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Sample records for aldose reductase rlar

  1. Esculetin, a Coumarin Derivative, Inhibits Aldose Reductase Activity in vitro and Cataractogenesis in Galactose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring coumarin compounds have received substantial attention due to their pharmaceutical effects. Esculetin is a coumarin derivative and a polyphenol compound that is used in a variety of therapeutic and pharmacological strategies. However, its effect on aldose reductase activity remains poorly understood. In this study, the potential beneficial effects of esculetin on lenticular aldose reductase were investigated in galactose-fed (GAL) rats, an animal model of sugar cataracts. Cataracts were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats via a 50% galactose diet for 2 weeks, and groups of GAL rats were orally treated with esculetin (10 or 50 mg/kg body weight). In vehicle-treated GAL rats, lens opacification was observed, and swelling and membrane rupture of the lens fiber cells were increased. Additionally, aldose reductase was highly expressed in the lens epithelium and superficial cortical fibers during cataract development in the GAL rats. Esculetin reduced rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) activity in vitro, and esculetin treatment significantly inhibited lens opacity, as well as morphological alterations, such as swelling, vacuolation and liquefaction of lens fibers, via the inhibition of aldose reductase in the GAL rats. These results indicate that esculetin is a useful treatment for galactose-induced cataracts. PMID:26902086

  2. Chicken muscle aldose reductase: purification, properties and relationship to other chicken aldo/keto reductases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D G; Davidson, W S

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide range of aromatic and hydroxy-aliphatic aldehydes was purified from chicken breast muscle. This enzyme shares many properties with mammalian aldose reductases including molecular weight, relative substrate specificity, Michaelis constants, an inhibitor specificity. Therefore, it seems appropriate to call this enzyme an aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). Chicken muscle aldose reductase appears to be kinetically identical to an aldose reductase that has been purified from chicken kidney (Hara et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 207-214) and to hen muscle L-glycol dehydrogenase (Bernado et al., Biochim. biophys. Acta 659, 189-198). The association of this aldose reductase with muscular dystrophy in the chick is discussed.

  3. Phytochemical Analysis of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, Its Antioxidant Activity and Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Set Byeol; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of compounds from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP). We isolated agrimoniin (AM), four flavonoid glucosides and two flavonoid glucuronides from the n-butanol fraction of AP 50% methanol extract. In addition to isolated compounds, the AR-inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of catechin, 5-flavonoids, and 4-flavonoid glucosides (known components of AP) against rat lens AR (RLAR) and DPPH assay were measured. AM showed IC50 values of 1.6 and 13.0 μM against RLAR and DPPH scavenging activity, respectively. Additionally, AM, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (LGN), quercitrin (QU), luteolin (LT) and afzelin (AZ) showed high inhibitory activity against AR and were first observed to decrease sorbitol accumulation in the rat lens under high-sorbitol conditions ex vivo with inhibitory values of 47.6%, 91.8%, 76.9%, 91.8% and 93.2%, respectively. Inhibition of recombinant human AR by AM, LGN and AZ exhibited a noncompetitive inhibition pattern. Based on our results, AP and its constituents may play partial roles in RLAR and oxidative radical inhibition. Our results suggest that AM, LGN, QU, LT and AZ may potentially be used as natural drugs for treating diabetic complications. PMID:28208627

  4. Potential use of aldose reductase inhibitors to prevent diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Zenon, G J; Abobo, C V; Carter, B L; Ball, D W

    1990-06-01

    Reviewed are (1) the biochemical basis and pathophysiology of diabetic complications and (2) the structure-activity relationships, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and adverse effects of aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs). ARIs are a new class of drugs potentially useful in preventing diabetic complications, the most widely studied of which have been cataracts and neuropathy. ARIs inhibit aldose reductase, the first, rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol metabolic pathway. In nonphysiological hyperglycemia the activity of hexokinase becomes saturated while that of aldose reductase is enhanced, resulting in intracellular accumulation of sorbitol. Because sorbitol does not readily penetrate the cell membrane it can persist within cells, which may lead to diabetic complications. ARIs are a class of structurally dissimilar compounds that include carboxylic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and spirohydantoins. The major pharmacologic action of an ARI involves competitive binding to aldose reductase and consequent blocking of sorbitol production. ARIs delay cataract formation in animals, but the role of aldose reductase in cataract formation in human diabetics has not been established. The adverse effects of ARIs include hypersensitivity reactions. Although the polyol pathway may not be solely responsible for diabetic complications, studies suggest that therapy with ARIs could be beneficial. Further research is needed to determine the long-term impact and adverse effects of ARIs in the treatment of diabetic complications.

  5. [Inhibition of aldose reductase by Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Mao, X M; Zhang, J Q

    1993-10-01

    Seven Chinese herbal drugs were screened for experimental inhibition of lens aldose reductase activity, among which quercetin exhibited potent enzyme-inhibitory activities in vitro. Its IC50 value was 3.44 x 10(-7) mol/L. It may be helpful in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic complications.

  6. Kinetic characteristics of ZENECA ZD5522, a potent inhibitor of human and bovine lens aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Cook, P N; Ward, W H; Petrash, J M; Mirrlees, D J; Sennitt, C M; Carey, F; Preston, J; Brittain, D R; Tuffin, D P; Howe, R

    1995-04-18

    Aldose reductase (aldehyde reductase 2) catalyses the conversion of glucose to sorbitol, and methylglyoxal to acetol. Treatment with aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is a potential approach to decrease the development of diabetic complications. The sulphonylnitromethanes are a recently discovered class of aldose reductase inhibitors, first exemplified by ICI215918. We now describe enzyme kinetic characterization of a second sulphonylnitromethane, 3',5'-dimethyl-4'-nitromethylsulphonyl-2-(2-tolyl)acetanilide (ZD5522), which is at least 10-fold more potent against bovine lens aldose reductase in vitro and which also has a greater efficacy for reduction of rat nerve sorbitol levels in vivo (ED95 = 2.8 mg kg-1 for ZD5522 and 20 mg kg-1 for ICI 215918). ZD5522 follows pure noncompetitive kinetics against bovine lens aldose reductase when either glucose or methylglyoxal is varied (K(is) = K(ii) = 7.2 and 4.3 nM, respectively). This contrasts with ICI 215918 which is an uncompetitive inhibitor (K(ii) = 100 nM) of bovine lens aldose reductase when glucose is varied. Against human recombinant aldose reductase, ZD5522 displays mixed noncompetitive kinetics with respect to both substrates (K(is) = 41 nM, K(ii) = 8 nM with glucose and K(is) = 52 nM, K(ii) = 3.8 nM with methylglyoxal). This is the first report of the effects of a sulphonylnitromethane on either human aldose reductase or utilization of methylglyoxal. These results are discussed with reference to a Di Iso Ordered Bi Bi mechanism for aldose reductase, where the inhibitors compete with binding of both the aldehyde substrate and alcohol product. This model may explain why aldose reductase inhibitors follow noncompetitive or uncompetitive kinetics with respect to aldehyde substrates, and X-ray crystallography paradoxically locates an ARI within the substrate binding site. Aldehyde reductase (aldehyde reductase 1) is closely related to aldose reductase. Inhibition of bovine kidney aldehyde reductase by ZD5522

  7. A flavone from Manilkara indica as a specific inhibitor against aldose reductase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2003-09-01

    Isoaffinetin (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone-6-C-glucoside) was isolated from Manilkara indica as a potent inhibitor of lens aldose reductase by bioassay-directed fractionation. This C-glucosyl flavone showed specific inhibition against aldose reductases (rat lens, porcine lens and recombinant human) with no inhibition against aldehyde reductase and NADH oxidase. Kinetic analysis showed that isoaffinetin exhibited uncompetitive inhibition against both dl-glyceraldehyde and NADPH. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the increasing number of hydroxy groups in the B-ring contributes to the increase in aldose reductase inhibition by C-glucosyl flavones.

  8. Aldose Reductase-catalyzed Reduction of Aldehyde Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Spite, Matthew; Trent, John O.; West, Matthew B.; Ahmed, Yonis; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids results in the generation of aldehyde side chains that remain esterified to the phospholipid backbone. Such “core” aldehydes elicit immune responses and promote inflammation. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which phospholipid aldehydes are metabolized or detoxified are not well understood. In the studies reported here, we examined whether aldose reductase (AR), which reduces hydrophobic aldehydes, metabolizes phospholipid aldehydes. Incubation with AR led to the reduction of 5-oxovaleroyl, 7-oxo-5-heptenoyl, 5-hydroxy-6-oxo-caproyl, and 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl phospholipids generated upon oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC). The enzyme also catalyzed the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes generated from the oxidation of 1-alkyl, and 1-alkenyl analogs of PAPC, and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidic acid or phosphoglycerol. Aldose reductase catalyzed the reduction of chemically synthesized 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POVPC) with a Km of 10 μM. Addition of POVPC to the culture medium led to incorporation and reduction of the aldehyde in COS-7 and THP-1 cells. Reduction of POVPC in these cells was prevented by the AR inhibitors sorbinil and tolrestat and was increased in COS-7 cells overexpressing AR. Together, these observations suggest that AR may be a significant participant in the metabolism of several structurally diverse phospholipid aldehydes. This metabolism may be a critical regulator of the pro-inflammatory and immunogenic effects of oxidized phospholipids. PMID:15465833

  9. Aldose and aldehyde reductases : structure-function studies on the coenzyme and inhibitor-binding sites.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kabbani, O.; Old, S. E.; Ginell, S. L.; Carper, D. A.; Biosciences Division; Monash Univ.; NIH

    1999-09-03

    PURPOSE: To identify the structural features responsible for the differences in coenzyme and inhibitor specificities of aldose and aldehyde reductases. METHODS: The crystal structure of porcine aldehyde reductase in complex with NADPH and the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil was determined. The contribution of each amino acid lining the coenzyme-binding site to the binding of NADPH was calculated using the Discover package. In human aldose reductase, the role of the non-conserved Pro 216 (Ser in aldehyde reductase) in the binding of coenzyme was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. RESULTS: Sorbinil binds to the active site of aldehyde reductase and is hydrogen-bonded to Trp 22, Tyr 50, His 113, and the non-conserved Arg 312. Unlike tolrestat, the binding of sorbinil does not induce a change in the side chain conformation of Arg 312. Mutation of Pro 216 to Ser in aldose reductase makes the binding of coenzyme more similar to that of aldehyde reductase. CONCLUSIONS: The participation of non-conserved active site residues in the binding of inhibitors and the differences in the structural changes required for the binding to occur are responsible for the differences in the potency of inhibition of aldose and aldehyde reductases. We report that the non-conserved Pro 216 in aldose reductase contributes to the tight binding of NADPH.

  10. B-factor Analysis and Conformational Rearrangement of Aldose Reductase.

    PubMed

    Balendiran, Ganesaratnam K; Pandian, J Rajendran; Drake, Evin; Vinayak, Anubhav; Verma, Malkhey; Cascio, Duilio

    2014-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose reaction that is catalyzed by Aldose Reductase (AR) follows a sequential ordered kinetic mechanism in which the co-factor NADPH binds to the enzyme prior to the aldehyde substrate. The kinetic/structural experiments have found a conformational change involving a hinge-like movement of a surface loop (residues 213-224) which is anticipated to take place upon the binding of the diphosphate moiety of NADPH. The reorientation of this loop, expected to permit the release of NADP(+), represents the rate-limiting step of the catalytic mechanism. This study reveals: 1) The Translation/Libration/Screw (TLS) analysis of absolute B-factors of apo AR crystal structures indicates that the 212-224 loop might move as a rigid group. 2) Residues that make the flexible loop slide in the AR binary and ternary complexes. 3) The normalized B-factors separate this segment into three different clusters with fewer residues.

  11. Inhibitory Activities of Stauntonia hexaphylla Leaf Constituents on Rat Lens Aldose Reductase and Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products and Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kwon, Shin Hwa; Kim, Set Byeol

    2017-01-01

    Stauntonia hexaphylla (Thunb.) Decne. (Lardizabalaceae) leaves (SHL) have been used traditionally as analgesics, sedatives, diuretics, and so on, in China. To date, no data have been reported on the inhibitory effect of SHL and its constituents on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Therefore, the inhibitory effect of compounds isolated from SHL extract on RLAR and AGEs was investigated to evaluate potential treatments of diabetic complications. The ethyl acetate (EtOAC) fraction of SHL extract showed strong inhibitory activity on RLAR and AGEs; therefore, EtOAc fraction (3.0 g) was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, for further fractionation, with 100% MeOH solvent system to investigate its effect on RLAR and AGEs. Phytochemical investigation of SHL led to the isolation of seven compounds. Among the isolated compounds, chlorogenic acid, calceolarioside B, luteolin-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited significant inhibitory activity against RLAR with IC50 in the range of 7.34–23.99 μM. In addition, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and luteolin-3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against formation of AGEs, with an IC50 value of 115.07–184.06 μM, compared to the positive control aminoguanidine (820.44 μM). Based on these findings, SHL dietary supplements could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes complication. PMID:28326319

  12. Erythrocyte aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, A.; Balakrishna, N.; Ayyagari, Radha; Padma, M.; Viswanath, K.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness. However, the relationship between hyperglycemia-induced activation of polyol pathway in retina and DR is still uncertain. We investigated the relationship between ALR2 levels and human DR by measuring ALR2 activity and its product, sorbitol, in erythrocytes. Methods We enrolled 362 type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D) with and without DR and 66 normal subjects in this clinical case-control study. Clinical evaluation of DR in T2D patients was done by fundus examination. ALR2 activity and sorbitol levels along with glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in erythrocytes were determined. Results T2D patients with DR showed significantly higher specific activity of ALR2 as compared to T2D patients without DR. Elevated levels of sorbitol in T2D patients with DR, as compared to T2D patients without DR, corroborated the increased ALR2 activity in erythrocytes of DR patients. However, the increased ALR2 activity was not significantly associated with diabetes duration, age, and HbA1C in both the DR group and total T2D subjects. Conclusions Levels of ALR2 activity as well as sorbitol in erythrocytes may have value as a quantitative trait to be included among other markers to establish a risk profile for development of DR. PMID:18385795

  13. Effects of galactose feeding on aldose reductase gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, R R; Lyons, P A; Wang, A; Sainsbury, A J; Chung, S; Palmer, T N

    1993-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of the diabetic complications and osmotic cataract. AR has been identified as an osmoregulatory protein, at least in the renal medulla. An outstanding question relates to the response of AR gene expression to diet-induced galactosemia in extrarenal tissues. This paper shows that AR gene expression in different tissues is regulated by a complex multifactorial mechanism. Galactose feeding in the rat is associated with a complex and, on occasions, multiphasic pattern of changes in AR mRNA levels in kidney, testis, skeletal muscle, and brain. These changes are not in synchrony with the temporal sequence of changes in tissue galactitol, galactose, and myoinositol concentrations. Moreover, galactose feeding results in changes in tissue AR activities that are not related, temporally or quantitatively, to the alterations in tissue AR mRNA or galactitol levels. It is concluded that AR gene expression and tissue AR activities are regulated by mechanisms that are not purely dependent on nonspecific alterations in intracellular metabolite concentrations. This conclusion is supported by the finding that chronic xylose feeding, despite being associated with intracellular xylitol accumulation, does not result in alterations in AR mRNA levels, at least in the kidney. PMID:8325980

  14. α-Glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activities from the fruiting body of Phellinus merrillii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chang, Heng-Yuan; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Ying-Chih; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-05-25

    The inhibitory activity from the isolated component of the fruiting body Phellinus merrillii (PM) was evaluated against α-glucosidase and lens aldose reductase from Sprague-Dawley male rats and compared to the quercetin as an aldose reductase inhibitor and acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. The ethanol extracts of PM (EPM) showed the strong α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities. α-Glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitors were identified as hispidin (A), hispolon (B), and inotilone (C), which were isolated from EtOAc-soluble fractions of EPM. The above structures were elucidated by their spectra and comparison with the literatures. Among them, hispidin, hispolon, and inotilone exhibited potent against α-glucosidase inhibitor activity with IC(50) values of 297.06 ± 2.06, 12.38 ± 0.13, and 18.62 ± 0.23 μg/mL, respectively, and aldose reductase inhibitor activity with IC(50) values of 48.26 ± 2.48, 9.47 ± 0.52, and 15.37 ± 0.32 μg/mL, respectively. These findings demonstrated that PM may be a good source for lead compounds as alternatives for antidiabetic agents currently used. The importance of finding effective antidiabetic therapeutics led us to further investigate natural compounds.

  15. Rapid Identification of Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Compounds from Perilla frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Ji Hun; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of methanol extracts of Perilla frutescens (P. frutescens) inhibits aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway. Our investigation of inhibitory compounds from the EtOAc soluble fraction of P. frutescens was followed by identification of the inhibitory compounds by a combination of HPLC microfractionation and a 96-well enzyme assay. This allowed the biological activities to be efficiently matched with selected HPLC peaks. Structural analyses of the active compounds were performed by LC-MSn. The main AR inhibiting compounds were tentatively identified as chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid by LC-MSn. A two-step high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC) isolation method was developed with a solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at 1.5 : 5 : 1 : 5, v/v and 3 : 7 : 5 : 5, v/v. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). The main compounds inhibiting AR in the EtOAc fraction of methanol extracts of P. frutescens were identified as chlorogenic acid (2) (IC50 = 3.16 μM), rosmarinic acid (4) (IC50 = 2.77 μM), luteolin (5) (IC50 = 6.34 μM), and methyl rosmarinic acid (6) (IC50 = 4.03 μM). PMID:24308003

  16. Affinity purifications of aldose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from the xylose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Bolen, P.L.; Roth, K.A.; Freer, S.N.

    1986-10-01

    Although xylose is a major product of hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, few yeasts are able to convert it to ethanol. In Pachysolen tannophilus, one of the few xylose-fermenting yeasts found, aldose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase were found to be key enzymes in the metabolic pathway for xylose fermentation. This paper presents a method for the rapid and simultaneous purification of both aldose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from P. tannophilus. Preliminary studies indicate that this method may be easily adapted to purify similar enzymes from other xylose-fermenting yeasts.

  17. Aldose reductase expression as a risk factor for cataract.

    PubMed

    Snow, Anson; Shieh, Biehuoy; Chang, Kun-Che; Pal, Arttatrana; Lenhart, Patricia; Ammar, David; Ruzycki, Philip; Palla, Suryanarayana; Reddy, G Bhanuprakesh; Petrash, J Mark

    2015-06-05

    Aldose reductase (AR) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic eye diseases, including cataract and retinopathy. However, not all diabetics develop ocular complications. Paradoxically, some diabetics with poor metabolic control appear to be protected against retinopathy, while others with a history of excellent metabolic control develop severe complications. These observations indicate that one or more risk factors may influence the likelihood that an individual with diabetes will develop cataracts and/or retinopathy. We hypothesize that an elevated level of AR gene expression could confer higher risk for development of diabetic eye disease. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the onset and severity of diabetes-induced cataract in transgenic mice, designated AR-TG, that were either heterozygous or homozygous for the human AR (AKR1B1) transgene construct. AR-TG mice homozygous for the transgene demonstrated a conditional cataract phenotype, whereby they developed lens vacuoles and cataract-associated structural changes only after induction of experimental diabetes; no such changes were observed in AR-TG heterozygotes or nontransgenic mice with or without experimental diabetes induction. We observed that nondiabetic AR-TG mice did not show lens structural changes even though they had lenticular sorbitol levels almost as high as the diabetic AR-TG lenses that showed early signs of cataract. Over-expression of AR led to increases in the ratio of activated to total levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal (JNK1/2), which are known to be involved in cell growth and apoptosis, respectively. After diabetes induction, AR-TG but not WT controls had decreased levels of phosphorylated as well as total ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 compared to their nondiabetic counterparts. These results indicate that high AR expression in the context of hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency may constitute a risk factor that could predispose the

  18. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change.

  19. Structural characterization and functional validation of aldose reductase from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-11-01

    Aldose reductases are key enzymes in the detoxification of reactive aldehyde compounds like methylglyoxal (MG) and malondialdehyde. The present study describes for first time the preliminary biochemical and structural characterization of the aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) enzyme from the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa. The ALDRXV4 cDNA was expressed in E. coli using pET28a expression vector, and the protein was purified using affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed a molecular mass of ~36 kDa. The K M (1.2 mM) and k cat (14.5 s(-1)) of the protein determined using MG as substrate was found to be comparable with other reported homologs. Three-dimensional structure prediction based on homology modeling suggested several similarities with the other aldose reductases reported from plants. Circular dichroism spectroscopy results supported the bioinformatic prediction of alpha-beta helix nature of aldose reductase proteins. Subcellular localization studies revealed that the ALDRXV4-GFP fusion protein was localized both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The E. coli cells overexpressing ALDRXV4 exhibited improved growth and showed tolerance against diverse abiotic stresses induced by high salt (500 mM NaCl), osmoticum (10 % PEG 6000), heavy metal (20 mM CdCl2), and MG (5 mM). Based on these results, we propose that ALDRXV4 gene from X. viscosa could be a potential candidate for developing stress-tolerant crop plants.

  20. Aldose reductase induced by hyperosmotic stress mediates cardiomyocyte apoptosis: differential effects of sorbitol and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Anita S; Ulloa, Juan Alberto; Chiong, Mario; Criollo, Alfredo; Eisner, Verónica; Barros, Luis Felipe; Lavandero, Sergio

    2003-10-03

    Cells adapt to hyperosmotic conditions by several mechanisms, including accumulation of sorbitol via induction of the polyol pathway. Failure to adapt to osmotic stress can result in apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we assessed the role of aldose reductase, the key enzyme of the polyol pathway, in cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Hyperosmotic stress, elicited by exposure of cultured rat cardiac myocytes to the nonpermeant solutes sorbitol and mannitol, caused identical cell shrinkage and adaptive hexose uptake stimulation. In contrast, only sorbitol induced the polyol pathway and triggered stress pathways as well as apoptosis-related signaling events. Sorbitol resulted in activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p54 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and protein kinase B. Furthermore, sorbitol treatment resulting in induction and activation of aldose reductase, decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL, increased DNA fragmentation, and glutathione depletion. Apoptosis was attenuated by aldose reductase inhibition with zopolrestat and also by glutathione replenishment with N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, our data show that hypertonic shrinkage of cardiac myocytes alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Hyperosmolarity-induced cell death is sensitive to the nature of the osmolyte and requires induction of aldose reductase as well as a decrease in intracellular glutathione levels.

  1. Induction of aldose reductase gene expression in LEC rats during the development of the hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Hoshi, A; Fujii, J; Miyoshi, E; Kasahara, T; Suzuki, K; Aozasa, K; Taniguchi, N

    1996-04-01

    We examined age-related changes in the protein and the mRNA expression of aldose reductase in livers of Long-Evans with a cinnamon-like color (LEC) rats, which develop hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma with aging, using Long-Evans with an agouti color rats as controls. The levels of the protein and mRNA of aldose reductase increased after 20 weeks, at the stage of acute hepatitis, and were maintained at 60 weeks of age, while those of aldehyde reductase seemed to be constant at all ages. The expression of aldose reductase was marked in cancerous lesions in hepatoma-bearing LEC rat liver compared to uninvolved surrounding tissues. These results indicated that elevation of aldose reductase accompanied hepatocarcinogenesis and may be related to the acquisition of immortality of the cancer cells through detoxifying cytotoxic aldehyde compounds.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyota, Eduardo; Sousa, Sylvia Morais de; Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da; Menossi, Marcelo; Yunes, José Andrés; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2007-11-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR.

  3. Aldose reductases influence prostaglandin F2α levels and adipocyte differentiation in male mouse and human species.

    PubMed

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Loubeau, Gaëlle; Dani, Christian; Slim, Karem; Martin, Gwenaëlle; Volat, Fanny; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Val, Pierre; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie

    2015-05-01

    Aldose reductases (AKR1B) are widely expressed oxidoreductases whose physiological function remains elusive. Some isoforms are genuine prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthases, suggesting they might influence adipose homeostasis because PGF2α inhibits adipogenesis. This was shown by Akr1b7 gene ablation in the mouse, which resulted in increased adiposity related to a lower PGF2α content in fat. Yet humans have no ortholog gene for Akr1b7, so the role of aldose reductases in human adipose homeostasis remains to be explored. We analyzed expression of genes encoding human and mouse aldose reductase isoforms in adipose tissues and differentiating adipocytes to assess conserved mechanisms regulating PGF2α synthesis and adipogenesis. The Akr1b3 gene encoded the most abundant isoform in mouse adipose tissue, whereas Akr1b7 encoded the only isoform enriched in the stromal vascular fraction. Most mouse aldose reductase gene expression peaked in early adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and diminished with differentiation. In contrast with its mouse ortholog Akr1b3, AKR1B1 expression increased throughout differentiation of human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells, paralleling PGF2α release, whereas PGF2α receptor (FP) levels collapsed in early differentiation. Pharmacological inhibition of aldose reductase using Statil altered PGF2α production and enhanced human multipotent adipose-derived stem adipocyte differentiation. As expected, the adipogenic effects of Statil were counteracted by an FP agonist (cloprostenol). Thus, in both species aldose reductase-dependent PGF2α production could be important in early differentiation to restrict adipogenesis. PGF2α antiadipogenic signaling could then be toned down through the FP receptor or aldose reductases down-regulation in human and mouse cells, respectively. Our data suggest that aldose reductase inhibitors could have obesogenic potential.

  4. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldose reductase is implied in the metabolism of methylglyoxal in response to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, J; Prieto, J A

    2001-07-01

    The enzyme aldose reductase plays an important role in the osmo-protection mechanism of diverse organisms. Here, we show that yeast aldose reductase is encoded by the GRE3 gene. Expression of GRE3 is carbon-source independent and up-regulated by different stress conditions, such as NaCl, H2O2, 39 degrees C and carbon starvation. Measurements of enzyme activity and intracellular sorbitol in wild-type cells also indicate that yeast aldose reductase is stress-regulated. Overexpression of GRE3 increases methylglyoxal tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, high expression of GRE3 complements the deficiency of the glyoxalase system of a glo1delta mutant strain. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo assays of yeast aldose reductase activity indicate that methylglyoxal is an endogenous substrate of aldose reductase. Furthermore, addition of NaCl or H2O2 to exponential-phase cells triggers an initial transient increase in the intracellular level of methylglyoxal, which is dependent on the Gre3p and Glo1p function. These observations indicate that the metabolism of methylglyoxal is stimulated under stress conditions; and they support a methylglyoxal degradative pathway, in which this compound is metabolised by the action of aldose reductase.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott constituents on aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Mei; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Beom Goo; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon Sung

    2014-08-27

    The goal of this study was to determine the rat lens aldose reductase-inhibitory effects of 95% ethanol extracts from the leaves of C. esculenta and, its organic solvent soluble fractions, including the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water (H2O) layers, using dl-glyceraldehyde as a substrate. Ten compounds, namely tryptophan (1), orientin (2), isoorientin (3), vitexin (4), isovitexin (5), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (7), rosmarinic acid (8), 1-O-feruloyl-d-glucoside (9) and 1-O-caffeoyl-d-glucoside (10) were isolated from the EtOAc and BuOH fractions of C. esculenta. The structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with previous reports. All the isolates were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase. Among tested compounds, compounds 2 and 3 significantly inhibited rat lens aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 1.65 and 1.92 μM, respectively. Notably, the inhibitory activity of orientin was 3.9 times greater than that of the positive control, quercetin (4.12 μM). However, the isolated compounds showed only moderate ABTS+ [2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] activity. These results suggest that flavonoid derivatives from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott represent potential compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  6. Inhibition of aldose reductase and anti-cataract action of trans-anethole isolated from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits.

    PubMed

    Dongare, Vandana; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Kondawar, Manish; Magdum, Chandrakant; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-05-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruits are routinely consumed for their carminative and mouth freshening effect. The plant was evaluated for aldose reductase inhibition and anti-diabetic action. Bioguided fractionation using silica gel column chromatography, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis revealed trans-anethole as the bioactive constituent possessing potent aldose reductase inhibitory action, with an IC50 value of 3.8μg/ml. Prolonged treatment with the pet ether fraction of the F. vulgare distillate demonstrated improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin and other parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Trans-anethole could effectively show anti-cataract activity through the increase in soluble lens protein, reduced glutathione, catalase and SOD activity on in vitro incubation of the eye lens with 55mM glucose. Trans-anethole demonstrated noncompetitive to mixed type of inhibition of lens aldose reductase using Lineweaver Burk plot.

  7. Phytochemical analysis with the antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibitory capacities of Tephrosia humilis aerial parts' extracts.

    PubMed

    Plioukas, Michael; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Lazari, Diamanto; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    The aerial parts of Tephrosia humilis were tested about their antioxidant potential, their ability to inhibit the aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes and their phenolic content. The plant material was exhaustively extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol, consecutively. The concentrated methanol extract was re-extracted, successively, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All extracts showed significant antioxidant capacity, but the most effective was the ethyl acetate extract. As about the aldose reductase inhibition, all fractions, except the aqueous, were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, with the n-butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions to inhibit the enzyme above 75%. These findings provide support to the ethnopharmacological usage of the plant as antioxidant and validate its potential to act against the long-term diabetic complications. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 1,4-dihydroxy-3,4-(epoxyethano)-5-cyclohexene(1), cleroindicin E(2), lupeol(3), methyl p-coumarate(4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate(5), prunin(6), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone 7-rutinoside(7), protocatechuic acid(8), luteolin 7-glucoside(9), apigenin(10), naringin(11), rhoifolin(12) and luteolin 7-glucuronate(13).

  8. Synthesis of organic nitrates of luteolin as a novel class of potent aldose reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Qin; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Peng, Sheng-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Qing

    2013-07-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the design of drugs that prevent and treat diabetic complications. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received significant attentions as potent therapeutic drugs. Based on combination principles, three series of luteolin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their AR inhibitory activity and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing capacity in vitro. Eighteen compounds were found to be potent ARIs with IC50 values ranging from (0.099±0.008) μM to (2.833±0.102) μM. O(7)-Nitrooxyethyl-O(3'),O(4')-ethylidene luteolin (La1) showed the most potent AR inhibitory activity [IC50=(0.099±0.008) μM]. All organic nitrate derivatives released low concentrations of NO in the presence of l-cysteine. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that introduction of an NO donor, protection of the catechol structure, and the ether chain of a 2-carbon spacer as a coupling chain on the luteolin scaffold all help increase the AR inhibitory activity of the resulting compound. This class of NO-donor luteolin derivatives as efficient ARIs offer a new concept for the development and design of new drug for preventive and therapeutic drugs for diabetic complications.

  9. Aldose Reductase as a Drug Target for Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy: Promises and Challenges.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Heba; Munusamy, Shankar

    2016-11-28

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease. One of the key pathways activated in DN is the polyol pathway, in which glucose is converted to sorbitol (a relatively non-metabolizable sugar) by the enzyme aldose reductase (AR). Shunting of glucose into this pathway causes disruption to glucose metabolism and subsequently damages the tissues via increased oxidative stress, protein kinase c activation and production of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the kidney. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the AR enzyme structure, substrate specificity and topology in normal physiology; to elaborate on the deleterious effects of AR activation in DN; and to summarize the potential therapeutic benefits and major challenges associated with AR inhibition in patients with DN.

  10. Inhibition of glycation and aldose reductase activity using dietary flavonoids: A lens organ culture studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kapil K; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2017-05-01

    On the eve of increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and related complications, the search for novel, safe and alternatives therapeutic approaches are evolving. In the present investigation, a panel of ten dietary flavonoids such as 4'-methoxyflavanone, formononetin, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin, naringin, rutin, diadzin, silibinin and silymarin was evaluated as possible inhibitors of sugar induced cataractogenesis using bovine lens organ culture studies. The effect of selected flavonoids was observed on glycation induced lens opacity, AGE fluorescence, carbonyl group formation (a biomarker of glycation), protein aggregation and aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the efficacy of rutin and silibinin as promising leads for inhibition of glycation reaction and amelioration of sugar induced cataractogenesis. The findings of the present study may be useful for designing and development of the novel lead molecules for the management of diabetic cataract.

  11. Characterization of WY 14,643 and its Complex with Aldose Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sawaya, Michael R.; Verma, Malkhey; Balendiran, Vaishnavi; Rath, Nigam P.; Cascio, Duilio; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam K.

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator, WY 14,643 exhibits a pure non-competitive inhibition pattern in the aldehyde reduction and in alcohol oxidation activities of human Aldose reductase (hAR). Fluorescence emission measurements of the equilibrium dissociation constants, Kd, of oxidized (hAR•NADP+) and reduced (hAR•NADPH) holoenzyme complexes display a 2-fold difference between them. Kd values for the dissociation of WY 14,643 from the oxidized (hAR•NADP+•WY 14,643) and reduced (hAR•NADPH•WY 14,643) ternary complexes are comparable to each other. The ternary complex structure of hAR•NADP+•WY 14,643 reveals the first structural evidence of a fibrate class drug binding to hAR. These observations demonstrate how fibrate molecules such as WY 14,643, besides being valued as agonists for PPAR, also inhibit hAR. PMID:27721416

  12. Effects of 15-month aldose reductase inhibition with fidarestat on the experimental diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, N; Mizuno, K; Makino, M; Suzuki, T; Yagihashi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examined the effects of long-term treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) fidarestat on functional, morphological and metabolic changes in the peripheral nerve of 15-month diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Slowed F-wave, motor nerve and sensory nerve conduction velocities were corrected dose-dependently in fidarestat-treated diabetic rats. Morphometric analysis of myelinated fibers demonstrated that frequencies of abnormal fibers such as paranodal demyelination and axonal degeneration were reduced to the extent of normal levels by fidarestat-treatment. Axonal atrophy, distorted axon circularity and reduction of myelin sheath thickness were also inhibited. These effects were associated with normalization of increased levels of sorbitol and fructose and decreased level of myo-inositol in the peripheral nerve by fidarestat. Thus, the results demonstrated that long-term treatment with fidarestat substantially inhibited the functional and structural progression of diabetic neuropathy with inhibition of increased polyol pathway flux in diabetic rats.

  13. Berberine inhibits aldose reductase and oxidative stress in rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Liu, Peiqinq; Tao, Sha; Deng, Yanhui; Li, Xuejuan; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fenfen; Huang, Wenge; Chen, Fengying; Huang, Heqing; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2008-07-15

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Berberine is one of the main constituents of Coptidis rhizoma and Cortex phellodendri. In the present study, we examined effects of berberine (BBR) on renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and on the changes of aldose reductase (AR) and oxidative stress in cultured rat mesangial cells exposed to high glucose. Fasting blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and urine protein over 24 h were detected by using the commercially available kits. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, aldose reductase (AR), superoxide anion, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected, respectively, by different methods. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, fasting blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and urine protein over 24 h were significantly decreased in rats treated with 200 mg/kg berberine for 12 weeks compared with diabetic control rats (P < 0.05). This was accompanied by a reduced AR activity and gene expression at both mRNA and protein levels. In cultured rat mesangial cells exposed to high glucose, incubation of BBR significantly decreased cell proliferation, collagen synthesis and AR activity as well as its mRNA and protein levels compared with control cells (P < 0.05). In vitro, BBR also significantly increased SOD activity and decreased superoxide anion and MDA compared with control cells (P < 0.05). These results suggested that BBR could ameliorate renal dysfunction in DN rats, which may be ascribed to inhibition of AR in mesangium, reduction of oxidative stress, and amelioration of extracellular matrix synthesis and cell proliferation. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of AR in DN and the therapeutic implications by AR inhibitors such as BBR.

  14. Aldose reductase (AKR1B) deficiency promotes phagocytosis in bone marrow derived mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahavir; Kapoor, Aniruddh; McCracken, James; Hill, Bradford; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-03-01

    Macrophages are critical drivers of the immune response during infection and inflammation. The pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, cancer and sepsis has been linked with aldose reductase (AR), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, the role of AR in the early stages of innate immunity such as phagocytosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of AR in regulating the growth and the phagocytic activity of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMMs) from AR-null and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that macrophages derived from AR-null mice were larger in size and had a slower growth rate than those derived from WT mice. The AR-null macrophages also displayed higher basal, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated phagocytic activity than WT macrophages. Moreover, absence of AR led to a marked increase in cellular levels of both ATP and NADPH. These data suggest that metabolic pathways involving AR suppress macrophage energy production, and that inhibition of AR could induce a favorable metabolic state that promotes macrophage phagocytosis. Hence, modulation of macrophage metabolism by inhibition of AR might represent a novel strategy to modulate host defense responses and to modify metabolism to promote macrophage hypertrophy and phagocytosis under inflammatory conditions.

  15. Thymol, a monoterpene, inhibits aldose reductase and high-glucose-induced cataract on isolated goat lens

    PubMed Central

    Kanchan, Divya M.; Kale, Smita S.; Somani, Gauresh S.; Kaikini, Aakruti A.; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overactivation of aldose reductase (AR) enzyme has been implicated in the development of various diabetic complications. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of thymol was investigated on AR enzyme and its anti-cataract activity was also examined on isolated goat lens. Materials and Methods: Various concentrations of thymol were incubated with AR enzyme prepared from isolated goat lens. Molecular docking studies were carried out using Schrodinger software to verify the binding of thymol with AR as well as to understand their binding pattern. Further, thymol was evaluated for its anti-cataract activity in high-glucose-induced cataract in isolated goat lens in vitro. Quercetin was maintained as standard (positive control) throughout the study. Results: Thymol showed potent inhibitory activity against goat lens AR enzyme with an IC50 value of 0.65 μg/ml. Docking studies revealed that thymol binds with AR in similar binding pattern as that of quercetin. The high–glucose-induced cataract in isolated goat lens was also improved by thymol treatment. Thymol was also able to significantly (P < 0.001) reduce the oxidative stress associated with cataract. Conclusion: The results suggest that thymol may be a potential therapeutic approach in the prevention of diabetic complications through its AR inhibitory and antioxidant activities. PMID:28216950

  16. Bioactive fraction of Saraca indica prevents diabetes induced cataractogenesis: An aldose reductase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Gauresh; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Saraca indica (SI) flowers extract and different bioactive fraction on in vitro aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity, high glucose-induced cataract in goat lens and in vivo streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg, i.p) induced cataract in rats. Methods: Extract of flowers of SI tested for inhibition against rat lens AR. Furthermore, bioactive fraction was investigated against high glucose-induced opacification of the lens in vitro lens culture and STZ induced diabetic cataract in rats. Identification of the bioactive component was attempted through high-performance thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica (EASI) produced maximum inhibition that may be due to high phenolic content. Goat lenses in media containing glucose developed a distinctly opaque ring in 72 h and treatment with EASI fraction lowered lens opacity in 72 h. Prolonged treatment with EASI to STZ-induced diabetic rats inhibited the AR activity and delayed cataract progression in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica fraction has potential to inhibit rat lens AR enzyme and prevent cataractogenesis not only in goat lens model (in vitro), but also in STZ induced diabetic rats (in vivo). This study is suggestive of the anticataract activity of EASI fraction that could be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in the same. PMID:25709218

  17. Renoprotective Effects of Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Epalrestat against High Glucose-Induced Cellular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Ali Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease worldwide. Increased glucose flux into the aldose reductase (AR) pathway during diabetes was reported to exert deleterious effects on the kidney. The objective of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of AR inhibition in high glucose milieu in vitro. Rat renal tubular (NRK-52E) cells were exposed to high glucose (30 mM) or normal glucose (5 mM) media for 24 to 48 hours with or without the AR inhibitor epalrestat (1 μM) and assessed for changes in Akt and ERK1/2 signaling, AR expression (using western blotting), and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential (using JC-1 staining), cell viability (using MTT assay), and cell cycle. Exposure of NRK-52E cells to high glucose media caused acute activation of Akt and ERK pathways and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane at 24 hours. Prolonged high glucose exposure (for 48 hours) induced AR expression and G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased cell viability (84% compared to control) in NRK-52E cells. Coincubation of cells with epalrestat prevented the signaling changes and renal cell injury induced by high glucose. Thus, AR inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent DN. PMID:28386557

  18. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors. PMID:26384019

  19. Epalrestat: an aldose reductase inhibitor for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Mary Ann; Borja, Nancy L

    2008-05-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common long-term complications in patients with diabetes mellitus, with a prevalence of 60-70% in the United States. Treatment options include antidepressants, anticonvulsants, tramadol, and capsaicin. These agents are modestly effective for symptomatic relief, but they do not affect the underlying pathology nor do they slow progression of the disease. Epalrestat is an aldose reductase inhibitor that is approved in Japan for the improvement of subjective neuropathy symptoms, abnormality of vibration sense, and abnormal changes in heart beat associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Unlike the current treatment options for diabetic neuropathy, epalrestat may affect or delay progression of the underlying disease process. Data from experimental studies indicate that epalrestat reduces sorbitol accumulation in the sciatic nerve, erythrocytes, and ocular tissues in animals, and in erythrocytes in humans. Data from six clinical trials were evaluated, and it was determined that epalrestat 50 mg 3 times/day may improve motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and subjective neuropathy symptoms as compared with baseline and placebo. Epalrestat is well tolerated, and the most frequently reported adverse effects include elevations in liver enzyme levels and gastrointestinal-related events such as nausea and vomiting. Epalrestat may serve as a new therapeutic option to prevent or slow the progression of diabetic neuropathy. Long-term, comparative studies in diverse patient populations are needed for clinical application.

  20. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  1. The Xerophyta viscosa aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) confers enhanced drought and salinity tolerance to transgenic tobacco plants by scavenging methylglyoxal and reducing the membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Preeti; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Hohn, Thomas; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-06-01

    We report the efficacy of an aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) enzyme from Xerophyta viscosa Baker in enhancing the prospects of plant's survival under abiotic stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing ALDRXV4 cDNA showed alleviation of NaCl and mannitol-induced abiotic stress. The transgenic plants survived longer periods of water deficiency and salinity stress and exhibited improved recovery after rehydration as compared to the wild type plants. The increased synthesis of aldose reductase in transgenic plants correlated with reduced methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde accumulation and an elevated level of sorbitol under stress conditions. In addition, the transgenic lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency, less electrolyte damage, greater water retention, higher proline accumulation, and favorable ionic balance under stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest the potential of engineering aldose reductase levels for better performance of crop plants growing under drought and salt stress conditions.

  2. Deletion of Aldose Reductase from Mice Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Retinal Capillary Degeneration and Superoxide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Du, Yunpeng; Petrash, J. Mark; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacologic inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) previously has been studied with respect to diabetic retinopathy with mixed results. Since drugs can have off-target effects, we studied the effects of AR deletion on the development and molecular abnormalities that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Since recent data suggests an important role for leukocytes in the development of the retinopathy, we determined also if AR in leukocytes contributes to leukocyte-mediated death of retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Methods Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6J) and AR deficient (AR−/−) mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 10 months of diabetes to evaluate retinal vascular histopathology, to quantify retinal superoxide production and biochemical and physiological abnormalities in the retina, and to assess the number of retinal endothelial cells killed by blood leukocytes in a co-culture system. Results Diabetes in WT mice developed the expected degeneration of retinal capillaries, and increased generation of superoxide by the retina. Leukocytes from diabetic WT mice also killed more retinal endothelial cells than did leukocytes from nondiabetic animals (p<0.0001). Deletion of AR largely (P<0.05) inhibited the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries, as well as the increase in superoxide production by retina. AR-deficiency significantly inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in retina, but had no significant effect on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), phosphorylated p38 MAPK, or killing of retinal endothelial cells by leukocytes. Conclusions AR contributes to the degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetic mice. Deletion of the enzyme inhibits the diabetes-induced increase in expression of iNOS and of superoxide production, but does not correct a variety of other pro-inflammatory abnormalities associated with the development of

  3. Melatonin Reduces Cataract Formation and Aldose Reductase Activity in Lenses of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Marjan; Akmali, Masoumeh; Sharzad, Sahab; Beheshtitabar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between the high activity of aldose reductase (AR) and diabetic cataract formation has been previously investigated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the preventing effect of melatonin on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Methods: 34 adult healthy male Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into four groups. Diabetic control and diabetic+melatonin received a single dose of STZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas the normal control and normal+melatonin received vehicle. The melatonin groups were gavaged with melatonin (5 mg/kg) daily for a period of 8 weeks, whereas the rats in the normal control and diabetic control groups received only the vehicle. The rats’ eyes were examined every week and cataract formation scores (0-4) were determined by slit-lamp microscope. At the end of the eighth week, the rats were sacrificed and markers of the polyol pathway and antioxidative (Glutathione, GSH) in their lens were determined. The levels of blood glucose, HbA1c and plasma malondialdhyde (MDA), as a marker of lipid peroxidation, were also measured. Results: Melatonin prevented STZ-induced hyperglycemia by decreased blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Slit lamp examination indicated that melatonin delayed cataract progression in diabetic rats. The results revealed that melatonin feeding increased the GSH levels, decreased the activities of AR and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and sorbitol formation in catractous lenses as well as plasma MDA content. Conclusion: In summary, for the first time we demonstrated that melatonin delayed the formation and progression of cataract in diabetic rat lenses. PMID:27365552

  4. Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XV. Inhibitory effect on aldose reductase and structures of Saussureosides A and B from Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haihui; Wang, Tao; Matsuda, Hisashi; Morikawa, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tani, Tadato

    2005-11-01

    The 80% aqueous acetone extract from the whole plant of Saussurea medusa MAXIM. was found to inhibit rat lens aldose reductase (IC50=1.4 microg/ml). From this extract, flavonoids, lignans, and quinic acid derivatives were isolated together with two new ionone glycosides, saussureosides A and B. Their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence including the application of modified Mosher's method. In addition, some isolates were found to show an inhibitory effect on aldose reductase.

  5. Chemical Constituents of Smilax china L. Stems and Their Inhibitory Activities against Glycation, Aldose Reductase, α-Glucosidase, and Lipase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Eun; Kim, Jin Ah; Whang, Wan Kyunn

    2017-03-11

    The search for natural inhibitors with anti-diabetes properties has gained increasing attention. Among four selected Smilacaceae family plants, Smilax china L. stems (SCS) showed significant in vitro anti-glycation and rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Bioactivity-guided isolation was performed with SCS and four solvent fractions were obtained, which in turn yielded 10 compounds, including one phenolic acid, three chlorogenic acids, four flavonoids, one stilbene, and one phenylpropanoid glycoside; their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. All solvent fractions, isolated compounds, and stem extracts from plants sourced from six different provinces of South Korea were next tested for their inhibitory effects against advanced glycation end products, as well as aldose reductase. α-Glucosidase, and lipase assays were also performed on the fractions and compounds. Since compounds 3, 4, 6, and 8 appeared to be the superior inhibitors among the tested compounds, a comparative study was performed via high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection using a self-developed analysis method to confirm the relationship between the quantity and bioactivity of the compounds in each extract. The findings of this study demonstrate the potent therapeutic efficacy of SCS and its potential use as a cost-effective natural alternative medicine against type 2 diabetes and its complications.

  6. Structural and thermodynamic study on aldose reductase: nitro-substituted inhibitors with strong enthalpic binding contribution.

    PubMed

    Steuber, Holger; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2007-05-04

    To prevent diabetic complications derived from enhanced glucose flux via the polyol pathway the development of aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) has been established as a promising therapeutic concept. In order to identify novel lead compounds, a virtual screening (VS) was performed successfully suggesting carboxylate-type inhibitors of sub-micromolar to micromolar affinity. Here, we combine a structural characterization of the binding modes observed by X-ray crystallography with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements providing insights into the driving forces of inhibitor binding, particularly of the first leads from VS. Characteristic features of this novel inhibitor type include a carboxylate head group connected via an alkyl spacer to a heteroaromatic moiety, which is linked to a further nitro-substituted aromatic portion. The crystal structures of two enzyme-inhibitor complexes have been determined at resolutions of 1.43 A and 1.55 A. Surprisingly, the carboxylic group of the most potent VS lead occupies the catalytic pocket differently compared to the interaction geometry observed in almost all other crystal structures with structurally related ligands and obtained under similar conditions, as an interstitial water molecule is picked up upon ligand binding. The nitro-aromatic moiety of both leads occupies the specificity pocket of the enzyme, however, adopting a different geometry compared to the docking prediction: unexpectedly, the nitro group binds to the bottom of the specificity pocket and provokes remarkable induced-fit adaptations. A peptide group located at the active site orients in such a way that H-bond formation to one nitro group oxygen atom is enabled, whereas a neighbouring tyrosine side-chain performs a slight rotation off from the binding cavity to accommodate the nitro group. Identically constituted ligands, lacking this nitro group, exhibit an affinity drop of one order of magnitude. In addition, thermodynamic data suggest a

  7. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis with protein glycation and aldose reductase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Byong Won; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-02-24

    Two new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glucosides, 9β-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1β,6β-dihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 9α-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1α,6α-11-trihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated by the activity-guidedfractionation of an EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis. A new dihydrobenzofuran glucoside, (2R,3S)-6-acetyl-2-[1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-propenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3), was also isolated, in addition to 15 known compounds. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All of the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against the formation of advanced glycation end-products and rat lens aldose reductase.

  8. Aldose reductase inhibitors for diabetic complications: Receptor induced atom-based 3D-QSAR analysis, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Bhawna; Singh, Manjinder; Kaur, Maninder; Bahia, Malkeet Singh; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Silakari, Om; Singh, Baldev

    2015-06-01

    Herein, atom-based 3D-QSAR analysis was performed using receptor-guided alignment of 46 flavonoid inhibitors of aldose reductase (ALR2) enzyme. 3D-QSAR models were generated in PHASE programme, and the best model corresponding to PLS factor four (QSAR4), was selected based on different statistical parameters (i.e., Rtrain(2), 0.96; Qtest(2) 0.81; SD, 0.26). The contour plots of different structural properties generated from the selected model were utilized for the designing of five new congener molecules. These designed molecules were duly synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro ALR2 inhibitory activity that resulted in the micromolar (IC50<22μM) activity of all molecules. Thus, the newly designed molecules having ALR inhibitory potential could be employed for the management of diabetic complications.

  9. Dissociation between biochemical and functional effects of the aldose reductase inhibitor, ponalrestat, on peripheral nerve in diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, N. E.; Cotter, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to examine the effects in rats of two different doses of the aldose reductase inhibitor, ponalrestat, on functional measures of nerve conduction and sciatic nerve biochemistry. 2. After 1 month, streptozotocin-induced diabetes produced 22%, 23% and 15% deficits in conduction velocity of sciatic nerves supplying gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles and saphenous sensory nerve respectively compared to controls. These deficits were maintained over 2 months diabetes. 3. Slower-conducting motor fibres supplying the interosseus muscles of the foot did not show a diabetic deficit compared to onset controls, however, there was a 13% reduction in conduction velocity after 2 months diabetes relative to age-matched controls, indicating a maturation deficit. 4. Resistance to hypoxic conduction failure was investigated for sciatic nerve trunks in vitro. There was an increase in the duration of hypoxia necessary for an 80% reduction in compound action potential amplitude with diabetes. This was progressive; after 1 month, hypoxia time was increased by 22% and after 2 months by 57%. 5. The effect of 1-month treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor, ponalrestat, on the abnormalities caused by an initial month of untreated diabetes was examined. Two doses of ponalrestat were employed, 8 mg kg-1 day-1 (which is equivalent to, or greater than, the blockade employed in clinical trials), and 100 mg kg-1 day-1. 6. Sciatic nerve sorbitol content was increased 7 fold by diabetes. Both doses were effective in reducing this; 70% for 8 mg kg-1 day-1, and to within the control range for 100 mg kg-1 day-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467842

  10. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p < 0.05), but did not change AER or the other parameters measured. The ability of AA treatment to decrease AER may be related to changes in extracellular matrix or improvement in oxidative defence mechanism. Unlike the rat model of diabetes, inhibition of aldose reductase did not normalize plasma AA or AER in humans. In fact, tolrestat reduced the plasma AA concentration, a phenomenon which may be due to increased utilization of AA. Dietary supplementation of AA in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  11. Bioactivity Focus of α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) Leads to Effective Multifunctional Aldose Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Laitao; Li, Yi-Fang; Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Shijie; Zheng, Huanhuan; Liu, Jie; Sun, Pinghua; Gu, Yijun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong; Chen, Heru

    2016-01-01

    Bioactivity focus on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) scaffold results in a small library of novel multifunctional aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors. All the entities displayed good to excellent inhibition with IC50 72–405 nM. (R,E)-N-(3-(2-acetamido-3-(benzyloxy)propanamido)propyl)-2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)acrylamide (5f) was confirmed as the most active inhibitor (IC50 72.7 ± 1.6 nM), and the best antioxidant. 5f bound to ALR2 with new mode without affecting the aldehyde reductase (ALR1) activity, implicating high selectivity to ALR2. 5f was demonstrated as both an effective ALR2 inhibitor (ARI) and antioxidant in a chick embryo model of hyperglycemia. It attenuated hyperglycemia-induced incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) and death rate, and significantly improved the body weight and morphology of the embryos. 5f restored the expression of paired box type 3 transcription factor (Pax3), and reduced the hyperglycemia-induced increase of ALR2 activity, sorbitol accumulation, and the generation of ROS and MDA to normal levels. All the evidences support that 5f may be a potential agent to treat diabetic complications. PMID:27109517

  12. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Li, Jun; Dong, Xin; Wang, Ying-Hong; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2013-11-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures.

  13. Electrostatic Fields Near the Active Site of Human Aldose Reductase: 2. New Inhibitors and Complications due to Hydrogen Bonds†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Cohen, Aina E.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy was used to measure electrostatic fields in the hydrophobic region of the active site of human aldose reductase (hALR2). A new nitrile-containing inhibitor was designed and synthesized, and the x-ray structure of its complex, along with cofactor NADP+, with wild-type hALR2 was determined at 1.3 Å resolution. The nitrile is found to be in close proximity to T113, consistent with a hydrogen bond interaction. Two vibrational absorption peaks were observed at room temperature in the nitrile region when the inhibitor binds to wild-type hALR2, indicating that the nitrile probe experiences two different microenvironments, and these could be empirically separated into a hydrogen bonded and non-hydrogen bonded population by comparison with the mutant T113A, where a hydrogen bond to the nitrile is not present. Classical molecular dynamics simulations based on the structure predict a double-peaked distribution in protein electric fields projected along the nitrile probe. The interpretation of these two peaks as a hydrogen bond formation-dissociation process between the probe nitrile group and a nearby amino acid side chain is used to explain the observation of two IR bands, and the simulations were used to investigate the molecular details of this conformational change. Hydrogen bonding complicates the simplest analysis of vibrational frequency shifts as being due solely to electrostatic interactions through the vibrational Stark effect, and the consequences of this complication are discussed. PMID:21859105

  14. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z. H.; He, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein's internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  15. Identification of flavonoids and flavonoid rhamnosides from Rhododendron mucronulatum for. albiflorum and their inhibitory activities against aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Mok, So-Youn; Lee, Sanghyun

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the therapeutic potential of compounds from natural sources, Rhododendron mucronulatum for. albiflorum flowers (RMAF) and R. mucronulatum flowers (RMF) were tested for inhibition of aldose reductase (AR). The methanol extracts of RMAF and RMF exhibited AR inhibitory activities (IC(50) values 1.07 and 1.29 μg/mL, respectively). The stepwise polarity fractions of RMAF were tested for in vitro inhibition of AR from rat lenses. Of these, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exhibited AR inhibitory activity (IC(50) 0.15 μg/mL). A chromatography of the active EtOAc fraction of RMAF led to the isolation of six flavonoids, which were identified by spectroscopic analysis as kaempferol (1), afzelin (2), quercetin (3), quercitrin (4), myricetin (5) and myricitrin (6). Compounds 1-6 exhibited high AR inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.79, 0.31, 0.48, 0.13, 11.92 and 2.67 μg/mL, respectively. HPLC/UV analysis revealed that the major flavonoids of RMAF and RMF are quercitrin (4) and myricitrin (6). Our results suggest that RMAF containing these six flavonoids could be a useful natural source in the development of a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic complications.

  16. Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, John Z. H.; He, Xiao

    2015-11-14

    Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein’s internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.

  17. Prevention of VEGF-induced growth and tube formation in human retinal endothelial cell by aldose reductase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Umesh CS; Srivastava, SK; Ramana, KV

    2012-01-01

    Objective Since diabetes-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in retinal angiogenesis, we aimed to examine the role of aldose reductase (AR) in VEGF–induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC) growth and tube formation. Materials and Methods HREC were stimulated with VEGF and cell-growth was determined by MTT assay. AR inhibitor, fidarestat, to block the enzyme activity and AR siRNA to ablate AR gene expression in HREC were used to investigate the role of AR in neovascularization using cell-migration and tube formation assays. Various signaling intermediates and angiogenesis markers were assessed by Western blot analysis. Immuno-histochemical analysis of diabetic rat eyes was performed to examine VEGF expression in the retinal layer. Results Stimulation of primary HREC with VEGF caused increased cell growth and migration, and AR inhibition with fidarestat or ablation with siRNA significantly prevented it. VEGF-induced tube formation in HREC was also significantly prevented by fidarestat. Treatment of HREC with VEGF also increased the expression of VCAM, AR, and phosphorylation and activation of Akt and p38-MAP kinase, which were prevented by fidarestat. VEGF-induced expression of VEGFRII in HREC was also prevented by AR inhibition or ablation. Conclusions Our results indicate that inhibition of AR in HREC prevents tube formation by inhibiting the VEGF-induced activation of the Akt and p38-MAPK pathway and suggest a mediatory role of AR in ocular neovascularization generally implicated in retinopathy and AMD. PMID:22658411

  18. Enhancing activity and selectivity in a series of pyrrol-1-yl-1-hydroxypyrazole-based aldose reductase inhibitors: The case of trifluoroacetylation.

    PubMed

    Papastavrou, Nikolaos; Chatzopoulou, Maria; Ballekova, Jana; Cappiello, Mario; Moschini, Roberta; Balestri, Francesco; Patsilinakos, Alexandros; Ragno, Rino; Stefek, Milan; Nicolaou, Ioannis

    2017-04-21

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) has been the target of therapeutic intervention for over 40 years; first, for its role in long-term diabetic complications and more recently as a key mediator in inflammation and cancer. However, efforts to prepare small-molecule aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have mostly yielded carboxylic acids with rather poor pharmacokinetics. To address this limitation, the 1-hydroxypyrazole moiety has been previously established as a bioisostere of acetic acid in a group of aroyl-substituted pyrrolyl derivatives. In the present work, optimization of this new class of ARIs was achieved by the addition of a trifluoroacetyl group on the pyrrole ring. Eight novel compounds were synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and selectivity against aldehyde reductase (ALR1). All compounds proved potent and selective inhibitors of ALR2 (IC50/ALR2 = 0.043-0.242 μΜ, Selectivity index = 190-858), whilst retaining a favorable physicochemical profile. The most active (4g) and selective (4d) compounds were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit sorbitol formation in rat lenses ex vivo and to exhibit substrate-specific inhibition.

