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Sample records for aldrich research biochemicals

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... other disorders: X-linked thrombocytopenia and severe congenital neutropenia . These conditions have overlapping signs and symptoms and ... Aldrich syndrome , X-linked thrombocytopenia , and severe congenital neutropenia are sometimes collectively referred to as WAS-related ...

  2. Neuropsychological Profile of a Girl with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Andrea M; Schechter, Tal; Westmacott, Robyn

    2018-03-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months. Standardized measures of intellectual ability, language, visual-spatial and visual-motor skills, attention, memory, and academic achievement were administered. The results showed average to above-average performance in multiple areas of cognitive and academic functioning, with weaknesses in phonological awareness and rapid naming. The advent of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has led to considerable improvement in the long-term prognosis of children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Although the impact of this syndrome and related conditions on neurocognitive development is presently unknown, this case highlights both the importance of considering base rates for commonly occurring conditions and the significant role neuropsychology can play in identifying cognitive strengths and weaknesses in the context of the developing brain.

  3. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Clark Aldrich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Clark Aldrich is the founder and Managing Partner of Clark Aldrich Designs, and is known as a global education visionary, industry analyst, and speaker. In this interview, he responds to questions about his ideas, his work, and his theories.

  4. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Director Office of the Chief Science Management & Operations Administrative Services Office of Biodefense Research & Surety Communications ... Office of Clinical Research Policy and Regulatory Planning Operations Support Program Planning Analysis ... Office of Acquisitions Scientific Review Program Division ...

  5. 78 FR 39339 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Registration; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC By Notice dated March 20, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2013, 78 FR 19015, SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC., 3500 Dekalb... registration of SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC., to import the basic classes of controlled substances...

  6. Present status of biochemical research on the insecticide resistance problem*

    PubMed Central

    Agosin, Moises

    1963-01-01

    In order to provide a rational basis for the development of new insecticides, a thorough understanding of resistance mechanisms is necessary and this presupposes a detailed knowledge of the normal biochemical pathways in insects. The author reviews recent progress in this field, particularly the work on enzymatic detoxication of insecticides which appears to be the most important single factor in the production of resistance. The mechanisms include dehydrochlorination and α-methylenic oxidation (DDT), hydrolysis by phosphatases or carboxyesterases (organophosphorus compounds), and oxidation by microsomal enzyme systems (various classes of insecticides). Much work still needs to be done on the enzyme systems involved, especially in relation to substrate specificity and the effect of enzyme inhibitors that might act as synergists of insecticides. PMID:20604178

  7. In memoriam: John Warren Aldrich, 1906-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    John Aldrich was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on 23 February 1906, and went to the Providence public schools. He developed a broad interest in natural history at an early age, being stimulated by his mother, a kindergarten teacher, who introduced him to nature books. His interest was strengthened by Harold L. Madison, Director of the Park Museum in Providence, an Associate ( = member) of the AOU. As a high school student, John taught nature study at the Rhode Island Boy Scout Camp in summers. John was President of his class at Classical High School, and manager of the school's football team in his senior year. Also in that year, 1923, John published his first paper, a note in Bird-Lore on the occurrence of the Mockingbird in Rhode Island. That paper is a literary gem, showing that his skill in writing developed as early as his knowledge of birds. His early interest in football continued as well; he was a devoted fan of the Washington Redskins in his later years.

  8. Developmental expression of Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WASP) family proteins participate in many cellular processes involving rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. To the date, four WASP subfamily members have been described in Drosophila: Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy. Wash, WASp, and SCAR are essential during early Drosophila development where they function in orchestrating cytoplasmic events including membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. A mutant for Whamy has not yet been reported. Results We generated monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Drosophila Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy, and use these to describe their spatial and temporal localization patterns. Consistent with the importance of WASP family proteins in flies, we find that Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy are dynamically expressed throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. For example, we find that Wash accumulates at the oocyte cortex. WASp is highly expressed in the PNS, while SCAR is the most abundantly expressed in the CNS. Whamy exhibits an asymmetric subcellular localization that overlaps with mitochondria and is highly expressed in muscle. Conclusion All four WASP family members show specific expression patterns, some of which reflect their previously known roles and others revealing new potential functions. The monoclonal antibodies developed offer valuable new tools to investigate how WASP family proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:22275148

  9. 78 FR 19015 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34 (a), this is notice that on February 1, 2013, SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC., 3500 Dekalb...

  10. 77 FR 47106 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34 (a), this is notice that on May 2, 2012, SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co. LLC., 3500...

  11. Critical requirement for the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in Th2 effector function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) regulates actin polymerization via activation of Arp2/3 and plays a role in the dynamics of the immunological synapse. How these events influence subsequent gene expression and effector function is unclear. We studied the role of WASp in CD4+ T cell effe...

  12. Research advance of stability mechanism on physicochemical, biochemical and microorganism trait of wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Lijun; Li, Yashan; Cui, Changwei; Ning, Na; Huang, Jing; Xu, Chengdong; Zhang, Xiaofang; Yang, Ruiqun; Zhong, Yingxue

    2018-04-01

    The stability of wine is an important feature during the wine aging, which is mainly reflected in the balance of color, taste and aroma during the wine aging. During the wine fermentation, the role of microbes and enzymes including the interaction between them caused the mutual penetration, combination, decomposition and transformation among the substances in connection with color, aroma and taste in wine, which led to the instability of wine. After the fermentation of wine, the long aging period could just stabilize the wine. Still, the quality of wine had changed a lot. Based on the indicative changes in wine, such as microbiological interactions, biochemical reactions as well as interactions between the microorganism and biochemical reactions, the impact of changes of the basic biochemical and physicochemical indices on the stability of red wine were reviewed, and developmental suggestions in the future were also put forward in this paper, in order to reveal the mechanism of instability through the effect of dynamic change on the stability of red wine and analyze the unstable root of the red wine, which could lay a foundation for further research, and provide help for actual production.

  13. Glycan Arrays: From Basic Biochemical Research to Bioanalytical and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissner, Andreas; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-06-01

    A major branch of glycobiology and glycan-focused biomedicine studies the interaction between carbohydrates and other biopolymers, most importantly, glycan-binding proteins. Today, this research into glycan-biopolymer interaction is unthinkable without glycan arrays, tools that enable high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate interaction partners. Glycan arrays offer many applications in basic biochemical research, for example, defining the specificity of glycosyltransferases and lectins such as immune receptors. Biomedical applications include the characterization and surveillance of influenza strains, identification of biomarkers for cancer and infection, and profiling of immune responses to vaccines. Here, we review major applications of glycan arrays both in basic and applied research. Given the dynamic nature of this rapidly developing field, we focus on recent findings.

  14. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome successfully treated with unrelated cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Almagor, Yotam; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Averbuch, Diana; Mechoulam, Hadas; Engelhard, Dan; Resnick, Igor B; Weintraub, Michael; Stepensky, Polina

    2011-10-01

    We report a successful umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in an 8-month male with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The child presented at 3 months of age with symptomatic thrombocytopenia and CMV infection. Despite appropriate antiviral treatment no rise in the platelet count was observed. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of WAS. The clinical course was complicated by severe CMV retinitis with bilateral retinal hemorrhages and renal vasculitis. He underwent unrelated UCBT resulting in a rapid resolution of autoimmunity and thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. 77 FR 50162 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; SA INTL GMBH C/O., Sigma Aldrich Co., LLC Correction In notice document 2012-19191 appearing on pages 47106-47108 in the issue of Tuesday, August 7, 2012, make the following corrections: 1. On page...

  16. Sclerosing cholangitis and intracranial lymphoma in a child with classical Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Suri, Deepti; Rawat, Amit; Lau, Yu Lung; Bhatia, Anmol; Das, Ashim; Srinivasan, Anirudh; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) are predisposed to malignancy and autoimmunity in addition to infections. We report a male child with WAS, who had presented with recurrent pneumonia, eczema, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and vasculitic skin lesions. Genetic analysis revealed a classical genotype WAS 155C>T; R41X. At 2 years of follow-up, he developed persistent headache and progressive hepatomegaly. Brain imaging showed a mass in the right frontal region, which on histopathology was shown to be high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed features of sclerosing cholangitis. This report extends the clinical spectrum and highlights unusual manifestations of sclerosing cholangitis and intracranial lymphoma in a patient with WAS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Autonomous role of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome platelet deficiency in inducing autoimmunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sereni, Lucia; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Marangoni, Francesco; Anselmo, Achille; di Silvestre, Dario; Motta, Sara; Draghici, Elena; Mantero, Stefano; Thrasher, Adrian J; Giliani, Silvia; Aiuti, Alessandro; Mauri, Pierluigi; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Bosticardo, Marita; Villa, Anna

    2018-02-06

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, infections, and susceptibility to autoimmunity and malignancies. Thrombocytopenia is a constant finding, but its pathogenesis remains elusive. To dissect the basis of the WAS platelet defect, we used a novel conditional mouse model (CoWas) lacking Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) only in the megakaryocytic lineage in the presence of a normal immunologic environment, and in parallel we analyzed samples obtained from patients with WAS. Phenotypic and functional characterization of megakaryocytes and platelets in mutant CoWas mice and patients with WAS with and without autoantibodies was performed. Platelet antigen expression was examined through a protein expression profile and cluster proteomic interaction network. Platelet immunogenicity was tested by using ELISAs and B-cell and platelet cocultures. CoWas mice showed increased megakaryocyte numbers and normal thrombopoiesis in vitro, but WASp-deficient platelets had short lifespan and high expression of activation markers. Proteomic analysis identified signatures compatible with defects in cytoskeletal reorganization and metabolism yet surprisingly increased antigen-processing capabilities. In addition, WASp-deficient platelets expressed high levels of surface and soluble CD40 ligand and were capable of inducing B-cell activation in vitro. WASp-deficient platelets were highly immunostimulatory in mice and triggered the generation of antibodies specific for WASp-deficient platelets, even in the context of a normal immune system. Patients with WAS also showed platelet hyperactivation and increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand levels correlating with the presence of autoantibodies. Overall, these findings suggest that intrinsic defects in WASp-deficient platelets decrease their lifespan and dysregulate immune responses, corroborating the role of platelets as modulators of inflammation and immunity. Copyright © 2018 American

  18. A risk factor analysis of outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation for children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shekhovtsova, Zhanna; Bonfim, Carmem; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Nichele, Samantha; Page, Kristin; AlSeraihy, Amal; Barriga, Francisco; de Toledo Codina, José Sánchez; Veys, Paul; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Mellgren, Karin; Bittencourt, Henrique; O'Brien, Tracey; Shaw, Peter J; Chybicka, Alicja; Volt, Fernanda; Giannotti, Federica; Gluckman, Eliane; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Gennery, Andrew R; Rocha, Vanderson

    2017-06-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a severe X-linked recessive immune deficiency disorder. A scoring system of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome severity (0.5-5) distinguishes two phenotypes: X-linked thrombocytopenia and classic Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; however, the use of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation has seldom been described. We analyzed umbilical cord blood transplantation outcomes for 90 patients. The median age at umbilical cord blood transplantation was 1.5 years. Patients were classified according to clinical scores [2 (23%), 3 (30%), 4 (23%) and 5 (19%)]. Most patients underwent HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation and myeloablative conditioning with anti-thymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at day 60 was 89% and that of grade II-IV acute graft- versus -host disease at day 100 was 38%. The use of methotrexate for graft- versus -host disease prophylaxis delayed engraftment ( P =0.02), but decreased acute graft- versus -host disease ( P =0.03). At 5 years, overall survival and event-free survival rates were 75% and 70%, respectively. The estimated 5-year event-free survival rates were 83%, 73% and 55% for patients with a clinical score of 2, 4-5 and 3, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age <2 years at the time of the umbilical cord blood transplant and a clinical phenotype of X-linked thrombocytopenia were associated with improved event-free survival. Overall survival tended to be better in patients transplanted after 2007 ( P =0.09). In conclusion, umbilical cord blood transplantation is a good alternative option for young children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome lacking an HLA identical stem cell donor. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. A risk factor analysis of outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation for children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shekhovtsova, Zhanna; Bonfim, Carmem; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Nichele, Samantha; Page, Kristin; AlSeraihy, Amal; Barriga, Francisco; de Toledo Codina, José Sánchez; Veys, Paul; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Mellgren, Karin; Bittencourt, Henrique; O’Brien, Tracey; Shaw, Peter J.; Chybicka, Alicja; Volt, Fernanda; Giannotti, Federica; Gluckman, Eliane; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Gennery, Andrew R.; Rocha, Vanderson

    2017-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a severe X-linked recessive immune deficiency disorder. A scoring system of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome severity (0.5–5) distinguishes two phenotypes: X-linked thrombocytopenia and classic Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; however, the use of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation has seldom been described. We analyzed umbilical cord blood transplantation outcomes for 90 patients. The median age at umbilical cord blood transplantation was 1.5 years. Patients were classified according to clinical scores [2 (23%), 3 (30%), 4 (23%) and 5 (19%)]. Most patients underwent HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation and myeloablative conditioning with anti-thymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at day 60 was 89% and that of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 38%. The use of methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis delayed engraftment (P=0.02), but decreased acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.03). At 5 years, overall survival and event-free survival rates were 75% and 70%, respectively. The estimated 5-year event-free survival rates were 83%, 73% and 55% for patients with a clinical score of 2, 4–5 and 3, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age <2 years at the time of the umbilical cord blood transplant and a clinical phenotype of X-linked thrombocytopenia were associated with improved event-free survival. Overall survival tended to be better in patients transplanted after 2007 (P=0.09). In conclusion, umbilical cord blood transplantation is a good alternative option for young children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome lacking an HLA identical stem cell donor. PMID:28255019

  20. Combination therapy for biochemically recurrent prostate cancer tested in new trial | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an enzyme released by the prostate gland and is found in abnormally high concentrations in the blood of men with prostate cancer. “Biochemical recurrence” is when PSA levels continue to rise after initial treatment for prostate cancer, such as surgery or radiation. Marijo Bilusic, M.D., of the Genitourinary Malignancies Branch is leading the

  1. WASH and WAVE actin regulators of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family are controlled by analogous structurally related complexes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Da; Gomez, Timothy S; Metlagel, Zoltan; Umetani, Junko; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Rosen, Michael K; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2010-06-08

    We recently showed that the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family member, WASH, localizes to endosomal subdomains and regulates endocytic vesicle scission in an Arp2/3-dependent manner. Mechanisms regulating WASH activity are unknown. Here we show that WASH functions in cells within a 500 kDa core complex containing Strumpellin, FAM21, KIAA1033 (SWIP), and CCDC53. Although recombinant WASH is constitutively active toward the Arp2/3 complex, the reconstituted core assembly is inhibited, suggesting that it functions in cells to regulate actin dynamics through WASH. FAM21 interacts directly with CAPZ and inhibits its actin-capping activity. Four of the five core components show distant (approximately 15% amino acid sequence identify) but significant structural homology to components of a complex that negatively regulates the WASP family member, WAVE. Moreover, biochemical and electron microscopic analyses show that the WASH and WAVE complexes are structurally similar. Thus, these two distantly related WASP family members are controlled by analogous structurally related mechanisms. Strumpellin is mutated in the human disease hereditary spastic paraplegia, and its link to WASH suggests that misregulation of actin dynamics on endosomes may play a role in this disorder.

  2. Research on: A. Reclamation of borrow pits and denuded lands; B. Biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae of forest trees

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1990-12-01

    This report furnishes a list of compiled and ongoing studies and a list of publications which resulted from the research accomplished by Institute scientists and other collaborators. The research accomplished can be placed in four categories: I. Research on borrow pit rehabilitation with 12 publications; II. Research on artificial regeneration of southern pines with 34 publications; III. Research on artificial regeneration of eastern hardwoods with 16 publications; and IV. Cooperative research with the University of Georgia on biochemical aspects of mycorrhizae with 5 publications. Major accomplishments of this research are: 1. Procedures to successfully reclaim borrow pits with sludge, subsoilingmore » and seedlings with specific mycorrhizae. 2. Protocols to successfully artificially regenerate southern pines (particularly ling leaf pine) and certain eastern hardwoods. 3. Basic understanding of the biochemistry of mycorrhizae and the discovery of a new pathway for sucrose utilization in plants. 67 refs.« less

  3. Unification of some biochemical methods of research in the pre- and post-flight periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigranyan, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical methods for determination of various parameters and factors during pre- and post-flight periods, as used by American and Soviet teams dealing with space flight medicine are compared. The emphasis is on the exchange of information on the study of the blood and urine content of space travelers before and after space flight. A series of electrolytic, enzymatic, and hormonal factors is discussed.

