and-error and guess-and-check processes by the user can be eliminated. At the same time, the AFIR search is systematic, and therefore a more accurate and comprehensive description of the reaction mechanism can be determined. The AFIR method has been used for the study of full catalytic cycles and reaction steps in transition metal catalysis, such as cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation and iron-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in aqueous media. Some AFIR applications have targeted the selectivity-determining step of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, including stereoselective water-tolerant lanthanide Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reactions. In terms of establishing the selectivity of a reaction, systematic sampling of the transition states is critical. In this direction, AFIR is very useful for performing a systematic and automatic determination of TSs. In the presence of a comprehensive description of the transition states, the selectivity of the reaction can be calculated more accurately

  15. Non-Innocent Behavior of Substrate Backbone Esters in Metal-Catalyzed Carbocyclizations and Friedel-Crafts Reactions of Enynes and Arenynes.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Bastien; Thiery, Guillaume; Bour, Christophe; Gandon, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of DFT computations and experimental results, we show that the presence of the ester group in the backbone of organic substrates can influence the mechanism of metal-catalyzed carbocyclization reactions. The non-innocent role of the ester functionality in lowering the activation barrier of the key step of the gallium- and indium-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6-enynes is revealed. In the case of the gallium-catalyzed hydroarylation of arenynes, the esters in the tether can deprotonate the Wheland intermediate, thus avoiding more energetically demanding [1,3]- or [1,2]/[1,2]-H shifts. As for the gallium-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation, an unusual concerted SEAr mechanism involving the esters has been calculated. Lastly, computations evidence that the ester group of methyl propiolates enables a divergent mechanism in the platinum-catalyzed intramolecular hydroarylation. PMID:26448129

  16. Acid-, base-, and lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis of methoxide from an alpha-hydroxy-beta-methoxy radical: models for reactions catalyzed by coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Libin; Newcomb, Martin

    2005-11-11

    [Reaction: see text].A model for glycol radicals was employed in laser flash photolysis kinetic studies of catalysis of the fragmentation of a methoxy group adjacent to an alpha-hydroxy radical center. Photolysis of a phenylselenylmethylcyclopropane precursor gave a cyclopropylcarbinyl radical that rapidly ring opened to the target alpha-hydroxy-beta-methoxy radical (3). Heterolysis of the methoxy group in 3 gave an enolyl radical (4a) or an enol ether radical cation (4b), depending upon pH. Radicals 4 contain a 2,2-diphenylcyclopropane reporter group, and they rapidly opened to give UV-observable diphenylalkyl radicals as the final products. No heterolysis was observed for radical 3 under neutral conditions. In basic aqueous acetonitrile solutions, specific base catalysis of the heterolysis was observed; the pK(a) of radical 3 was determined to be 12.5 from kinetic titration plots, and the ketyl radical formed by deprotonation of 3 eliminated methoxide with a rate constant of 5 x 10(7) s(-1). In the presence of carboxylic acids in acetonitrile solutions, radical 3 eliminated methanol in a general acid-catalyzed reaction, and rate constants for protonation of the methoxy group in 3 by several acids were measured. Radical 3 also reacted by fragmentation of methoxide in Lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis reactions; ZnBr2, Sc(OTf)3, and BF3 were found to be efficient catalysts. Catalytic rate constants for the heterolysis reactions were in the range of 3 x 10(4) to 2 x 10(6) s(-1). The Lewis-acid-catalyzed heterolysis reactions are fast enough for kinetic competence in coenzyme B12 dependent enzyme-catalyzed reactions of glycols, and Lewis-acid-catalyzed cleavages of beta-ethers in radicals might be applied in synthetic reactions.

  17. Kinetic study for the ethanolysis of fish oil catalyzed by lipozyme(®) 435 in different reaction media.

    PubMed

    Bucio, Silvia Liliana; Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Melgosa, Rodrigo; Beltrán, Sagrario; Sovová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The ethanolysis of fish oil in various reaction medium (tert-pentanol, n-hexane and solvent free system) catalyzed by the immobilized commercial lipase Lipozyme(®) 435 (Candida Antarctica) at atmospheric pressure has been studied in this work. The effect of some kinetic parameters, such as the amount of lipase, temperature and the initial reactant molar ratio ethanol:oil on monoacyglyceride and ethyl ester yield has been analyzed. Experimental data were successfully correlated by a simple kinetic model based on the elementary reactions proposed in this work. At high initial reactant molar ratio the three elementary steps can be considered as irreversible. However the reaction rate constants ratio for the deacylation of monoglyceride to glycerol decreased by decreasing the molar ratio ethanol:oil. The reaction rates are slower in n-hexane as reaction medium compared to tert-pentanol and a solvent-free system, at the experimental conditions essayed in this work. In this last case, ethanol acts as solvent for reaction and as reactant.

  18. Kinetic study for the ethanolysis of fish oil catalyzed by lipozyme(®) 435 in different reaction media.

    PubMed

    Bucio, Silvia Liliana; Solaesa, Ángela García; Sanz, María Teresa; Melgosa, Rodrigo; Beltrán, Sagrario; Sovová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The ethanolysis of fish oil in various reaction medium (tert-pentanol, n-hexane and solvent free system) catalyzed by the immobilized commercial lipase Lipozyme(®) 435 (Candida Antarctica) at atmospheric pressure has been studied in this work. The effect of some kinetic parameters, such as the amount of lipase, temperature and the initial reactant molar ratio ethanol:oil on monoacyglyceride and ethyl ester yield has been analyzed. Experimental data were successfully correlated by a simple kinetic model based on the elementary reactions proposed in this work. At high initial reactant molar ratio the three elementary steps can be considered as irreversible. However the reaction rate constants ratio for the deacylation of monoglyceride to glycerol decreased by decreasing the molar ratio ethanol:oil. The reaction rates are slower in n-hexane as reaction medium compared to tert-pentanol and a solvent-free system, at the experimental conditions essayed in this work. In this last case, ethanol acts as solvent for reaction and as reactant. PMID:25833453

  19. A further investigation and reappraisal of the thio effect in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, Koichi; Taira, Kazunari

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized three types of 11mer substrate, namely the natural substrate S11O and the thiosubstituted substrates S11SpS and S11RpS, in which the respective pro-Sp and pro-Rp oxygen atoms were replaced by sulfur, and subjected them to detailed kinetic analysis in the cleavage reaction catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme. In agreement with previous findings, in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions the rate of ribozyme-catalyzed cleavage of S11SpS was as high as that of S11O, whereas the corresponding rate for S11RpS was nearly four orders of magnitude lower than that for either S11O or S11SpS. However, the rate of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction with each of the three substrates was enhanced by Cd2+ ions. Such results have generally been taken as evidence that supports the direct interaction of the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the cleavage site with the added Cd2+ ion. However, our present analysis demonstrates that (i) the added Cd2+ ion binds at the P9 site; (ii) the bound Cd2+ ion at the P9 site replaces two Mg2+ or two Ca2+ ions, an observation that suggests a different mode of interaction with the added Cd2+ ion; and, most importantly and in contrast to the conclusion reached by other investigators, (iii) the Cd2+ ion does not interact with the sulfur atom at the Rp position of the scissile phosphate either in the ground state or in the transition state. PMID:10734192

  20. Mechanism, regioselectivity, and the kinetics of phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reactions of allenoates and electron-deficient alkenes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Liu, Song; Xia, Yuanzhi; Li, Yahong; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of computations and experiments, the detailed mechanism of the phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reactions of allenoates and electron-deficient alkenes has been investigated. It was found that this reaction includes four consecutive processes: 1) In situ generation of a 1,3-dipole from allenoate and phosphine, 2) stepwise [3+2] cycloaddition, 3) a water-catalyzed [1,2]-hydrogen shift, and 4) elimination of the phosphine catalyst. In situ generation of the 1,3-dipole is key to all nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed reactions. Through a kinetic study we have shown that the generation of the 1,3-dipole is the rate-determining step of the phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of allenoates and electron-deficient alkenes. DFT calculations and FMO analysis revealed that an electron-withdrawing group is required in the allene to ensure the generation of the 1,3-dipole kinetically and thermodynamically. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) theory was used to analyze the stability of the 1,3-dipole. The regioselectivity of the [3+2] cycloaddition can be rationalized very well by FMO and AIM theories. Isotopic labeling experiments combined with DFT calculations showed that the commonly accepted intramolecular [1,2]-proton shift should be corrected to a water-catalyzed [1,2]-proton shift. Additional isotopic labeling experiments of the hetero-[3+2] cycloaddition of allenoates and electron-deficient imines further support this finding. This investigation has also been extended to the study of the phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of alkynoates as the three-carbon synthon, which showed that the generation of the 1,3-dipole in this reaction also occurs by a water-catalyzed process.