  19. Aldose reductase from Schistosoma japonicum: crystallization and structure-based inhibitor screening for discovering antischistosomal lead compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with high morbidity and mortality in the world. Currently, the treatment of this disease depends almost exclusively on praziquantel (PZQ); however, the emergence of drug resistance to PZQ in schistosomes makes the development of novel drugs an urgent task. Aldose reductase (AR), an important component that may be involved in the schistosome antioxidant defense system, is predicted as a potential drug target. Methods The tertiary structure of Schistosoma japonicum AR (SjAR) was obtained through X-ray diffraction method and then its potential inhibitors were identified from the Maybridge HitFinder library by virtual screening based on this structural model. The effects of these identified compounds on cultured adult worms were evaluated by observing mobility, morphological changes and mortality. To verify that SjAR was indeed the target of these identified compounds, their effects on recombinant SjAR (rSjAR) enzymatic activity were assessed. The cytotoxicity analysis was performed with three types of human cell lines using a Cell Counting Kit-8. Results We firstly resolved the SjAR structure and identified 10 potential inhibitors based on this structural model. Further in vitro experiments showed that one of the compounds, renamed as AR9, exhibited significant inhibition in the activity of cultured worms as well as inhibition of enzymatic activity of rSjAR protein. Cytotoxicity analysis revealed that AR9 had relatively low toxicity towards host cells. Conclusions The work presented here bridges the gap between virtual screening and experimental validation, providing an effective and economical strategy for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Additionally, this study also found that AR9 may become a new potential lead compound for developing novel antischistosomal drugs against parasite AR. PMID:23734964

  20. Deficiency of aldose reductase attenuates inner retinal neuronal changes in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongjie; Nian, Shen; Li, Suk-Yee; Wong, David; Chung, Sookja K; Lo, Amy C Y

    2015-09-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness where vascular abnormality and retinal dysfunction are reported. We showed earlier that genetic deletion of aldose reductase (AR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway, reduced the neovascularization through attenuating oxidative stress induction in the mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) modeling ROP. In this study, we further investigated the effects of AR deficiency on retinal neurons in the mouse OIR. Seven-day-old wild-type and AR-deficient mice were exposed to 75 % oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air. Electroretinography was used to assess the neuronal function at postnatal day (P) 30. On P17 and P30, retinal cytoarchitecture was examined by morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry for calbindin, protein kinase C alpha, calretinin, Tuj1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. In OIR, attenuated amplitudes and delayed implicit time of a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potentials were observed in wild-type mice, but they were not significantly changed in AR-deficient mice. The morphological changes of horizontal, rod bipolar, and amacrine cells were shown in wild-type mice and these changes were partly preserved with AR deficiency. AR deficiency attenuated the Müller cell gliosis induced in OIR. Our observations demonstrated AR deficiency preserved retinal functions in OIR and AR deficiency could partly reduce the extent of retinal neuronal histopathology. These findings suggested a therapeutic potential of AR inhibition in ROP treatment with beneficial effects on the retinal neurons.

  1. Evaluation of in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory potential of different fraction of Hybanthus enneaspermus Linn F. Muell

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Kumar, R; Kumar, M; Sairam, K; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI) activity of different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus for potential use in diabetic cataract. Methods Total phenol and flavonoid content of different fractions was determined. ARI activity of different fractions in rat lens was investigated in vitro. Results The results showed significant level of phenolic and flavonoid content in ethyl acetate fraction [total phenol (212.15±0.79 mg/g), total flavonoid (39.11±2.27 mg/g)] and aqueous fraction [total phenol (140.62±0.57 mg/g), total flavonoid (26.07±1.49 mg/g)] as compared with the chloroform fraction [total phenol (68.56±0.51 mg/g), total flavonoid (13.41±0.82 mg/g)] and petrolium ether fraction [total phenol (36.68±0.43 mg/g), total flavonoid (11.55±1.06 mg/g)]. There was a significant difference in the ARI activity of each fraction, and it was found to be the highest in ethyl acetate fraction [IC50 (49.26±1.76 µg/mL)] followed by aqueous extract [IC50 (70.83±2.82 µg/mL)] and it was least in the petroleum ether fraction [IC50 (118.89±0.71 µg/mL)]. Chloroform fraction showed moderate activity [IC50 (98.52±1.80 µg/mL)]. Conclusions Different fractions showed significanct amount of ARI activity, where in ethyl acetate fraction it was found to be maximum which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. The extract after further evaluation may be used in the treatment of diabetic cataract. PMID:23569883

  2. Quantum model of catalysis based on a mobile proton revealed by subatomic x-ray and neutron diffraction studies of h-aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Blakeley, Matthew P; Ruiz, Federico; Cachau, Raul; Hazemann, Isabelle; Meilleur, Flora; Mitschler, Andre; Ginell, Stephan; Afonine, Pavel; Ventura, Oscar N; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Haertlein, Michael; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Myles, Dean; Podjarny, Alberto

    2008-02-12

    We present results of combined studies of the enzyme human aldose reductase (h-AR, 36 kDa) using single-crystal x-ray data (0.66 A, 100K; 0.80 A, 15K; 1.75 A, 293K), neutron Laue data (2.2 A, 293K), and quantum mechanical modeling. These complementary techniques unveil the internal organization and mobility of the hydrogen bond network that defines the properties of the catalytic engine, explaining how this promiscuous enzyme overcomes the simultaneous requirements of efficiency and promiscuity offering a general mechanistic view for this class of enzymes.

  3. A defect in sodium-dependent amino acid uptake in diabetic rabbit peripheral nerve. Correction by an aldose reductase inhibitor or myo-inositol administration.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D A; Lattimer, S A; Carroll, P B; Fernstrom, J D; Finegold, D N

    1990-01-01

    A myo-inositol-related defect in nerve sodium-potassium ATPase activity in experimental diabetes has been suggested as a possible pathogenetic factor in diabetic neuropathy. Because the sodium-potassium ATPase is essential for other sodium-cotransport systems, and because myo-inositol-derived phosphoinositide metabolites regulate multiple membrane transport processes, sodium gradient-dependent amino acid uptake was examined in vitro in endoneurial preparations derived from nondiabetic and 14-d alloxan diabetic rabbits. Untreated alloxan diabetes reduced endoneurial sodium-gradient dependent uptake of the nonmetabolized amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid by greater than 50%. Administration of an aldose reductase inhibitor prevented reductions in both nerve myo-inositol content and endoneurial sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. Myo-inositol supplementation that produced a transient pharmacological elevation in plasma myo-inositol concentration, but did not raise nerve myo-inositol content, reproduced the effect of the aldose reductase inhibitor on endoneurial sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. Phorbol myristate acetate, which acutely normalizes sodium-potassium ATPase activity in diabetic nerve, did not acutely correct 2-aminoisobutyric uptake when added in vitro. These data suggest that depletion of a small myo-inositol pool may be implicated in the pathogenesis of defects in amino acid uptake in diabetic nerve and that rapid correction of sodium-potassium ATPase activity with protein kinase C agonists in vitro does not acutely normalize sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. PMID:2185278

  4. Susceptibility to diabetic neuropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with a polymorphism at the 5' end of the aldose reductase gene

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, A.; Millward, A.; Demaine, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—There is evidence that the polyol pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is the first and rate limiting enzyme of this pathway and recent studies have suggested that polymorphisms in and around the gene are associated with the development of diabetic microvascular disease. The aim was to examine the role of ALR2 in the susceptibility to diabetic neuropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
METHODS—One hundred and fifty nine British white patients with IDDM and 102 normal healthy controls were studied using the polymerase chain reaction to test for a highly polymorphic microsatellite marker 2.1 kilobase (kb) upstream of the initiation site of the ALR2 gene.
RESULTS—Seven alleles were detected (Z-6, Z-4, Z-2, Z, Z+2, Z+4, and Z+6). There was a highly significant decrease in the frequency of the Z+2 allele in those patients with overt neuropathy compared with those with no neuropathy after 20 years duration of diabetes (14.1% v 38.2%, χ2 =17.3, p<0.00001). A similar difference was also found between the neuropathy group and those patients who have had diabetes for< five years with no overt neuropathy (14.1% v 30.2%, χ2=9.0, p<0.0025). The neuropathy group also had a significant decrease in the frequency of the Z/Z+2 genotype compared with those patients who have no neuropathy after 20 years duration of diabetes (14.0% v 44.7%, χ2=13.0, p<0.0005).
CONCLUSION—These results suggest that the aldose reductase gene is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

 PMID:9489533

  5. Detoxifying Enzymes at the Cross-Roads of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Drug Hypersensitivity: Role of Glutathione Transferase P1-1 and Aldose Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J.; Díez-Dacal, Beatriz; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A. G.; Pajares, María A.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Phase I and II enzymes are involved in the metabolism of endogenous reactive compounds as well as xenobiotics, including toxicants and drugs. Genotyping studies have established several drug metabolizing enzymes as markers for risk of drug hypersensitivity. However, other candidates are emerging that are involved in drug metabolism but also in the generation of danger or costimulatory signals. Enzymes such as aldo-keto reductases (AKR) and glutathione transferases (GST) metabolize prostaglandins and reactive aldehydes with proinflammatory activity, as well as drugs and/or their reactive metabolites. In addition, their metabolic activity can have important consequences for the cellular redox status, and impacts the inflammatory response as well as the balance of inflammatory mediators, which can modulate epigenetic factors and cooperate or interfere with drug-adduct formation. These enzymes are, in turn, targets for covalent modification and regulation by oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators, and drugs. Therefore, they constitute a platform for a complex set of interactions involving drug metabolism, protein haptenation, modulation of the inflammatory response, and/or generation of danger signals with implications in drug hypersensitivity reactions. Moreover, increasing evidence supports their involvement in allergic processes. Here, we will focus on GSTP1-1 and aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and provide a perspective for their involvement in drug hypersensitivity. PMID:27540362

  6. Part 1: synthesis of irreversible inhibitors of aldose reductase with subsequent development of a carbon-13 NMR protein probe. Part 2: synthesis of selenium analogs of dopamine as potential dopamine receptor agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Ares, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Aldose reductase converts glucose into sorbitol using NADPH as a cofactor. Sorbitol accumulation in various tissues is believed to play a major role in the development of debilitating complications of diabetes; thus, much effort has been directed toward the preparation of aldose reductase inhibitors. Of the compounds prepared, the most active are the isothiocyanate and azide analogs of the reversible aldose reductase inhibitor alrestatin. The potency of the alrestatin isothiocyanate prompted the authors to examine the possibility that isothiocyanates enriched with carbon-13 could be used as carbon-13 NMR protein probes. Toward this end, a synthesis of carbon-13 enriched phenylisothiocyanate has been developed. This reagent has been successfully utilized to study peptides via carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Research in their laboratory over the years has focused on answering two fundamental questions regarding the interaction of dopamine with its receptor. First, can the concept of bioisosterism be applied to dopamine agonists. Secondly, what is the actual molecular species of dopamine which interacts with the dopamine receptor. In an effort to answer these questions, methyl selenide and dimethyl selenonium analogs of dopamine have been synthesized.

  7. The anti-necrosis role of hypoxic preconditioning after acute anoxia is mediated by aldose reductase and sorbitol pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ying; Ma, Zi-Min; Fan, Xue-Lai; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Li, Ming-Ming; Xiong, Lei; Zhang, Kuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Fan, Ming

    2010-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HP) enhances the survival ability of the organism against the subsequent acute anoxia (AA). However, it is not yet clear whether necrosis induced by AA can be prevented by HP, and what are the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we examined the effect of HP (10% O(2), 48 h) on necrosis induced by AA (0% O(2), 24 h) in PC12 cells. We found that HP delayed the regulatory volume decrease and reduced cell swelling after 24 h of exposure to AA. Since aldose reductase (AR) is involved in cell volume regulation, we detected AR mRNA expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. The AR mRNA level was dramatically elevated by HP. Furthermore, an HP-induced decrease in cell injury was reversed by berberine chloride (BB), the inhibitor of AR. In addition, sorbitol synthesized from glucose catalyzed by AR is directly related to cell volume regulation. Subsequently, we tested sorbitol content in the cytoplasm. HP clearly elevated sorbitol content, while BB inhibited the elevation induced by HP. Further study showed that a strong inhibitor of sorbitol permease, quinidine, completely reversed the protection induced by HP after AA. These data provide evidence that HP prevents necrosis induced by AA and is mediated by AR and sorbitol pathway.

  8. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of some structurally diverse flavonoids and design of new aldose reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chandra De, Utpal; Debnath, Tanusree; Sen, Debanjan; Debnath, Sudhan

    2015-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the development of several long-term diabetic complications. Inhibition of AR activities is a strategy for controlling complications arising from chronic diabetes. Several AR inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Flavonoid type compounds are shown to have significant AR inhibition. The objective of this study was to perform a computational work to get an idea about structural insight of flavonoid type compounds for developing as well as for searching new flavonoid based AR inhibitors. The data-set comprising 68 flavones along with their pIC50 values ranging from 0.44 to 4.59 have been collected from literature. Structure of all the flavonoids were drawn in Chembiodraw Ultra 11.0, converted into corresponding three-dimensional structure, saved as mole file and then imported to maestro project table. Imported ligands were prepared using LigPrep option of maestro 9.6 version. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies were performed with appropriate options of maestro 9.6 version installed in HP Z820 workstation with CentOS 6.3 (Linux). A model with partial least squares factor 5, standard deviation 0.2482, R2 = 0.9502 and variance ratio of regression 122 has been found as the best statistical model. PMID:25709964

  9. Structure-activity relationships and molecular modelling of new 5-arylidene-4-thiazolidinone derivatives as aldose reductase inhibitors and potential anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Rosanna; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Ottanà, Rosaria; Rocchiccioli, Marco; Marrazzo, Agostino; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Amodeo, Pietro; Mura, Umberto; Del Corso, Antonella

    2014-06-23

    A series of 5-(carbamoylmethoxy)benzylidene-2-oxo/thioxo-4-thiazolidinone derivatives (6-9) were synthesized as inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR), enzyme which plays a crucial role in the development of diabetes complications as well as in the inflammatory processes associated both to diabetes mellitus and to other pathologies. In vitro inhibitory activity indicated that compounds 6-9a-d were generally good AR inhibitors. Acetic acid derivatives 8a-d and 9a-d were shown to be the best enzyme inhibitors among the tested compounds endowed with significant inhibitory ability levels reaching submicromolar IC50 values. Moreover, some representative AR inhibitors (7a, 7c, 9a, 9c, 9d) were assayed in cultures of human keratinocytes in order to evaluate their capability to reduce NF-kB activation and iNOS expression. Compound 9c proved to be the best derivative endowed with both interesting AR inhibitory effectiveness and ability to reduce NF-kB activation and iNOS expression. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were undertaken to investigate the binding modes of selected compounds into the active site of AR in order to rationalize the inhibitory effectiveness of these derivatives.

  10. Discovery of novel aldose reductase inhibitors using a protein structure-based approach: 3D-database search followed by design and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Y; Arisawa, M; Hamada, R; Kita, Y; Mizutani, M Y; Tomioka, N; Itai, A; Miyamoto, S

    2001-05-24

    Aldose reductase (AR) has been implicated in the etiology of diabetic complications. Due to the limited number of currently available drugs for the treatment of diabetic complications, we have carried out structure-based drug design and synthesis in an attempt to find new types of AR inhibitors. With the ADAM&EVE program, a three-dimensional database (ACD3D) was searched using the ligand binding site of the AR crystal structure. Out of 179 compounds selected through this search followed by visual inspection, 36 compounds were purchased and subjected to a biological assay. Ten compounds showed more than 40% inhibition of AR at a 15 microg/mL concentration. In a subsequent lead optimization, a series of analogues of the most active compound were synthesized based on the docking mode derived by ADAM&EVE. Many of these congeners exhibited higher activities compared to the mother compound. Indeed, the most potent, synthesized compound showed an approximately 20-fold increase in inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 0.21 vs 4.3 microM). Furthermore, a hydrophobic subsite was newly inferred, which would be useful for the design of inhibitors with improved affinity for AR.

  11. 3D-QSAR (CoMFA and CoMSIA) and pharmacophore (GALAHAD) studies on the differential inhibition of aldose reductase by flavonoid compounds.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julio

    2010-11-01

    Inhibitory activities of flavonoid derivatives against aldose reductase (AR) enzyme were modelled by using CoMFA, CoMSIA and GALAHAD methods. CoMFA and CoMSIA methods were used for deriving quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. All QSAR models were trained with 55 compounds, after which they were evaluated for predictive ability with additional 14 compounds. The best CoMFA model included both steric and electrostatic fields, meanwhile, the best CoMSIA model included steric, hydrophobic and H-bond acceptor fields. These models had a good predictive quality according to both internal and external validation criteria. On the other hand, GALAHAD was used for deriving a 3D pharmacophore model. Twelve active compounds were used for deriving this model. The obtained model included hydrophobe, hydrogen bond acceptor and hydrogen bond donor features; it was able to identify the active AR inhibitors from the remaining compounds. These in silico tools might be useful in the rational design of new AR inhibitors.

  12. Triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude extract of Radix Scutellariae.

    PubMed

    Tahtah, Yousof; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T; Jønsson, Louise H; Jäger, Anna K; Qinglei, Sun; Staerk, Dan

    2015-08-21

    In this work, development of a new microplate-based high-resolution profiling assay using recombinant human aldose reductase is presented. Used together with high-resolution radical scavenging and high-resolution α-glucosidase assays, it provided the first report of a triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution inhibition profile - allowing proof of concept with Radix Scutellariae crude extract as a polypharmacological herbal drug. The triple bioactivity high-resolution profiles were used to pinpoint bioactive compounds, and subsequent structure elucidation was performed with hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The only α-glucosidase inhibitor was baicalein, whereas main aldose reductase inhibitors in the crude extract were baicalein and skullcapflavone II, and main radical scavengers were ganhuangemin, viscidulin III, baicalin, oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and skullcapflavone II.

  13. Aldose Reductase Regulates Microglia/Macrophages Polarization Through the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Bian, Ganlan; Chen, Peng; Liu, Ling; Yu, Caiyong; Liu, Fangfang; Xue, Qian; Chung, Sookja K; Song, Bing; Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory reactions are the most critical pathological processes occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Activated microglia/macrophages have either detrimental or beneficial effects on neural regeneration based on their functional polarized M1/M2 subsets. However, the mechanism of microglia/macrophage polarization to M1/M2 at the injured spinal cord environment remains unknown. In this study, wild-type (WT) or aldose reductase (AR)-knockout (KO) mice were subjected to SCI by a spinal crush injury model. The expression pattern of AR, behavior tests for locomotor activity, and lesion size were assessed at between 4 h and 28 days after SCI. We found that the expression of AR is upregulated in microglia/macrophages after SCI in WT mice. In AR KO mice, SCI led to smaller injury lesion areas compared to WT. AR deficiency-induced microglia/macrophages induce the M2 rather than the M1 response and promote locomotion recovery after SCI in mice. In the in vitro experiments, microglia cell lines (N9 or BV2) were treated with the AR inhibitor (ARI) fidarestat. AR inhibition caused 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) accumulation, which induced the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to promote Arg1 expression. KG501, the specific inhibitor of phosphorylated CREB, could cancel the upregulation of Arg1 by ARI or HNE stimulation. Our results suggest that AR works as a switch which can regulate microglia by polarizing cells to either the M1 or the M2 phenotype under M1 stimulation based on its states of activity. We suggest that inhibiting AR may be a promising therapeutic method for SCI in the future.

  14. Effects of the New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Benzofuroxane Derivative BF-5m on High Glucose Induced Prolongation of Cardiac QT Interval and Increase of Coronary Perfusion Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Ferraro, B.; Maisto, R.; Trotta, M. C.; Di Carluccio, N.; Sartini, S.; La Motta, C.; Ferraraccio, F.; Rossi, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the new aldose reductase inhibitor benzofuroxane derivative 5(6)-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethoxy)benzofuroxane (BF-5m) on the prolongation of cardiac QT interval and increase of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) in isolated, high glucose (33.3 mM D-glucose) perfused rat hearts. BF-5m was dissolved in the Krebs solution at a final concentration of 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. 33.3 mM D-glucose caused a prolongation of the QT interval and increase of CPP up to values of 190 ± 12 ms and 110 ± 8 mmHg with respect to the values of hearts perfused with standard Krebs solution (11.1 mM D-glucose). The QT prolongation was reduced by 10%, 32%, and 41%, respectively, for the concentration of BF-5m 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. Similarly, the CPP was reduced by 20% for BF-5m 0.05 μM and by 32% for BF-5m 0.1 μM. BF-5m also increased the expression levels of sirtuin 1, MnSOD, eNOS, and FOXO-1, into the heart. The beneficial actions of BF-5m were partly abolished by the pretreatment of the rats with the inhibitor of the sirtuin 1 activity EX527 (10 mg/kg/day/7 days i.p.) prior to perfusion of the hearts with high glucose + BF-5m (0.1 μM). Therefore, BF-5m supplies cardioprotection from the high glucose induced QT prolongation and increase of CPP. PMID:26839893

  15. Aldose reductase (AKR1B3) regulates the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and the expression of AGE receptor (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Baba, Shahid P; Hellmann, Jason; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-05-30

    Diabetes results in enhanced chemical modification of proteins by advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) precursors. These modifications have been linked to the development of several secondary diabetic complications. Our previous studies showed that aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B3) catalyzes the reduction of ALEs and AGEs precursors; however, the in vivo significance of this metabolic pathway during diabetes and obesity has not been fully assessed. Therefore we examined the role of AR in regulating ALEs and AGEs formation in murine models of diet-induced obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In comparison with wild-type (WT) and AR-null mice fed normal chow, mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet (42% kcal fat) showed increased accumulation of AGEs and protein-acrolein adducts in the plasma. AGEs and acrolein adducts were also increased in the epididymal fat of WT and AR-null mice fed a HF diet. Deletion of AR increased the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) protein adduct in the plasma and increased the expression of the AGE receptor (RAGE) in HF fed mice. No change in AGEs formation was observed in the kidneys of HF-fed mice. In comparison, renal tissue from AR-null mice treated with streptozotocin showed greater AGE accumulation than streptozotocin-treated WT mice. These data indicated that AR regulated the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes and AGEs under conditions of severe, but not mild, hyperglycemia and that deletion of AR increased RAGE-induction via mechanisms that were independent of AGEs accumulation.

  16. Aldose reductase inhibitor counteracts the enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 and improves corneal wound healing in galactose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takafumi; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Matsumura, Takehiro; Takihara, Yuji; Inatani, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) and the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10 on recovery after corneal epithelium removal in a rat diabetic keratopathy model. Methods Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the following diets for 6 weeks: normal MF chow (MF), 50% galactose (Gal), and 50% Gal containing 0.01% ARI (Gal +ARI). The corneal epithelium was removed using n-heptanol, and the area of epithelial defects was photographed and measured every 24 h. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression profile of MMP-10 and integrin α3. Results Compared to the MF control group, the amount of galactitol in the Gal group increased approximately 200-fold, which was reduced to sevenfold by ARI treatment. The area of corneal erosion in the Gal group was significantly larger than in the MF group at 72 h and thereafter (p<0.01, unpaired t test). The expression level of MMP-10 was enhanced at both the protein and mRNA levels by exposure to a high concentration of Gal, while integrin α3 expression decreased at the protein level but remained unchanged at the mRNA level. Delayed epithelial wound healing and alterations in the expression levels of MMP-10 and integrin α3 were normalized by ARI. The corneal erosion closure rate was significantly decreased with topical recombinant MMP-10. Conclusions These studies confirm that the increased expression of MMP-10 induced by Gal feeding is counteracted by ARI treatment and suggest a role of MMP-10 in modulating corneal epithelial wound healing. PMID:24339723

  17. A meta-analysis of trials on aldose reductase inhibitors in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The Italian Study Group. The St. Vincent Declaration.

    PubMed

    Nicolucci, A; Carinci, F; Cavaliere, D; Scorpiglione, N; Belfiglio, M; Labbrozzi, D; Mari, E; Benedetti, M M; Tognoni, G; Liberati, A

    1996-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and disabling long-term sequelae of diabetes mellitus. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have been proposed and are increasingly used in many countries for the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the effectiveness of ARIs in the treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy, with particular reference to the type and clinical relevance of the end point used and to the consistency of results across studies. Thirteen randomized clinical trials (RTCs) comparing ARIs with placebo, published between 1981 and 1993 were included in the meta-analysis. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was the only end point reported in all trials. Treatment effect was thus evaluated in terms of NCV mean difference in four different nerves: median motor, median sensory, peroneal motor, and sural sensory. A statistically significant reduction in decline of median motor NCV was present in the treated group as compared to the control group (mean 0.91 ms-1; 95% CI 0.41-1.42 ms-1). For peroneal motor, median sensory, and sural sensory nerves results did not show any clear benefit for patients treated with ARIs. When the analysis was limited to trials with at least 1-year treatment duration, a significant effect was present for peroneal motor NCV (mean 1.24 ms-1; 95% CI 0.32-2.15 ms-1) and a benefit of borderline statistical significance was also present for median motor NCV (mean 0.69 ms-1; 95% CI-0.07-1.45 ms-1). A heterogeneous picture emerged when looking at the results of different studies and serious inconsistencies were also present in the direction of treatment effects among nerves in the same studies. Although the results of 1-year treatment on motor NCV seem encouraging, the uncertainty about the reliability of the end-point employed and the short treatment duration do not allow any clear conclusion about the efficacy of ARIs in the treatment of peripheral diabetic

  18. Identification of a novel polyfluorinated compound as a lead to inhibit the human enzymes aldose reductase and AKR1B10: structure determination of both ternary complexes and implications for drug design.

    PubMed

    Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Ruiz, Francesc X; Mitschler, André; Porté, Sergio; de Lera, Ángel R; Martín, María J; Manzanaro, Sonia; de la Fuente, Jesús A; Terwesten, Felix; Betz, Michael; Klebe, Gerhard; Farrés, Jaume; Parés, Xavier; Podjarny, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are mostly monomeric enzymes which fold into a highly conserved (α/β)8 barrel, while their substrate specificity and inhibitor selectivity are determined by interaction with residues located in three highly variable external loops. The closely related human enzymes aldose reductase (AR or AKR1B1) and AKR1B10 are of biomedical interest because of their involvement in secondary diabetic complications (AR) and in cancer, e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma and smoking-related lung cancer (AKR1B10). After characterization of the IC50 values of both AKRs with a series of polyhalogenated compounds, 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octafluoro-4,4'-biphenyldiol (JF0064) was identified as a lead inhibitor of both enzymes with a new scaffold (a 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol). An ultrahigh-resolution X-ray structure of the AR-NADP(+)-JF0064 complex has been determined at 0.85 Å resolution, allowing it to be observed that JF0064 interacts with the catalytic residue Tyr48 through a negatively charged hydroxyl group (i.e. the acidic phenol). The non-competitive inhibition pattern observed for JF0064 with both enzymes suggests that this acidic hydroxyl group is also present in the case of AKR1B10. Moreover, the combination of surface lysine methylation and the introduction of K125R and V301L mutations enabled the determination of the X-ray crystallographic structure of the corresponding AKR1B10-NADP(+)-JF0064 complex. Comparison of the two structures has unveiled some important hints for subsequent structure-based drug-design efforts.

  19. Expression of constitutive cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes; effects of treatment with evening primrose oil or an aldose reductase inhibitor on COX-1 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Fang, C; Jiang, Z; Tomlinson, D R

    1997-02-01

    Altered prostanoid metabolism participates in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The rate-limiting enzyme in the control of prostanoid metabolism is constitutive cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). This study examined the possibility that altered prostanoid metabolism derives from altered COX-1 expression in those tissues from diabetic rats, with characteristic changes in prostanoid production and related haemodynamics. This account also describes a procedure for estimation of minute amounts of COX-1 mRNA by reverse transcription and competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-cPCR) amplification. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats (STZ-D, 55 mg/kg body weight), compared with age-matched controls, the level of COX-1 mRNA (in attomoles/micrograms tRNA +/- 1SD) was significantly decreased in sciatic nerve (0.50 +/- 0.26 versus 0.89 +/- 0.32 in controls; P < 0.05) and thoracic aorta (3.99 +/- 1.67 versus 8.80 +/- 2.37 in controls; P < 0.05). There were no differences in COX-1 mRNA in diabetic and control rat kidney and retina, though there was a trend towards increased expression with diabetes in the latter. Evening primrose oil (EPO) treatment increased COX-1 mRNA in nerve and retina to levels in diabetic rats that were higher than those of non-diabetic controls (1.21 +/- 0.28 for nerve and 0.065 +/- 0.017 for retina, where control retinae gave 0.031 +/- 0.020-see above for nerve). Treatment of diabetic rats with an aldose reductase inhibitor was without effect on COX-1 mRNA levels in the tissues examined. This study demonstrates that the changes in COX-1 mRNA levels in diabetic rats are organ specific and suggests that altered prostanoid metabolism can, in part, be explained by altered COX-1 expression. Apart from providing arachidonate as substrate for COX, EPO stimulates COX-1 expression in some tissues.

  20. Extreme ultraviolet photoionization of aldoses and ketoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Dong, Feng; Grisham, Michael E.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2011-04-01

    Gas phase monosaccharides (2-deoxyribose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, lyxose, glucose galactose, fructose, and tagatose), generated by laser desorption of solid sample pellets, are ionized with extreme ultraviolet photons (EUV, 46.9 nm, 26.44 eV). The resulting fragment ions are analyzed using a time of flight mass spectrometer. All aldoses yield identical fragment ions regardless of size, and ketoses, while also generating same ions as aldoses, yields additional features. Extensive fragmentation of the monosaccharides is the result the EUV photons ionizing various inner valence orbitals. The observed fragmentation patterns are not dependent upon hydrogen bonding structure or OH group orientation.

  1. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  2. Catalytic Isomerization of Biomass‐Derived Aldoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Delidovich, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Selected aldohexoses (d‐glucose, d‐mannose, and d‐galactose) and aldopentoses (d‐xylose, l‐arabinose, and d‐ribose) are readily available components of biopolymers. Isomerization reactions of these substances are very attractive as carbon‐efficient processes to broaden the portfolio of abundant monosaccharides. This review focuses on the chemocatalytic isomerization of aldoses into the corresponding ketoses as well as epimerization of aldoses at C2. Recent advances in the fields of catalysis by bases and Lewis acids are considered. The emphasis is laid on newly uncovered catalytic systems and mechanisms of carbohydrate transformations. PMID:26948404

  3. A novel aldose-aldose oxidoreductase for co-production of D-xylonate and xylitol from D-xylose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Nygård, Yvonne; Oja, Merja; Andberg, Martina; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivula, Anu; Penttilä, Merja; Toivari, Mervi

    2015-11-01

    An open reading frame CC1225 from the Caulobacter crescentus CB15 genome sequence belongs to the Gfo/Idh/MocA protein family and has 47 % amino acid sequence identity with the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis (Zm GFOR). We expressed the ORF CC1225 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used a yeast strain expressing the gene coding for Zm GFOR as a reference. Cell extracts of strains overexpressing CC1225 (renamed as Cc aaor) showed some Zm GFOR type of activity, producing D-gluconate and D-sorbitol when a mixture of D-glucose and D-fructose was used as substrate. However, the activity in Cc aaor expressing strain was >100-fold lower compared to strains expressing Zm gfor. Interestingly, C. crescentus AAOR was clearly more efficient than the Zm GFOR in converting in vitro a single sugar substrate D-xylose (10 mM) to xylitol without an added cofactor, whereas this type of activity was very low with Zm GFOR. Furthermore, when cultured in the presence of D-xylose, the S. cerevisiae strain expressing Cc aaor produced nearly equal concentrations of D-xylonate and xylitol (12.5 g D-xylonate l(-1) and 11.5 g D-xylitol l(-1) from 26 g D-xylose l(-1)), whereas the control strain and strain expressing Zm gfor produced only D-xylitol (5 g l(-1)). Deletion of the gene encoding the major aldose reductase, Gre3p, did not affect xylitol production in the strain expressing Cc aaor, but decreased xylitol production in the strain expressing Zm gfor. In addition, expression of Cc aaor together with the D-xylonolactone lactonase encoding the gene xylC from C. crescentus slightly increased the final concentration and initial volumetric production rate of both D-xylonate and D-xylitol. These results suggest that C. crescentus AAOR is a novel type of oxidoreductase able to convert the single aldose substrate D-xylose to both its oxidized and reduced product.

  4. A kinetic estimate of the free aldehyde content of aldoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The relative free aldehyde content of eight hexoses and four pentoses has been estimated within about 10% from the rate constants for their reaction with urazole (1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione). These values of the percent free aldehyde are in agreement with those estimated from CD measurements, but are more accurate. The relative free aldehyde contents for the aldoses were then correlated to various literature NMR measurements to obtain the absolute values. This procedure was also done for three deoxyaldoses, which react much more rapidly than can be accounted for by the free aldehyde content. This difference in reactivity between aldoses and deoxyaldoses is due to the inductive effect of the H versus the OH on C-2'. This may help explain why deoxyribonucleosides hydrolyze much more rapidly than ribonucleosides.

  5. The structure of apo and holo forms of xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase from Candida tenuis.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2002-07-16

    Xylose reductase is a homodimeric oxidoreductase dependent on NADPH or NADH and belongs to the largely monomeric aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins. It catalyzes the first step in the assimilation of xylose, an aldose found to be a major constituent monosaccharide of renewable plant hemicellulosic material, into yeast metabolic pathways. It does this by reducing open chain xylose to xylitol, which is reoxidized to xylulose by xylitol dehydrogenase and metabolically integrated via the pentose phosphate pathway. No structure has yet been determined for a xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase or a family 2 aldo-keto reductase. The structures of the Candida tenuis xylose reductase apo- and holoenzyme, which crystallize in spacegroup C2 with different unit cells, have been determined to 2.2 A resolution and an R-factor of 17.9 and 20.8%, respectively. Residues responsible for mediating the novel dimeric interface include Asp-178, Arg-181, Lys-202, Phe-206, Trp-313, and Pro-319. Alignments with other superfamily members indicate that these interactions are conserved in other dimeric xylose reductases but not throughout the remainder of the oligomeric aldo-keto reductases, predicting alternate modes of oligomerization for other families. An arrangement of side chains in a catalytic triad shows that Tyr-52 has a conserved function as a general acid. The loop that folds over the NAD(P)H cosubstrate is disordered in the apo form but becomes ordered upon cosubstrate binding. A slow conformational isomerization of this loop probably accounts for the observed rate-limiting step involving release of cosubstrate. Xylose binding (K(m) = 87 mM) is mediated by interactions with a binding pocket that is more polar than a typical aldo-keto reductase. Modeling of xylose into the active site of the holoenzyme using ordered waters as a guide for sugar hydroxyls suggests a convincing mode of substrate binding.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new piplartine analogues as potent aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs)

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubba Rao, Vidadala; Muthenna, Puppala; Shankaraiah, Gundeti; Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Hari Babu, Kothapalli; Suresh, Ganji; Suresh Babu, Katragadda; Chandra Kumar, Rotte Sateesh; Rajendra Prasad, Kothakonda; Ashok Yadav, Potharaju; Petrash, J. Mark; Bhanuprakash Reddy, Geereddy; Madhusudana Rao, Janaswamy

    2013-01-01

    As a continuation of our efforts directed towards the development of anti-diabetic agents from natural sources, piplartine was isolated from Piper chaba, and was found to inhibit recombinant human ALR2 with an IC50 of 160 µM. To improve the efficacy, a series of analogues have been synthesized by modification of the styryl/aromatic and heterocyclic ring functionalities of this natural product lead. All the derivatives were tested for their ALR2 inhibitory activity, and results indicated that adducts 3c, 3e and 2j prepared by the Michael addition of piplartine with indole derivatives displayed potent ARI activity, while the other compounds displayed varying degrees of inhibition. The active compounds were also capable of preventing sorbitol accumulation in human red blood cells. PMID:23124161

  7. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Chen, Dan; Yi, Yanchun; Qi, Hui; Gao, Xinxin; Fang, Hua; Gu, Qiong; Wang, Ling; Gu, Lianquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA) extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC) pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC. PMID:23365598

  8. Thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Mustacich, D; Powis, G

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases with mechanistic and sequence identity, including a conserved -Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- redox catalytic site, to glutathione reductases. TrxRs catalyse the NADPH-dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), as well as of other endogenous and exogenous compounds. The broad substrate specificity of mammalian TrxRs is due to a second redox-active site, a C-terminal -Cys-SeCys- (where SeCys is selenocysteine), that is not found in glutathione reductase or Escherichia coli TrxR. There are currently two confirmed forms of mammalian TrxRs, TrxR1 and TrxR2, and it is possible that other forms will be identified. The availability of Se is a key factor determining TrxR activity both in cell culture and in vivo, and the mechanism(s) for the incorporation of Se into TrxRs, as well as the regulation of TrxR activity, have only recently begun to be investigated. The importance of Trx to many aspects of cell function make it likely that TrxRs also play a role in protection against oxidant injury, cell growth and transformation, and the recycling of ascorbate from its oxidized form. Since TrxRs are able to reduce a number of substrates other than Trx, it is likely that additional biological effects will be discovered for TrxR. Furthermore, inhibiting TrxR with drugs may lead to new treatments for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases. PMID:10657232

  9. Comparative anatomy of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Jez, J M; Bennett, M J; Schlegel, B P; Lewis, M; Penning, T M

    1997-09-15

    The aldo-keto reductases metabolize a wide range of substrates and are potential drug targets. This protein superfamily includes aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and dihydrodiol dehydrogenases. By combining multiple sequence alignments with known three-dimensional structures and the results of site-directed mutagenesis studies, we have developed a structure/function analysis of this superfamily. Our studies suggest that the (alpha/beta)8-barrel fold provides a common scaffold for an NAD(P)(H)-dependent catalytic activity, with substrate specificity determined by variation of loops on the C-terminal side of the barrel. All the aldo-keto reductases are dependent on nicotinamide cofactors for catalysis and retain a similar cofactor binding site, even among proteins with less than 30% amino acid sequence identity. Likewise, the aldo-keto reductase active site is highly conserved. However, our alignments indicate that variation ofa single residue in the active site may alter the reaction mechanism from carbonyl oxidoreduction to carbon-carbon double-bond reduction, as in the 3-oxo-5beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenases (Delta4-3-ketosteroid 5beta-reductases) of the superfamily. Comparison of the proposed substrate binding pocket suggests residues 54 and 118, near the active site, as possible discriminators between sugar and steroid substrates. In addition, sequence alignment and subsequent homology modelling of mouse liver 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and rat ovary 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase indicate that three loops on the C-terminal side of the barrel play potential roles in determining the positional and stereo-specificity of the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Finally, we propose that the aldo-keto reductase superfamily may represent an example of divergent evolution from an ancestral multifunctional oxidoreductase and an example of convergent evolution to the same active-site constellation as the short

  10. Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2008-09-05

    The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

  11. Inhibition of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 by unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hara, Akira; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Soda, Midori; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Yashiro, Koji

    2016-11-01

    A human member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, AKR1B10, is a cytosolic NADPH-dependent reductase toward various carbonyl compounds including reactive aldehydes, and is normally expressed in intestines. The enzyme is overexpressed in several extraintestinal cancers, and suggested as a potential target for cancer treatment. We found that saturated and cis-unsaturated fatty acids inhibit AKR1B10. Among the saturated fatty acids, myristic acid was the most potent, showing the IC50 value of 4.2 μM cis-Unsaturated fatty acids inhibited AKR1B10 more potently, and linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids showed the lowest IC50 values of 1.1 μM. The inhibition by these fatty acids was reversible and kinetically competitive with respect to the substrate, showing the Ki values of 0.24-1.1 μM. These fatty acids, except for α-linoleic acid, were much less inhibitory to structurally similar aldose reductase. Site-directed mutagenesis study suggested that the fatty acids interact with several active site residues of AKR1B10, of which Gln114, Val301 and Gln303 are responsible for the inhibitory selectivity. Linoleic and arachidonic acids also effectively inhibited AKR1B10-mediated 4-oxo-2-nonenal metabolism in HCT-15 cells. Thus, the cis-unsaturated fatty acids may be used as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of cancers that up-regulate AKR1B10.

  12. Overexpression and enhanced specific activity of aldoketo reductases (AKR1B1 & AKR1B10) in human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ashok; Kumar, P Uday; Srinivasulu, M; Triveni, B; Sharada, K; Ismail, Ayesha; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in India is on the rise and is rapidly becoming the primary cancer in Indian women. The aldoketo reductase (AKR) family has more than 190 proteins including aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldose reductase like protein (AKR1B10). Apart from liver cancer, the status of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 with respect to their expression and activity has not been reported in other human cancers. We studied the specific activity and expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in breast non tumor and tumor tissues and in the blood. Fresh post-surgical breast cancer and non-cancer tissues and blood were collected from the subjects who were admitted for surgical therapy. Malignant, benign and pre-surgical chemotherapy samples were evaluated by histopathology scoring. Expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 was carried out by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) while specific activity was determined spectrophotometrically. The specific activity of AKR1B1 was significantly higher in red blood cells (RBC) in all three grades of primary surgical and post-chemotherapy samples. Specific activity of both AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 increased in tumor samples compared to their corresponding non tumor samples (primary surgical and post-chemotherapy). Immunoblotting and IHC data also indicated overexpression of AKR1B1 in all grades of tumors compared to their corresponding non tumor samples. There was no change in the specific activity of AKR1B1 in benign samples compared to all grades of tumor and non-tumors.

  13. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  14. Asymmetric assembly of aldose carbohydrates from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde by tandem biocatalytic aldol reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekrenyi, Anna; Garrabou, Xavier; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2015-09-01

    The preparation of multifunctional chiral molecules can be greatly simplified by adopting a route via the sequential catalytic assembly of achiral building blocks. The catalytic aldol assembly of prebiotic compounds into stereodefined pentoses and hexoses is an as yet unmet challenge. Such a process would be of remarkable synthetic utility and highly significant with regard to the origin of life. Pursuing an expedient enzymatic approach, here we use engineered D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase from Escherichia coli to prepare a series of three- to six-carbon aldoses by sequential one-pot additions of glycolaldehyde. Notably, the pertinent selection of the aldolase variant provides control of the sugar size. The stereochemical outcome of the addition was also altered to allow the synthesis of L-glucose and related derivatives. Such engineered biocatalysts may offer new routes for the straightforward synthesis of natural molecules and their analogues that circumvent the intricate enzymatic pathways forged by evolution.

  15. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  16. Molecular distribution and degradation status of combined aldoses in sinking particulate organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, C.; Sempéré, R.

    2003-04-01

    Particulate samples were collected by using floating sediment traps (50--300 m) and in situ pumps (30 and 200 m) in the Southern Indian Ocean (Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and Sub-Tropical Zone (STZ)), Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian and Ionian Seas) and Atlantic Ocean (Upwelling (UPW) of Agadir-Morocco). They were studied for monosaccharide composition after acid hydrolysis (HCl 0.09 M, 20 h, 100^oC) by using High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography followed by Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). Our results indicated that higher PCHO yields (calculated as PCHO-C/POC ratios) were associated to higher C:N ratios (Med. Sea sample, PCHO yields = 12.7 ± 7.7%; C:N ratios = 8.3 ± 1.6; n = 12) whether the opposite trend was found for Southern Ocean samples (PCHO yields = 3.3 ± 0.75%; C:N ratios = 5.7 ± 0.59, n = 5) indicating significant variability in the sugar content of particles which might be due to the degradation degree of the particles as well as to the initial chemical composition of plankton. Alternatively, other processes such as high production of extracellular polysaccharides (type transparent exopolymer polysaccharides (TEP)) due to phosphorus limitation of some phytoplanktonic species may increase the sugar content in Mediterranean particles and the C/N ratio. In any case, glucose appeared to be the most abundant monosaccharide in Mediterranean Sea or UPW samples (range 23--59 wt% of the total aldoses) whereas ribose (17--39 wt%) and galactose (range 10--28 wt%) were the predominant aldoses in Southern Indian Ocean. These sugars (glucose + ribose) exhibited a strong negative relationship with C:N (r = -0.53, p >0.01; n = 30) in sediment traps (data from this study) and sediment (data from literature) particulate material which further indicates that these two monosaccharides are selectively extracted from the carbohydrate pool in sediment. In vitro biodegradation experiments performed with large particles (>60 μm) sampled using in situ pumps in

  17. Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

  18. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  19. A Gas Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Aldose and Uronic Acid Constituents of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas M.; Albersheim, Peter

    1972-01-01

    A major problem in determining the composition of plant cell wall polysaccharides has been the lack of a suitable method for accurately determining the amounts of galacturonic and glucuronic acids in such polymers. A gas chromatographic method for aldose analysis has been extended to include uronic acids. Cell wall polysaccharides are depolymerized by acid hydrolysis followed by treatment with a mixture of fungal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. The aldoses and uronic acids released by this treatment are then reduced with NaBH4 to alditols and aldonic acids, respectively. The aldonic acids are separated from the alditols with Dowex-1 (acetate form) ion exchange resin, which binds the aldonic acids. The alditols, which do not bind, are washed from the resin and then acetylated with acetic anhydride to form the alditol acetate derivatives. The aldonic acids are eluted from the resin with HCl. After the resin has been removed, the HCl solution of the aldonic acids is evaporated to dryness, converting the aldonic acids to aldonolactones. The aldonolactones are reduced with NaBH4 to the corresponding alditols, dried and acetylated. The resulting alditol acetate mixtures produced from the aldoses and those from the uronic acids are analyzed separately by gas chromatography. This technique has been used to determine the changes in composition of Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) hypocotyl cell walls during growth, and to compare the cell wall polysaccharide compositions of several parts of bean plants. Galacturonic acid is found to be a major component of all the cell wall polysaccharides examined. PMID:16658086

  20. LC-MS-MS Characterization of Forced Degradation Products of Fidarestat, a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor: Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method.

    PubMed

    Talluri, M V N Kumar; Khatoon, Lubna; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Chavan, Balasaheb B; Ragampeta, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    An accurate, precise, robust and selective stability-indicating liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for the monitoring of fidarestat in the presence of its forced degradants. The drug was subjected to hydrolysis (acid, alkali and neutral degradation), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress conditions. The drug degraded significantly under hydrolytic (basic, acidic and neutral) and oxidative stress conditions, whereas it was found to be stable in photolytic and thermal conditions. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Grace C18, (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) column using gradient mobile phase system consisting of 10 mM of ammonium acetate buffer at pH 4 and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with UV detection at 283 nm. The developed method was extended to liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS-MS) for characterization of all the degradation products. A total of five new degradation products were identified and characterized by LC-QTOF-MS-MS. The developed LC method was validated as per ICH guideline Q2 (R1). The proposed method was found to be successively applied for the quality control of fidarestat in bulk drug analysis.

  1. Insights from modeling the 3D structure of NAD(P)H-dependent D-xylose reductase of Pichia stipitis and its binding interactions with NAD and NADP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Wei, Dong-Qing; Lin, Ying; Wang, Yong-Hua; Du, Hong-Li; Li, Yi-Xve; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2007-07-27

    NAD(P)H-dependent d-xylose reductase is a homodimeric oxidoreductase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. The enzyme has the special function to catalyze the first step in the assimilation of xylose into yeast metabolic pathways. Performing this function via reducing the open chain xylose to xylitol, the xylose reductase of Pichia stipitis is one of the most important enzymes that can be used to construct recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for utilizing xylose and producing alcohol. To investigate into the interaction mechanism of the enzyme with its ligand NAD and NADP, the 3D structure was developed for the NAD(P)H-dependent d-xylose reductase from P. stipitis. With the 3D structure, the molecular docking operations were conducted to find the most stable bindings of the enzyme with NAD and NADP, respectively. Based on these results, the binding pockets of the enzyme for NAD and NADP have been explicitly defined. It has been found that the residues in forming the binding pockets for both NAD and NADP are almost the same and mainly hydrophilic. These findings may be used to guide mutagenesis studies, providing useful clues to modify the enzyme to improve the utilization of xylose for producing alcohol. Also, because human aldose reductases have the function to reduce the open chain form of glucose to sorbitol, a process physiologically significant for diabetic patients at the time that their blood glucose levels are elevated, the information gained through this study may also stimulate the development of new strategies for therapeutic treatment of diabetes.

  2. Effects of C-glycosylation on anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Eon Ji; Kim, Young Myeong; Jung, Hyun Ah

    2014-02-01

    Apigenin has gained particular interests in recent years as a beneficial and health promoting agent because of its low intrinsic toxicity. Vitexin and isovitexin, naturally occurring C-glycosylated derivatives of apigenin, have been known to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD), and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin and its two C-glycosylated derivatives, vitexin and isovitexin by in vitro assays including rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), β-site amyloid precursor (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among them, isovitexin was found as the most potent inhibitor against RLAR, HRAR, AGE, AChE, and BChE while vitexin showed the most potent PTP1B inhibitory activity. Despite the relatively weak anti-diabetic and anti-AD potentials, apigenin showed powerful antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression while vitexin and isovitexin were inactive. Therefore, it could be speculated that C-glycosylation of apigenin at different positions might be closely linked to relative intensity of anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potentials.

  3. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  4. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  5. Nitrate Reductase Regulates Expression of Nitrite Uptake and Nitrite Reductase Activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Aurora; Cárdenas, Jacobo; Fernández, Emilio

    1992-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective at the structural locus for nitrate reductase (nit-1) or at loci for biosynthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor (nit-3, nit-4, or nit-5 and nit-6), both nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were repressed in ammonium-grown cells and expressed at high amounts in nitrogen-free media or in media containing nitrate or nitrite. In contrast, wild-type cells required nitrate induction for expression of high levels of both activities. In mutants defective at the regulatory locus for nitrate reductase (nit-2), very low levels of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were expressed even in the presence of nitrate or nitrite. Both restoration of nitrate reductase activity in mutants defective at nit-1, nit-3, and nit-4 by isolating diploid strains among them and transformation of a structural mutant upon integration of the wild-type nit-1 gene gave rise to the wild-type expression pattern for nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Conversely, inactivation of nitrate reductase by tungstate treatment in nitrate, nitrite, or nitrogen-free media made wild-type cells respond like nitrate reductase-deficient mutants with respect to the expression of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Our results indicate that nit-2 is a regulatory locus for both the nitrite uptake system and nitrite reductase, and that the nitrate reductase enzyme plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of both enzyme activities. PMID:16668656

  6. Neuroprotective role for carbonyl reductase?

    PubMed

    Maser, Edmund

    2006-02-24

    Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reactive oxygen species seem to play a significant role in neuronal cell death in that they generate reactive aldehydes from membrane lipid peroxidation. Several neuronal diseases are associated with increased accumulation of abnormal protein adducts of reactive aldehydes, which mediate oxidative stress-linked pathological events, including cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. Combining findings on neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in Drosophila with studies on the metabolic characteristics of the human enzyme carbonyl reductase (CR), it is clear now that CR has a potential physiological role for neuroprotection in humans. Several lines of evidence suggest that CR represents a significant pathway for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and that CR in humans is essential for neuronal cell survival and to confer protection against oxidative stress-induced brain degeneration.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... About half of these individuals adopt a male gender role in adolescence or early adulthood. Related Information ... 1730-5. Citation on PubMed Cohen-Kettenis PT. Gender change in 46,XY persons with 5alpha-reductase- ...

  8. A dissimilatory nitrite reductase in Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, M. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1984-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans produced a membrane-associated nitrite reductase. Spectrophotometric analysis showed it to be associated with a cd-cytochrome and located on the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. When supplied with nitrite, membrane preparations produced nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in different ratios depending on the electron donor employed. The nitrite reductase was maximally active at relatively low concentrations of sodium chloride and remained attached to the membranes at 100 mM sodium chloride.

  9. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  10. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ∼6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers

  11. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  12. The tyrosyl free radical in ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Gräslund, A; Sahlin, M; Sjöberg, B M

    1985-01-01

    The enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase, catalyses the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides, a reaction essential for DNA synthesis in all living cells. The Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase, which is the prototype of all known eukaryotic and virus-coded enzymes, consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins B1 and B2. The B2 subunit contains an antiferromagnetically coupled pair of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of an electron, has its unpaired spin density delocalized in the aromatic ring of tyrosine. Effects of iron-radical interaction indicate a relatively close proximity between the iron center and the radical. The EPR signal of the radical can be studied directly in frozen packed cells of E. coli or mammalian origin, if the cells are made to overproduce ribonucleotide reductase. The hypothetic role of the tyrosyl free radical in the enzymatic reaction is not yet elucidated, except in the reaction with the inhibiting substrate analogue 2'-azido-CDP. In this case, the normal tyrosyl radical is destroyed with concomitant appearance of a 2'-azido-CDP-localized radical intermediate. Attempts at spin trapping of radical reaction intermediates have turned out negative. In E. coli the activity of ribonucleotide reductase may be regulated by enzymatic activities that interconvert a nonradical containing form and the fully active protein B2. In synchronized mammalian cells, however, the cell cycle variation of ribonucleotide reductase, studied by EPR, was shown to be due to de novo protein synthesis. Inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase are of medical interest because of their ability to control DNA synthesis. One example is hydroxyurea, used in cancer therapy, which selectively destroys the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:3007085

  13. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  14. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y

    2009-09-01

    The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase gene encodes a protein of 314 amino acids that has high homology with the chalcone reductase of kudzu vine (88%) and medicago sativa (83%). The expression profiles of the soybean vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase genes were studied and the results indicated that these two soybean genes were differentially expressed in detected soybean tissues including leaves, stems, roots, inflorescences, embryos and endosperm. Our experiment established the foundation for further research on these two soybean genes.

  15. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  16. Fumarate Reductase Activity of Streptococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Aue, B. J.; Diebel, R. H.

    1967-01-01

    Some characteristics of a fumarate reductase from Streptococcus faecalis are described. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.4; optimal activity was observed when the ionic strength of the phosphate buffer was adjusted to 0.088. The Km value of the enzyme for reduced flavin mononucleotide was 2 × 10−4 m as determined with a 26-fold preparation. In addition to fumarate, the enzyme reduced maleate and mesaconate. No succinate dehydrogenase activity was detected, but succinate did act as an inhibitor of the fumarate reductase activity. Other inhibitors were malonate, citraconate, and trans-, trans-muconate. Metal-chelating agents did not inhibit the enzyme. A limited inhibition by sulfhydryl-binding agents was observed, and the preparations were sensitive to air oxidation and storage. Glycine, alanine, histidine, and possibly lysine stimulated fumarate reductase activity in the cell-free extracts. However, growth in media supplemented with glycine did not enhance fumarate reductase activity. The enzymatic activity appears to be constitutive. PMID:4960892

  17. Carbohydrate utilization in Streptococcus thermophilus: characterization of the genes for aldose 1-epimerase (mutarotase) and UDPglucose 4-epimerase.

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, B; Royer, T J; Mainzer, S E; Schmidt, B F

    1990-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding aldose 1-epimerase (mutarotase) (galM) and UDPglucose 4-epimerase (galE) and flanking regions of Streptococcus thermophilus have been determined. Both genes are located immediately upstream of the S. thermophilus lac operon. To facilitate the isolation of galE, a special polymerase chain reaction-based technique was used to amplify the region upstream of galM prior to cloning. The galM protein was homologous to the mutarotase of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, whereas the galE protein was homologous to UDPglucose 4-epimerase of Escherichia coli and Streptomyces lividans. The amino acid sequences of galM and galE proteins also showed significant similarity with the carboxy-terminal and amino-terminal domains, respectively, of UDPglucose 4-epimerase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that the yeast enzymes contain an additional, yet unidentified (mutarotase) activity. In accordance with the open reading frames of the structural genes, galM and galE were expressed as polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 39 and 37 kilodaltons, respectively. Significant activities of mutarotase and UDPglucose 4-epimerase were detected in lysates of E. coli cells containing plasmids encoding galM and galE. Expression of galE in E. coli was increased 300-fold when the gene was placed downstream of the tac promoter. The gene order for the gal-lac gene cluster of S. thermophilus is galE-galM-lacS-lacZ. The flanking regions of these genes were searched for consensus promoter sequences and further characterized by primer extension analysis. Analysis of mRNA levels for the gal and lac genes in S. thermophilus showed a strong reduction upon growth in medium containing glucose instead of lactose. The activities of the lac (lactose transport and beta-galactosidase) and gal (UDPglucose 4-epimerase) proteins of lactose- and glucose-grown S. thermophilus cells matched the mRNA levels. Images PMID:1694527

  18. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  19. Augmentation of CFTR maturation by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sawczak, Victoria; Zaidi, Atiya; Butler, Maya; Bennett, Deric; Getsy, Paulina; Zeinomar, Maryam; Greenberg, Zivi; Forbes, Michael; Rehman, Shagufta; Jyothikumar, Vinod; DeRonde, Kim; Sattar, Abdus; Smith, Laura; Corey, Deborah; Straub, Adam; Sun, Fei; Palmer, Lisa; Periasamy, Ammasi; Randell, Scott; Kelley, Thomas J.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase regulates novel endogenous S-nitrosothiol signaling pathways, and mice deficient in GSNO reductase are protected from airways hyperreactivity. S-nitrosothiols are present in the airway, and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) tend to have low S-nitrosothiol levels that may be attributed to upregulation of GSNO reductase activity. The present study demonstrates that 1) GSNO reductase activity is increased in the cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial (CFBE41o−) cells expressing mutant F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) compared with the wild-type CFBE41o− cells, 2) GSNO reductase expression level is increased in the primary human bronchial epithelial cells expressing mutant F508del-CFTR compared with the wild-type cells, 3) GSNO reductase colocalizes with cochaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop; Stip1) in human airway epithelial cells, 4) GSNO reductase knockdown with siRNA increases the expression and maturation of CFTR and decreases Stip1 expression in human airway epithelial cells, 5) increased levels of GSNO reductase cause a decrease in maturation of CFTR, and 6) a GSNO reductase inhibitor effectively reverses the effects of GSNO reductase on CFTR maturation. These studies provide a novel approach to define the subcellular location of the interactions between Stip1 and GSNO reductase and the role of S-nitrosothiols in these interactions. PMID:26637637

  20. Three-dimensional structure of rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase: a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Hoog, S S; Pawlowski, J E; Alzari, P M; Penning, T M; Lewis, M

    1994-01-01

    The 3.0-A-resolution x-ray structure of rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD, EC 1.1.1.50) was determined by molecular replacement using human placental aldose reductase as the search model. The protein folds into an alpha/beta or triose-phosphate isomerase barrel and lacks a canonical Rossmann fold for binding pyridine nucleotide. The structure contains a concentration of hydrophobic amino acids that lie in a cavity near the top of the barrel and that are presumed to be involved in binding hydrophobic substrates (steroids, prostaglandins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and inhibitors (nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs). At the distal end of this cavity lie three residues in close proximity that have been implicated in catalysis by site-directed mutagenesis--Tyr-55, Asp-50, and Lys-84. Tyr-55 is postulated to act as the general acid. 3 alpha-HSD shares significant sequence identity with other HSDs that belong to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily and these may show similar architecture. Other members of this family include prostaglandin F synthase and rho-crystallin. By contrast, 3 alpha-HSD shares no sequence identity with HSDs that are members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family but does contain the Tyr-Xaa-Xaa-Xaa-Lys consensus sequence implicated in catalysis in this family. In the 3 alpha-HSD structure these residues are on the periphery of the barrel and are unlikely to participate in catalysis. Images PMID:8146147

  1. Identification of a 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid reductase, FlRed, in an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akira; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Mochizuki, Shogo; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-16

    In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11). The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-L-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH), then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate (KDG) by a specific reductase, and metabolized through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Recently, the NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R that belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) superfamily was identified as the DEH-reductase in Sphingomonas sp. A1. We have subsequently noticed that an SDR-like enzyme gene, flred, occurred in the genome of an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. In the present study, we report on the deduced amino-acid sequence of flred and DEH-reducing activity of recombinant FlRed. The deduced amino-acid sequence of flred comprised 254 residues and showed 34% amino-acid identities to that of A1-R from Sphingomonas sp. A1 and 80%-88% to those of SDR-like enzymes from several alginolytic bacteria. Common sequence motifs of SDR-superfamily enzymes, e.g., the catalytic tetrad Asn-Lys-Tyr-Ser and the cofactor-binding sequence Thr-Gly-x-x-x-Gly-x-Gly in Rossmann fold, were completely conserved in FlRed. On the other hand, an Arg residue that determined the NADPH-specificity of Sphingomonas A1-R was replaced by Glu in FlRed. Thus, we investigated cofactor-preference of FlRed using a recombinant enzyme. As a result, the recombinant FlRed (recFlRed) was found to show high specificity to NADH. recFlRed exhibited practically no activity toward variety of aldehyde, ketone, keto ester, keto acid and aldose substrates except for DEH. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlRed is the NADH-dependent DEH-specific SDR of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01.