  4. Genetic characteristics of eighty-seven patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gulácsy, Vera; Freiberger, Tomas; Shcherbina, Anna; Pac, Malgorzata; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Avcin, Tadej; Kondratenko, Irina; Kostyuchenko, Larysa; Prokofjeva, Tatjana; Pasic, Srdjan; Bernatowska, Ewa; Kutukculer, Necil; Rascon, Jelena; Iagaru, Nicolae; Mazza, Cinzia; Tóth, Beáta; Erdos, Melinda; van der Burg, Mirjam; Maródi, László

    2011-02-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked recessive immune deficiency disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, small platelet size, eczema, recurrent infections, and increased risk of autoimmune disorders and malignancies. WAS is caused by mutations in the WASP gene which encodes WASP, a 502-amino acid protein. WASP plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization and signalling, and functions of immune cells. We present here the results of genetic analysis of patients with WAS from eleven Eastern and Central European (ECE) countries and Turkey. Clinical and haematological information of 87 affected males and 48 carrier females from 77 WAS families were collected. The WASP gene was sequenced from genomic DNA of patients with WAS, as well as their family members to identify carriers. In this large cohort, we identified 62 unique mutations including 17 novel sequence variants. The mutations were scattered throughout the WASP gene and included single base pair changes (17 missense and 11 nonsense mutations), 7 small insertions, 18 deletions, and 9 splice site defects. Genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis were applied in four affected families. This study was part of the J Project aimed at identifying genetic basis of primary immunodeficiency disease in ECE countries. This report provides the first comprehensive overview of the molecular genetic and demographic features of WAS in ECE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae) and the evolutionary timescale of Tachinid flies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-Juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y W; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Chun-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.

  6. The Mitochondrial Genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae) and the Evolutionary Timescale of Tachinid Flies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhe; Su, Tian-juan; Chesters, Douglas; Wang, Shi-di; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Zhu, Chao-dong; Chen, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Chun-tian

    2013-01-01

    Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae), which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene. PMID:23626734

  7. Whole Wiskott‑Aldrich syndrome protein gene deletion identified by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangling; Zou, Runying; Zhang, Bing; You, Yalan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Wiskott‑Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X‑linked recessive immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by thrombocytopenia, small platelets, eczema and recurrent infections associated with increased risk of autoimmunity and malignancy disorders. Mutations in the WAS protein (WASP) gene are responsible for WAS. To date, WASP mutations, including missense/nonsense, splicing, small deletions, small insertions, gross deletions, and gross insertions have been identified in patients with WAS. In addition, WASP‑interacting proteins are suspected in patients with clinical features of WAS, in whom the WASP gene sequence and mRNA levels are normal. The present study aimed to investigate the application of next generation sequencing in definitive diagnosis and clinical therapy for WAS. A 5 month‑old child with WAS who displayed symptoms of thrombocytopenia was examined. Whole exome sequence analysis of genomic DNA showed that the coverage and depth of WASP were extremely low. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated total WASP gene deletion in the proband. In conclusion, high throughput sequencing is useful for the verification of WAS on the genetic profile, and has implications for family planning guidance and establishment of clinical programs.

  8. Foamy Virus Vector-mediated Gene Correction of a Mouse Model of Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Toru; Adriani, Marsilio; Jagadeesh, G Jayashree; Paine, Adam; Candotti, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation can cure the disease and gene therapy is being tested as an alternative treatment option. In this study, we assessed the use of foamy virus (FV) vectors as a gene transfer system for WAS, using a Was knockout (KO) mouse model. Preliminary experiments using FV vectors expressing the green fluorescent protein under the transcriptional control of the endogenous WAS promoter or a ubiquitously acting chromatin opening element allowed us to define transduction conditions resulting in high (>40%) and long-term in-vivo marking of blood cells after transplantation. In following experiments, Was KO mice were treated with FV vectors containing the human WAS complementary DNA (cDNA). Transplanted animals expressed the WAS protein (WASp) in T and B lymphocytes, as well as platelets and showed restoration of both T-cell receptor-mediated responses and B-cell migration. We also observed recovery of platelet adhesion and podosome formation in dendritic cells (DCs) of treated mice. These data demonstrate that FV vectors can be effective for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-directed gene correction of WAS. PMID:22215016

  9. A Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hiro-Omi; Zheng, Lu; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. To investigate the function of a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a WASP ortholog-encoding gene, wspA, in Aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. The wspA product, WspA, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspA is essential for the growth and functioned in the polarity establishment and maintenance during germination of conidia. We also investigated its function in endocytosis and revealed that endocytosis of SynA, a synaptobrevin ortholog that is known to be endocytosed at the subapical regions of hyphal tips in A. nidulans, did not occur when wspA expression was repressed. These results suggest that WspA plays roles in endocytosis at hyphal tips and polarity establishment during germination.

  10. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein deficiency in B cells results in impaired peripheral homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Almut; Becker-Herman, Shirly; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Khim, Socheath; Weber, Michele; Bouma, Gerben; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2008-01-01

    To more precisely identify the B-cell phenotype in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), we used 3 distinct murine in vivo models to define the cell intrinsic requirements for WAS protein (WASp) in central versus peripheral B-cell development. Whereas WASp is dispensable for early bone marrow B-cell development, WASp deficiency results in a marked reduction in each of the major mature peripheral B-cell subsets, exerting the greatest impact on marginal zone and B1a B cells. Using in vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling and in vitro functional assays, we show that these deficits reflect altered peripheral homeostasis, partially resulting from an impairment in integrin function, rather than a developmental defect. Consistent with these observations, we also show that: (1) WASp expression levels increase with cell maturity, peaking in those subsets exhibiting the greatest sensitivity to WASp deficiency; (2) WASp+ murine B cells exhibit a marked selective advantage beginning at the late transitional B-cell stage; and (3) a similar in vivo selective advantage is manifest by mature WASp+ human B cells. Together, our data provide a better understanding of the clinical phenotype of WAS and suggest that gene therapy might be a useful approach to rescue altered B-cell homeostasis in this disease. PMID:18687984

  11. Sorption of selected pharmaceuticals by a river sediment: role and mechanisms of sediment or Aldrich humic substances.

    PubMed

    Le Guet, Thibaut; Hsini, Ilham; Labanowski, Jérôme; Mondamert, Leslie

    2018-05-01

    Sorption of pharmaceuticals onto sediments is frequently related to organic matter content. Thus, the present work aimed to compare the effect of humic substances (HS) extracted from a river sediment versus Aldrich (HS) on the sorption of selected pharmaceuticals onto this river sediment. The results exhibited no "unique" effect of the presence of HS from the same origin. Thus, the sediment HS increased the sorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF), and trimethoprim (TMP), but reduced the sorption of atenolol (ATN). The presence of Aldrich HS increased the sorption of TMP and ATN and decreased the sorption of SMX and DCF. Fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that these effects cannot be explained only by the presence of pharmaceutical HS associations. The use of several sorption models suggested that the sorption of SMX, DCF, and ATN involves multilayer mechanisms. Furthermore, it was pointed out that the presence of HS does not change the sorption mechanisms although it was observed interaction between HS and the sediment. Indeed, the sediment HS sorbs onto the sediment whereas the Aldrich HS tends to mobilize organic compounds from the sediment to the solution.

  12. 78 FR 5499 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Sigma Aldrich Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances...., 1-3 Strathmore Road, Natick, Massachusetts 01760- 2447, made application by letter to the Drug... controlled substances: Drug Schedule 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (7395)... I Dimethyltryptamine (7435...

  13. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Sigma Aldrich Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances...-3 Strathmore Road, Natick, Massachusetts 01760-2447, made application by letter to the Drug... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Mephedrone (4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone) I (1248). MDPV (3,4...

  14. Immunoglobulins and transient paraproteins in sera of patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: a follow-up study.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Dooren, L H; Morell, A; Skvaril, F; Vossen, J M; Uittenbogaart, C H

    1976-01-01

    Immunoglobulin levels of individual classes and IgG subclasses and the occurrence of homogeneous immunoglobulins--paraproteins--were studied longitudinally in the sera of three patients with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; Common findings in all three patients were great variations in the immunoglobulin levels, restricted heterogeneity of the immunoglobulins, the frequent appearance of transient homogeneous immunoglobulins and the presence of serum antibodies against bovine milk proteins. A partial and selective deficiency involving mainly the T immune system is postulated as an explanation for these findings. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:954233

  15. Multiple independent second-site mutations in two siblings with somatic mosaicism for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boztug, K; Germeshausen, M; Avedillo Díez, I; Gulacsy, V; Diestelhorst, J; Ballmaier, M; Welte, K; Maródi, L; Chernyshova, Li; Klein, C

    2008-07-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency disorder associated with microthrombocytopenia, eczema, autoimmunity and predisposition to malignant lymphoma. Although rare, few cases of somatic mosaicism have been published in WAS patients to date. We here report on two Ukrainian siblings who were referred to us at the age of 3 and 4 years, respectively. Both patients suffered from severe WAS caused by a nonsense mutation in exon 1 of the WAS gene. In both siblings, flow cytometric analysis revealed the presence of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp)-positive and WASp-negative cell populations among T and B lymphocytes as well as natural killer (NK) cells. In contrast to previously described cases of revertant mosaicism in WAS, molecular analyses in both children showed that the WASp-positive T cells, B cells, and NK cells carried multiple different second-site mutations, resulting in different missense mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing somatic mosaicism in WAS patients caused by several independent second-site mutations in the WAS gene.

  16. Benefits and limitations of drug studies in temperament research: biochemical responses as indicators of temperament.

    PubMed

    Netter, Petra

    2018-04-19

    This paper presents a discussion of principles and problems of neurotransmitter challenge tests using examples of experiments, most of which were performed in the author's laboratory. Drugs targeting synthesis, release, receptors or reuptake of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenergic transmitter (TM) systems were used for characterizing or discriminating certain temperament or personality traits and their sub-factors. Any personality or temperament trait is characterized by multiple TM responses, thus constellations of hormone responses to drugs acting on different TM systems or on different sources of TM activity were investigated within individuals in crossover designs. The major conclusions are: (i) intra-individual patterns of hormone responses to different TM-related drugs, or to agonists and antagonists, can help to discriminate subtypes of temperament dimensions, and (ii) the latency and shape of response curves may help specify processes of biological responses related to psychological dimensions and reveal common TM sensitivities in clusters of traits. TM sensitivity, defined by hormone responses, does not always correspond to accompanying behavioural indicators, but may provide more specific information on underlying mechanisms. Additional consideration of drug doses and experimental induction of stressors may serve to identify temperament-related susceptibilities to certain drugs. Limitations of the challenge approach and recommendations for future research are discussed.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. [The effect of space flight on metabolism: the results of biochemical research in rat experiments on the Kosmos biosatellites].

    PubMed

    Popova, I A; Grigor'ev, A I

    1992-01-01

    Cosmos biosatellites research program was the unique possibility to study the metabolic features influenced by space flight factors. Based on the existing ideas about relationships between some metabolic responses, the state of metabolism and the systems of its control in the rats flown in space was evaluated to differentiate the processes occurred in microgravity, possibly under effect of this factor and during first postflight hours. The biochemical results of studying the rats exposed to space environments during 7, 14, 18.5 and 19.5 days and sacrificed 4-11 h after landing (Cosmos-782, -936, -1129, -1667, -2044 flight) are used. The major portion of data are in line with understanding that after landing when the microgravity-adapted rats again return to 1-g environments they display an acute stress reaction. A postflight stress reaction is manifested itself in a specific way as compared to adequate and well studied model of acute and chronic stress and dictates subsequent metabolic changes. Postflight together with the acute stressful and progressing readaptation shifts the metabolic signs of previous adaptation to microgravity are shown up. In the absence of engineering feasibility to control or record the state of metabolism inflight it can only presupposed what metabolic status is typical of the animals in space environments and that its development is triggered by a decreased secretion of the biologically active growth hormone. This concept is confirmed by the postflight data.

  18. R-loops cause genomic instability in T helper lymphocytes from patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Koustav; Han, Seong-Su; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Ochs, Hans D; Dupré, Loïc; Seidman, Michael M; Vyas, Yatin M

    2017-12-15

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked neutropenia, which are caused by WAS mutations affecting Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) expression or activity, manifest in immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, genomic instability, and lymphoid and other cancers. WASp supports filamentous actin formation in the cytoplasm and gene transcription in the nucleus. Although the genetic basis for XLT/WAS has been clarified, the relationships between mutant forms of WASp and the diverse features of these disorders remain ill-defined. We sought to define how dysfunctional gene transcription is causally linked to the degree of T H cell deficiency and genomic instability in the XLT/WAS clinical spectrum. In human T H 1- or T H 2-skewing cell culture systems, cotranscriptional R-loops (RNA/DNA duplex and displaced single-stranded DNA) and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were monitored in multiple samples from patients with XLT and WAS and in normal T cells depleted of WASp. WASp deficiency provokes increased R-loops and R-loop-mediated DSBs in T H 1 cells relative to T H 2 cells. Mechanistically, chromatin occupancy of serine 2-unphosphorylated RNA polymerase II is increased, and that of topoisomerase 1, an R-loop preventing factor, is decreased at R-loop-enriched regions of IFNG and TBX21 (T H 1 genes) in T H 1 cells. These aberrations accompany increased unspliced (intron-retained) and decreased spliced mRNA of IFNG and TBX21 but not IL13 (T H 2 gene). Significantly, increased cellular load of R-loops and DSBs, which are normalized on RNaseH1-mediated suppression of ectopic R-loops, inversely correlates with disease severity scores. Transcriptional R-loop imbalance is a novel molecular defect causative in T H 1 immunodeficiency and genomic instability in patients with WAS. The study proposes that cellular R-loop load could be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring symptom severity and prognostic outcome in the XLT-WAS clinical spectrum

  19. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  20. Deletion of Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Marisa A. P.; Keszei, Marton; Oliveira, Mariana; Sunahara, Karen K. S.; Andersson, John; Dahlberg, Carin I. M.; Worth, Austen J.; Liedén, Agne; Kuo, I-Chun; Wallin, Robert P. A.; Snapper, Scott B.; Eidsmo, Liv; Scheynius, Annika; Karlsson, Mikael C. I.; Bouma, Gerben; Burns, Siobhan O.; Forsell, Mattias N. E.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Nylén, Susanne; Westerberg, Lisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFNγ-producing CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8+ T cells at the expense of CD4+ T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells. PMID:27425374

  1. Research and design of an optical system of biochemical analyzer based on the narrow-band pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ze-xin; Chen, Kuan

    2008-03-01

    Biochemical analyzer is one of the important instruments in the clinical diagnosis, and its optical system is the important component. The operation of this optical system can be regard as three parts. The first is transforms the duplicate colored light as the monochromatic light. The second is transforms the light signal of the monochromatic, which have the information of the measured sample, as the electric signal by use the photoelectric detector. And the last is to send the signal to data processing system by use the control system. Generally, there are three types monochromators: prism, optical grating and narrow-band pass filter. Thereinto, the narrow-band pass filter were widely used in the semi-auto biochemical analyzer. Through analysed the principle of biochemical analyzer base on the narrow-band pass filter, we known that the optical has three features. The first is the optical path of the optical system is a non- imaging system. The second, this system is wide spectrum region that contain visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. The third, this is a little aperture and little field monochromatic light system. Therefore, design idea of this optical system is: (1) luminous energy in the system less transmission loss; (2) detector coupled to the luminous energy efficient; mainly correct spherical aberration. Practice showed the point of Image quality evaluation: (1) dispersion circle diameter equal the receiving device pixel effective width of 125%, and the energy distribution should point target of 80% of energy into the receiving device pixel width of the effective diameter in this dispersion circle; (2) With MTF evaluation, the requirements in 20lp/ mm spatial frequency, the MTF values should not be lower than 0.6. The optical system should be fit in with ultraviolet and visible light width spectrum, and the detector image plane can but suited the majority visible light spectrum when by defocus optimization, and the image plane of violet and ultraviolet

  2. SPECIFIC UV ABSORBANCE OF ALDRICH HUMIC ACID: CHANGES DURING TRANSPORT IN AQUIFER SEDIMENT. (R826650)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. LACK OF FRACTIONATION OF ALDRICH HUMIC ACID DURING TRANSPORT IN DNAPL-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT. (R826650)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Two sisters with clinical diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: Is the condition in the family autosomal recessive?

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, T.; Hayashi, K.; Matsumoto, T.