  1. Acetylation of bacterial cellulose catalyzed by citric acid: Use of reaction conditions for tailoring the esterification extent.

    PubMed

    Ávila Ramírez, Jhon Alejandro; Gómez Hoyos, Catalina; Arroyo, Silvana; Cerrutti, Patricia; Foresti, María Laura

    2016-11-20

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanoribbons were partially acetylated by a simple direct solvent-free route catalyzed by citric acid. The assay of reaction conditions within chosen intervals (i.e. esterification time (0.5-7h), catalyst content (0.08-1.01mmol/mmol AGU), and temperature (90-140°C)), illustrated the flexibility of the methodology proposed, with reaction variables which can be conveniently manipulated to acetylate BC to the required degree of substitution (DS) within the 0.20-0.73 interval. Within this DS interval, characterization results indicated a surface-only process in which acetylated bacterial cellulose with tunable DS, preserved fibrous structure and increased hydrophobicity could be easily obtained. The feasibility of reusing the catalyst/excess acylant in view of potential scale-up was also illustrated.

  2. Regio- and Chemoselective Kumada-Tamao-Corriu Reaction of Aryl Alkyl Ethers Catalyzed by Chromium Under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xuefeng; Tang, Huarong; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2015-11-18

    Acting as an environmentally benign synthetic tool, the cross-coupling reactions with aryl ethers via C-O bond activation have attracted broad interest. However, the functionalizations of C-O bonds are mainly limited to nickel catalysis, and selectivity has long been a prominent challenge when several C-O bonds are present in the one molecule. We report here the first chromium-catalyzed selective cross-coupling reactions of aryl ethers with Grignard reagents by the cleavage of C-O(alkyl) bonds. Diverse transformations were achieved using simple, inexpensive chromium(II) precatalyst combining imino auxiliary at room temperature. It offers a new avenue for buildup functionalized aromatic aldehydes with high efficiency and selectivity. PMID:26469380

  3. Acetylation of bacterial cellulose catalyzed by citric acid: Use of reaction conditions for tailoring the esterification extent.

    PubMed

    Ávila Ramírez, Jhon Alejandro; Gómez Hoyos, Catalina; Arroyo, Silvana; Cerrutti, Patricia; Foresti, María Laura

    2016-11-20

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanoribbons were partially acetylated by a simple direct solvent-free route catalyzed by citric acid. The assay of reaction conditions within chosen intervals (i.e. esterification time (0.5-7h), catalyst content (0.08-1.01mmol/mmol AGU), and temperature (90-140°C)), illustrated the flexibility of the methodology proposed, with reaction variables which can be conveniently manipulated to acetylate BC to the required degree of substitution (DS) within the 0.20-0.73 interval. Within this DS interval, characterization results indicated a surface-only process in which acetylated bacterial cellulose with tunable DS, preserved fibrous structure and increased hydrophobicity could be easily obtained. The feasibility of reusing the catalyst/excess acylant in view of potential scale-up was also illustrated. PMID:27561540

  4. Palladium(II) Catalyzed Cyclization-Carbonylation-Cyclization Coupling Reaction of (ortho-Alkynyl Phenyl) (Methoxymethyl) Sulfides Using Molecular Oxygen as the Terminal Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rong; Kusakabe, Taichi; Yatsu, Tomofumi; Kanno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Keisuke; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Kato, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    An efficient Pd(II)/Pd⁰-p-benzoquinone/hydroquinone-CuCl₂/CuCl catalyst system was developed that uses environmentally friendly molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant to catalyze the cyclization-carbonylation-cyclization coupling reaction (CCC-coupling reaction) of (o-alkynyl phenyl) (methoxymethyl) sulfides. PMID:27607997

  5. An "Aufbau" Approach to Understanding How the King-Altman Method of Deriving Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The King-Altman method of deriving rate equations for enzymatic reactions is applied to the derivation of the Michaelis-Menten equation, along with an explanation for how (or why) the King-Altman method works in this case. The slightly more complicated cases of competitive inhibition and a two-substrate enzyme-catalyzed reaction are then treated…

  6. Palladium(II) Catalyzed Cyclization-Carbonylation-Cyclization Coupling Reaction of (ortho-Alkynyl Phenyl) (Methoxymethyl) Sulfides Using Molecular Oxygen as the Terminal Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Shen, Rong; Kusakabe, Taichi; Yatsu, Tomofumi; Kanno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Keisuke; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Kato, Keisuke

    2016-09-05

    An efficient Pd(II)/Pd⁰-p-benzoquinone/hydroquinone-CuCl₂/CuCl catalyst system was developed that uses environmentally friendly molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant to catalyze the cyclization-carbonylation-cyclization coupling reaction (CCC-coupling reaction) of (o-alkynyl phenyl) (methoxymethyl) sulfides.

  7. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)).

    PubMed

    Nozière, Barbara; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere. The corresponding sink could be accounted for by reactions in or at the surface of atmospheric particles, but these reactions were not identified. Recently, we showed that inorganic ammonium ions, NH(4)(+), are efficient catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, including glyoxal, in the liquid phase. To determine whether ammonium-catalyzed reactions can contribute to depletion of glyoxal in the atmosphere, the reactivity of this compound in aqueous solutions containing ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and phosphate) at 298 K has been studied. The products identified by LC-HRMS and UV absorption revealed a mechanism involving two distinct pathways: a Bronsted acid pathway and an iminium pathway. The kinetics of the iminium pathway was studied by monitoring formation of a specific product. This pathway was second order in glyoxal in most of the solutions studied and should therefore be second order in most ammonium-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. The corresponding rate constant, k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)), increased strongly with ammonium ion activity, a(NH(4)(+)), and pH: k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-10) exp((1.5 +/- 0.8)aNH(4)(+)) exp((2.5 +/- 0.2)pH). This iminium pathway is a lower limit for the ammonium-catalyzed consumption of glyoxal, but the contribution of the acid pathway is expected to be small in tropospheric aerosols. With these results the reactive uptake of glyoxal on ammonium-containing aerosols was estimated and shown to be a possible explanation for depletion of this compound in Mexico City.