  2. FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM

    PubMed Central

    Zancan, Glaci T.; Bacila, Metry

    1964-01-01

    Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614–618. 1964.—A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 × 10−4m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 × 10−5m for NADH. The Q10, reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

  3. Characterization of erythrose reductases from filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteins with putative erythrose reductase activity have been identified in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium graminearum by in silico analysis. The proteins found in T. reesei and A. niger had earlier been characterized as glycerol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase, respectively. Corresponding genes from all three fungi were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Subsequently, they were used to establish optimal enzyme assay conditions. All three enzymes strictly require NADPH as cofactor, whereas with NADH no activity could be observed. The enzymatic characterization of the three enzymes using ten substrates revealed high substrate specificity and activity with D-erythrose and D-threose. The enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger herein showed comparable activities, whereas the one from F. graminearum reached only about a tenth of it for all tested substrates. In order to proof in vivo the proposed enzyme function, we overexpressed the erythrose reductase-encoding gene in T. reesei. An increased production of erythritol by the recombinant strain compared to the parental strain could be detected. PMID:23924507

  4. A mediated glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell based on printed carbon inks containing aldose dehydrogenase and laccase as anode and cathode.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Peter; Tuurala, Saara; Vaari, Anu; Valkiainen, Matti; Smolander, Maria; Leech, Dónal

    2012-03-10

    Enzyme electrodes show great potential for many applications, as biosensors and more recently as anodes and cathodes in biocatalytic fuel cells for power generation. Enzymes have advantages over metal catalysts, as they provide high specificity and reaction rates, while operating under mild conditions. Here we report on studies related to development of mass-producible, completely enzymatic printed glucose/oxygen biofuel cells. The cells are based on filter paper coated with conducting carbon inks containing mediators and laccase, for reduction of oxygen, or aldose dehydrogenase, for oxidation of glucose. Mediator performance in these printed formats is compared to relative rate constants for the enzyme-mediator reaction in solution, for a range of anode and cathode mediators. The power output and stability of fuels cells using an acidophilic laccase isolated from Trametes hirsuta is greater, at pH 5, than that for cells based on Melanocarpus albomyces laccase, that shows optimal activity closer to neutral pH, at pH 6. Highest power output, although of limited stability, was observed for ThL/ABTS cathodes, providing a maximum power density of 3.5 μWcm(-2) at 0.34 V, when coupled to an ALDH glucose anode mediated by an osmium complex. The stability of cell voltage above a threshold of 200 mV under a moderate 75 kΩ load is used to benchmark printed fuel cell performance. Highest stability was obtained for a printed fuel cell using osmium complexes as mediators of glucose oxidation by aldose dehydrogenase, and oxygen reduction by T. hirsuta laccase, maintaining cell voltage above 200 mV for 137 h at pH 5. These results provide promising directions for further development of mass-producible, completely enzymatic, printed biofuel cells.

  5. A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism. PMID:26536144

  6. Methionine sulfoxide reductase contributes to meeting dietary methionine requirements

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Kim, Geumsoo; Levine, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are present in all aerobic organisms. They contribute to antioxidant defenses by reducing methionine sulfoxide in proteins back to methionine. However, the actual in vivo roles of these reductases are not well defined. Since methionine is an essential amino acid in mammals, we hypothesized that methionine sulfoxide reductases may provide a portion of the dietary methionine requirement by recycling methionine sulfoxide. We used a classical bioassay, the growth of weanling mice fed diets varying in methionine, and applied it to mice genetically engineered to alter the levels of methionine sulfoxide reductase A or B1. Mice of all genotypes were growth retarded when raised on chow containing 0.10% methionine instead of the standard 0.45% methionine. Retardation was significantly greater in knockout mice lacking both reductases. We conclude that the methionine sulfoxide reductases can provide methionine for growth in mice with limited intake of methionine, such as may occur in the wild. PMID:22521563

  7. Structural Elucidation of Chalcone Reductase and Implications for Deoxychalcone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bomati, Erin K.; Austin, Michael B.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Dixon, Richard A.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    4,2′,4′,6′-tetrahydroxychalcone (chalcone) and 4,2′,4′-trihydroxychalcone (deoxychalcone) serve as precursors of ecologically important flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Deoxychalcone formation depends on chalcone synthase and chalcone reductase; however, the identity of the chalcone reductase substrate out of the possible substrates formed during the multistep reaction catalyzed by chalcone synthase remains experimentally elusive. We report here the three-dimensional structure of alfalfa chalcone reductase bound to the NADP+ cofactor and propose the identity and binding mode of its substrate, namely the non-aromatized coumaryl-trione intermediate of the chalcone synthase-catalyzed cyclization of the fully extended coumaryl-tetraketide thioester intermediate. In the absence of a ternary complex, the quality of the refined NADP+-bound chalcone reductase structure serves as a template for computer-assisted docking to evaluate the likelihood of possible substrates. Interestingly, chalcone reductase adopts the three-dimensional structure of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. The aldo/keto reductase fold is structurally distinct from all known ketoreductases of fatty acid biosynthesis, which instead belong to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The results presented here provide structural support for convergent functional evolution of these two ketoreductases that share similar roles in the biosynthesis of fatty acids/polyketides. In addition, the chalcone reductase structure represents the first protein structure of a member of the aldo/ketoreductase 4 family. Therefore, the chalcone reductase structure serves as a template for the homology modeling of other aldo/ketoreductase 4 family members, including the reductase involved in morphine biosynthesis, namely codeinone reductase. PMID:15970585

  8. Limited proteolysis of the nitrate reductase from spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Y; Ogura, N; Nakagawa, H

    1988-12-25

    The functional structure of assimilatory NADH-nitrate reductase from spinach leaves was studied by limited proteolysis experiments. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with trypsin, two stable products of 59 and 45 kDa were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fragment of 45 kDa was purified by Blue Sepharose chromatography. NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase activities were associated with this 45-kDa fragment which contains FAD, heme, and NADH binding fragment. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, two major peaks were observed by high performance liquid chromatography size exclusion gel filtration. FMNH2-nitrate reductase and reduced methyl viologen-nitrate reductase activities were associated with the first peak of 170 kDa which consists of two noncovalently associated (75-90-kDa) fragments. NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity, however, was associated with the second peak which consisted of FAD and NADH binding sites. Incubation of the 45-kDa fragment with S. aureus V8 protease produced two major fragments of 28 and 14 kDa which contained FAD and heme, respectively. These results indicate that the molybdenum, heme, and FAD components of spinach nitrate reductase are contained in distinct domains which are covalently linked by exposed hinge regions. The molybdenum domain appears to be important in the maintenance of subunit interactions in the enzyme complex.

  9. Enzyme toolbox: novel enantiocomplementary imine reductases.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Philipp N; Fademrecht, Silvia; Hofelzer, Sebastian; Pleiss, Jürgen; Leipold, Friedemann; Turner, Nicholas J; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-10-13

    Reducing reactions are among the most useful transformations for the generation of chiral compounds in the fine-chemical industry. Because of their exquisite selectivities, enzymatic approaches have emerged as the method of choice for the reduction of C=O and activated C=C bonds. However, stereoselective enzymatic reduction of C=N bonds is still in its infancy-it was only recently described after the discovery of enzymes capable of imine reduction. In our work, we increased the spectrum of imine-reducing enzymes by database analysis. By combining the currently available knowledge about the function of imine reductases with the experimentally uncharacterized diversity stored in protein sequence databases, three novel imine reductases with complementary enantiopreference were identified along with amino acids important for catalysis. Furthermore, their reducing capability was demonstrated by the reduction of the pharmaceutically relevant prochiral imine 2-methylpyrroline. These novel enzymes exhibited comparable to higher catalytic efficiencies than previously described enzymes, and their biosynthetic potential is highlighted by the full conversion of 2-methylpyrroline in whole cells with excellent selectivities.

  10. Soluble ascorbate free radical reductase in the human lens.

    PubMed

    Bando, M; Obazawa, H

    1994-01-01

    A major and a minor ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase were separated from the soluble fraction in the human lens cortex by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. These AFR reductases also exhibited diaphorase activity using dichlorophenolindophenol and ferricyanide as electron acceptors. The major AFR reductase was partially purified by 5'AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity column chromatography. This partially purified AFR reductase showed a single band of diaphorase activity in native polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. This activity band corresponded to the major protein observed in protein staining by Coomassie Brilliant Blue. However, the protein staining by Coomassie Brilliant Blue showed this activity band surrounded by diffused staining. Molecular weight of the partially purified AFR reductase was determined to be 32 kDa by gel filtration, and the apparent Km value for AFR was about 15 microM. This major lens AFR reductase could be distinguished from soluble Neurospora, Euglena and cucumber AFR reductases, and from two ubiquitous enzymes with reduction activity of AFR and/or foreign compounds, ie, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and DT-diaphorase, by their molecular weights, Km values and/or ion-exchange chromatographic behaviors.

  11. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-α-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-α-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  12. Transcripts of anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase and measurement of catechin and epicatechin in tartary buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeji; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  13. Docking and molecular dynamics studies at trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase active sites.

    PubMed

    Iribarne, Federico; Paulino, Margot; Aguilera, Sara; Murphy, Miguel; Tapia, Orlando

    2002-05-01

    A theoretical docking study on the active sites of trypanothione reductase (TR) and glutathione reductase (GR) with the corresponding natural substrates, trypanothione disulfide (T[S]2) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), is reported. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in order to check the robustness of the docking results. The energetic results are in agreement with previous experimental findings and show the crossed complexes have lower stabilization energies than the natural ones. To test DOCK3.5, four nitro furanic compounds, previously designed as potentially active anti-chagasic molecules, were docked at the GR and TR active sites with the DOCK3.5 procedure. A good correlation was found between differential inhibitory activity and relative interaction energy (affinity). The results provide a validation test for the use of DOCK3.5 in connection with the design of anti-chagasic drugs.

  14. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Jin Woong; Park, Phun Bum; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Kim, Sun-Ju; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Hyun Jho, Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions. PMID:24605062

  15. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Elizabeth E

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate (CH2-H4folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). The enzyme employs a noncovalently-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which accepts reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H and transfers them to CH2-H4folate. The reaction provides the sole source of CH3-H4folate, which is utilized by methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. MTHFR plays a key role in folate metabolism and in the homeostasis of homocysteine; mutations in the enzyme lead to hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in adults, and of neural tube defects in the fetus. The mutation also confers protection for certain types of cancers. This review presents the current knowledge of the enzyme, its biochemical characterization, and medical significance.

  16. Enhanced silver nanoparticle synthesis by optimization of nitrate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Gopalram, Shubaash; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructure materials are attracting a great deal of attention because of their potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity, especially in biological and pharmaceutical applications. The generation of silver nanoparticles using optimized nitrate reductase for the reduction of Ag(+) with the retention of enzymatic activity in the complex is being reported. This report involves the optimization of enzyme activity to bring about enhanced nanoparticle synthesis. Response surface methodology and central composite rotary design (CCRD) were employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of nitrate reductase by Bacillus licheniformis at pH 8. The four variables involved in the study of nitrate reductase were Glucose, Peptone, Yeast extract and KNO(3). Glucose had a significant effect on nitrate reductase production. The optimized medium containing (%) Glucose: 1.5, Peptone: 1, Yeast extract: 0.35 and KNO(3): 0.35 resulted in a nitrate reductase activity of 452.206 U/ml which is same as that of the central level. The medium A (showing least nitrate reductase activity) and the medium B (showing maximum nitrate reductase activity) were compared for the synthesis. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the particles exhibited a peak at 431 nm and the A(431) for the medium B was 2-fold greater than that of the medium A. The particles were also characterized using TEM. The particles synthesized using the optimized enzyme activity ranged from 10 to 80 nm and therefore can be extended to various medicinal applications.

  17. A comparison of glucose oxidase and aldose dehydrogenase as mediated anodes in printed glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells using ABTS/laccase cathodes.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Peter; Tuurala, Saara; Vaari, Anu; Valkiainen, Matti; Smolander, Maria; Leech, Dónal

    2012-10-01

    Current generation by mediated enzyme electron transfer at electrode surfaces can be harnessed to provide biosensors and redox reactions in enzymatic fuel cells. A glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell can provide power for portable and implantable electronic devices. High volume production of enzymatic fuel cell prototypes will likely require printing of electrode and catalytic materials. Here we report on preparation and performance of, completely enzymatic, printed glucose/oxygen biofuel cells. The cells are based on filter paper coated with conducting carbon inks, enzyme and mediator. A comparison of cell performance using a range of mediators for either glucose oxidase (GOx) or aldose dehydrogenase (ALDH) oxidation of glucose at the anode and ABTS and a fungal laccase, for reduction of oxygen at the cathode, is reported. Highest power output, although of limited stability, is observed for ALDH anodes mediated by an osmium complex, providing a maximum power density of 3.5 μW cm(-2) at 0.34 V, when coupled to a laccase/ABTS cathode. The stability of cell voltage in a biobattery format, above a threshold of 200 mV under a moderate 75 kΩ load, is used to benchmark printed fuel cell performance. Highest stability is obtained for printed fuel cells using ALDH, providing cell voltages over the threshold for up to 74 h, compared to only 2 h for cells with anodes using GOx. These results provide promising directions for further development of mass-producible, completely enzymatic, printed biofuel cells.

  18. Biochemical and structural characterization of quinoprotein aldose sugar dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HJ6: Mutational analysis of Tyr156 in the substrate-binding site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Woo; Wang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Ae-Kyung; Park, Hyun; Jeon, Sung-Jong

    2016-10-15

    The gene encoding a quinoprotein aldose sugar dehydrogenase (ASD) from Thermus thermophilus HJ6 (Tt_ASD) was cloned and sequenced; it comprised 1059 nucleotides encoding a protein containing 352 amino acids that had a predicted molecular mass of 38.9 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42.9% and 33.9% identities to the ASD proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Escherichia coli, respectively. The biochemical properties of Tt_ASD were characterized. The optimum pH for the oxidation of glucose was 7.0-7.5 and the optimum temperature was 70 °C. The half-life of heat inactivation for the apoenzyme was about 25 min at 85 °C. The enzyme was highly thermostable, and the activity of the pyrroloquinoline quinone-bound holoenzyme was not lost after incubation at 85 °C for 100 min. Tt_ASD could oxidize various sugars, including hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, in addition to alcohols. Structural analysis suggested that Tyr156 would be the substrate-binding residue. Two mutants, Y156A and Y156K, had impaired activities and affinities for all substrates and completely lost their activities for alcohols. This structural and mutational analysis of Tt_ASD demonstrates the crucial role of Tyr156 in determining substrate specificity.

  19. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  20. Enantioselective imine reduction catalyzed by imine reductases and artificial metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Gamenara, Daniela; Domínguez de María, Pablo

    2014-05-21

    Adding value to organic synthesis. Novel imine reductases enable the enantioselective reduction of imines to afford optically active amines. Likewise, novel bioinspired artificial metalloenzymes can perform the same reaction as well. Emerging proof-of-concepts are herein discussed.

  1. Exploration of Nitrate Reductase Metabolic Pathway in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Vinícius; Diniz, Carlos; Dorneles, Elaine M. S.; Barh, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Based on the ability of nitrate reductase synthesis, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars: Ovis and Equi. Due to the presence of nitrate reductase, the Equi biovar can survive in absence of oxygen. On the other hand, Ovis biovar that does not have nitrate reductase is able to adapt to various ecological niches and can grow on certain carbon sources. Apart from these two biovars, some other strains are also able to carry out the reduction of nitrate. The enzymes that are involved in electron transport chain are also identified by in silico methods. Findings about pathogen metabolism can contribute to the identification of relationship between nitrate reductase and the C. pseudotuberculosis pathogenicity, virulence factors, and discovery of drug targets. PMID:28316974

  2. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase in serum, plasma, or erythrocytes by such techniques as fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease,...

  3. Purification and characterization of assimilatory nitrite reductase from Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S; Shaila, M S; Rao, G R

    1996-07-01

    Nitrate assimilation in many plants, algae, yeasts and bacteria is mediated by two enzymes, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) and nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1). They catalyse the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrite to ammonia respectively. The nitrite reductase from an industrially important yeast, Candida utilis, has been purified to homogeneity. Purified nitrite reductase is a heterodimer and the molecular masses of the two subunits are 58 and 66 kDa. The native enzyme exhibits a molecular mass of 126 kDa as analysed by gel filtration. The identify of the two subunits of nitrite reductase was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibody for Cucurbita pepo leaf nitrite reductase. The presence of two different sized transcripts coding for the two subunits was confirmed by (a) in vitro translation of mRNA from nitrate-induced C. utilis followed by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translated products with heterologous nitrite reductase antibody and (b) Northern-blot analysis. The 66 kDa subunit is acidic in nature which is probably due to its phosphorylated status. The enzyme is stable over a range of temperatures. Both subunits can catalyse nitrite reduction, and the reconstituted enzyme, at a higher protein concentration, shows an activity similar to that of the purified enzyme. Each of these subunits has been shown to contain a few unique peptides in addition to a large number of common peptides. Reduced Methyl Viologen has been found to be as effective an electron donor as NADPH in the catalytic process, a phenomenon not commonly seen for nitrite reductases from other systems.

  4. Molybdenum effector of fumarate reductase repression and nitrate reductase induction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S; Lin, E C

    1987-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the presence of nitrate prevents the utilization of fumarate as an anaerobic electron acceptor. The induction of the narC operon encoding the nitrate reductase is coupled to the repression of the frd operon encoding the fumarate reductase. This coupling is mediated by nitrate as an effector and the narL product as the regulatory protein (S. Iuchi and E. C. C. Lin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3901-3905, 1987). The protein-ligand complex appears to control narC positively but frd negatively. In the present study we found that a molybdenum coeffector acted synergistically with nitrate in the regulation of frd and narC. In chlD mutants believed to be impaired in molybdate transport (or processing), full repression of phi(frd-lac) and full induction of phi(narC-lac) by nitrate did not occur unless the growth medium was directly supplemented with molybdate (1 microM). This requirement was not clearly manifested in wild-type cells, apparently because it was met by the trace quantities of molybdate present as a contaminant in the mineral medium. In chlB mutants, which are known to accumulate the Mo cofactor because of its failure to be inserted as a prosthetic group into proteins such as nitrate reductase, nitrate repression of frd and induction of narC were also intensified by molybdate supplementation. In this case a deficiency of the molybdenum coeffector might have resulted from enhanced feedback inhibition of molybdate transport (or processing) by the elevated level of the unutilized Mo cofactor. In addition, mutations in chlE, which are known to block the synthesis of the organic moiety of the Mo cofactor, lowered the threshold concentration of nitrate (< 1 micromole) necessary for frd repression and narC induction. These changes could be explained simply by the higher intracellular nitrate attainable in cells lacking the ability to destroy the effector. PMID:3301812

  5. Distribution of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activity among microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Koji; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Mura, Kiyoshi; Tokue, Chiyoko; Katoh, Tetzuya; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi

    2004-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) constitutes a large family of enzymes found in microorganisms, animals, and plants, but the detection of the activities of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductases (peroxiredoxin reductases) in cell extracts, and the purification based on peroxide reductase activity, have only been done in bacteria and Trypanosomatidae. A peroxiredoxin reductase (NADH oxidase) from a bacterium, Amphibacillus, displayed only poor activities in the presence of purified Prx from Saccharomyces or Synechocystis, while it is highly active in the presence of bacterial Prx. These results suggested that an enzyme system different from that in bacteria might exist for the reduction of Prx in yeast and cyanobacteria. Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activities were detected in cell extracts of Saccharomyces, Synechocystis, and Chlorella, and the enzyme activities of Saccharomyces and Chlorella were induced under vigorously aerated culture conditions and intensive light exposure conditions, respectively. Partial purification of Prx-linked peroxidase from the induced yeast cells indicated that the Prx-linked peroxidase system consists of two protein components, namely, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. This finding is consistent with the previous report on its purification based on its protein protection activity against oxidation [Chae et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 27670-27678 (1994)]. In this study we have confirmed that Prx-linked peroxidase activity are widely distributed, not only in bacteria species and Trypanosomatidae, but also in yeast and photosynthetic microorganisms, and showed reconstitution of the activity from partially purified interspecies components.

  6. Carbon-carbon double-bond reductases in nature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minmin; Hu, Haihong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Quan; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2014-08-01

    Reduction of C = C bonds by reductases, found in a variety of microorganisms (e.g. yeasts, bacteria, and lower fungi), animals, and plants has applications in the production of metabolites that include pharmacologically active drugs and other chemicals. Therefore, the reductase enzymes that mediate this transformation have become important therapeutic targets and biotechnological tools. These reductases are broad-spectrum, in that, they can act on isolation/conjugation C = C-bond compounds, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids, acid derivatives, and nitro compounds. In addition, several mutations in the reductase gene have been identified, some associated with diseases. Several of these reductases have been cloned and/or purified, and studies to further characterize them and determine their structure in order to identify potential industrial biocatalysts are still in progress. In this study, crucial reductases for bioreduction of C = C bonds have been reviewed with emphasis on their principal substrates and effective inhibitors, their distribution, genetic polymorphisms, and implications in human disease and treatment.

  7. Microsecond subdomain folding in dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Arai, Munehito; Iwakura, Masahiro; Matthews, C Robert; Bilsel, Osman

    2011-07-08

    The characterization of microsecond dynamics in the folding of multisubdomain proteins has been a major challenge in understanding their often complex folding mechanisms. Using a continuous-flow mixing device coupled with fluorescence lifetime detection, we report the microsecond folding dynamics of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a two-subdomain α/β/α sandwich protein known to begin folding in this time range. The global dimensions of early intermediates were monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer, and the dynamic properties of the local Trp environments were monitored by fluorescence lifetime detection. We found that substantial collapse occurs in both the locally connected adenosine binding subdomain and the discontinuous loop subdomain within 35 μs of initiation of folding from the urea unfolded state. During the fastest observable ∼550 μs phase, the discontinuous loop subdomain further contracts, concomitant with the burial of Trp residue(s), as both subdomains achieve a similar degree of compactness. Taken together with previous studies in the millisecond time range, a hierarchical assembly of DHFR--in which each subdomain independently folds, subsequently docks, and then anneals into the native conformation after an initial heterogeneous global collapse--emerges. The progressive acquisition of structure, beginning with a continuously connected subdomain and spreading to distal regions, shows that chain entropy is a significant organizing principle in the folding of multisubdomain proteins and single-domain proteins. Subdomain folding also provides a rationale for the complex kinetics often observed.

  8. Active sites of thioredoxin reductases: why selenoproteins?

    PubMed

    Gromer, Stephan; Johansson, Linda; Bauer, Holger; Arscott, L David; Rauch, Susanne; Ballou, David P; Williams, Charles H; Schirmer, R Heiner; Arnér, Elias S J

    2003-10-28

    Selenium, an essential trace element for mammals, is incorporated into a selected class of selenoproteins as selenocysteine. All known isoenzymes of mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (TrxRs) employ selenium in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH for reduction of Trx and other substrates, whereas the corresponding sequence in Drosophila melanogaster TrxR is -Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-COOH. Surprisingly, the catalytic competence of these orthologous enzymes is similar, whereas direct Sec-to-Cys substitution of mammalian TrxR, or other selenoenzymes, yields almost inactive enzyme. TrxRs are therefore ideal for studying the biology of selenocysteine by comparative enzymology. Here we show that the serine residues flanking the C-terminal Cys residues of Drosophila TrxRs are responsible for activating the cysteines to match the catalytic efficiency of a selenocysteine-cysteine pair as in mammalian TrxR, obviating the need for selenium. This finding suggests that the occurrence of selenoenzymes, which implies that the organism is selenium-dependent, is not necessarily associated with improved enzyme efficiency. Our data suggest that the selective advantage of selenoenzymes is a broader range of substrates and a broader range of microenvironmental conditions in which enzyme activity is possible.

  9. Sulfite reductase protects plants against sulfite toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-02-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rheinlands Ruhm') and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation.

  10. Uterine glutathione reductase activity: modulation by estrogens and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, M; Baiza-Gutman, L A; Pedrón, N N; Hicks, J J

    1999-10-29

    The aim of this study was to determine whether glutathione reductase activity in uterine tissue is regulated by sex hormones. In spayed rats uterine glutathione reductase was significantly increased by exogenous estrogen (P< 0.01), progesterone (P< 0.01) or estrogen plus progesterone (P<0.01). When enzyme activity is expressed per mg protein, daily administration of estrogen or progesterone induces a progressive increase of this enzyme between 24 to 48 h or 24 to 72 h of treatment, respectively. Whereas the combination of both steroids causes an earlier and higher increase in glutathione reductase activity at 24 h of treatment. Estradiol singly or in combination with progesterone induced the highest protein concentration in the uterus. Whereas uterine DNA concentration is only significantly affected by estradiol. Our results suggest that uterine glutathione reductase is regulated by estradiol and progesterone and may be involved in maintaining levels of reduced glutathione in the uterus. This compound may be required for control of the redox state of thiol groups and in detoxification reactions involving H2O2 and electrophylic substances. The antioxidant action of estrogens is partially due to the stimulation of glutathione reductase.

  11. HMG-CoA reductase guides migrating primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, M; Broihier, H T; Moore, L A; Lehmann, R

    1998-12-03

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is best known for catalysing a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, but it also participates in the production of a wide variety of other compounds. Some clinical benefits attributed to inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase are now thought to be independent of any serum cholesterol-lowering effect. Here we describe a new cholesterol-independent role for HMG-CoA reductase, in regulating a developmental process: primordial germ cell migration. We show that in Drosophila this enzyme is highly expressed in the somatic gonad and that it is necessary for primordial germ cells to migrate to this tissue. Misexpression of HMG-CoA reductase is sufficient to attract primordial germ cells to tissues other than the gonadal mesoderm. We conclude that the regulated expression of HMG-CoA reductase has a critical developmental function in providing spatial information to guide migrating primordial germ cells.

  12. Bacterial morphinone reductase is related to Old Yellow Enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    French, C E; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    Morphinone reductase, produced by Pseudomonas putida M10, catalyses the NADH-dependent saturation of the carbon-carbon double bond of morphinone and codeinone, and is believed to be involved in the metabolism of morphine and codeine. The structural gene encoding morphinone reductase, designated morB, was cloned from Ps. putida M10 genomic DNA by the use of degenerate oligonucleotide probes based on elements of the amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. Sequence analysis and structural characteristics indicated that morphinone reductase is related to the flavoprotein alpha/beta-barrel oxidoreductases, and is particularly similar to Old Yellow Enzyme of Saccharomyces spp. and the related oestrogen-binding protein of Candida albicans. Expressed sequence tags from several plant species show high homology to these enzymes, suggesting the presence of a family of enzymes conserved in plants and fungi. Although related bacterial proteins are known, morphinone reductase appears to be more similar to the eukaryotic proteins. Morphinone reductase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and has potential applications for the industrial preparation of semisynthetic opiates. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:8554504

  13. Purification and properties of proline reductase from Clostridium sticklandii.

    PubMed

    Seto, B; Stadtman, T C

    1976-04-25

    Proline reductase of Clostridium sticklandii is a membrane-bound protein and is released by treatment with detergents. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and is estimated by gel filtration and sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation to have a molecular weight of 298,000 to 327,000. A minimum molecular weight of 30,000 to 31,000 was calculated on the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino acid composition. Amino acid analysis showed a preponderance of acidic amino acids. No tryptophan was detected in the protein either spectrophotometrically or by amino acid analysis. A total of 20 sulfhydryl groups measured by titration of the reduced protein with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) is in agreement with 20 cystic acid residues determined in hydrolysates of performic acid-oxidized protein. No molybdenum, iron, or selenium was found in the pure protein. Although NADH is the physiological electron donor for the proline reductase complex, the purified 300,000 molecular weight reductase component is inactive in the presence of NADH in vitro. Dithiothreitol, in contrast, can serve as electron donor both for unpurified (putative proline reductase complex) and purified proline reductase in vitro.

  14. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Santos, André A.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major (34S/32S) and minor (33S/32S, 36S/32S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in 34S/32S (hereafter, 34εDsrAB) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in 33S, described as 33λDsrAB, is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3–0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in 34εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of 34εDsrAB is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where 34εr−p = 16.1‰ (r–p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the biogeochemical and geobiological sulfur isotope records in

  15. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, William D; Bradley, Alexander S; Santos, André A; Pereira, Inês A C; Johnston, David T

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major ((34)S/(32)S) and minor ((33)S/(32)S, (36)S/(32)S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in (34)S/(32)S (hereafter, [Formula: see text]) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in (33)S, described as [Formula: see text], is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3-0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in (34)εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of [Formula: see text] is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where (34)ε r-p = 16.1‰ (r-p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments ([Formula: see text] 17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments ([Formula: see text] 17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the

  16. Selenium in thioredoxin reductase: a mechanistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Brian M; Eckenroth, Brian E; Flemer, Stevenson; Hondal, Robert J

    2008-12-02

    Most high M(r) thioredoxin reductases (TRs) have the unusual feature of utilizing a vicinal disulfide bond (Cys(1)-Cys(2)) which forms an eight-membered ring during the catalytic cycle. Many eukaryotic TRs have replaced the Cys(2) position of the dyad with the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Here we demonstrate that Cys- and Sec-containing TRs are distinguished by the importance each class of enzymes places on the eight-membered ring structure in the catalytic cycle. This hypothesis was explored by studying the truncated enzyme missing the C-terminal ring structure in conjunction with oxidized peptide substrates to investigate the reduction and opening of this dyad. The peptide substrates were identical in sequence to the missing part of the enzyme, containing either a disulfide or selenylsulfide linkage, but were differentiated by the presence (cyclic) and absence (acyclic) of the ring structure. The ratio of these turnover rates informs that the ring is only of modest importance for the truncated mouse mitochondrial Sec-TR (ring/no ring = 32), while the ring structure is highly important for the truncated Cys-TRs from Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (ring/no ring > 1000). All three enzymes exhibit a similar dependence upon leaving group pK(a) as shown by the use of the acyclic peptides as substrates. These two factors can be reconciled for Cys-TRs if the ring functions to simultaneously allow for attack by a nearby thiolate while correctly positioning the leaving group sulfur atom to accept a proton from the enzymic general acid. For Sec-TRs the ring is unimportant because the lower pK(a) of the selenol relative to a thiol obviates its need to be protonated upon S-Se bond scission and permits physical separation of the selenol and the general acid. Further study of the biochemical properties of the truncated Cys and Sec TR enzymes demonstrates that the chemical advantage conferred on the eukaryotic enzyme by a selenol is the ability to

  17. Kinetic measurements of phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphomannose isomerase by direct analysis of phosphorylated aldose-ketose isomers using tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Chen, Ye; Leary, Julie A.

    2005-02-01

    A mass spectrometry based method for the direct determination of kinetic constants for phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) and phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) is described. PGI catalyzes the interconversion between glucose-6-phosphate (Glc6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (Fru6P) and PMI performs the same function between mannose-6-phosphate (Man6P) and Fru6P. These two enzymes are essential in the pathways of glycolytic or oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates and have been considered as potential therapeutic targets. Traditionally, they are assayed either by spectrophotometric detection of Glc6P with one or more coupling enzymes or by a colorimetric detection of Fru6P. However, no suitable assay for Man6P has been developed yet to study the reaction of PMI in the direction from Fru6P to Man6P. In the work presented herein, a general assay for the isomeric substrate-product pair between Glc6P and Fru6P or between Man6P and Fru6P was developed, with the aim of directly studying the kinetics of PGI and PMI in both directions. The 6-phosphorylated aldose and ketose isomers were distinguished based on their corresponding tandem mass spectra (MS2) obtained on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, and a multicomponent quantification method was utilized to determine the composition of binary mixtures. Using this method, the conversion between Fru6P and Glc6P and that between Fru6P and Man6P are directly monitored. The equilibrium constants for the reversible reactions catalyzed by PGI and PMI are measured to be 0.3 and 1.1, respectively, and the kinetic parameters for both substrates of PGI and PMI are also determined. The values of KM and Vmax for Fru6P as substrate of PMI are reported to be 0.15 mM and 7.78 [mu]mol/(min mg), respectively. All other kinetic parameters measured correlate well with those obtained using traditional methods, demonstrating the accuracy and reliability of this assay.

  18. A detoxifying oxygen reductase in the anaerobic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Vicente, João B; Tran, Vy; Pinto, Liliana; Teixeira, Miguel; Singh, Upinder

    2012-09-01

    We report the characterization of a bacterial-type oxygen reductase abundant in the cytoplasm of the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species at the site of local tissue inflammation. Resistance to oxygen-derived stress thus plays an important role in the pathogenic potential of E. histolytica. The genome of E. histolytica has four genes that encode flavodiiron proteins, which are bacterial-type oxygen or nitric oxide reductases and were likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The EhFdp1 gene has higher expression in virulent than in nonvirulent Entamoeba strains and species, hinting that the response to oxidative stress may be one correlate of virulence potential. We demonstrate that EhFdp1 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica and that the protein levels are markedly increased (up to ~5-fold) upon oxygen exposure. Additionally, we produced fully functional recombinant EhFdp1 and demonstrated that this enzyme is a specific and robust oxygen reductase but has poor nitric oxide reductase activity. This observation represents a new mechanism of oxygen resistance in the anaerobic protozoan pathogen E. histolytica.

  19. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  20. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  1. Obtaining partial purified xylose reductase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    Tomotani, Ester Junko; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Vitolo, Michele; de Almeida Felipe, Maria das Graças

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic bioconversion of xylose into xylitol by xylose reductase (XR) is an alternative for chemical and microbiological processes. The partial purified XR was obtained by using the following three procedures: an agarose column, a membrane reactor or an Amicon Ultra-15 50K Centrifugal Filter device at yields of 40%, 7% and 67%, respectively. PMID:24031408

  2. Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Genes from Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Casciotti, Karen L.; Ward, Bess B.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene (nirK) was discovered in several isolates of β-subdivision ammonia-oxidizing bacteria using PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR primers Cunir3 and Cunir4 were designed based on published nirK sequences from denitrifying bacteria and used to amplify a 540-bp fragment of the nirK gene from Nitrosomonas marina and five additional isolates of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Amplification products of the expected size were cloned and sequenced. Alignment of the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid (AA) sequences shows significant similarity (62 to 75% DNA, 58 to 76% AA) between nitrite reductases present in these nitrifiers and the copper-containing nitrite reductase found in classic heterotrophic denitrifiers. While the presence of a nitrite reductase in Nitrosomonas europaea is known from early biochemical work, preliminary sequence data from its genome indicate a rather low similarity to the denitrifier nirKs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial nitrifier nirK sequences indicates that the topology of the nirK tree corresponds to the 16S rRNA and amoA trees. While the role of nitrite reduction in the metabolism of nitrifying bacteria is still uncertain, these data show that the nirK gene is present in closely related nitrifying isolates from many oceanographic regions and suggest that nirK sequences retrieved from the environment may include sequences from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:11319103

  3. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375...

  6. Dihydrofolate reductase: A potential drug target in trypanosomes and leishmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccotto, Fabio; Martin, Andrew C. R.; Laskowski, Roman A.; Thornton, Janet M.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    1998-05-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase has successfully been used as a drug target in the area of anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-malarial chemotherapy. Little has been done to evaluate it as a drug target for treatment of the trypanosomiases and leishmaniasis. A crystal structure of Leishmania major dihydrofolate reductase has been published. In this paper, we describe the modelling of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei dihydrofolate reductases based on this crystal structure. These structures and models have been used in the comparison of protozoan, bacterial and human enzymes in order to highlight the different features that can be used in the design of selective anti-protozoan agents. Comparison has been made between residues present in the active site, the accessibility of these residues, charge distribution in the active site, and the shape and size of the active sites. Whilst there is a high degree of similarity between protozoan, human and bacterial dihydrofolate reductase active sites, there are differences that provide potential for selective drug design. In particular, we have identified a set of residues which may be important for selective drug design and identified a larger binding pocket in the protozoan than the human and bacterial enzymes.

  7. The Kinetics and Inhibition of the Enzyme Methemoglobin Reductase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splittgerber, A. G.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate biochemistry experiment which involves the preparation and kinetics of an oxidation-reduction enzyme system, methemoglobin reductase. A crude enzyme extract is prepared and assayed spectrophotometrically. The enzyme system obeys Michaelis-Menton kinetics with respect to both substrate and the NADH cofactor. (MLH)

  8. [Malate oxidation by mitochondrial succinate:ubiquinone-reductase].

    PubMed

    Belikova, Iu O; Kotliar, A B

    1988-04-01

    Succinate:ubiquinone reductase was shown to catalyze the oxidation of L- and D-stereoisomers of malate by artificial electron acceptors and ubiquinone. The rate of malate oxidation by succinate:ubiquinone reductase is by two orders of magnitude lower than that for the natural substrate--succinate. The values of kinetic constants for the oxidation of D- and L-stereoisomers of malate are equal to: V infinity = 0.1 mumol/min/mg protein, Km = 2 mM and V infinity = 0.05 mumol/min/mg protein, Km = 2 mM, respectively. The malate dehydrogenase activity is fully inhibited by the inhibitors of the dicarboxylate-binding site of the enzyme, i.e., N-ethylmaleimide and malonate and is practically insensitive to carboxin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquinone-binding center. The enol form of oxaloacetate was shown to be the product of malate oxidation by succinate:ubiquinone reductase. The kinetics of inhibition of the enzyme activity by the ketone and enol forms of oxaloacetate was studied. Both forms of oxaloacetate effectively inhibit the succinate:ubiquinone reductase reaction.

  9. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5–8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction. PMID:26412036

  10. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-28

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  11. Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Brian M.; Hondal, Robert J. . E-mail: Robert.Hondal@uvm.edu

    2006-08-04

    Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k {sub cat} of 610 min{sup -1} and a K {sub m} of 610 {mu}M using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k {sub cat} is 25% of the k {sub cat} of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate.

  12. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  13. The polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results.

  14. The Polymorphisms in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daijun; Mei, Qiang; Luo, Han; Tang, Bo; Yu, Peiwu

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism may modulate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but data from published studies are conflicting. The current meta-analysis was performed to address a more accurate estimation. A total of 41 (17,552 cases and 26,238 controls), 24(8,263 cases and 12,033 controls), 12(3,758 cases and 5,646 controls), and 13 (5,511 cases and 7,265 controls) studies were finally included for the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1289C, methione synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC, respectively. The data showed that the MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.90-0.96), while the MTRR 66G allele was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.18). Sub-group analysis by ethnicity revealed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC in Asians (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.89) and Caucasians (OR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.76-0.93) in recessive genetic model, while the MTRR 66GG genotype was found to significantly increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). No significant association was found between MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the risk of CRC. Cumulative meta-analysis showed no particular time trend existed in the summary estimate. Probability of publication bias was low across all comparisons illustrated by the funnel plots and Egger's test. Collectively, this meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR 677T allele might provide protection against CRC in worldwide populations, while MTRR 66G allele might increase the risk of CRC in Caucasians. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely, further studies were needed to confirm these results. PMID:22719222

  15. Treatment of hirsutism with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J R

    1986-05-01

    Much os the evidence gathered from studies of 5 alpha-reductase activity levels and androgen metabolism in the skin of hirsute women and the excretion of androgen metabolites by hirsute women indicates that 5 alpha-reduced androgens are probably of primary importance in hirsutism. Unfortunately, until very recently, the lack of a suitable 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor made it very difficult to adequately test the hypothesis that such an inhibitor might be useful in the treatment of hirsutism and certain other androgen-related diseases. No substance was available which had good, unambiguous activity in vivo as a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor. A number of 4-azasteroids have now been found to possess excellent 5 alpha-reductase inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Among other properties, several of these compounds show little or no affinity for the androgen receptor of rat prostate cytosol, they attenuate the growth promoting effect of T, but not DHT, on the ventral prostate of castrated male rats, they cause a marked reduction in prostatic DHT concentration in acutely treated rats and dogs and they bring about a significant decline in prostate size in chronically treated rats and dogs. It is expected that, in the near future, one or more of these highly active 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors will be tested in the clinic as a treatment for hirsutism. The results of those studies will be awaited with a great deal of interest since they should considerably advance our understanding of this disease and possibly contribute to its control.

  16. Assimilatory nitrate reductase from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Assimilatory nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H-nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.2) from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii can be purified to homogeneity by dye-ligand chromatography on blue-Sepharose. The purified enzyme, whose turnover number is 623 s-1, presents an optimum pH of 7.5 and Km values of 13 microM, 23 microM and 0.15 mM for NADH, NADPH and nitrate, respectively. The NADH-nitrate reductase activity exhibits an iso ping pong bi bi kinetic mechanism. The molecular weight of the native nitrate reductase is 467 400, while that of its subunits is 58 750. These values suggest an octameric structure for the enzyme, which has been confirmed by electron microscopy. As deduced from spectrophotometric and fluorimetric studies, the enzyme contains FAD and cytochrome b-557 as prosthetic groups. FAD is not covalently bound to the protein and is easily dissociated in diluted solutions from the enzyme. Its apparent Km value is 4 nM, indicative of a high affinity of the enzyme for FAD. The results of the quantitative analyses of prosthetic groups indicate that nitrate reductase contains four molecules of flavin, four heme irons, and two atoms of molybdenum. The three components act sequentially transferring electrons from reduced pyridine nucleotides to nitrate, thus forming a short electron transport chain along the protein. A mechanism is proposed for the redox interconversion of the nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation seems to occur by formation of a stable complex of reduced enzyme with cyanide or superoxide, while reactivation is a consequence of reoxidation of the inactive enzyme. Both reactions imply the transfer of only one electron.

  17. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N/sub 2/O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N/sub 2/O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N/sub 2/O reductase activity was inhibited by 0/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 ..mu..M) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 ..mu..M) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N/sub 2/O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater, estuarine, and alkaline-saline environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N/sub 2/O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N/sub 2/O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N/sub 2/O per m/sup 2/ per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  18. Measurement of nitrous oxide reductase activity in aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Paulsen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Denitrification in aquatic sediments was measured by an N2O reductase assay. Sediments consumed small added quantities of N2O over short periods (a few hours). In experiments with sediment slurries, N2O reductase activity was inhibited by O2, C2H2, heat treatment, and by high levels of nitrate (1 mM) or sulfide (10 mM). However, ambient levels of nitrate (<100 μM) did not influence activity, and moderate levels (about 150 μM) induced only a short lag before reductase activity began. Moderate levels of sulfide (<1 mM) had no effect on N2O reductase activity. Nitrous oxide reductase displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in sediments from freshwater (Km = 2.17 μM), estuarine (Km = 14.5 μM), and alkaline-saline (Km = 501 μM) environments. An in situ assay was devised in which a solution of N2O was injected into sealed glass cores containing intact sediment. Two estimates of net rates of denitrification in San Francisco Bay under approximated in situ conditions were 0.009 and 0.041 mmol of N2O per m2 per h. Addition of chlorate to inhibit denitrification in these intact-core experiments (to estimate gross rates of N2O consumption) resulted in approximately a 14% upward revision of estimates of net rates. These results were comparable to an in situ estimate of 0.022 mmol of N2O per m2 per h made with the acetylene block assay.

  19. Identification and characterization of 2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A reductase, the prototype of a novel class of dearomatizing reductases.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Christian; Estelmann, Sebastian; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Müller, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Boll, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The enzymatic dearomatization of aromatic ring systems by reduction represents a highly challenging redox reaction in biology and plays a key role in the degradation of aromatic compounds under anoxic conditions. In anaerobic bacteria, most monocyclic aromatic growth substrates are converted to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is then dearomatized to a conjugated dienoyl-CoA by ATP-dependent or -independent benzoyl-CoA reductases. It was unresolved whether or not related enzymes are involved in the anaerobic degradation of environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work, a previously unknown dearomatizing 2-naphthoyl-CoA reductase was purified from extracts of the naphthalene-degrading, sulphidogenic enrichment culture N47. The oxygen-tolerant enzyme dearomatized the non-activated ring of 2-naphthoyl-CoA by a four-electron reduction to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl-CoA. The dimeric 150 kDa enzyme complex was composed of a 72 kDa subunit showing sequence similarity to members of the flavin-containing 'old yellow enzyme' family. NCR contained FAD, FMN, and an iron-sulphur cluster as cofactors. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing the encoding gene catalysed 2-naphthoyl-CoA reduction. The identified NCR is a prototypical enzyme of a previously unknown class of dearomatizing arylcarboxyl-CoA reductases that are involved in anaerobic PAH degradation; it fundamentally differs from known benzoyl-CoA reductases.

  20. Crystal structures of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases and their relationship to isoflavone reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Tongpil; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Bedgar, Diana L.; Youn, Buhyun; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Gang, David R.; Halls, Steven C.; Park, HaJeung; Hilsenbeck, Jacqueline L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Kang, ChulHee

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of plant lignans and isoflavonoids in human health protection (e.g. for both treatment and prevention of onset of various cancers) as well as in plant biology (e.g. in defense functions and in heartwood development), systematic studies on the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have only recently begun. In this investigation, three NADPH-dependent aromatic alcohol reductases were comprehensively studied, namely pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), which are involved in central steps to the various important bioactive lignans and isoflavonoids. Of particular interest was in determining how differing regio- and enantiospecificities are achieved with the different enzymes, despite each apparently going through similar enone intermediates. Initially, the three-dimensional x-ray crystal structures of both PLR_Tp1 and PCBER_Pt1 were solved and refined to 2.5 and 2.2 A resolutions, respectively. Not only do they share high gene sequence similarity, but their structures are similar, having a continuous alpha/beta NADPH-binding domain and a smaller substrate-binding domain. IFR (whose crystal structure is not yet obtained) was also compared (modeled) with PLR and PCBER and was deduced to have the same overall basic structure. The basis for the distinct enantio-specific and regio-specific reactions of PCBER, PLR, and IFR, as well as the reaction mechanism and participating residues involved (as identified by site-directed mutagenesis), are discussed.

  1. Immunological approach to the regulation of nitrate reductase in Monoraphidium braunii.

    PubMed

    Díez, J; López-Ruiz, A

    1989-02-01

    The effects of different culture conditions on nitrate reductase activity and nitrate reductase protein from Monoraphidium braunii have been studied, using two different immunological techniques, rocket immunoelectrophoresis and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, to determine nitrate reductase protein. The nitrogen sources ammonium and glutamine repressed nitrate reductase synthesis, while nitrite, alanine, and glutamate acted as derepressors. There was a four- to eightfold increase of nitrate reductase activity and a twofold increase of nitrate reductase protein under conditions of nitrogen starvation versus growth on nitrate. Nitrate reductase synthesis was repressed in darkness. However, when Monoraphidium was grown under heterotrophic conditions with glucose as the carbon and energy source, the synthesis of nitrate reductase was maintained. With ammonium or darkness, changes in nitrate reductase activity correlated fairly well with changes in nitrate reductase protein, indicating that in both cases loss of activity was due to repression and not to inactivation of the enzyme. Experiments using methionine sulfoximine, to inhibit ammonium assimilation, showed that ammonium per se and not a product of its metabolism was the corepressor of the enzyme. The appearance of nitrate reductase activity after transferring the cells to induction media was prevented by cycloheximide and by 6-methylpurine, although in this latter case the effect was observed only in cells preincubated with the inhibitor for 1 h before the induction period.

  2. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  3. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  4. The X-ray crystal structure of APR-B, an atypical adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase from Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clare E M; Hughes, Richard K; McManus, Michael T; Lawson, David M; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-11-15

    Sulfonucleotide reductases catalyse the first reductive step of sulfate assimilation. Their substrate specificities generally correlate with the requirement for a [Fe4S4] cluster, where adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductases possess a cluster and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductases do not. The exception is the APR-B isoform of APS reductase from the moss Physcomitrella patens, which lacks a cluster. The crystal structure of APR-B, the first for a plant sulfonucleotide reductase, is consistent with a preference for APS. Structural conservation with bacterial APS reductase rules out a structural role for the cluster, but supports the contention that it enhances the activity of conventional APS reductases.

  5. The respiratory arsenate reductase from Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afkar, E.; Lisak, J.; Saltikov, C.; Basu, P.; Oremland, R.S.; Stolz, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The respiratory arsenate reductase from the Gram-positive, haloalkaliphile, Bacillus selenitireducens strain MLS10 was purified and characterized. It is a membrane bound heterodimer (150 kDa) composed of two subunits ArrA (110 kDa) and ArrB (34 kDa), with an apparent Km for arsenate of 34 ??M and Vmax of 2.5 ??mol min-1 mg-1. Optimal activity occurred at pH 9.5 and 150 g l-1 of NaCl. Metal analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) of the holoenzyme and sequence analysis of the catalytic subunit (ArrA; the gene for which was cloned and sequenced) indicate it is a member of the DMSO reductase family of molybdoproteins. ?? 2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase in Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Chilson, Oscar P.; Kelly-Chilson, Anne E.; Schneider, Julie D.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and cultured rhizobia were compared with those of the enzyme in soybean nodule host cytosol. Reductase from host cytosol differed from that in bacteroids in: (a) the effect of pH on enzymic activity, (b) the capacity to catalyze both reduction of pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid and NAD+-dependent proline oxidation, (c) apparent affinities for pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid, and (d) sensitivities to inhibition by NADP+ and proline. The K1 for proline inhibition of P5CR in bacteroid cytosol was 1.8 millimolar. The properties of P5CR in B. japonicum and bacteroid cytosol were similar. The specific activities of P5CR in the cytosolic fractions of the nodule host and the bacteroid compartment were also comparable. PMID:16668837

  7. Characterization of 12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Reductase in Corn

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1986-01-01

    12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, an enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway that converts linolenic acid to jasmonic acid, has been characterized from the kernel and seedlings of corn (Zea mays L.). The molecular weight of the enzyme, estimated by gel filtration, was 54,000. Optimum enzyme activity was observed over a broad pH range, from pH 6.8 to 9.0. The enzyme had a Km of 190 micromolar for its substrate, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. The preferred reductant was NADPH, for which the enzyme exhibited a Km of 13 micromolar, compared with 4.2 millimolar for NADH. Reductase activity was low in the corn kernel but increased five-fold by the fifth day after germination and then gradually declined. PMID:16664582

  8. [Properties of a nitrite reductase inhibitor protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Karapetian, A V; Nalbandian, R M

    1993-08-01

    The amino acid composition and major physico-chemical properties of the "nonblue" copper protein isolated earlier from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been determined. It has been found that the azurin oxidase, cytochrome c551 oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the enzyme are inhibited by this protein. The inhibition seems to be due to the protein interaction with the electron-accepting center of nitrite reductase.

  9. Early diagnosis and management of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Odame, I; Donaldson, M D; Wallace, A M; Cochran, W; Smith, P J

    1992-01-01

    Two siblings of Pakistani origin, karyotype 46 XY, were born with predominantly female external genitalia with minute phallus, bifid scrotum, urogenital sinus, and palpable gonads. The older sibling at the age of 8 days showed an adequate testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation. The diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was made at age 6 years when no 5 alpha-reduced glucocorticoid metabolites were detectable in urine even after tetracosactrin (Synacthen) stimulation. In the younger sibling the diagnosis of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency was provisionally made at the early age of 3 days on the basis of high urinary tetrahydrocortisol (THF)/allotetrahydrocortisol (5 alpha-THF) ratio and this ratio increased with age confirming the diagnosis. Plasma testosterone: dihydrotestosterone (DHT) ratio before and after hCG stimulation was within normal limits at age 3 days but was raised at age 9 months. Topical DHT cream application to the external genitalia promoted significant phallic growth in both siblings and in the older sibling corrective surgery was facilitated. In prepubertal male pseudohermaphrodites with normal or raised testosterone concentrations, phallic growth in response to DHT cream treatment could be an indirect confirmation of 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. Images Figure 1 PMID:1626992

  10. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Two Pseudomonas Flavoprotein Xenobiotic Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Blehert, David S.; Fox, Brian G.; Chambliss, Glenn H.

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding flavin mononucleotide-containing oxidoreductases, designated xenobiotic reductases, from Pseudomonas putida II-B and P. fluorescens I-C that removed nitrite from nitroglycerin (NG) by cleavage of the nitroester bond were cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The P. putida gene, xenA, encodes a 39,702-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that removes either the terminal or central nitro groups from NG and that reduces 2-cyclohexen-1-one but did not readily reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The P. fluorescens gene, xenB, encodes a 37,441-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that exhibits fivefold regioselectivity for removal of the central nitro group from NG and that transforms TNT but did not readily react with 2-cyclohexen-1-one. Heterologous expression of xenA and xenB was demonstrated in Escherichia coli DH5α. The transcription initiation sites of both xenA and xenB were identified by primer extension analysis. BLAST analyses conducted with the P. putida xenA and the P. fluorescens xenB sequences demonstrated that these genes are similar to several other bacterial genes that encode broad-specificity flavoprotein reductases. The prokaryotic flavoprotein reductases described herein likely shared a common ancestor with old yellow enzyme of yeast, a broad-specificity enzyme which may serve a detoxification role in antioxidant defense systems. PMID:10515912

  11. The existence and significance of a mitochondrial nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Nohl, Hans; Staniek, Katrin; Kozlov, Andrey V

    2005-01-01

    The physiological functions of nitric oxide (NO) are well established. The finding that the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is NO was totally unexpected. It was shown that NO is a reaction product of an enzymatically catalyzed, overall, 5-electron oxidation of guanidinium nitrogen from L-arginine followed by the release of the free radical species NO. NO is synthesized by a single protein complex supported by cofactors, coenzymes (such as tetrahydrobiopterin) and cytochrome P450. The latter can uncouple from substrate oxidation producing O2*- radicals. The research groups of Richter [Ghafourifar P, Richter C. Nitric oxide synthase activity in mitochondria. FEBS Lett 1997; 418: 291-296.] and Boveris [Giulivi C, Poderoso JJ, Boveris A. Production of nitric oxide by mitochondria. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 11038-11043.] identified a mitochondrial NO synthase (NOS). There are, however, increasing reports demonstrating that mitochondrial NO is derived from cytosolic NOS belonging to the Ca2+-dependent enzymes. NO was thought to control cytochrome oxidase. This assumption is controversial due to the life-time of NO in biological systems (millisecond range). We found a nitrite reductase in mitochondria which is of major interest. Any increase of nitrite in the tissue which is the first oxidation product of NO, for instance following NO donors, will stimulate NO-recycling via mitochondrial nitrite reductase. In this paper, we describe the identity and the function of mitochondrial nitrite reductase and the consequences of NO-recycling in the metabolic compartment of mitochondria.

  12. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Angelina J.; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Kisker, Oliver; Flynn, Evelyn; Underwood, Anne; Condron, Rosemary; Hogg, Philip J.

    2000-12-01

    Disulphide bonds in secreted proteins are considered to be inert because of the oxidizing nature of the extracellular milieu. An exception to this rule is a reductase secreted by tumour cells that reduces disulphide bonds in the serine proteinase plasmin. Reduction of plasmin initiates proteolytic cleavage in the kringle 5 domain and release of the tumour blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. New blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is critical for tumour expansion and metastasis. Here we show that the plasmin reductase isolated from conditioned medium of fibrosarcoma cells is the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase. Recombinant phosphoglycerate kinase had the same specific activity as the fibrosarcoma-derived protein. Plasma of mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumours contained several-fold more phosphoglycerate kinase, as compared with mice without tumours. Administration of phosphoglycerate kinase to tumour-bearing mice caused an increase in plasma levels of angiostatin, and a decrease in tumour vascularity and rate of tumour growth. Our findings indicate that phosphoglycerate kinase not only functions in glycolysis but is secreted by tumour cells and participates in the angiogenic process as a disulphide reductase.

  13. The effect of quercetin and galangin on glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Paulíková, Helena; Berczeliová, Elena

    2005-12-01

    Quercetin and galangin can change the activity of glutathione reductase. Quercetin (a catechol structure in the B-ring) and galangin (any hydroxyl group in the B-ring) have different biological activities but, both possess high antioxidant abilities. Quercetin during the antioxidative action, is converted into an oxidized products (o-semiquinone and o-quinone), and subsequently glutathionyl adducts may be formed or SH-enzyme can be inhibited. We have tried to see whether inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) can be influenced by preincubation of enzyme with NADPH (a creation of reduced form of enzyme, GRH(2)) and whether diaphorase activity of the enzyme is decreased by these flavonoids. The results confirmed that quercetin inhibits GRH(2) and inhibition is reduced by addition of EDTA or N-acetylcysteine. Both of flavonoids have no effect on diaphorase activity of glutathione reductase and this enzyme could increase the production of free radicals by catalysis of reduction of o-quinone during action of quercetin in vivo.

  14. Catalytic mechanism and substrate selectivity of aldo-keto reductases: insights from structure-function studies of Candida tenuis xylose reductase.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Regina; Wilson, David K; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2006-09-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) constitute a large protein superfamily of mainly NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases involved in carbonyl metabolism. Catalysis is promoted by a conserved tetrad of active site residues (Tyr, Lys, Asp and His). Recent results of structure-function relationship studies for xylose reductase (AKR2B5) require an update of the proposed catalytic mechanism. Electrostatic stabilization by the epsilon-NH3+ group of Lys is a key source of catalytic power of xylose reductase. A molecular-level analysis of the substrate binding pocket of xylose reductase provides a case of how a very broadly specific AKR achieves the requisite selectivity for its physiological substrate and could serve as the basis for the design of novel reductases with improved specificities for biocatalytic applications.

  15. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Are Essential for Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Rouf, Syed Fazle; Kitowski, Vera; Böhm, Oliver M.; Rhen, Mikael; Jäger, Timo; Bange, Franz-Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species represents a fundamental innate defense against microbes in a diversity of host organisms. Oxidative stress, amongst others, converts peptidyl and free methionine to a mixture of methionine-S- (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxides (Met-R-SO). To cope with such oxidative damage, methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB are known to reduce MetSOs, the former being specific for the S-form and the latter being specific for the R-form. However, at present the role of methionine sulfoxide reductases in the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial pathogens has not been fully detailed. Here we show that deletion of msrA in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhimurium increased susceptibility to exogenous H2O2, and reduced bacterial replication inside activated macrophages, and in mice. In contrast, a ΔmsrB mutant showed the wild type phenotype. Recombinant MsrA was active against free and peptidyl Met-S-SO, whereas recombinant MsrB was only weakly active and specific for peptidyl Met-R-SO. This raised the question of whether an additional Met-R-SO reductase could play a role in the oxidative stress response of S. Typhimurium. MsrC is a methionine sulfoxide reductase previously shown to be specific for free Met-R-SO in Escherichia (E.) coli. We tested a ΔmsrC single mutant and a ΔmsrBΔmsrC double mutant under various stress conditions, and found that MsrC is essential for survival of S. Typhimurium following exposure to H2O2, as well as for growth in macrophages, and in mice. Hence, this study demonstrates that all three methionine sulfoxide reductases, MsrA, MsrB and MsrC, facilitate growth of a canonical intracellular pathogen during infection. Interestingly MsrC is specific for the repair of free methionine sulfoxide, pointing to an important role of this pathway in the oxidative stress response of Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:22073230

  16. Regulation of Nitrate Reductase Activity in Corn (Zea mays L.) Seedlings by Endogenous Metabolites 1

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, L. E.; Hageman, R. H.