    1995-10-09

    We report two sisters in a family representing manifestations of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked immunodeficiency disorder. An elder sister had suffered from recurrent infections, small thrombocytopenic petechiae, purpura, and eczema for 7 years. The younger sister had the same manifestations as the elder sister`s for a 2-year period, and died of intracranial bleeding at age 2 years. All the laboratory data of the two patients were compatible with WAS, although they were females. Sialophorin analysis with the selective radioactive labeling method of this protein revealed that in the elder sister a 115-KD band that should be specific for sialophorinmore » was reduced in quantity, and instead an additional 135-KD fragment was present as a main band. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the sialophorin gene and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the PCR product demonstrated that there were no detectable size-change nor electrophoretic mobility change in the DNA from both patients. The results indicated that their sialophorin gene structure might be normal. Studies on the mother-daughter transmission of X chromosome using a pERT84-MaeIII polymorphic marker mapped at Xp21 and HPRT gene polymorphism at Xq26 suggested that each sister had inherited a different X chromosome from the mother. Two explanations are plausible for the occurrence of the WAS in our patients: the WAS in the patients is attributable to an autosomal gene mutation which may regulate the sialophorin gene expression through the WAS gene, or, alternatively, the condition in this family is an autosomal recessive disorder separated etiologically from the X-linked WAS. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  5. Novel mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein gene and their effects on transcriptional, translational, and clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lemahieu, V; Gastier, J M; Francke, U

    1999-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency characterized by thrombocytopenia, eczema, and recurrent infections, and caused by mutations in the WAS protein (WASP) gene. WASP contains several functional domains through which it interacts with proteins involved in intracellular signaling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. In this report, 17 WASP gene mutations were identified, 12 of which are novel. DNA of affected males and obligate carriers was PCR amplified and analyzed by SSCA, heteroduplex analysis, and direct sequencing. The effects of the mutations at the mRNA and protein level were ascertained by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. All missense mutations were located in exons 1-4. Most of the nonsense, frameshift and splice site mutations were found in exons 6-11. Mutations that alter splice sites led to the synthesis of several types of mRNAs, a fraction of which represented the normally spliced product. The presence of normally spliced transcripts was correlated with a milder phenotype. When one such case was studied by Western blotting, reduced amounts of normal-size WASP were present. In other cases as well, a correlation was found between the amount of normal or mutant WASP present and the phenotypes of the affected individuals. No protein was detected in two individuals with severe WAS. Reduced levels of a normal-size WASP with a missense mutation were seen in two individuals with XLT. It is concluded that mutation analysis at the DNA level is not sufficient for predicting clinical course. Studies at the transcript and protein level are needed for a better assessment.

  6. Successful Reduced Intensity Allogeneic Transplant With Full Donor Chimerism and Good Quality of Life in Adolescent Patient With Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Salah; Gacsadi, Anna; McDougall, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Christine; Krueger, Joerg; Schechter, Tal; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked disease characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, immune deficiency, and autoimmune phenomena. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment. Myeloablative conditioning is the most common regimen used for HSCT in patients with WAS to avoid the risk of mixed donor chimerism and autoimmunity post-HSCT. There is limited data on the use of reduced intensity conditioning for HSCT in patients with WAS. Here, we report a case with severe phenotype of WAS transplanted successfully with reduced intensity conditioning, which is an acceptable conditioning regimen and can be considered in patients with WAS with significantly impaired organ functions.

  7. Researchers Hooked on Teaching. Noted Scholars Discuss the Synergies of Teaching and Research. Foundations for Organizational Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Rae, Ed.; Frost, Peter J., Ed.

    This collection of 19 essays is organized into a narrative of the teaching-research dilemma. The essays include: (1) "Struggling With Balance" (Cynthia V. Fukami); (2) "My Career as a Teacher: Promise, Failure, Redemption" (Howard E. Aldrich); (3) "Teaching and Research: A Puzzling Dichotomy" (Barbara A. Gutek); (4)…

  8. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  9. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  10. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  11. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is required for NK cell cytotoxicity and colocalizes with actin to NK cell-activating immunologic synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orange, Jordan S.; Ramesh, Narayanaswamy; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Sasahara, Yoji; Koopman, Louise; Byrne, Michael; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Rosen, Fred S.; Geha, Raif S.; Strominger, Jack L.

    2002-08-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by a mutation in WAS protein (WASp) that results in defective actin polymerization. Although the function of many hematopoietic cells requires WASp, the specific expression and function of this molecule in natural killer (NK) cells is unknown. Here, we report that WAS patients have increased percentages of peripheral blood NK cells and that fresh enriched NK cells from two patients with a WASp mutation have defective cytolytic function. In normal NK cells, WASp was expressed and localized to the activating immunologic synapse (IS) with filamentous actin (F-actin). Perforin also localized to the NK cell-activating IS but at a lesser frequency than F-actin and WASp. The accumulation of F-actin and WASp at the activating IS was decreased significantly in NK cells that had been treated with the inhibitor of actin polymerization, cytochalasin D. NK cells from WAS patients lacked expression of WASp and accumulated F-actin at the activating IS infrequently. Thus, WASp has an important function in NK cells. In patients with WASp mutations, the resulting NK cell defects are likely to contribute to their disease.

  12. A large kindred with X-linked neutropenia with an I294T mutation of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene.

    PubMed

    Beel, Karolien; Cotter, Melanie M; Blatny, Jan; Bond, Jonathan; Lucas, Geoff; Green, Frances; Vanduppen, Vik; Leung, Daisy W; Rooney, Sean; Smith, Owen P; Rosen, Michael K; Vandenberghe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    X-linked neutropenia (XLN, OMIM #300299) is a rare form of severe congenital neutropenia. It was originally described in a three-generation family with five affected members that had an L270P mutation in the GTP-ase binding domain (GBD) of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) [Devriendt et al (2001) Nature Genetics, Vol. 27, 313-317]. Here, we report and describe a large three-generation family with XLN, with 10 affected males and eight female carriers. A c.882T>C mutation was identified in the WAS gene, resulting in an I294T mutation. The infectious course is variable and mild in view of the profound neutropenia. In addition to the original description, low-normal IgA levels, low to low-normal platelet counts and reduced natural killer (NK)-cell counts also appear as consistent XLN features. However, inverted CD4/CD8 ratios were not found in this family, nor were cases identified with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia. Female carriers exhibited a variable attenuated phenotype. Like L270P WASP, I294T WASP is constitutively active towards actin polymerization. In conclusion, this largest XLN kindred identified to date provides new independent genetic evidence that mutations disrupting the auto-inhibitory GBD of WASP are the cause of XLN. Reduced NK cells, low to low normal platelet counts and low to low-normal IgA levels are also features of XLN.

  13. Structures of actin-bound Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domains of Spire and the implication for filament nucleation.

    PubMed

    Ducka, Anna M; Joel, Peteranne; Popowicz, Grzegorz M; Trybus, Kathleen M; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A; Sitar, Tomasz

    2010-06-29

    Three classes of proteins are known to nucleate new filaments: the Arp2/3 complex, formins, and the third group of proteins that contain ca. 25 amino acid long actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 domains, called the WH2 repeats. Crystal structures of the complexes between the actin-binding WH2 repeats of the Spire protein and actin were determined for the Spire single WH2 domain D, the double (SpirCD), triple (SpirBCD), quadruple (SpirABCD) domains, and an artificial Spire WH2 construct comprising three identical D repeats (SpirDDD). SpirCD represents the minimal functional core of Spire that can nucleate actin filaments. Packing in the crystals of the actin complexes with SpirCD, SpirBCD, SpirABCD, and SpirDDD shows the presence of two types of assemblies, "side-to-side" and "straight-longitudinal," which can serve as actin filament nuclei. The principal feature of these structures is their loose, open conformations, in which the sides of actins that normally constitute the inner interface core of a filament are flipped inside out. These Spire structures are distant from those seen in the filamentous nuclei of Arp2/3, formins, and in the F-actin filament.

  14. Structures of actin-bound Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domains of Spire and the implication for filament nucleation

    PubMed Central

    Ducka, Anna M.; Joel, Peteranne; Popowicz, Grzegorz M.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A.; Huber, Robert; Holak, Tad A.; Sitar, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Three classes of proteins are known to nucleate new filaments: the Arp2/3 complex, formins, and the third group of proteins that contain ca. 25 amino acid long actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 domains, called the WH2 repeats. Crystal structures of the complexes between the actin-binding WH2 repeats of the Spire protein and actin were determined for the Spire single WH2 domain D, the double (SpirCD), triple (SpirBCD), quadruple (SpirABCD) domains, and an artificial Spire WH2 construct comprising three identical D repeats (SpirDDD). SpirCD represents the minimal functional core of Spire that can nucleate actin filaments. Packing in the crystals of the actin complexes with SpirCD, SpirBCD, SpirABCD, and SpirDDD shows the presence of two types of assemblies, “side-to-side” and “straight-longitudinal,” which can serve as actin filament nuclei. The principal feature of these structures is their loose, open conformations, in which the sides of actins that normally constitute the inner interface core of a filament are flipped inside out. These Spire structures are distant from those seen in the filamentous nuclei of Arp2/3, formins, and in the F-actin filament. PMID:20538977

  15. Abelson Interactor 1 (Abi1) and Its Interaction with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (Wasp) Are Critical for Proper Eye Formation in Xenopus Embryos*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Winterbottom, Emily F.; Ji, Yon Ju; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Daar, Ira O.

    2013-01-01

    Abl interactor 1 (Abi1) is a scaffold protein that plays a central role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics as a constituent of several key protein complexes, and homozygous loss of this protein leads to embryonic lethality in mice. Because this scaffold protein has been shown in cultured cells to be a critical component of pathways controlling cell migration and actin regulation at cell-cell contacts, we were interested to investigate the in vivo role of Abi1 in morphogenesis during the development of Xenopus embryos. Using morpholino-mediated translation inhibition, we demonstrate that knockdown of Abi1 in the whole embryo, or specifically in eye field progenitor cells, leads to disruption of eye morphogenesis. Moreover, signaling through the Src homology 3 domain of Abi1 is critical for proper movement of retinal progenitor cells into the eye field and their appropriate differentiation, and this process is dependent upon an interaction with the nucleation-promoting factor Wasp (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein). Collectively, our data demonstrate that the Abi1 scaffold protein is an essential regulator of cell movement processes required for normal eye development in Xenopus embryos and specifically requires an Src homology 3 domain-dependent interaction with Wasp to regulate this complex morphogenetic process. PMID:23558677

  16. Decreased expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 2 may be involved in the development of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Luo, Xin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Xuemei; Qi, Hongbo; Liu, Xiru; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Li; Yang, Zhongmei

    2014-01-01

    Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2) is a protein that mediates actin cytoskeletal reorganization and lamellipodia protrusion formation, which are required for cell migration and invasion. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and WAVE2 in pre-eclampsia, and whether WAVE2 expression in trophoblast cells is vulnerable to oxidative stress. This study observed excessive generation of ROS and decreased expression of WAVE2 in pre-eclamptic placentas compared with normotensive controls. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between ROS and WAVE2 protein in pre-eclamptic placenta (P < 0.001). An in-vitro model of hypoxia–reoxygenation (H/R) was used to imitate oxidative stress in placental trophoblasts, and it was found that the expression of WAVE2 protein in trophoblasts was decreased after H/R treatment. Additionally, compared with normoxia, decreased cell proliferation, higher cell apoptosis and attenuated cell migration and invasion were detected in trophoblasts exposed to H/R. In conclusion, the findings strongly suggest that excessive oxidative stress can decrease WAVE2 expression in trophoblasts and that the decreased expression of WAVE2 in trophoblast cells may be involved in the development of pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ALTERED UV/TOC OF INDIVIDUAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT FRACTIONS OF ALDRICH HUMIC ACID AFTER INTERACTION WITH SEDIMENT. (R826650)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, J. E.; Ollis, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a biochemical engineering course that is offered as part of a chemical engineering curriculum and includes topics that influence the behavior of man-made or natural microbial or enzyme reactors. (MLH)

  19. MicroRNA-214-5p Inhibits the Invasion and Migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Targeting Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Like.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongdan; Wang, Haoqi; Ren, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-214-5p (miR-214-5p) on the invasion and migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma cells (HCC). Hepatocellular Carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 44 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were prepared for this study. The HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells were transfected with miR-214-5p mimic and inhibitor. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expressions of miR-214-5p. Transwell assays were used to detect the invasion and migration assays in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the effect of miR-214-5p on Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Like (WASL/ N-WASP). Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to measure the expressions of the E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin proteins. Transwell chamber assays were performed to detect cell invasion and migration. Compared with normal tissues, HCC tissues demonstrated significantly lower expression of miR-214-5p. Overexpression of miR-214-5p significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCC cells and inhibition of miR-214-5p promoted the migration and invasion. Additionally, miR-214-5p suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further study showed WASL was a putative target gene of miR-214-5p. Up-regulating the expression of WASL could reverse the inhibition effect of miR-214-5p on invasion and migration. Our data suggested that miR-214-5p inhibited the invasion and migration of HepG2 and BEL-7402 by targeting WASL in Hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Increased expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein 2 correlated with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian-Yue; Tao, Yi-Ming; Ou, Di-Peng; Wang, Wei; Chang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Fan

    2006-10-01

    Because of its role in cell migration, the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) 2 has been implicated in cancer metastasis. Evidence to support such a role of WAVE2 in human cancer, however, is lacking. We thus examined the expression of WAVE2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues to test whether the levels of WAVE2 expression correlated to the progression of HCC. Samples of 112 HCC patients were determined immunohistochemically for WAVE2 expression and the correlation of WAVE2 levels with prognosis was analyzed. Among the 112 cases, 31 paired HCC and paracarcinomatous liver tissue specimens were analyzed for WAVE2 levels by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Among 112 cases of HCCs, the immunohistochemistry data indicated significant increase of WAVE2 expression levels in 71 cases. Importantly, the increased WAVE2 expression correlated with the multiple tumor nodules (P = 0.008), the absence of capsular formation (P = 0.035), Edmondson-Steiner grade (P = 0.009), vein invasion (P = 0.023), and a shortened median survival time (326 versus 512 days; P = 0.003). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed the WAVE2 expression level was an independent factor for prognosis. The immunohistochemistry data were further confirmed by results of reverse transcription-PCR and Western analysis of 31 HCC cases, in which the WAVE2 mRNA and protein in HCC tissues were significantly elevated when compared with paracarcinomatous liver tissue (P < 0.001). WAVE2 expression is elevated in HCC tissues, which correlates with a poor prognosis, suggesting WAVE2 as a candidate prognostic marker of HCC.

  1. Coexpression of actin-related protein 2 and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family verproline-homologous protein 2 in adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Semba, Seitaro; Iwaya, Keiichi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Serizawa, Hiromi; Kataba, Hiroaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kato, Harubumi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Mukai, Kiyoshi

    2006-04-15

    Highly invasive and metastatic cancer cells, such as adenocarcinoma of the lung cells, form irregular protrusions by assembling a branched network of actin filaments. In mammalian cells, the actin-related protein 2 and 3 (Arp2/3) complex initiates actin assembly to form lamellipodial protrusions by binding to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WASP)/WASP family verproline-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2). In this study, colocalization of Arp2 and WAVE2 in adenocarcinoma of the lung was investigated to elucidate its prognostic value. Immunohistochemical staining of Arp2 and WAVE2 was done on mirror sections of 115 adenocarcinomas of the lung from pathologic stage IA to IIIA classes. Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival and overall survival curves were analyzed to determine the prognostic significance of the coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2. Immunoreactivity for both Arp2 and WAVE2 was detected in the same cancer cells in 78 (67.8%) of the 115 lung cancer specimens. The proportion of cancer cells expressing both Arp2 and WAVE2 was significantly higher in cases with lymph-node metastasis (P = 0.0046), and significantly lower in bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (P < 0.0001). The patients whose cancer cells coexpressed them had a shorter disease-free survival time (P < 0.0001) and overall survival time (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 is an independent risk factor for tumor recurrence. Coexpression of Arp2 and WAVE2 is correlated with poorer patient outcome, and may be involved in the mechanism of cancer metastasis.