  8. Observing Metal-Catalyzed Chemical Reactions in Situ Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on Pd–Au Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Kimberly N.; Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Insight into the nature of transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions is obtainable from a number of surface spectroscopic techniques. Carrying out these investigations under actual reaction conditions is preferred but remains challenging, especially for catalytic reactions that occur in water. Here, we report the direct spectroscopic study of the catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,1-dichloroethene in H2O using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). With Pd islands grown on Au nanoshell films, this reaction can be followed in situ using SERS, exploiting the high enhancements and large active area of Au nanoshell SERS substrates, the transparency of Raman spectroscopy to aqueous solvents, and the catalytic activity enhancement of Pd by the underlying Au metal. The formation and subsequent transformation of several adsorbate species was observed. These results provide the first direct evidence of the room-temperature catalytic hydrodechlorination of a chlorinated solvent, a potentially important pathway for groundwater cleanup, as a sequence of dechlorination and hydrogenation steps. More broadly, the results highlight the exciting prospects of studying catalytic processes in water in situ, like those involved in biomass conversion and proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. PMID:19554693

  9. Cationic Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions at room temperature: synthetic and mechanistic studies

    PubMed Central

    Nishikata, Takashi; Abela, Alexander R; Huang, Shenlin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cationic palladium(II) complexes have been found to be highly reactive towards aromatic C–H activation of arylureas at room temperature. A commercially available catalyst [Pd(MeCN)4](BF4)2 or a nitrile-free cationic palladium(II) complex generated in situ from the reaction of Pd(OAc)2 and HBF4, effectively catalyzes C–H activation/cross-coupling reactions between aryl iodides, arylboronic acids and acrylates under milder conditions than those previously reported. The nature of the directing group was found to be critical for achieving room temperature conditions, with the urea moiety the most effective in promoting facile coupling reactions at an ortho C–H position. This methodology has been utilized in a streamlined and efficient synthesis of boscalid, an agent produced on the kiloton scale annually and used to control a range of plant pathogens in broadacre and horticultural crops. Mechanistic investigations led to a proposed catalytic cycle involving three steps: (1) C–H activation to generate a cationic palladacycle; (2) reaction of the cationic palladacycle with an aryl iodide, arylboronic acid or acrylate, and (3) regeneration of the active cationic palladium catalyst. The reaction between a cationic palladium(II) complex and arylurea allowed the formation and isolation of the corresponding palladacycle intermediate, characterized by X-ray analysis. Roles of various additives in the stepwise process have also been studied. PMID:27340491

  10. Regioselective synthesis of multisubstituted isoquinolones and pyridones via Rh(III)-catalyzed annulation reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liangliang; Yu, Ke; Wang, Baiquan

    2015-12-18

    A mild and efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed regioselective synthesis of isoquinolones and pyridones has been developed. The protocol uses readily available N-methoxybenzamide or N-methoxymethacrylamide and diazo compounds as starting materials. The process involving tandem C-H activation, cyclization, and condensation steps proceeds under mild conditions, and the corresponding isoquinolone and pyridone derivatives were obtained in good to excellent yields with excellent regioselectivities. The process provides a facile approach for the construction of isoquinolone and pyridone derivatives containing various functional groups. PMID:26463232

  11. Synthesis of 8-heteroaryl nitroxoline analogues via one-pot sequential Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Brodnik, Helena; Požgan, Franc; Štefane, Bogdan

    2016-02-14

    A series of 8-heteroaryl substituted quinolines were prepared, either by direct C-H arylation of five-membered heteroarenes, or Pd-catalyzed coupling of organoboron reagents with bromoquinolines. The use of (benzo)thiophenyl or (benzo)furanyl boron coupling partners allowed further C-H functionalization on the five-membered heteroaryl ring with aryl bromides in one flask to access a variety of polyconjugated molecular architectures. The developed methodology represents a simple approach towards 8-arylated analogues of the biologically interesting nitroxoline core. PMID:26754567

  12. Lipase-catalyzed reactions at interfaces of two-phase systems and microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Reis, P; Miller, R; Leser, M; Watzke, H

    2009-09-01

    This work describes the influence of two polar lipids, Sn-1/3 and Sn-2 monopalmitin, on the activity of lipase in biphasic systems and in microemulsions. In previous communications, we have shown that Sn-2 monoglycerides can replace Sn-1,3 regiospecific lipases at the oil-water interface, causing a drastically reduced rate of lipolysis. We here demonstrate that even if the lipase is expelled from the interface, it can catalyze esterification of the Sn-2 monoglyceride with fatty acids in both macroscopic oil-water systems and in microemulsions, leading to formation of di- and triglycerides. PMID:18795240

  13. Redox Reactions of Metalloporphyrins and their Role in Catalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, P.

    2002-09-01

    Pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis are used to study redox processes of metalloporphyrins and related complexes in order to evaluate these light absorbing molecules as sensitizers and intermediates in solar energy conversion schemes. The main thrust of the current studies is to investigate the role of reduced metalloporphyrins as intermediates in the catalyzed reduction of carbon dioxide. Studies involve cobalt and iron porphyrins, phthalocyanines, corroles, and corrins as homogeneous catalysts for reduction of carbon dioxide in solution. The main aim is to understand the mechanisms of these photochemical schemes in order to facilitate their potential utilization.

  14. On the radical nature of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Hedström, Anna; Izakian, Zakieh; Vreto, Irma; Wallentin, Carl-Johan; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2015-04-01

    The radical nature of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling between Grignard reagents and alkyl halides has been studied by using a combination of competitive kinetic experiments and DFT calculations. In contrast to the corresponding coupling with aryl halides, which commences through a classical two-electron oxidative addition/reductive elimination sequence, the presented data suggest that alkyl halides react through an atom-transfer-initiated radical pathway. Furthermore, a general iodine-based quenching methodology was developed to enable the determination of highly accurate concentrations of Grignard reagents, a capability that facilitates and increases the information output of kinetic investigations based on these substrates. PMID:25703202

  15. Heavy atom isotope effects on the reaction catalyzed by the oxalate decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Laurie A; Svedruzic, Drazenka; Chang, Christopher H; Cleland, W Wallace; Richards, Nigel G J

    2003-02-01

    Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes a remarkable transformation in which the C-C bond in oxalate is cleaved to give carbon dioxide and formate. Like the native OxDC isolated from Aspergillus niger, the recombinant, bacterial OxDC from Bacillus subtilis contains Mn(II) in its resting state and requires catalytic dioxygen for activity. The most likely mechanism for OxDC-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage involves the participation of free radical intermediates, although this hypothesis remains to be unequivocally demonstrated. Efforts to delineate the catalytic mechanism have been placed on a firm foundation by the high-resolution crystal structure of recombinant, wild type B. subtilis OxDC (Anand et al., Biochemistry 2002, 41, 7659-7669). We now report the results of heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect measurements for the OxDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxalate, in what appear to be the first detailed studies of the mechanism employed by OxDC. At pH 4.2, the OxDC-catalyzed formation of formate and CO(2) have normal (13)C isotope effects of 1.5% +/- 0.1% and 0.5% +/- 0.1%, respectively, while the (18)O isotope effect on the formation of formate is 1.1% +/- 0.2% normal. Similarly at pH 5.7, the production of formate and CO(2) exhibits normal (13)C isotope effects of 1.9% +/- 0.1% and 0.8% +/- 0.1%, respectively, and the (18)O isotope effect on the formation of formate is 1.0% +/- 0.2% normal. The (18)O isotope effect on the formation of CO(2), however, 0.7% +/- 0.2%, is inverse at pH 5.7. These results are consistent with a multistep model in which a reversible, proton-coupled, electron transfer from bound oxalate to the Mn-enzyme gives an oxalate radical, which decarboxylates to yield a formate radical anion. Subsequent reduction and protonation of this intermediate then gives formate.