    1967-01-01

    Primary and secondary metabolites of inorganic nitrogen metabolism were evaluated as inhibitors of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) induction in green leaf tissue of corn seedlings. Nitrite, nitropropionic acid, ammonium ions, and amino acids were not effective as inhibitors of nitrate reductase activity or synthesis. Increasing α-amino nitrogen and protein content of intact corn seedlings by culture techniques significantly enhanced rather than decreased the potential for induction of nitrate reductase activity in excised seedlings. Secondary metabolites, derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine, were tested as inhibitors of induction of nitrate reductase. Of the 9 different phenylpropanoid compounds tested, only coumarin, trans-cinnamic and trans-o-hydroxycinnamic acids inhibited induction of nitrate reductase. While coumarin alone exhibited a relatively greater inhibitory effect on enzyme induction than on general protein synthesis (the latter measured by incorporation of labeled amino acids), this differential effect may have been dependent upon unequal rates of synthesis and accumulation with respect to the initial levels of nitrate reductase and general proteins. Because of the short half-life of nitrate reductase, inhibitors of protein synthesis in general could still achieve differential regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Coumarin did not inhibit nitrate reductase activity when added directly to the assay mixture at 5 mm. Carbamyl phosphate and its chemical derivative, cyanate, were found to be competitive (with nitrate) inhibitors of nitrate reductase. The data suggest that cyanate is the active inhibitor in the carbamyl phosphate preparations. PMID:16656715

  17. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Frankenberg, Nicole; Marino, Marco; Jahn, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrification products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an electron acceptor. The anaerobic expression of the discovered nitrite reductase activity was dependent on the regulatory system encoded by resDE. Mutation of the gene encoding the regulatory Fnr had no negative effect on dissimilatory nitrite reductase formation. PMID:9422613

  18. Structure of the Molybdenum Site of EEcherichia Coli Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Nelson, K.Johnson; Rajagopalan, K.V.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    We report a structural characterization of the molybdenum site of recombinant Escherichia coli trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme active site shows considerable similarity to that of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, in that, like DMSO reductase, the TMAO reductase active site can exist in multiple forms. Examination of the published crystal structure of TMAO oxidase from Shewanella massilia indicates that the postulated Mo coordination structure is chemically impossible. The presence of multiple active site structures provides a potential explanation for the anomalous features reported from the crystal structure.

  19. Components of glycine reductase from Eubacterium acidaminophilum. Cloning, sequencing and identification of the genes for thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin and selenoprotein PA.

    PubMed

    Lübbers, M; Andreesen, J R

    1993-10-15

    The genes encoding thioredoxin reductase (trxB), thioredoxin (trxA), protein PA of glycine reductase (grdA) and the first 23 amino acids of the large subunit of protein PC of glycine reductase (grdC) belonging to the reductive deamination systems present in Eubacterium acidaminophilum were cloned and sequenced. The proteins were products of closely linked genes with 314 codons (thioredoxin reductase), 110 codons (thioredoxin), and 158 codons (protein PA). The protein previously called 'atypically small lipoamide dehydrogenase' or 'electron transferring flavoprotein' could now conclusively be identified as a thioredoxin reductase (subunit mass of 34781 Da) by the alignment with the enzyme of Escherichia coli showing the same typical order of the corresponding domains. The thioredoxin (molecular mass of 11742 Da) deviated considerably from the known consensus sequence, even in the most strongly conserved redox-active segment WCGPC that was now GCVPC. The selenocysteine of protein PA (molecular mass of 16609 Da) was encoded by TGA. The protein was highly similar to those of Clostridium purinolyticum and Clostridium sticklandii involved in glycine reductase. Thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin of E. acidaminophilum could be successfully expressed in E. coli.

  20. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductases.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Steven A; Walker, Alexander M; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2017-02-01

    Cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase (CCR) catalyzes the reduction of hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) esters using NADPH to produce hydroxycinnamyl aldehyde precursors in lignin synthesis. The catalytic mechanism and substrate specificity of cinnamoyl-CoA reductases from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a strategic plant for bioenergy production, were deduced from crystal structures, site-directed mutagenesis, and kinetic and thermodynamic analyses. Although SbCCR1 displayed higher affinity for caffeoyl-CoA or p-coumaroyl-CoA than for feruloyl-CoA, the enzyme showed significantly higher activity for the latter substrate. Through molecular docking and comparisons between the crystal structures of the Vitis vinifera dihydroflavonol reductase and SbCCR1, residues threonine-154 and tyrosine-310 were pinpointed as being involved in binding CoA-conjugated phenylpropanoids. Threonine-154 of SbCCR1 and other CCRs likely confers strong substrate specificity for feruloyl-CoA over other cinnamoyl-CoA thioesters, and the T154Y mutation in SbCCR1 led to broader substrate specificity and faster turnover. Through data mining using our structural and biochemical information, four additional putative CCR genes were discovered from sorghum genomic data. One of these, SbCCR2, displayed greater activity toward p-coumaroyl-CoA than did SbCCR1, which could imply a role in the synthesis of defense-related lignin. Taken together, these findings provide knowledge about critical residues and substrate preference among CCRs and provide, to our knowledge, the first three-dimensional structure information for a CCR from a monocot species.

  1. Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase-Dependent Redox Networks in Platyhelminth Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Platyhelminth parasites cause chronic infections that are a major cause of disability, mortality, and economic losses in developing countries. Maintaining redox homeostasis is a major adaptive problem faced by parasites and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. Platyhelminth parasites possess a streamlined thiol-based redox system in which a single enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains, supplies electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thioredoxin (Trx). TGR has been validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis. Recent Advances: In addition to glutathione (GSH) and Trx reduction, TGR supports GSH-independent deglutathionylation conferring an additional advantage to the TGR redox array. Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the TR activity does not require the Grx domain, while the glutathione reductase and deglutathionylase activities depend on the Grx domain, which receives electrons from the TR domains. The search for TGR inhibitors has identified promising drug leads, notably oxadiazole N-oxides. Critical Issues: A conspicuous feature of platyhelminth TGRs is that their Grx-dependent activities are temporarily inhibited at high GSSG concentrations. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon and its biological relevance are not completely understood. Future Directions: The functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs encoded in platyhelminth genomes remains to be further assessed to thoroughly understand the TGR-dependent redox network. Optimization of TGR inhibitors and identification of compounds targeting other parasite redox enzymes are good options to clinically develop relevant drugs for these neglected, but important diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 735–745. PMID:22909029

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T: Hypoplastic Left Heart and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Kimberly J; Olivero, Anthony D; Haw, Marcus P; Vettukattil, Joseph J

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of congenital heart defects is higher in infants with mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The MTHFR C677T gene decreases the bioavailability of folate and increases plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for thrombosis. There have been no reported cases in the literature on the clinical implications of this procoagulable state in the setting of cyanotic heart disease, which itself has prothrombotic predisposition. Two patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome developed postoperative thrombotic complications, both were homozygous for MTHFR C677T. We present these cases and highlight the implications of MTHFR mutation in the management of complex congenital heart disease.

  3. Terpenoids from Diplophyllum taxifolium with quinone reductase-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Jiao-Zhen; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Two new ent-prenylaromadendrane-type diterpenoids, diplotaxifols A (1) and B (2), a new ent-eudesmol, ent-eudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-6α,12-diol (3), eight new eudesmanolides enantiomers (4-11) of the corresponding compounds from higher plants along with four known ent-eudesmanolides (12-15) were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of Chinese liverwort Diplophyllum taxifolium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, NMR and IR spectral data, and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The quinone reductase-inducing activity of the compounds was evaluated.

  4. Applications of Carboxylic Acid Reductases in Oleaginous Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Michael G.; Linger, Jeffrey; McGeehan, John; Tyo, Keith; Beckham, Gregg

    2016-04-24

    Carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) are recently emerging reductive enzymes for the direct production of aldehydes from biologically-produced carboxylic acids. Recent work has demonstrated that these powerful enzymes are able to reduce a very broad range of volatile- to long-chain fatty acids as well as aromatic acids. Here, we express four CAR enzymes from different fungal origins to test their activity against fatty acids commonly produced in oleaginous microbes. These in vitro results will inform metabolic engineering strategies to conduct mild biological reduction of carboxylic acids in situ, which is conventionally done via hydrotreating catalysis at high temperatures and hydrogen pressures.

  5. Anti-diabetic and anti-Alzheimer's disease activities of Angelica decursiva.

    PubMed

    Yousof Ali, Md; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitute two global health issues. DM is an ever-increasing epidemic affecting millions of elderly people worldwide, causing major repercussions on patients' daily lives, mostly due to chronic complications. Complications from DM can affect the brain, thereby characterizing DM as a risk factor for AD. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of different parts of 12 Angelica species against α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The methanol extract of Angelica decursiva exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, AChE, and BChE and so was selected for further investigation. Repeated column chromatography based on bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded seven compounds (1-7). Among these compounds, nodakenin (1), nodakenetin (2), umbelliferone (3), cis-3'-acetyl-4'-angeloylkhellactone (4), 3'(R)-O-acetyl-4'(S)-O-tigloylkhellactone (5), isorutarine (6), and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) exhibited potent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, PTP1B, rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), AChE, BChE, and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Our results clearly indicate the potential inhibition of α-glucosidase, PTP1B, RLAR, AChE, BChE, and BACE1 by A. decursiva as well as its isolated constituents, which could be further explored to develop therapeutic modalities for the treatment of DM and AD.

  6. A Novel NADPH-dependent flavoprotein reductase from Bacillus megaterium acts as an efficient cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Milhim, Mohammed; Gerber, Adrian; Neunzig, Jens; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-08-10

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) require electron transfer partners to catalyze substrate conversions. With regard to biotechnological approaches, the elucidation of novel electron transfer proteins is of special interest, as they can influence the enzymatic activity and specificity of the P450s. In the current work we present the identification and characterization of a novel soluble NADPH-dependent diflavin reductase from Bacillus megaterium with activity towards a bacterial (CYP106A1) and a microsomal (CYP21A2) P450 and, therefore, we referred to it as B. megaterium cytochrome P450 reductase (BmCPR). Sequence analysis of the protein revealed besides the conserved FMN-, FAD- and NADPH-binding motifs, the presence of negatively charged cluster, which is thought to represent the interaction domain with P450s and/or cytochrome c. BmCPR was expressed and purified to homogeneity in Escherichia coli. The purified BmCPR exhibited a characteristic diflavin reductase spectrum, and showed a cytochrome c reducing activity. Furthermore, in an in vitro reconstituted system, the BmCPR was able to support the hydroxylation of testosterone and progesterone with CYP106A1 and CYP21A2, respectively. Moreover, in view of the biotechnological application, the BmCPR is very promising, as it could be successfully utilized to establish CYP106A1- and CYP21A2-based whole-cell biotransformation systems, which yielded 0.3g/L hydroxy-testosterone products within 8h and 0.16g/L 21-hydroxyprogesterone within 6h, respectively. In conclusion, the BmCPR reported herein owns a great potential for further applications and studies and should be taken into consideration for bacterial and/or microsomal CYP-dependent bioconversions.

  7. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  8. Human Neuroglobin Functions as a Redox-regulated Nitrite Reductase*

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, Mauro; Tejero, Jesús; Basu, Swati; Azarov, Ivan; Wang, Xunde; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Frizzell, Sheila; Jayaraman, Thottala; Geary, Lisa; Shapiro, Calli; Ho, Chien; Shiva, Sruti; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroglobin is a highly conserved hemoprotein of uncertain physiological function that evolved from a common ancestor to hemoglobin and myoglobin. It possesses a six-coordinate heme geometry with proximal and distal histidines directly bound to the heme iron, although coordination of the sixth ligand is reversible. We show that deoxygenated human neuroglobin reacts with nitrite to form nitric oxide (NO). This reaction is regulated by redox-sensitive surface thiols, cysteine 55 and 46, which regulate the fraction of the five-coordinated heme, nitrite binding, and NO formation. Replacement of the distal histidine by leucine or glutamine leads to a stable five-coordinated geometry; these neuroglobin mutants reduce nitrite to NO ∼2000 times faster than the wild type, whereas mutation of either Cys-55 or Cys-46 to alanine stabilizes the six-coordinate structure and slows the reaction. Using lentivirus expression systems, we show that the nitrite reductase activity of neuroglobin inhibits cellular respiration via NO binding to cytochrome c oxidase and confirm that the six-to-five-coordinate status of neuroglobin regulates intracellular hypoxic NO-signaling pathways. These studies suggest that neuroglobin may function as a physiological oxidative stress sensor and a post-translationally redox-regulated nitrite reductase that generates NO under six-to-five-coordinate heme pocket control. We hypothesize that the six-coordinate heme globin superfamily may subserve a function as primordial hypoxic and redox-regulated NO-signaling proteins. PMID:21296891

  9. A mutant of barley lacking NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    A mutant of barley, LaPr 88/29, deficient in peroxisomal NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been identified. Compared to the wild type the activities of NADH-HPR and NADPH-HPR were severely reduced but the mutant was still capable of fixing CO{sub 2} at rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type in air. Although lacking an enzyme in the main photorespiratory pathway, there appeared to be little disruption to photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C) serine were similar in both mutant and wild type. LaPr 88/29 has been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase (GR) and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-HPR activity is due to the NADH-HPR enzyme. Immunological studies, using antibodies raised against spinach HPR, have shown that the NADH-dependent enzyme protein is absent in LaPr 88/29 but there appears to be enhanced synthesis of the NADPH-dependent enzyme protein.

  10. Fluorescent analogues of methotrexate: characterization and interaction with dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A A; Kempton, R J; Anstead, G M; Freisheim, J H

    1983-01-18

    The dansylated derivatives of lysine and ornithine analogues of methotrexate exhibit fluorescence properties characteristic of the dansyl moiety with an excitation at 328 nm and an emission maximum at 580 nm in aqueous media. As in the case of dansyl amino acids, the fluorescence emission is dependent upon the polarity of the medium. In solvents of low dielectric constant there is an enhancement of the dansyl fluorescence intensity as well as a shift to shorter wavelengths. The dansylated analogues show a reduction in the quantum yields as compared to N epsilon-dansyl-L-lysine and 5-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The absorption spectra of the two dansyl analogues are similar to the spectra of the parent basic amino acid precursors but with reduced molar extinction values. The two fluorescent analogues of methotrexate were found to be potent inhibitors of purified dihydrofolate reductases from Lactobacillus casei and from chicken liver. The binding of these fluorescent analogues to either dihydrofolate reductase resulted in 10-15-nm blue shift of the ligand emission maxima and a 2-5-fold enhancement of the emission. These fluorescent properties of the bound ligands indicate a possible interaction of the dansyl moiety with a region on the enzyme molecule which is more hydrophobic relative to the surrounding solvent.

  11. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M. )

    1989-07-25

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase.

  12. Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Slabaugh, M.B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1986-11-01

    Repeated passage of vaccinia virus in increasing concentrations of hydroxyurea followed by plaque purification resulted in the isolation of variants capable of growth in 5 mM hydroxyurea, a drug concentration which inhibited the reproduction of wild-type vaccinia virus 1000-fold. Analyses of viral protein synthesis by using (/sup 35/S)methionine pulse-labeling at intervals throughout the infection cycle revealed that all isolates overproduced a 34,000-molecular-weight (MW) early polypeptide. Measurement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity after infection indicated that 4- to 10-fold more activity was induced by hydroxyurea-resistant viruses than by the wild-type virus. A two-step partial purification resulted in a substantial enrichment for the 34,000-MW protein from extracts of wild-type and hydroxyurea-resistant-virus-infected, but not mock-infected, cells. In the presence of the drug, the isolates incorporated (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA earlier and a rate substantially greater than that of the wild type, although the onset of DNA synthesis was delayed in both cases. The drug resistance trait was markedly unstable in all isolates. In the absence of selective pressure, plaque-purified isolated readily segregated progeny that displayed a wide range of resistance phenotypes. The results of this study indicate that vaccinia virus encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase which is 34,000-MW early protein whose overproduction confers hydroxyurea resistance on reproducing viruses.

  13. Increased nitrite reductase activity of fetal versus adult ovine hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Arlin B.; Tiso, Mauro; Verma, Shilpa T.; Lo, Jennifer; Joshi, Mahesh S.; Azarov, Ivan; Longo, Lawrence D.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Power, Gordon G.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nitrite, NO2−, serves as a circulating reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity that is activated during physiological and pathological hypoxia. One of the intravascular mechanisms for nitrite conversion to NO is a chemical nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin. The rate of NO production from this reaction is increased when hemoglobin is in the R conformation. Because the mammalian fetus exists in a low-oxygen environment compared with the adult and is exposed to episodes of severe ischemia during the normal birthing process, and because fetal hemoglobin assumes the R conformation more readily than adult hemoglobin, we hypothesized that nitrite reduction to NO may be enhanced in the fetal circulation. We found that the reaction was faster for fetal than maternal hemoglobin or blood and that the reactions were fastest at 50–80% oxygen saturation, consistent with an R-state catalysis that is predominant for fetal hemoglobin. Nitrite concentrations were similar in blood taken from chronically instrumented normoxic ewes and their fetuses but were elevated in response to chronic hypoxia. The findings suggest an augmented nitrite reductase activity of fetal hemoglobin and that the production of nitrite may participate in the regulation of vascular NO homeostasis in the fetus. PMID:19028797

  14. Dimethyl Fumarate Induces Glutathione Recycling by Upregulation of Glutathione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christina; Dietrich, Michael; Herrmann, Ann-Kathrin; Schacht, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DMF activates the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) leading to increased synthesis of the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and prominent neuroprotection in vitro. We previously demonstrated that DMF is capable of raising GSH levels even when glutathione synthesis is inhibited, suggesting enhanced GSH recycling. Here, we found that DMF indeed induces glutathione reductase (GSR), a homodimeric flavoprotein that catalyzes GSSG reduction to GSH by using NADPH as a reducing cofactor. Knockdown of GSR using a pool of E. coli RNase III-digested siRNAs or pharmacological inhibition of GSR, however, also induced the antioxidant response rendering it impossible to verify the suspected attenuation of DMF-mediated neuroprotection. However, in cystine-free medium, where GSH synthesis is abolished, pharmacological inhibition of GSR drastically reduced the effect of DMF on glutathione recycling. We conclude that DMF increases glutathione recycling through induction of glutathione reductase. PMID:28116039

  15. Nitrate metabolism in tobacco leaves overexpressing Arabidopsis nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Susie; Le Lay, Pascaline; Sanchez-Tamburrrino, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC:1.7.7.1) or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines. The impact of increasing the activity of AtNiR produced an increase in leaf protein and a stay-green phenotype in the primary transformed AtNiR population. Investigation of the T1 homozygous population demonstrated elevated nitrate reductase (NR) activity, reductions in leaf nitrite and nitrate and the amino acids proline, glutamine and glutamate. Chlorophyl content of the transgenic lines was increased, as evidenced by the stay-green phenotype. This reveals the importance of NiR in primary nitrogen assimilation and how modification of this key enzyme affects both the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of tobacco plants.

  16. Properties of the arsenate reductase of plasmid R773.

    PubMed

    Gladysheva, T B; Oden, K L; Rosen, B P

    1994-06-14

    Resistance to toxic oxyanions in Escherichia coli is conferred by the ars operon carried on plasmid R773. The gene products of this operon catalyze extrusion of antimonials and arsenicals from cells of E. coli, thus providing resistance to those toxic oxyanions. In addition, resistance to arsenate is conferred by the product of the arsC gene. In this report, purified ArsC protein was shown to catalyze reduction of arsenate to arsenite. The enzymatic activity of the ArsC protein required glutaredoxin as a source of reducing equivalents. Other reductants, including glutathione and thioredoxin, were not effective electron donors. A spectrophotometric assay was devised in which arsenate reduction was coupled to NADPH oxidation. The results obtained with the coupled assay corresponded to those found by direct reduction of radioactive arsenate to arsenite. The only substrate of the reaction was arsenate (Km = 8 mM); other oxyanions including phosphate, sulfate, and antimonate were not reduced. Phosphate and sulfate were weak inhibitors, while the product, arsenite, was a stronger inhibitor (Ki = 0.1 mM). Arsenate reductase activity exhibited a pH optimum of 6.3-6.8. These results indicate that the ArsC protein is a novel reductase, and elucidation of its enzymatic mechanism should be of interest.

  17. Sequence and properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase from Enterobacter cloacae PB2.

    PubMed

    French, C E; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1996-11-01

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase, which reductively liberates nitrite from nitrate esters, is related to old yellow enzyme. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase follows a ping-pong mechanism with competitive substrate inhibition by NADPH, is strongly inhibited by steroids, and is capable of reducing the unsaturated bond of 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  18. Determination of the specific activities of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of methionine sulfoxide reductase A and methionine sulfoxide reductase B activities in mouse liver is described. The method is based on detection of the 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl derivative of L-methionine (dabsyl Met), the ...

  19. QTL analysis of ferric reductase activity in the model legume lotus japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological and molecular studies have demonstrated that iron accumulation from the soil into Strategy I plants can be limited by ferric reductase activity. An initial study of Lotus japonicus ecotypes Miyakojima MG-20 and Gifu B-129 identified significant leaf chlorosis and ferric reductase activ...

  20. Biliverdin Reductase Mediates Hypoxia-Induced EMT via PI3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Yao, Ying; Han, Min; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wei, Juncheng; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding; Xu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia in the renal parenchyma is thought to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to fibrogenesis and ultimately end-stage renal failure. Biliverdin reductase, recently identified as a serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase that may activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is upregulated in response to reactive oxygen species that may accompany hypoxia. We investigated this potential role of biliverdin reductase in hypoxia-induced renal tubular EMT. Expression of biliverdin reductase was upregulated in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cultured in hypoxic conditions (1% O2), and this was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Inhibiting PI3K reversed these changes, consistent with EMT. In normoxic conditions, overexpression of biliverdin reductase promoted similar characteristics of EMT, which were also reversed by inhibiting PI3K. Furthermore, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown biliverdin reductase, we demonstrated that the enzyme associates with phosphorylated Akt and mediates the hypoxia-induced EMT phenotype. In vivo, expression of biliverdin reductase increased in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats, and immunohistochemistry of serial sections demonstrated similar localization of phosphorylated Akt and biliverdin reductase. In conclusion, biliverdin reductase mediates hypoxia-induced EMT through a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:18184861

  1. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  2. Comparison of finasteride (Proscar), a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, and various commercial plant extracts in in vitro and in vivo 5 alpha reductase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, L; Primka, R L; Berman, C; Vergult, G; Gabriel, M; Pierre-Malice, M; Gibelin, B

    1993-01-01

    Human prostate was used as a source of 5 alpha reductase. Compounds were incubated with an enzyme preparation and [3H]testosterone. [3H]-dihydrotestosterone production was measured to calculate 5 alpha reductase activity. IC50 values (ng/ml) were finasteride = 1; Permixon = 5,600; Talso = 7,000; Strogen Forte = 31,000; Prostagutt = 40,000; and Tadenan = 63,000. Bazoton and Harzol had no activity at concentrations up to 500,000 ng/ml. In castrate rats stimulated with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), finasteride, but not Permixon or Bazoton, inhibited T stimulated prostate growth, while none of the three compounds inhibited DHT stimulated growth. These results demonstrate that finasteride inhibits 5 alpha reductase, while Permixon and Bazoton have neither anti-androgen nor 5 alpha reductase inhibitory activity. In addition, in a 7 day human clinical trial, finasteride, but not Permixon or placebo, decreased serum DHT in men, further confirming the lack of 5 alpha reductase inhibition by Permixon. Finasteride and the plant extracts listed above do not inhibit the binding of DHT to the rat prostatic androgen receptor (concentrations to 100 micrograms/ml). Based on these results, it is unlikely that these plant extracts would shrink the prostate by inhibiting androgen action or 5 alpha reductase.

  3. Isolation of ascorbate free radical reductase from rabbit lens soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Bando, Masayasu; Inoue, Takashi; Oka, Mikako; Nakamura, Kayako; Kawai, Kenji; Obazawa, Hajime; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Takehana, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    Ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase with diaphorase activity was isolated from the rabbit lens soluble fraction to characterise some molecular properties of the enzyme. The isolation was accomplished using gel filtration (Sephadex G-75 superfine or Sephacryl S-200 HR), affinity chromatography (Affi-Gel Blue), native isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A major soluble AFR reductase was found at an isoelectric point of 8.4 and a molecular weight of 31 kDa, and a few minor enzymes were also detected in the range of pI 7.0-8.6. An unknown N-terminal partial amino acid sequence was determined in one peptide fragment prepared from the major enzyme fraction. From the sequence analysis, it is discussed that the lens soluble AFR reductase may differ from NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase reported to be involved in the membrane-bound AFR reductase activity of mitochondria, microsomes and plasma membrane.

  4. Trypanothione Reductase: A Viable Chemotherapeutic Target for Antitrypanosomal and Antileishmanial Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Omar F.

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are two debilitating disease groups caused by parasites of Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. and affecting millions of people worldwide. A brief outline of the potential targets for rational drug design against these diseases are presented, with an emphasis placed on the enzyme trypanothione reductase. Trypanothione reductase was identified as unique to parasites and proposed to be an effective target against trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. The biochemical basis of selecting this enzyme as a target, with reference to the simile and contrast to human analogous enzyme glutathione reductase, and the structural aspects of its active site are presented. The process of designing selective inhibitors for the enzyme trypanothione reductase has been discussed. An overview of the different chemical classes of inhibitors of trypanothione reductase with their inhibitory activities against the parasites and their prospects as future chemotherapeutic agents are briefly revealed. PMID:21901070

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate potently inhibits the in vitro activity of hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase[S

    PubMed Central

    Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Spina, Michele; Tran, Chi Nhan; Falconi, Maurizio; Eleuteri, Anna Maria; Angeletti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the rate-controlling enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and owing to its biological and pharmacological relevance, researchers have investigated several compounds capable of modulating its activity with the hope of developing new hypocholesterolemic drugs. In particular, polyphenol-rich extracts were extensively tested for their cholesterol-lowering effect as alternatives, or adjuvants, to the conventional statin therapies, but a full understanding of the mechanism of their action has yet to be reached. Our work reports on a detailed kinetic and equilibrium study on the modulation of HMGR by the most-abundant catechin in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Using a concerted approach involving spectrophotometric, optical biosensor, and chromatographic analyses, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis on the cofactor site of HMGR, we have demonstrated that EGCG potently inhibits the in vitro activity of HMGR (Ki in the nanomolar range) by competitively binding to the cofactor site of the reductase. Finally, we evaluated the effect of combined EGCG-statin administration. PMID:21357570

  6. A new cotton SDR family gene encodes a polypeptide possessing aldehyde reductase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activities.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Song, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Qin, Yong-Mei

    2010-03-01

    To understand regulatory mechanisms of cotton fiber development, microarray analysis has been performed for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Based on this, a cDNA (GhKCR3) encoding a polypeptide belonging to short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase family was isolated and cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding a polypeptide of 328 amino acid residues. Following its overexpression in bacterial cells, the purified recombinant protein specifically uses NADPH to reduce a variety of short-chain aldehydes. A fragment between Gly180 and Gly191 was found to be essential for its catalytic activity. Though the GhKCR3 gene shares low sequence similarities to the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YBR159w that encodes 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR) catalyzing the second step of fatty acid elongation, it was surprisingly able to complement the yeast ybr159wDelta mutant. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that very long-chain fatty acids, especially C26:0, were produced in the ybr159wDelta mutant cells expressing GhKCR3. Applying palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates, GhKCR3 showed KCR activity in vitro. Quantitative real time-PCR analysis indicated GhKCR3 transcripts accumulated in rapidly elongating fibers, roots, and stems. Our results suggest that GhKCR3 is probably a novel KCR contributing to very long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in plants.

  7. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in multiple myeloma risk.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carmen S P; Ortega, Manoela M; Ozelo, Margareth C; Araujo, Renato C; De Souza, Cármino A; Lorand-Metze, Irene; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; Costa, Fernando F

    2008-03-01

    We tested whether the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, the methionine synthase gene, MTR A2756G, the methionine synthase reductase gene, MTRR A66G, and the thymidylate synthase gene, TYMS 2R-->3R, involved in folate and methionine metabolism, altered the risk for multiple myeloma (MM). Genomic DNA from 123MM patients and 188 controls was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion for the polymorphism analyses. The frequency of the MTR 2756 AG plus GG genotype was higher in patients than in controls (39.8% versus 23.4%, P=0.001). Individual carriers of the variant allele G had a 2.31 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87)-fold increased risk for MM compared with others. In contrast, similar frequencies of the MTHFR, the MTRR and the TYMS genotypes were seen in patients and controls. These results suggest, for the first time, a role for the MTR A2756G polymorphism in MM risk in our country, but should be confirmed by large-scale epidemiological studies with patients and controls age matched.

  8. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene polymorphisms and adult meningioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yan-Wen; Shi, Hua-Ping; Wang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Gui-Ling; Yu, Hai-Tao; Xie, Xin-You

    2013-11-01

    The causes of meningiomas are not well understood. Folate metabolism gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with various human cancers. It is still controversial and ambiguous between the functional polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) and risk of adult meningioma. A population-based case–control study involving 600 meningioma patients (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 391 cases; WHO Grade II, 167 cases; WHO Grade III, 42 cases) and 600 controls was done for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants in Chinese Han population. The folate metabolism gene polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Meningioma cases had a significantly lower frequency of MTHFR 677 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.74; P = 0.001] and T allele (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67–0.95; P = 0.01) than controls. A significant association between risk of meningioma and MTRR 66 GG (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02–1.96; P = 0.04) was also observed. When stratifying by the WHO grade of meningioma, no association was found. Our study suggested that MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G variants may affect the risk of adult meningioma in Chinese Han population.

  9. Curcumin is a tight-binding inhibitor of the most efficient human daunorubicin reductase--Carbonyl reductase 1.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Hornung, Jan; Ebert, Bettina; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund

    2015-06-05

    Curcumin is a major component of the plant Curcuma longa L. It is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods and is an important ingredient in curry. Curcuminoids have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and gained increasing attention as potential neuroprotective and cancer preventive compounds. In the present study, we report that curcumin is a potent tight-binding inhibitor of human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, Ki=223 nM). Curcumin acts as a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate 2,3-hexandione as revealed by plotting IC50-values against various substrate concentrations and most likely as a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH. Molecular modeling supports the finding that curcumin occupies the cofactor binding site of CBR1. Interestingly, CBR1 is one of the most effective human reductases in converting the anthracycline anti-tumor drug daunorubicin to daunorubicinol. The secondary alcohol metabolite daunorubicinol has significantly reduced anti-tumor activity and shows increased cardiotoxicity, thereby limiting the clinical use of daunorubicin. Thus, inhibition of CBR1 may increase the efficacy of daunorubicin in cancer tissue and simultaneously decrease its cardiotoxicity. Western-blots demonstrated basal expression of CBR1 in several cell lines. Significantly less daunorubicin reduction was detected after incubating A549 cell lysates with increasing concentrations of curcumin (up to 60% less with 50 μM curcumin), suggesting a beneficial effect in the co-treatment of anthracycline anti-tumor drugs together with curcumin.

  10. Naegleria fowleri: a free-living highly pathogenic amoeba contains trypanothione/trypanothione reductase and glutathione/glutathione reductase systems.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, Raúl N; Hurtado, Gerardo; Tamayo, Elsa; Iturbe, Angélica; Hernández, Eva

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents definitive data showing that the thiol-bimane compound isolated and purified by HPLC from Naegleria fowleri trophozoites unequivocally corresponds by matrix assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, to the characteristic monoprotonated ion of trypanothione-(bimane)(2) [M(+)H(+)] of m/z 1104.57 and to the trypanothione-(bimane) of m/z 914.46. The trypanothione disulfide T(S)(2) was also found to have a molecular ion of m/z 723.37. Additionally HPLC demonstrated that thiol-bimane compounds corresponding to cysteine and glutathione were present in Naegleria. The ion patterns of the thiol-bimane compounds prepared from commercial trypanothione standard, Entamoeba histolytica and Crithidia luciliae are identical to the Naegleria thiol-bimane compound. Partially purified extracts from N. fowleri showed the coexistence of glutathione and trypanothione reductases activities. There is not doubt that the thiol compound trypanothione, which was previously thought to occur only in Kinetoplastida, is also present in the human pathogens E. histolytica and N. fowleri, as well as in the non-pathogenic euglenozoan E. gracilis. The presence of the trypanothione/trypanothione reductase system in N. fowleri creates the possibility of using this enzyme as a new "drug target" for rationally designed drugs to eliminate the parasite, without affecting the human host.

  11. Thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system of Streptomyces clavuligerus: sequences, expression, and organization of the genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G; Yanko, M; Mislovati, M; Argaman, A; Schreiber, R; Av-Gay, Y; Aharonowitz, Y

    1993-01-01

    The genes that encode thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase of Streptomyces clavuligerus were cloned, and their DNA sequences were determined. Previously, we showed that S. clavuligerus possesses a disulfide reductase with broad substrate specificity that biochemically resembles the thioredoxin oxidoreductase system and may play a role in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It consists consists of two components, a 70-kDa NADPH-dependent flavoprotein disulfide reductase with two identical subunits and a 12-kDa heat-stable protein general disulfide reductant. In this study, we found, by comparative analysis of their predicted amino acid sequences, that the 35-kDa protein is in fact thioredoxin reductase; it shares 48.7% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase, the 12-kDa protein is thioredoxin, and it shares 28 to 56% amino acid sequence identity with other thioredoxins. The streptomycete thioredoxin reductase has the identical cysteine redox-active region--Cys-Ala-Thr-Cys--and essentially the same flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADPH dinucleotide-binding sites as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and is partially able to accept E. coli thioredoxin as a substrate. The streptomycete thioredoxin has the same cysteine redox-active segment--Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys--that is present in virtually all eucaryotic and procaryotic thioredoxins. However, in vivo it is unable to donate electrons to E. coli methionine sulfoxide reductase and does not serve as a substrate in vitro for E. coli thioredoxin reductase. The S. clavuligerus thioredoxin (trxA) and thioredoxin reductase (trxB) genes are organized in a cluster. They are transcribed in the same direction and separated by 33 nucleotides. In contrast, the trxA and trxB genes of E. coli, the only other organism in which both genes have been characterized, are physically widely separated. Images PMID:8349555

  12. Flavin reductase: sequence of cDNA from bovine liver and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, K S; Hultquist, D E

    1994-01-01

    Flavin reductase catalyzes electron transfer from reduced pyridine nucleotides to methylene blue or riboflavin, and this catalysis is the basis of the therapeutic use of methylene blue or riboflavin in the treatment of methemoglobinemia. A cDNA for a mammalian flavin reductase has been isolated and sequenced. Degenerate oligonucleotides, with sequences based on amino acid sequences of peptides derived from bovine erythrocyte flavin reductase, were used as primers in PCR to selectively amplify a partial cDNA that encodes the bovine reductase. The template used in the PCR was first strand cDNA synthesized from bovine liver total RNA using oligo(dT) primers. A PCR product was used as a specific probe to screen a bovine liver cDNA library. The sequence determined from two overlapping clones contains an open reading frame of 621 nucleotides and encodes 206 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the bovine liver flavin reductase cDNA matches the amino acid sequences determined for erythrocyte reductase-derived peptides, and the predicted molecular mass of 22,001 Da for the liver reductase agrees well with the molecular mass of 21,994 Da determined for the erythrocyte reductase by electrospray mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence at the N terminus of the reductase has homology to sequences of pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes, and the predicted secondary structure, beta alpha beta, resembles the common nucleotide-binding structural motif. RNA blot analysis indicates a single 1-kilobase reductase transcript in human heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, placenta, and skeletal muscle. Images PMID:7937764

  13. B-vitamins, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary; Wilson, Carol P; Strain, J J; Horigan, Geraldine; Scott, John M; McNulty, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. A common polymorphism in the gene encoding the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), previously identified as the main genetic determinant of elevated homocysteine concentration and also recognized as a risk factor for CVD, appears to be independently associated with hypertension. The B-vitamin riboflavin is required as a cofactor by MTHFR and recent evidence suggests it may have a role in modulating blood pressure, specifically in those with the homozygous mutant MTHFR 677 TT genotype. If studies confirm that this genetic predisposition to hypertension is correctable by low-dose riboflavin, the findings could have important implications for the management of hypertension given that the frequency of this polymorphism ranges from 3 to 32 % worldwide.

  14. A ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor with deoxyribonucleoside-reversible cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Crona, Mikael; Codó, Paula; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; Fernandes, Aristi P; Tholander, Fredrik

    2016-11-01

    Ribonucleotide Reductase (RNR) is the sole enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. Even though RNR is a recognized target for antiproliferative molecules, and the main target of the approved drug hydroxyurea, few new leads targeted to this enzyme have been developed. We have evaluated a recently identified set of RNR inhibitors with respect to inhibition of the human enzyme and cellular toxicity. One compound, NSC73735, is particularly interesting; it is specific for leukemia cells and is the first identified compound that hinders oligomerization of the mammalian large RNR subunit. Similar to hydroxyurea, it caused a disruption of the cell cycle distribution of cultured HL-60 cells. In contrast to hydroxyurea, the disruption was reversible, indicating higher specificity. NSC73735 thus defines a potential lead candidate for RNR-targeted anticancer drugs, as well as a chemical probe with better selectivity for RNR inhibition than hydroxyurea.

  15. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  16. Vitamin K epoxide reductase: homology, active site and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodstadt, Leo; Ponting, Chris P

    2004-06-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) recycles reduced vitamin K, which is used subsequently as a co-factor in the gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in blood coagulation enzymes. VKORC1, a subunit of the VKOR complex, has recently been shown to possess this activity. Here, we show that VKORC1 is a member of a large family of predicted enzymes that are present in vertebrates, Drosophila, plants, bacteria and archaea. Four cysteine residues and one residue, which is either serine or threonine, are identified as likely active-site residues. In some plant and bacterial homologues the VKORC1 homologous domain is fused with domains of the thioredoxin family of oxidoreductases. These might reduce disulfide bonds of VKORC1-like enzymes as a prerequisite for their catalytic activities.

  17. Thioredoxin reductase 1 suppresses adipocyte differentiation and insulin responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaoxiao; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Petrus, Paul; Conrad, Marcus; Rydén, Mikael; Arnér, Elias S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), encoded by Txnrd1, was suggested to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Here we discovered that TrxR1 suppresses insulin responsiveness, anabolic metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Txnrd1 (Txnrd1−/−) displayed increased metabolic flux, glycogen storage, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. This phenotype coincided with upregulated PPARγ expression, promotion of mitotic clonal expansion and downregulation of p27 and p53. Enhanced Akt activation also contributed to augmented adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Knockdown of TXNRD1 transcripts accelerated adipocyte differentiation also in human primary preadipocytes. Furthermore, TXNRD1 transcript levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 56 women were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in vivo and lipogenesis in their isolated adipocytes. These results suggest that TrxR1 suppresses anabolic metabolism and adipogenesis by inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of insulin stimulation. PMID:27346647

  18. Purification and characterization of 5-ketofructose reductase from Erwinia citreus.

    PubMed Central

    Schrimsher, J L; Wingfield, P T; Bernard, A; Mattaliano, R; Payton, M A

    1988-01-01

    5-Ketofructose reductase [D(-)fructose:(NADP+) 5-oxidoreductase] was purified to homogeneity from Erwinia citreus and demonstrated to catalyse the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of 5-ketofructose (D-threo-2,5-hexodiulose) to D-fructose. The enzyme appeared as a single species upon analyses by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing with an apparent relative molecular mass of 40,000 and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The amino acid composition of the enzyme and the N-terminal sequence of the first 39 residues are described. The steady-state kinetic mechanism was an ordered one with NADPH binding first to the enzyme and then to 5-ketofructose, and the order of product release was D-fructose followed by NADP+. The reversible nature of the reaction offers the possibility of using this enzyme for the determination of D-fructose. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3178725

  19. Mechanism of inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with motexafin gadolinium (MGd)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahedi Avval, Farnaz; Berndt, Carsten; Pramanik, Aladdin; Holmgren, Arne

    2009-02-13

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is an expanded porphyrin anticancer agent which selectively targets tumor cells and works as a radiation enhancer, with promising results in clinical trials. Its mechanism of action is oxidation of intracellular reducing molecules and acting as a direct inhibitor of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). This paper focuses on the mechanism of inhibition of RNR by MGd. Our experimental data present at least two pathways for inhibition of RNR; one precluding subunits oligomerization and the other direct inhibition of the large catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Co-localization of MGd and RNR in the cytoplasm particularly in the S-phase may account for its inhibitory properties. These data can elucidate an important effect of MGd on the cancer cells with overproduction of RNR and its efficacy as an anticancer agent and not only as a general radiosensitizer.

  20. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  1. Go green: the anti-inflammatory effects of biliverdin reductase.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Barbara; Otterbein, Leo E

    2012-01-01

    Biliverdin (BV) has emerged as a cytoprotective and important anti-inflammatory molecule. Conversion of BV to bilirubin (BR) is catalyzed by biliverdin reductase (BVR) and is required for the downstream signaling and nuclear localization of BVR. Recent data by others and us make clear that BVR is a critical regulator of innate immune responses resulting from acute insult and injury and moreover, that a lack of BVR results in an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype. In macrophages, BVR is regulated by its substrate BV which leads to activation of the PI3K-Akt-IL-10 axis and inhibition of TLR4 expression via direct binding of BVR to the TLR4 promoter. In this review, we will summarize recent findings on the role of BVR and the bile pigments in inflammation in context with its activity as an enzyme, receptor, and transcriptional regulator.

  2. Identification of imine reductase-specific sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Silvia; Scheller, Philipp N; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Chiral amines are valuable building blocks for the production of a variety of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and other specialty chemicals. Only recently, imine reductases (IREDs) were discovered which catalyze the stereoselective reduction of imines to chiral amines. Although several IREDs were biochemically characterized in the last few years, knowledge of the reaction mechanism and the molecular basis of substrate specificity and stereoselectivity is limited. To gain further insights into the sequence-function relationships, the Imine Reductase Engineering Database (www.IRED.BioCatNet.de) was established and a systematic analysis of 530 putative IREDs was performed. A standard numbering scheme based on R-IRED-Sk was introduced to facilitate the identification and communication of structurally equivalent positions in different proteins. A conservation analysis revealed a highly conserved cofactor binding region and a predominantly hydrophobic substrate binding cleft. Two IRED-specific motifs were identified, the cofactor binding motif GLGxMGx(5 )[ATS]x(4) Gx(4) [VIL]WNR[TS]x(2) [KR] and the active site motif Gx[DE]x[GDA]x[APS]x(3){K}x[ASL]x[LMVIAG]. Our results indicate a preference toward NADPH for all IREDs and explain why, despite their sequence similarity to β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases (β-HADs), no conversion of β-hydroxyacids has been observed. Superfamily-specific conservations were investigated to explore the molecular basis of their stereopreference. Based on our analysis and previous experimental results on IRED mutants, an exclusive role of standard position 187 for stereoselectivity is excluded. Alternatively, two standard positions 139 and 194 were identified which are superfamily-specifically conserved and differ in R- and S-selective enzymes.

  3. Evidence for a Hexaheteromeric Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Moorella thermoacetica

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Johanna; Wang, Shuning; Huang, Haiyan; Kahnt, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Moorella thermoacetica can grow with H2 and CO2, forming acetic acid from 2 CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. All enzymes involved in this pathway have been characterized to date, except for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MetF). We report here that the M. thermoacetica gene that putatively encodes this enzyme, metF, is part of a transcription unit also containing the genes hdrCBA, mvhD, and metV. MetF copurified with the other five proteins encoded in the unit in a hexaheteromeric complex with an apparent molecular mass in the 320-kDa range. The 40-fold-enriched preparation contained per mg protein 3.1 nmol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 3.4 nmol flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and 110 nmol iron, almost as predicted from the primary structure of the six subunits. It catalyzed the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate with reduced benzyl viologen but not with NAD(P)H in either the absence or presence of oxidized ferredoxin. It also catalyzed the reversible reduction of benzyl viologen with NADH (diaphorase activity). Heterologous expression of the metF gene in Escherichia coli revealed that the subunit MetF contains one FMN rather than FAD. MetF exhibited 70-fold-higher methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity with benzyl viologen when produced together with MetV, which in part shows sequence similarity to MetF. Heterologously produced HdrA contained 2 FADs and had NAD-specific diaphorase activity. Our results suggested that the physiological electron donor for methylenetetrahydrofolate reduction in M. thermoacetica is NADH and that the exergonic reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate with NADH is coupled via flavin-based electron bifurcation with the endergonic reduction of an electron acceptor, whose identity remains unknown. PMID:25002540

  4. The modulation of carbonyl reductase 1 by polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Boušová, Iva; Skálová, Lenka; Souček, Pavel; Matoušková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), an enzyme belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family, has been detected in all human tissues. CBR1 catalyzes the reduction of many xenobiotics, including important drugs (e.g. anthracyclines, nabumetone, bupropion, dolasetron) and harmful carbonyls and quinones. Moreover, it participates in the metabolism of a number of endogenous compounds and it may play a role in certain pathologies. Plant polyphenols are not only present in many human food sources, but are also a component of many popular dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Many studies reviewed herein have demonstrated the potency of certain flavonoids, stilbenes and curcuminoids in the inhibition of the activity of CBR1. Interactions of these polyphenols with transcriptional factors, which regulate CBR1 expression, have also been reported in several studies. As CBR1 plays an important role in drug metabolism as well as in the protection of the organism against potentially harmful carbonyls, the modulation of its expression/activity may have significant pharmacological and/or toxicological consequences. Some polyphenols (e.g. luteolin, apigenin and curcumin) have been shown to be very potent CBR1 inhibitors. The inhibition of CBR1 seems useful regarding the increased efficacy of anthracycline therapy, but it may cause the worse detoxification of reactive carbonyls. Nevertheless, all known information about the interactions of polyphenols with CBR1 have only been based on the results of in vitro studies. With respect to the high importance of CBR1 and the frequent consumption of polyphenols, in vivo studies would be very helpful for the evaluation of risks/benefits of polyphenol interactions with CBR1.

  5. d-Apiose Reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Donna L.; Kindel, Paul K.

    1970-01-01

    A strain of Aerobacter aerogenes PRL-R3 has been isolated which utilizes d-apiose as its sole source of carbon. A new enzyme, d-apiose reductase, was discovered in this strain. The enzyme was not present when the strain was grown on d-glucose. d-Apiose reductase catalyzes the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent interconversion of d-apiose and d-apiitol. The enzyme is specific for d-apiose and d-apiitol, with a few possible exceptions. The Km for d-apiose is 0.02 m. The Km for d-apiitol is 0.01 m. The enzyme is almost completely specific for the reduced and oxidized forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. When cell-free extracts were centrifuged at 100,000 × g for 1 hr, the enzyme remained in solution. Optimal activity for the reduction of d-apiose was obtained at pH 7.5 in glycylglycine buffer, whereas for the oxidation of d-apiitol it was obtained at pH 10.5 in glycine buffer. Enzymatic reduction of d-apiose was not appreciably affected by the presence of 0.02 m ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Paper chromatography and specific spray reagents were used to identify d-apiitol and d-apiose as the products of this reversible reaction. d-Apiose and d-apiitol did not serve as substrates for ribitol dehydrogenase and d-arabitol dehydrogenase from A. aerogenes PRL-R3. PMID:4314545

  6. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine.

  7. Purification, properties, and sequence of glycerol trinitrate reductase from Agrobacterium radiobacter.

    PubMed Central

    Snape, J R; Walkley, N A; Morby, A P; Nicklin, S; White, G F

    1997-01-01

    Glycerol trinitrate (GTN) reductase, which enables Agrobacterium radiobacter to utilize GTN and related explosives as sources of nitrogen for growth, was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned and sequenced. The enzyme was a 39-kDa monomeric protein which catalyzed the NADH-dependent reductive scission of GTN (Km = 23 microM) to glycerol dinitrates (mainly the 1,3-isomer) with a pH optimum of 6.5, a temperature optimum of 35 degrees C, and no dependence on metal ions for activity. It was also active on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), on isosorbide dinitrate, and, very weakly, on ethyleneglycol dinitrate, but it was inactive on isopropyl nitrate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, ammonium ions, nitrate, or nitrite. The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence was homologous (42 to 51% identity and 61 to 69% similarity) to those of PETN reductase from Enterobacter cloacae, N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli, morphinone reductase from Pseudomonas putida, and old yellow enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, placing the GTN reductase in the alpha/beta barrel flavoprotein group of proteins. GTN reductase and PETN reductase were very similar in many respects except in their distinct preferences for NADH and NADPH cofactors, respectively. PMID:9401040

  8. Reduction of mitochondrial protein mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters by human glutathione reductase

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Aaron P.; Cheng, Zishuo; Ding, Huangen

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial outer membrane protein mitoNEET is a newly discovered target of type II diabetes drug pioglitazone. Structurally, mitoNEET is a homodimer with each monomer containing an N-terminal transmembrane alpha helix tethered to mitochondrial outer membrane and a C-terminal cytosolic domain hosting a redox active [2Fe-2S] cluster. Genetic studies have shown that mitoNEET has a central role in regulating energy metabolism in mitochondria. However, specific function of mitoNEET remains largely elusive. Here we find that the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters can be efficiently reduced by Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in an NADPH-dependent reaction. Purified human glutathione reductase has the same activity as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. However, rat thioredoxin reductase, a human thioredoxin reductase homolog that contains selenocysteine in the catalytic center, has very little or no activity to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. N-ethylmaleimide, a potent thiol modifier, completely inhibits human glutathione reductase to reduce the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters, indicating that the redox active disulfide in the catalytic center of human glutathione reductase may be directly involved in reducing the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters. Additional studies reveal that the reduced mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters in mouse heart cell extracts can be reversibly oxidized by hydrogen peroxide without disruption of the clusters, suggesting that the mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] clusters may undergo redox transition to regulate energy metabolism in mitochondria in response to oxidative signals. PMID:25645953

  9. Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase in Chlorella autotrophica and Chlorella saccharophila in Relation to Osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, G; Hellebust, J A

    1989-11-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (EC 1.5.1.2), which catalyzes the reduction of P5C to proline, was partially purified from two Chlorella species; Chlorella autotrophica, a euryhaline marine alga that responds to increases in salinity by accumulating proline and ions, and Chlorella saccharophila, which does not accumulate proline for osmoregulation. From the elution profile of this enzyme from an anion exchange column in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6), containing sorbitol and glycine betaine, it was shown that P5C reductase from C. autotrophica was a neutral protein whereas the enzyme from C. saccharophila was negatively charged. The kinetic mechanisms of the reductase was characteristic of a ping-pong mechanism with double competitive substrate inhibition. Both enzymes showed high specificity for NADH as cofactor. The affinities of the reductases for their substrates did not change when the cells were grown at different salinities. In both algae, the apparent K(m) values of the reductase for P5C and NADH were 0.17 and 0.10 millimolar, respectively. A fourfold increase in maximal velocity of the reductase was observed when C. autotrophica was transferred from 50 to 150% artificial sea water. Even though the reductase was inhibited by NaCl, KCl, and proline, it still showed appreciable activity in the presence of these compounds at molar concentrations. A possible role for the regulation of proline synthesis at the step catalyzed by P5C reductase is discussed in relation to the specificity of P5C reductase for NADH and its responses to salt treatments.

  10. Steroidal pyrazolines evaluated as aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Mohamed M; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Bhat, Mashooq A; Amr, Abdel-Galil E; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M

    2012-05-01

    The aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibition of synthesized heterocyclic pyrazole derivatives fused with steroidal structure for chemoprevention of cancer is reported herein. All compounds were interestingly less toxic than the reference drug (Cyproterone(®)). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds were much more potent than the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC(50) of 80 μM. In addition, all the compounds displayed potent quinone reductase-2 inhibition. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD(50). The aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibitors resulting from this study have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  11. Comparison of the Stereospecificity and Immunoreactivity of NADH-Ferricyanide Reductases in Plant Membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Fredlund, K. M.; Struglics, A.; Widell, S.; Askerlund, P.; Kader, J. C.; Moller, I. M.

    1994-01-01

    The substrate stereospecificity of NADH-ferricyanide reductase activities in the inner mitochondrial membrane and peroxisomal membrane of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf plasma membrane, and red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) tonoplast were all specific for the [beta]-hydrogen of NADH, whereas the reductases in wheat root (Triticum aestivum L.) endoplasmic reticulum and potato tuber outer mitochondrial membrane were both [alpha]-hydrogen specific. In all isolated membrane fractions one or several polypeptides with an apparent size of 45 to 55 kD cross-reacted with antibodies raised against a microsomal NADH-ferricyanide reductase on western blots. PMID:12232391

  12. Cloning and characterization of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Bokranz, M; Bäumner, G; Allmansberger, R; Ankel-Fuchs, D; Klein, A

    1988-01-01

    The genes coding for methyl coenzyme M reductase were cloned from a genomic library of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg into Escherichia coli by using plasmid expression vectors. When introduced into E. coli, the reductase genes were expressed, yielding polypeptides identical in size to the three known subunits of the isolated enzyme, alpha, beta, and gamma. The polypeptides also reacted with the antibodies raised against the respective enzyme subunits. In M. thermoautotrophicum, the subunits are encoded by a gene cluster whose transcript boundaries were mapped. Sequence analysis revealed two more open reading frames of unknown function located between two of the methyl coenzyme M reductase genes. Images PMID:2448287

  13. Proanthocyanidin synthesis and expression of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase in developing grape berries and grapevine leaves.

    PubMed

    Bogs, Jochen; Downey, Mark O; Harvey, John S; Ashton, Anthony R; Tanner, Gregory J; Robinson, Simon P

    2005-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also called condensed tannins, can protect plants against herbivores and are important quality components of many fruits. Two enzymes, leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), can produce the flavan-3-ol monomers required for formation of PA polymers. We isolated and functionally characterized genes encoding both enzymes from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz). ANR was encoded by a single gene, but we found two highly related genes encoding LAR. We measured PA content and expression of genes encoding ANR, LAR, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase in grape berries during development and in grapevine leaves, which accumulated PA throughout leaf expansion. Grape flowers had high levels of PA, and accumulation continued in skin and seeds from fruit set until the onset of ripening. VvANR was expressed throughout early flower and berry development, with expression increasing after fertilization. It was expressed in berry skin and seeds until the onset of ripening, and in expanding leaves. The genes encoding LAR were expressed in developing fruit, particularly in seeds, but had low expression in leaves. The two LAR genes had different patterns of expression in skin and seeds. During grape ripening, PA levels decreased in both skin and seeds, and expression of genes encoding ANR and LAR were no longer detected. The results indicate that PA accumulation occurs early in grape development and is completed when ripening starts. Both ANR and LAR contribute to PA synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the genes encoding ANR and LAR determines PA accumulation and composition during grape berry development.

  14. A cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase mediates the first step of denitrification in Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed

    Sann, R; Kostka, S; Friedrich, B

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory nitrite reductase (NIR) has been purified from the soluble extract of denitrifying cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was induced under anoxic conditions in the presence of nitrite. Purified NIR showed typical features of a cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase. It appeared to be a dimer of kDa subunits, its activity was only weakly inhibited by the copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate, and spectral analysis revealed absorption maxima which were characteristic for the presence of heme c and heme d1. The isoelectric point of 8.6 was considerably higher than the pI determined for cd1 nitrite reductases from pseudomonads. Eighteen amino acids at the N-terminus of the A. eutrophus NIR, obtained by protein sequencing, showed no significant homology to the N-terminal region of nitrite reductases from Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  15. Inhibition of carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart by alkyl phenyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yorishige; Narumi, Rika; Shimada, Hideaki

    2007-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of alkyl phenyl ketones on carbonyl reductase activity were examined in pig heart. In this study, carbonyl reductase activity was estimated as the ability to reduce 4-benzoylpyridine to S(-)-alpha-phenyl-4-pyridylmethanol in the cytosolic fraction from pig heart (pig heart cytosol). The order of their inhibitory potencies was hexanophenone > valerophenone > heptanophenone > butyrophenone > propiophenone. The inhibitory potencies of acetophenone and nonanophenone were much lower. A significant relationship was observed between Vmax/Km values for the reduction of alkyl phenyl ketones and their inhibitory potencies for carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol. Furthermore, hexanophenone was a competitive inhibitor for the enzyme activity. These results indicate that several alkyl phenyl ketones including hexanophenone inhibit carbonyl reductase activity in pig heart cytosol, by acting as substrate inhibitors.

  16. Amplification and loss of dihydrofolate reductase genes in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    During stepwise increases in the methotrexate concentration in culture medium, the authors selected Chinese hamster ovary cells that contained elevated dihydrofolate reductase levels which were proportional to the number of dihydrofolate reductase gene copies (i.e., gene amplification). The authors studied the dihydrofolate reductase levels in individual cells that underwent the initial steps of methotrexate resistance by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter technique. Such cells constituted a heterogeneous population with differing dihydrofolate reductase levels, and they characteristically lost the elevated enzyme levels when they were grown in the absence of methotrexate. The progeny of individual cells with high enzyme levels behaved differently and could lose all or variable numbers of the amplified genes.

  17. An electron transport system in maize roots for reactions of glutamate synthase and nitrite reductase : physiological and immunochemical properties of the electron carrier and pyridine nucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Oaks, A; Jacquot, J P; Vidal, J; Gadal, P

    1985-06-01

    A non-heme iron containing protein which bears an antigenic similarity to ferredoxin from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.) has been identified in extracts prepared from young roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid W64A x W182E). The ferredoxin-like root electron carrier could substitute for ferredoxin in a cytochrome c reduction system in which pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) reduces the root electron carrier in a reaction catalyzed by ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (EC 1.6.7.1) from spinach leaves. However, the root electron carrier did not mediate the photoreduction of NADP(+) in an illuminated reconstituted chloroplast system.A pyridine nucleotide reductase which shares identical immunological determinants with the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase from spinach leaves has also been characterized from maize roots. Root pyridine nucleotide reductase mediated the transfer of electrons from either NADPH or NADH to cytochrome c via ferredoxin or the root electron carrier. Under chemical reducing conditions with sodium dithionite and bicarbonate, the ferredoxin-like root electron carrier served as an electron carrier for the ferredoxin-requiring glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.7.1) and nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) obtained from maize roots or leaves. In the presence of root pyridine nucleotide reductase and root electron carrier, either NADPH or NADH served as the primary electron donor for glutamate synthesis in extracts from maize roots or leaves. The electron transport system originating with NADH or NADPH, was, however, not able to mediate the reduction of NO(2) (-) to NH(3).

  18. In vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte glutathione reductase by some new organic nitrates.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Murat; Talaz, Oktay; Ekinci, Deniz; Cavdar, Hüseyin; Küfrevioğlu, Omer Irfan

    2009-07-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR), is responsible for the existence of GSH molecule, a crucial antioxidant against oxidative stress reagents. The antimalarial activities of some redox active compounds are attributed to their inhibition of antioxidant flavoenzyme glutathione reductase, and inhibitors are therefore expected to be useful for the treatment of malaria. Twelve organic nitrate derivatives were synthesized and treated with human erythrocyte GR. The molecules were identified as strong GR inhibitors and novel antimalaria candidates.

  19. X-ray structure of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata at 2. 4- angstrom resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyan, J.; Xiangpeng Kong; Krishna, T.S.R.; Murgolo, N.J.; Field, H.; Cerami, A.; Henderson, G.B. ); Sweet, R.M. )

    1991-10-01

    Trypanosomes and related protozoan parasites lack glutathione reductase and possess instead a closely related enzyme that serves as the reductant of a bis(glutathione)-spermidien conjugate, trypanothione. The human and parasite enzymes have mutually exclusive substrate specificities, providing a route for the design of therapeutic agents by specific inhibition of the parasite enzyme. The authors report here the three-dimensional structure of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata and show that it closely resembles the structure of human glutathione reductase. In particular, the core structure surrounding the catalytic machinery is almost identical in the two enzymes. However, significant differences are found at the substrate binding sites. A cluster of basic residues in glutathione reductase is replaced by neutral, hydrophobic, or acidic residues in trypanothione reductase, consistent with the nature of the spermidine linkage and the change in overall charge of the substrate from {minus}2 to +1, respectively. The binding site is more open in trypanothione reductase due to rotations of about 4{degree} in the domains that form in site, with relative shifts of as much as 2-3 {angstrom} in residues that can interact with potential inhibitors and complement previous modeling and mutagenesis studies on the two enzymes.