  2. Nanoparticles as biochemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Faddah, Layla M

    2010-01-01

    There is little doubt that nanoparticles offer real and new opportunities in many fields, such as biomedicine and materials science. Such particles are small enough to enter almost all areas of the body, including cells and organelles, potentially leading to new approaches in nanomedicine. Sensors for small molecules of biochemical interest are of critical importance. This review is an attempt to trace the use of nanomaterials in biochemical sensor design. The possibility of using nanoparticles functionalized with antibodies as markers for proteins will be elucidated. Moreover, capabilities and applications for nanoparticles based on gold, silver, magnetic, and semiconductor materials (quantum dots), used in optical (absorbance, luminescence, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical, and mass-sensitive sensors will be highlighted. The unique ability of nanosensors to improve the analysis of biochemical fluids is discussed either through considering the use of nanoparticles for in vitro molecular diagnosis, or in the biological/biochemical analysis for in vivo interaction with the human body. PMID:24198472

  3. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  4. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  5. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  6. Effect of race on biochemical disease-free outcome in patients with prostate cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy in an equal-access health care system: radiation oncology report of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Peter A S; Kane, Christopher J; Sun, Leon; Wu, Hongyu; Moul, Judd W; McLeod, David G; Martin, Douglas D; Kusuda, Leo; Lance, Raymond; Douglas, Robert; Donahue, Timothy; Beat, Michael G; Foley, John; Baldwin, Dalton; Soderdahl, Douglas; Do, Jason; Amling, Christopher L

    2002-11-01

    To report on the first collaboration of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research concerned with the relationship between African American race and biochemical disease-free outcomes after definitive radiation therapy. Information from the medical records of 1,806 patients (1,349 white, 343 African American, 42 of "other" races, and 72 of "unknown" races) treated with definitive radiation therapy between 1973 and 2000 was reviewed. Patients receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy or postoperative adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were excluded. Biochemical failure was calculated in over 96% of cases by using ASTRO criteria; patients with fewer than three follow-up visits were considered to have biochemical failure with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value more than 10-fold the previous value or with any value greater than 50.0 ng/mL. Median radiation therapy doses were similar. The median follow-up was 58.4 months. Kaplan-Meier tests, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, and log-rank tests were used for data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival according to race when patients were stratified according to T stage. African American race conferred a negative prognosis for patients with lesions of Gleason biopsy score 7 (P =.004) but not for patients with lesions of Gleason score 2-4 (P =.14), 5-6 (P =.79), or 8-10 (P =.86). Similarly, African American race conferred a negative prognosis in patients with PSA values of 20.1-50.0 ng/mL (P =.01) at presentation but not in patients with PSA values less than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL (P =.84), 4.1-10.0 ng/mL (P =.71), 10.1-20.0 ng/mL (P =.75), or above 50.0 ng/mL (P =.15) at presentation. At multivariate analysis, race was not a statistically significant predictor of outcome. In the equal-access health care system of the Department of Defense, African American race is not associated with a consistently negative prognosis in patients

  7. BNDB - the Biochemical Network Database.

    PubMed

    Küntzer, Jan; Backes, Christina; Blum, Torsten; Gerasch, Andreas; Kaufmann, Michael; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

    2007-10-02

    Technological advances in high-throughput techniques and efficient data acquisition methods have resulted in a massive amount of life science data. The data is stored in numerous databases that have been established over the last decades and are essential resources for scientists nowadays. However, the diversity of the databases and the underlying data models make it difficult to combine this information for solving complex problems in systems biology. Currently, researchers typically have to browse several, often highly focused, databases to obtain the required information. Hence, there is a pressing need for more efficient systems for integrating, analyzing, and interpreting these data. The standardization and virtual consolidation of the databases is a major challenge resulting in a unified access to a variety of data sources. We present the Biochemical Network Database (BNDB), a powerful relational database platform, allowing a complete semantic integration of an extensive collection of external databases. BNDB is built upon a comprehensive and extensible object model called BioCore, which is powerful enough to model most known biochemical processes and at the same time easily extensible to be adapted to new biological concepts. Besides a web interface for the search and curation of the data, a Java-based viewer (BiNA) provides a powerful platform-independent visualization and navigation of the data. BiNA uses sophisticated graph layout algorithms for an interactive visualization and navigation of BNDB. BNDB allows a simple, unified access to a variety of external data sources. Its tight integration with the biochemical network library BN++ offers the possibility for import, integration, analysis, and visualization of the data. BNDB is freely accessible at http://www.bndb.org.

  8. Biochemical Characterization of Prions.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Michele; Bongianni, Matilde; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    Prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by the presence of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP Sc ). The pathological and transmissible properties of PrP Sc are enciphered in its secondary and tertiary structures. Since it's well established that different strains of prions are linked to different conformations of PrP Sc , biochemical characterization of prions seems a preliminary but reliable approach to detect, analyze, and compare prion strains. Experimental biochemical procedures might be helpful in distinguishing PrP Sc physicochemical properties and include resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion, insolubility in nonionic detergents, PK-resistance under denaturing conditions and sedimentation properties in sucrose gradients. This biochemical approach has been extensively applied in human prion disorders and subsequently expanded for PrP Sc characterization in animals. In particular, in sporadic Creutzfedlt-Jakob disease (sCJD) PrP Sc is characterized by two main glycotypes conventionally named Type 1 and Type 2, based on the apparent gel migration at 21 and 19kDa of the PrP Sc PK-resistant fragment. An additional PrP Sc type was identified in sCJD characterized by an unglycosylated dominant glycoform pattern and in 2010 a variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) was reported showing a PrP Sc with an electrophoretic ladder like pattern. Additionally, the presence of PrP Sc truncated fragments completes the electrophoretic characterization of different prion strains. By two-dimensional (2D) electrophoretic analysis additional PrP Sc pattern was identified, since this procedure provides information about the isoelectric point and the different peptides length related to PK cleavage, as well as to glycosylation extent or GPI anchor presence. We here provide and extensive review on PrP Sc biochemical analysis in human and animal prion disorders. Further, we show that PrP Sc glycotypes observed in CJD share

  9. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  10. Biochemical Reversal of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2006-03-01

    We cite our progress on biochemical reversal of aging. However, it may be circa 2 years before we have necessary substances at low cost. Meanwhile, without them, a number of measures can be adopted providing marked improvement for the problems of aging in modern societies. For example, enzymes are needed to excrete toxins that accelerate aging; Hg is the ultimate toxin that disables all enzymes (including those needed to excrete Hg itself). Low Hg level in the urine, due to loss of excretory ability, causes the diagnosis of Hg toxicity to almost always be missed. Hg sources must be removed from the body! Another example is excess sugar; hyperglycemia decreases intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) by competitively inhibiting the insulin- mediated active transport of AA into cells. Thus, immunity is impaired by low leucocyte AA. AA is needed for new proteins in aging tissues. Humans must supplement AA; their need same as in AA-synthesizing mammals.

  11. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI) study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges associated with our ageing population is the increasing incidence of age-associated cognitive decline, which has significant implications for an individual's ability to lead a productive and fulfilling life. In pure economic terms the costs of ageing reflects decreased productivity and engagement with the workforce. The maintenance of brain health underpinning intact cognition is a key factor to maintaining a positive, engaged, and productive lifestyle. In light of this, the role of diet, including supplementation with nutritional and even pharmacological interventions capable of ameliorating the neurocognitive changes that occur with age constitute vital areas of research. Methods In order to reduce cognitive ageing, the ARC longevity intervention (ARCLI) was developed to examine the effects of two promising natural pharmacologically active supplements on cognitive performance. ARCLI is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-arm clinical trial in which 465 participants will be randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI08 300 mg/day), Pycnogenol (150 mg/day), or placebo daily for 12 months. Participants will be tested at baseline and then at 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomization on a wide battery of cognitive, neuropsychological and mood measures, cardiovascular (brachial and aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as arterial stiffness), biochemical (assays to measure inflammation, oxidative stress and safety) as well as genetic assessments (telomere length and several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). The primary aim is to investigate the effects of these supplements on cognitive performance. The secondary aims are to explore the time-course of cognitive enhancement as well as potential cardiovascular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning cognitive enhancement over the 12 months of administration. ARCLI will represent one of the largest and most comprehensive experimental clinical

  12. A Course in... Biochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Terry K-L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for senior undergraduates and first year graduate students in biochemical engineering. Discusses five experiments used in the course: aseptic techniques, dissolved oxygen measurement, oxygen uptake by yeast, continuous sterilization, and cultivation of microorganisms. (MVL)

  13. [Research in the PhD Program led by János Fehér between 1993 and 2010 at the Biochemical Research Laboratory, 2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University].

    PubMed

    Blázovics, Anna

    2010-11-21

    Author wish to express gratitude to late professor János Fehér for the invitation to participate in "Free Radical and Immunological References of Hepatology" PhD program in 1993 and for providing opportunity to establish a laboratory at the 2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University. He established a joint medical and biological research that is continuing unbrokenly. In this research group, between 1993 and 2010, eleven Ph.D. students received their scientific degrees and two candidate dissertations were prepared. Three students are working in this very exciting field even today. Author would like to salute before János Fehér's remembrance by giving a list of results of topics under her leadership.

  14. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  16. WASp family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) engage in distinct downstream signaling interactions at the T cell antigen receptor site.

    PubMed

    Pauker, Maor H; Reicher, Barak; Joseph, Noah; Wortzel, Inbal; Jakubowicz, Shlomi; Noy, Elad; Perl, Orly; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-12-12

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement has been shown to activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal polymerization and reorganization, which are essential for lymphocyte activation and function. Several actin regulatory proteins were implicated in regulating the actin machinery, such as members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family. These include WASp and the WASp family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2). Although WASp and WAVE2 share several structural features, the precise regulatory mechanisms and potential redundancy between them have not been fully characterized. Specifically, unlike WASp, the dynamic molecular interactions that regulate WAVE2 recruitment to the cell membrane and specifically to the TCR signaling complex are largely unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism that controls the recruitment of WAVE2 in comparison with WASp. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and novel triple-color FRET (3FRET) technology, we demonstrate how WAVE2 signaling complexes are dynamically regulated during lymphocyte activation in vivo. We show that, similar to WASp, WAVE2 recruitment to the TCR site depends on protein-tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70, and the adaptors LAT, SLP-76, and Nck. However, in contrast to WASp, WAVE2 leaves this signaling complex and migrates peripherally together with vinculin to the membrane leading edge. Our experiments demonstrate that WASp and WAVE2 differ in their dynamics and their associated proteins. Thus, this study reveals the differential mechanisms regulating the function of these cytoskeletal proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. WASp Family Verprolin-homologous Protein-2 (WAVE2) and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASp) Engage in Distinct Downstream Signaling Interactions at the T Cell Antigen Receptor Site*

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Maor H.; Reicher, Barak; Joseph, Noah; Wortzel, Inbal; Jakubowicz, Shlomi; Noy, Elad; Perl, Orly; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-01-01

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement has been shown to activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal polymerization and reorganization, which are essential for lymphocyte activation and function. Several actin regulatory proteins were implicated in regulating the actin machinery, such as members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family. These include WASp and the WASp family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2). Although WASp and WAVE2 share several structural features, the precise regulatory mechanisms and potential redundancy between them have not been fully characterized. Specifically, unlike WASp, the dynamic molecular interactions that regulate WAVE2 recruitment to the cell membrane and specifically to the TCR signaling complex are largely unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism that controls the recruitment of WAVE2 in comparison with WASp. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and novel triple-color FRET (3FRET) technology, we demonstrate how WAVE2 signaling complexes are dynamically regulated during lymphocyte activation in vivo. We show that, similar to WASp, WAVE2 recruitment to the TCR site depends on protein-tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70, and the adaptors LAT, SLP-76, and Nck. However, in contrast to WASp, WAVE2 leaves this signaling complex and migrates peripherally together with vinculin to the membrane leading edge. Our experiments demonstrate that WASp and WAVE2 differ in their dynamics and their associated proteins. Thus, this study reveals the differential mechanisms regulating the function of these cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:25342748

  18. Biochemical mechanisms of cisplatin cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Victoria; Fuertes, Miguel A; Castilla, Josefina; Alonso, Carlos; Quevedo, Celia; Pérez, Jose M

    2007-01-01

    Since the discovery by Rosenberg and collaborators of the antitumor activity of cisplatin 35 years ago, three platinum antitumor drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) have enjoyed a huge clinical and commercial hit. Ever since the initial discovery of the anticancer activity of cisplatin, major efforts have been devoted to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms of antitumor activity of cisplatin in order to be able to rationally design novel platinum based drugs with superior pharmacological profiles. In this report we attempt to provide a current picture of the known facts pertaining to the mechanism of action of the drug, including those involved in drug uptake, DNA damage signals transduction, and cell death through apoptosis or necrosis. A deep knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms, which are triggered in the tumor cell in response to cisplatin injury not only may lead to the design of more efficient platinum antitumor drugs but also may provide new therapeutic strategies based on the biochemical modulation of cisplatin activity.

  19. Biochemical Testing in Thyroid Disorders.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Nazanene H; Papaleontiou, Maria

    2017-09-01

    This article summarizes the main principles for the appropriate use of laboratory testing in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, as well as controversies that have arisen in association with some of these biochemical tests. To place a test in perspective, its sensitivity and accuracy should be taken into account. Ordering the correct laboratory tests facilitates the early diagnosis of a thyroid disorder and allows for timely and appropriate treatment. This article focuses on a comprehensive update regarding thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine/triiodothyronine, thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin. Clinical uses of these biochemical tests are outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-10-05

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant dieckol downregulates the Rac1/ROS signaling pathway and inhibits Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2)-mediated invasive migration of B16 mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Joo; Kim, Yong Tae; Jeon, You Jin

    2012-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is linked to dynamic actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is involved in tumor cell motility and metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ROS generation and actin polymerization in tumor cells may represent an effective anticancer strategy. However, the molecular basis of this signaling pathway is currently unknown. Here, we show that the Ecklonia cava-derived antioxidant dieckol downregulates the Rac1/ROS signaling pathway and inhibits Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2)-mediated invasive migration of B16 mouse melanoma cells. Steady-state intracellular ROS levels were higher in malignant B16F10 cells than in parental, nonmetastatic B16F0 cells. Elevation of ROS by H(2)O(2) treatment increased migration and invasion ability of B16F0 cells to level similar to that of B16F10 cells, suggesting that intracellular ROS signaling mediates the prometastatic properties of B16 mouse melanoma cells. ROS levels and the cell migration and invasion ability of B16 melanoma cells correlated with Rac1 activation and WAVE2 expression. Overexpression of dominant negative Rac1 and depletion of WAVE2 by siRNA suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced cell invasion of B16F0 and B16F10 cells. Similarly, dieckol attenuates the ROS-mediated Rac1 activation and WAVE2 expression, resulting in decreased migration and invasion of B16 melanoma cells. In addition, we found that dieckol decreases association between WAVE2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p47(phox). Therefore, this finding suggests that WAVE2 acts to couple intracellular Rac1/ROS signaling to the invasive migration of B16 melanoma cells, which is inhibited by dieckol.

  2. Antioxidant Dieckol Downregulates the Rac1/ROS Signaling Pathway and Inhibits Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP)-Family Verprolin-Homologous Protein 2 (WAVE2)-Mediated Invasive Migration of B16 Mouse Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Joo; Kim, Yong Tae; Jeon, You Jin

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is linked to dynamic actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is involved in tumor cell motility and metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ROS generation and actin polymerization in tumor cells may represent an effective anticancer strategy. However, the molecular basis of this signaling pathway is currently unknown. Here, we show that the Ecklonia cava-derived antioxidant dieckol downregulates the Rac1/ROS signaling pathway and inhibits Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2)-mediated invasive migration of B16 mouse melanoma cells. Steady-state intracellular ROS levels were higher in malignant B16F10 cells than in parental, nonmetastatic B16F0 cells. Elevation of ROS by H2O2 treatment increased migration and invasion ability of B16F0 cells to level similar to that of B16F10 cells, suggesting that intracellular ROS signaling mediates the prometastatic properties of B16 mouse melanoma cells. ROS levels and the cell migration and invasion ability of B16 melanoma cells correlated with Rac1 activation and WAVE2 expression. Overexpression of dominant negative Rac1 and depletion of WAVE2 by siRNA suppressed H2O2-induced cell invasion of B16F0 and B16F10 cells. Similarly, dieckol attenuates the ROS-mediated Rac1 activation and WAVE2 expression, resulting in decreased migration and invasion of B16 melanoma cells. In addition, we found that dieckol decreases association between WAVE2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox. Therefore, this finding suggests that WAVE2 acts to couple intracellular Rac1/ROS signaling to the invasive migration of B16 melanoma cells, which is inhibited by dieckol. PMID:22441674

  3. Weak Perturbations of Biochemical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailey, Paul

    2001-03-01

    Biochemical oscillators may play important roles in gene regulation, circadian rhythms, physiological signaling, and sensory processes. These oscillations typically occur inside cells where the small numbers of reacting molecules result in fluctuations in the oscillation period. Some oscillation mechanisms have been reported that resist fluctuations and produce more stable oscillations. In this paper, we consider the use of biochemical oscillators as sensors by comparing inherent fluctuations with the effects of weak perturbations to one of the reactants. Such systems could be used to produce graded responses to weak stimuli. For example, a leading hypothesis to explain geomagnetic navigation in migrating birds and other animals is based on magnetochemical reactions. Because the magnitude of magnetochemical effects is small at geomagnetic field strengths, a sensitive, noise resistant detection scheme would be required.