  16. Tailored Cyclic and Linear Polycarbosilazanes by Barium-Catalyzed N-H/H-Si Dehydrocoupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Clément; Orione, Clément; Carpentier, Jean-François; Sarazin, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Ba[CH(SiMe3 )2 ]2 (THF)3 catalyzes the fast and controlled dehydrogenative polymerization of Ph2 SiH2 and p-xylylenediamine to afford polycarbosilazanes. The structure (cyclic versus linear; end-groups) and molecular weight of the macromolecules can be tuned by adjusting the Ph2 SiH2 /diamine feed ratio. A detailed analysis of the resulting materials (mol. wt up to ca. 10 000 g mol(-1) ) is provided. PMID:26880532

  17. New Mechanistic Insights on the Selectivity of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Organic Reactions: The Role of Computational Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2016-06-21

    With new advances in theoretical methods and increased computational power, applications of computational chemistry are becoming practical and routine in many fields of chemistry. In organic chemistry, computational chemistry plays an indispensable role in elucidating reaction mechanisms and the origins of various selectivities, such as chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities. Consequently, mechanistic understanding improves synthesis and assists in the rational design of new catalysts. In this Account, we present some of our recent works to illustrate how computational chemistry provides new mechanistic insights for improvement of the selectivities of several organic reactions. These examples include not only explanations for the existing experimental observations, but also predictions which were subsequently verified experimentally. This Account consists of three sections discuss three different kinds of selectivities. The first section discusses the regio- and stereoselectivities of hydrosilylations of alkynes, mainly catalyzed by [Cp*Ru(MeCN)3](+) or [CpRu(MeCN)3](+). Calculations suggest a new mechanism that involves a key ruthenacyclopropene intermediate. This mechanism not only explains the unusual Markovnikov regio-selectivity and anti-addition stereoselectivity observed by Trost and co-workers, but also motivated further experimental investigations. New intriguing experimental observations and further theoretical studies led to an extension of the reaction mechanism. The second section includes three cases of meta-selective C-H activation of aryl compounds. In the case of Cu-catalyzed selective meta-C-H activation of aniline, a new mechanism that involves a Cu(III)-Ar-mediated Heck-like transition state, in which the Ar group acts as an electrophile, was proposed. This mechanism predicted a higher reactivity for more electron-deficient Ar groups, which was supported by experiments. For two template-mediated, meta-selective C-H bond activations catalyzed by

  18. New Mechanistic Insights on the Selectivity of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Organic Reactions: The Role of Computational Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2016-06-21

    With new advances in theoretical methods and increased computational power, applications of computational chemistry are becoming practical and routine in many fields of chemistry. In organic chemistry, computational chemistry plays an indispensable role in elucidating reaction mechanisms and the origins of various selectivities, such as chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities. Consequently, mechanistic understanding improves synthesis and assists in the rational design of new catalysts. In this Account, we present some of our recent works to illustrate how computational chemistry provides new mechanistic insights for improvement of the selectivities of several organic reactions. These examples include not only explanations for the existing experimental observations, but also predictions which were subsequently verified experimentally. This Account consists of three sections discuss three different kinds of selectivities. The first section discusses the regio- and stereoselectivities of hydrosilylations of alkynes, mainly catalyzed by [Cp*Ru(MeCN)3](+) or [CpRu(MeCN)3](+). Calculations suggest a new mechanism that involves a key ruthenacyclopropene intermediate. This mechanism not only explains the unusual Markovnikov regio-selectivity and anti-addition stereoselectivity observed by Trost and co-workers, but also motivated further experimental investigations. New intriguing experimental observations and further theoretical studies led to an extension of the reaction mechanism. The second section includes three cases of meta-selective C-H activation of aryl compounds. In the case of Cu-catalyzed selective meta-C-H activation of aniline, a new mechanism that involves a Cu(III)-Ar-mediated Heck-like transition state, in which the Ar group acts as an electrophile, was proposed. This mechanism predicted a higher reactivity for more electron-deficient Ar groups, which was supported by experiments. For two template-mediated, meta-selective C-H bond activations catalyzed by

  19. Rh-Catalyzed Intermolecular Reactions of α-Alkyl-α-Diazo Carbonyl Compounds with Selectivity over β-Hydride Migration.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Andrew; Panish, Robert; Fox, Joseph M

    2016-01-19

    Rh-carbenes derived from α-diazocarbonyl compounds have found broad utility across a remarkable range of reactivity, including cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation, C-H insertions, heteroatom-hydrogen insertions, and ylide forming reactions. However, in contrast to α-aryl or α-vinyl-α-diazocarbonyl compounds, the utility of α-alkyl-α-diazocarbonyl compounds had been moderated by the propensity of such compounds to undergo intramolecular β-hydride migration to give alkene products. Especially challenging had been intermolecular reactions involving α-alkyl-α-diazocarbonyl compounds. This Account discusses the historical context and prior limitations of Rh-catalyzed reactions involving α-alkyl-α-diazocarbonyl compounds. Early studies demonstrated that ligand and temperature effects could influence chemoselectivity over β-hydride migration. However, effects were modest and conflicting conclusions had been drawn about the influence of sterically demanding ligands on β-hydride migration. More recent advances have led to a more detailed understanding of the reaction conditions that can promote intermolecular reactivity in preference to β-hydride migration. In particular, the use of bulky carboxylate ligands and low reaction temperatures have been key to enabling intermolecular cyclopropenation, cyclopropanation, carbonyl ylide formation/dipolar cycloaddition, indole C-H functionalization, and intramolecular bicyclobutanation with high chemoselectivity over β-hydride migration. Cyclic α-diazocarbonyl compounds have been shown to be particularly resilient toward β-hydride migration and are the first class of compounds that can engage in intermolecular reactivity in the presence of tertiary β-hydrogens. DFT calculations were used to propose that for cyclic α-diazocarbonyl compounds, ring constraints relieve steric interaction for intermolecular reactions and thereby accelerate the rate of intermolecular reactivity relative to intramolecular

  20. Design, synthesis, and applications of potential substitutes of t-Bu-phosphinooxazoline in Pd-catalyzed asymmetric transformations and their use for the improvement of the enantioselectivity in the Pd-catalyzed allylation reaction of fluorinated allyl enol carbonates.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Étienne; Pouliot, Marie-France; Courtemanche, Marc-André; Paquin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and applications of potential substitutes of t-Bu-PHOX in asymmetric catalysis is reported. The design relies on the incorporation of geminal substituents at C5 in combination with a substituent at C4 other than t-butyl (i-Pr, i-Bu, or s-Bu). Most of these new members of the PHOX ligand family behave similarly in terms of stereoinduction to t-Bu-PHOX in three palladium-catalyzed asymmetric transformations. Electronically modified ligands were also prepared and used to improve the enantioselectivity in the Pd-catalyzed allylation reaction of fluorinated allyl enol carbonates.

  1. Synthesis of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols diesters from the palladium-catalyzed hydroesterification reaction.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Romain; Boulanger, Jérôme; Léger, Bastien; Ponchel, Anne; Monflier, Eric; Ibert, Mathias; Mortreux, André; Chenal, Thomas; Sauthier, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    The hydroesterification of alpha olefins has been used to synthesize diesters from bio-based secondary diols: isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide. The reaction was promoted by 0.2% palladium catalyst generated in situ from palladium acetate/triphenylphosphine/para-toluene sulfonic acid. Optimized reaction conditions allowed the selective synthesis of the diesters with high yields and the reaction conditions could be scaled up to the synthesis of hundred grams of diesters from isosorbide and 1-octene with solvent-free conditions.

  2. Highly Efficient Cascade Reaction for Selective Formation of Spirocyclobutenes from Dienallenes via Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Double Carbocyclization–Carbonylation–Alkynylation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A highly selective cascade reaction that allows the direct transformation of dienallenes to spirocyclobutenes (spiro[3.4]octenes) as single diastereoisomers has been developed. The reaction involves formation of overall four C–C bonds and proceeds via a palladium-catalyzed oxidative transformation with insertion of olefin, olefin, and carbon monoxide. Under slightly different reaction conditions, an additional CO insertion takes place to give spiro[4.4]nonenes with formation of overall five C–C bonds. PMID:27704805

  3. Scope and limitations of aliphatic Friedel-Crafts alkylations. Lewis acid catalyzed addition reactions of alkyl chlorides to carbon-carbon double bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, H.; Striepe, W.

    1983-04-22

    Lewis acid catalyzed addition reactions of alkyl halides with unsaturated hydrocarbons have been studied. 1:1 addition products are formed if the addends dissociate faster than the corresponding products; otherwise, polymerization takes place. For reaction conditions under which these compounds exist mainly undissociated, solvolysis constants of model compounds can be used to predict the outcome of any such addition reactions if systems with considerable steric hindrance are excluded.