  20. Genetic and Physiologic Characterization of Ferric/Cupric Reductase Constitutive Mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Nyhus, Karin J.; Jacobson, Eric S.

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Because iron acquisition is critical for growth of a pathogen in a host, we studied the regulation of the ferric reductase and ferrous uptake system of this organism. We isolated 18 mutants, representing four independent loci, with dysregulated ferric reductase. The mutant strains had >10-fold higher than wild-type WT reductase activity in the presence of iron. Two of the strains also had >7-fold higher than WT iron uptake in the presence of iron but were not markedly iron sensitive. Both were sensitive to the oxidative stresses associated with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. One strain exhibited only 23% of the WT level of iron uptake in the absence of iron and grew poorly without iron supplementation of the medium, phenotypes consistent with an iron transport deficiency; it was sensitive to superoxide but not to hydrogen peroxide. The fourth strain had high reductase activity but normal iron uptake; it was not very sensitive to oxidative stress. We also demonstrated that the ferric reductase was regulated by copper and could act as a cupric reductase. Sensitivity to oxidants may be related to iron acquisition by a variety of mechanisms and may model the interaction of the yeast with the immune system. PMID:10225895

  1. Ascorbate free radical reductases and diaphorases in soluble fractions of the human lens.

    PubMed

    Bando, M; Obazawa, H

    1995-12-01

    Major and minor ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductases, with diaphorase activity, and three other diaphorases were separated from the human lens soluble fraction by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. They were characterized for adsorptivity to ion-exchange and 5'AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity columns, kinetic properties, and substrate specificity. The latter diaphorases were closely correlated with NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase. The major and minor AFR reductases were regarded as a major diaphorase group different from two ubiquitous diaphorases, i.e., NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase and DT-diaphorase. A major AFR reductase was partially purified approximately 50 fold over the lens soluble fraction by ion-exchange, affinity, and gel filtration (Sephacryl S-200 HR) column chromatography. From the partially purified enzyme, 2 bands, one sharp and one diffuse, were obtained by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two proteins, of 20 and 24 kDa, were identified in the active enzyme bands by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This suggests that the 20 and/or 24 kDa proteins may be components of the major AFR reductase.

  2. Selenite reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is mediated by fumarate reductase in periplasm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dao-Bo; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Chao; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Na; Yang, Zong-Chuang; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In situ reduction of selenite to elemental selenium (Se(0)), by microorganisms in sediments and soils is an important process and greatly affects the environmental distribution and the biological effects of selenium. However, the mechanism behind such a biological process remains unrevealed yet. Here we use Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a widely-distributed dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium with a powerful and diverse respiration capability, to evaluate the involvement of anaerobic respiration system in the microbial selenite reduction. With mutants analysis, we identify fumarate reductase FccA as the terminal reductase of selenite in periplasm. Moreover, we find that such a reduction is dependent on central respiration c-type cytochrome CymA. In contrast, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and the Mtr electron transfer pathway do not work as selenite reductases. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of anaerobic respiration reductases of S. oneidensis MR-1 in selenite reduction and geochemical cycles of selenium in sediments and soils. PMID:24435070

  3. The role of glutathione reductase and related enzymes on cellular redox homoeostasis network.

    PubMed

    Couto, Narciso; Wood, Jennifer; Barber, Jill

    2016-06-01

    In this review article we examine the role of glutathione reductase in the regulation, modulation and maintenance of cellular redox homoeostasis. Glutathione reductase is responsible for maintaining the supply of reduced glutathione; one of the most abundant reducing thiols in the majority of cells. In its reduced form, glutathione plays key roles in the cellular control of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species act as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules and complex cross talk between levels of reactive oxygen species, levels of oxidised and reduced glutathione and other thiols, and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase determine the most suitable conditions for redox control within a cell or for activation of programmed cell death. Additionally, we discuss the translation and expression of glutathione reductase in a number of organisms including yeast and humans. In yeast and human cells, a single gene expresses more than one form of glutathione reductase, destined for residence in the cytoplasm or for translocation to different organelles; in plants, however, two genes encoding this protein have been described. In general, insects and kinetoplastids (a group of protozoa, including Plasmodia and Trypanosoma) do not express glutathione reductase or glutathione biosynthetic enzymes. Instead, they express either the thioredoxin system or the trypanothione system. The thioredoxin system is also present in organisms that have the glutathione system and there may be overlapping functions with cross-talk between the two systems. Finally we evaluate therapeutic targets to overcome oxidative stress associated cellular disorders.

  4. Androgen Regulation of 5α-Reductase Isoenzymes in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Prostate Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Ding, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhengxin; Lu, Jing-Fang; Maity, Sankar N.; Navone, Nora M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Kim, Jeri

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), performs key functions in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. The three isoenzymes of 5α-reductase identified to date are encoded by different genes: SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3. In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5α-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. We found that androgen regulates the mRNA level of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in a cell type–specific manner, that such regulation occurs at the transcriptional level, and that AR is necessary for this regulation. In addition, our results suggest that AR is recruited to a negative androgen response element (nARE) on the promoter of SRD5A3 in vivo and directly binds to the nARE in vitro. The different expression levels of 5α-reductase isoenzymes may confer response or resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitors and thus may have importance in prostate cancer prevention. PMID:22194926

  5. Cyclohexanol and methylcyclohexanols. A family of inhibitors of hepatic HMGCoA reductase in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miciak, A; White, D A; Middleton, B

    1986-10-15

    Oral dosing of rats with cyclohexanol and methylcyclohexanols resulted in the inhibition of hepatic HMGCoA reductase. Neither cyclohexane or cyclohexane diols exerted any effects. Inhibition was not due to alcohol dehydrogenase mediated changes in redox state since 3,3',5-trimethylcyclohexanol (TMC), a non substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase, was a potent inhibitor of HMGCoA reductase. Following a single dose of TMC there was no alteration in total hepatic HMGCoA reductase activity for more than 6 hr after which the enzyme activity was depressed in a dose-dependent manner. The normal diurnal rhythm of HMGCoA reductase was reduced in amplitude following TMC administration but the phase was unaltered and the t 1/2 for activity decay following the peak of activity was unaffected. Prior to the inhibitory effect of a TMC dose becoming apparent in total HMGCoA reductase activity we found that the expressed activity of the enzyme (after isolation in F- medium to suppress endogenous protein phosphatase) was depressed by 43%. The inhibitory effect of TMC on total HMGCoA reductase activity seen 8 hr or more after dosing was reflected by inhibition of sterol synthesis in liver measured in vivo after [3H]-H2O administration.

  6. A novel L-xylulose reductase essential for L-arabinose catabolism in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Metz, Benjamin; Mojzita, Dominik; Herold, Silvia; Kubicek, Christian P; Richard, Peter; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2013-04-09

    L-Xylulose reductases belong to the superfamily of short chain dehydrogenases and reductases (SDRs) and catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of L-xylulose to xylitol in L-arabinose and glucuronic acid catabolism. Here we report the identification of a novel L-xylulose reductase LXR3 in the fungus Trichoderma reesei by a bioinformatic approach in combination with a functional analysis. LXR3, a 31 kDa protein, catalyzes the reduction of L-xylulose to xylitol via NADPH and is also able to convert D-xylulose, D-ribulose, L-sorbose, and D-fructose to their corresponding polyols. Transcription of lxr3 is specifically induced by L-arabinose and L-arabitol. Deletion of lxr3 affects growth on L-arabinose and L-arabitol and reduces total NADPH-dependent LXR activity in cell free extracts. A phylogenetic analysis of known L-xylulose reductases shows that LXR3 is phylogenetically different from the Aspergillus niger L-xylulose reductase LxrA and, moreover, that all identified true L-xylulose reductases belong to different clades within the superfamily of SDRs. This indicates that the enzymes responsible for the reduction of L-xylulose in L-arabinose and glucuronic acid catabolic pathways have evolved independently and that even the fungal LXRs of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway have evolved in different clades of the superfamily of SDRs.

  7. A Novel l-Xylulose Reductase Essential for l-Arabinose Catabolism in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    l-Xylulose reductases belong to the superfamily of short chain dehydrogenases and reductases (SDRs) and catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of l-xylulose to xylitol in l-arabinose and glucuronic acid catabolism. Here we report the identification of a novel l-xylulose reductase LXR3 in the fungus Trichoderma reesei by a bioinformatic approach in combination with a functional analysis. LXR3, a 31 kDa protein, catalyzes the reduction of l-xylulose to xylitol via NADPH and is also able to convert d-xylulose, d-ribulose, l-sorbose, and d-fructose to their corresponding polyols. Transcription of lxr3 is specifically induced by l-arabinose and l-arabitol. Deletion of lxr3 affects growth on l-arabinose and l-arabitol and reduces total NADPH-dependent LXR activity in cell free extracts. A phylogenetic analysis of known l-xylulose reductases shows that LXR3 is phylogenetically different from the Aspergillus nigerl-xylulose reductase LxrA and, moreover, that all identified true l-xylulose reductases belong to different clades within the superfamily of SDRs. This indicates that the enzymes responsible for the reduction of l-xylulose in l-arabinose and glucuronic acid catabolic pathways have evolved independently and that even the fungal LXRs of the l-arabinose catabolic pathway have evolved in different clades of the superfamily of SDRs. PMID:23506391

  8. Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, P.C. ); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

  9. Catalytic cycle of human glutathione reductase near 1 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Berkholz, Donald S.; Faber, H. Richard; Savvides, Savvas N.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Summary Efficient enzyme catalysis depends on exquisite details of structure beyond those resolvable in typical medium- and high-resolution crystallographic analyses. Here we report synchrotron-based cryocrystallographic studies of natural substrate complexes of the flavoenzyme human glutathione reductase (GR) at nominal resolutions between 1.1 and 0.95 Å that reveal new aspects of its mechanism. Compression in the active site causes overlapping van der Waals radii and distortion in the nicotinamide ring of the NADPH substrate, which enhances catalysis via stereoelectronic effects. The bound NADPH and redox-active disulfide are positioned optimally on opposite sides of the flavin for a 1,2-addition across a flavin double bond. The new structures extend earlier observations to reveal that the redox-active disulfide loop in GR is an extreme case of sequential peptide bonds systematically deviating from planarity, a net deviation of 53° across 5 residues. But this apparent strain is not a factor in catalysis as it is present in both oxidized and reduced structures. Intriguingly, the flavin bond lengths in oxidized GR are intermediate between those expected for oxidized and reduced flavin, but we present evidence that this may not be due to the protein environment but instead to partial synchrotron reduction of the flavin by the synchrotron beam. Finally, of more general relevance, we present evidence that the structures of synchrotron-reduced disulfide bonds cannot generally be used as reliable models for naturally reduced disulfide bonds. PMID:18638483

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency enhances resistance against cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Fodil-Cornu, N; Kozij, N; Wu, Q; Rozen, R; Vidal, S M

    2009-10-01

    Folates provide one-carbon units for nucleotide synthesis and methylation reactions. A common polymorphism in the MTHFR gene (677C --> T) results in reduced enzymatic activity, and is associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects and cardiovascular disease. The high prevalence of this polymorphism suggests that it may have experienced a selective advantage under environmental pressure, possibly an infectious agent. To test the hypothesis that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype influences the outcome of infectious disease, we examined the response of Mthfr-deficient mice against mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Acute MCMV infection of Mthfr(-/-) mice resulted in early control of cytokine secretion, decreased viral titer and preservation of spleen immune cells, in contrast to Mthfr wild-type littermates. The phenotype was abolished in MTHFR transgenic mice carrying an extra copy of the gene. Infection of primary fibroblasts with MCMV showed a decrease in viral replication and in the number of productively infected cells in Mthfr(+/-) fibroblasts compared with wild-type cells. These results indicate that Mthfr deficiency protects against MCMV infection in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that human genetic variants may provide an advantage in the host response against certain pathogens.

  11. [Molecular characterizations of two dehydroascorbate reductases from Selaginella moellendorffii].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zishuo; Lan, Ting; Li, Di; Yang, Hailing; Zeng, Qingyin

    2011-01-01

    Plant dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a physiologically important reducing enzyme in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling reaction. In this study, two DHARs genes (SmDHAR1 and SmDHAR2) were isolated from Selaginella moellendorffii. The SmDHAR1 and SmDHAR2 genes encode two proteins of 218 and 241 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 23.97 kDa and 27.33 kDa, respectively. The genomic sequence analysis showed SmDHAR1 and SmDHAR2 contained five and six introns, respectively. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that the SmDHAR1 and SmDHAR2 were constitutive expression genes in S. moellendorffii. The recombinant SmDHAR1 and SmDHAR2 proteins were overexpressed in E. coli, and were purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The recombinant SmDHAR1 showed 116-fold higher enzymatic activity towards the substrate dehydroascorbate than recombinant SmDHAR2. The recombinant SmDHAR1 showed higher thermal stability than recombinant SmDHAR2. These results indicated obvious functional divergence between the duplicate genes SmDHAR1 and SmDHAR2.

  12. The superoxide reductase from the early diverging eukaryote Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Testa, Fabrizio; Mastronicola, Daniela; Cabelli, Diane E; Bordi, Eugenio; Pucillo, Leopoldo P; Sarti, Paolo; Saraiva, Lígia M; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Teixeira, Miguel

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxide reductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O(2)(•-)) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR(Gi)) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T(final)) with Fe(3+) ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK(a)=8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR(Gi) reacts with O(2)(•-) with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k(1)=1.0×10(9) M(-1) s(-1) and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T(1); this in turn rapidly decays to the T(final) state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR(Gi) is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  13. Correlated Protein Motion Measurements of Dihydrofolate Reductase Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    We report the first direct measurements of the long range structural vibrational modes in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is a universal housekeeping enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetra-hydrofolate, with the aid of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). This crucial enzymatic role as the target for anti-cancer [methotrexate (MTX)], and other clinically useful drugs, has made DHFR a long-standing target of enzymological studies. The terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1), corresponds to global correlated protein motions. In our lab we have developed Crystal Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), which directly measures these large scale intra-molecular protein vibrations, by removing the relaxational background of the solvent and residue side chain librational motions. We demonstrate narrowband features in the anisotropic absorbance for mouse DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals as well as Escherichia coli DHFR with the ligand binding of NADPH and MTX single crystals. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI2 grant DBI2959989.

  14. A second target of benzamide riboside: dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Breton; Johnson-Farley, Nadine; Kerrigan, John E; Scotto, Kathleen W; Banerjee, Debabrata; Felczak, Krzysztof; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; Gounder, Murugesan; Lin, HongXia; Abali, Emine Ercikan; Bertino, Joseph R

    2012-11-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an essential enzyme involved in de novo purine and thymidine biosynthesis. For several decades, selective inhibition of DHFR has proven to be a potent therapeutic approach in the treatment of various cancers including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, osteogenic sarcoma, carcinoma of the breast, and head and neck cancer. Therapeutic success with DHFR inhibitor methotrexate (MTX) has been compromised in the clinic, which limits the success of MTX treatment by both acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms. We report that benzamide riboside (BR), via anabolism to benzamide adenine dinucleotide (BAD) known to potently inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), also inhibits cell growth through a mechanism involving downregulation of DHFR protein. Evidence to support this second site of action of BR includes the finding that CCRF-CEM/R human T-cell lymphoblasic leukemia cells, resistant to MTX as a consequence of gene amplification and overexpression of DHFR, are more resistant to BR than are parental cells. Studies of the mechanism by which BR lowers DHFR showed that BR, through its metabolite BAD, reduced NADP and NADPH cellular levels by inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK). As consequence of the lack of NADPH, DHFR was shown to be destabilized. We suggest that, inhibition of NADK is a new approach to downregulate DHFR and to inhibit cell growth.

  15. Chromate reductase activity in Streptomyces sp. MC1.

    PubMed

    Polti, Marta A; Amoroso, María J; Abate, Carlos M

    2010-02-01

    Biological transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by enzymatic reduction may provide a less costly and more environmentally friendly approach to remediation. In a previous report a Cr(VI) resistant actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. MC1, was able to reduce Cr(VI) present in a synthetic medium, soil extract and soil samples. This is the first time optimal conditions such as pH, temperature, growth phase and electron donor have been elucidated in vitro for Cr(VI) reduction by a streptomycete. Chromate reductase of Streptomyces sp. MC1 is a constitutive enzyme which was mainly associated with biomass and required NAD(P)H as an electron donor. It was active over a broad temperature (19-39 degrees C) and pH (5-8) range, and optimum conditions were 30 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme was present in supernatant, pellet and cell free extract. Bioremediation with the enzyme was observed in non-compatible cell reproduction systems, conditions frequently found in contaminated environments.

  16. Identification of activators of methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B

    PubMed Central

    Cudic, Predrag; Joshi, Neelambari; Sagher, Daphna; Williams, Brandon T.; Stawikowski, Maciej J.; Weissbach, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) family of enzymes has been shown to protect cells against oxidative damage. The two major Msr enzymes, MsrA and MsrB, can repair oxidative damage to proteins due to reactive oxygen species, by reducing the methionine sulfoxide in proteins back to methionine. A role of MsrA in animal aging was first demonstrated in D. melanogaster where transgenic flies over-expressing recombinant bovine MsrA had a markedly extended life span. Subsequently, MsrA was also shown to be involved in the life span extension in C. elegans. These results supported other studies that indicated up-regulation, or activation, of the normal cellular protective mechanisms that cells use to defend against oxidative damage could be an approach to treat age related diseases and slow the aging process. In this study we have identified, for the first time, compounds structurally related to the natural products fusaricidins that markedly activate recombinant bovine and human MsrA and human MsrB. PMID:26718410

  17. Structural Basis for Activation of Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-12-03

    The class Ib ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli can initiate reduction of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides with either a Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-tyrosyl radical (Y{sm_bullet}) or a Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor in the NrdF subunit. Whereas Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} can self-assemble from Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and O{sub 2}, activation of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF requires a reduced flavoprotein, NrdI, proposed to form the oxidant for cofactor assembly by reduction of O{sub 2}. The crystal structures reported here of E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF reveal different coordination environments, suggesting distinct initial binding sites for the oxidants during cofactor activation. In the structures of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF in complex with reduced and oxidized NrdI, a continuous channel connects the NrdI flavin cofactor to the NrdF Mn{sub 2}{sup II} active site. Crystallographic detection of a putative peroxide in this channel supports the proposed mechanism of Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly.

  18. Structure and kinetics assays of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Serrão, Vitor Hugo Balasco; Romanello, Larissa; Cassago, Alexandre; de Souza, Juliana Roberta Torini; Cheleski, Juliana; DeMarco, Ricardo; Brandão-Neto, José; Pereira, Humberto D'Muniz

    2017-03-11

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni possesses all pathways for pyrimidine biosynthesis, in which dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), thymidylate cycle participants, is essential for nucleotide metabolism to obtain energy and structural nucleic acids. Thus, DHFRs have been widely suggested as therapeutic targets for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we expressed recombinant SmDHFR in a heterologous manner to obtain structural, biochemical and kinetic information. X-ray diffraction of recombinant SmDHFR at 1.95Å resolution showed that the structure exhibited the canonical DHFR fold. Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the kinetic constants for NADP(+) and dihydrofolate. Moreover, inhibition assays were performed using the commercial folate analogs methotrexate and aminopterin; these analogs are recognized as folate competitors and are used as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer and autoimmune diseases. This study provides information that may prove useful for the future discovery of novel drugs and for understanding these metabolic steps from this pathway of S. mansoni, thus aiding in our understanding of the function of these essential pathways for parasite metabolism.

  19. Fasciola gigantica thioredoxin glutathione reductase: Biochemical properties and structural modeling.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Kesherwani, Manish; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Tripathi, Timir

    2016-08-01

    Platyhelminth thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is a multifunctional enzyme that crosstalk between the conventional thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) system. It has been validated as a potential drug target in blood flukes. In the present study, we have performed a biochemical study on Fasciola gigantica TGR with substrates DTNB and GSSG. The Michaelis constant (Km) with DTNB was found to be 4.34±0.12μM while it was 61.15±1.50μM with GSSG. The kinetic results were compared with the TGR activities of other helminths. FgTGR showed typical hysteretic behavior with GSSG as other TGRs. We also described a homology-based structure of FgTGR. The cofactors (NADPH and FAD) and substrates (GSSG and DTNB) were docked, and two possible binding sites for substrates were identified in a single chain. The substrates were found to bind more favorably in the second site of TrxR domains. We also presented the first report on binding interaction of DTNB with a TGR. DTNB forms H-bond with His204 and Arg450 of chain A, Sec597, and Gly598 from chain B, salt-bridge with Lys124, and numerous other hydrophobic interactions. Helminth TGR represents an important enzyme in the redox and antioxidant system; hence, its inhibition can be used as an effective strategy against liver flukes.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana dehydroascorbate reductase 2: Conformational flexibility during catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodra, Nandita; Young, David; Astolfi Rosado, Leonardo; Pallo, Anna; Wahni, Khadija; de Proft, Frank; Huang, Jingjing; van Breusegem, Frank; Messens, Joris

    2017-02-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of dehydroascorbate and plays a direct role in regenerating ascorbic acid, an essential plant antioxidant vital for defense against oxidative stress. DHAR enzymes bear close structural homology to the glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily of enzymes and contain the same active site motif, but most GSTs do not exhibit DHAR activity. The presence of a cysteine at the active site is essential for the catalytic functioning of DHAR, as mutation of this cysteine abolishes the activity. Here we present the crystal structure of DHAR2 from Arabidopsis thaliana with GSH bound to the catalytic cysteine. This structure reveals localized conformational differences around the active site which distinguishes the GSH-bound DHAR2 structure from that of DHAR1. We also unraveled the enzymatic step in which DHAR releases oxidized glutathione (GSSG). To consolidate our structural and kinetic findings, we investigated potential conformational flexibility in DHAR2 by normal mode analysis and found that subdomain mobility could be linked to GSH binding or GSSG release.

  1. Hydrogenases in sulfate-reducing bacteria function as chromium reductase.

    PubMed

    Chardin, B; Giudici-Orticoni, M-T; De Luca, G; Guigliarelli, B; Bruschi, M

    2003-12-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to reduce chromate VI has been studied for possible application to the decontamination of polluted environments. Metal reduction can be achieved both chemically, by H(2)S produced by the bacteria, and enzymatically, by polyhemic cytochromes c(3). We demonstrate that, in addition to low potential polyheme c-type cytochromes, the ability to reduce chromate is widespread among [Fe], [NiFe], and [NiFeSe] hydrogenases isolated from SRB of the genera Desulfovibrio and Desulfomicrobium. Among them, the [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough reduces Cr(VI) with the highest rate. Both [Fe] and [NiFeSe] enzymes exhibit the same K(m) towards Cr(VI), suggesting that Cr(VI) reduction rates are directly correlated with hydrogen consumption rates. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy enabled us to probe the oxidation by Cr(VI) of the various metal centers in both [NiFe] and [Fe] hydrogenases. These experiments showed that Cr(VI) is reduced to paramagnetic Cr(III), and revealed inhibition of the enzyme at high Cr(VI) concentrations. The significant decrease of both hydrogenase and Cr(VI)-reductase activities in a mutant lacking [Fe] hydrogenase demonstrated the involvement of this enzyme in Cr(VI) reduction in vivo. Experiments with [3Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas demonstrated that the low redox [Fe-S] (non-heme iron) clusters are involved in the mechanism of metal reduction by hydrogenases.

  2. Transgenic overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase improves cardiac performance

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Sarah G.; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Korte, Frederick Steven; Luo, Zhaoxiong; Robinson-Hamm, Jacqueline N.; Page, Jennifer L.; Brozovich, Frank; Weiss, Robert S.; Tian, Rong; Murry, Charles E.; Regnier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that cardiac myosin can use 2-deoxy-ATP (dATP) as an energy substrate, that it enhances contraction and relaxation with minimal effect on calcium-handling properties in vitro, and that contractile enhancement occurs with only minor elevation of cellular [dATP]. Here, we report the effect of chronically enhanced dATP concentration on cardiac function using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (TgRR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. Hearts from TgRR mice had elevated left ventricular systolic function compared with wild-type (WT) mice, both in vivo and in vitro, without signs of hypertrophy or altered diastolic function. Isolated cardiomyocytes from TgRR mice had enhanced contraction and relaxation, with no change in Ca2+ transients, suggesting targeted improvement of myofilament function. TgRR hearts had normal ATP and only slightly decreased phosphocreatine levels by 31P NMR spectroscopy, and they maintained rate responsiveness to dobutamine challenge. These data demonstrate long-term (at least 5-mo) elevation of cardiac [dATP] results in sustained elevation of basal left ventricular performance, with maintained β-adrenergic responsiveness and energetic reserves. Combined with results from previous studies, we conclude that this occurs primarily via enhanced myofilament activation and contraction, with similar or faster ability to relax. The data are sufficiently compelling to consider elevated cardiac [dATP] as a therapeutic option to treat systolic dysfunction. PMID:23530224

  3. Nitrate Reductase of Primary Roots of Red Spruce Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Yandow, Tim S.; Klein, Richard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was found in primary roots, but not in foliage of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings. Nitrate induced NRA:NH4+ did not induce and slightly depressed NRA in older seedlings. Induction required 8 hours and, once induced, NRA decreased slowly in the absence of exogenous NO3−. Seedlings were grown in perlite with a complete nutrient solution containing NH4+ to limit NR induction. Established seedlings were stressed with nutrient solutions at pH 3, 4, or 5 supplemented with Cl− salts of Al, Cd, Pb, or Zn each at two concentrations. NRA in primary root tips was measured at 2, 14, 28, and 42 days. NRA induction was greatest at pH 3, and remained high during the period of study. NRA induction at pH 4 was lower. Metal ions suppressed NRA at pH 3 and 5, but enhanced NRA at pH 4. It is concluded that acidity and soluble metals in the root environment of red spruce are unlikely to be important factors in nitrogen transformations in red spruce roots. PMID:16664891

  4. Structure of Escherichia coli Flavodiiron Nitric Oxide Reductase.

    PubMed

    Romão, Célia V; Vicente, João B; Borges, Patrícia T; Victor, Bruno L; Lamosa, Pedro; Silva, Elísio; Pereira, Luís; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Soares, Cláudio M; Carrondo, Maria A; Turner, David; Teixeira, Miguel; Frazão, Carlos

    2016-11-20

    Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are present in organisms from all domains of life and have been described so far to be involved in the detoxification of oxygen or nitric oxide (NO), acting as O2 and/or NO reductases. The Escherichia coli FDP, named flavorubredoxin (FlRd), is the most extensively studied FDP. Biochemical and in vivo studies revealed that FlRd is involved in NO detoxification as part of the bacterial defense mechanisms against reactive nitrogen species. E. coli FlRd has a clear preference for NO as a substrate in vitro, exhibiting a very low reactivity toward O2. To contribute to the understanding of the structural features defining this substrate selectivity, we determined the crystallographic structure of E. coli FlRd, both in the isolated and reduced states. The overall tetrameric structure revealed a highly conserved flavodiiron core domain, with a metallo-β-lactamase-like domain containing a diiron center, and a flavodoxin domain with a flavin mononucleotide cofactor. The metal center in the oxidized state has a μ-hydroxo bridge coordinating the two irons, while in the reduced state, this moiety is not detected. Since only the flavodiiron domain was observed in these crystal structures, the structure of the rubredoxin domain was determined by NMR. Tunnels for the substrates were identified, and through molecular dynamics simulations, no differences for O2 or NO permeation were found. The present data represent the first structure for a NO-selective FDP.

  5. Prognostic Relevance of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Victor C.; Lu, Te-Ling; Yin, Hsin-Ling; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Lee, Yung-Chin; Liu, Chia-Chu; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Huang, Shu-Pin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Folate metabolism has been associated with cancers via alterations in nucleotide synthesis, DNA methylation, and DNA repair. We hypothesized that genetic variants in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme of folate metabolism, would affect the prognosis of prostate cancer. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the MTHFR gene region were genotyped in a cohort of 458 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. One SNP, rs9651118, was associated with disease recurrence, and the association persisted after multivariate analyses adjusting for known risk factors. Public dataset analyses suggested that rs9651118 affects MTHFR expression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MTHFR expression is significantly upregulated in prostate tumor tissues when compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of MTHFR correlates with cancer recurrence and death in two independent publicly available prostate cancer datasets. In conclusion, our data provide rationale to further validate the clinical utility of MTHFR rs9651118 as a biomarker for prognosis in prostate cancer. PMID:27916838

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE METHIONINE SULFOXIDE REDUCTASES OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Tolulope T.; Moskovitz, Jackob; Williams, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, also known as Bilharzia, is an infectious disease caused by several species of Schistosoma. Twenty million individuals suffer severe symptoms and 200,000 people die annually from the disease. The host responds to the presence of S. mansoni by producing reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress. We hypothesized that schistosomes produce antioxidants in response to oxidative stress. A known antioxidant protein is methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Methionine residues can be oxidized to methionine sulfoxide in the presence of oxidizing agents, which is readily reversed by the action of the Msr system. Two S. mansoni MsrB genes (MsrB1 and MsrB2) were cloned and the recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria and purified. The S. mansoni MsrB proteins contained the common conserved catalytic and zinc coordinating cysteines. Analysis of the proteins showed that both proteins promote the reduction of both free methionine sulfoxide (Met[O]) and dabsyl-Met(O) to free methionine (Met) and dabsyl-Met, respectively, while exhibiting differences in their specific activities towards these substrates. Using real-time PCR, both proteins were found to be expressed in all stages of the parasite’s life cycle with the highest level of expression of both proteins in the egg stage. This is the first description of MsrB proteins from a parasite. PMID:19604033

  7. Lausannevirus Encodes a Functional Dihydrofolate Reductase Susceptible to Proguanil

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, L.; Hauser, P. M.; Gauye, F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lausannevirus belongs to the family Marseilleviridae within the group of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs). These giant viruses exhibit unique features, including a large genome, ranging from 100 kb to 2.5 Mb and including from 150 to more than 2,500 genes, as well as the presence of genes coding for proteins involved in transcription and translation. The large majority of Lausannevirus open reading frames have unknown functions. Interestingly, a bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) is encoded in the Lausannevirus genome. The enzyme plays central roles in DNA precursor biosynthesis. DHFR is the pharmacological target of antifolates, such as trimethoprim, pyrimethamine, and proguanil. First, the functionality of Lausannevirus DHFR-TS was demonstrated by the successful complementation of a DHFR-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a plasmid expressing the heterologous gene. Additionally, using this heterologous expression system, we demonstrated the in vitro susceptibility of Lausannevirus DHFR-TS to proguanil and its resistance to pyrimethamine and trimethoprim. Proguanil may provide a unique and useful treatment if Lausannevirus proves to be a human pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a DHFR-TS has been described and characterized in an NCLDV. PMID:28137801

  8. Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR): the 2002 update.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Udo; Filling, Charlotta; Hult, Malin; Shafqat, Naeem; Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lindh, Monica; Shafqat, Jawed; Nordling, Erik; Kallberg, Yvonne; Persson, Bengt; Jörnvall, Hans

    2003-02-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) form a large, functionally heterogeneous protein family presently with about 3000 primary and about 30 3D structures deposited in databases. Despite low sequence identities between different forms (about 15-30%), the 3D structures display highly similar alpha/beta folding patterns with a central beta-sheet, typical of the Rossmann-fold. Based on distinct sequence motifs functional assignments and classifications are possible, making it possible to build a general nomenclature system. Recent mutagenetic and structural studies considerably extend the knowledge on the general reaction mechanism, thereby establishing a catalytic tetrad of Asn-Ser-Tyr-Lys residues, which presumably form the framework for a proton relay system including the 2'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose, similar to the mechanism found in horse liver ADH. Based on their cellular functions, several SDR enzymes appear as possible and promising pharmacological targets with application areas spanning hormone-dependent cancer forms or metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, and infectious diseases.

  9. Solvent effects on catalysis by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Loveridge, E Joel; Tey, Lai-Hock; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2010-01-27

    Hydride transfer catalyzed by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been described previously within an environmentally coupled model of hydrogen tunneling, where protein motions control binding of substrate and cofactor to generate a tunneling ready conformation and modulate the width of the activation barrier and hence the reaction rate. Changes to the composition of the reaction medium are known to perturb protein motions. We have measured kinetic parameters of the reaction catalyzed by DHFR from Escherichia coli in the presence of various cosolvents and cosolutes and show that the dielectric constant, but not the viscosity, of the reaction medium affects the rate of reaction. Neither the primary kinetic isotope effect on the reaction nor its temperature dependence were affected by changes to the bulk solvent properties. These results are in agreement with our previous report on the effect of solvent composition on catalysis by DHFR from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima. However, the effect of solvent on the temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect on hydride transfer catalyzed by E. coli DHFR is difficult to explain within a model, in which long-range motions couple to the chemical step of the reaction, but may indicate the existence of a short-range promoting vibration or the presence of multiple nearly isoenergetic conformational substates of enzymes with similar but distinct catalytic properties.

  10. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  11. Optical observation of correlated motions in dihydrofolate reductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengyang; Niessen, Katherine; Pace, James; Cody, Vivian; Markelz, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Enzyme function relies on its structural flexibility to make conformational changes for substrate binding and product release. An example of a metabolic enzyme where such structural changes are vital is dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is essential in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes for the nucleotide biosynthesis by catalyzing the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. NMR dynamical measurements found large amplitude fast dynamics that could indicate rigid-body, twisting-hinge motion for ecDHFR that may mediate flux. The role of such long-range correlated motions in function was suggested by the observed sharp decrease in enzyme activity for the single point mutation G121V, which is remote from active sites. This decrease in activity may be caused by the mutation interfering with the long-range intramolecular vibrations necessary for rapid access to functional configurations. We use our new technique of crystal anisotropy terahertz microscopy (CATM), to observe correlated motions in ecDHFR crystals with the bonding of NADPH and methotrexate. We compare the measured intramolecular vibrational spectrum with calculations using normal mode analysis.

  12. Loss of quinone reductase 2 function selectively facilitates learning behaviors.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Bastianetto, Stephane; Brouillette, Jonathan; Tse, YiuChung; Boutin, Jean A; Delagrange, Philippe; Wong, TakPan; Sarret, Philippe; Quirion, Rémi

    2010-09-22

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with deficits in learning and memory with age as well as in Alzheimer's disease. Using DNA microarray, we demonstrated the overexpression of quinone reductase 2 (QR2) in the hippocampus in two models of learning deficits, namely the aged memory impaired rats and the scopolamine-induced amnesia model. QR2 is a cytosolic flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of its substrate and enhances the production of damaging activated quinone and ROS. QR2-like immunostaining is enriched in cerebral structures associated with learning behaviors, such as the hippocampal formation and the temporofrontal cortex of rat, mouse, and human brains. In cultured rat embryonic hippocampal neurons, selective inhibitors of QR2, namely S26695 and S29434, protected against menadione-induced cell death by reversing its proapoptotic action. S26695 (8 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited scopolamine-induced amnesia. Interestingly, adult QR2 knock-out mice demonstrated enhanced learning abilities in various tasks, including Morris water maze, object recognition, and rotarod performance test. Other behaviors related to anxiety (elevated plus maze), depression (forced swim), and schizophrenia (prepulse inhibition) were not affected in QR2-deficient mice. Together, these data suggest a role for QR2 in cognitive behaviors with QR2 inhibitors possibly representing a novel therapeutic strategy toward the treatment of learning deficits especially observed in the aged brain.

  13. Severe scoliosis in a patient with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Tatiana; Patel, Jinesh; Badilla-Porras, Ramses; Kronick, Jonathan; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2015-01-01

    Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of folate metabolism. We report a new patient with severe MTHFR deficiency who presented at age 4 months with early onset severe scoliosis associated with severe hypotonia. Markedly decreased MTHFR enzyme activity (0.3 nmoles CHO/mg protein/h; reference range>9) and compound heterozygous mutations (c. 1304T>C; p.Phe435Ser and c.1539dup; p.Glu514Argfs∗24) in the MTHFR gene confirmed the diagnosis. She was treated with vitamin B12, folic acid and betaine supplementation and showed improvements in her developmental milestones and hypotonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with MTHFR deficiency reported with severe early onset scoliosis. Despite the late diagnosis and treatment initiation, she showed favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome. This case suggests that homocysteine measurement should be included in the investigations of patients with developmental delay, hypotonia and scoliosis within first year of life prior to organizing genetic investigations.

  14. Mutation Update and Review of Severe Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Froese, D Sean; Huemer, Martina; Suormala, Terttu; Burda, Patricie; Coelho, David; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Landolt, Markus A; Kožich, Viktor; Fowler, Brian; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Severe 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is caused by mutations in the MTHFR gene and results in hyperhomocysteinemia and varying severity of disease, ranging from neonatal lethal to adult onset. Including those described here, 109 MTHFR mutations have been reported in 171 families, consisting of 70 missense mutations, 17 that primarily affect splicing, 11 nonsense mutations, seven small deletions, two no-stop mutations, one small duplication, and one large duplication. Only 36% of mutations recur in unrelated families, indicating that most are "private." The most common mutation is c.1530A>G (numbered from NM_005957.4, p.Lys510 = ) causing a splicing defect, found in 13 families; the most common missense mutation is c.1129C>T (p.Arg377Cys) identified in 10 families. To increase disease understanding, we report enzymatic activity, detected mutations, and clinical onset information (early, <1 year; or late, >1 year) for all published patients available, demonstrating that patients with early onset have less residual enzyme activity than those presenting later. We also review animal models, diagnostic approaches, clinical presentations, and treatment options. This is the first large review of mutations in MTHFR, highlighting the wide spectrum of disease-causing mutations.

  15. Composition and structure of assimilatory nitrate reductase from Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M A; Vega, J M; Zumft, W G

    1981-06-10

    Assimilatory NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) from Ankistrodesmus braunii has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on blue Sepharose. The specific activity of the purified enzyme is in the range of 72 to 80 units/mg of protein. The electronic spectrum of the native enzyme shows absorption maxima at 278, 414 (Soret), 532 (beta), 562 (alpha), and 669 nm and shoulders at 455 and 484 nm, with an A278/A414 ratio of 2.56. The reduced enzyme shows absorption maxima at 424 (Soret), 528 (beta), 557 (alpha),and 669 n. The enzyme complex (Mr = 467,400) is composed of eight similar subunits (Mr = 58,750) and contains 4 molecules of FAD, 4 heme groups, and 2 atoms of molybdenum. Labile sulfide and nonheme iron were not detected. Electron micrographs show the eight subunits arranged alternately in two planes, and an 8-fold rotational symmetry was deduced from highly magnified images processed by optical superposition.

  16. Converting a Sulfenic Acid Reductase into a Disulfide Bond Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Chatelle, Claire; Kraemer, Stéphanie; Ren, Guoping; Chmura, Hannah; Marechal, Nils; Boyd, Dana; Roggemans, Caroline; Ke, Na; Riggs, Paul; Bardwell, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Posttranslational formation of disulfide bonds is essential for the folding of many secreted proteins. Formation of disulfide bonds in a protein with more than two cysteines is inherently fraught with error and can result in incorrect disulfide bond pairing and, consequently, misfolded protein. Protein disulfide bond isomerases, such as DsbC of Escherichia coli, can recognize mis-oxidized proteins and shuffle the disulfide bonds of the substrate protein into their native folded state. Results: We have developed a simple blue/white screen that can detect disulfide bond isomerization in vivo, using a mutant alkaline phosphatase (PhoA*) in E. coli. We utilized this screen to isolate mutants of the sulfenic acid reductase (DsbG) that allowed this protein to act as a disulfide bond isomerase. Characterization of the isolated mutants in vivo and in vitro allowed us to identify key amino acid residues responsible for oxidoreductase properties of thioredoxin-like proteins such as DsbC or DsbG. Innovation and Conclusions: Using these key residues, we also identified and characterized interesting environmental homologs of DsbG with novel properties, thus demonstrating the capacity of this screen to discover and elucidate mechanistic details of in vivo disulfide bond isomerization. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 945–957. PMID:26191605

  17. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  18. Light regulates alternative splicing of hydroxypyruvate reductase in pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Mano, S; Hayashi, M; Nishimura, M

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) is a leaf peroxisomal enzyme that functions in the glycolate pathway of photorespiration in plants. We have obtained two highly similar cDNAs for pumpkin HPR (HPR1 and HPR2). It has been revealed that two HPR mRNAs might be produced by alternative splicing from a single type of pre-mRNA. The HPR1 protein, but not the HPR2 protein, was found to have a targeting sequence into leaf peroxisomes at the C-terminus, suggesting that alternative splicing controls the subcellular localization of the two HPR proteins. Immunoblot analysis and subcellular fractionation experiments showed that HPR1 and HPR2 proteins are localized in leaf peroxisomes and the cytosol, respectively. Moreover, indirect fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transgenic tobacco cultured cells and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed the different subcellular localizations of the two HPR proteins. Both mRNAs were induced developmentally and by light, but with quantitative differences. Almost equal amounts of the mRNAs were detected in pumpkin cotyledons grown in darkness, but treatment with light greatly enhanced the production of HPR2 mRNA. These findings indicate that light regulates alternative splicing of HPR mRNA, suggesting the presence of a novel mechanism of mRNA maturation, namely light-regulated alternative splicing, in higher plants.

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana dehydroascorbate reductase 2: Conformational flexibility during catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Bodra, Nandita; Young, David; Astolfi Rosado, Leonardo; Pallo, Anna; Wahni, Khadija; De Proft, Frank; Huang, Jingjing; Van Breusegem, Frank; Messens, Joris

    2017-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of dehydroascorbate and plays a direct role in regenerating ascorbic acid, an essential plant antioxidant vital for defense against oxidative stress. DHAR enzymes bear close structural homology to the glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily of enzymes and contain the same active site motif, but most GSTs do not exhibit DHAR activity. The presence of a cysteine at the active site is essential for the catalytic functioning of DHAR, as mutation of this cysteine abolishes the activity. Here we present the crystal structure of DHAR2 from Arabidopsis thaliana with GSH bound to the catalytic cysteine. This structure reveals localized conformational differences around the active site which distinguishes the GSH-bound DHAR2 structure from that of DHAR1. We also unraveled the enzymatic step in which DHAR releases oxidized glutathione (GSSG). To consolidate our structural and kinetic findings, we investigated potential conformational flexibility in DHAR2 by normal mode analysis and found that subdomain mobility could be linked to GSH binding or GSSG release. PMID:28195196

  20. Atypical features of Thermus thermophilus succinate:quinone reductase.

    PubMed

    Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Noor, Mohamed R; O'Kane, Sarah R; Baymann, Frauke; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2013-01-01

    The Thermus thermophilus succinate:quinone reductase (SQR), serving as the respiratory complex II, has been homologously produced under the control of a constitutive promoter and subsequently purified. The detailed biochemical characterization of the resulting wild type (wt-rcII) and His-tagged (rcII-His(8)-SdhB and rcII-SdhB-His(6)) complex II variants showed the same properties as the native enzyme with respect to the subunit composition, redox cofactor content and sensitivity to the inhibitors malonate, oxaloacetate, 3-nitropropionic acid and nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO). The position of the His-tag determined whether the enzyme retained its native trimeric conformation or whether it was present in a monomeric form. Only the trimer exhibited positive cooperativity at high temperatures. The EPR signal of the [2Fe-2S] cluster was sensitive to the presence of substrate and showed an increased rhombicity in the presence of succinate in the native and in all recombinant forms of the enzyme. The detailed analysis of the shape of this signal as a function of pH, substrate concentration and in the presence of various inhibitors and quinones is presented, leading to a model for the molecular mechanism that underlies the influence of succinate on the rhombicity of the EPR signal of the proximal iron-sulfur cluster.

  1. Phosphorylation and proteolysis of HMGCoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, R.A.; Lanier, T.L.; Miller, S.J.; Gibson, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    The phosphorylation of rat liver microsomal 97 kDa HMGCoA reductase (HMGR) was examined by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE using antibodies to 53 kDa HMGR. MgATP preincubation decreased expressed HMGR activity from 10.1 +/- 2.4 to 0.81 +/- 0.2 U/mg. Concomitant incorporation of TSP from el-TSP-ATP into 97 kDa HMGR protein was observed. Competitive antibody binding by affinity-purified 53 kDa HMGR showed that the 97 kDa TSP band was authentic HMGR. HMGR was reactivated and the TSP label was removed by protein phosphatase in a concentration-dependent manner: the increase in expressed/total activity ratio (E/T) correlated linearly with a decrease in 97 kDa TSP. Therefore, the E/T ratio provides a valid index of the phosphorylation state of microsomal 97 kDa HMGR. Protease cleavage patterns of HMGR mass and TSP were compared using calpain: a 52-56 kDa doublet of HMGR mass was observed in immunoblots under conditions in which only the 56 kDa band contained TSP. Further proteolysis decreased the TSP label as the 52 kDa mass product increased. The data suggest that the major phosphorylation site in 97 kDa HMGR lies between two main calpain cleavage sites in the linker region joining the cytoplasmic domain to the membrane-spanning domain of the native enzyme.

  2. Molecular Cloning of Complementary DNA Encoding Maize Nitrite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lahners, Kristine; Kramer, Vance; Back, Eduard; Privalle, Laura; Rothstein, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Complementary DNA has been isolated that codes for maize nitrite reductase (NiR) by using the corresponding spinach gene (E Back et al. 1988 Mol Gen Genet 212:20-26) as a heterologous probe. The sequences of the complementary DNAs from the two species are 66% homologous while the deduced amino acid sequences are 86% similar when analogous amino acids are included. A high percentage of the differences in the DNA sequences is due to the extremely strong bias in the corn gene to have a G/C base in the third codon position with 559/569 codons ending in a G or C. Using a hydroponic system, maize seedlings grown in the absence of an exogenous nitrogen source were induced with nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate stimulated a rapid induction of the NiR mRNA in both roots and leaves. There is also a considerable induction of this gene in roots upon the addition of nitrite, although under the conditions used the final mRNA level was not as high as when nitrate was the inducer. There is a small but detectable level of NiR mRNA in leaves prior to induction, but no constitutive NiR mRNA can be seen in the roots. Analysis of genomic DNA supports the notion that there are at least two NiR genes in maize. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666376

  3. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with nitrate reductase assay.

    PubMed

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Birinci, Asuman; Ekinci, Bora; Durupinar, Belma

    2004-09-01

    The nitrate reductase assay (NRA) was evaluated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using 80 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and H37Rv as a control strain. All isolates were tested by the proportion method and the NRA for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (ETM). The proportion method was carried out according to NCCLS on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and the NRA on LJ medium containing 1000 microg/ml potassium nitrate (KNO(3)). After incubation for 7, 10, 14 and 21 days, Griess reagent was added to each LJ medium and nitrate reduction was determined by a colour change. Comparing the NRA with the proportion method, sensitivities were 100, 100, 82.1 and 92.2% for INH, RIF, STR and ETM, respectively. Specificities were 100, 100, 92.3 and 100% for INH, RIF, STR and ETM, respectively. The results of 2, 22 and 56 isolates were obtained after 7, 10 and 14 days, respectively. The proportion method result were read at 21-28 days. The NRA is rapid, inexpensive and easy to perform. Our results indicated that the NRA is suitable for the early determination of INH and RIF resistance in countries where sophisticated procedures are not always available.

  4. Recombinant bovine dihydrofolate reductase produced by mutagenesis and nested PCR of murine dihydrofolate reductase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Cody, Vivian; Mao, Qilong; Queener, Sherry F

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports of the slow-tight binding inhibition of bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase (bDHFR) in the presence of polyphenols isolated from green tea leaves has spurred renewed interest in the biochemical properties of bDHFR. Earlier studies were done with native bDHFR but in order to validate models of polyphenol binding to bDHFR, larger quantities of bDHFR are necessary to support structural studies. Bovine DHFR differs from its closest sequence homologue, murine DHFR, by 19 amino acids. To obtain the bDHFR cDNA, murineDHFR cDNA was transformed by a series of nested PCRs to reproduce the amino acid coding sequence for bovine DHFR. The bovine liver DHFR cDNA has an open reading frame of 561 base pairs encoding a protein of 187 amino acids that has a high level of conservation at the primary sequence level with other DHFR enzymes, and more so for the amino acid residues in the active site of the mammalian DHFR enzymes. Expression of the bovine DHFR cDNA in bacterial cells produced a stable recombinant protein with high enzymatic activity and kinetic properties similar to those previously reported for the native protein.

  5. Seven novel mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, P.; Frosst, P.; Rosenblatt, D.S.; Rozen. R.

    1995-05-01

    5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, the major form of folate in plasma, is a carbon donor for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. This form of folate is generated from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate through the action of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a cytosolic flavoprotein. Patients with an autosomal recessive severe deficiency of MTHFR have homocystinuria and a wide range of neurological and vascular disturbances. We have recently described the isolation of a cDNA for MTHFR and the identification of two mutations in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. We report here the characterization of seven novel mutations in this gene: six missense mutations and a 5{prime} splice-site defect that activates a cryptic splice in the coding sequence. We also present a preliminary analysis of the relationship between genotype and phenotype for all nine mutations identified thus far in this gene. A nonsense mutation and two missense mutations (proline to leucine and threonine to methionine) in the homozygous state are associated with extremely low activity (0%-3%) and onset of symptoms within the 1st year of age. Other missense mutations (arginine to cysteine and arginine to glutamine) are associated with higher enzyme activity and later onset of symptoms. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Molecular basis for thermoprotection in Bemisia: structural differences between whitefly ketose reductase and other medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, G R; Smith, C A; Hendrix, D L; Salvucci, M E

    1999-02-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii, Bellows and Perring) accumulates sorbitol as a thermoprotectant in response to elevated temperature. Sorbitol synthesis in this insect is catalyzed by an unconventional ketose reductase (KR) that uses NADPH to reduce fructose. A cDNA encoding the NADPH-KR from adult B. argentifolii was cloned and sequenced to determine the primary structure of this enzyme. The cDNA encoded a protein of 352 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 38.2 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA shared 60% identity with sheep NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). Residues in SDH involved in substrate binding were conserved in the whitefly NADPH-KR. An important structural difference between the whitefly NADPH-KR and NAD(+)-SDHs occurred in the nucleotide-binding site. The Asp residue that coordinates the adenosyl ribose hydroxyls in NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases (including NAD(+)-SDH), was replaced by an Ala in the whitefly NADPH-KR. The whitefly NADPH-KR also contained two neutral to Arg substitutions within four residues of the Asp to Ala substitution. Molecular modeling indicated that addition of the Arg residues and loss of the Asp decreased the electric potential of the adenosine ribose-binding pocket, creating an environment favorable for NADPH-binding. Because of the ability to use NADPH, the whitefly NADPH-KR synthesizes sorbitol under physiological conditions, unlike NAD(+)-SDHs, which function in sorbitol catabolism.

  7. Aerobic Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Enterobacter cloacae PB2 and by Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    French, Christopher E.; Nicklin, Stephen; Bruce, Neil C.

    1998-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae PB2 was originally isolated on the basis of its ability to utilize nitrate esters, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and glycerol trinitrate, as the sole nitrogen source for growth. The enzyme responsible is an NADPH-dependent reductase designated PETN reductase. E. cloacae PB2 was found to be capable of slow aerobic growth with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as the sole nitrogen source. Dinitrotoluenes were not produced and could not be used as nitrogen sources. Purified PETN reductase was found to reduce TNT to its hydride-Meisenheimer complex, which was further reduced to the dihydride-Meisenheimer complex. Purified PETN reductase and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing PETN reductase were able to liberate nitrogen as nitrite from TNT. The ability to remove nitrogen from TNT suggests that PB2 or recombinant organisms expressing PETN reductase may be useful for bioremediation of TNT-contaminated soil and water. PMID:9687442

  8. Aerobic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Enterobacter cloacae PB2 and by pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.E.; Bruce, N.C.; Nicklin, S.

    1998-08-01

    Enterobacter cloacae PB2 was originally isolated on the basis of its ability to utilize nitrate esters, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and glycerol trinitrate, as the sole nitrogen source for growth. The enzyme responsible is an NADPH-dependent reductase designated PETN reductase. E. cloacae PB2 was found to be capable of slow aerobic growth with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as the sole nitrogen source. Dinitrotoluenes were not produced and could not be used as nitrogen sources. Purified PETN reductase was found to reduce TNT to its hydride-Meisenheimer complex, which was further reduced to the dihydride-Meisenheimer complex. Purified PETN reductase and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing PETN reductase were able to liberate nitrogen as nitrite from TNT. The ability to remove nitrogen from TNT suggests that PB2 or recombinant organisms expressing PETN reductase may be useful for bioremediation of TNT-contaminated soil and water.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Benzoyl Coenzyme A Reductase Genes Detected in Denitrifying Isolates and Estuarine Sediment Communities

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bongkeun; Ward, Bess B.

    2005-01-01

    Benzoyl coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase is a central enzyme in the anaerobic degradation of organic carbon, which utilizes a common intermediate (benzoyl-CoA) in the metabolism of many aromatic compounds. The diversity of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes in denitrifying bacterial isolates capable of degrading aromatic compounds and in river and estuarine sediment samples from the Arthur Kill in New Jersey and the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland was investigated. Degenerate primers were developed from the known benzoyl-CoA reductase genes from Thauera aromatica, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Azoarcus evansii. PCR amplification detected benzoyl-CoA reductase genes in the denitrifying isolates belonging to α-, β-, or γ-Proteobacteria as well as in the sediment samples. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence similarity comparison, and conserved indel determination grouped the new sequences into either the bcr type (found in T. aromatica and R. palustris) or the bzd type (found in A. evansii). All the Thauera strains and the isolates from the genera Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Paracoccus, Ensifer, and Pseudomonas had bcr-type benzoyl-CoA reductases with amino acid sequence similarities of more than 97%. The genes detected from Azarocus strains were assigned to the bzd type. A total of 50 environmental clones were detected from denitrifying consortium and sediment samples, and 28 clones were assigned to either the bcr or the bzd type of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes. Thus, we could determine the genetic capabilities for anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds in sediment communities of the Chesapeake Bay and the Arthur Kill on the basis of the detection of two types of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes. The detected genes have future applications as genetic markers to monitor aromatic compound degradation in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:15812036

  10. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  11. Metabolism of bupropion by carbonyl reductases in liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Connarn, Jamie N; Zhang, Xinyuan; Babiskin, Andrew; Sun, Duxin

    2015-07-01

    Bupropion's metabolism and the formation of hydroxybupropion in the liver by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) has been extensively studied; however, the metabolism and formation of erythro/threohydrobupropion in the liver and intestine by carbonyl reductases (CR) has not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the relative contribution of the two metabolism pathways of bupropion (by CYP2B6 and CR) in the subcellular fractions of liver and intestine and to identify the CRs responsible for erythro/threohydrobupropion formation in the liver and the intestine. The results showed that the liver microsome generated the highest amount of hydroxybupropion (Vmax = 131 pmol/min per milligram, Km = 87 μM). In addition, liver microsome and S9 fractions formed similar levels of threohydrobupropion by CR (Vmax = 98-99 pmol/min per milligram and Km = 186-265 μM). Interestingly, the liver has similar capability to form hydroxybupropion (by CYP2B6) and threohydrobupropion (by CR). In contrast, none of the intestinal fractions generate hydroxybupropion, suggesting that the intestine does not have CYP2B6 available for metabolism of bupropion. However, intestinal S9 fraction formed threohydrobupropion to the extent of 25% of the amount of threohydrobupropion formed by liver S9 fraction. Enzyme inhibition and Western blots identified that 11β-dehydrogenase isozyme 1 in the liver microsome fraction is mainly responsible for the formation of threohydrobupropion, and in the intestine AKR7 may be responsible for the same metabolite formation. These quantitative comparisons of bupropion metabolism by CR in the liver and intestine may provide new insight into its efficacy and side effects with respect to these metabolites.

  12. Human endothelial dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Rangel Filho, Artur; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-10-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from endothelial NO synthase. Clinical trials using BH₄ to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH₄. One of the oxidation products of BH₄, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH₂), is recycled back to BH₄ by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH₄ treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multielectrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH₂ and BH₄, which is not possible with fluorescence-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH₄ and 7,8-BH₂ concentrations in human endothelial cells (ECs) are lower than in bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH₄ transiently increased intracellular BH₄ while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH₂. This was different from bovine or murine ECs, which resulted in preferential BH₄ increase. Using BH₄ diastereomers, 6S-BH₄ and 6R-BH₄, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH₄ was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH₂ to BH₄ occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supraphysiological levels of 7,8-BH₂, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that human DHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH₂ (DHF7,8-BH₂) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH₂ recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies, which may be further aggravated by folate supplements.

  13. The Reaction Mechanism of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mm). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μm). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s−1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S−·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates. PMID:25691570

  14. The Effect of Protein Mass Modulation on Human Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kevin; Sapienza, Paul J.; Lee, Andrew L.; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli has long served as a model enzyme with which to elucidate possible links between protein dynamics and the catalyzed reaction. Such physical properties of its human counterpart have not been rigorously studied so far, but recent computer-based simulations suggest that these two DHFRs differ significantly in how closely coupled the protein dynamics and the catalyzed C-H→C hydride transfer step are. To test this prediction, two contemporary probes for studying the effect of protein dynamics on catalysis were combined here: temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) that are sensitive to the physical nature of the chemical step, and protein mass-modulation that slows down fast dynamics (femto- to picosecond timescale) throughout the protein. The intrinsic H/T KIEs of human DHFR, like those of E. coli DHFR, are shown to be temperature-independent in the range from 5–45 °C, indicating fast sampling of donor and acceptor distances (DADs) at the reaction’s transition state (or tunneling ready state – TRS). Mass modulation of these enzymes through isotopic labeling with 13C, 15N, and 2H at nonexchangeable hydrogens yield an 11% heavier enzyme. The additional mass has no effect on the intrinsic KIEs of the human enzyme. This finding indicates that the mass-modulation of the human DHFR affects neither DAD distribution nor the DAD’s conformational sampling dynamics. Furthermore, reduction in the enzymatic turnover number and the dissociation rate constant for the product indicate that the isotopic substitution affects kinetic steps that are not the catalyzed C-H→C hydride transfer. The findings are discussed in terms of fast dynamics and their role in catalysis, the comparison of calculations and experiments, and the interpretation of isotopically-modulated heavy enzymes in general. PMID:26813442

  15. Environmental Adaptation of Dihydrofolate Reductase from Deep-Sea Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ohmae, Eiji; Gekko, Kunihiko; Kato, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular adaptation mechanisms of enzymes to the high hydrostatic pressure of the deep sea, we cloned, purified, and characterized more than ten dihydrofolate reductases (DHFRs) from bacteria living in deep-sea and ambient atmospheric pressure environments. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these DHFRs indicate the deep-sea bacteria are adapted to their environments after the differentiation of their genus from ancestors inhabiting atmospheric pressure environments. In particular, the backbone structure of the deep-sea DHFR from Moritella profunda (mpDHFR) almost overlapped with the normal homolog from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR). Thus, those of other DHFRs would also overlap on the basis of their sequence similarities. However, the structural stability of both DHFRs was quite different: compared to ecDHFR, mpDHFR was more thermally stable but less stable against urea and pressure unfolding. The smaller volume changes due to unfolding suggest that the native structure of mpDHFR has a smaller cavity and/or enhanced hydration compared to ecDHFR. High hydrostatic pressure reduced the enzymatic activity of many DHFRs, but three deep-sea DHFRs and the D27E mutant of ecDHFR exhibited pressure-dependent activation. The inverted activation volumes from positive to negative values indicate the modification of their structural dynamics, conversion of the rate-determining step of the enzymatic reaction, and different contributions of the cavity and hydration to the transition-state structure. Since the cavity and hydration depend on amino acid side chains, DHFRs would adapt to the deep-sea environment by regulating the cavity and hydration by substituting their amino acid side chains without altering their backbone structure. The results of this study clearly indicate that the cavity and hydration play important roles in the adaptation of enzymes to the deep-sea environment.