  4. Effect of age on biochemical disease-free outcome in patients with T1-T3 prostate cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy in an equal-access health care system: a radiation oncology report of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Peter A S; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Moul, Judd W; Sun, Leon; Wu, Hongyu; McLeod, David G; Kane, Christopher J; Martin, Douglas D; Kusuda, Leo; Lance, Raymond; Douglas, Robert; Donahue, Timothy; Beat, Michael G; Foley, John; Chung, Andrew; Soderdahl, Douglas; Do, Jason; Amling, Christopher L

    2003-03-15

    It has traditionally been a common perception that young age is a negative prognostic factor in prostate cancer (CaP). Furthermore, many urologists believe that younger patients are better suited to surgery rather than radiotherapy (RT) because of this perception. However, the data on the effect of age on outcome in patients with CaP are unclear. The records of the Department of Defense Center for Prostate Disease Research were queried for the biochemical disease-free results of patients after definitive RT and analyzed by age. The records of 1018 patients with T1-T3 CaP treated with definitive RT between 1988 and 2000 were reviewed. The records of patients receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy or adjuvant or salvage RT postoperatively were excluded. Biochemical failure was calculated by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology criteria. The median potential follow-up was 85.3 months as of December 31, 2001. Age did not affect biochemical disease-free survival significantly when considered as <60 vs. >/=60 years (p = 0.646), by decade (p = 0.329), or as a continuous variable (correlation coefficient r = 0.017, regression slope = 0.007, with p = 0.588 and R(2) < 0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, age was still not significant (p = 0.408). Other variables analyzed were pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.001), Gleason sum (p = 0.023), stage (p = 0.828), and RT dose (p = 0.033). Age and biochemical disease-free survival after RT for CaP are not related. Age may not be a valid factor in choosing between primary treatment options for CaP.

  5. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  6. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  7. Biochemical responses of the Skylab crewman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The biochemical investigations of the Skylab crewmen were designed to study the physiological changes that were observed on flight crews returning from previous space flight missions as well as to study those changes expected to result from prolonged weightless exposure. These studies can be divided into two broad categories. One category included routine blood studies similar to those used in clinical medical practice. The second included research-type endocrine analyses used to investigate more thoroughly the metabolic/endocrine responses to the space flight environment. The premission control values indicated that all Skylab crewmen were healthy and were free from biochemical abnormalities. The routine results during and after flight showed slight but significant changes in electrolytes, glucose, total protein, osmolality, uric acid, cholesterol, and creatinine. Plasma hormal changes included adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol, angiotensin I, aldosterone, insulin, and thyroxine. The 24-hour urine analyses results revealed increased excretion of cortisol, catecholamines, antidiuretic hormone, and aldosterone as well as excretion of significant electrolyte and uric acid during the Skylab flights.

  8. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  10. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Francesca Mossuto, Maria; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Maria Doglia, Silvia; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB. PMID:26223695

  12. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    PubMed

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  13. Consensus report of the Working Group on: "Molecular and Biochemical Markers of Alzheimer's Disease". The Ronald and Nancy Reagan Research Institute of the Alzheimer's Association and the National Institute on Aging Working Group.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The ideal biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) should detect a fundamental feature of neuropathology and be validated in neuropathologically-confirmed cases; it should have a sensitivity >80% for detecting AD and a specificity of >80% for distinguishing other dementias; it should be reliable, reproducible, non-invasive, simple to perform, and inexpensive. Recommended steps to establish a biomarker include confirmation by at least two independent studies conducted by qualified investigators with the results published in peer-reviewed journals. Our review of current candidate markers indicates that for suspected early-onset familial AD, it is appropriate to search for mutations in the presenilin 1, presenilin 2, and amyloid precursor protein genes. Individuals with these mutations typically have increased levels of the amyloid Abeta42 peptide in plasma and decreased levels of APPs in cerebrospinal fluid. In late-onset and sporadic AD, these measures are not useful, but detecting an apolipoprotein E e4 allele can add confidence to the clinical diagnosis. Among the other proposed molecular and biochemical markers for sporadic AD, cerebrospinal fluid assays showing low levels of Abeta42 and high levels of tau come closest to fulfilling criteria for a useful biomarker.

  14. Modeling of uncertainties in biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Mišković, Ljubiša; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-02-01

    Mathematical modeling is an indispensable tool for research and development in biotechnology and bioengineering. The formulation of kinetic models of biochemical networks depends on knowledge of the kinetic properties of the enzymes of the individual reactions. However, kinetic data acquired from experimental observations bring along uncertainties due to various experimental conditions and measurement methods. In this contribution, we propose a novel way to model the uncertainty in the enzyme kinetics and to predict quantitatively the responses of metabolic reactions to the changes in enzyme activities under uncertainty. The proposed methodology accounts explicitly for mechanistic properties of enzymes and physico-chemical and thermodynamic constraints, and is based on formalism from systems theory and metabolic control analysis. We achieve this by observing that kinetic responses of metabolic reactions depend: (i) on the distribution of the enzymes among their free form and all reactive states; (ii) on the equilibrium displacements of the overall reaction and that of the individual enzymatic steps; and (iii) on the net fluxes through the enzyme. Relying on this observation, we develop a novel, efficient Monte Carlo sampling procedure to generate all states within a metabolic reaction that satisfy imposed constrains. Thus, we derive the statistics of the expected responses of the metabolic reactions to changes in enzyme levels and activities, in the levels of metabolites, and in the values of the kinetic parameters. We present aspects of the proposed framework through an example of the fundamental three-step reversible enzymatic reaction mechanism. We demonstrate that the equilibrium displacements of the individual enzymatic steps have an important influence on kinetic responses of the enzyme. Furthermore, we derive the conditions that must be satisfied by a reversible three-step enzymatic reaction operating far away from the equilibrium in order to respond to

  15. Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-07-26

    This fact sheet describes the Bioenergy Technologies Office's biochemical conversion work and processes. BETO conducts collaborative research, development, and demonstration projects to improve several processing routes for the conversion of cellulosic biomass.

  16. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  17. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  18. Know-how and know-why in biochemical engineering.

    PubMed

    von Stockar, U; Valentinotti, S; Marison, I; Cannizzaro, C; Herwig, C

    2003-08-01

    This contribution analyzes the position of biochemical engineering in general and bioprocess engineering particularly in the force fields between fundamental science and applications, and between academia and industry. By using culture technology as an example, it can be shown that bioprocess engineering has moved slowly but steadily from an empirical art concerned with mainly know-how to a science elucidating the know-why of culture behavior. Highly powerful monitoring tools enable biochemical engineers to understand and explain quantitatively the activity of cellular culture on a metabolic basis. Among these monitoring tools are not just semi-online analyses of culture broth by HPLC, GC and FIA, but, increasingly, also noninvasive methods such as midrange IR, Raman and capacitance spectroscopy, as well as online calorimetry. The detailed and quantitative insight into the metabolome and the fluxome that bioprocess engineers are establishing offers an unprecedented opportunity for building bridges between molecular biology and engineering biosciences. Thus, one of the major tasks of biochemical engineering sciences is not developing new know-how for industrial applications, but elucidating the know-why in biochemical engineering by conducting research on the underlying scientific fundamentals.

  19. The role of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Stockar, Urs

    2013-09-01

    This article is an adapted version of the introductory chapter of a book whose publication is imminent. It bears the title "Biothermodynamics - The role of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering." The aim of the paper is to give a very short overview of the state of biothermodynamics in an engineering context as reflected in this book. Seen from this perspective, biothermodynamics may be subdivided according to the scale used to formalize the description of the biological system into three large areas: (i) biomolecular thermodynamics (most fundamental scale), (ii) thermodynamics of metabolism (intermediary scale), and (iii) whole-cell thermodynamics ("black-box" description of living entities). In each of these subareas, the main available theoretical approaches and the current and the potential applications are discussed. Biomolecular thermodynamics (i) is especially well developed and is obviously highly pertinent for the development of downstream processing. Its use ought to be encouraged as much as possible. The subarea of thermodynamics of live cells (iii), although scarcely applied in practice, is also expected to enhance bioprocess research and development, particularly in predicting culture performances, for understanding the driving forces for cellular growth, and in developing, monitoring, and controlling cellular cultures. Finally, there is no question that thermodynamic analysis of cellular metabolism (ii) is a promising tool for systems biology and for many other applications, but quite a large research effort is still needed before it may be put to practical use.

  20. Overview of the DOE/SERI Biochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J D

    1986-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute manages a program of research and development on the biochemical conversion of renewable lignocellulosic materials to liquid fuels for the Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division. The Biochemical Conversion Program is mission oriented so effort is concentrated on technologies which appear to have the greatest potential for being adopted by the private sector to economically convert lignocellulosic materials into high value liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. The program is structured to supply the technology for such fuels to compete economically first as an octane booster or fuel additive, and, with additionalmore » improvements, as a neat fuel. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  2. Biochemical analysis with microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Bilitewski, Ursula; Genrich, Meike; Kadow, Sabine; Mersal, Gaber

    2003-10-01

    Microfluidic systems are capillary networks of varying complexity fabricated originally in silicon, but nowadays in glass and polymeric substrates. Flow of liquid is mainly controlled by use of electroosmotic effects, i.e. application of electric fields, in addition to pressurized flow, i.e. application of pressure or vacuum. Because electroosmotic flow rates depend on the charge densities on the walls of capillaries, they are influenced by substrate material, fabrication processes, surface pretreatment procedures, and buffer additives. Microfluidic systems combine the properties of capillary electrophoretic systems and flow-through analytical systems, and thus biochemical analytical assays have been developed utilizing and integrating both aspects. Proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids can be separated because of their different electrophoretic mobility; detection is achieved with fluorescence detectors. For protein analysis, in particular, interfaces between microfluidic chips and mass spectrometers were developed. Further levels of integration of required sample-treatment steps were achieved by integration of protein digestion by immobilized trypsin and amplification of nucleic acids by the polymerase chain reaction. Kinetic constants of enzyme reactions were determined by adjusting different degrees of dilution of enzyme substrates or inhibitors within a single chip utilizing mainly the properties of controlled dosing and mixing liquids within a chip. For analysis of kinase reactions, however, a combination of a reaction step (enzyme with substrate and inhibitor) and a separation step (enzyme substrate and reaction product) was required. Microfluidic chips also enable separation of analytes from sample matrix constituents, which can interfere with quantitative determination, if they have different electrophoretic mobilities. In addition to analysis of nucleic acids and enzymes, immunoassays are the third group of analytical assays performed in microfluidic

  3. [Surgical stress and biochemical indicators].

    PubMed

    Kaska, M; Zivný, P

    2003-08-01

    An investigation of some relationships of routinely and rarely used biochemical markers to surgical (operating) trauma. A group of 37 patients was divided to two subgroups according type of disease with need a resection of large bowel for malignant or benign malady. Large bowel adenocarcinoma was dominated in a subgroup of malignancies (23 patients, mean BMI 25.59, mean age 63.65 years) and Crohn's disease and complicated diverticullary disease were the reasons to operate in the second subgroup of benignities (14 patients, mean BMI 21.21, mean age 39.5 year). Blood samples were taken before an operation, postoperatively (immediately) and at 6:00 a.m. the 1st, 3rd and 5th postoperative day. The routine methods (albumin, CRP, cholinesterase, haptoglobin, cholesterol), special methods (SOD, glutathion) and ELISA methods (leptin, IL-2r, IL-8, TNF)were used for evaluation markers. The results were estimated by statistic methods Sigma-Stat, One Way ANOVA and linear regression test. The mean serum concentrations of albumin, leptin, cholesterol shifted down very clearly compared to preoperative values. The mean serum concentrations shifted up the 3rd day postoperatively to 722% in benignities and to 1814% in malignancies respectively. The values of cholinesterase, glutation, SOD, and haptoglobin didn't show any more serious dynamics perioperatively. The serum leptin concentrations correlated with BMI but other markers serum concentrations didn't correlate with BMI or with age. The serum leptin, albumin, haptoglobin, CRP concentrations demonstrated serious dynamics perioperatively. These concentrations are stabilized and they reach preoperative levels the 5th postoperative day. Each-other markers correlation is minimal.

  4. Accurate atom-mapping computation for biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Mario; Malerich, Jeremiah P; Travers, Mike; Karp, Peter D

    2012-11-26

    The complete atom mapping of a chemical reaction is a bijection of the reactant atoms to the product atoms that specifies the terminus of each reactant atom. Atom mapping of biochemical reactions is useful for many applications of systems biology, in particular for metabolic engineering where synthesizing new biochemical pathways has to take into account for the number of carbon atoms from a source compound that are conserved in the synthesis of a target compound. Rapid, accurate computation of the atom mapping(s) of a biochemical reaction remains elusive despite significant work on this topic. In particular, past researchers did not validate the accuracy of mapping algorithms. We introduce a new method for computing atom mappings called the minimum weighted edit-distance (MWED) metric. The metric is based on bond propensity to react and computes biochemically valid atom mappings for a large percentage of biochemical reactions. MWED models can be formulated efficiently as Mixed-Integer Linear Programs (MILPs). We have demonstrated this approach on 7501 reactions of the MetaCyc database for which 87% of the models could be solved in less than 10 s. For 2.1% of the reactions, we found multiple optimal atom mappings. We show that the error rate is 0.9% (22 reactions) by comparing these atom mappings to 2446 atom mappings of the manually curated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) RPAIR database. To our knowledge, our computational atom-mapping approach is the most accurate and among the fastest published to date. The atom-mapping data will be available in the MetaCyc database later in 2012; the atom-mapping software will be available within the Pathway Tools software later in 2012.

  5. Biochemical-Pathway Diversity in Archaebacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-30

    Classification) (U) Biochemical-pathway diversity in Archaebacteria 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) I Jensen, Roy-A. i3o. TYPE OF REN" RT 12b. Tki~ 0’E D-30-9 4...by block numtb.sj FIEL I ROU I SIGRLJP Archaebacteria , biochemical diversity, prephenate 06 03. 1 dehydratase, aromatic amino acid biosynthesis t...1988 RE10SE: lo assess the extent to which the archaebacteria possess unique biochemical features of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and regulation and

  6. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    PubMed

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.

  7. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  8. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1984-01-01

    This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

  9. Exploring the remote sensing of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Geoffrey M.; Curran, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data shows promise for the estimation of foliar biochemical concentrations at the scale of the canopy. There are, however, several problems associated with the use of AVIRIS data in this way and these are detailed in recent Plant Biochemical Workshop Report. The research reported was concentrated upon three of these problems: field sampling of forest canopies, wet laboratory assay of foliar chemicals, and the visualization of AVIRIS data.

  10. Cariporide and other new and powerful NHE1 inhibitors as potentially selective anticancer drugs – an integral molecular/biochemical/metabolic/clinical approach after one hundred years of cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of publications have emphasized the growing importance of hydrogen ion dynamics in modern cancer research, from etiopathogenesis and treatment. A proton [H+]-related mechanism underlying the initiation and progression of the neoplastic process has been recently described by different research groups as a new paradigm in which all cancer cells and tissues, regardless of their origin and genetic background, have a pivotal energetic and homeostatic disturbance of their metabolism that is completely different from all normal tissues: an aberrant regulation of hydrogen ion dynamics leading to a reversal of the pH gradient in cancer cells and tissues (↑pHi/↓pHe, or “proton reversal”). Tumor cells survive their hostile microenvironment due to membrane-bound proton pumps and transporters, and their main defensive strategy is to never allow internal acidification because that could lead to their death through apoptosis. In this context, one of the primary and best studied regulators of both pHi and pHe in tumors is the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1). An elevated NHE1 activity can be correlated with both an increase in cell pH and a decrease in the extracellular pH of tumors, and such proton reversal is associated with the origin, local growth, activation and further progression of the metastatic process. Consequently, NHE1 pharmaceutical inhibition by new and potent NHE1 inhibitors represents a potential and highly selective target in anticancer therapy. Cariporide, being one of the better studied specific and powerful NHE1 inhibitors, has proven to be well tolerated by humans in the cardiological context, however some side-effects, mainly related to drug accumulation and cerebrovascular complications were reported. Thus, cariporide could become a new, slightly toxic and effective anticancer agent in different human malignancies. PMID:24195657

  11. Causal correlation of foliar biochemical concentrations with AVIRIS spectra using forced entry linear regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Terence P.; Curran, Paul J.; Kupiec, John A.