  4. Transition-metal-catalyzed carbon-heteroatom three-component cross-coupling reactions: a new concept for carbothiolation of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Kuniyasu, Hitoshi; Kurosawa, Hideo

    2002-06-17

    The deep-seated understanding of flexible ligand behavior of thiolate on transition-metals has paved the way to achieve metal-catalyzed carbothiolations of terminal alkynes. The strategy of the reaction is quite simple: 1) generation of the complex with C-Pt-S fragments formed after the Pd-catalyzed C-S bond-forming cross-coupling reaction, 2) insertion of an alkyne into Pt-S bond to form the complex with a C-Pt-C fragment, and 3) C-C bond-forming reductive elimination.

  5. The Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters by Use of Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Allen Y.

    2014-01-01

    All-carbon quaternary stereocenters have posed significant challenges in the synthesis of complex natural products. These important structural motifs have inspired the development of broadly applicable palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions of unstabilized non-biased enolates for the synthesis of enantioenriched α-quaternary products. This microreview outlines key considerations in the application of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions and presents recent total syntheses of complex natural products that have employed these powerful transformations for the direct, catalytic, enantioselective construction of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24944521

  6. Self-Relay Gold(I)-Catalyzed Pictet-Spengler/Cyclization Cascade Reaction for the Rapid Elaboration of Pentacyclic Indole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gobé, Valérian; Retailleau, Pascal; Guinchard, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Gold-catalyzed cascade reactions allow the rapid elaboration of pentacyclic indolo[2,3-a]quinolizidines from N-allyl tryptamines and ortho-alkynylarylaldehydes. The tandem process combines a gold-catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reaction and a cyclization occurring concomitantly with an allyl transfer from the nitrogen atom to the stilbene function. Various substituted allyls were successfully transferred, furnishing the products in yields typically ranging from 60-98 % in high diastereoselectivity. Tryptamines bearing a butenol chain undergo an additional cyclization to chiral hemiaminals in high diastereoselectivities. PMID:26443069

  7. Protease-catalyzed peptide synthesis using inverse substrates: the influence of reaction conditions on the trypsin acyl transfer efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, V; Jakubke, H D; Zapevalova, N P; Mitin, Y V

    1991-06-01

    Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-alanine p-guanidinophenyl ester behaves as a trypsin "inverse substrate," i.e., a cationic center is included in the leaving group instead of being in the acyl moiety. Using this substrate as an acyl donor, trypsin catalyzes the synthesis of peptide bonds that cannot be split by this enzyme. An optimal acyl transfer efficiency was achieved between pH 8 and 9 at 30 degrees C.The addition of as much as 50% cosolvent was shown to be of minor influence on the acyl transfer efficiency, whereas the reaction velocity decreases by more than one order of magnitude. The efficiency of H-Leu-NH(2) and H-Val-NH(2) in deacylation is almost the same for "inverse" and normal type substrates. PMID:18600704

  8. Applications of and alternatives to pi-electron-deficient azine organometallics in metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Louis-Charles; Fagnou, Keith

    2007-07-01

    While the use of pi-deficient azine halides in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions is common, the use of pi-electron deficient azine organometallics has been less intensively examined. In recent years, important advances have been made that are beginning to address this deficiency and need. The purpose of this tutorial review is to highlight and discuss the innovations that facilitate the synthesis of azine-containing biaryls with a focus on the pyridine structural motif. Given the number of important compounds which exhibit azine-heterobiaryls and the wide use of cross-coupling methods in their synthesis, this review should be of interest among synthetic organic chemists and organometallic chemists alike.

  9. Pd(II)-catalyzed cascade Wacker-Heck reaction: chemoselective coupling of two electron-deficient reactants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Franck; Reiter, Maud; Mills-Webb, Rebecca; Sawicki, Marcin; Klär, Daniel; Bensel, Nicolas; Wagner, Alain; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2006-10-27

    A novel palladium(II)-catalyzed oxy-carbopalladation process was developed allowing for the orchestrated union of hydroxy ynones with ethyl acrylate, two electron-deficient reactants. With beta-hydroxy ynones, this cascade Wacker-Heck process gave access to highly functionalized tri- or tetrasubstituted dihydropyranones featuring an unusual dienic system. For diastereomerically pure and for enantioenriched beta-hydroxyynones, these reactions proceed without affecting the stereochemical integrity of the existing stereocenters. In addition, tetrasubstituted furanones can be prepared when alpha-hydroxyynones and ethyl acrylate are used as starting materials. The dihydropyranones and furanones obtained upon cyclization are novel compounds, but structurally related carbohydrate derivatives featuring a similar dienic system have been used as starting materials for the construction of polyannulated products, suggesting that these cascade Pd(II)-mediated oxidative heterocyclizations are of value for various synthetic applications.

  10. In situ gellable sugar beet pectin via enzyme-catalyzed coupling reaction of feruloyl groups for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takayuki; Sugihara, Kotaro; Ijima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Koei

    2011-11-01

    In situ gellable hydrogels are more attractive in many biomedical and biopharmaceutical applications than pre-formed hydrogels because they can be implanted simply by injection and allow homogeneous incorporation of bioactive materials. In this study, the potential suitability of in situ gellable sugar beet pectin (SBP) for biomedical and biopharmaceutical applications was investigated. SBP aqueous solution gelled within 1 min after addition of appropriate amounts of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H₂O₂ via HRP-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction of feruloyl groups on SBP molecules. The resultant gels gradually degraded under simulated physiological condition. L929 fibroblast cells encapsulated in the gels were scarcely damaged during the gelation process. A subcutaneously injected mixture of SBP, HRP and H₂O₂ solutions successfully gelled, and the gel did not induce necrosis in the surrounding tissue 1 week after implantation. These results demonstrate that the in situ gellable SBP gels are useful for biomedical and biopharmaceutical applications.

  11. The Enantioselective Construction of Tetracyclic Diterpene Skeletons with Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Palladium-catalyzed Cycloalkenylation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sarah J.; Mehta, Sharan K.; Appenteng, Roselyn

    2015-01-01

    Due to the profound extent to which natural products inspire medicinal chemists in drug discovery, there is demand for innovative syntheses of these often complex materials. This article describes the synthesis of tricarbocyclic natural product architectures through an extension of the enantioselective Birch-Cope sequence with intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Additionally, palladium-catalyzed enol silane cycloalkenylation of the tricarbocyclic structures afforded the challenging bicyclo[3.2.1]octane C/D ring system found in the gibberellins and the ent-kauranes, two natural products with diverse medicinal value. In the case of the ent-kaurane derivative, an unprecedented alkene rearrangement converted four alkene isomers to one final product. PMID:25598198

  12. The enantioselective construction of tetracyclic diterpene skeletons with Friedel-Crafts alkylation and palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sarah J; Malachowski, William P; Mehta, Sharan K; Appenteng, Roselyn

    2015-03-01

    Due to the profound extent to which natural products inspire medicinal chemists in drug discovery, there is demand for innovative syntheses of these often complex materials. This article describes the synthesis of tricarbocyclic natural product architectures through an extension of the enantioselective Birch-Cope sequence with intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Additionally, palladium-catalyzed enol silane cycloalkenylation of the tricarbocyclic structures afforded the challenging bicyclo[3.2.1]octane C/D ring system found in the gibberellins and the ent-kauranes, two natural products with diverse medicinal value. In the case of the ent-kaurane derivative, an unprecedented alkene rearrangement converted four alkene isomers to one final product. PMID:25598198

  13. Triazole-based monophosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qian; Gao, Wenzhong; Liu, Duan; Kapes, Lea M; Zhang, Xumu

    2006-05-12

    A variety of triazole-based monophosphines (ClickPhos) have been prepared via efficient 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of readily available azides and acetylenes. Their palladium complexes provided excellent yields in the amination reactions and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of unactivated aryl chlorides. Ligand 7i, which has a 2,6-dimethoxybenzene moiety, provided good results in Suzuki-Miyaura reaction to form hindered biaryls. A CAChe model for the Pd/7i complex shows that the likelihood of a Pd-arene interaction might be a rationale for its high catalytic reactivity.