  16. Pyranopterin Coordination Controls Molybdenum Electrochemistry in Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Rothery, Richard A; Weiner, Joel H

    2015-10-09

    We test the hypothesis that pyranopterin (PPT) coordination plays a critical role in defining molybdenum active site redox chemistry and reactivity in the mononuclear molybdoenzymes. The molybdenum atom of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) is coordinated by two PPT-dithiolene chelates that are defined as proximal and distal based on their proximity to a [4Fe-4S] cluster known as FS0. We examined variants of two sets of residues involved in PPT coordination: (i) those interacting directly or indirectly with the pyran oxygen of the bicyclic distal PPT (NarG-Ser(719), NarG-His(1163), and NarG-His(1184)); and (ii) those involved in bridging the two PPTs and stabilizing the oxidation state of the proximal PPT (NarG-His(1092) and NarG-His(1098)). A S719A variant has essentially no effect on the overall Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential, whereas the H1163A and H1184A variants elicit large effects (ΔEm values of -88 and -36 mV, respectively). Ala variants of His(1092) and His(1098) also elicit large ΔEm values of -143 and -101 mV, respectively. An Arg variant of His(1092) elicits a small ΔEm of +18 mV on the Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential. There is a linear correlation between the molybdenum Em value and both enzyme activity and the ability to support anaerobic respiratory growth on nitrate. These data support a non-innocent role for the PPT moieties in controlling active site metal redox chemistry and catalysis.

  17. Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kramm, Anneke; Kisiela, Michael; Schulz, Rüdiger; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    The short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) represent a large superfamily of enzymes, most of which are NAD(H)-dependent or NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases. They display a wide substrate spectrum, including steroids, alcohols, sugars, aromatic compounds, and xenobiotics. On the basis of characteristic sequence motifs, the SDRs are subdivided into two main (classical and extended) and three smaller (divergent, intermediate, and complex) families. Despite low residue identities in pairwise comparisons, the three-dimensional structure among the SDRs is conserved and shows a typical Rossmann fold. Here, we used a bioinformatics approach to determine whether and which SDRs are present in cyanobacteria, microorganisms that played an important role in our ecosystem as the first oxygen producers. Cyanobacterial SDRs could indeed be identified, and were clustered according to the SDR classification system. Furthermore, because of the early availability of its genome sequence and the easy application of transformation methods, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, one of the most important cyanobacterial strains, was chosen as the model organism for this phylum. Synechocystis sp. SDRs were further analysed with bioinformatics tools, such as hidden Markov models (HMMs). It became evident that several cyanobacterial SDRs show remarkable sequence identities with SDRs in other organisms. These so-called 'homologous' proteins exist in plants, model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis  elegans, and even in humans. As sequence identities of up to 60% were found between Synechocystis and humans, it was concluded that SDRs seemed to have been well conserved during evolution, even after dramatic terrestrial changes such as the conversion of the early reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing one by cyanobacteria.

  18. Prokaryotic arsenate reductase enhances arsenate resistance in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tao, Xuanyu; Wu, Gaofeng; Li, Xiangkai; Liu, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-known heavy metal toxicant in the environment. Bioremediation of heavy metals has been proposed as a low-cost and eco-friendly method. This article described some of recent patents on transgenic plants with enhanced heavy metal resistance. Further, to test whether genetic modification of mammalian cells could render higher arsenic resistance, a prokaryotic arsenic reductase gene arsC was transfected into human liver cancer cell HepG2. In the stably transfected cells, the expression level of arsC gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that arsC was expressed in HepG2 cells and the expression was upregulated by 3 folds upon arsenate induction. To further test whether arsC has function in HepG2 cells, the viability of HepG2-pCI-ArsC cells exposed to arsenite or arsenate was compared to that of HepG2-pCI cells without arsC gene. The results indicated that arsC increased the viability of HepG2 cells by 25% in arsenate, but not in arsenite. And the test of reducing ability of stably transfected cells revealed that the concentration of accumulated trivalent arsenic increased by 25% in HepG2-pCI-ArsC cells. To determine the intracellular localization of ArsC, a fusion vector with fluorescent marker pEGFP-N1-ArsC was constructed and transfected into.HepG2. Laser confocal microscopy showed that EGFP-ArsC fusion protein was distributed throughout the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that prokaryotic arsenic resistant gene arsC integrated successfully into HepG2 genome and enhanced arsenate resistance of HepG2, which brought new insights of arsenic detoxification in mammalian cells.

  19. Characterization of thioredoxin glutathione reductase in Schiotosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yang; Zhu, Zhu; Li, Dong; Li, Xiangrui; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent and serious parasitic diseases in the world and remains an important public health problem in China. Screening and discovery of an effective vaccine candidate or new drug target is crucial for the control of this disease. In this study, we cloned a cDNA encoding Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) thioredoxin glutathione reductase (SjTGR) from the cDNA of 42-day-old adult worms. The open reading frame (ORF) of the gene was 1791 base pairs (bp) encoding a protein of 596 amino acids. SjTGR was subcloned into pET-32a (+) and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein rSjTGR exhibited enzymatic activity of 5.13U/mg with DTNB as the substrate, and showed strong immunogenecity. Real-time PCR results indicated that SjTGR was expressed at a higher level in 35-day-old schistosome worms in transcript. We vaccinated BALB/c mice with rSjTGR in combination with MONTANIDE™ ISA 206 VG (ISA 206) and observed a 33.50% to 36.51% (P<0.01) decrease in the adult worm burden and a 33.73%to 43.44% (P<0.01) decrease in the number of eggs counted compared to the ISA 206 or blank control groups in two independent vaccination tests. ELISA analysis demonstrated that rSjTGR induced a high level of SjTGR-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG 2a antibodies and induced elevated production of IFN-γ. This study provides the basis for further investigations into the biological function of SjTGR and further evaluation of the potential use of this molecule as a vaccine candidate or new drug target is warranted.

  20. Human carbonyl reductase catalyzes reduction of 4-oxonon-2-enal.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Jonathan A; Maser, Edmund; Blum, Andreas; Claffey, David J; Petersen, Dennis R

    2004-10-19

    4-Oxonon-2-enal (4ONE) was demonstrated to be a product of lipid peroxidation, and previous studies found that it was highly reactive toward DNA and protein. The present study sought to determine whether carbonyl reductase (CR) catalyzes reduction of 4ONE, representing a potential pathway for metabolism of the lipid peroxidation product. Recombinant CR was cloned from a human liver cDNA library, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by metal chelate chromatography. Both 4ONE and its glutathione conjugate were found to be substrates for CR, and kinetic parameters were calculated. TLC analysis of reaction products revealed the presence of three compounds, two of which were identified as 4-hydroxynon-2-enal (4HNE) and 1-hydroxynon-2-en-4-one (1HNO). GC/MS analysis confirmed 4HNE and 1HNO and identified the unknown reaction product as 4-oxononanal (4ONA). Analysis of oxime derivatives of the reaction products via LC/MS confirmed the unknown as 4ONA. The time course for CR-mediated, NADPH-dependent 4ONE reduction and appearance of 4HNE and 1HNO was determined using HPLC, demonstrating 4HNE to be a major product and 1HNO and 4ONA to be minor products. Simulated structures of 4ONE in the active site of CR/NADPH calculated via docking experiments predict the ketone positioned as primary hydride acceptor. Results of the present study demonstrate that 4ONE is a substrate for CR/NADPH and the enzyme may represent a pathway for biotransformation of the lipid. Furthermore, these findings reveal that CR catalyzes hydride transfer selectively to the ketone but also to the aldehyde and C=C of 4ONE, resulting in 4HNE, 1HNO, and 4ONA, respectively.

  1. Tales of Dihydrofolate Binding to R67 Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Homotetrameric R67 dihydrofolate reductase possesses 222 symmetry and a single active site pore. This situation results in a promiscuous binding site that accommodates either the substrate, dihydrofolate (DHF), or the cofactor, NADPH. NADPH interacts more directly with the protein as it is larger than the substrate. In contrast, the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate tail of DHF, as monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallography, is disordered when bound. To explore whether smaller active site volumes (which should decrease the level of tail disorder by confinement effects) alter steady state rates, asymmetric mutations that decreased the half-pore volume by ∼35% were constructed. Only minor effects on kcat were observed. To continue exploring the role of tail disorder in catalysis, 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide-mediated cross-linking between R67 DHFR and folate was performed. A two-folate, one-tetramer complex results in the loss of enzyme activity where two symmetry-related K32 residues in the protein are cross-linked to the carboxylates of two bound folates. The tethered folate could be reduced, although with a ≤30-fold decreased rate, suggesting decreased dynamics and/or suboptimal positioning of the cross-linked folate for catalysis. Computer simulations that restrain the dihydrofolate tail near K32 indicate that cross-linking still allows movement of the p-aminobenzoyl ring, which allows the reaction to occur. Finally, a bis-ethylene-diamine-α,γ-amide folate adduct was synthesized; both negatively charged carboxylates in the glutamate tail were replaced with positively charged amines. The Ki for this adduct was ∼9-fold higher than for folate. These various results indicate a balance between folate tail disorder, which helps the enzyme bind substrate while dynamics facilitates catalysis. PMID:26637016

  2. Hydride transfer during catalysis by dihydrofolate reductase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed Central

    Maglia, Giovanni; Javed, Masood H; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2003-01-01

    DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) catalyses the metabolically important reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate by NADPH. DHFR from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (TmDHFR), which shares similarity with DHFR from Escherichia coli, has previously been characterized structurally. Its tertiary structure is similar to that of DHFR from E. coli but it is the only DHFR characterized so far that relies on dimerization for stability. The midpoint of the thermal unfolding of TmDHFR was at approx. 83 degrees C, which was 30 degrees C higher than the melting temperature of DHFR from E. coli. The turnover and the hydride-transfer rates in the kinetic scheme of TmDHFR were derived from measurements of the steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics using absorbance and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate constant for hydride transfer was found to depend strongly on the temperature and the pH of the solution. Hydride transfer was slow (0.14 s(-1) at 25 degrees C) and at least partially rate limiting at low temperatures but increased dramatically with temperature. At 80 degrees C the hydride-transfer rate of TmDHFR was 20 times lower than that observed for the E. coli enzyme at its physiological temperature. Hydride transfer depended on ionization of a single group in the active site with a p K(a) of 6.0. While at 30 degrees C, turnover of substrate by TmDHFR was almost two orders of magnitude slower than by DHFR from E. coli; the steady-state rates of the two enzymes differed only 8-fold at their respective working temperatures. PMID:12765545

  3. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5. alpha. -reductases

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, S.; Russell, D.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5{alpha}-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5{alpha}-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5{alpha}-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5{alpha}-reductases.

  4. Characterization and regulation of Leishmania major 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Montalvetti, A; Peña-Díaz, J; Hurtado, R; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; González-Pacanowska, D

    2000-07-01

    In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from Leishmania lacks the membrane domain characteristic of eukaryotic cells but exhibits sequence similarity with eukaryotic reductases. Highly purified protein was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Kinetic parameters were determined for the protozoan reductase, obtaining K(m) values for the overall reaction of 40.3+/-5.8 microM for (R,S)-HMG-CoA and 81.4+/-5.3 microM for NADPH; V(max) was 33.55+/-1.8 units x mg(-1). Gel-filtration experiments suggested an apparent molecular mass of 184 kDa with subunits of 46 kDa. Finally, in order to achieve a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in trypanosomatids, the effect of possible regulators of isoprenoid biosynthesis in cultured promastigote cells was studied. Neither mevalonic acid nor serum sterols appear to modulate enzyme activity whereas incubation with lovastatin results in significant increases in the amount of reductase protein. Western- and Northern-blot analyses indicate that this activation is apparently performed via post-transcriptional control.

  5. Daio-Orengedokuto inhibits HMG-CoA reductase and pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Jung, Eun-Ah; Shin, Ji-Eun; Chang, Jong-Chul; Yang, Hyung-Kil; Kim, Nam-Jae; Cho, Ki-Ho; Bae, Hyung-Sup; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the antihyperlipidemic activities of Orengedokuto (OT) and Daio-Orengedokuto (DOT), the inhibitory effects of these polyprescriptions on HMG-CoA reductase and pancreatic lipase and on the rat hyperlipidemic model induced by Triton WR-1339 were measured. OT potently inhibited HMG-CoA reductase but did not inhibit lipase. Among their ingredients, Coptidis Rhizoma was the most potent inhibitor, followed by Rhei Rhizoma. The HMG-CoA reductase-inhibitory activity of 80% EtOH extract was superior to that of water extract. However, DOT potently inhibited HMG CoA-reductase as well as pancreatic lipase. In the rat hyperlipidemic model induced by Triton WR-1339, OT and DOT decreased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. DOT also decreased serum triglyceride levels, but OT did not decrease it. These results suggest that the antihyperlipidemic activity of DOT may originate from the inhibition of pancreatic lipase as well as HMG-CoA reductase.

  6. Organization of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sambasivarao, D; Scraba, D G; Trieber, C; Weiner, J H

    1990-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide reductase is a trimeric, membrane-bound, iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme induced in Escherichia coli under anaerobic growth conditions. The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide, and a variety of S- and N-oxide compounds. The topology of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunits was probed by a combination of techniques. Immunoblot analysis of the periplasmic proteins from the osmotic shock and chloroform wash fluids indicated that the subunits were not free in the periplasm. The reductase was susceptible to proteases in everted membrane vesicles, but the enzyme in outer membrane-permeabilized cells became protease sensitive only after detergent solubilization of the E. coli plasma membrane. Lactoperoxidase catalyzed the iodination of each of the three subunits in an everted membrane vesicle preparation. Antibodies to dimethyl sulfoxide reductase and fumarate reductase specifically agglutinated the everted membrane vesicles. No TnphoA fusions could be found in the dmsA or -B genes, indicating that these subunits were not translocated to the periplasm. Immunogold electron microscopy of everted membrane vesicles and thin sections by using antibodies to the DmsABC, DmsA, DmsB subunits resulted in specific labeling of the cytoplasmic surface of the inner membrane. These results show that the DmsA (catalytic subunit) and DmsB (electron transfer subunit) are membrane-extrinsic subunits facing the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. Images PMID:2170332

  7. Structural basis for cyclopropanation by a unique enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Dheeraj; Hale, Wendi A.; Tripathi, Ashootosh; Gu, Liangcai; Sherman, David H.; Gerwick, William H.; Håkansson, Kristina; Smith, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    The natural product curacin A, a potent anticancer agent, contains a rare cyclopropane group. The five enzymes for cyclopropane biosynthesis are highly similar to enzymes that generate a vinyl chloride moiety in the jamaicamide natural product. The structural biology of this remarkable catalytic adaptability is probed with high-resolution crystal structures of the curacin cyclopropanase (CurF ER), an in vitro enoyl reductase (JamJ ER), and a canonical curacin enoyl reductase (CurK ER). The JamJ and CurK ERs catalyze NADPH-dependent double bond reductions typical of enoyl reductases (ERs) of the medium chain dehydrogenase reductase (MDR) superfamily. Cyclopropane formation by CurF ER is specified by a short loop which, when transplanted to JamJ ER, confers cyclopropanase activity on the chimeric enzyme. Detection of an adduct of NADPH with the model substrate crotonyl-CoA provides indirect support for a recent proposal of a C2-ene intermediate on the reaction pathway of MDR enoyl-thioester reductases. PMID:26526850

  8. Characterization and regulation of Leishmania major 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Montalvetti, A; Peña-Díaz, J; Hurtado, R; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; González-Pacanowska, D

    2000-01-01

    In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from Leishmania lacks the membrane domain characteristic of eukaryotic cells but exhibits sequence similarity with eukaryotic reductases. Highly purified protein was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Kinetic parameters were determined for the protozoan reductase, obtaining K(m) values for the overall reaction of 40.3+/-5.8 microM for (R,S)-HMG-CoA and 81.4+/-5.3 microM for NADPH; V(max) was 33.55+/-1.8 units x mg(-1). Gel-filtration experiments suggested an apparent molecular mass of 184 kDa with subunits of 46 kDa. Finally, in order to achieve a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in trypanosomatids, the effect of possible regulators of isoprenoid biosynthesis in cultured promastigote cells was studied. Neither mevalonic acid nor serum sterols appear to modulate enzyme activity whereas incubation with lovastatin results in significant increases in the amount of reductase protein. Western- and Northern-blot analyses indicate that this activation is apparently performed via post-transcriptional control. PMID:10861207

  9. Enzymatic removal of diacetyl from beer. II. Further studies on the use of diacetyl reductase.

    PubMed

    Tolls, T N; Shovers, J; Sandine, W E; Elliker, P R

    1970-04-01

    Diacetyl removal from beer was studied with whole cells and crude enzyme extracts of yeasts and bacteria. Cells of Streptococcus diacetilactis 18-16 destroyed diacetyl in solutions at a rate almost equal to that achieved by the addition of whole yeast cells. Yeast cells impregnated in a diatomaceous earth filter bed removed all diacetyl from solutions percolated through the bed. Undialyzed crude enzyme extracts from yeast cells removed diacetyl very slowly from beer at its normal pH (4.1); at a pH of 5.0 or higher, rapid diacetyl removal was achieved. Dialyzed crude enzyme extracts from yeast cells were found to destroy diacetyl in a manner quite similar to that of diacetyl reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes, and both the bacterial and the yeast extracts were stimulated significantly by the addition of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Diacetyl reductase activity of four strains of A. aerogenes was compared; three of the strains produced enzyme with approximately twice the specific activity of the other strain (8724). Gel electrophoresis results indicated that at least three different NADH-oxidizing enzymes were present in crude extracts of diacetyl reductase. Sephadex-gel chromotography separated NADH oxidase from diacetyl reductase. It was also noted that ethyl alcohol concentrations approximately equivalent to those found in beer were quite inhibitory to diacetyl reductase.

  10. Regulation of 5alpha-reductase isoforms by oxytocin in the rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Assinder, S J; Johnson, C; King, K; Nicholson, H D

    2004-12-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is present in the male reproductive tract, where it is known to modulate contractility, cell growth, and steroidogenesis. Little is known about how OT regulates these processes. This study describes the localization of OT receptor in the rat ventral prostate and investigates if OT regulates gene expression and/or activity of 5alpha-reductase isoforms I and II. The ventral prostates of adult male Wistar rats were collected following daily sc administration of saline (control), OT, a specific OT antagonist or both OT plus antagonist for 3 d. Expression of the OT receptor was identified in the ventral prostate by RT-PCR and Western blot, and confirmed to be a single active binding site by radioreceptor assay. Immunohistochemistry localized the receptor to the epithelium of prostatic acini and to the stromal tissue. Real-time RT-PCR determined that OT treatment significantly reduced expression of 5alpha-reductase I but significantly increased 5alpha-reductase II expression in the ventral prostate. Activity of both isoforms of 5alpha-reductase was significantly increased by OT, resulting in increased concentration of prostatic dihydrotestosterone. In conclusion, OT is involved in regulating conversion of testosterone to the biologically active dihydrotestosterone in the rat ventral prostate. It does so by differential regulation of 5alpha-reductase isoforms I and II.

  11. Endothelial human dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Filho, Artur Rangel; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from eNOS. Clinical trials using BH4 to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH4. One of the oxidation products of BH4, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2), is recycled back to BH4 by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH4 treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multi-electrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH2 and BH4 which is not possible with fluorescent-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH4 and 7,8-BH2 concentrations in human ECs is lower than bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH4 transiently increased intracellular BH4 while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH2. This was different from bovine or murine ECs that resulted in preferential BH4 increase. Using BH4 diastereomers, 6S-BH4 and 6R-BH4, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH4 was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH2 to BH4 occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supra-physiological levels of 7,8-BH2, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that hDHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH2 (DHF7,8-BH2) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH2 recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies which may be further aggravated by folate supplements. PMID:23707606

  12. Expression and purification of spinach nitrite reductase in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Bellissimo, D.; Privalle, L. )

    1991-03-11

    The study of structure-function relationships in nitrite reductase (NiR) by site-directed mutagenesis requires an expression system from which suitable quantities of active enzyme can be purified. Spinach NiR cDNA was cloned into pUC18 and expressed in E.coli JM109 as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein. The IPTG-induced fusion protein contains five additional amino acids at the N-terminus. The expressed NiR in aerobic cultures was mostly insoluble and inactive indicating the presence of inclusion bodies. By altering growth conditions, active NiR could represent 0.5-1.0% of the total E.coli protein, Effects of the addition of delta-aminolevulinic acid, a heme precursor, and anaerobic growth were also examined. Spinach NiR was purified approximately 200 fold to homogeneity. When subjected to electrophoresis on SDS polyacrylamide gels, the NiR migrated as a single band with similar mobility to pure spinach enzyme. The expressed enzyme also reacted with rabbit anti-spinach NiR antibody as visualized by Western blot analysis. The absorption spectrum of the E.coli-expressed enzyme was identical to spinach enzyme with a Soret and alpha band a 386 and 573 nm, respectively, and an A{sub 278}/A{sub 386} = 1.9. The addition of nitrite produced the characteristic shifts in the spectrum. The E. coli-expressed NiR catalyzed the methylviologen-dependent reduction of nitrite. The specific activity was 100 U/mg. The K{sub m} determined for nitrite was 0.3 mM which is in agreement with values reported for the enzyme. These results indicate that the E.coli-expressed NiR is fully comparable to spinach NiR in purity, catalytic activity and physical state. Site-directed mutants have been made using PCR to examine structure-function relationships in this enzyme.

  13. Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, B. H.; Moura, I.; Lino, A. R.; Moura, J. J. G.; Legall, J.

    1988-02-01

    Mössbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas. For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The [4Fe-4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli/1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris/2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

  14. Partial Purification and Characterization of d-Ribose-5-phosphate Reductase from Adonis vernalis L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Fayek B.; Marlow, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents evidence for a new enzyme, d-ribose-5-P reductase, which catalyzes the reaction: d-ribose-5-P + NADPH + H+ → d-ribitol-5-P + NADP+. The enzyme was isolated from Adonis vernalis L. leaves in 38% yield and was purified 71-fold. The reductase was NADPH specific and had a pH optimum in the range of 5.5 to 6.0. The Michaelis constant value for d-ribose-5-P reduction was 1.35 millimolar. The enzyme also reduced d-erythrose-4-P, d-erythrose, dl-glyceraldehyde, and the aromatic aldehyde 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. Hexoses, hexose phosphates, pentoses, and dihydroxyacetone did not serve as substrates. d-Ribose-5-P reductase is distinct from the other known ribitol synthesizing enzymes detected in bacteria and yeast, and may be responsible for ribitol synthesis in Adonis vernalis. PMID:16664320

  15. Denitrification by plant roots? New aspects of plant plasma membrane-bound nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Eick, Manuela; Stöhr, Christine

    2012-10-01

    A specific form of plasma membrane-bound nitrate reductase in plants is restricted to roots. Two peptides originated from plasma membrane integral proteins isolated from Hordeum vulgare have been assigned as homologues to the subunit NarH of respiratory nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli. Corresponding sequences have been detected for predicted proteins of Populus trichocarpa with high degree of identities for the subunits NarH (75%) and NarG (65%), however, with less accordance for the subunit NarI. These findings coincide with biochemical properties, particularly in regard to the electron donors menadione and succinate. Together with the root-specific and plasma membrane-bound nitrite/NO reductase, nitric oxide is produced under hypoxic conditions in the presence of nitrate. In this context, a possible function in nitrate respiration of plant roots and an involvement of plants in denitrification processes are discussed.

  16. Synthetic and Crystallographic Studies of a New Inhibitor Series Targeting Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Beierlein, Jennifer M.; Frey, Kathleen M.; Bolstad, David B.; Pelphrey, Phillip M.; Joska, Tammy M.; Smith, Adrienne E.; Priestley, Nigel D.; Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, poses a significant biodefense danger. Serious limitations in approved therapeutics and the generation of resistance have produced a compelling need for new therapeutic agents against this organism. Bacillus anthracis is known to be insensitive to the clinically used antifolate, trimethoprim, because of a lack of potency against the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Herein, we describe a novel lead series of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors characterized by an extended trimethoprim-like scaffold. The best lead compound adds only 22 Da to the molecular weight and is 82-fold more potent than trimethoprim. An X-ray crystal structure of this lead compound bound to B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of NADPH was determined to 2.25 Å resolution. The structure reveals several features that can be exploited for further development of this lead series. PMID:19007108

  17. A DFT-based QSAR study on inhibition of human dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Sedat; Sizochenko, Natalia; Orhan, Adnan; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Diaminopyrimidine derivatives are frequently used as inhibitors of human dihydrofolate reductase, for example in treatment of patients whose immune system are affected by human immunodeficiency virus. Forty-seven dicyclic and tricyclic potential inhibitors of human dihydrofolate reductase were analyzed using the quantitative structure-activity analysis supported by DFT-based and DRAGON-based descriptors. The developed model yielded an RMSE deviation of 1.1 a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The prediction set was characterized by R(2)=0.60 and RMSE=3.59. Factors responsible for inhibition process were identified and discussed. The resulting model was validated via cross validation and Y-scrambling procedure. From the best model, we found several mass-related descriptors and Sanderson electronegativity-related descriptors that have the best correlations with the investigated inhibitory concentration. These descriptors reflect results from QSAR studies based on characteristics of human dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

  18. Synthetic and Crystallographic Studies of a New Inhibitor Series Targeting Bacillus anthracis Dihydrofolate Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Beierlein, J.; Frey, K; Bolstad, D; Pelphrey, P; Joska, T; Smith, A; Priestley, N; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, poses a significant biodefense danger. Serious limitations in approved therapeutics and the generation of resistance have produced a compelling need for new therapeutic agents against this organism. Bacillus anthracis is known to be insensitive to the clinically used antifolate, trimethoprim, because of a lack of potency against the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Herein, we describe a novel lead series of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors characterized by an extended trimethoprim-like scaffold. The best lead compound adds only 22 Da to the molecular weight and is 82-fold more potent than trimethoprim. An X-ray crystal structure of this lead compound bound to B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of NADPH was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several features that can be exploited for further development of this lead series.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of pig heart carbonyl reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Nobutada; Ishikura, Shuhei; Araki, Naoko; Imamura, Yorishige; Hara, Akira; Nakamura, Kazuo T.

    2006-10-01

    Pig heart carbonyl reductase has been crystallized in the presence of NADPH. Diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation. Pig heart carbonyl reductase (PHCR), which belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms (I and II) have been obtained in the presence of NADPH. Form I crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.61, c = 94.31 Å, and diffract to 1.5 Å resolution. Form II crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.10, c = 147.00 Å, and diffract to 2.2 Å resolution. Both crystal forms are suitable for X-ray structure analysis at high resolution.

  20. Circadian variation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in swine liver and ileum.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D H; Kim, D N; Lee, K T; Reiner, J M; Thomas, W A

    1981-07-01

    The temporal variation of HMG-CoA reductase activity in the liver and intestine of swine was investigated. The thin-layer chromatographic method widely used in the assay of the reductase was successfully applied to the porcine enzymes. Parallel circadian rhythms were demonstrated in both hepatic and ileal reductases from mash-fed animals. Peak activity occurred approximately 6 hr after feeding, 2.7-fold over the basal level in the liver, and 1.6-fold in the ileum. A milk-cholesterol diet caused a marked depression of both rhythms (90% in liver, 50% in ileum); however, the hourly variation in activity persisted in both organs. Cholestyramine was found to elevate hepatic activity (2.7-fold throughout the rhythm) without affecting that of the intestine. Clofibrate had no effect on either enzyme at any time during the cycle despite a 34% reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations.

  1. Molecular docking analysis of UniProtKB nitrate reductase enzyme with known natural flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Ayub; Thumma, Vishnu; Kotha, Aruna Kumari; Kramadhati, Sandhya; Pochampally, Jalapathy; Bandi, Seshagiri

    2016-01-01

    The functional inference of UniProtKB nitrate reductase enzyme (UniProtKB - P0AF33) through structural modeling is of interest in plant biology. Therefore, a homology model for UniProtKB variant of the enzyme was constructed using available data with the MODELER software tool. The model was further docked with five natural flavonoid structures such as hesperetin, naringenin, leucocyanidin, quercetin and hesperetin triacetate using the AUTODOCK (version 4.2) software tool. The structure aided molecular interactions of these flavonoids with nitrate reductase is documented in this study. The binding features (binding energy (ΔG) value, H bonds and docking score) hesperetin to the enzyme model is relatively high, satisfactory and notable. This data provides valuable insights to the relative binding of several naturally occurring flavonoids to nitrate reductase enzyme and its relevance in plant biology.

  2. Purification and properties of a dissimilatory nitrate reductase from Haloferax denitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Lang, F.

    1991-01-01

    A membrane-bound nitrate reductase (nitrite:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.7.99.4) from the extremely halophilic bacterium Haloferax denitrificans was solubilized by incubating membranes in buffer lacking NaCl and purified by DEAE, hydroxylapatite, and Sepharose 6B gel filtration chromatography. The purified nitrate reductase reduced chlorate and was inhibited by azide and cyanide. Preincubating the enzyme with cyanide increased the extent of inhibition which in turn was intensified when dithionite was present. Although cyanide was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to nitrate, nitrate protected against inhibition. The enzyme, as isolated, was composed of two subunits (Mr 116,000 and 60,000) and behaved as a dimer during gel filtration (Mr 380,000). Unlike other halobacterial enzymes, this nitrate reductase was most active, as well as stable, in the absence of salt.

  3. A substrate-bound structure of cyanobacterial biliverdin reductase identifies stacked substrates as critical for activity

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Haruna; Hirabayashi, Kei; Nishigaya, Yuki; Kouriki, Haruna; Nakaniwa, Tetsuko; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Harada, Jiro; Sato, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Asada, Yujiro; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Ken; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Sugishima, Masakazu; Wada, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Biliverdin reductase catalyses the last step in haem degradation and produces the major lipophilic antioxidant bilirubin via reduction of biliverdin, using NAD(P)H as a cofactor. Despite the importance of biliverdin reductase in maintaining the redox balance, the molecular details of the reaction it catalyses remain unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of biliverdin reductase in complex with biliverdin and NADP+. Unexpectedly, two biliverdin molecules, which we designated the proximal and distal biliverdins, bind with stacked geometry in the active site. The nicotinamide ring of the NADP+ is located close to the reaction site on the proximal biliverdin, supporting that the hydride directly attacks this position of the proximal biliverdin. The results of mutagenesis studies suggest that a conserved Arg185 is essential for the catalysis. The distal biliverdin probably acts as a conduit to deliver the proton from Arg185 to the proximal biliverdin, thus yielding bilirubin. PMID:28169272

  4. Putative Role of the Aldo-Keto Reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi in Benznidazole Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Patricia Andrea; Laverrière, Marc; Cannata, Joaquín J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Benznidazole (Bz), the drug used for treatment of Chagas' disease (caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi), is activated by a parasitic NADH-dependent type I nitroreductase (NTR I). However, several studies have shown that other enzymes are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the aldo-keto reductase from T. cruzi (TcAKR), a NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase previously described by our group, uses Bz as the substrate. We demonstrated that both recombinant and native TcAKR enzymes reduce Bz by using NADPH, but not NADH, as a cofactor. TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes showed higher NADPH-dependent Bz reductase activity and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for Bz 1.8-fold higher than that of the controls, suggesting that TcAKR is involved in Bz detoxification instead of activation. To understand the role of TcAKR in Bz metabolism, we studied TcAKR expression and NADPH/NADH-dependent Bz reductase activities in two T. cruzi strains with differential susceptibility to Bz: CL Brener and Nicaragua. Taking into account the results obtained with TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes, we expected the more resistant strain, Nicaragua, to have higher TcAKR levels than CL Brener. However, the results were the opposite. CL Brener showed 2-fold higher TcAKR expression and 5.7-fold higher NADPH-Bz reduction than the Nicaragua strain. In addition, NADH-dependent Bz reductase activity, characteristic of NTR I, was also higher in CL Brener than in Nicaragua. We conclude that although TcAKR uses Bz as the substrate, TcAKR activity is not a determinant of Bz resistance in wild-type strains and may be overcome by other enzymes involved in Bz activation, such as NADPH- and NADH-dependent reductases. PMID:26856844

  5. Rnr4p, a novel ribonucleotide reductase small-subunit protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P J; Chabes, A; Casagrande, R; Tian, X C; Thelander, L; Huffaker, T C

    1997-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases catalyze the formation of deoxyribonucleotides by the reduction of the corresponding ribonucleotides. Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductases are alpha2beta2 tetramers; each of the larger, alpha subunits possesses binding sites for substrate and allosteric effectors, and each of the smaller, beta subunits contains a binuclear iron complex. The iron complex interacts with a specific tyrosine residue to form a tyrosyl free radical which is essential for activity. Previous work has identified two genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RNR1 and RNR3, that encode alpha subunits and one gene, RNR2, that encodes a beta subunit. Here we report the identification of a second gene from this yeast, RNR4, that encodes a protein with significant similarity to the beta-subunit proteins. The phenotype of rnr4 mutants is consistent with that expected for a defect in ribonucleotide reductase; rnr4 mutants are supersensitive to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea and display an S-phase arrest at their restrictive temperature. rnr4 mutant extracts are deficient in ribonucleotide reductase activity, and this deficiency can be remedied by the addition of exogenous Rnr4p. As is the case for the other RNR genes, RNR4 is induced by agents that damage DNA. However, Rnr4p lacks a number of sequence elements thought to be essential for iron binding, and mutation of the critical tyrosine residue does not affect Rnr4p function. These results suggest that Rnr4p is catalytically inactive but, nonetheless, does play a role in the ribonucleotide reductase complex. PMID:9315671

  6. Biocatalytic Asymmetric Alkene Reduction: Crystal Structure and Characterization of a Double Bond Reductase from Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The application of biocatalysis for the asymmetric reduction of activated C=C is a powerful tool for the manufacture of high-value chemical commodities. The biocatalytic potential of “-ene” reductases from the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family of oxidoreductases is well-known; however, the specificity of these enzymes toward mainly small molecule substrates has highlighted the need to discover “-ene” reductases from different enzymatic classes to broaden industrial applicability. Here, we describe the characterization of a flavin-free double bond reductase from Nicotiana tabacum (NtDBR), which belongs to the leukotriene B4 dehydrogenase (LTD) subfamily of the zinc-independent, medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily of enzymes. Using steady-state kinetics and biotransformation reactions, we have demonstrated the regio- and stereospecificity of NtDBR against a variety of α,β-unsaturated activated alkenes. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of typical LTD substrates and several classical OYE-like substrates, NtDBR also exhibited complementary activity by reducing non-OYE substrates (i.e., reducing the exocyclic C=C double bond of (R)-pulegone) and in some cases showing an opposite stereopreference in comparison with the OYE family member pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) reductase. This serves to augment classical OYE “-ene” reductase activity and, coupled with its aerobic stability, emphasizes the potential industrial value of NtDBR. Furthermore, we also report the X-ray crystal structures of the holo-, binary NADP(H)-bound, and ternary [NADP+ and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (9a)-bound] NtDBR complexes. These will underpin structure-driven site-saturated mutagenesis studies aimed at enhancing the reactivity, stereochemistry, and specificity of this enzyme. PMID:27547488

  7. Adverse Effects and Safety of 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors (Finasteride, Dutasteride): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hirshburg, Jason M.; Kelsey, Petra A.; Therrien, Chelsea A.; Gavino, A. Carlo; Reichenberg, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride, both 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, are considered first-line treatment for androgenetic hair loss in men and used increasingly in women. In each case, patients are expected to take the medications indefinitely despite the lack of research regarding long-term adverse effects. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of these medications has led the United States National Institutes of Health to add a link for post-finasteride syndrome to its Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center. Herein, the authors report the results of a literature search reviewing adverse events of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as they relate to prostate cancer, psychological effects, sexual health, and use in women. Several large studies found no increase in incidence of prostate cancer, a possible increase of high-grade cancer when detected, and no change in survival rate with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use. Currently, there is no direct link between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use and depression; however, several small studies have led to depression being listed as a side effect on the medication packaging. Sexual effects including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido and ejaculate were reported in as many as 3.4 to 15.8 percent of men. To date, there are very few studies evaluating 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use in women. Risks include birth defects in male fetuses if used in pregnancy, decreased libido, headache, gastrointestinal discomfort, and isolated reports of changes in menstruation, acne, and dizziness. Overall, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors were well-tolerated in both men and women, but not without risk, highlighting the importance of patient education prior to treatment. PMID:27672412

  8. Biological Role of Aldo–Keto Reductases in Retinoic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, F. Xavier; Porté, Sergio; Parés, Xavier; Farrés, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    Several aldo–keto reductase (AKR) enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low Km and kcat values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3), as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in β-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance. PMID:22529810

  9. Putative Role of the Aldo-Keto Reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi in Benznidazole Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Patricia Andrea; Laverrière, Marc; Cannata, Joaquín J B; García, Gabriela Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz), the drug used for treatment of Chagas' disease (caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi), is activated by a parasitic NADH-dependent type I nitroreductase (NTR I). However, several studies have shown that other enzymes are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the aldo-keto reductase from T. cruzi (TcAKR), a NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase previously described by our group, uses Bz as the substrate. We demonstrated that both recombinant and native TcAKR enzymes reduce Bz by using NADPH, but not NADH, as a cofactor. TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes showed higher NADPH-dependent Bz reductase activity and a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for Bz 1.8-fold higher than that of the controls, suggesting that TcAKR is involved in Bz detoxification instead of activation. To understand the role of TcAKR in Bz metabolism, we studied TcAKR expression and NADPH/NADH-dependent Bz reductase activities in two T. cruzi strains with differential susceptibility to Bz: CL Brener and Nicaragua. Taking into account the results obtained with TcAKR-overexpressing epimastigotes, we expected the more resistant strain, Nicaragua, to have higher TcAKR levels than CL Brener. However, the results were the opposite. CL Brener showed 2-fold higher TcAKR expression and 5.7-fold higher NADPH-Bz reduction than the Nicaragua strain. In addition, NADH-dependent Bz reductase activity, characteristic of NTR I, was also higher in CL Brener than in Nicaragua. We conclude that although TcAKR uses Bz as the substrate, TcAKR activity is not a determinant of Bz resistance in wild-type strains and may be overcome by other enzymes involved in Bz activation, such as NADPH- and NADH-dependent reductases.

  10. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  11. HMG-CoA reductase activity in human liver microsomes: comparative inhibition by statins.

    PubMed

    Dansette, P M; Jaoen, M; Pons, C

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a number of vastatins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, in human liver microsomes. HMG-CoA reductase activity was four times lower than the activity in untreated rat liver microsomes. Vastatins could be classified in this in vitro assay in three classes both in human and rat microsomes: the first one including cerivastatin with an IC50 of 6 nM, the second one with atorvastatin and fluvastatin (IC50) between 40 and 100 nM) and the third one containing pravastatin, simvastatin and lovastatin (IC50 between 100 and 300 nM).

  12. Isolation of xylose reductase gene of Pichia stipitis and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Takuma, Shinya; Nakashima, Noriyuki; Tantirungkij, Manee

    1991-12-31

    A NADPH/NADH-dependent xylose reductase gene was isolated from the xylose-assimilating yeast, Pichia stipitis. DNA sequence analysis showed that the gene consists of 951 bp. The gene introduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transcribed to mRNA, and a considerable amount of enzyme activity was observed constitutively, whereas transcription and translation in P steps were inducible. S. cerevisiae carrying the xylose reductase gene could not, however, grow on xylose medium, and could not produce ethanol from xylose. Since xylose uptake and accumulation of xylitol by S. cerevisiae were observed, the conversion of xylitol to xylulose seemed to be limited.

  13. Synthesis and degradation of nitrate reductase during the cell cycle of Chlorella sorokiniana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velasco, P. J.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.; Whitaker, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the diurnal variations of nitrate reductase (NR) activity during the life cycle of synchronized Chlorella sorokiniana cells grown with a 7:5 light-dark cycle showed that the NADH:NR activity, as well as the NR partial activities NADH:cytochrome c reductase and reduced methyl viologen:NR, closely paralleled the appearance and disappearance of NR protein as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and immunoblots. Results of pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine further confirmed that diurnal variations of the enzyme activities can be entirely accounted for by the concomitant synthesis and degradation of the NR protein.

  14. Interaction of Product Analogues With the Active Site of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Harris, H.H.; Doonan, C.J.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; /Saskatchewan U. /Duke U. /Sydney U.

    2007-07-09

    We report a structural characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Rhodobacter sphaeroides dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase reduced with trimethylarsine, and show that this is structurally analogous to the physiologically relevant dimethylsulfide-reduced DMSO reductase. Our data unambiguously indicate that these species should be regarded as formal MoIV species, and indicate a classical coordination complex of trimethylarsine oxide, with no special structural distortions. The similarity of the trimethylarsine and dimethylsulfide complexes suggests in turn that the dimethylsulfide reduced enzyme possesses a classical coordination of DMSO with no special elongation of the S-O bond, as previously suggested.

  15. Production of a recombinant hybrid hemoflavoprotein: engineering a functional NADH:cytochrome c reductase.

    PubMed

    Barber, M J; Quinn, G B

    2001-11-01

    A gene has been constructed coding for a unique fusion protein, NADH:cytochrome c reductase, that comprises the soluble heme-containing domain of rat hepatic cytochrome b(5) as the amino-terminal portion of the protein and the soluble flavin-containing domain of rat hepatic cytochrome b(5) reductase as the carboxyl terminus. The gene has been expressed in Escherichia coli resulting in the highly efficient production of a functional hybrid hemoflavoprotein which has been purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on 5'-ADP agarose, and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified protein exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 46 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 40,875 Da, for the apoprotein, using mass spectrometry which also confirmed the presence of both heme and FAD prosthetic groups. The fusion protein showed immunological cross-reactivity with both anti-rat cytochrome b(5) and anti-rat cytochrome b(5) reductase antibodies indicating the conservation of antigenic determinants from both native domains. Spectroscopic analysis indicated the fusion protein contained both a b-type cytochrome and flavin chromophors with properties identical to those of the native proteins. Amino-terminal and internal amino acid sequencing confirmed the identity of peptides derived from both the heme- and flavin-binding domains with sequences identical to the deduced amino acid sequence. The isolated fusion protein retained NADH:ferricyanide reductase activity (k(cat) = 8.00 x 10(2) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 4 microM, K(FeCN(6))(m) = 11 microM) comparable to that of that of native NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductase and also exhibited both NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity (k(cat) = 2.17 x 10(2) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 2 microM, K(FeCN(6))(m) = 11 microM, K(Cyt.c)(m) = 1 microM) and NADH:methemoglobin reductase activity (k(cat) = 4.40 x 10(-1) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 3 microM, K(mHb)(m) = 47 microM), the latter two activities

  16. The haem-copper oxygen reductase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris contains a dihaem cytochrome c in subunit II.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Susana A L; Almeida, Claúdia C; Carita, João N; Teixeira, Miguel; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2008-12-01

    The genome of the sulphate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, still considered a strict anaerobe, encodes two oxygen reductases of the bd and haem-copper types. The haem-copper oxygen reductase deduced amino acid sequence reveals that it is a Type A2 enzyme, which in its subunit II contains two c-type haem binding motifs. We have characterized the cytochrome c domain of subunit II and confirmed the binding of two haem groups, both with Met-His iron coordination. Hence, this enzyme constitutes the first example of a ccaa3 haem-copper oxygen reductase. The expression of D. vulgaris haem-copper oxygen reductase was found to be independent of the electron donor and acceptor source and is not altered by stress factors such as oxygen exposure, nitrite, nitrate, and iron; therefore the haem-copper oxygen reductase seems to be constitutive. The KCN sensitive oxygen reduction by D. vulgaris membranes demonstrated in this work indicates the presence of an active haem-copper oxygen reductase. D. vulgaris membranes perform oxygen reduction when accepting electrons from the monohaem cytochrome c553, thus revealing the first possible electron donor to the terminal oxygen reductase of D. vulgaris. The physiological implication of the presence of the oxygen reductase in this organism is discussed.

  17. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  18. Cysteine-286 as the site of acylation of the Lux-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Meighen, E A

    1997-04-04

    The channelling of fatty acids into the fatty aldehyde substrate for the bacterial bioluminescence reaction is catalyzed by a fatty acid reductase multienzyme complex, which channels fatty acids through the thioesterase (LuxD), synthetase (LuxE) and reductase (LuxC) components. Although all three components can be readily acylated in extracts of different luminescent bacteria, this complex has been successfully purified only from Photobacterium phosphoreum and the sites of acylation identified on LuxD and LuxE. To identify the acylation site on LuxC, the nucleotide sequence of P. phosphoreum luxC has been determined and the gene expressed in a mutant Escherichia coli strain. Even in crude extracts, the acylated reductase intermediate as well as acyl-CoA reductase activity could be readily detected, providing the basis for analysis of mutant reductases. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of LuxC from P. phosphoreum, P. leiognathi and other luminescent bacteria, showed that only three cysteine residues (C171, C279, and C286) were conserved. As a cysteine residue on LuxC has been implicated in fatty acyl transfer, each of the conserved cysteine residues of the P. phosphoreum and P. leiognathi reductases was converted to a serine residue, and the properties of the mutant proteins examined. Only mutation of C286-blocked reductase activity and prevented formation of the acylated reductase intermediate, showing that C286 is the site of acylation on LuxC.

  19. JS-K, a Nitric Oxide Prodrug, Has Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cells with Knockdown of Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Edes, Kornelia; Cassidy, Pamela; Shami, Paul J.; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 has a complex role relating to cell growth. It is induced as a component of the cellular response to potentially mutagenic oxidants, but also appears to provide growth advantages to transformed cells by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, selenocysteine-deficient or alkylated forms of thioredoxin reductase 1 have also demonstrated oxidative, pro-apoptotic activity. Therefore, a greater understanding of the role of thioredoxin reductase in redox initiated apoptotic processes is warranted. Methodology The role of thioredoxin reductase 1 in RKO cells was evaluated by attenuating endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1 expression with siRNA and then either inducing a selenium-deficient thioredoxin reductase or treatment with distinct redox challenges including, hydrogen peroxide, an oxidized lipid, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenol, and a nitric oxide donating prodrug. Thioredoxin redox status, cellular viability, and effector caspase activity were measured. Conclusions/Significance In cells with attenuated endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1, a stably integrated selenocysteine-deficient form of the enzyme was induced but did not alter either the thioredoxin redox status or the cellular growth kinetics. The oxidized lipid and the nitric oxide donor demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity when thioredoxin reductase 1 was knocked-down; however, the effect was more pronounced with the nitric oxide prodrug. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that attenuation of the thioredoxin-system can promote apoptosis in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. PMID:20098717

  20. Multiple types of 8-vinyl reductases for (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis occur in many green sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Bryant, Donald A

    2011-09-01

    Two 8-vinyl reductases, BciA and BciB, have been identified in chlorophototrophs. The bciA gene of Chlorobaculum tepidum was replaced with genes similar to bciB from other green sulfur bacteria. Pigment analyses of the complemented strains showed that the bciB homologs encode 8-vinyl reductases similar to those of cyanobacteria.

  1. Hypothesis on Serenoa repens (Bartram) small extract inhibition of prostatic 5α-reductase through an in silico approach on 5β-reductase x-ray structure

    PubMed Central

    Giachetti, Daniela; Biagi, Marco; Manetti, Fabrizio; De Vico, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in men aged over 50 years old, with an incidence increasing to more than 80% over the age of 70, that is increasingly going to attract pharmaceutical interest. Within conventional therapies, such as α-adrenoreceptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitor, there is a large requirement for treatments with less adverse events on, e.g., blood pressure and sexual function: phytotherapy may be the right way to fill this need. Serenoa repens standardized extract has been widely studied and its ability to reduce lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia is comprehensively described in literature. An innovative investigation on the mechanism of inhibition of 5α-reductase by Serenoa repens extract active principles is proposed in this work through computational methods, performing molecular docking simulations on the crystal structure of human liver 5β-reductase. The results confirm that both sterols and fatty acids can play a role in the inhibition of the enzyme, thus, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. This work proposes a further confirmation for the rational use of herbal products in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and suggests computational methods as an innovative, low cost, and non-invasive process for the study of phytocomplex activity toward proteic targets. PMID:27904805

  2. Diabetic neuropathy: structural analysis of nerve hydration by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Griffey, R.H.; Eaton, P.; Sibbitt, R.R.; Sibbitt, W.L. Jr.; Bicknell, J.M.

    1988-11-18

    The water content of the sural nerve of diabetic patients was quantitatively defined by magnetic resonance proton imaging as a putative reflection of activity of the aldose-reductase pathway. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated, comparing group A, symptomatic diabetic men with sensory neuropathy; group B, similarly symptomatic diabetic men treated aldose-reductase inhibition; group C, neurologically asymptomatic diabetic men; and group D, control nondiabetic men. Marked increase in hydration of the sural nerve was seen in more than half of the symptomatic diabetic patients. Two of 11 neurologically asymptomatic diabetics had increased nerve hydration, suggesting a presymptomatic alteration of the nerve. Symptomatic diabetics treated with aldose-reductase inhibitors had normal nerve water levels. Increased level of peripheral nerve water represents a new finding in diabetes mellitus. It seems to be related to aldose-reductase activity, involved in the development of neuropathy, and similar to events that occur in other target tissue in human diabetes.

  3. Three spinach leaf nitrate reductase-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinases that are required by reversible phosphorylation and/or Ca2+ ions.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, P; Pigaglio, E; Ferrer, A; Halfords, N G; MacKintosh, C

    1997-01-01

    In spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf extracts, three protein kinases (PKI, PKII and PKIII) were identified each of which phosphorylated spinach nitrate reductase on serine-543, and inactivated the enzyme in the presence of nitrate reductase inhibitor, 14-3-3. PKIII was also very active in phosphorylating and inactivating Arabidopsis (Landsberg erecta) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 (HMGR1). PKI and PKII phosphorylated HMGR1 more slowly than PKIII, compared with their relative rates of phosphorylation of nitrate reductase. HMGR1 identical with those that are seen after phosphorylation of serine-577 by the sucrose non-fermenting (SNF1)-like PK, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A reductase kinase A (HRK-A), from cauliflower [Dale, Arró, Becerra, Morrice, Boronat, Hardie and Ferrer (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 233, 506-513]. PKI was Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the absence of protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitors, and largely Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the presence of PP inhibitors (NaF and EGTA). The Ca2+-independent portion of PKI was inactivated by either PP2A or PP2C, while the Ca2+-dependent portion of PKI became increasingly activated during storage, which we presume was mimicking the effect of an unidentified PP. These findings indicate that PK1 is regulated by two functionally distinct phosphorylations. PKI had a molecular mass of 45 kDa on gel filtration and was active towards substrate peptides that terminated at the +2 residue from the phosphorylation site, whereas PKIII was inactive towards these peptides. PKII was Ca2+-stimulated under all conditions tested. PKIII was Ca2+-indepdented, inactivated by PP2A or PP2C, had a requirement for a hydrophobic residue in the +4 position of peptide substrates, had a molecular mass by gel filtration of approximately 140 kDa, and an antibody against the rye SNF1-related PK (RKIN1) recognized a 58 kDa subunit in fractions containing PKIII. These properties of PKIII are identical with those reported

  4. Structural and docking studies of Leucaena leucocephala Cinnamoyl CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Kumar, Vikash; Kabra, Ashish; Phogat, Navneet; Kumar, Manoj

    2011-03-01

    Lignin, a major constituent of plant call wall, is a phenolic heteropolymer. It plays a major role in the development of plants and their defense mechanism against pathogens. Therefore Lignin biosynthesis is one of the critical metabolic pathways. In lignin biosynthesis, the Cinnamoyl CoA reductase is a key enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the pathway. Cinnamoyl CoA reductase provides the substrates which represent the main transitional molecules of lignin biosynthesis pathway, exhibits a high in vitro kinetic preference for feruloyl CoA. In present study, the three-dimensional model of cinnamoyl CoA reductase was constructed based on the crystal structure of Grape Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase. Furthermore, the docking studies were performed to understand the substrate interactions to the active site of CCR. It showed that residues ARG51, ASN52, ASP54 and ASN58 were involved in substrate binding. We also suggest that residue ARG51 in CCR is the determinant residue in competitive inhibition of other substrates. This structural and docking information have prospective implications to understand the mechanism of CCR enzymatic reaction with feruloyl CoA, however the approach will be applicable in prediction of substrates and engineering 3D structures of other enzymes as well.

  5. Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella: enoyl reductase activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Z; Muench, S P; Allary, M; Campbell, S; Roberts, C W; Mui, E; McLeod, R L; Rice, D W; Prigge, S T

    2007-12-01

    Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nm. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites.

  6. Feedback regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Dimster-Denk, D; Thorsness, M K; Rine, J

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells all isoprenoids are synthesized from a common precursor, mevalonate. The formation of mevalonate from 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) is catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase and is the first committed step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. In mammalian cells, synthesis of HMG-CoA reductase is subject to feedback regulation at multiple molecular levels. We examined the state of feedback regulation of the synthesis of the HMG-CoA reductase isozyme encoded by the yeast gene HMG1 to examine the generality of this regulatory pattern. In yeast, synthesis of Hmg1p was subject to feedback regulation. This regulation of HMG-CoA reductase synthesis was independent of any change in the level of HMG1 mRNA. Furthermore, regulation of Hmg1p synthesis was keyed to the level of a nonsterol product of the mevalonate pathway. Manipulations of endogenous levels of several isoprenoid intermediates, either pharmacologically or genetically, suggested that mevalonate levels may control the synthesis of Hmg1p through effects on translation. Images PMID:7949422

  7. The role of enoyl reductase genes in phloridzin biosynthesis in apple.

    PubMed

    Dare, Andrew P; Tomes, Sumathi; Cooney, Janine M; Greenwood, David R; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-11-01

    Phloridzin is the predominant polyphenol in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) where it accumulates to high concentrations in many tissues including the leaves, bark, roots and fruit. Despite its relative abundance in apple the biosynthesis of phloridzin and other related dihydrochalcones remains only partially understood. The key unidentified enzyme in phloridzin biosynthesis is a putative carbon double bond reductase which is thought to act on p-coumaroyl-CoA to produce the dihydro-p-coumaroyl-CoA precursor. A functional screen of six apple enoyl reductase-like (ENRL) genes was carried out using transient infiltration into tobacco and gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in order to determine carbon double bond reductase activity and contribution to foliar phloridzin concentrations. The ENRL-3 gene caused a significant increase in phloridzin concentration when infiltrated into tobacco leaves whilst a second protein ENRL-5, with over 98% amino acid sequence similarity to ENRL-3, showed p-coumaroyl-CoA reductase activity in enzyme assays. Finally, an RNAi study showed that reducing the transcript levels of ENRL-3 in transgenic 'Royal Gala' led to a 66% decrease in the concentration of dihydrochalcones in the leaves in the one available silenced line. Overall these results suggest that ENRL-3, and its close homolog ENRL-5, may contribute to the biosynthesis of phloridzin in apple.

  8. The anaerobic ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Escherichia coli requires S-adenosylmethionine as a cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, R; Fontecave, M; Jörnvall, H; Krook, M; Pontis, E; Reichard, P

    1990-01-01

    Extracts from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli contain an oxygen-sensitive activity that reduces CTP to dCTP in the presence of NADPH, dithiothreitol, Mg2+ ions, and ATP, different from the aerobic ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (2'-deoxyribonucleoside-diphosphate: oxidized-thioredoxin 2'-oxidoreductase, EC 1.17.4.1) present in aerobically grown E. coli. After fractionation, the activity required at least five components, two heat-labile protein fractions and several low molecular weight fractions. One protein fraction, suggested to represent the actual ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase was purified extensively and on denaturing gel electrophoresis gave rise to several defined protein bands, all of which were stained by a polyclonal antibody against one of the two subunits (protein B1) of the aerobic reductase but not by monoclonal anti-B1 antibodies. Peptide mapping and sequence analyses revealed partly common structures between two types of protein bands but also suggested the presence of an additional component. Obviously, the preparations are heterogeneous and the structure of the reductase is not yet established. The second, crude protein fraction is believed to contain several ancillary enzymes required for the reaction. One of the low molecular weight components is S-adenosylmethionine; a second component is a loosely bound metal. We propose that S-adenosylmethionine together with a metal participates in the generation of the radical required for the reduction of carbon 2' of the ribosyl moiety of CTP. Images PMID:2185465

  9. Rhythms of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in brain of chick and their inhibition by light.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M I; Reiter, R J; Ortiz, G G; Guerrero, J M; Agapito, M T; Chuang, J I; Sewerynek, E

    1998-01-01

    Melatonin was recently shown to be a component of the antioxidative defense system of organisms due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pharmacologically, melatonin stimulates the activity of the peroxide detoxifying enzyme glutathione peroxidase in rat brain and in several tissues of chicks. In this report, we studied the endogenous rhythm of two antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in five regions (hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum) of chick brain and correlated them with physiological blood melatonin concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase exhibited a marked 24 h rhythm with peak activity in each brain region which had acrophases about 8 h after lights off and about 4 h after the serum melatonin peak was detected. Glutathione reductase activity exhibited similar robust rhythms with the peaks occurring roughly 2 h after those of glutathione peroxidase. We suggest that neural glutathione peroxidase increases due to the rise of nocturnal melatonin levels while glutathione reductase activity rises slightly later possibly due to an increase of its substrate, oxidized glutathione. The exposure of chicks to constant light for 6 days eliminated the melatonin rhythm as well as the peaks in both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. These findings suggest that the melatonin rhythm may be related to the nighttime increases in the enzyme activities, although other explanations cannot be excluded.

  10. Fumarate-Mediated Inhibition of Erythrose Reductase, a Key Enzyme for Erythritol Production by Torula corallina

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Koo, Bong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Yong

    2002-01-01

    Torula corallina, a strain presently being used for the industrial production of erythritol, has the highest erythritol yield ever reported for an erythritol-producing microorganism. The increased production of erythritol by Torula corallina with trace elements such as Cu2+ has been thoroughly reported, but the mechanism by which Cu2+ increases the production of erythritol has not been studied. This study demonstrated that supplemental Cu2+ enhanced the production of erythritol, while it significantly decreased the production of a major by-product that accumulates during erythritol fermentation, which was identified as fumarate by instrumental analyses. Erythrose reductase, a key enzyme that converts erythrose to erythritol in T. corallina, was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods, including ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. In vitro, purified erythrose reductase was significantly inhibited noncompetitively by increasing the fumarate concentration. In contrast, the enzyme activity remained almost constant regardless of Cu2+ concentration. This suggests that supplemental Cu2+ reduced the production of fumarate, a strong inhibitor of erythrose reductase, which led to less inhibition of erythrose reductase and a high yield of erythritol. This is the first report that suggests catabolite repression by a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate in T. corallina. PMID:12200310

  11. Glutathione reductase-mediated synthesis of tellurium-containing nanostructures exhibiting antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Pugin, Benoit; Cornejo, Fabián A; Muñoz-Díaz, Pablo; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M; Vargas-Pérez, Joaquín I; Arenas, Felipe A; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2014-11-01

    Tellurium, a metalloid belonging to group 16 of the periodic table, displays very interesting physical and chemical properties and lately has attracted significant attention for its use in nanotechnology. In this context, the use of microorganisms for synthesizing nanostructures emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach compared to their chemical synthesis. To generate Te-containing nanostructures, bacteria enzymatically reduce tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, using a classic biochemical approach, we looked for a novel tellurite reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain BNF22 and used it to generate tellurium-containing nanostructures. A new tellurite reductase was identified as glutathione reductase, which was subsequently overproduced in Escherichia coli. The characterization of this enzyme showed that it is an NADPH-dependent tellurite reductase, with optimum reducing activity at 30°C and pH 9.0. Finally, the enzyme was able to generate Te-containing nanostructures, about 68 nm in size, which exhibit interesting antibacterial properties against E. coli, with no apparent cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells.