    1995-01-01

    A major goal of airborne imaging spectrometry is to estimate the biochemical composition of vegetation canopies from reflectance spectra. Remotely-sensed estimates of foliar biochemical concentrations of forests would provide valuable indicators of ecosystem function at regional and eventually global scales. Empirical research has shown a relationship exists between the amount of radiation reflected from absorption features and the concentration of given biochemicals in leaves and canopies (Matson et al., 1994, Johnson et al., 1994). A technique commonly used to determine which wavelengths have the strongest correlation with the biochemical of interest is unguided (stepwise) multiple regression. Wavelengths are entered into a multivariate regression equation, in their order of importance, each contributing to the reduction of the variance in the measured biochemical concentration. A significant problem with the use of stepwise regression for determining the correlation between biochemical concentration and spectra is that of 'overfitting' as there are significantly more wavebands than biochemical measurements. This could result in the selection of wavebands which may be more accurately attributable to noise or canopy effects. In addition, there is a real problem of collinearity in that the individual biochemical concentrations may covary. A strong correlation between the reflectance at a given wavelength and the concentration of a biochemical of interest, therefore, may be due to the effect of another biochemical which is closely related. Furthermore, it is not always possible to account for potentially suitable waveband omissions in the stepwise selection procedure. This concern about the suitability of stepwise regression has been identified and acknowledged in a number of recent studies (Wessman et al., 1988, Curran, 1989, Curran et al., 1992, Peterson and Hubbard, 1992, Martine and Aber, 1994, Kupiec, 1994). These studies have pointed to the lack of a physical

  12. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling - based on spin systems - has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy - based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs - which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  13. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-04

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling - based on spin systems - has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis-Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy - based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs - which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  14. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    PubMed Central

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling – based on spin systems – has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis–Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy – based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs – which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions. PMID:27812018

  15. Physical limits to biochemical signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, William; Setayeshgar, Sima

    2005-07-01

    Many crucial biological processes operate with surprisingly small numbers of molecules, and there is renewed interest in analyzing the impact of noise associated with these small numbers. Twenty-five years ago, Berg and Purcell showed that bacterial chemotaxis, where a single-celled organism must respond to small changes in concentration of chemicals outside the cell, is limited directly by molecule counting noise and that aspects of the bacteria's behavioral and computational strategies must be chosen to minimize the effects of this noise. Here, we revisit and generalize their arguments to estimate the physical limits to signaling processes within the cell and argue that recent experiments are consistent with performance approaching these limits. Author contributions: W.B. and S.S. designed research, performed research, and wrote the paper.†Present address: Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405.

  16. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditions are identified within the test notes. Definitions that apply to all biochemical data requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditions are identified within the test notes. Definitions that apply to all biochemical data requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditions are identified within the test notes. Definitions that apply to all biochemical data requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions are identified within the test notes. Definitions that apply to all biochemical data requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions are identified within the test notes. Definitions that apply to all biochemical data requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides...

  1. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  2. Stochastic hybrid systems for studying biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, João P

    2010-11-13

    Many protein and mRNA species occur at low molecular counts within cells, and hence are subject to large stochastic fluctuations in copy numbers over time. Development of computationally tractable frameworks for modelling stochastic fluctuations in population counts is essential to understand how noise at the cellular level affects biological function and phenotype. We show that stochastic hybrid systems (SHSs) provide a convenient framework for modelling the time evolution of population counts of different chemical species involved in a set of biochemical reactions. We illustrate recently developed techniques that allow fast computations of the statistical moments of the population count, without having to run computationally expensive Monte Carlo simulations of the biochemical reactions. Finally, we review different examples from the literature that illustrate the benefits of using SHSs for modelling biochemical processes.

  3. Biochemical characteristics among Mycobacterium bovis BCG substrains.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Takii, Takemasa; Mukai, Tetsu; Makino, Masahiko; Yasuda, Emi; Horita, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Akiko; Kanai, Keita; Kondo, Maki; Kawarazaki, Aya; Yano, Ikuya; Yamamoto, Saburo; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2010-05-01

    In order to evaluate the biochemical characteristics of 14 substrains of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) - Russia, Moreau, Japan, Sweden, Birkhaug, Danish, Glaxo, Mexico, Tice, Connaught, Montreal, Phipps, Australia and Pasteur - we performed eight different biochemical tests, including those for nitrate reduction, catalase, niacin accumulation, urease, Tween 80 hydrolysis, pyrazinamidase, p-amino salicylate degradation and resistance to thiophene 2-carboxylic acid hydrazide. Catalase activities of the substrains were all low. Data for nitrate reduction, niacin accumulation, Tween 80 hydrolysis, susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and nitrate, and optimal pH for growth were all variable among these substrains. These findings suggest that the heterogeneities of biochemical characteristics are relevant to the differences in resistance of BCG substrains to environmental stress. The study also contributes to the re-evaluation of BCG substrains for use as vaccines.

  4. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

    PubMed Central

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  5. Xeroderma pigmentosum: biochemical and genetic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bootsma, D.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic studies on xeroderma pigmentosum are reviewed under the following headings: clinical features of xeroderma pigmentosum; karyotype; cell killing and host cell reactivation after irradiation or exposure to chemical carcinogens; SV40 transformation of xeroderma pigmentosum cells; biochemical defects in the common and de Sanctis-Cacchione forms of xeroderma pigmentosum; cell hybridization and complementation groups; biochemical defects in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant and the role of caffeine in DNA repair; DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum heterozygotes; response of xeroderma pigmentosum cells to various mutagens and chemical carcinogens; other high and low repair diseases; and possible significance of DNA repair inmore » theories of aging and carcinogenesis. (HLW)« less

  6. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    PubMed

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  7. Biochemical simulations: stochastic, approximate stochastic and hybrid approaches.

    PubMed

    Pahle, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Computer simulations have become an invaluable tool to study the sometimes counterintuitive temporal dynamics of (bio-)chemical systems. In particular, stochastic simulation methods have attracted increasing interest recently. In contrast to the well-known deterministic approach based on ordinary differential equations, they can capture effects that occur due to the underlying discreteness of the systems and random fluctuations in molecular numbers. Numerous stochastic, approximate stochastic and hybrid simulation methods have been proposed in the literature. In this article, they are systematically reviewed in order to guide the researcher and help her find the appropriate method for a specific problem.

  8. Biochemical simulations: stochastic, approximate stochastic and hybrid approaches

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Computer simulations have become an invaluable tool to study the sometimes counterintuitive temporal dynamics of (bio-)chemical systems. In particular, stochastic simulation methods have attracted increasing interest recently. In contrast to the well-known deterministic approach based on ordinary differential equations, they can capture effects that occur due to the underlying discreteness of the systems and random fluctuations in molecular numbers. Numerous stochastic, approximate stochastic and hybrid simulation methods have been proposed in the literature. In this article, they are systematically reviewed in order to guide the researcher and help her find the appropriate method for a specific problem. PMID:19151097

  9. Remote sensing of forest canopy and leaf biochemical contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Matson, Pamela A.; Card, Don H.; Aber, John D.; Wessman, Carol; Swanberg, Nancy; Spanner, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Recent research on the remote sensing of forest leaf and canopy biochemical contents suggests that the shortwave IR region contains this information; laboratory analyses of dry ground leaves have yielded reliable predictive relationships between both leaf nitrogen and lignin with near-IR spectra. Attention is given to the application of these laboratory techniques to a limited set of spectra from fresh, whole leaves of conifer species. The analysis of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data reveals that total water content variations in deciduous forest canopies appear as overall shifts in the brightness of raw spectra.

  10. Hypomagnesemia predicts postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Han; Yang, Hongliu; Zhao, Wanjun; Wei, Tao; Su, Anping; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-05-25

    To investigate the role of magnesium in biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia, a retrospective study was conducted. Less-than-total thyroidectomy patients were excluded from the final analysis. Identified the risk factors of biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia, and investigated the correlation by logistic regression and correlation test respectively. A total of 304 patients were included in the final analysis. General incidence of hypomagnesemia was 23.36%. Logistic regression showed that gender (female) (OR = 2.238, p = 0.015) and postoperative hypomagnesemia (OR = 2.010, p = 0.017) were independent risk factors for biochemical hypocalcemia. Both Pearson and partial correlation tests indicated there was indeed significant relation between calcium and magnesium. However, relative decreasing of iPTH (>70%) (6.691, p < 0.001) and hypocalcemia (2.222, p = 0.046) were identified as risk factors of symptomatic hypocalcemia. The difference remained significant even in normoparathyroidism patients. Postoperative hypomagnesemia was independent risk factor of biochemical hypocalcemia. Relative decline of iPTH was predominating in predicting symptomatic hypocalcemia.

  11. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  12. Metabonomics and medicine: the Biochemical Oracle.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Steve; Holmes, Elaine; Carmichael, Paul

    2002-10-01

    Occasionally, a new idea emerges that has the potential to revolutionize an entire field of scientific endeavour. It is now within our grasp to be able to detect subtle perturbations within the phenomenally complex biochemical matrix of living organisms. The discipline of metabonomics promises an all-encompassing approach to understanding total, yet fundamental, changes occurring in disease processes, drug toxicity and cell function.

  13. Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…

  14. Biochemical studies in patients with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Hessah; Senniappan, Senthil; Alam, Syeda; Hussain, Khalid

    2013-11-01

    Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) is characterised by the dysregulated secretion of insulin from the pancreatic β-cell. It is a major cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in the newborn period. There have been no previous studies assessing the various biochemical alterations at the time of hypoglycaemia in relation to the severity of the hypoglycaemia. Biochemical and clinical data were collected on 90 neonates (gestational age range, 32-42 weeks) with a diagnosis of HH [(based on glucose requirement  > 8 mg/kg/min) and the biochemical profile of insulin action (low beta-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations)] who had undergone fasting studies. The results showed that (a) the serum insulin level measured at the time of hypoglycaemia had no correlation with the severity of hypoglycaemia, (b) the serum insulin level was undetectable despite severe hypoglycaemia in a significant proportion of patients, (c) there was no correlation between the birth weight and the insulin level at the time of hypoglycaemia, (d) the suppression of ketogenesis was more marked than that of the non-esterified fatty acids. This study suggests that the diagnosis of HH should not rely solely on a raised serum insulin level at the time of hypoglycaemia but on the constellation of clinical and biochemical findings.

  15. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  16. Biochemical Approaches to Improved Nitrogen Fixation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes has emerged again as an important topic on the world scene due to the energy crisis and lack of access to nitrogen fertilizer in developing countries. We have taken a biochemical genomics approach to improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes. L...

  17. Biochemical reactions of ozone in plants

    Treesearch

    J. Brian Mudd

    1998-01-01

    Plants react biochemically to ozone in three phases: with constitutive chemicals in the apoplastic fluid and cell membranes; by forming messenger molecules by the affected constitutive materials (ethylene); and by responding to the messenger molecules with pathogenic RNAs and proteins. For instance, plant reactions with ozone result in constitutive molecules such as...

  18. Survey of Biochemical Education in Japanese Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…

  19. Management Options for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent. In selected cases, high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy may be considered in patients that meet very narrow criteria as defined by non-randomized trials. If salvage options are not practical or unsuccessful, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard option for disease control. While some patients prefer ADT to manage the disease immediately, others defer treatment because of the associated toxicity. In the absence of definitive randomized data, patients may be followed using PSA doubling time as a trigger to initiate ADT. Based on retrospective data, a PSA doubling time of less than 3-6 months has been associated with near-term development of metastasis and thus could be used signal to initiate ADT. Once treatment is begun, patients and their providers can choose between an intermittent and continuous ADT strategy. The intermittent approach may limit side effects but in patients with metastatic disease studies could not exclude a 20% greater risk of death. In men with biochemical recurrence, large studies have shown that intermittent therapy is non-inferior to continuous therapy, thus making this a reasonable option. Since biochemically recurrent prostate cancer is defined by technological limitations of radiographic detection, as new imaging (i.e., PSMA) strategies are developed, it may alter how the disease is

  20. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  1. Characterizing autism spectrum disorders by key biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Megha; Timmerman, Christina K; Schwartz, Joshua L; Pham, Daniel L; Meffert, Mollie K

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) presents a substantial challenge for diagnosis, classification, research, and treatment. Investigations into the underlying molecular etiology of ASD have often yielded mixed and at times opposing findings. Defining the molecular and biochemical underpinnings of heterogeneity in ASD is crucial to our understanding of the pathophysiological development of the disorder, and has the potential to assist in diagnosis and the rational design of clinical trials. In this review, we propose that genetically diverse forms of ASD may be usefully parsed into entities resulting from converse patterns of growth regulation at the molecular level, which lead to the correlates of general synaptic and neural overgrowth or undergrowth. Abnormal brain growth during development is a characteristic feature that has been observed both in children with autism and in mouse models of autism. We review evidence from syndromic and non-syndromic ASD to suggest that entities currently classified as autism may fundamentally differ by underlying pro- or anti-growth abnormalities in key biochemical pathways, giving rise to either excessive or reduced synaptic connectivity in affected brain regions. We posit that this classification strategy has the potential not only to aid research efforts, but also to ultimately facilitate early diagnosis and direct appropriate therapeutic interventions.

  2. Characterizing autism spectrum disorders by key biochemical pathways

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Megha; Timmerman, Christina K.; Schwartz, Joshua L.; Pham, Daniel L.; Meffert, Mollie K.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) presents a substantial challenge for diagnosis, classification, research, and treatment. Investigations into the underlying molecular etiology of ASD have often yielded mixed and at times opposing findings. Defining the molecular and biochemical underpinnings of heterogeneity in ASD is crucial to our understanding of the pathophysiological development of the disorder, and has the potential to assist in diagnosis and the rational design of clinical trials. In this review, we propose that genetically diverse forms of ASD may be usefully parsed into entities resulting from converse patterns of growth regulation at the molecular level, which lead to the correlates of general synaptic and neural overgrowth or undergrowth. Abnormal brain growth during development is a characteristic feature that has been observed both in children with autism and in mouse models of autism. We review evidence from syndromic and non-syndromic ASD to suggest that entities currently classified as autism may fundamentally differ by underlying pro- or anti-growth abnormalities in key biochemical pathways, giving rise to either excessive or reduced synaptic connectivity in affected brain regions. We posit that this classification strategy has the potential not only to aid research efforts, but also to ultimately facilitate early diagnosis and direct appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:26483618

  3. Optimal Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Chris

    2012-02-01

    A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.

  4. Thermodynamics of Computational Copying in Biochemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Govern, Christopher C.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2017-04-01

    Living cells use readout molecules to record the state of receptor proteins, similar to measurements or copies in typical computational devices. But is this analogy rigorous? Can cells be optimally efficient, and if not, why? We show that, as in computation, a canonical biochemical readout network generates correlations; extracting no work from these correlations sets a lower bound on dissipation. For general input, the biochemical network cannot reach this bound, even with arbitrarily slow reactions or weak thermodynamic driving. It faces an accuracy-dissipation trade-off that is qualitatively distinct from and worse than implied by the bound, and more complex steady-state copy processes cannot perform better. Nonetheless, the cost remains close to the thermodynamic bound unless accuracy is extremely high. Additionally, we show that biomolecular reactions could be used in thermodynamically optimal devices under exogenous manipulation of chemical fuels, suggesting an experimental system for testing computational thermodynamics.

  5. Biochemical Reconstitution of the WAVE Regulatory Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoyu; Padrick, Shae B.; Henry, Lisa; Rosen, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is a 400-KDa heteropentameric protein assembly that plays a central role in controlling actin cytoskeletal dynamics in many cellular processes. The WRC acts by integrating diverse cellular cues and stimulating the actin nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex at membranes. Biochemical and biophysical studies of the underlying mechanisms of these processes require large amounts of purified WRC. Recent success in recombinant expression, reconstitution, purification and crystallization of the WRC has greatly advanced our understanding of the inhibition, activation and membrane recruitment mechanisms of this complex. But many important questions remain to be answered. Here we summarize and update the methods developed in our laboratory, which allow reliable and flexible production of tens of milligrams of recombinant WRC of crystallographic quality, sufficient for many biochemical and structural studies. PMID:24630101

  6. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    PubMed

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago

    2007-03-01

    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.

  7. Biochemical correlates of neurosensory changes in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Reschke, Millard F.

    1989-01-01

    The possible existence of a relationship between space motion sickness and chemical and biochemical variables measured in body fluids is studied. Clinical chemistry and endocrine measurements from blood and urine samples taken before and after Space Shuttle flights were analyzed along with the occurrence of SMS during flight and provocative testing before flight. Significant positive correlations were observed with serum chloride and significant negative correlations with serum phosphate, serum uric acid, and plasma thyroid stimulating hormone.