  14. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  15. [Molybdenum-catalyzed heteroatom removal reactions: The effect of promoters on reaction]. [Annual report, December 1, 1992--November 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Friend, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    A general method was developed for determine mechanisms for surface reactions, and desulfurization and deoxygenation processes were modeled on clean and S-covered Mo(110). Efforts were aimed at accurately describing the bonding and structure of adsorbed reactants. Thiol desulfurization on Co-covered Mo(110) was studied. Kinetics and selectivity for thiol hydrogenolysis depend on structure and composition of interface.

  16. A Computational Study of Acid Catalyzed Aerosol Reactions of Atmospherically Relevant Epoxides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epoxides are important intermediates of atmospheric isoprene oxidation. Their subsequent reactions in the particle phase lead to the production of organic compounds detected in ambient aerosols. We apply density functional theory to determine the important kinetic factors that ...

  17. Iridium-catalyzed reductive carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction on a curved pyridylcorannulene skeleton.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Shohei; Yamada, Mihoko; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2015-04-27

    The cleavage of CC bonds in π-conjugated systems is an important method for controlling their shape and coplanarity. An efficient way for the cleavage of an aromatic CC bond in a typical buckybowl corannulene skeleton is reported. The reaction of 2-pyridylcorannulene with a catalytic amount of IrCl3 ⋅n H2 O in ethylene glycol at 250 °C resulted in a structural transformation from the curved corannulene skeleton to a strain-free flat benzo[ghi]fluoranthene skeleton through a site-selective CC cleavage reaction. This cleavage reaction was found to be driven by both the coordination of the 2-pyridyl substituent to iridium and the relief of strain in the curved corannulene skeleton. This finding should facilitate the design of carbon nanomaterials based on CC bond cleavage reactions.

  18. Envisioning an enzymatic Diels-Alder reaction by in situ acid-base catalyzed diene generation.

    PubMed

    Linder, Mats; Johansson, Adam Johannes; Manta, Bianca; Olsson, Philip; Brinck, Tore

    2012-06-01

    We present and evaluate a new and potentially efficient route for enzyme-mediated Diels-Alder reactions, utilizing general acid-base catalysis. The viability of employing the active site of ketosteroid isomerase is demonstrated.

  19. An investigation of molybdenum and molybdenum oxide catalyzed hydrocarbon formation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tysoe, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The document is divided into: experiments on model catalysts at high pressure, reaction studies on metallic Mo, surface chemistry experiments (metallic surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum; Mo(CO){sub 6} adsorption on alumina), and theoretical calculations.

  20. DNA-catalyzed Henry reaction in pure water and the striking influence of organic buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Häring, Marleen; Pérez-Madrigal, Maria M; Kühbeck, Dennis; Pettignano, Asja; Quignard, Françoise; Díaz, David Díaz

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a critical evaluation of the ability of natural DNA to mediate the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction at physiological temperature in pure water. Under these conditions, no background reaction took place (i.e., control experiment without DNA). Both heteroaromatic aldehydes (e.g., 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde) and aromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups reacted satisfactorily with nitromethane obeying first order kinetics and affording the corresponding β-nitroalcohols in good yields within 24 h. In contrast, aliphatic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes having electron-donating groups either did not react or were poorly converted. Moreover, we discovered that a number of metal-free organic buffers efficiently promote the Henry reaction when they were used as reaction media without adding external catalysts. This constitutes an important observation because the influence of organic buffers in chemical processes has been traditionally underestimated.

  1. Metal-Catalyzed Double Migratory Cascade Reactions of Propargylic Esters and Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Shiroodi, Roohollah Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Propargylic esters and phosphates are easily accessible substrates, which exhibit rich and tunable reactivities in the presence of transition metal catalysts. π-acidic metals, mostly gold and platinum salts, activate these substrates for an initial 1,2- or 1,3-acyloxy and phosphatyloxy migration processes to form reactive intermediates. These intermediates are able to undergo further cascade reactions leading to a variety of diverse structures. This tutorial review systematically introduces the double migratory reactions of propargylic esters and phosphates as a novel synthetic method, in which further cascade reaction of the reactive intermediate is accompanied by a second migration of a different group, thus offering a rapid route to a wide range of functionalized products. The serendipitous observations, as well as designed approaches involving the double migratory cascade reactions, will be discussed with emphasis placed on the mechanistic aspects and the synthetic utilities of the obtained products. PMID:23443274

  2. Stereopentads derived from a sequence of Mukaiyama aldolization and free radical reduction on alpha-methyl-beta-alkoxy aldehydes: a general strategy for efficient polypropionate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Jean-François; Mochirian, Philippe; Prévost, Michel; Guindon, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    In a stereodivergent manner, all 16 diastereomeric stereopentads 7-22 were synthesized starting with alpha-methyl-beta-alkoxy aldehydes 25 and 27. We designed an approach based on a sequence of a Mukaiyama aldolization with enoxysilane 24 followed by a hydrogen transfer reaction. Recent advancements concerning these reactions are described, and novel key intermediates are characterized in the aldol step. The synthesis of C(1)-C(11) fragment 60 of zincophorin, which contains a synthetically challenging stereopentad unit, is described attesting the usefulness of our strategy.

  3. The roles of counterion and water in a stereoselective cysteine-catalyzed Rauhut-Currier reaction: A challenge for computational chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Dermenci, Alpay; Miller, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    The stereoselective Rauhut-Currier (RC) reaction catalyzed by a cysteine derivative has been explored computationally with DFT (M06-2X) theory. Both methanethiol and a chiral cysteine derivative were studied as nucleophiles. The complete reaction pathway involves rate-determining elimination of the thiol catalyst from the Michael addition product. The stereoselective Rauhut-Currier reaction, catalyzed by a cysteine derivative as nucleophile, has also been studied in detail. This reaction was experimentally found to be extremely sensitive to the reaction conditions, such as the number of water equivalents and the effect of potassium counterion. The E1cB process for catalyst elimination has been explored computationally for the 8 possible stereoisomers. The effect of explicit water solvation and the presence of counterion (either K+ or Na+) has been studied for the lowest energy enantiomer pair (1S, 2R, 3S)/(1R, 2S, 3R). PMID:24038400

  4. Recent progress in transition-metal-catalyzed reduction of molecular dinitrogen under ambient reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes our recent progress in catalytic nitrogen fixation by using transition-metal-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Two reaction systems for the catalytic transformation of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia and its equivalent such as silylamine under ambient reaction conditions have been achieved by the molybdenum-, iron-, and cobalt-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts. Many new findings presented here may provide new access to the development of economical nitrogen fixation in place of the Haber-Bosch process. PMID:26131967

  5. The application of transient-state kinetic isotope effects to the resolution of mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Harvey F

    2013-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions is based on steady-state kinetic studies. Experimentally, this approach depends solely on the measurement of rates of free product appearance (d[P]/dt), a mechanistically and mathematically complex entity. Despite the ambiguity of this observed parameter, the method's success is due in part to the elaborate rigorously derived algebraic theory on which it is based. Transient-state kinetics, on the other hand, despite its ability to observe the formation of intermediate steps in real time, has contributed relatively little to the subject due in, some measure, to the lack of such a solid mathematical basis. Here we discuss the current state of existing transient-state theory and the difficulties in its realistic application to experimental data. We describe a basic analytic theory of transient-state kinetic isotope effects in the form of three novel fundamental rules. These rules are adequate to define an extended mechanism, locating the isotope-sensitive step and identifying missing steps from experimental data. We demonstrate the application of these rules to resolved component time courses of the phenylalanine dehydrogenase reaction, extending the previously known reaction by one new prehydride transfer step and two new post hydride transfer steps. We conclude with an assessment of future directions in this area. PMID:23857126

  6. Theoretical investigation on the isomerization reaction of 4-phenyl-hexa-1,5-enyne catalyzed by homogeneous Au catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Dongju; Bi, Siwei