  12. Part of respiratory nitrate reductase of Klebsiella aerogenes is intimately associated with the peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Abraham, P R; Wientjes, F B; Nanninga, N; Van't Riet, J

    1987-02-01

    Lysozyme digestion and sonication of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-purified Klebsiella aerogenes murein sacculi resulted in the quantitative release of both subunits of nitrate reductase, as well as a number of other cytoplasmic membrane polypeptides (5.2%, by weight, of the total membrane proteins). Similar results were obtained after lysozyme digestion of SDS-prepared peptidoglycan fragments, which excluded the phenomenon of simple trapping of the polypeptides by the surrounding peptidoglycan matrix. About 28% of membrane-bound nitrate reductase appears to be tightly associated with the peptidoglycan. Additional evidence for this association was demonstrated by positive immunogold labeling of SDS-murein sacculi and thin sections of plasmolyzed bacteria. Qualitative amino acid analysis of trypsin-treated sacculi, a tryptic product of holo-nitrate reductase, and amino- and carboxypeptidase digests of both nitrate reductase subunits indicated the possible existence of a terminal anchoring peptide containing the following amino acids: (Gly)n, Trp, Ser, Pro, Ile, Leu, Phe, Cys, Tyr, Asp, and Lys.

  13. Electron microscopy of nickel-containing methanogenic enzymes: methyl reductase and F420-reducing hydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Wackett, L P; Hartwieg, E A; King, J A; Orme-Johnson, W H; Walsh, C T

    1987-01-01

    Methanogens catalyze the hydrogen-dependent eight-electron reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Two of the key catalysts in the eight-electron reduction pathway are the nickel-containing enzymes F420-reducing hydrogenase and methyl reductase. In the present study, the structures of these archaebacterial enzymes from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H have been determined by electron microscopy. By negative stain techniques, F420 hydrogenase was found to be a ring structure with a diameter of 15.7 nm and an inner channel 4 nm in diameter. Shadow-casting experiments demonstrated that the rings were 8.5 nm deep, indicating a holoenzyme molecular weight of 8.0 X 10(5). Methyl reductase appeared to be an oligomeric complex of dimensions 8.5 by 9 by 11 nm, with a central stain-penetrating region. The morphology and known subunit composition suggest a model in which the subunits are arranged as an eclipsed pair of open trimers. Methyl reductase was also found in the form of larger aggregates and in paracrystalline arrays derived from highly concentrated solutions. The extremely large size of F420 hydrogenase and the methyl reductase supramolecular assemblies may have relevance in vivo in the construction of multiprotein arrays that function in methane biogenesis. Images PMID:3804976

  14. Identification of the Arabidopsis CHL3 gene as the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, J Q; Crawford, N M

    1991-01-01

    Chlorate, the chlorine analog of nitrate, is a herbicide that has been used to select mutants impaired in the process of nitrate assimilation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations at any one of eight distinct loci confer resistance to chlorate. The molecular identities of the genes at these loci are not known; however, one of these loci--chl3--maps very near the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2. Through the isolation, characterization, and genetic analysis of new chlorate-resistant mutants generated by gamma irradiation, we have been able to demonstrate that the CHL3 gene and the NIA2 gene are identical. Three new chlorate-resistant mutants were identified that had deletions of the entire NIA2 gene. These nia2 null mutants were viable and still retained 10% of wild-type nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of the plants. All three deletion mutations were found to be new alleles of chl3. Introduction of the NIA2 gene back into these chl3 mutants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation partially complemented their mutant phenotype. From these data, we conclude that Arabidopsis has at least two functional nitrate reductase genes and that the NIA2 gene product accounts for the majority of the leaf nitrate reductase activity and chlorate sensitivity of Arabidopsis plants. PMID:1840922

  15. A rational approach to identify inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase.

    PubMed

    Chhabria, Mahesh T; Parmar, Kailash B; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik S

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterial enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase is an attractive target for focused design of novel antitubercular agents. Structural information available on enoyl-ACP reductase in complex with different ligands was used to generate receptor-based pharmacophore model in Discovery Studio (DS). In parallel, pharmacophore models were also generated using ligand-based approach (HypoGen module in DS). Statistically significant models were generated (r(2) = 0.85) which were found to be predictive as indicated from internal and external cross-validations. The model was used as a query tool to search Zinc and Maybridge databases to identify lead compounds and predict their activity in silico. Database searching retrieved many potential lead compounds having better estimated IC50 values than the training set compounds. These compounds were then evaluated for their drug-likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties using DS. Few selected compounds were then docked into the crystal structure of enoyl-ACP reductase using Dock 6.5. Most compounds were found to have high score values, which was found to be consistent with the results from pharmacophore mapping. Additionally, molecular docking provided useful insights into the nature of binding of the identified hit molecules. In summary, we show a useful strategy employing ligand- and structure-based approaches (pharmacophore modeling coupled with molecular docking) to identify new enoyl- ACP reductase inhibitors for antimycobacterial chemotherapy.

  16. Biochemical characterization of an L-Xylulose reductase from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nikhil; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-03-01

    An l-xylulose reductase identified from the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a His(6) tag fusion protein, purified, and characterized. The enzyme may be used in the production of xylitol from the major pentose components of hemicellulosic waste, d-xylose and l-arabinose.

  17. Copper-dependent inhibition and oxidative inactivation with affinity cleavage of yeast glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Tsubouchi, Ryoko; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2014-06-01

    Effects of copper on the activity and oxidative inactivation of yeast glutathione reductase were analyzed. Glutathione reductase from yeast was inhibited by cupric ion and more potently by cuprous ion. Copper ion inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with respect to the substrate GSSG and NADPH. The Ki values of the enzyme for Cu(2+) and Cu(+) ion were determined to be 1 and 0.35 μM, respectively. Copper-dependent inactivation of glutathione reductase was also analyzed. Hydrogen peroxide and copper/ascorbate also caused an inactivation with the cleavage of peptide bond of the enzyme. The inactivation/fragmentation of the enzyme was prevented by addition of catalase, suggesting that hydroxyl radical produced through the cuprous ion-dependent reduction of oxygen is responsible for the inactivation/fragmentation of the enzyme. SDS-PAGE and TOF-MS analysis confirmed eight fragments, which were further determined to result from the cleavage of the Met17-Ser18, Asn20-Thr21, Glu251-Gly252, Ser420-Pro421, Pro421-Thr422 bonds of the enzyme by amino-terminal sequencing analysis. Based on the kinetic analysis and no protective effect of the substrates, GSSG and NADPH on the copper-mediated inactivation/fragmentation of the enzyme, copper binds to the sites apart from the substrate-sites, causing the peptide cleavage by hydroxyl radical. Copper-dependent oxidative inactivation/fragmentation of glutathione reductase can explain the prooxidant properties of copper under the in vivo conditions.

  18. Glutathione Reductase-Mediated Synthesis of Tellurium-Containing Nanostructures Exhibiting Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, Benoit; Cornejo, Fabián A.; Muñoz-Díaz, Pablo; Muñoz-Villagrán, Claudia M.; Vargas-Pérez, Joaquín I.; Arenas, Felipe A.

    2014-01-01

    Tellurium, a metalloid belonging to group 16 of the periodic table, displays very interesting physical and chemical properties and lately has attracted significant attention for its use in nanotechnology. In this context, the use of microorganisms for synthesizing nanostructures emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach compared to their chemical synthesis. To generate Te-containing nanostructures, bacteria enzymatically reduce tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, using a classic biochemical approach, we looked for a novel tellurite reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain BNF22 and used it to generate tellurium-containing nanostructures. A new tellurite reductase was identified as glutathione reductase, which was subsequently overproduced in Escherichia coli. The characterization of this enzyme showed that it is an NADPH-dependent tellurite reductase, with optimum reducing activity at 30°C and pH 9.0. Finally, the enzyme was able to generate Te-containing nanostructures, about 68 nm in size, which exhibit interesting antibacterial properties against E. coli, with no apparent cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells. PMID:25193000

  19. The crystal structure of dihydrofolate reductase from Thermotoga maritima: molecular features of thermostability.

    PubMed

    Dams, T; Auerbach, G; Bader, G; Jacob, U; Ploom, T; Huber, R; Jaenicke, R

    2000-03-31

    Two high-resolution structures have been obtained for dihydrofolate reductase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima in its unliganded state, and in its ternary complex with the cofactor NADPH and the inhibitor, methotrexate. While the overall fold of the hyperthermophilic enzyme is closely similar to monomeric mesophilic dihydrofolate reductase molecules, its quaternary structure is exceptional, in that T. maritima dihydrofolate reductase forms a highly stable homodimer. Here, the molecular reasons for the high intrinsic stability of the enzyme are elaborated and put in context with the available data on the physical parameters governing the folding reaction. The molecule is extremely rigid, even with respect to structural changes during substrate binding and turnover. Subunit cooperativity can be excluded from structural and biochemical data. Major contributions to the high intrinsic stability of the enzyme result from the formation of the dimer. Within the monomer, only subtle stabilizing interactions are detectable, without clear evidence for any of the typical increments of thermal stabilization commonly reported for hyperthermophilic proteins. The docking of the subunits is optimized with respect to high packing density in the dimer interface, additional salt-bridges and beta-sheets. The enzyme does not show significant structural changes upon binding its coenzyme, NADPH, and the inhibitor, methotrexate. The active-site loop, which is known to play an important role in catalysis in mesophilic dihydrofolate reductase molecules, is rearranged, participating in the association of the subunits; it no longer participates in catalysis.

  20. Biochemical and crystallographic characterization of ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase from nonphotosynthetic tissues.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Faber, R; Finnerty, C M; Ferioli, C; Pandini, V; Negri, A; Karplus, P A; Zanetti, G

    2001-12-04

    Distinct forms of ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase are expressed in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic plant tissues. Both enzymes catalyze electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxin; whereas in leaves the enzyme transfers reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin to NADP(+) in photosynthesis, in roots it has the opposite physiological role, reducing ferredoxin at the expense of NADPH mainly for use in nitrate assimilation. Here, structural and kinetic properties of a nonphotosynthetic isoform were analyzed to define characteristics that may be related to tissue-specific function. Compared with spinach leaf ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase, the recombinant corn root isoform showed a slightly altered absorption spectrum, a higher pI, a >30-fold higher affinity for NADP(+), greater susceptibility to limited proteolysis, and an approximately 20 mV more positive redox potential. The 1.7 A resolution crystal structure is very similar to the structures of ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases from photosynthetic tissues. Four distinct structural features of this root ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductases are an alternate conformation of the bound FAD molecule, an alternate path for the amino-terminal extension, a disulfide bond in the FAD-binding domain, and changes in the surface that binds ferredoxin.

  1. Properties of some reductase enzymes in the nitrifying bacteria and their relationship to the oxidase systems

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, W.; Nicholas, D. J. D.

    1968-01-01

    The reductase enzymes in Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter were studied under anaerobic conditions when the oxidase enzymes were inactive. The most effective electron-donor systems for nitrate reductase in Nitrobacter were reduced benzyl viologen alone, phenazine methosulphate with either NADH or NADPH, and FMN or FAD with NADH. Nitrite and hydroxylamine reductases were found in both nitrifying bacteria, and optimum activity for each enzyme was obtained with NADH or NADPH with either FMN or FAD. The product of both these enzymes was identified as ammonia. In extracts of Nitrosomonas the ammonia was further utilized by an NADPH-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. 15N-labelled nitrite, hydroxylamine and ammonia were rapidly incorporated into cell protein by Nitrosomonas, and Nitrobacter in addition incorporated [15N]nitrate. Relatively gentle methods of cell disruption were compared with ultrasonic treatment, to enable a more exact study to be undertaken of the intracellular distribution of the oxidase and reductase enzymes. The functional relationship of these opposing enzyme systems in the nitrifying bacteria is considered. PMID:4386932

  2. Novel anti-Prelog stereospecific carbonyl reductases from Candida parapsilosis for asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yao; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Application of biocatalysis in the synthesis of chiral molecules is one of the greenest technologies for the replacement of chemical routes due to its environmentally benign reaction conditions and unparalleled chemo-, regio-and stereoselectivities. We have been interested in searching for carbonyl reductase enzymes and assessing their substrate specificity and stereoselectivity. We now report a gene cluster identified in Candida parapsilosis that consists of four open reading frames including three putative stereospecific carbonyl reductases (scr1, scr2, and scr3) and an alcohol dehydrogenase (cpadh). These newly identified three stereospecific carbonyl reductases (SCRs) showed high catalytic activities for producing (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol from 2-hydroxyacetophenone with NADPH as the coenzyme. Together with CPADH, all four enzymes from this cluster are carbonyl reductases with novel anti-Prelog stereoselectivity. SCR1 and SCR3 exhibited distinct specificities to acetophenone derivatives and chloro-substituted 2-hydroxyacetophenones, and especially very high activities to ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutyrate, a β-ketoester with important pharmaceutical potentials. Our study also showed that genomic mining is a powerful tool for the discovery of new enzymes. PMID:21505708

  3. Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

  4. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antioxidant and quinone reductase (QR) inducing activities of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng have been reported using various plant materials, solvents, and assays. To directly establish their comparative bioactivity, the effects of extracts obtained from acidified methanol (MeOH), a gas...

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the genes from Salmonella typhimurium encoding a new bacterial ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, A; Gibert, I; Barbé, J

    1994-01-01

    A plasmid library of Salmonella typhimurium was used to complement a temperature-sensitive nrdA mutant of Escherichia coli. Complementation was obtained with two different classes of plasmids, one carrying the E. coli nrdAB-like genes and the second containing an operon encoding a new bacterial ribonucleotide reductase. Plasmids harboring these new reductase genes also enable obligately anaerobic nrdB::Mud1 E. coli mutants to grow in the presence of oxygen. This operon consists of two open reading frames, which have been designated nrdE (2,145 bp) and nrdF (969 bp). The deduced amino acid sequences of the nrdE and nrdF products include the catalytically important residues conserved in ribonucleotide reductase enzymes of class I and show 25 and 28% overall identity with the R1 and R2 protein, respectively, of the aerobic ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase of E. coli. The 3' end of the sequenced 4.9-kb fragment corresponds to the upstream region of the previously published proU operon of both S. typhimurium and E. coli, indicating that the nrdEF genes are at 57 min on the chromosomal maps of these two bacterial species. Analysis of the nrdEF and proU sequences demonstrates that transcription of the nrdEF genes is in the clockwise direction on the S. typhimurium and E. coli maps. Images PMID:8195103

  6. Novel anti-Prelog stereospecific carbonyl reductases from Candida parapsilosis for asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yao; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2011-06-07

    The application of biocatalysis to the synthesis of chiral molecules is one of the greenest technologies for the replacement of chemical routes due to its environmentally benign reaction conditions and unparalleled chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities. We have been interested in searching for carbonyl reductase enzymes and assessing their substrate specificity and stereoselectivity. We now report a gene cluster identified in Candida parapsilosis that consists of four open reading frames including three putative stereospecific carbonyl reductases (scr1, scr2, and scr3) and an alcohol dehydrogenase (cpadh). These newly identified three stereospecific carbonyl reductases (SCRs) showed high catalytic activities for producing (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol from 2-hydroxyacetophenone with NADPH as the coenzyme. Together with CPADH, all four enzymes from this cluster are carbonyl reductases with novel anti-Prelog stereoselectivity. SCR1 and SCR3 exhibited distinct specificities to acetophenone derivatives and chloro-substituted 2-hydroxyacetophenones, and especially very high activities towards ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutyrate, a β-ketoester with important pharmaceutical potential. Our study also showed that genomic mining is a powerful tool for the discovery of new enzymes.

  7. Loss and stabilization of amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in mouse sarcoma S-180 cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Brown, P.C.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The authors studied the loss and stabilization of dihydrofolate reductase genes in clones of a methotrexate-resistant murine S-180 cell line. These cells contained multiple copies of the dihydrofolate reductase gene which were associated with double minute chromosomes. The growth rate of these cells in the absence of methotrexate was inversely related to the degree of gene amplification (number of double minute chromosomes). Cells could both gain and lose genes as a result of an unequal distribution of double minute chromosomes into daughter cells at mitosis. The loss of amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes during growth in the absence of methotrexate resulted from the continual generation of cells containing lower numbers of double minute chromosomes. Because of the growth advantage of these cells, they became dominant in the population. They also studied an unstably resistant S-180 cell line (clone) that, after 3 years of continuous growth in methotrexate, generated cells containing stably amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes. These genes were present on one or more chromosomes, and they were retained in a stable state.

  8. Use of a Simple, Colorimetric Assay to Demonstrate Conditions for Induction of Nitrate Reductase in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrate assimilation by plants provides an excellent system for demonstrating control of gene expression in a eukaryotic organism. Describes an assay method that allows students to complete experiments designed around the measurement of nitrate reductase within a three-hour laboratory experiment. (PR)

  9. Nitrate reduction in Haloferax alexandrinus: the case of assimilatory nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Volkan; Kilic, Gözde Aydoğan; Kutlu, Hatice Mehtap; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2017-03-21

    Haloferax alexandrinus Strain TM JCM 10717(T) = IFO 16590(T) is an extreme halophilic archaeon able to produce significant amounts of canthaxanthin. Its genome sequence has been analysed in this work using bioinformatics tools available at Expasy in order to look for genes encoding nitrate reductase-like proteins: respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and/or assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas). The ability of the cells to reduce nitrate under aerobic conditions was tested. The enzyme in charge of nitrate reduction under aerobic conditions (Nas) has been purified and characterised. It is a monomeric enzyme (72 ± 1.8 kDa) that requires high salt concentration for stability and activity. The optimum pH value for activity was 9.5. Effectiveness of different substrates, electron donors, cofactors and inhibitors was also reported. High nitrite concentrations were detected within the culture media during aerobic/microaerobic cells growth. The main conclusion from the results is that this haloarchaeon reduces nitrate aerobically thanks to Nas and may induce denitrification under anaerobic/microaerobic conditions using nitrate as electron acceptor. The study sheds light on the role played by haloarchaea in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, paying special attention to nitrate reduction processes. Besides, it provides useful information for future attempts on microecological and biotechnological implications of haloarchaeal nitrate reductases.

  10. Inhibition of human anthracycline reductases by emodin - A possible remedy for anthracycline resistance.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Seliger, Jan Moritz; Hofman, Jakub; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Wsol, Vladimir; Maser, Edmund

    2016-02-15

    The clinical application of anthracyclines, like daunorubicin and doxorubicin, is limited by two factors: dose-related cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. Both have been linked to reductive metabolism of the parent drug to their metabolites daunorubicinol and doxorubicinol, respectively. These metabolites show significantly less anti-neoplastic properties as their parent drugs and accumulate in cardiac tissue leading to chronic cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel and potent natural inhibitors for anthracycline reductases, which enhance the anticancer effect of anthracyclines by preventing the development of anthracycline resistance. Human enzymes responsible for the reductive metabolism of daunorubicin were tested for their sensitivity towards anthrachinones, in particular emodin and anthraflavic acid. Intense inhibition kinetic data for the most effective daunorubicin reductases, including IC50- and Ki-values, the mode of inhibition, as well as molecular docking, were compiled. Subsequently, a cytotoxicity profile and the ability of emodin to reverse daunorubicin resistance were determined using multiresistant A549 lung cancer and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Emodin potently inhibited the four main human daunorubicin reductases in vitro. Further, we could demonstrate that emodin is able to synergistically sensitize human cancer cells towards daunorubicin at clinically relevant concentrations. Therefore, emodin may yield the potential to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of anthracyclines by preventing anthracycline resistance via inhibition of the anthracycline reductases. In symphony with its known pharmacological properties, emodin might be a compound of particular interest in the management of anthracycline chemotherapy efficacy and their adverse effects.

  11. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Characterization of the Molybdenum Site of 'Escherichia Coli' Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Doonan, C.J.; Rothery, R.A.; Boroumand, N.; Weiner, J.H.; /Saskatchewan U. /Alberta U.

    2007-07-09

    Structural studies of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductases were hampered by modification of the active site during purification. We report an X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of the molybdenum active site of Escherichia coli DMSO reductase contained within its native membranes. The enzyme in these preparations is expected to be very close to the form found in vivo. The oxidized active site was found to have four Mo-S ligands at 2.43 angstroms, one Mo=O at 1.71 angstroms, and a longer Mo-O at 1.90 angstroms. We conclude that the oxidized enzyme is a monooxomolybdenum(VI) species coordinated by two molybdopterin dithiolenes and a serine. The bond lengths determined for E. coli DMSO reductase are very similar to those determined for the well-characterized Rhodobacter sphaeroides DMSO reductase, suggesting similar active site structures for the two enzymes. Furthermore, our results suggest that the form found in vivo is the monooxobis(molybdopterin) species.

  12. Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase at 1.56 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangwoo; Suga, Michihiro; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Ikegami, Terumi; Minami, Yoshiko; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-04-01

    The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b{sub 5} by NADH, was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b{sub 5} by NADH. The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. The molecular structure was compared with that of human cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase, which had previously been determined at 1.75 Å resolution [Bando et al. (2004 ▶), Acta Cryst. D60, 1929–1934]. The high-resolution structure revealed conformational differences between the two enzymes in the adenosine moiety of the FAD, the lid region and the linker region. The structural properties of both proteins were inspected in terms of hydrogen bonding, ion pairs, accessible surface area and cavity volume. The differences in these structural properties between the two proteins were consistent with estimates of their thermostabilities obtained from differential scanning calorimetry data.

  13. 5 Alpha-reductase inhibitory and antiandrogenic activities of novel steroids in hamster seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Marisa; Bratoeff, Eugene; Flores, Eugenio; Ramírez, Elena; Calleros, Jorge; Montes, Diana; Quiroz, Alexandra; Heuze, Ivonne

    2002-11-01

    The pharmacological activity of several 16-bromosubstituted trienediones 4 and 5, 16-methyl substituted dienediones 6 and 7 and the 16-methyl substituted trienedione 8 was determined on gonadectomized hamster seminal vesicles by measuring the in vitro conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as 5alpha-reductase inhibitors and also the ability of these steroids to bind to the androgen receptor. Steroids 6 and 7 when injected together with T decreased the weight of the seminal vesicles thus showing an antiandrogenic effect. Compounds 5 and 6 reduced substantially the conversion of T to DHT and therefore can be considered good inhibitors for the enzyme 5alpha-reductase; however both steroids failed to form a complex with the androgen receptor. On the other hand compound 7 which showed a very small inhibitory activity for the enzyme 5alpha-reductase, exhibited a very high affinity for the androgen receptor and thus can be considered an effective antiandrogen. This compound also reduced substantially the weight of the seminal vesicles. Steroids 4 and 8 did not reduce the weight of the seminal vesicles and exhibited a low affinity for the androgen receptor; 8 showed a weak 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity, whereas 4 exhibited a weak androgenic effect.

  14. [Dutasteride (Avodart): a novel 5-alpha reductase inhibitor for treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, M; Sternon, J

    2005-01-01

    Dutasteride (Avodart), a novel dual 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is effective for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy, of more than 30 cc because the reduction of the level of dihydrotestosterone. By reducing prostatic volume, dutasteride improves moderate to severe symptoms and flow rate. It allows a reduction of disease progression by reducing the rate of acute urinary retention and need for surgery.

  15. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    PubMed

    Windahl, Sara H; Andersson, Niklas; Börjesson, Anna E; Swanson, Charlotte; Svensson, Johan; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Sjögren, Klara; Shao, Ruijin; Lagerquist, Marie K; Ohlsson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T) versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2), encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2). 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05) and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05) but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT) mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05) in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05). Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  16. Identification of structural domains within the large subunit of herpes simplex virus ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Conner, J; Cross, A; Murray, J; Marsden, H

    1994-12-01

    The large subunit (R1) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ribonucleotide reductase is a bifunctional protein consisting of a unique N-terminal protein kinase domain and a ribonucleotide reductase domain. Previous studies showed that the two functional domains are linked by a protease sensitive site. Here we provide evidence for two subdomains, of 30K and 53K, within the reductase domain. The two fragments, which were produced by limited proteolysis and were resistant to further degradation, remained tightly associated in a complex containing two molecules of each. They were capable of binding the R2 subunit of HSV ribonucleotide reductase with approximately the same affinity as the intact protein but the complex did not complement the small subunit (R2) to give an active enzyme. At low concentrations (0.4 micrograms/ml) of trypsin or V8 protease, cleavage between the subdomains was prevented by the presence of the N-terminal protein kinase domain. At higher protease concentrations (1 micrograms/ml) the N-terminal domain is extensively proteolysed and the 30K and 53K domains were generated. Identical results were obtained using purified R1 isolated from infected cell extracts or following expression in Escherichia coli. The origin of the two domains was investigated by N-terminal sequencing of the 53K fragment and by examining their reactivity with a panel of R1-specific monoclonal antibodies which we isolated and epitope mapped for that purpose. The trypsin cleavage site was found to lie between arginine 575 and asparagine 576, and proteolysis in this region was not prevented by the presence of R2 or the nonapeptide YAGAVVNDL. We propose that the ribonucleotide reductase region of HSV R1 exists in a two domain structure, and that the interdomain linking region is protected by the unique N terminus.

  17. Expression of a fully functional cd1 nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Arese, Marzia; Zumft, Walter G; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Nitrite reductases are redox enzymes catalysing the one electron reduction of nitrite to nitrogen monoxide (NO) within the bacterial denitrification process. We have cloned the gene for cd(1) nitrite reductase (Pa-nirS) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the NiRS(-) strain MK202 of Pseudomonas stutzeri and expressed the enzyme under denitrifying conditions. In the MK202 strain, denitrification is abolished by the disruption of the endogenous nitrite reductase gene; thus, cells can be grown only in the presence of oxygen. After complementation with Pa-nirS gene, cells supplemented with nitrate can be grown in the absence of oxygen. The presence of nitrite reductase was proven in vivo by the demonstration of NO production, showing that the enzyme was expressed in the active form, containing both heme c and d(1). A purification procedure for the recombinant PaNir has been developed, based on the P. aeruginosa purification protocol; spectroscopic analysis of the purified protein fully confirms the presence of the d(1) heme cofactor. Moreover, the functional characterisation of the recombinant NiR has been carried out by monitoring the production of NO by the purified NiR enzyme in the presence of nitrite by an NO electrode. The full recovery of the denitrification properties in the P. stutzeri MK202 strain by genetic complementation with Pa-NiR underlines the high homology between enzymes of nitrogen oxianion respiration. Our work provides an expression system for cd(1) nitrite reductase and its site-directed mutants in a non-pathogenic strain and is a starting point for the in vivo study of recombinant enzyme variants.

  18. Purification, Characterization, and Overexpression of Flavin Reductase Involved in Dibenzothiophene Desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis D-1

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Toshiyuki; Ohshiro, Takashi; Nishina, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Yoshikazu

    2001-01-01

    The dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis D-1, removes sulfur from DBT to form 2-hydroxybiphenyl using four enzymes, DszC, DszA, DszB, and flavin reductase. In this study, we purified and characterized the flavin reductase from R. erythropolis D-1 grown in a medium containing DBT as the sole source of sulfur. It is conceivable that the enzyme is essential for two monooxygenase (DszC and DszA) reactions in vivo. The purified flavin reductase contains no chromogenic cofactors and was found to have a molecular mass of 86 kDa and four identical 22-kDa subunits. The enzyme catalyzed NADH-dependent reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and the Km values for NADH and FMN were 208 and 10.8 μM, respectively. Flavin adenine dinucleotide was a poor substrate, and NADPH was inert. The enzyme did not catalyze reduction of any nitroaromatic compound. The optimal temperature and optimal pH for enzyme activity were 35°C and 6.0, respectively, and the enzyme retained 30% of its activity after heat treatment at 80°C for 30 min. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified flavin reductase was identical to that of DszD of R. erythropolis IGTS8 (K. A. Gray, O. S. Pogrebinsky, G. T. Mrachko, L. Xi, D. J. Monticello, and C. H. Squires, Nat. Biotechnol. 14:1705–1709, 1996). The flavin reductase gene was amplified with primers designed by using dszD of R. erythropolis IGTS8, and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The specific activity in crude extracts of the overexpressed strain was about 275-fold that of the wild-type strain. PMID:11229908

  19. Sequence diversity and enzyme activity of ferric-chelate reductase LeFRO1 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyu; Chen, Chunlin; Wu, Huilan; Li, Ye; Li, Junming; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2013-11-20

    Ferric-chelate reductase which functions in the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron on root surface is a critical protein for iron homeostasis in strategy I plants. LeFRO1 is a major ferric-chelate reductase involved in iron uptake in tomato. To identify the natural variations of LeFRO1 and to assess their effect on the ferric-chelate reductase activity, we cloned the coding sequences of LeFRO1 from 16 tomato varieties collected from different regions, and detected three types of LeFRO1 (LeFRO1(MM), LeFRO1(Ailsa) and LeFRO1(Monita)) with five amino acid variations at the positions 21, 24, 112, 195 and 582. Enzyme activity assay revealed that the three types of LeFRO1 possessed different ferric-chelate reductase activity (LeFRO1(Ailsa) > LeFRO1(MM) > LeFRO1(Monita)). The 112th amino acid residue Ala of LeFRO1 is critical for maintaining the high activity of ferric-chelate reductase, because modification of this amino acid resulted in a significant reduction of enzyme activity. Further, we showed that the combination of the amino acid residue Ile at the site 24 with Lys at the site 582 played a positive role in the enzyme activity of LeFRO1. In conclusion, the findings are helpful to understand the natural adaptation mechanisms of plants to iron-limiting stress, and may provide new knowledge to select and manipulate LeFRO1 for improving the iron deficiency tolerance in tomato.

  20. Biotransformation of arsenic by bacterial strains mediated by oxido-reductase enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, N; Singh, D P

    2014-12-24

    The present study deals with the enzyme mediated biotransformation of arsenic in five arsenic tolerant strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus macerans and Escherichia coli). Biotransformation ability of these isolates was evaluated by monitoring arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. Results showed that arsenic oxidase activity was exclusively present in P. macerans and B. pumilus while B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli strains showed presence of Arsenic oxido-reductase enzyme. The reversible nature of arsenic oxido- reductase suggested that same enzyme can carry out oxidation and reduction of arsenic depending upon the relative concentration of arsenic species. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the arsenite oxidase activity in P. macerans showed highest Km value (Km- 200 μM) and lower Vmax (0.012 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) indicating lowest affinity of the enzyme for arsenite. On the contrary, E. coli showed the lower Km value ( Km- 38.46 μM) and higher Vmax (0.044 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) suggesting for higher affinity for the arsenite. Lineweaver-Burk plot of arsenate reductase activity showed the presence of this enzyme in B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli which were in the range of 200-360 μM Km and Vmax value between 0.256- 0.129 mmol mg-1 protein min-1. These results suggested that affinity of the as reductase enzyme is lowest for arsenate than that for the arsenite. Thus, arsenite oxidase system appears to be a predominant mechanism of cellular defense in these bacterial strains.

  1. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  2. Biochemical Characterization of Inducible 'Reductase' Component of Benzoate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Isomer Dioxygenases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Rohini; Badri, Abinaya; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-09-01

    The first step involved in the degradation of phthalate isomers (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) is the double hydroxylation by respective aromatic-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. These are two component enzymes consisting of 'oxygenase' and 'reductase' components. Soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4 degrades phthalate isomers via protocatechuate and benzoate via catechol 'ortho' ring cleavage pathway. Metabolic studies suggest that strain PP4 has carbon source-specific inducible phthalate isomer dioxygenase and benzoate dioxygenase. Thus, it was of interest to study the properties of reductase components of these enzymes. Reductase activity from phthalate isomer-grown cells was 3-5-folds higher than benzoate grown cells. In-gel activity staining profile showed a reductase activity band of R f 0.56 for phthalate isomer-grown cells as compared to R f 0.73 from benzoate-grown cells. Partially purified reductase components from phthalate isomer grown cells showed K m in the range of 30-40 μM and V max = 34-48 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, reductase from benzoate grown cells showed K m = 49 μM and V max = 10 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). Strikingly similar molecular and kinetic properties of reductase component from phthalate isomer-grown cells suggest that probably the same reductase component is employed in three phthalate isomer dioxygenases. However, reductase component is different, with respect to kinetic properties and zymogram analysis, from benzoate-grown cells when compared to that from phthalate isomer grown cells of PP4.

  3. Assignment of the human dihydrofolate reductase gene to the q11. -->. q22 region of chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Funanage, V.L.; Myoda, T.T.; Moses, P.A.; Cowell, H.R.

    1984-10-01

    Cells from a dihydrofolate reductase-deficit Chinese hamster ovary cell line were hybridized to human fetal skin fibroblast cells. Nineteen dihydrofolate reductase-positive hybrid clones were isolated and characterized. Cytogenetic and biochemical analyses of these clones have shown that the human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene is located on chromosome 5. Three of these hybrid cell lines contained different terminal deletions of chromosome 5. An analysis of the breakpoints of these deletions has demonstrated that the DHFR gene resides in the q11..-->..q22 region.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene encoding fatty acid reductase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1993-02-26

    The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (EMBL Accession No. 65156) encoding fatty acid reductase (FAR) of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the encoded amino acid sequence deduced. The fatty acid reductase is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex. The complex is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde which serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reaction. The protein comprises 478 amino acid residues and has a calculated M(r) of 53,858. Alignment and comparison of the fatty acid reductase of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio harveyi B392 and Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 shows that there is 70% and 59% amino acid residues identity, respectively.

  5. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Hu, Zhijuan; Yu, Liyan; Ma, Zhongjun; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the EtOAc extract of the persistent calyx of Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (PA) was tested for its potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate using an UPLC-ESI-MS method. The result revealed that the PA had electrophiles that could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, three new withanolides, compounds 3, 6 and 7, together with four known withanolides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from PA extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including (1)H-, (13)C NMR (DEPT), and 2D-NMR (HMBC, HMQC, (1)H, (1)H-COSY, NOESY) experiments, as well as by HR-MS. All the seven compounds were tested for their QR induction activities towards mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells.

  6. Molecular characterization of nosRZDFYLX genes coding for denitrifying nitrous oxide reductase of Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Leonardo; Mesa, Socorro; Xu, Chang-Ai; Delgado, María J; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2004-04-01

    The nosRZDFYLX gene cluster for the respiratory nitrous oxide reductase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain USDA110 has been cloned and sequenced. Seven protein coding regions corresponding to nosR, nosZ, the structural gene, nosD, nosF, nosY, nosL, and nosX were detected. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited a high degree of similarity to other nitrous oxide reductases from various sources. The NosZ protein included a signal peptide for protein export. Mutant strains carrying either a nosZ or a nosR mutation accumulated nitrous oxide when cultured microaerobically in the presence of nitrate. Maximal expression of a P nosZ-lacZ fusion in strain USDA110 required simultaneously both low level oxygen conditions and the presence of nitrate. Microaerobic activation of the fusion required FixLJ and FixK(2).

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii.

    PubMed Central

    Booker, S; Stubbe, J

    1993-01-01

    Ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (RTPR, EC 1.17.4.2) from Lactobacillus leichmannii, a monomeric adenosylcobalamin-requiring enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleoside triphosphates. The gene for this enzyme has been cloned and sequenced. In contrast to expectations based on mechanistic considerations, there is no statistically significant sequence homology with the Escherichia coli reductase that requires a dinuclear-iron center and tyrosyl radical cofactor. The RTPR has been overexpressed and purified to homogeneity, yielding 90 mg of protein from 2.5 g of bacteria. Initial characterization of the recombinant RTPR indicates that its properties are identical to those of the RTPR isolated from L. leichmannii. PMID:8397403

  8. Crystal Structure of ChrR -- A Quinone Reductase with the Capacity to Reduce Chromate

    SciTech Connect

    Eswaramoorthy S.; Poulain, S.; Hienerwadel, R.; Bremond, N.; Sylvester, M. D.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Berthomieu, C.; van der Lelie, D.; Matin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Escherichia coli ChrR enzyme is an obligatory two-electron quinone reductase that has many applications, such as in chromate bioremediation. Its crystal structure, solved at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, shows that it belongs to the flavodoxin superfamily in which flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is firmly anchored to the protein. ChrR crystallized as a tetramer, and size exclusion chromatography showed that this is the oligomeric form that catalyzes chromate reduction. Within the tetramer, the dimers interact by a pair of two hydrogen bond networks, each involving Tyr128 and Glu146 of one dimer and Arg125 and Tyr85 of the other; the latter extends to one of the redox FMN cofactors. Changes in each of these amino acids enhanced chromate reductase activity of the enzyme, showing that this network is centrally involved in chromate reduction.

  9. Biphasic Kinetic Behavior of Nitrate Reductase from Heterocystous, Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Nieto, José; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity from filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria showed a biphasic kinetic behavior with respect to nitrate as the variable substrate. Two kinetic components were detected, the first showing a higher affinity for nitrate (Km, 0.05-0.25 mm) and a lower catalytic activity and the second showing a lower affinity for nitrate (Km, 5-25 mm) and a higher (3- to 5-fold) catalytic activity. In contrast, among unicellular cyanobacteria, most representatives studied exhibited a monophasic, Michaelis-Menten kinetic pattern for nitrate reductase activity. Biphasic kinetics remained unchanged with the use of different assay conditions (i.e. cell disruption or permeabilization, two different electron donors) or throughout partial purification of the enzyme. PMID:16652939

  10. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis pubescens L. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Long; Yuan, Yonglei; Ma, Zhongjun; Chen, Zhe; Gan, Lishe; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Huang, Dongsheng

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Physalis pubescens L. (DEPP) had weak potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity, but an UPLC-ESI-MS method with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate revealed that the DEPP had electrophiles (with an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety). These electrophiles could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, four withanolides, including three new compounds physapubescin B (2), physapubescin C (3), physapubescin D (4), together with one known steroidal compound physapubescin (1) were isolated. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis and that of physapubescin C (3) was confirmed by a combination of molecular modeling and quantum chemical DFT-GIAO calculations. Evaluation of the QR inducing activities of all withanolides indicated potent activities of compounds 1 and 2, which had a common α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety.

  11. A qualitative and quantitative cytochemical assay of dihydrofolate reductase in erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Nano, R; Gerzeli, G; Invernizzi, R; Supino, R

    1989-01-01

    The distribution and intensity of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cytochemically demonstrable was studied in erythroid cells. Cells of normal human bone marrow, of human erythroleukaemia (M6), and cells of the Friend (MEL) clone 745A murine erythroleukaemia (also after differentiation with dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO) were stained according to Gerzeli and de Piceis Polver (1969) technique; quantification of the reaction product was made using a Vickers M86 microdensitometer. The enzyme activity progressively decreased during the normal differentiation of the erythropoietic series while persisted at high levels in erythroleukaemia cells. It can be suggested that in the 1st case, the cytochemical pattern of dihydrofolate reductase may be a useful added tool for studying the erythroid differentiation. In the 2nd case, the increased level of this enzyme may be related to an amplification of the gene of DHFR in the malignant transformation.

  12. Structure-based design of pteridine reductase inhibitors targeting African sleeping sickness and the leishmaniases.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Lindsay B; Martini, Viviane P; Iulek, Jorge; Huggan, Judith K; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Gibson, Colin L; Smith, Terry K; Suckling, Colin J; Hunter, William N

    2010-01-14

    Pteridine reductase (PTR1) is a target for drug development against Trypanosoma and Leishmania species, parasites that cause serious tropical diseases and for which therapies are inadequate. We adopted a structure-based approach to the design of novel PTR1 inhibitors based on three molecular scaffolds. A series of compounds, most newly synthesized, were identified as inhibitors with PTR1-species specific properties explained by structural differences between the T. brucei and L. major enzymes. The most potent inhibitors target T. brucei PTR1, and two compounds displayed antiparasite activity against the bloodstream form of the parasite. PTR1 contributes to antifolate drug resistance by providing a molecular bypass of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibition. Therefore, combining PTR1 and DHFR inhibitors might improve therapeutic efficacy. We tested two new compounds with known DHFR inhibitors. A synergistic effect was observed for one particular combination highlighting the potential of such an approach for treatment of African sleeping sickness.

  13. Crystal Structure of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-Phosphosulfate Reductase Complexed With Adenosine 3',5'-Bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Z.; Lemongello, D.; Segel, I.H.; Fisher, A.J.

    2009-05-28

    Most assimilatory bacteria, fungi, and plants species reduce sulfate (in the activated form of APS or PAPS) to produce reduced sulfur. In yeast, PAPS reductase reduces PAPS to sulfite and PAP. Despite the difference in substrate specificity and catalytic cofactor, PAPS reductase is homologous to APS reductase in both sequence and structure, and they are suggested to share the same catalytic mechanism. Metazoans do not possess the sulfate reduction pathway, which makes APS/PAPS reductases potential drug targets for human pathogens. Here, we present the 2.05 A resolution crystal structure of the yeast PAPS reductase binary complex with product PAP bound. The N-terminal region mediates dimeric interactions resulting in a unique homodimer assembly not seen in previous APS/PAPS reductase structures. The 'pyrophosphate-binding' sequence (47)TTAFGLTG(54) defines the substrate 3'-phosphate binding pocket. In yeast, Gly54 replaces a conserved aspartate found in APS reductases vacating space and charge to accommodate the 3'-phosphate of PAPS, thus regulating substrate specificity. Also, for the first time, the complete C-terminal catalytic motif (244)ECGIH(248) is revealed in the active site. The catalytic residue Cys245 is ideally positioned for an in-line attack on the beta-sulfate of PAPS. In addition, the side chain of His248 is only 4.2 A from the Sgamma of Cys245 and may serve as a catalytic base to deprotonate the active site cysteine. A hydrophobic sequence (252)RFAQFL(257) at the end of the C-terminus may provide anchoring interactions preventing the tail from swinging away from the active site as seen in other APS/PAPS reductases.

  14. A conservative region of the mercuric reductase gene (mera) as a molecular marker of bacterial mercury resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sotero-Martins, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Lacerda, Michele; Moreira, Josino Costa; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    The most common bacterial mercury resistance mechanism is based on the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg0, which is dependent of the mercuric reductase enzyme (MerA) activity. The use of a 431 bp fragment of a conservative region of the mercuric reductase (merA) gene was applied as a molecular marker of this mechanism, allowing the identification of mercury resistant bacterial strains. PMID:24031221

  15. Isolation and characterization of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (FeLAR) and anthocyanidin reductase (FeANR) in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Katsuhiro; Hisano, Tomomi; Yasui, Yasuo; Mori, Masashi; Walker, Amanda R; Morishita, Toshikazu; Katsu, Kenjiro

    2016-10-20

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a major group of flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, however the pathway has not been fully characterized in buckwheat. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) are involved in the last steps of PA biosynthesis. To isolate the genes for these enzymes from buckwheat we performed PCR using degenerate primers and obtained cDNAs of ANR and LAR, which we designated FeANR and FeLAR1. A search for homologs in a buckwheat genome database with both sequences returned two more LAR sequences, designated FeLAR2 and FeLAR3. Linkage analysis with an F2 segregating population indicated that the three LAR loci were not genetically linked. We detected high levels of PAs in roots and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings and in buds and flowers of mature plants. FeANR and FeLAR1-3 were expressed in most organs but had different expression patterns. Our findings would be useful for breeding and further analysis of PA synthesis and its regulation in buckwheat.

  16. Separation and distribution of thiosulfate-oxidizing enzyme, tetrathionate reductase, and thiosulfate reductase in extracts of marine heterotroph strain 16B.

    PubMed

    Whited, G M; Tuttle, J H

    1983-11-01

    Thiosulfate-oxidizing enzyme (TSO), tetrathionate reductase (TTR), and thiosulfate reductase (TSR) were demonstrated in cell-free extracts of the marine heterotrophic thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium strain 16B. Extracts prepared from cells cultured aerobically in the absence of thiosulfate or tetrathionate exhibited constitutive TSO and TTR activity which resided in the soluble fraction of ultracentrifuged crude extracts. Constitutive TSO and TTR cochromatographed on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, Cellex D, Sephadex G-150, and orange A dye-ligand affinity gels. Extracts prepared from cells cultured anaerobically with tetrathionate or aerobically with thiosulfate followed by oxygen deprivation showed an 11- to 30-fold increase in TTR activity, with no increase in TSO activity. The inducible TTR resided in both the ultracentrifuge pellet and supernatant fractions and was readily separated from constitutive TSO and TTR in the latter by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography. Inducible TTR exhibited TSR activity, which was also located in both membrane and soluble extract fractions and which cochromatographed with inducible TTR. The results indicate that constitutive TSO and TTR in marine heterotroph 16B represent reverse activities of the same enzyme whose major physiological function is thiosulfate oxidation. Evidence is also presented which suggests a possible association of inducible TTR and TSR in strain 16B.

  17. Gene expression of monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase during fruit ripening and in response to environmental stresses in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    PubMed

    Eltelib, Hani A; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2011-04-15

    Acerola (Malpighia glabra) is an exotic fruit cultivated primarily for its abundant ascorbic acid (AsA) content. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the metabolism of AsA in acerola have yet to be defined. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are key enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain reduced pools of ascorbic acid and serve as important antioxidants. cDNAs encoding MDHAR and DHAR were isolated from acerola using RT-PCR and RACE. Phylogenetic trees associated acerola MDHAR and DHAR with other plant cytosolic MDHARs and DHARs. Expressions of the two genes correlated with their enzymatic activities and were differentially regulated during fruit ripening. Interestingly, MDHAR expression was only detected in overripe fruits, whereas the transcript level of DHAR was highest at the intermediate stage of fruit ripening. Under dark conditions, there was a sharp and significant decline in the total and reduced ascorbate contents, accompanied by a decrease in the level of transcripts and enzyme activities of the two genes in acerola leaves. MDHAR and DHAR transcripts and enzyme activities were significantly up-regulated in the leaves of acerola under cold and salt stress conditions, indicating that expression of both genes are transcriptionally regulated under these stresses.

  18. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Tea cDNA Encoding Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase Induces Early Flowering and Provides Biotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Nadda, Gireesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Flavan-3-ols contribute significantly to flavonoid content of tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) are known to be key regulatory enzymes of flavan-3-ols biosynthesis. In this study, we have generated the transgenic tobacco overexpressing individually tea cDNA CsDFR and CsANR encoding for DFR and ANR to evaluate their influence on developmental and protective abilities of plant against biotic stress. The transgenic lines of CsDFR and CsANR produced early flowering and better seed yield. Both types of transgenic tobacco showed higher content of flavonoids than control. Flavan-3-ols such as catechin, epicatechin and epicatechingallate were found to be increased in transgenic lines. The free radical scavenging activity of CsDFR and CsANR transgenic lines was improved. Oxidative stress was observed to induce lesser cell death in transgenic lines compared to control tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing CsDFR and CsANR also showed resistance against infestation by a tobacco leaf cutworm Spodoptera litura. Results suggested that the overexpression of CsDFR and CsANR cDNA in tobacco has improved flavonoids content and antioxidant potential. These attributes in transgenic tobacco have ultimately improved their growth and development, and biotic stress tolerance. PMID:23823500

  19. Nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase expression and activity in response to different nitrogen sources in nitrogen-starved wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Balotf, Sadegh; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Kholdebarin, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and activity of nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.7.1.1), nitrite reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.2.2), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) in response to potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, and ammonium nitrate in nitrogen-starved wheat seedlings. Plants were grown in standard nutrient solution for 17 days and then subjected to nitrogen starvation for 7 days. The starved plants were supplied with potassium nitrate ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride (50 mM) for 4 days and the leaves were harvested. The relative expression of NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT as well as the enzyme activities were investigated. Nitrogen starvation caused a significant decrease both in transcript levels and in NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities. Potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate treatments restored NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT expressions and activities. Ammonium chloride increased only the expressions and activities of GS and GOGAT in a dose-dependent manner. The results of our study highlight the differential effects between the type and the amount of nitrogen salts on NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities in wheat seedlings while potassium nitrate being more effective.

  20. Phenotypic classification of male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnecker, G.H.G; Hiort, O.; Kruse, K.; Dibbelt, L.

    1996-05-03

    Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5{alpha}-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause masculinization defects of varying degree. The classical syndrome, formerly described as pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, is characterized by a predominantly female phenotype at birth and significant virilization without gynecomastia at puberty. We investigated nine patients with steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency (SRD). T/DHT-ratios were highly increased in the classical syndrome, but variable in the less severe affected patients. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene had been characterized using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. A small deletion was encountered in two patients, while all other patients had single base mutations which result in amino acid substitutions. We conclude that phenotypes may vary widely in patients with SRD5A2 gene mutations spanning the whole range from completely female to normal male without distinctive clinical signs of the disease. Hence, steroid 5{alpha}-reductase deficiency should be considered not only in sex reversed patients with female or ambiguous phenotypes, but also in those with mild symptoms of undermasculinization as encountered in patients with hypospadias and/or micropenis. A classification based on the severity of the masculinization defect may be used for correlation of phenotypes with enzyme activities and genotypes, and for comparisons of phenotypes between different patients as the basis for clinical decisions to be made in patients with pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5{alpha}-reductase 2 deficiency. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Dihydrofolate reductase as a model for studies of enzyme dynamics and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR) serves as a model system for investigating the role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis. We discuss calculations predicting a network of dynamic motions that is coupled to the chemical step catalyzed by this enzyme. Kinetic studies testing these predictions are presented, and their potential use in better understanding the role of these dynamics in enzyme catalysis is considered. The cumulative results implicate motions across the entire protein in catalysis. PMID:26918149

  2. Molecular modeling toward selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Juliana O S; Mancini, Daiana T; Guimarães, Ana P; Gonçalves, Arlan S; da Cunha, Elaine F F; França, Tanos C C; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2015-02-16

    In the present work, we applied docking and molecular dynamics techniques to study 11 compounds inside the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from the biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis (BaDHFR) and Homo sapiens sapiens (HssDHFR). Six of these compounds were selected for a study with the mutant BaF96IDHFR. Our results corroborated with experimental data and allowed the proposition of a new molecule with potential activity and better selectivity for BaDHFR.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of acetophenone reductase from Geotrichum candidum NBRC 4597

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Yosuke; Senda, Miki; Senda, Toshiya; Matsuda, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Acetophenone reductase (APRD) from Geotrichum candidium NBRC 4597 was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The crystal belonged to space group P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.5, c = 273.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. Phasing using the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method was successful. Model building and crystallographic refinement are in progress. PMID:25760708

  4. Covalent Adducts Between Thioredoxin Reductase and Endogenous Electrophiles in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    S, Lee S-R, Rhee SG. Identification of proteins containing cysteine residues that are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide at neutral pH. Anal. Biochem...of chemoprevention trials utilizing agents such as NSAIDs, selenium supplements, inducers of Phase 2 detoxification enzymes such as curcumin , and...metabolite, LTA4, the lipid peroxidation combination of a C-terminal thioredoxin product, 4-HNE, and a quinone metabolite of reductase mutant and small

  5. Regulation of schistosome egg production by HMG CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    VandeWaa, E.A.; Bennett, J.L.

    1986-03-05

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate in the synthesis of steroids, isoprenoids and terpenes. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreased egg production in Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro incubations. This was associated with a reduction in the incorporation of /sup 14/C-acetate into polyisoprenoids and a reduction in the formation of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide. In vivo, mevinolin in daily doses of 50 mg/kg (p.o., from days 30-48 post-infection) caused no change in gross liver pathology in S. mansoni infected mice. However, when parasites exposed to mevinolin or its vehicle in vivo were cultured in vitro, worms from mevinolin-treated mice produced six times more eggs than control parasites. When infected mice were dosed with 250 mg/kg mevinolin daily (p.o., from days 35-45 post-infection), liver pathology was reduced in comparison to control mice. Thus, during in vivo exposure to a high dose of the drug egg production is decreased, while at a lower dose it appears unaffected until the parasites are cultured in a drug-free in vitro system wherein egg production is stimulated to extraordinarily high levels. It may be that at low doses mevinolin, by inhibiting the enzyme, is blocking the formation of a product (such as an isoprenoid) which normally acts to down-regulate enzyme synthesis, resulting in enzyme induction. Induction of HMG CoA reductase is then expressed as increased egg production when the worms are removed from the drug. These data suggest that HMG CoA reductase plays a role in schistosome egg production.

  6. The stability of the three transmembrane and the four transmembrane human vitamin K epoxide reductase models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2016-04-01

    The three transmembrane and the four transmembrane helix models are suggested for human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). In this study, we investigate the stability of the human three transmembrane/four transmembrane VKOR models by employing a coarse-grained normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. Based on the analysis of the mobility of each transmembrane domain, we suggest that the three transmembrane human VKOR model is more stable than the four transmembrane human VKOR model.

  7. Interactions of Methylene Blue with Human Disulfide Reductases and Their Orthologues from Plasmodium falciparum▿

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Kathrin; Schirmer, R. Heiner; Eubel, Jana K.; Akoachere, Monique B.; Dandekar, Thomas; Becker, Katja; Gromer, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) has experienced a renaissance mainly as a component of drug combinations against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we report biochemically relevant pharmacological data on MB such as rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction of MB at pH 7.4 with cellular reductants like NAD(P)H (k = 4 M−1 s−1), thioredoxins (k = 8.5 to 26 M−1 s−1), dihydrolipoamide (k = 53 M−1 s−1), and slowly reacting glutathione. As the disulfide reductases are prominent targets of MB, optical tests for enzymes reducing MB at the expense of NAD(P)H under aerobic conditions were developed. The product leucomethylene blue (leucoMB) is auto-oxidized back to MB at pH 7 but can be stabilized by enzymes at pH 5.0, which makes this colorless compound an interesting drug candidate. MB was found to be an inhibitor and/or a redox-cycling substrate of mammalian and P. falciparum disulfide reductases, with the kcat values ranging from 0.03 s−1 to 10 s−1 at 25°C. Kinetic spectroscopy of mutagenized glutathione reductase indicates that MB reduction is conducted by enzyme-bound reduced flavin rather than by the active-site dithiol Cys58/Cys63. The enzyme-catalyzed reduction of MB and subsequent auto-oxidation of the product leucoMB mean that MB is a redox-cycling agent which produces H2O2 at the expense of O2 and of NAD(P)H in each cycle, turning the antioxidant disulfide reductases into pro-oxidant enzymes. This explains the terms subversive substrate or turncoat inhibitor for MB. The results are discussed in cell-pathological and clinical contexts. PMID:17967916

  8. Physiological Roles for Two Periplasmic Nitrate Reductases in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.3 (ATCC 17025)▿

    PubMed Central

    Hartsock, Angela; Shapleigh, James P.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolically versatile purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.3 is a denitrifier whose genome contains two periplasmic nitrate reductase-encoding gene clusters. This work demonstrates nonredundant physiological roles for these two enzymes. One cluster is expressed aerobically and repressed under low oxygen while the second is maximally expressed under low oxygen. Insertional inactivation of the aerobically expressed nitrate reductase eliminated aerobic nitrate reduction, but cells of this strain could still respire nitrate anaerobically. In contrast, when the anaerobic nitrate reductase was absent, aerobic nitrate reduction was detectable, but anaerobic nitrate reduction was impaired. The aerobic nitrate reductase was expressed but not utilized in liquid culture but was utilized during growth on solid medium. Growth on a variety of carbon sources, with the exception of malate, the most oxidized substrate used, resulted in nitrite production on solid medium. This is consistent with a role for the aerobic nitrate reductase in redox homeostasis. These results show that one of the nitrate reductases is specific for respiration and denitrification while the other likely plays a role in redox homeostasis during aerobic growth. PMID:21949073

  9. Short- and long-term regulation of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase by a 4-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Simeoni, Veronica; Balducci, Valentina; Dhawan, Ashish; Parmar, Virinder S; Prasad, Ashok K; Saso, Luciano; Incerpi, Sandra; Pallottini, Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the most significant risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by both the receptor-mediated endocytosis of Low Density Lipoproteins by LDL receptors and de novo cholesterol synthesis via the rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Although statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase substrate competitors, have revolutionized the management of cardiovascular diseases by lowering serum LDL, their side effects range from myalgia to rhabdomyolysis. Treatment with antioxidant compounds could represent an efficient alternative in the modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity. Indeed it has already been demonstrated that the rise in reactive oxygen species levels causes the complete dephosphorylation and, in turn activation of the enzyme. Many coumarins and their derivatives have the special ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species or show a lipid lowering potential. Here we evaluated whether the coumarin, 4-methylesculetin could exert both the ability to scavenge ROS and to modulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in HepG2 cell line where the enzyme activity dysregulation induced by reactive oxygen species has already been reported. The antioxidant property of 4-methylesculetin led to the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activation state through the increase of the enzyme phosphorylation. In addition, this coumarin showed the ability to modulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein levels both by transcriptional and degradational events independent of its antioxidant activity.

  10. Self-organizing molecular field analysis on pregnane derivatives as human steroidal 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Thareja, Suresh; Bhardwaj, Tilak Raj; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Normal growth and development of human prostate is regulated by the androgens which balances cell proliferation and apoptosis. Testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are the two key androgens that stimulate most of the androgen action in prostate. Testosterone is converted to DHT by the membrane bound NADPH-dependent 5alpha-reductase enzyme. As a consequence of the important observation that progesterone and deoxycortisone inhibits the synthesis of DHT by competing with 4-en-3-one function of the testosterone for the 5alpha-reductase enzyme a number of pregnane derivatives were synthesized and have been reported as inhibitors of human 5alpha-reductase enzyme. Due to lack of information on the crystal structure of human 5alpha-reductase, ligand-based 3D-QSAR study has been performed on pregnane derivatives using self-organizing molecular field analysis (SOMFA) for rationalizing the molecular properties and human 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities. The statistical results having good cross-validated r(cv)(2) (0.881), non-cross-validated r(2) (0.893) and F-test value (175.527), showed satisfied predictive ability r(pred)(2) (0.777). Analysis of SOMFA models through electrostatic and shape grids provide useful information for the design and optimization of steroidal structure as novel human 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.

  11. Chronic Exercise Downregulates Myocardial Myoglobin and Attenuates Nitrite Reductase Capacity During Ischemia-Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Chad K.; Lambert, Jonathan P.; Chow, Chi-Wing; Lefer, David J.; Calvert, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The infarct sparing effects of exercise are evident following both long-term and short-term training regimens. Here we compared the infarct-lowering effects of nitrite therapy, voluntary exercise, and the combination of both following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury. We also compared the degree to which each strategy increased cardiac nitrite levels, as well as the effects of each strategy on the nitrite reductase activity of the heart. Methods and Results Mice subjected to voluntary wheel running (VE) for 4 weeks displayed an 18% reduction in infarct size when compared to sedentary mice, whereas mice administered nitrite therapy (25 mg/L in drinking water) showed a 53% decrease. However, the combination of VE and nitrite exhibited no further protection than VE alone. Although the VE and nitrite therapy mice showed similar nitrite levels in the heart, cardiac nitrite reductase activity was significantly reduced in the VE mice. Additionally, the cardiac protein expression of myoglobin, a known nitrite reductase, was also reduced after VE. Further studies revealed that cardiac NFAT activity was lower after VE due to a decrease in calcineurin activity and an increase in GSK3β activity. Conclusion These data suggest that VE downregulates cardiac myoglobin levels by inhibiting calcineurin/NFAT signaling. Additionally, these results suggest that the modest infarct sparing effects of VE are the result of a decrease in the hearts ability to reduce nitrite to nitric oxide during MI/R. PMID:23962643

  12. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity. PMID:26635848

  13. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  14. Molybdate-dependent expression of the periplasmic nitrate reductase in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Bonnard, N; Tresierra-Ayala, A; Bedmar, E J; Delgado, M J

    2005-02-01

    The napEDABC genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum encode the periplasmic nitrate reductase, an Mo-containing enzyme which catalyses the reduction of nitrate to nitrite when oxygen concentrations are limiting. In this bacterium, another set of genes, modABC, code for a high affinity ABC-type Mo transport system. A B. japonicum modA mutant has been obtained that is not capable of growing anaerobically with nitrate and lacks nitrate reductase activity. Under nitrate respiring conditions, when Mo concentrations are limiting, the B. japonicum modA mutant lacked both the 90 kDa protein corresponding to the NapA component of the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and the membrane-bound 25 kDa c-type cytochrome NapC. Regulatory studies using a napE-lacZ fusion indicated that napE expression was highly reduced in the modA mutant background when the cells were incubated anaerobically with nitrate under Mo-deficient conditions.