  8. New biochemical markers: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Zaninotto, Martina; Mion, Monica Maria; Novello, Enrica; Altinier, Sara; Plebani, Mario

    2007-05-01

    Evaluation of patients presenting to hospital with chest pain or other signs or symptoms suggesting acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is problematic, time-consuming and sometimes expensive, even if new biochemical markers, such as troponins, have improved the ability to detect cardiac injury. However, patients with normal troponin values are not necessarily risk-free for major cardiac events. Recent investigations indicate that the overall patient risk may be assessed earlier than before, thanks to new knowledge acquired concerning the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and molecular events involved in the progression of disease, thus allowing the development of new biochemical markers. Some selected markers are released during the different phases of development of cardiovascular disease and may be useful for the diagnosis of patients with cardiovascular disease. In particular, the identification of emerging markers that provide relevant information on the inflammatory process, and the development of biomarkers whose circulating concentrations suggest the status of plaque instability and rupture, seems to be of particular value in prognosis and risk stratification. The overall expectations for a cardiovascular biochemical marker are not only its biological plausibility but also the availability at a reasonable cost of rapid, high quality assays, and their correct interpretation by clinicians using optimal cut-offs. The crossing from bench to bedside for each new marker discovered, must be associated with concurrent advances in the characterization of analytical features and the development of routine assay, in the assessment of analytical performance and in interpretative reporting of test results as well as in the training of physicians to use the array of biomarkers available appropriately and to interpret them correctly. This approach calls for the coordinated support of clinicians, technology experts, statisticians and the industry so that new biochemical

  9. Self-organizing ontology of biochemically relevant small molecules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The advent of high-throughput experimentation in biochemistry has led to the generation of vast amounts of chemical data, necessitating the development of novel analysis, characterization, and cataloguing techniques and tools. Recently, a movement to publically release such data has advanced biochemical structure-activity relationship research, while providing new challenges, the biggest being the curation, annotation, and classification of this information to facilitate useful biochemical pattern analysis. Unfortunately, the human resources currently employed by the organizations supporting these efforts (e.g. ChEBI) are expanding linearly, while new useful scientific information is being released in a seemingly exponential fashion. Compounding this, currently existing chemical classification and annotation systems are not amenable to automated classification, formal and transparent chemical class definition axiomatization, facile class redefinition, or novel class integration, thus further limiting chemical ontology growth by necessitating human involvement in curation. Clearly, there is a need for the automation of this process, especially for novel chemical entities of biological interest. Results To address this, we present a formal framework based on Semantic Web technologies for the automatic design of chemical ontology which can be used for automated classification of novel entities. We demonstrate the automatic self-assembly of a structure-based chemical ontology based on 60 MeSH and 40 ChEBI chemical classes. This ontology is then used to classify 200 compounds with an accuracy of 92.7%. We extend these structure-based classes with molecular feature information and demonstrate the utility of our framework for classification of functionally relevant chemicals. Finally, we discuss an iterative approach that we envision for future biochemical ontology development. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed methodology can ease the burden of

  10. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  11. Stoichiometric network theory for nonequilibrium biochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Beard, Daniel A; Liang, Shou-dan

    2003-02-01

    We introduce the basic concepts and develop a theory for nonequilibrium steady-state biochemical systems applicable to analyzing large-scale complex isothermal reaction networks. In terms of the stoichiometric matrix, we demonstrate both Kirchhoff's flux law sigma(l)J(l)=0 over a biochemical species, and potential law sigma(l) mu(l)=0 over a reaction loop. They reflect mass and energy conservation, respectively. For each reaction, its steady-state flux J can be decomposed into forward and backward one-way fluxes J = J+ - J-, with chemical potential difference deltamu = RT ln(J-/J+). The product -Jdeltamu gives the isothermal heat dissipation rate, which is necessarily non-negative according to the second law of thermodynamics. The stoichiometric network theory (SNT) embodies all of the relevant fundamental physics. Knowing J and deltamu of a biochemical reaction, a conductance can be computed which directly reflects the level of gene expression for the particular enzyme. For sufficiently small flux a linear relationship between J and deltamu can be established as the linear flux-force relation in irreversible thermodynamics, analogous to Ohm's law in electrical circuits.

  12. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  13. Balanced Biochemical Reactions: A New Approach to Unify Chemical and Biochemical Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Antonio; Vacca, Alberto; Iotti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    A novel procedure is presented which, by balancing elements and electric charge of biochemical reactions which occur at constant pH and pMg, allows assessing the thermodynamics properties of reaction ΔrG ′0, ΔrH ′0, ΔrS ′0 and the change in binding of hydrogen and magnesium ions of these reactions. This procedure of general applicability avoids the complex calculations required by the use of the Legendre transformed thermodynamic properties of formation ΔfG ′0, ΔfH ′0 and ΔfS ′0 hitherto considered an obligatory prerequisite to deal with the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions. As a consequence, the term “conditional” is proposed in substitution of “Legendre transformed” to indicate these thermodynamics properties. It is also shown that the thermodynamic potential G is fully adequate to give a criterion of spontaneous chemical change for all biochemical reactions and then that the use of the Legendre transformed G′ is unnecessary. The procedure proposed can be applied to any biochemical reaction, making possible to re-unify the two worlds of chemical and biochemical thermodynamics, which so far have been treated separately. PMID:22247780

  14. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  15. A grid layout algorithm for automatic drawing of biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijiang; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2005-05-01

    Visualization is indispensable in the research of complex biochemical networks. Available graph layout algorithms are not adequate for satisfactorily drawing such networks. New methods are required to visualize automatically the topological architectures and facilitate the understanding of the functions of the networks. We propose a novel layout algorithm to draw complex biochemical networks. A network is modeled as a system of interacting nodes on squared grids. A discrete cost function between each node pair is designed based on the topological relation and the geometric positions of the two nodes. The layouts are produced by minimizing the total cost. We design a fast algorithm to minimize the discrete cost function, by which candidate layouts can be produced efficiently. A simulated annealing procedure is used to choose better candidates. Our algorithm demonstrates its ability to exhibit cluster structures clearly in relatively compact layout areas without any prior knowledge. We developed Windows software to implement the algorithm for CADLIVE. All materials can be freely downloaded from http://kurata21.bio.kyutech.ac.jp/grid/grid_layout.htm; http://www.cadlive.jp/ http://kurata21.bio.kyutech.ac.jp/grid/grid_layout.htm; http://www.cadlive.jp/

  16. Biochemical mutagens affect the preservation of fungi and biodiversity estimations.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Many fungi have significant industrial applications or biosafety concerns and maintaining the original characteristics is essential. The preserved fungi have to represent the situation in nature for posterity, biodiversity estimations, and taxonomic research. However, spontaneous fungal mutations and secondary metabolites affecting producing fungi are well known. There is increasing interest in the preservation of microbes in Biological Resource Centers (BRC) to ensure that the organisms remain viable and stable genetically. It would be anathema if they contacted mutagens routinely. However, for the purpose of this discussion, there are three potential sources of biochemical mutagens when obtaining individual fungi from the environment: (a) mixtures of microorganisms are plated routinely onto growth media containing mutagenic antibiotics to control overgrowth by contaminants, (b) the microbial mixtures may contain microorganisms capable of producing mutagenic secondary metabolites, and (c) target fungi for isolation may produce "self" mutagens in pure culture. The probability that these compounds could interact with fungi undermines confidence in the preservation process and the potential effects of these biochemical mutagens are considered for the first time on strains held in BRC in this review.

  17. Biochemical Activities of 320 ToxCast Chemicals Evaluated Across 239 Functional Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxCast research program is profiling chemical bioactivity in order to generate predictive signatures of toxicity. The present study evaluated 320 chemicals across 239 biochemical assays. ToxCast phase I chemicals include 309 unique structures, most of which are pesticide ...

  18. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS): software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, David; McMillen, David; Elston, Timothy C

    2004-03-08

    Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS) for efficiently and accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous) for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solves the appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  19. A Diagrammatic Language for Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimon, Ron

    2002-03-01

    I present a diagrammatic language for representing the structure of biochemical networks. The language is designed to represent modular structure in a computational fasion, with composition of reactions replacing functional composition. This notation is used to represent arbitrarily large networks efficiently. The notation finds its most natural use in representing biological interaction networks, but it is a general computing language appropriate to any naturally occuring computation. Unlike lambda-calculus, or text-derived languages, it does not impose a tree-structure on the diagrams, and so is more effective at representing biological fucntion than competing notations.

  20. Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyacinthe, Berg P.

    2006-05-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

  1. Influence of low-frequency vibration on changes of biochemical parameters of living rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, Cezary; Damijan, Zbigniew; Panuszka, Ryszard

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate how some selected biochemical parameters of living rats depend on exposure of low-frequency vibrations. Experiments were run on 30 Wistar rats randomly segregated into three groups: (I) 20 days old (before puberty), (II) 70th day after; (III) control group. The exposure was repeated seven times, for 3 h, at the same time of day. Vibrations applied during the first tests of the experiment had acceleration 1.22 m/s2 and frequency 20 Hz. At the 135th day the rats' bones were a subject of morphometric/biochemical examination. The results of biochemical tests proved decrease in LDL and HDL cholesterol levels for exposed rats as well as the Ca contents in blood plasma. There was evident increasing of Ca in blood plasma in exposed rats for frequency of exposition.

  2. CADLIVE toolbox for MATLAB: automatic dynamic modeling of biochemical networks with comprehensive system analysis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kentaro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Yu; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical modeling has become a standard technique to understand the dynamics of complex biochemical systems. To promote the modeling, we had developed the CADLIVE dynamic simulator that automatically converted a biochemical map into its associated mathematical model, simulated its dynamic behaviors and analyzed its robustness. To enhance the feasibility by CADLIVE and extend its functions, we propose the CADLIVE toolbox available for MATLAB, which implements not only the existing functions of the CADLIVE dynamic simulator, but also the latest tools including global parameter search methods with robustness analysis. The seamless, bottom-up processes consisting of biochemical network construction, automatic construction of its dynamic model, simulation, optimization, and S-system analysis greatly facilitate dynamic modeling, contributing to the research of systems biology and synthetic biology. This application can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/CADLIVE_MATLAB/ together with an instruction.

  3. Morphological, kinetic, membrane biochemical and genetic aspects of intestinal enteroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie A; Clandinin, M Tom; Thomson, Alan BR

    2009-01-01

    The process of intestinal adaptation (“enteroplasticity”) is complex and multifaceted. Although a number of trophic nutrients and non-nutritive factors have been identified in animal studies, successful, reproducible clinical trials in humans are awaited. Understanding mechanisms underlying this adaptive process may direct research toward strategies that maximize intestinal function and impart a true clinical benefit to patients with short bowel syndrome, or to persons in whom nutrient absorption needs to be maximized. In this review, we consider the morphological, kinetic and membrane biochemical aspects of enteroplasticity, focus on the importance of nutritional factors, provide an overview of the many hormones that may alter the adaptive process, and consider some of the possible molecular profiles. While most of the data is derived from rodent studies, wherever possible, the results of human studies of intestinal enteroplasticity are provided. PMID:19230039

  4. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    PubMed

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  5. Lipemia interferences in routine clinical biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Calmarza, Pilar; Cordero, José

    2011-01-01

    Lipemic specimens are a common and frequent, but yet unresolved problem in clinical chemistry, and may produce significant interferences in the analytical results of different biochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of lipid removal using ultracentrifugation of lipemic samples, on some routine biochemistry parameters. Among all the samples obtained daily in our laboratory, the ones which were visibly muddy were selected and underwent to a process of ultracentrifugation, being determined a variety of biochemical tests before and after ultracentrifugation. A total of 110 samples were studied. We found significant differences in all the parameters studied except for total bilirubin, glucose, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The greatest differences in the parameters analyzed were found in the concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (7.36%) and the smallest ones in the concentration of glucose (0.014%). Clinically significant interferences were found for phosphorus, creatinine, total protein and calcium. Lipemia causes clinically significant interferences for phosphorus, creatinine, total protein and calcium measurement and those interferences could be effectively removed by ultracentrifugation.

  6. Complexity reduction of biochemical rate expressions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Henning; Madsen, Mads F; Danø, Sune; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2008-03-15

    The current trend in dynamical modelling of biochemical systems is to construct more and more mechanistically detailed and thus complex models. The complexity is reflected in the number of dynamic state variables and parameters, as well as in the complexity of the kinetic rate expressions. However, a greater level of complexity, or level of detail, does not necessarily imply better models, or a better understanding of the underlying processes. Data often does not contain enough information to discriminate between different model hypotheses, and such overparameterization makes it hard to establish the validity of the various parts of the model. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for model reduction methods. We present a new reduction method that reduces complex rational rate expressions, such as those often used to describe enzymatic reactions. The method is a novel term-based identifiability analysis, which is easy to use and allows for user-specified reductions of individual rate expressions in complete models. The method is one of the first methods to meet the classical engineering objective of improved parameter identifiability without losing the systems biology demand of preserved biochemical interpretation. The method has been implemented in the Systems Biology Toolbox 2 for MATLAB, which is freely available from http://www.sbtoolbox2.org. The Supplementary Material contains scripts that show how to use it by applying the method to the example models, discussed in this article.

  7. Biochemical basis for the biological clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Pletcher, Jake; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Lian-Ying; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2002-01-01

    NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding tNOX proteins having a period length of 22 min or with C575A or C558A cysteine to alanine replacements having period lengths of 36 or 42 min. Here we demonstrate that such transfectants exhibited 22, 36, or 40 to 42 h circadian patterns in the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a common clock-regulated protein, in addition to the endogenous 24 h circadian period length. The fact that the expression of a single oscillatory ECTO-NOX protein determines the period length of a circadian biochemical marker (60 X the ECTO-NOX period length) provides compelling evidence that ECTO-NOX proteins are the biochemical ultradian drivers of the cellular biological clock.

  8. Biochemical, endocrine, and hematological factors in human oxygen tolerance extension: Predictive studies 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Predictive Studies VI (Biochemical, endocrine, and hematological factors in human oxygen tolerance extension) Program consisted of two related areas of research activity, integrated in design and performance, that were each based on an ongoing analysis of human organ oxygen tolerance data obtained for the continuous oxygen exposures of the prior Predictive Studies V Program. The two research areas effectively blended broad investigation of systematically varied intermittent exposure patterns in animals with very selective evaluation of specific exposure patterns in man.

  9. Complexity and performance of on-chip biochemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf-Sill, Anne R.; Nikiforov, Theo; Bousse, Luc J.; Nagle, Rob; Parce, J. W.

    1997-03-01

    The use of microchips for performing biochemical processes has the potential to reduce reagent use and thus assay costs, increase throughput, and automate complex processes. We are building a multifunctional platform that provides sensing and actuation functions for a variety of microchip- based biochemical and analytical processes. Here we describe recent experiments that include on-chip dilution, reagent mixing, reaction, separation, and detection for important classes of biochemical assays. Issues in chip design and control are discussed.

  10. Biochemical Basis of Sestrin Physiological Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Allison; Cho, Chun-Seok; Namkoong, Sim

    Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chronic activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) are well-characterized promoters of aging and age-associated degenerative pathologies. Sestrins, a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins, are important negative regulators of both ROS and mTORC1 signaling pathways; however, the mechanistic basis of how Sestrins suppress these pathways remains elusive. In the past couple of years, breakthrough discoveries about Sestrin signaling and its molecular nature have markedly increased our biochemical understanding of Sestrin function. These discoveries have also uncovered new potential therapeutic strategies that may eventually enable us to attenuate agingmore » and age-associated diseases.« less

  11. Highly valuable microalgae: biochemical and topological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pignolet, Olivier; Jubeau, Sébastien; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Michaud, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the interest in microalgae culture for biodiesel production and other applications as renewable biofuels as an alternative to petroleum transport fuels. The development of new technologies for the culture of these photosynthetic microorganisms and improved knowledge of their biochemical composition has spurred innovation in the field of high-value biomolecules. These developments are only economically viable if all the microalgae fractions are valorized in a biorefinery strategy. Achieving this objective requires an understanding of microalgae content and the cellular localization of the main biomolecular families in order to develop efficient harvest and sequential recovery technologies. This review summarizes the state of the art in microalgae compositions and topologies using some examples of the main industrially farmed microalgae.

  12. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  13. Thin membrane sensor with biochemical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, III, Jennings F. (Inventor); Case, George D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A modular biosensor system for chemical or biological agent detection utilizes electrochemical measurement of an ion current across a gate membrane triggered by the reaction of the target agent with a recognition protein conjugated to a channel blocker. The sensor system includes a bioresponse simulator or biochemical switch module which contains the recognition protein-channel blocker conjugate, and in which the detection reactions occur, and a transducer module which contains a gate membrane and a measuring electrode, and in which the presence of agent is sensed electrically. In the poised state, ion channels in the gate membrane are blocked by the recognition protein-channel blocker conjugate. Detection reactions remove the recognition protein-channel blocker conjugate from the ion channels, thus eliciting an ion current surge in the gate membrane which subsequently triggers an output alarm. Sufficiently large currents are generated that simple direct current electronics are adequate for the measurements. The biosensor has applications for environmental, medical, and industrial use.