    2010-12-16

    By carrying out density functional theory calculations, we have performed a detailed mechanism study for the cycloisomerization reaction of 4-phenyl-hexa-1,5-enyne catalyzed by homogeneous gold to better understand the observed different catalytic activity of several catalysts, including (PPh(3))AuBF(4), (PPh(3))AuCl, AuCl(3), and AuCl. In all situations, the reaction is found to involve two major steps: the initial nucleophilic addition of the alkynyl onto the alkene group and the subsequent 1,2-H migration. It is found that the potential energy surface profiles of systems are very different when different catalysts are used. For (PMe(3))AuBF(4)- and (PMe(3))AuCl-mediated systems, the nucleophilic addition is the rate-determining step, and the calculated free energy barriers are 15.2 and 41.9 kcal/mol, respectively. In contrast, for AuCl(3)- and AuCl-mediated systems, the reactions are controlled by the dissociations of catalysts from the product-like intermediates, and the calculated dissociation energies are 18.1 and 21.7 kcal/mol, respectively, which are larger than both the corresponding free energy barriers of the nucleophilic addition and the H-migration processes (8.5 and 7.3 kcal/mol for the AuCl(3)-mediated reaction, and 16.9 and 11.3 kcal/mol for the AuCl-mediated reaction). These results can rationalize the early experimental observations that the reactant conversion rates are 100, 0, and 50% when using (PPh(3))AuBF(4), (PPh(3))AuCl, and AuCl(3) as catalysts, respectively. The present study indicates that both the ligand and counterion of homogeneous Au catalysts importantly influence their catalytic activities, whereas the oxidation state of Au is not a crucial factor controlling the reactivity.

  7. Enantio- and diastereoselective Michael addition reactions of unmodified aldehydes and ketones with nitroolefins catalyzed by a pyrrolidine sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Lou, Bihshow; Zu, Liansuo; Guo, Hua; Wang, Wei

    2006-05-24

    Chiral (S)-pyrrolidine trifluoromethanesulfonamide has been shown to serve as an effective catalyst for direct Michael addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones with nitroolefins. A wide range of aldehydes and ketones as Michael donors and nitroolefins as acceptors participate in the process, which proceeds with high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to 50:1 d.r.). The methodology has been employed successfully in an efficient synthesis of the potent H(3) agonist Sch 50917. In addition, a practical three-step procedure for the preparation of (S)-pyrrolidine trifluoromethanesulfonamide has been developed. The high levels of stereochemical control attending Michael addition reactions catalyzed by this pyrrolidine sulfonamide, have been investigated by using ab initio and density functional methods. Transition state structures for the rate-limiting C--C bond-forming step, corresponding to re- and si-face addition to the reactive conformation of the key enamine intermediates have been calculated. Analysis of these structures indicates that hydrogen bonding plays an important role in catalysis and that the energy barrier for si-face attack in reactions of aldehydes to form 2R,3S products is lower than that for the re-face attack leading to 2S,3R products. In contrast, the energy barrier for re-face addition is lower than that for si-face addition in reactions of ketones. The computational results, which are in good agreement with the experimental observations, are discussed in the context of the stereochemical course of these Michael addition reactions.

  8. Cu/MgAl(2)O(4) as bifunctional catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and selective transfer hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Kristina; Palkovits, Regina

    2013-11-01

    Copper supported on mesoporous magnesium aluminate has been prepared as noble-metal-free solid catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with acetone, followed by hydrogenation of the aldol condensation products. The investigated mesoporous spinels possess high activity as solid-base catalysts. Magnesium aluminate exhibits superior activity compared to zinc and cobalt-based aluminates, reaching full conversion and up to 81 % yield of the 1:1 aldol product. The high activity can be correlated to a higher concentration of basic surface sites on magnesium aluminate. Applying continuous regeneration, the catalysts can be recycled without loss of activity. Focusing on the subsequent hydrogenation of aldol condensation products, Cu/MgAl2 O4 allows a selective hydrogenation and CO bond cleavage, delivering 3-hydroxybutyl-5-methylfuran as the main product with up to 84 % selectivity avoiding ring saturation. Analysis of the hydrogenation activity reveals that the reaction proceeds in the following order: CC>CO>CO cleavage>ring hydrogenation. Comparable activity and selectivity can be also achieved utilizing 2-propanol as solvent in the transfer hydrogenation, providing the possibility for partial recycling of acetone and optimization of the hydrogen management. PMID:24038987

  9. Cobalt-catalyzed cyclotrimerization of alkynes: the answer to the puzzle of parallel reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Agenet, Nicolas; Gandon, Vincent; Vollhardt, K Peter C; Malacria, Max; Aubert, Corinne

    2007-07-18

    To understand some experimental data at odds with the computed mechanism of the CpCo(L2)-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cyclotrimerization of ethyne, DFT computations were carried out following the fate of methyl- and hydroxycarbonyl-substituted alkynes to give the corresponding arenes. The key intermediate in all cases is a triplet cobaltacyclopentadiene obtained by oxidative coupling of the corresponding CpCo(bisalkyne) complex and subsequent spin change via a minimum energy crossing point (MECP). From that species, two different catalytic cycles lead to an arene product, depending on the nature of the alkyne and other ligands present: either alkyne ligation to furnish a cobaltacyclopentadiene(alkyne) intermediate or trapping by a sigma-donor ligand to generate a coordinatively saturated cobaltacyclopentadiene(PR3) complex. The former leads to the CpCo-complexed arene product via intramolecular cobalt-assisted [4 + 2] cycloaddition, whereas the latter may, in the case of a reactive dienophile (butynedioic acid), undergo direct intermolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition to generate a cobaltanorbornene. The bridgehead cobalt atom is then reductively eliminated after another change in spin state from singlet to triplet. The necessary conditions for one or the other mechanistic pathway are elaborated.

  10. G protein activation by G protein coupled receptors: ternary complex formation or catalyzed reaction?

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Waelbroeck, Magali

    2004-09-01

    G protein coupled receptors catalyze the GDP/GTP exchange on G proteins, thereby activating them. The ternary complex model, designed to describe agonist binding in the absence of GTP, is often extended to G protein activation. This is logically unsatisfactory as the ternary complex does not accumulate when G proteins are activated by GTP. Extended models taking into account nucleotide binding exist, but fail to explain catalytic G protein activation. This review puts forward an enzymatic model of G protein activation and compares its predictions with the ternary complex model and with observed receptor phenomenon. This alternative model does not merely provide a new set of formulae but leads to a new philosophical outlook and more readily accommodates experimental observations. The ternary complex model implies that, HRG being responsible for efficient G protein activation, it should be as stable as possible. In contrast, the enzyme model suggests that although a limited stabilization of HRG facilitates GDP release, HRG should not be "too stable" as this might trap the G protein in an inactive state and actually hinder G protein activation. The two models also differ completely in the definition of the receptor "active state": the ternary complex model implies that the active state corresponds to a single active receptor conformation (HRG); in contrast, the catalytic model predicts that the active receptor state is mobile, switching smoothly through various conformations with high and low affinities for agonists (HR, HRG, HRGGDP, HRGGTP, etc.).