  15. Bacterial chromate reductase, a potential enzyme for bioremediation of hexavalent chromium: a review.

    PubMed

    Thatoi, Hrudayanath; Das, Sasmita; Mishra, Jigni; Rath, Bhagwat Prasad; Das, Nigamananda

    2014-12-15

    Hexavalent chromium is mobile, highly toxic and considered as a priority environmental pollutant. Chromate reductases, found in chromium resistant bacteria are known to catalyse the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and have recently received particular attention for their potential use in bioremediation process. Different chromate reductases such as ChrR, YieF, NemA and LpDH, have been identified from bacterial sources which are located either in soluble fractions (cytoplasm) or bound to the membrane of the bacterial cell. The reducing conditions under which these enzymes are functional can either be aerobic or anaerobic or sometimes both. Enzymatic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) involves transfer of electrons from electron donors like NAD(P)H to Cr(VI) and simultaneous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on the steps involved in electron transfer to Cr(VI) and the subsequent amount of ROS generated, two reaction mechanisms, namely, Class I "tight" and Class II "semi tight" have been proposed. The present review discusses on the types of chromate reductases found in different bacteria, their mode of action and potential applications in bioremediation of hexavalent chromium both under free and immobilize conditions. Besides, techniques used in characterization of the Cr (VI) reduced products were also discussed.

  16. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  17. The purification and properties of a cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase from Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Cronin, S.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans, grown anaerobically in the presence of nitrite, contained membrane and cytoplasmic nitrite reductases. When assayed in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, the membrane-bound enzyme produced nitrous oxide whereas the cytoplasmic enzyme produced nitric oxide. When both enzymes were assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite, the cytoplasmic enzyme produced ammonia. Following solubilization, the membrane-bound enzyme behaved like the cytoplasmic enzyme, producing nitric oxide in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, and ammonia when assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite. The cytoplasmic and membrane-bound enzymes were purified to essentially the same specific activity. Only a single nitrite-reductase activity was detected on electrophoretic gels and the electrophoretic behavior of both enzymes suggested they were identical. The spectral properties of both enzymes suggested they were cd-type cytochromes. These data suggest that the products of nitrite reduction by the cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase are determined by the location of the enzyme and the redox potential of the electron donor.

  18. The partial characterization of purified nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine oxidase from Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, G. A. F.; Nicholas, D. J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Nitrite reductase has been separated from cell-free extracts of Nitrosomonas and partially purified from hydroxylamine oxidase by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. In its oxidized state the enzyme, which did not contain haem, had an extinction maximum at 590nm, which was abolished on reduction. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a potent inhibitor of nitrite reductase. Enzyme activity was stimulated 2.5-fold when remixed with hydroxylamine oxidase, but was unaffected by mammalian cytochrome c. The enzyme also exhibited a low hydroxylamine-dependent nitrite reductase activity. The results suggest that this enzyme is similar to the copper-containing `denitrifying enzyme' of Pseudomonas denitrificans. A dithionite-reduced, 465nm-absorbing haemoprotein was associated with homogeneous preparations of hydroxylamine oxidase. The band at 465nm maximum was not reduced during the oxidation of hydroxylamine although the extinction was abolished on addition of hydroxylamine, NO2− or CO. These last-named compounds when added to the oxidized enzyme precluded the appearance of the 465nm-absorption band on addition of dithionite. Several properties of 465nm-absorbing haemoprotein are described. PMID:4154745

  19. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  20. Atomic structure of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-02-25

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of ∼1.9 Å in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large "flap"-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  1. Photosystem I cyclic electron transport: Measurement of ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Cleland, R E; Bendall, D S

    1992-12-01

    Absorbance changes of ferredoxin measured at 463 nm in isolated thylakoids were shown to arise from the activity of the enzyme ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase (FQR) in cyclic electron transport. Under anaerobic conditions in the presence of DCMU and an appropriate concentration of reduced ferredoxin, a light-induced absorbance decrease due to further reduction of Fd was assigned to the oxidation of the other components in the cyclic pathway, primarily plastoquinone. When the light was turned off, Fd was reoxidised and this gave a direct quantitative measurement of the rate of cyclic electron transport due to the activity of FQR. This activity was sensitive to the classical inhibitor of cyclic electron transport, antimycin, and also to J820 and DBMIB. Antimycin had no effect on Fd reduction although this was inhibited by stigmatellin. This provides further evidence that there is a quinone reduction site outside the cytochrome bf complex. The effect of inhibitors of ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase and experiments involving the modification of ferredoxin suggest that there may be some role for the reductase as a component of FQR. Contrary to expectations, NADPH2 inhibited FQR activity; ATP and ADP had no effect.

  2. The purification and properties of a cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase from Paracoccus halodenitrificans.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, R L; Cronin, S; Hochstein, L I

    1986-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans, grown anaerobically in the presence of nitrite, contained membrane and cytoplasmic nitrite reductases. When assayed in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, the membrane-bound enzyme produced nitrous oxide whereas the cytoplasmic enzyme produced nitric oxide. When both enzymes were assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite, the cytoplasmic enzyme produced ammonia. Following solubilization, the membrane-bound enzyme behaved like the cytoplasmic enzyme, producing nitric oxide in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, and ammonia when assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite. The cytoplasmic and membrane-bound enzymes were purified to essentially the same specific activity. Only a single nitrite-reductase activity was detected on electrophoretic gels and the electrophoretic behavior of both enzymes suggested they were identical. The spectral properties of both enzymes suggested they were cd-type cytochromes. These data suggest that the products of nitrite reduction by the cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase are determined by the location of the enzyme and the redox potential of the electron donor.

  3. Increased reactive oxygen species production during reductive stress: The roles of mitochondrial glutathione and thioredoxin reductases.

    PubMed

    Korge, Paavo; Calmettes, Guillaume; Weiss, James N

    2015-01-01

    Both extremes of redox balance are known to cause cardiac injury, with mounting evidence revealing that the injury induced by both oxidative and reductive stress is oxidative in nature. During reductive stress, when electron acceptors are expected to be mostly reduced, some redox proteins can donate electrons to O2 instead, which increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the high level of reducing equivalents also concomitantly enhances ROS scavenging systems involving redox couples such as NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG. Here our objective was to explore how reductive stress paradoxically increases net mitochondrial ROS production despite the concomitant enhancement of ROS scavenging systems. Using recombinant enzymes and isolated permeabilized cardiac mitochondria, we show that two normally antioxidant matrix NADPH reductases, glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase, generate H2O2 by leaking electrons from their reduced flavoprotein to O2 when electron flow is impaired by inhibitors or because of limited availability of their natural electron acceptors, GSSG and oxidized thioredoxin. The spillover of H2O2 under these conditions depends on H2O2 reduction by peroxiredoxin activity, which may regulate redox signaling in response to endogenous or exogenous factors. These findings may explain how ROS production during reductive stress overwhelms ROS scavenging capability, generating the net mitochondrial ROS spillover causing oxidative injury. These enzymes could potentially be targeted to increase cancer cell death or modulate H2O2-induced redox signaling to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion damage.

  4. Functional significance of evolving protein sequence in dihydrofolate reductase from bacteria to humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Tony; Hanoian, Philip; French, Jarrod B; Pringle, Thomas H; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2013-06-18

    With the rapidly growing wealth of genomic data, experimental inquiries on the functional significance of important divergence sites in protein evolution are becoming more accessible. Here we trace the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and identify multiple key divergence sites among 233 species between humans and bacteria. We connect these sites, experimentally and computationally, to changes in the enzyme's binding properties and catalytic efficiency. One of the identified evolutionarily important sites is the N23PP modification (∼mid-Devonian, 415-385 Mya), which alters the conformational states of the active site loop in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase and negatively impacts catalysis. This enzyme activity was restored with the inclusion of an evolutionarily significant lid domain (G51PEKN in E. coli enzyme; ∼2.4 Gya). Guided by this evolutionary genomic analysis, we generated a human-like E. coli dihydrofolate reductase variant through three simple mutations despite only 26% sequence identity between native human and E. coli DHFRs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the overall conformational motions of the protein within a common scaffold are retained throughout evolution, although subtle changes to the equilibrium conformational sampling altered the free energy barrier of the enzymatic reaction in some cases. The data presented here provide a glimpse into the evolutionary trajectory of functional DHFR through its protein sequence space that lead to the diverged binding and catalytic properties of the E. coli and human enzymes.

  5. Asymmetric reduction of activated alkenes using an enoate reductase from Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Richter, Nina; Gröger, Harald; Hummel, Werner

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant enoate reductase from Gluconobacter oxydans was heterologously expressed, purified, characterised and applied in the asymmetric reduction of activated alkenes. In addition to the determination of the kinetic properties, the major focus of this work was to utilise the enzyme in the biotransformation of different interesting compounds such as 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1,4-dione (ketoisophorone) and (E/Z)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral). The reaction proceeded with excellent stereoselectivities (>99% ee) as well as absolute chemo- and regioselectivity, only the activated C=C bond of citral was reduced by the enoate reductase, while non-activated C=C bond and carbonyl moiety remained untouched. The described strategy can be used for the production of enantiomerically pure building blocks, which are difficult to prepare by chemical means. In general, the results show that the investigated enoate reductase is a promising catalyst for the use in asymmetric C=C bond reductions.

  6. NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Prototypic Member of the Diflavin Reductase Family

    PubMed Central

    Iyanagi, Takashi; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2012-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center of cytochrome P450 or NOS oxygenase domain. Structural analysis of CYPOR, the prototype of this enzyme family, has revealed the exact nature of the domain arrangement and the role of residues involved in cofactor binding. Recent structural and biophysical studies of CYPOR have shown that the two flavin domains undergo large domain movements during catalysis. NOS isoforms contain additional regulatory elements within the reductase domain that control electron transfer through Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding. The recent crystal structure of an iNOS Ca2+/CaM-FMN construct, containing the FMN domain in complex with Ca2+/CaM, provided structural information on the linkage between the reductase and oxgenase domains of NOS, making it possible to model the holo iNOS structure. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the dynamics of domain movements during CYPOR catalysis and the role of the NOS diflavin reductase domain in the regulation of NOS isozyme activities. PMID:22982532

  7. Evolution of the Ferric Reductase Domain (FRD) Superfamily: Modularity, Functional Diversification, and Signature Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Xenarios, Ioannis; Soldati, Thierry; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    A heme-containing transmembrane ferric reductase domain (FRD) is found in bacterial and eukaryotic protein families, including ferric reductases (FRE), and NADPH oxidases (NOX). The aim of this study was to understand the phylogeny of the FRD superfamily. Bacteria contain FRD proteins consisting only of the ferric reductase domain, such as YedZ and short bFRE proteins. Full length FRE and NOX enzymes are mostly found in eukaryotic cells and all possess a dehydrogenase domain, allowing them to catalyze electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular metal ions (FRE) or oxygen (NOX). Metazoa possess YedZ-related STEAP proteins, possibly derived from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analyses suggests that FRE enzymes appeared early in evolution, followed by a transition towards EF-hand containing NOX enzymes (NOX5- and DUOX-like). An ancestral gene of the NOX(1-4) family probably lost the EF-hands and new regulatory mechanisms of increasing complexity evolved in this clade. Two signature motifs were identified: NOX enzymes are distinguished from FRE enzymes through a four amino acid motif spanning from transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) to TM4, and YedZ/STEAP proteins are identified by the replacement of the first canonical heme-spanning histidine by a highly conserved arginine. The FRD superfamily most likely originated in bacteria. PMID:23505460

  8. Glutathione reductase gsr-1 is an essential gene required for Caenorhabditis elegans early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gaffney, Christopher J; Naranjo-Galindo, Francisco José; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Guerrero-Gómez, David; Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Askjaer, Peter; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Cabello, Juan; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant thiol in the vast majority of organisms and is maintained in its reduced form by the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase. In this work, we describe the genetic and functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans gsr-1 gene that encodes the only glutathione reductase protein in this model organism. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we demonstrate that gsr-1 produces two GSR-1 isoforms, one located in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. gsr-1 loss of function mutants display a fully penetrant embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by a progressive and robust cell division delay accompanied by an aberrant distribution of interphasic chromatin in the periphery of the cell nucleus. Maternally expressed GSR-1 is sufficient to support embryonic development but these animals are short-lived, sensitized to chemical stress, have increased mitochondrial fragmentation and lower mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, the embryonic lethality of gsr-1 worms is prevented by restoring GSR-1 activity in the cytoplasm but not in mitochondria. Given the fact that the thioredoxin redox systems are dispensable in C. elegans, our data support a prominent role of the glutathione reductase/glutathione pathway in maintaining redox homeostasis in the nematode.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis flavin reductase 1 and its role in metronidazole resistance.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, David; Janssen, Brian D; Kolarich, Daniel; Johnson, Patricia J; Duchêne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme flavin reductase 1 (FR1) from Trichomonas vaginalis, formerly known as NADPH oxidase, was isolated and identified. Flavin reductase is part of the antioxidative defence in T. vaginalis and indirectly reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide via free flavins. Importantly, a reduced or absent flavin reductase activity has been reported in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis, resulting in elevated intracellular oxygen levels and futile cycling of metronidazole. Interestingly, FR1 has no close homologue in any other sequenced genome, but seven full-length and three truncated isoforms exist in the T. vaginalis genome. However, out of these, only FR1 has an affinity for flavins, i.e. FMN, FAD and riboflavin, which is high enough to be of physiological relevance. Although there are no relevant changes in the gene sequence or any alterations of the predicted FR1-mRNA structure in any of the strains studied, FR1 is not expressed in highly metronidazole-resistant strains. Transfection of a metronidazole-resistant clinical isolate (B7268), which does not express any detectable amounts of FR, with a plasmid bearing a functional FR1 gene nearly completely restored metronidazole sensitivity. Our results indicate that FR1 has a significant role in the emergence of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis.

  10. Antioxidant and quinone reductase-inducing constituents of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruits.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Deng, Ye; Yuan, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Chai, Heebyung; Keller, William J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2012-11-21

    Using in vitro hydroxyl radical-scavenging and quinone reductase-inducing assays, bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the fruits of the botanical dietary supplement, black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), led to the isolation of 27 compounds, including a new depside, ethyl 2-[(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxy)-4,6-dihydroxyphenyl] acetate (1), along with 26 known compounds (2-27). The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by analysis of their physical and spectroscopic data ([α](D), NMR, IR, UV, and MS). Altogether, 17 compounds (1-4, 9, 15-17, and 19-27) showed significant antioxidant activity in the hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, with hyperin (24, ED(50) = 0.17 μM) being the most potent. The new compound (1, ED(50) = 0.44 μM) also exhibited potent antioxidant activity in this assay. Three constituents of black chokeberry fruits doubled quinone reductase activity at concentrations <20 μM, namely, protocatechuic acid [9, concentration required to double quinone reductase activity (CD) = 4.3 μM], neochlorogenic acid methyl ester (22, CD = 6.7 μM), and quercetin (23, CD = 3.1 μM).

  11. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  12. Molecular dissection of a putative iron reductase from Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Kim, David D.; Nelson, Ornella D.; Otwell, Anne E.; Richardson, Ruth E.; Callister, Stephen J.; Lin, Hening

    2015-01-01

    Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 is a Firmicute strain capable of reducing a variety of heavy metal ions and has a great potential in heavy metal bioremediation. We recently identified Dred_2421 as a potential iron reductase through proteomic study of D. reducens. The current study examines its iron-reduction mechanism. Dred_2421, like its close homolog from Escherichia coli (2, 4-dienoyl-CoA reductase), has an FMN-binding N-terminal domain (NTD), an FAD-binding C-terminal domain (CTD), and a 4Fe-4S cluster between the two domains. To understand the mechanism of the iron-reduction activity and the role of each domain, we generated a series of variants for each domain and investigated their iron-reduction activity. Our results suggest that CTD is the main contributor of the iron-reduction activity, and that NTD and the 4Fe-4S cluster are not directly involved in such activity. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the iron-reductase activity of Dred_2421 and may also help to elucidate other physiological activities this enzyme may have. PMID:26454174

  13. Molecular dissection of a putative iron reductase from Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Kim, David D; Nelson, Ornella D; Otwell, Anne E; Richardson, Ruth E; Callister, Stephen J; Lin, Hening

    2015-11-20

    Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 is a Firmicute strain capable of reducing a variety of heavy metal ions and has a great potential in heavy metal bioremediation. We recently identified Dred_2421 as a potential iron reductase through proteomic study of D. reducens. The current study examines its iron-reduction mechanism. Dred_2421, like its close homolog from Escherichia coli (2, 4-dienoyl-CoA reductase), has an FMN-binding N-terminal domain (NTD), an FAD-binding C-terminal domain (CTD), and a 4Fe-4S cluster between the two domains. To understand the mechanism of the iron-reduction activity and the role of each domain, we generated a series of variants for each domain and investigated their iron-reduction activity. Our results suggest that CTD is the main contributor of the iron-reduction activity, and that NTD and the 4Fe-4S cluster are not directly involved in such activity. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the iron-reductase activity of Dred_2421 and may also help to elucidate other physiological activities this enzyme may have.

  14. Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide reductases: from the last universal common ancestor to modern bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical gradient that ensues from the enzymatic activity of cytochromes such as nitrate reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and quinol oxidase contributes to the bioenergetics of the bacterial cell. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by bacterial pathogens can, however, be uncoupled from proton translocation and biosynthesis of ATP or NH4(+), but still linked to quinol and NADH oxidation. Ancestral nitric oxide reductases, as well as cytochrome c oxidases and quinol bo oxidases evolved from the former, are capable of binding and detoxifying nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. The NO-metabolizing activity associated with these cytochromes can be a sizable source of antinitrosative defense in bacteria during their associations with host cells. Nitrosylation of terminal cytochromes arrests respiration, reprograms bacterial metabolism, stimulates antioxidant defenses and alters antibiotic cytotoxicity. Collectively, the bioenergetics and regulation of redox homeostasis that accompanies the utilization of nitrogen oxides and detoxification of nitric oxide by cytochromes of the electron transport chain increases fitness of many Gram-positive and -negative pathogens during their associations with invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.

  15. Stereospecific micellar electrokinetic chromatography assay of methionine sulfoxide reductase activity employing a multiple layer coated capillary.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingfu; El-Mergawy, Rabab G; Heinemann, Stefan H; Schönherr, Roland; Jáč, Pavel; Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-09-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the analysis of the l-methionine sulfoxide diastereomers employing a successive multiple ionic-polymer layer coated fused-silica capillary was developed and validated in order to investigate the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases. The capillary coating consisted of a first layer of hexadimethrine and a second layer of dextran sulfate providing a stable strong cathodic EOF and consequently highly repeatable analyte migration times. The methionine sulfoxide diastereomers, methionine as product as well as β-alanine as internal standard were derivatized by dabsyl chloride and separated using a 35 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, containing 25 mM SDS as BGE and a separation voltage of 25 kV. The method was validated in the range of 0.15-2.0 mM with respect to linearity and precision. The LODs of the analytes ranged between 0.04 and 0.10 mM. The assay was subsequently applied to determine the stereospecificity of methionine sulfoxide reductases as well as the enzyme kinetics of human methionine sulfoxide reductase A. Monitoring the decrease of the l-methionine-(S)-sulfoxide Km = 411.8 ± 33.8 μM and Vmax = 307.5 ± 10.8 μM/min were determined.

  16. Overexpression of NADH-dependent fumarate reductase improves D-xylose fermentation in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Salusjärvi, Laura; Kaunisto, Sanna; Holmström, Sami; Vehkomäki, Maija-Leena; Koivuranta, Kari; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Deviation from optimal levels and ratios of redox cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H) is common when microbes are metabolically engineered. The resulting redox imbalance often reduces the rate of substrate utilization as well as biomass and product formation. An example is the metabolism of D-xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. This pathway requires both NADPH and NAD(+). The effect of overexpressing the glycosomal NADH-dependent fumarate reductase (FRD) of Trypanosoma brucei in D-xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae alone and together with an endogenous, cytosol directed NADH-kinase (POS5Δ17) was studied as one possible solution to overcome this imbalance. Expression of FRD and FRD + POS5Δ17 resulted in 60 and 23 % increase in ethanol yield, respectively, on D-xylose under anaerobic conditions. At the same time, xylitol yield decreased in the FRD strain suggesting an improvement in redox balance. We show that fumarate reductase of T. brucei can provide an important source of NAD(+) in yeast under anaerobic conditions, and can be useful for metabolic engineering strategies where the redox cofactors need to be balanced. The effects of FRD and NADH-kinase on aerobic and anaerobic D-xylose and D-glucose metabolism are discussed.

  17. Kinetic, spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adrenodoxin reductase homologue FprA.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Kirsty J; Scrutton, Nigel S; Munro, Andrew W

    2003-01-01

    The genome sequence of the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed numerous cytochrome P450 enzymes, which require accessory redox enzymes for catalytic function (ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin). The most likely ferredoxin reductase is encoded by fprA, and its structure resembles eukaryotic adrenodoxin reductases. We have cloned, expressed and purified the flavoenzyme product of the fprA gene in Escherichia coli. FprA reduces various electron acceptors using either NADPH or NADH as the electron donor, but discriminates in favour of NADPH (apparent K (m) for NADH=50.6+/-3.1 microM; NADPH=4.1+/-0.3 microM from ferricyanide reduction experiments). Stopped-flow studies of reduction of the FprA FAD by NADPH demonstrate increased flavin reduction rate at low NADPH concentration (<200 microM), consistent with the presence of a second, kinetically distinct and inhibitory, pyridine nucleotide-binding site, similar to that identified in human cytochrome P450 reductase [Gutierrez, Lian, Wolf, Scrutton and Roberts (2001) Biochemistry 40, 1964-1975]. Flavin reduction by NADH is slower than with NADPH and displays hyperbolic dependence on NADH concentration [maximal reduction rate ( k (red))=25.4+/-0.7 s(-1), apparent K (d)=42.9+/-4.6 microM]. Flavin reoxidation by molecular oxygen is more rapid for NADH-reduced enzyme. Reductive titrations show that the enzyme forms a species with spectral characteristics typical of a neutral (blue) FAD semiquinone only on reduction with NADPH, consistent with EPR studies. The second order dependence of semiquinone formation on the concentration of FprA indicates a disproportionation reaction involving oxidized and two-electron-reduced FprA. Titration of FprA with dithionite converts oxidized FAD into the hydroquinone form; the flavin semiquinone is not populated under these conditions. The midpoint reduction potential for the two electron couple is -235+/-5 mV (versus the normal hydrogen electrode), similar to that for

  18. Characterization of a New Type of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Present in Thermodesulfobacterium commune

    PubMed Central

    Hatchikian, E. C.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase, desulfofuscidin, was isolated from the nonsporeforming thermophilic sulfate-reducing microorganism Thermodesulfobacterium commune. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 167,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and the protein was pure by both disc electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. The bisulfite reductase was a tetramer and had two types of subunits with an α2β2 structure and an individual molecular weight of 47,000. The enzyme exhibited absorption maxima at 576, 389, and 279 nm, with a weak band at 693 nm. Upon the addition of dithionite, the absorption maxima at 576 and 693 nm were weakened, and a new band appeared at 605 nm. The protein reacted with CO in the presence of dithionite to give a complex with absorption peaks at 593, 548, and 395 nm. The extinction coefficients of the purified enzyme at 576, 389, and 279 nm were 89,000, 310,000, and 663,000 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Siroheme was detected as the prosthetic group. The protein contains 20 to 21 nonheme iron atoms and 16 to 17 acid-labile sulfur groups per molecule. The data suggest the presence of four sirohemes and probably four (4Fe-4S) centers per molecule by comparison with desulfoviridin, the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio species. The protein contains 36 cysteine residues and is high in acidic and aromatic amino acids. The N-terminal amino acids of the α and β subunits were threonine and serine, respectively. With reduced methyl viologen as electron donor, the major product of sulfite reduction was trithionate, and the pH optimum for activity was 6.0. The enzyme was stable to 70°C and denatured rapidly above this temperature. The dependence of T. commune bisulfite reductase activity on temperature was linear between 35 and 65°C, and the Q10 values observed were above 3. The presence of this new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase in T. commune is discussed in terms of taxonomic significance. PMID

  19. Utility of nitrate reductase assay for detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a low resource setting.

    PubMed

    López, Marcela; Alvarez, Claudia; Imaz, María Susana

    2011-06-01

    Introduction. The performance of a drug susceptibility test may change when moving from the research stage to implementation on a population level in actual public health practice. Objective. The performance of a rapid drug susceptibility test was described for detecting multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis when implemented in the routine workflow of a low-resource reference laboratory. Materials and methods. A prospective study was done comparing the performance of the nitrate reductase assay with the conventional proportion method for rifampicin and isoniazid on 364 isolates were obtained from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis risk patients referred from diffrent Colombian laboratories. Results. When compared with the proportion method, the nitrate reductase assay sensitivity was 86.8% and 84.9% for rifampicin and isoniazid, respectively, whereas nitrate reductase assay specificity was 100% for isoniazid and rifampicin. Nitrate reductase assay sensitivity was significantly higher when the age of isolate was less than 70 days. A sensitivity of 94.4% dropped to 78.1% for rifampicin resistance for fresh and old isolates, respectively (Fisher exact test, p=0.05). For isoniazid resistance using fresh and old isolates, 94.7% vs.74.3% sensitivities, were achieved (chi square test, p=0.03). The proportion of nitrate reductase assay ambiguous results was significantly higher in multidrug-resistant than in non-multidrug-resistant isolates (17.6% vs. 4.0%, chi square test, p<0.005). Conclusions. The nitrate reductase assay demonstrated provided reliable results for antibiotic resistance. However, using old cultures leds to a higher proportion of false sensitive results; furthermore, the nitrate reductase assay capability to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decreased due to a higher proportion of non-interpretable results.

  20. Adventitious Arsenate Reductase Activity of the Catalytic Domain of the Human Cdc25B and Cdc25C Phosphatases†

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Sheng, Ju; Ajees, A. Abdul; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Rosen, Barry P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of eukaryotic enzymes that function as arsenate reductases are homologues of the catalytic domain of the human Cdc25 phosphatase. For example, the Leishmania major enzyme LmACR2 is both a phosphatase and an arsenate reductase, and its structure bears similarity to the structure of the catalytic domain of human Cdc25 phosphatase. These reductases contain an active site C-X5-R signature motif, where C is the catalytic cysteine, the five X residues form a phosphate binding loop, and R is a highly conserved arginine, which is also present in human Cdc25 phosphatases. We therefore investigated the possibility that the three human Cdc25 isoforms might have adventitious arsenate reductase activity. The sequences for the catalytic domains of Cdc25A, -B, and -C were cloned individually into a prokaryotic expression vector, and their gene products were purified from a bacterial host using nickel affinity chromatography. While each of the three Cdc25 catalytic domains exhibited phosphatase activity, arsenate reductase activity was observed only with Cdc25B and -C. These two enzymes reduced inorganic arsenate but not methylated pentavalent arsenicals. Alteration of either the cysteine and arginine residues of the Cys-X5-Arg motif led to the loss of both reductase and phosphatase activities. Our observations suggest that Cdc25B and -C may adventitiously reduce arsenate to the more toxic arsenite and may also provide a framework for identifying other human protein tyrosine phosphatases containing the active site Cys-X5-Arg loop that might moonlight as arsenate reductases. PMID:20025242

  1. Two interacting binding sites for quinacrine derivatives in the active site of trypanothione reductase – a template for drug design

    PubMed Central

    Saravanamuthu, Ahilan; Vickers, Tim J.; Bond, Charles S.; Peterson, Mark R.; Hunter, William N.; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanothione reductase is a key enzyme in the trypanothione-based redox metabolism of pathogenic trypanosomes. Since this system is absent in humans, being replaced with glutathione and glutathione reductase, it offers a target for selective inhibition. The rational design of potent inhibitors requires accurate structures of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, but this is lacking for trypanothione reductase. We therefore used quinacrine mustard, an alkylating derivative of the competitive inhibitor quinacrine, to probe the active site of this dimeric flavoprotein. Quinacrine mustard irreversibly inactivates Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase, but not human glutathione reductase, in a time-dependent manner with a stoichiometry of two inhibitors bound per monomer. The rate of inactivation is dependent upon the oxidation state of trypanothione reductase, with the NADPH-reduced form being inactivated significantly faster than the oxidised form. Inactivation is slowed by clomipramine and a melarsen oxide-trypanothione adduct (both are competitive inhibitors) but accelerated by quinacrine. The structure of the trypanothione reductase-quinacrine mustard adduct was determined to 2.7 Å, revealing two molecules of inhibitor bound in the trypanothione-binding site. The acridine moieties interact with each other through π-stacking effects, and one acridine interacts in a similar fashion with a tryptophan residue. These interactions provide a molecular explanation for the differing effects of clomipramine and quinacrine on inactivation by quinacrine mustard. Synergism with quinacrine occurs as a result of these planar acridines being able to stack together in the active site cleft, thereby gaining an increased number of binding interactions, whereas antagonism occurs with non-planar molecules, such as clomipramine, where stacking is not possible. PMID:15102853

  2. The role of thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase in plumbagin-induced, reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Ryu, Jung Min; Jeon, Yu Jin; Choi, Joonhyeok; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jung, Jong-Wha; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Lark Kyun; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Min Young

    2015-10-15

    Plumbagin is a secondary metabolite that was first identified in the Plumbago genus of plants. It is a naphthoquinone compound with anti-atherosclerosis, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, contraceptive, cardiotonic, immunosuppressive, and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanisms of plumbagin's activities are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of plumbagin on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells as well as LLC lung cancer cells, SiHa cervical carcinoma cells. Plumbagin significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment with plumbagin significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3/7 activity. Using the similarity ensemble approach (SEA)-a state-of-the-art cheminformatic technique-we identified two previously unknown cellular targets of plumbagin: thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR). This was then confirmed using protein- and cell-based assays. We found that plumbagin was directly reduced by TrxR, and that this reduction was inhibited by the TrxR inhibitor, sodium aurothiomalate (ATM). Plumbagin also decreased the activity of GR. Plumbagin, and the GR inhibitor sodium arsenite all increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and this increase was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in HepG2 cells. Plumbagin increased TrxR-1 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression and pretreatment with NAC significantly attenuated the plumbagin-induced increase of TrxR-1 and HO-1 expression in HepG2 cells, LLC cells and SiHa cells. Pretreatment with NAC significantly prevented the plumbagin-induced decrease in cell viability in these cell types. In conclusion, plumbagin exerted its anticancer effect by directly interacting with TrxR and GR, and thus increasing intracellular ROS levels.

  3. The crystal structure of progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata defines a novel class of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Andrea; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Jäger, Christof M; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2008-06-20

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of cardenolides in Digitalis (foxglove) plants. Sequence considerations suggested that 5beta-POR is a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family of proteins but at the same time revealed that the sequence motifs that in standard SDRs contain the catalytically important residues are missing. Here we present crystal structures of 5beta-POR from Digitalis lanata in complex with NADP(+) at 2.3A and without cofactor bound at 2.4A resolution together with a model of a ternary complex consisting of 5beta-POR, NADP(+), and progesterone. Indeed, 5beta-POR displays the fold of an extended SDR. The architecture of the active site is, however, unprecedented because none of the standard catalytic residues are structurally conserved. A tyrosine (Tyr-179) and a lysine residue (Lys-147) are present in the active site, but they are displayed from novel positions and are part of novel sequence motifs. Mutating Tyr-179 to either alanine or phenylalanine completely abolishes the enzymatic activity. We propose that the distinct topology reflects the fact that 5beta-POR reduces a conjugated double bond in a steroid substrate via a 1-4 addition mechanism and that this requires a repositioning of the catalytically important residues. Our observation that the sequence motifs that line the active site are conserved in a number of bacterial and plant enzymes of yet unknown function leads us to the proposition that 5beta-POR defines a novel class of SDRs.

  4. The putative moss 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase is a novel form of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase without an iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Fritzemeier, Kai; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Reski, Ralf

    2007-08-03

    Sulfate assimilation provides reduced sulfur for synthesis of the amino acids cysteine and methionine and for a range of other metabolites. Sulfate has to be activated prior to reduction by adenylation to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS). In plants, algae, and many bacteria, this compound is reduced to sulfite by APS reductase (APR); in fungi and some cyanobacteria and gamma-proteobacteria, a second activation step, phosphorylation to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), is necessary before reduction to sulfite by PAPS reductase (PAPR). We found previously that the moss Physcomitrella patens is unique among these organisms in possessing orthologs of both APR and PAPR genes (Koprivova, A., Meyer, A. J., Schween, G., Herschbach, C., Reski, R., and Kopriva, S. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 32195-32201). To assess the function of the two enzymes, we compared their biochemical properties by analysis of purified recombinant proteins. APR from Physcomitrella is very similar to the well characterized APRs from seed plants. On the other hand, we found that the putative PAPR preferentially reduces APS. Sequence analysis, analysis of UV-visible spectra, and determination of iron revealed that this new APR, named PpAPR-B, does not contain the FeS cluster, which was previously believed to determine the substrate specificity of the otherwise relatively similar enzymes. The lack of the FeS cluster in PpAPR-B catalysis is connected with a lower turnover rate but higher stability of the protein. These findings show that APS reduction without the FeS cluster is possible and that plant sulfate assimilation is predominantly dependent on reduction of APS.

  5. Nitrate reductases of Escherichia coli: sequence of the second nitrate reductase and comparison with that encoded by the narGHJI operon.

    PubMed

    Blasco, F; Iobbi, C; Ratouchniak, J; Bonnefoy, V; Chippaux, M

    1990-06-01

    The structural genes for NRZ, the second nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli, have been sequenced. They are organized in a transcription unit, narZYWV, encoding four subunits, NarZ, NarY, NarW and NarV. The transcription unit is homologous (73% identity) to the narGHJI operon which encodes the genes for NRA, the better characterized nitrate reductase of this organism. The level of homology between the corresponding polypeptides ranges from 69% for the NarW/NarJ pair to 86% for the NarV/NarI pair. The NarZ polypeptide contains the five conserved regions present in all other known molybdoproteins of E. coli and their relative order is the same. The NarY polypeptide, which contains the same four cysteine clusters in the same order as NarH, is probably an electron transfer unit of the complex. Upstream of narZ, an open reading frame, ORFA, is present which could encode a product which has homology (73% identity) with the COOH-terminal end of NarK. The ORFA-narZ intergenic region, however, is about 80 nucleotides long and does not contain the cis-acting elements, NarL and Fnr boxes, nor the terC4 terminator sequence present in the 500 nucleotide narK-narG intergenic region. This might explain why the narZYWV and the narGHJI operons are regulated differently. Our results tend to support the hypothesis that a DNA fragment larger than that encompassing the narGHJI genes has been duplicated.

  6. The Dual-Functioning Fumarate Reductase Is the Sole Succinate:Quinone Reductase in Campylobacter jejuni and Is Required for Full Host Colonization▿

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, Rebecca A.; Taveirne, Michael E.; Olson, Jonathan W.

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni encodes all the enzymes necessary for a complete oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Because of its inability to utilize glucose, C. jejuni relies exclusively on amino acids as the source of reduced carbon, and they are incorporated into central carbon metabolism. The oxidation of succinate to fumarate is a key step in the oxidative TCA cycle. C. jejuni encodes enzymes annotated as a fumarate reductase (Cj0408 to Cj0410) and a succinate dehydrogenase (Cj0437 to Cj0439). Null alleles in the genes encoding each enzyme were constructed. Both enzymes contributed to the total fumarate reductase activity in vitro. The frdA::cat+ strain was completely deficient in succinate dehydrogenase activity in vitro and was unable to perform whole-cell succinate-dependent respiration. The sdhA::cat+ strain exhibited wild-type levels of succinate dehydrogenase activity both in vivo and in vitro. These data indicate that Frd is the only succinate dehydrogenase in C. jejuni and that the protein annotated as a succinate dehydrogenase has been misannotated. The frdA::cat+ strain was also unable to grow with the characteristic wild-type biphasic growth pattern and exhibited only the first growth phase, which is marked by the consumption of aspartate, serine, and associated organic acids. Substrates consumed in the second growth phase (glutamate, proline, and associated organic acids) were not catabolized by the the frdA::cat+ strain, indicating that the oxidation of succinate is a crucial step in metabolism of these substrates. Chicken colonization trials confirmed the in vivo importance of succinate oxidation, as the frdA::cat+ strain colonized chickens at significantly lower levels than the wild type, while the sdhA::cat+ strain colonized chickens at wild-type levels. PMID:19525346

  7. Insights into substrate specificity of geranylgeranyl reductases revealed by the structure of digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase from Thermoplasma acidophilum, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Eguchi, Tadashi; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Rife, Christopher L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Weekes, Dana; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeal membrane lipids consist of branched, saturated hydrocarbons distinct from those found in bacteria and eukaryotes. Digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase (DGGR) catalyzes the hydrogenation process that converts unsaturated 2,3-di-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate to saturated 2,3-di-O-phytanylglyceryl phosphate as a critical step in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. The saturation of hydrocarbon chains confers the ability to resist hydrolysis and oxidation and helps archaea withstand extreme conditions. DGGR is a member of the geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR) family that is also widely distributed in bacteria and plants, where the family members are involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments. We have determined the crystal structure of DGGR from the thermophilic heterotrophic archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum at 1.6 Å resolution, in complex with FAD and a bacterial lipid. The DGGR structure can be assigned to the well-studied, para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) SCOP superfamily of flavoproteins that include many aromatic hydroxylases and other enzymes with diverse functions. In the DGGR complex, FAD adopts the IN conformation (closed) previously observed in other PHBH flavoproteins. DGGR contains a large substrate-binding site that extends across the entire ligand-binding domain. Electron density corresponding to a bacterial lipid was found within this cavity. The cavity consists of a large opening that tapers down to two narrow curved tunnels that closely mimic the shape of the preferred substrate. We identified a sequence motif, PxxYxWxFP, that defines a specificity pocket in the structure and precisely aligns the double bond of the geranyl group with respect to the FAD cofactor, thus providing a structural basis for the substrate specificity of GGRs. DGGR is likely to share a common mechanism with other PHBH enzymes in which FAD switches between two conformations that correspond to the reductive and oxidative half

  8. Light-regulated expression of the nitrate-reductase and nitrite-reductase genes in tomato and in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato.

    PubMed

    Becker, T W; Foyer, C; Caboche, M

    1992-08-01

    The phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) was used to investigate if phytochrome plays a role in the regulation of nitrate-reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.7.1) gene expression. We show that the expression of the tomato NR and NiR genes is stimulated by light and that this light response is mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome. The red-light response of the NR and NiR genes was reduced in etiolated aurea seedlings when compared to isogenic wild-type cotyledons. The relative levels of NR mRNA and NiR transcripts and their diurnal fluctuations were identical in mature white-light-grown leaves of the wild-type and of the aurea mutant. The transcript levels for cab and RbcS (genes for the chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein of PSII and the small subunit of the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, respectively) in aurea leaves grown in white light were indistinguishable from the respective transcript levels in the leaves of the wildtype grown under the same conditions. Despite a severe reduction in the chlorophyll content, the rate of net CO2 uptake by leaves of the aurea mutant was only slightly reduced when compared to the rate of net photosynthesis of wild-type leaves. This difference in the photosynthetic performances of wild-type and aurea mutant plants disappeared during aging of the plants. The increase in zeaxanthin and the concomitant decrease in violaxanthin in leaves of the aurea mutant compared with the same pigment levels in leaves of the wild-type indicate that the activity of the xanthophyll cycle is increased in aurea leaves as a consequence of the reduced CO2-fixation capacity of the mutant leaves.

  9. Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) localized to band 21q22. 1 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization displays gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, N. ); Malfoy, B. ); Forrest, G.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Human carbonyl reductase (CBR) belongs to a group of NADPH-dependent enzymes called aldo-keto reductases. The enzyme can function as an aldo-keto reductase or as a quinone reductase with potential for modulating quinone-mediated oxygen free radicals. The CBR gene was mapped by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 21q22.12, very close to the SOD1 locus at position 2lq22.11. CBR displayed gene dosage effects in trisomy 21 human lymphoblasts at the DNA and mRNA levels. Lymphoblasts with increasing chromosome 21 ploidy also showed increased aldo-keto reductase activity and increased quinone reductase activity. Both aldo-keto reductase activity and quinone reductase activity have been shown to be associated with carbonyl reductase. The location of CBR near SOD1 and the increased enzyme activity and potential for free radical modulation in trisomy 21 cells implicate CBR as a candidate for contributing to the pathology of certain diseases such as Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. 28 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Ferric and cupric reductase activities by iron-limited cells of the green alga Chlorella kessleri: quantification via oxygen electrode.

    PubMed

    Weger, Harold G; Walker, Crystal N; Fink, Michael B

    2007-10-01

    The colorimetric Fe2+ indicators bathophenanthroline disulfonic acid (BPDS) and 3-(2-pyridyl)-5,6-bis(4-phenylsulfonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (FZ) are routinely used to assay for plasma membrane ferric reductase activity in iron-limited algal cells and also in roots from iron-limited plants. Ferric reductase assays using these colorimetric indicators must take into account the fact that Fe3+ chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) can also in general bind Fe2+ and may therefore compete with the colorimetric Fe2+ indicators, leading to the potential for underestimation of the ferric reduction rate. Conversely, the presence of BPDS or FZ may also facilitate the reduction of Fe3+ chelates, potentially leading to overestimation of ferric reduction rates. Last, both BPDS and FZ have non-negligible affinities for Fe3+ in addition to their well-known affinities for Fe2+; this leads to potential difficulties in ascertaining whether free and/or chelated Fe3+ are potential substrates for the ferric reductase. Similar issues arise when assaying for cupric reductase activity using the colorimetric Cu+ indicator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCDS). In this paper, we describe an oxygen-electrode-based assay (conducted in darkness) for both ferric and cupric reductase activities that does not use colorimetric indicators. Using this assay system, we show that the plasma membrane metal reductase activity of iron-limited cells of the green alga Chlorella kessleri reduced complexed Fe3+ (i.e. Fe3+ chelates) but did not reduce free (non-chelated) Fe3+, and also reduced free Cu2+ to Cu+, but did not reduce Cu2+ that was part of Cu2+ chelates. We suggest that the potential for reduction of free Fe3+ cannot be adequately assayed using colorimetric assays. As well, the BPDS-based assay system consistently yielded similar estimates of ferric reductase activity compared with the O2-electrode-based assays at relatively low Fe3+ concentration, but higher estimates at higher Fe3

  11. 1,4-Naphthoquinones and Others NADPH-Dependent Glutathione Reductase-Catalyzed Redox Cyclers as Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Belorgey, Didier; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The homodimeric flavoenzyme glutathione reductase catalyzes NADPH-dependent glutathione disulfide reduction. This reaction is important for keeping the redox homeostasis in human cells and in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. Different types of NADPH-dependent disulfide reductase inhibitors were designed in various chemical series to evaluate the impact of each inhibition mode on the propagation of the parasites. Against malaria parasites in cultures the most potent and specific effects were observed for redox-active agents acting as subversive substrates for both glutathione reductases of the Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. In their oxidized form, these redox-active compounds are reduced by NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme-catalyzed reactions in the cytosol of infected erythrocytes. In their reduced forms, these compounds can reduce molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species, or reduce oxidants like methemoglobin, the major nutrient of the parasite, to indigestible hemoglobin. Furthermore, studies on a fluorinated suicide-substrate of the human glutathione reductase indicate that the glutathione reductase-catalyzed bioactivation of 3-benzylnaphthoquinones to the corresponding reduced 3-benzoyl metabolites is essential for the observed antimalarial activity. In conclusion, the antimalarial lead naphthoquinones are suggested to perturb the major redox equilibria of the targeted cells. These effects result in development arrest of the parasite and contribute to the removal of the parasitized erythrocytes by macrophages. PMID:23116403

  12. Cloning, expression and characterization of a putative 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase in Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanan; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Yuanhua

    2015-06-05

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are a superfamily of soluble NAD(P)(H) oxidoreductases. The function of the enzymes is to reduce aldehydes and ketones into primary and secondary alcohols. We have cloned a 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase (2,5DKGR) gene from Comamonas testosteroni (C. testosteroni) ATCC11996 (a Gram-negative bacterium which can use steroids as carbon and energy source) into plasmid pET-15b and over expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The protein was purified by His-tag Metal chelating affinity chromatography column. The 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase (2,5DKGR) gene contains 1062 bp and could be translated into a protein of 353 amino acid residues. Three consensus sequences of the AKR superfamily are found as GxxxxDxAxxY, LxxxGxxxPxxGxG and LxxxxxxxxxDxxxxH. GxxxxDxAxxY is the active site, LxxxGxxxPxxGxG is the Cofactor-binding site for NAD(P)(H), LxxxxxxxxxDxxxxH is used for supporting the 3D structure. 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase gene of C. testosteroni was knocked out and a mutant M-AKR was obtained. Compared to wild type C. testosteroni, degradations of testosterone, estradiol, oestrone and methyltestosterone in mutant M-AKR were decreased. Therefore, 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase in C. testosteroni is involved in steroid degradation.

  13. Metabolic dysfunction in female mice with disruption of 5α-reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Di Rollo, Emma M; Mak, Tracy C-S; Sooy, Karen; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    5α-Reductases irreversibly catalyse A-ring reduction of pregnene steroids, including glucocorticoids and androgens. Genetic disruption of 5α-reductase 1 in male mice impairs glucocorticoid clearance and predisposes to glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis upon metabolic challenge. However, it is unclear whether this is driven by changes in androgen and/or glucocorticoid action. Female mice with transgenic disruption of 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1-KO) were studied, representing a ‘low androgen’ state. Glucocorticoid clearance and stress responses were studied in mice aged 6 months. Metabolism was assessed in mice on normal chow (aged 6 and 12 m) and also in a separate cohort following 1-month high-fat diet (aged 3 m). Female 5αR1-KO mice had adrenal suppression (44% lower AUC corticosterone after stress), and upon corticosterone infusion, accumulated hepatic glucocorticoids (~27% increased corticosterone). Female 5αR1-KO mice aged 6 m fed normal chow demonstrated insulin resistance (~35% increased area under curve (AUC) for insulin upon glucose tolerance testing) and hepatic steatosis (~33% increased hepatic triglycerides) compared with controls. This progressed to obesity (~12% increased body weight) and sustained insulin resistance (~38% increased AUC insulin) by age 12 m. Hepatic transcript profiles supported impaired lipid β-oxidation and increased triglyceride storage. Female 5αR1-KO mice were also predisposed to develop high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Exaggerated predisposition to metabolic disorders in female mice, compared with that seen in male mice, after disruption of 5αR1 suggests phenotypic changes may be underpinned by altered metabolism of glucocorticoids rather than androgens. PMID:27647861

  14. Synergy between broccoli sprout extract and selenium in the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wu, Kun; Howie, A Forbes; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wang, Wei; Bao, Yongping

    2008-09-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium (Se) can up-regulate thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) in cultured human HepG2 and MCF-7 cells [Zhang et al. (2003). Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation. Carcinogenesis, 24, 497-503; Wang et al. (2005). Sulforaphane, erucin and iberin up-regulate thioredoxin reductase expression in human MCF-7 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1417-1421] at both the protein and mRNA levels. In this study, broccoli sprout extract (a rich source of the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and iberin) and Se interacted synergistically to induce TR1 in immortalised human hepatocytes. Broccoli sprout extracts containing 1.6, 4 and 8μM isothiocyanates were tested for their ability to induce TR1 at the protein and mRNA level. Although induction of TR1 mRNA by broccoli sprout extract (1.6-8μM) was only 1.7-2.2-fold, co-treatment with Se (0.2-1μM) enhanced the expression of TR1 mRNA (3.0-3.3-fold). Moreover, broccoli sprout extract induced the cellular concentration of TR1 and TR enzymatic activity, an induction that was augmented by Se addition. Thus, broccoli sprout extract (8μM) and Se induced cellular TR1 concentration and enzymatic activity 3.7- and 5-fold respectively, whereas, Se or broccoli sprout extract alone produced an induction of only approximately 2-fold. These data suggest that dietary isothiocyanates from broccoli sprouts and Se are important agents in the regulation of redox status in human liver cells. The synergistic effect between isothiocyanates and Se at physiologically-relevant concentrations on the induction of TR1 may play an important role in protection against oxidative stress.

  15. Selective non-steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase type 1.

    PubMed

    Occhiato, Ernesto G; Guarna, Antonio; Danza, Giovanna; Serio, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The enzyme 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha R) catalyses the reduction of testosterone (T) into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The abnormal production of DHT is associated to pathologies of the main target organs of this hormone: the prostate and the skin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, acne, androgenetic alopecia in men, and hirsutism in women appear related to the DHT production. Two isozymes of 5 alpha-reductase have been cloned, expressed and characterized (5 alpha R-1 and 5 alpha R-2). They share a poor homology, have different chromosomal localization, enzyme kinetic parameters, and tissue expression patterns. Since 5 alpha R-1 and 5 alpha R-2 are differently distributed in the androgen target organs, a different involvement of the two isozymes in the pathogenesis of prostate and skin disorders can be hypothesized. High interest has been paid to the synthesis of inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase for the treatment of DHT related pathologies, and the selective inhibition of any single isozyme represents a great challenge for medical and pharmaceutical research in order to have more specific drugs. At present, no 5 alpha R-1 inhibitor is marketed for the treatment of 5 alpha R-1 related pathologies but pharmaceutical research is very active in this field. This paper will review the major classes of 5 alpha R inhibitors focusing in particular on non-steroidal inhibitors and on structural features that enhance the selectivity versus the type 1 isozyme. Biological tests to assess the inhibitory activity towards the two 5 alpha R isozymes will be also discussed.

  16. Oxidation of PAH trans-Dihydrodiols by Human Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Amy M.; Harvey, Ronald G.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2009-01-01

    AKR1B10 has been identified as a potential biomarker for human non-small cell lung carcinoma and as a tobacco exposure and response gene. AKR1B10 functions as an efficient retinal reductase in vitro, and may regulate retinoic acid homeostasis. However, the possibility that this enzyme is able to activate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) trans-dihydrodiols to form reactive and redox-active o-quinones has not been investigated to date. AKR1B10 was found to oxidize a wide range of PAH trans-dihydrodiol substrates in vitro to yield PAH o-quinones. Reactions of AKR1B10 proceeded with improper stereochemistry, since it was specific for the minor (+)-benzo[a]pyrene-7S,8S-dihydrodiol diastereomer formed in vivo. However, AKR1B10 displayed reasonable activity in the oxidation of both the (−)-R,R and (+)-S,S stereoisomers of benzo[g]chrysene-11,12-dihydrodiol and oxidized the potentially relevant, albeit minor, (+)-benz[a]anthracene-3S,4S-dihydrodiol metabolite. We find that AKR1B10 is therefore likely to play a contributing role in the activation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols in human lung. AKR1B10 retinal reductase activity was confirmed in vitro and found to be 5- to 150-fold greater than the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols examined. AKR1B10 was highly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and robust retinal reductase activity was measured in lysates of these cells. The much greater catalytic efficiency of retinal reduction compared to PAH trans-dihydrodiol metabolism suggests AKR1B10 may play a greater role in lung carcinogenesis through dysregulation of retinoic acid homeostasis than through oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols. PMID:18788756

  17. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Histidine-Tagged Escherichia coli Dihydrodipicolinate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Trigoso, Yvonne D; Evans, Russell C; Karsten, William E; Chooback, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme dihydrodipicolinate reductase (DHDPR) is a component of the lysine biosynthetic pathway in bacteria and higher plants. DHDPR catalyzes the NAD(P)H dependent reduction of 2,3-dihydrodipicolinate to the cyclic imine L-2,3,4,5,-tetrahydropicolinic acid. The dapB gene that encodes dihydrodipicolinate reductase has previously been cloned, but the expression of the enzyme is low and the purification is time consuming. Therefore the E. coli dapB gene was cloned into the pET16b vector to improve the protein expression and simplify the purification. The dapB gene sequence was utilized to design forward and reverse oligonucleotide primers that were used to PCR the gene from Escherichia coli genomic DNA. The primers were designed with NdeI or BamHI restriction sites on the 5'and 3' terminus respectively. The PCR product was sequenced to confirm the identity of dapB. The gene was cloned into the expression vector pET16b through NdeI and BamHI restriction endonuclease sites. The resulting plasmid containing dapB was transformed into the bacterial strain BL21 (DE3). The transformed cells were utilized to grow and express the histidine-tagged reductase and the protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. SDS/PAGE gel analysis has shown that the protein was 95% pure and has approximate subunit molecular weight of 28 kDa. The protein purification is completed in one day and 3 liters of culture produced approximately 40-50 mgs of protein, an improvement on the previous protein expression and multistep purification.

  18. Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase as a Novel Drug Target: Evidence from Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Xie, ShuYing; Qian, ChunYan; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Yin, XuRen; Hua, ZiChun; Yu, ChuanXin

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern affecting billions of people around the world. Currently, praziquantel is the only drug of choice for treatment of human schistosomiasis. The emergence of drug resistance to praziquantel in schistosomes makes the development of novel drugs an urgent task. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) enzymes in Schistosoma mansoni and some other platyhelminths have been identified as alternative targets. The present study was designed to confirm the existense and the potential value of TGR as a target for development of novel antischistosomal agents in Schistosoma japonicum, a platyhelminth endemic in Asia. Methods and Findings After cloning the S. japonicum TGR (SjTGR) gene, the recombinant SjTGR selenoprotein was purified and characterized in enzymatic assays as a multifunctional enzyme with thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutaredoxin (Grx) activities. Immunological and bioinformatic analyses confirmed that instead of having separate TrxR and GR proteins in mammalian, S. japonicum only encodes TGR, which performs the functions of both enzymes and plays a critical role in maintaining the redox balance in this parasite. These results were in good agreement with previous findings in Schistosoma mansoni and some other platyhelminths. Auranofin, a known inhibitor against TGR, caused fatal toxicity in S. japonicum adult worms in vitro and reduced worm and egg burdens in S. japonicum infected mice. Conclusions Collectively, our study confirms that a multifunctional enzyme SjTGR selenoprotein, instead of separate TrxR and GR enzymes, exists in S. japonicum. Furthermore, TGR may be a potential target for development of novel agents against schistosomes. This assumption is strengthened by our demonstration that the SjTGR is an essential enzyme for maintaining the thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis of S. japonicum. PMID:22384025

  19. Structure and reactivity of Trypanosoma brucei pteridine reductase: inhibition by the archetypal antifolate methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Alice; Gibellini, Federica; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Tulloch, Lindsay B; Fyfe, Paul K; McLuskey, Karen; Fairlamb, Alan H; Hunter, William N

    2006-09-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei has a functional pteridine reductase (TbPTR1), an NADPH-dependent short-chain reductase that participates in the salvage of pterins, which are essential for parasite growth. PTR1 displays broad-spectrum activity with pterins and folates, provides a metabolic bypass for inhibition of the trypanosomatid dihydrofolate reductase and therefore compromises the use of antifolates for treatment of trypanosomiasis. Catalytic properties of recombinant TbPTR1 and inhibition by the archetypal antifolate methotrexate have been characterized and the crystal structure of the ternary complex with cofactor NADP+ and the inhibitor determined at 2.2 A resolution. This enzyme shares 50% amino acid sequence identity with Leishmania major PTR1 (LmPTR1) and comparisons show that the architecture of the cofactor binding site, and the catalytic centre are highly conserved, as are most interactions with the inhibitor. However, specific amino acid differences, in particular the placement of Trp221 at the side of the active site, and adjustment of the beta6-alpha6 loop and alpha6 helix at one side of the substrate-binding cleft significantly reduce the size of the substrate binding site of TbPTR1 and alter the chemical properties compared with LmPTR1. A reactive Cys168, within the active site cleft, in conjunction with the C-terminus carboxyl group and His267 of a partner subunit forms a triad similar to the catalytic component of cysteine proteases. TbPTR1 therefore offers novel structural features to exploit in the search for inhibitors of therapeutic value against African trypanosomiasis.

  20. Monotherapy with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and secondary prevention in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Rackley, C E

    1996-09-01

    Although thrombolytic drugs, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting have provided major advances in the treatment of coronary artery disease, the use of lipid-lowering drugs for secondary prevention has significantly reduced cardiovascular events in the population with coronary artery disease. Secondary prevention trials using HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors include the Familial Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (FATS), the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS), the Canadian Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (CCAIT), the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Progression Study (ACAPS), the Multi Anti-Atheroma Study (MAAS), the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), the Pravastatin Limitation of Atherosclerosis in Coronary Arteries (PLAC I), the Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study (REGRESS), the Pravastatin Multinational Study, and the Pravastatin, Lipids, and Atherosclerosis in Carotids (PLAC II). Mean changes from baseline of lipid fractions in these trials included: total cholesterol 18 to 35% reduction; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 26 to 46% reduction; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol 5 to 15% increase; and triglyceride 7 to 22% reduction. Angiographic regression or lack of progression was statistically demonstrated in the FATS, MARS, CCAIT, MAAS, PLAC I, and REGRESS trials. Cardiovascular events decreased 25 to 92% in all trials, and there was a significant reduction in both cardiovascular and total mortality in the 4S. The greater reduction in cardiovascular events than in anatomic changes suggests that the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors stabilized the surface of plaques. Monotherapy with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors provides the clinical opportunity to modify the natural history of coronary artery disease.

  1. NADPH-dependent Reductases Involved in the Detoxification of Reactive Carbonyls in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Ayaka; Taninaka, Ai; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    Reactive carbonyls, especially α,β-unsaturated carbonyls produced through lipid peroxidation, damage biomolecules such as proteins and nucleotides; elimination of these carbonyls is therefore essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In this study, we focused on an NADPH-dependent detoxification of reactive carbonyls in plants and explored the enzyme system involved in this detoxification process. Using acrolein (CH2 = CHCHO) as a model α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, we purified a predominant NADPH-dependent acrolein-reducing enzyme from cucumber leaves, and we identified the enzyme as an alkenal/one oxidoreductase (AOR) catalyzing reduction of an α,β-unsaturated bond. Cloning of cDNA encoding AORs revealed that cucumber contains two distinct AORs, chloroplastic AOR and cytosolic AOR. Homologs of cucumber AORs were found among various plant species, including Arabidopsis, and we confirmed that a homolog of Arabidopsis (At1g23740) also had AOR activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these AORs belong to a novel class of AORs. They preferentially reduced α,β-unsaturated ketones rather than α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Furthermore, we selected candidates of other classes of enzymes involved in NADPH-dependent reduction of carbonyls based on the bioinformatic information, and we found that an aldo-keto reductase (At2g37770) and aldehyde reductases (At1g54870 and At3g04000) were implicated in the