  11. Enantioconvergent Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Racemic Alkyne-Dicobalt Complex (Nicholas Reaction) Catalyzed by Chiral Brønsted Acid.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masahiro; Ota, Yusuke; Li, Feng; Toda, Yasunori; Kondoh, Azusa

    2016-08-31

    Catalytic enantioselective syntheses enable a practical approach to enantioenriched molecules. While most of these syntheses have been accomplished by reaction at the prochiral sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom, little attention has been paid to enantioselective nucleophilic substitution at the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom. In particular, substitution at the chiral sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom of racemic electrophiles has been rarely exploited. To establish an unprecedented enantioselective substitution reaction of racemic electrophiles, enantioconvergent Nicholas reaction of an alkyne-dicobalt complex derived from racemic propargylic alcohol was developed using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. In the present enantioconvergent process, both enantiomers of the racemic alcohol were transformed efficiently to a variety of thioethers with high enantioselectivity. The key to achieving success is dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) of enantiomeric cationic intermediates generated via dehydroxylation of the starting racemic alcohol under the influence of the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The present fascinating DYKAT involves the efficient racemization of these enantiomeric intermediates and effective resolution of these enantiomers through utilization of the chiral conjugate base of the phosphoric acid. PMID:27490239

  12. Enantioconvergent Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Racemic Alkyne-Dicobalt Complex (Nicholas Reaction) Catalyzed by Chiral Brønsted Acid.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masahiro; Ota, Yusuke; Li, Feng; Toda, Yasunori; Kondoh, Azusa

    2016-08-31

    Catalytic enantioselective syntheses enable a practical approach to enantioenriched molecules. While most of these syntheses have been accomplished by reaction at the prochiral sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom, little attention has been paid to enantioselective nucleophilic substitution at the sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom. In particular, substitution at the chiral sp(3)-hybridized carbon atom of racemic electrophiles has been rarely exploited. To establish an unprecedented enantioselective substitution reaction of racemic electrophiles, enantioconvergent Nicholas reaction of an alkyne-dicobalt complex derived from racemic propargylic alcohol was developed using a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. In the present enantioconvergent process, both enantiomers of the racemic alcohol were transformed efficiently to a variety of thioethers with high enantioselectivity. The key to achieving success is dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) of enantiomeric cationic intermediates generated via dehydroxylation of the starting racemic alcohol under the influence of the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The present fascinating DYKAT involves the efficient racemization of these enantiomeric intermediates and effective resolution of these enantiomers through utilization of the chiral conjugate base of the phosphoric acid.

  13. Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye Reactive Blue 4 in Pyrite Ash Catalyzed Fenton Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Becelic-Tomin, Milena; Dalmacija, Bozo; Rajic, Ljiljana; Tomasevic, Dragana; Kerkez, Djurdja; Watson, Malcolm; Prica, Miljana

    2014-01-01

    Pyrite ash (PA) is created by burning pyrite in the chemical production of sulphuric acid. The high concentration of iron oxide, mostly hematite, present in pyrite ash, gives the basis for its application as a source of catalytic iron in a modified Fenton process for anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 (RB4) degradation. The effect of various operating variables such as catalyst and oxidant concentration, initial pH and RB4 concentration on the abatement of total organic carbon, and dye has been assessed in this study. Here we show that degradation of RB4 in the modified Fenton reaction was efficient under the following conditions: pH = 2.5; [PA]0 = 0.2 g L−1; [H2O2]0 = 5 mM and initial RB4 concentration up to 100 mg L−1. The pyrite ash Fenton reaction can overcome limitations observed from the classic Fenton reaction, such as the early termination of the Fenton reaction. Metal (Pb, Zn, and Cu) content of the solution after the process suggests that an additional treatment step is necessary to remove the remaining metals from the water. These results provide basic knowledge to better understand the modified, heterogeneous Fenton process and apply the PA Fenton reaction for the treatment of wastewaters which contains anthraquinone dyes. PMID:24526885

  14. Unlocking ylide reactivity in the metal-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction: stereospecific construction of primary allylic amines with aza-ylides.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Clizbe, Elizabeth A

    2009-07-01

    The transition metal catalyzed allylic amination represents a powerful and versatile cross-coupling for the asymmetric construction of stereogenic C-N bonds that are present in secondary metabolites and medicinally important agents. We have developed a regio- and enantiospecific rhodium-catalyzed allylic amination reaction using the aza-ylide derived from 1-aminopyridinium iodide. This investigation demonstrates the importance of the ylide-stabilizing group for obtaining the desired nucleophilicity and the ability to utilize the aza-ylide as a commercially available ammonia equivalent, which serves to illustrate the synthetic potential of this nucleophile for the preparation of primary amines. Overall, this work provides an opportunity to investigate the utility of this new class of nucleophiles in related metal-catalyzed reactions.

  15. Chemoselective Boron-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Activation of Carboxylic Acids for Mannich-Type Reactions.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hideoki; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-06-10

    The carboxyl group (COOH) is an omnipresent functional group in organic molecules, and its direct catalytic activation represents an attractive synthetic method. Herein, we describe the first example of a direct catalytic nucleophilic activation of carboxylic acids with BH3·SMe2, after which the acids are able to act as carbon nucleophiles, i.e. enolates, in Mannich-type reactions. This reaction proceeds with a mild organic base (DBU) and exhibits high levels of functional group tolerance. The boron catalyst is highly chemoselective toward the COOH group, even in the presence of other carbonyl moieties, such as amides, esters, or ketones. Furthermore, this catalytic method can be extended to highly enantioselective Mannich-type reactions by using a (R)-3,3'-I2-BINOL-substituted boron catalyst.

  16. Hydrogen-Borrowing and Interrupted-Hydrogen-Borrowing Reactions of Ketones and Methanol Catalyzed by Iridium**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Poole, Darren L; Shotton, Camilla C; Kornahrens, Anne F; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of catalytic [{Ir(cod)Cl}2] to facilitate hydrogen-borrowing reactions of ketone enolates with methanol at 65 °C. An oxygen atmosphere accelerates the process, and when combined with the use of a bulky monodentate phosphine ligand, interrupts the catalytic cycle by preventing enone reduction. Subsequent addition of pro-nucleophiles to the reaction mixture allowed a one-pot methylenation/conjugate addition protocol to be developed, which greatly expands the range of products that can be made by this methodology. PMID:25491653

  17. Effect of reaction parameters on synthesis of citronellyl methacrylate by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Athawale, Vilas; Manjrekar, Narendra; Athawale, Manoj

    2003-01-01

    The methacrylate ester of citronellol was synthesized using various lipases as catalyst. The effect of different reaction parameters such as amount of lipase, solvent, temperature, and acylating agent on the conversion of citronellol to citronellyl methacrylate was studied. Methyl methacrylate, vinyl methacrylate, and 2,3-butanedione mono-oxime methacrylate were used as acylating agents. Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL), Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (Amano-PS) were used as biocatalysts. Diisopropyl ether (DIPE) was found to be the most suitable solvent. The stereoselectivity of CRL in transesterification of (+/-)-citronellol was tested for the optimized reaction parameters.

  18. Development and Applications of Transesterification Reactions Catalyzed by N-Heterocyclic Olefins.

    PubMed

    Blümel, Marcus; Noy, Janina-Miriam; Enders, Dieter; Stenzel, Martina H; Nguyen, Thanh V

    2016-05-01

    A novel method to utilize N-heterocyclic olefins (NHOs), the alkylidene derivatives of N-heterocycic carbenes, as organocatalysts to promote transesterification reactions has been developed. Because of their strong Brønsted/Lewis basicity, NHOs can enhance the nucleophilicity of alcohols for their acylation reactions with carboxylic esters. This transformation can be employed in industrially relevant processes such as the production of biodiesel, the depolymerization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from plastic bottles for recycling purposes, and the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters to form biodegradable polymers such as polylactide (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). PMID:27115463

  19. The Effect of Temperature on the Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction: Insights from Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aledo, Juan Carlos; Jimenez-Riveres, Susana; Tena, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    When teaching the effect of temperature on biochemical reactions, the problem is usually oversimplified by confining the thermal effect to the catalytic constant, which is identified with the rate constant of the elementary limiting step. Therefore, only positive values for activation energies and values greater than 1 for temperature coefficients…

  20. (Salen)Mn(III) Catalyzed Asymmetric Epoxidation Reactions by Hydrogen Peroxide in Water: A Green Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ballistreri, Francesco Paolo; Gangemi, Chiara M. A.; Pappalardo, Andrea; Tomaselli, Gaetano A.; Toscano, Rosa Maria; Trusso Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective epoxidation reactions of some chosen reactive alkenes by a chiral Mn(III) salen catalyst were performed in H2O employing H2O2 as oxidant and diethyltetradecylamine N-oxide (AOE-14) as surfactant. This procedure represents an environmentally benign protocol which leads to e.e. values ranging from good to excellent (up to 95%). PMID:27420047