  14. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone markers and the similarities and differences of type 1- and type 2-diabetics regarding bone markers will be evaluated. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and SveMed+ with the search terms: “Diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 1,” “Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Diabetes mellitus type 2,” “Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” “Bone,” “Bone and Bones,” “Bone diseases,” “Bone turnover,” “Hemoglobin A Glycosylated,” and “HbA1C.” After removing duplicates from this search 1,188 records were screened by title and abstract and 75 records were assessed by full text for inclusion in the review. In the end 43 records were chosen. Bone formation and resorption markers are investigated as well as bone regulating systems. T1D is found to have lower osteocalcin and CTX, while osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid are found to be lower in T2D, and sclerostin is increased and collagen turnover markers altered. Other bone turnover markers do not seem to be altered in T1D or T2D. A major problem is the lack of histomorphometric studies in humans linking changes in turnover markers to actual changes in bone turnover and further research is needed to strengthen this link. PMID:23482417

  15. Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-15

    Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O(2) from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O(2) restriction at the mitochondria. Although there is a considerable amount of information available on the physiological, behavioral, biochemical and molecular responses of fish to hypoxia, very little research has attempted to determine the adaptive value of these responses. This article will review current attempts to use the phylogenetically corrected comparative method to define physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia in intertidal fish and further identify putatively adaptive biochemical traits that should be investigated in the future. In a group of marine fishes known as sculpins, from the family Cottidae, variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as a critical O(2) tension (P(crit)), is primarily explained by variation in mass-specific gill surface area, red blood cell hemoglobin-O(2) binding affinity, and to a lesser extent variation in routine O(2) consumption rate (M(O(2))). The most hypoxia-tolerant sculpins consistently show aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and aerial emergence behavior during hypoxia exposure, but no phylogenetically independent relationship has been found between the thresholds for initiating these behaviors and P(crit). At O(2) levels below P(crit), hypoxia survival requires a rapid reorganization of cellular metabolism to suppress ATP consumption to match the limited capacity for O(2)-independent ATP production. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quantity of stored fermentable fuel is strongly selected for in hypoxia-tolerant fishes; however, these assertions have not been tested in a phylogenetic comparative model.

  16. The underlying pathway structure of biochemical reaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Christophe H.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    1998-01-01

    Bioinformatics is yielding extensive, and in some cases complete, genetic and biochemical information about individual cell types and cellular processes, providing the composition of living cells and the molecular structure of its components. These components together perform integrated cellular functions that now need to be analyzed. In particular, the functional definition of biochemical pathways and their role in the context of the whole cell is lacking. In this study, we show how the mass balance constraints that govern the function of biochemical reaction networks lead to the translation of this problem into the realm of linear algebra. The functional capabilities of biochemical reaction networks, and thus the choices that cells can make, are reflected in the null space of their stoichiometric matrix. The null space is spanned by a finite number of basis vectors. We present an algorithm for the synthesis of a set of basis vectors for spanning the null space of the stoichiometric matrix, in which these basis vectors represent the underlying biochemical pathways that are fundamental to the corresponding biochemical reaction network. In other words, all possible flux distributions achievable by a defined set of biochemical reactions are represented by a linear combination of these basis pathways. These basis pathways thus represent the underlying pathway structure of the defined biochemical reaction network. This development is significant from a fundamental and conceptual standpoint because it yields a holistic definition of biochemical pathways in contrast to definitions that have arisen from the historical development of our knowledge about biochemical processes. Additionally, this new conceptual framework will be important in defining, characterizing, and studying biochemical pathways from the rapidly growing information on cellular function. PMID:9539712

  17. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of peat and mire ecosystems functioning and their rational use is the main problem of biosphere study. This problem also refers to forecasting of biosphere changes results which are global and anthropogenic. According to many scientists' research the portion of mires in earth carbon balance is about 15% of world's stock. The aim of this study is to investigate biochemical processes in oligotrophic deposits in North-eastern part of Vasyugan Mire. The investigations were made on the territory of scientific-research ground (56˚ 03´ and 56˚ 57´ NL, 82˚ 22´ and 82˚ 42´ EL). It is situated between two rivers Bakchar and Iksa (in outskirts of the village Polynyanka, Bakchar region, Tomsk oblast). Evolution of investigated mire massif began with the domination of eutrophic phytocenosis - Filicinae, then sedge. Later transfer into oligotrophic phase was accompanied by formation of meter high-moor peat deposit. The age of three-meter peat deposit reaches four thousand years. Biochemical processes of carbon cycle cover the whole peat deposit, but the process activity and its direction in different layers are defined by genesis and duration of peat formation. So, the number of cellulose-fermenting aerobes in researched peat deposits ranges from 16.8 to 75.5 million CFU/g, and anaerobic bacteria from 9.6 to 48.6 million CFU/g. The high number of aerobes is characteristic for high water levels, organizing by raised bog peats. Their number decreases along the profile in 1.7 - 2 times. The number of microflora in peat deposit is defined by the position in the landscape profile (different geneses), by the depth, by hydrothermic conditions of years and individual months. But microflora activity shows along all depth of peat deposit. We found the same in the process of studying of micromycete complex structure. There was revealed either active component micromycete complex - mycelium, or inert one - spores in a meter layer of peat deposit. If mushrooms

  18. Optical devices for biochemical sensing in flame hydrolysis deposited glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M.

    Previous research in the field of Flame Hydrolysis Deposition (FHD) of glasses has focused on the production of low cost optical devices for the field of telecommunications. The originality of this doctoral research resides in the exploration of this technology in the fabrication of optical bio-chemical sensors, with integrated "Lab-on-a-chip" devices. To achieve this goal, we have combined and applied different microfabrication processes for the manufacture of sensor platforms using FHD. These structures are unique in that they take advantage of the intrinsic benefits of the microfabrication process, such as, miniaturisation and mass production, and combine them with the properties of FHD glass, namely: low loss optical transducing mechanisms, planar technologies and monolithic integration. This thesis demonstrates that FHD is a suitable technology for biosensing and Lab- on-a-Chip applications. The objective is to provide future researchers with the necessary tools to accomplish an integrated analytical system based on FHD. We have designed, fabricated, and successfully tested a FHD miniaturised sensor, which comprised optical and microfluidic circuitry, in the framework of low volume fluorescence assays. For the first time, volumes as low as 570 pL were analysed with a Cyanine-5 fluorophore with a detection limit of 20 pM, or ca. 6000 molecules (+/-3sigma) for this platform. The fabrication of the sensor generated a compilation of processes that were then utilised to produce other possible optical platforms for bio-chemical sensors in FHD, e.g. arrays and microfluidics. The "catalogue" of methods used included new recipes for reactive ion etching, glass deposition and bonding techniques that enabled the development of the microfluidic circuitry, integrated with an optical circuitry. Furthermore, we developed techniques to implement new tasks such as optical signal treatment using integrated optical structures, planar arraying of sensors, a separating element for

  19. Simulation studies in biochemical signaling and enzyme reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Vagula, Mary C.

    2014-06-01

    Biochemical pathways characterize various biochemical reaction schemes that involve a set of species and the manner in which they are connected. Determination of schematics that represent these pathways is an important task in understanding metabolism and signal transduction. Examples of these Pathways are: DNA and protein synthesis, and production of several macro-molecules essential for cell survival. A sustained feedback mechanism arises in gene expression and production of mRNA that lead to protein synthesis if the protein so synthesized serves as a transcription factor and becomes a repressor of the gene expression. The cellular regulations are carried out through biochemical networks consisting of reactions and regulatory proteins. Systems biology is a relatively new area that attempts to describe the biochemical pathways analytically and develop reliable mathematical models for the pathways. A complete understanding of chemical reaction kinetics is prohibitively hard thanks to the nonlinear and highly complex mechanisms that regulate protein formation, but attempting to numerically solve some of the governing differential equations seems to offer significant insight about their biochemical picture. To validate these models, one can perform simple experiments in the lab. This paper introduces fundamental ideas in biochemical signaling and attempts to take first steps into the understanding of biochemical oscillations. Initially, the two-pool model of calcium is used to describe the dynamics behind the oscillations. Later we present some elementary results showing biochemical oscillations arising from solving differential equations of Elowitz and Leibler using MATLAB software.

  20. A Biochemical Approach to the Problem of Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sidney McDonald

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents the case of a sixth-grade boy, labeled dyslexic, who responded positively to a biochemical approach. Remedy of iron, zinc, and Vitamin B-6 deficiencies as well as an imbalance of fatty acids resulted in improvements in hair and skin and also in reading. A biochemical approach to behavior problems is proposed. (Author/CL)

  1. Developments in commercially produced microbials at Biochem Products

    Treesearch

    John Lublinkhof; Douglas H. Ross

    1985-01-01

    Biochem Products is part of a large industrial and scientific family - the Solvay Group. Solvay, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium is a multinational company with 46,000 employees worldwide. In the U.S., our working partners include a large polymer manufacturer, a peroxygen producer and a leading poultry and animal health products company. Biochem Products is a...

  2. Model-Based Design of Biochemical Microreactors

    PubMed Central

    Elbinger, Tobias; Gahn, Markus; Neuss-Radu, Maria; Hante, Falk M.; Voll, Lars M.; Leugering, Günter; Knabner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biochemical pathways is an important resource in Synthetic Biology, as the predictive power of simulating synthetic pathways represents an important step in the design of synthetic metabolons. In this paper, we are concerned with the mathematical modeling, simulation, and optimization of metabolic processes in biochemical microreactors able to carry out enzymatic reactions and to exchange metabolites with their surrounding medium. The results of the reported modeling approach are incorporated in the design of the first microreactor prototypes that are under construction. These microreactors consist of compartments separated by membranes carrying specific transporters for the input of substrates and export of products. Inside the compartments of the reactor multienzyme complexes assembled on nano-beads by peptide adapters are used to carry out metabolic reactions. The spatially resolved mathematical model describing the ongoing processes consists of a system of diffusion equations together with boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions model the exchange of metabolites with the neighboring compartments and the reactions at the surface of the nano-beads carrying the multienzyme complexes. Efficient and accurate approaches for numerical simulation of the mathematical model and for optimal design of the microreactor are developed. As a proof-of-concept scenario, a synthetic pathway for the conversion of sucrose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) was chosen. In this context, the mathematical model is employed to compute the spatio-temporal distributions of the metabolite concentrations, as well as application relevant quantities like the outflow rate of G6P. These computations are performed for different scenarios, where the number of beads as well as their loading capacity are varied. The computed metabolite distributions show spatial patterns, which differ for different experimental arrangements. Furthermore, the total output of G6P

  3. A novel optical fiber biochemical sensor based on long period grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xianhui; Liao, Yanbiao; Zhang, Min; Lai, Shurong; Yin, Haibo

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, our present work, which aimed at investigating a novel optical fiber biochemical sensor based on long period grating (LPG), is introduced. Biochemical sensor is one of the most attractive fields of sensor research, especially with the development and occurrence of all kinds of novel theory and technology such as LPG. When there is a refraction index periodic perturbation, the guiding mode and cladding mode in LPG couple with each other. This make the LPG is sensitive to the ambient refractive index. This means it can be a novel bio-chemical sensor when it is applied in the fields of biochemistry. After investigating the principle of coupling in LPG, where the formulas of resonance wave length and band width are induced by 3-layer step index model, we developed an optical fiber biochemical sensor. The structure of its probe is designed by coating some function films whose thickness is between several tens and several hundreds nanometers on the cladding of optical fiber. Experiments of monitoring the saline separateness process of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Mice-Immunoglobulin G (M-IgG) by using the developed LPG sensor have been done. The monitoring indicated that for the BSA, the saline separateness occurs when the saturation is between 50% and 60%, for the M-IgG, the percentage is between 30%-40%. Besides the monitoring, the experiments could also analyze the effects of protein type (different molecule structure), protein consistency and saline saturation to saline separateness. The experimental results show that the optical fiber biochemical sensor based on LPG has many advantages such as simple structure, high sensitivity and miniature. It has a promising future in many research fields and application fields.

  4. Scaling up semi-arid grassland biochemical content from the leaf to the canopy level: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    He, Yuhong; Mui, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery is being used intensively to estimate the biochemical content of vegetation (e.g., chlorophyll, nitrogen, and lignin) at the leaf level. As a result of our need for vegetation biochemical information and our increasing ability to obtain canopy spectral data, a few techniques have been explored to scale leaf-level biochemical content to the canopy level for forests and crops. However, due to the contribution of non-green materials (i.e., standing dead litter, rock, and bare soil) from canopy spectra in semi-arid grasslands, it is difficult to obtain information about grassland biochemical content from remote sensing data at the canopy level. This paper summarizes available methods used to scale biochemical information from the leaf level to the canopy level and groups these methods into three categories: direct extrapolation, canopy-integrated approach, and inversion of physical models. As for semi-arid heterogeneous grasslands, we conclude that all methods are useful, but none are ideal. It is recommended that future research should explore a systematic upscaling framework which combines spatial pattern analysis, canopy-integrated approach, and modeling methods to retrieve vegetation biochemical content at the canopy level.

  5. Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Roychowdhury, Rajib; Fujita, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also substantially improve tolerance. The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants. PMID:23644891

  6. Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

  7. Development and use of biochemical markers in osteoarthritis: current update.

    PubMed

    Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Thudium, Christian S; Mobasheri, Ali

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for noninvasive and descriptive biochemical markers (biomarkers) in osteoarthritis; for enabling early drug development (including translational research), evaluating clinical trial at an early stage and for subtyping. Purpose of the review is to review and comment on current availability of such biomarkers. Many different biomarkers have been tested in the last 18 months. The main focus has been on testing whether the biomarkers, whether is reflect joint tissue turnover or inflammatory status, can differentiate osteoarthritis patients from healthy controls or whether the biomarkers are associated with progression. Less than a handful of studies, investigate the role of the biomarkers as response markers. Thus, there is still a great need for developing biomarkers that reflect disease activity and thereby can be used for treatment response or patient phenotyping. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease. This presents the osteoarthritis research community and pharmaceutical companies developing disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) with great opportunities. There are different osteoarthritis subtypes, which complicates the traditional approaches for developing new treatments. If we can identify new markers that can distinguish different subtypes, this can greatly facilitate drug development from early discovery to late clinical development.

  8. Serum biochemical markers in lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, R. W.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Stack, B. H.; Cuthbert, J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Corker, C. S.; Franchimont, P.; Spilg, W. G.; Stimson, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated serum levels of 5 potential tumour-associated antigens was determined in patients with lung cancer sampled at the time of initial presentation, using age- and sex-matched patients with benign lung disease as controls. Elevated levels (greater than upper 95th centile of controls) were found as follows: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), 17%; pregnancy-associated alpha-macroglobulin (PAM), 16%; casein 14%; human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) 6%; alpha-foetoprotein (AFP), 1.5%. The prevalence of elevated CEA levels (but not other markers) was higher in patients with evidence of extra-thoracic tumour spread (23%) mainly due to anaplastic tumours and adenocarcinomas. A degree of concordance of elevated marker levels occurred with CEA, HCG, casein and AFP, but there was a striking discordance of elevated CEA and PAM levels. Simultaneous assays of CEA and PAM will detect the majority of patients with elevations of any of the markers studied, and are likely to be the most useful biochemical markers in following the response of lung tumours to therapy. PMID:77672

  9. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    PubMed

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-12-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addition to plasmenylethanolamine, five other lipids which contain an alkenyl ether residue supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403 in a lecithin-cholesterol base medium. Of six steroids tested, cholesterol, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholest-4-en-3 beta-ol (allocholesterol), and androst-5-en-3 beta-ol-17-one supported growth of Eubacterium strain 403. All four steroids were reduced to the 3 beta-ol, 5 beta-H products. The delta 5 steroids cholest-5-en-3 alpha-ol (epicholesterol) and 22,23-bisnor-5-cholenic acid-3-beta-ol were not reduced and did not support growth of the Eubacterium strain.

  10. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1996-01-01

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  11. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  12. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Control analysis for autonomously oscillating biochemical networks.

    PubMed Central

    Reijenga, Karin A; Westerhoff, Hans V; Kholodenko, Boris N; Snoep, Jacky L

    2002-01-01

    It has hitherto not been possible to analyze the control of oscillatory dynamic cellular processes in other than qualitative ways. The control coefficients, used in metabolic control analyses of steady states, cannot be applied directly to dynamic systems. We here illustrate a way out of this limitation that uses Fourier transforms to convert the time domain into the stationary frequency domain, and then analyses the control of limit cycle oscillations. In addition to the already known summation theorems for frequency and amplitude, we reveal summation theorems that apply to the control of average value, waveform, and phase differences of the oscillations. The approach is made fully operational in an analysis of yeast glycolytic oscillations. It follows an experimental approach, sampling from the model output and using discrete Fourier transforms of this data set. It quantifies the control of various aspects of the oscillations by the external glucose concentration and by various internal molecular processes. We show that the control of various oscillatory properties is distributed over the system enzymes in ways that differ among those properties. The models that are described in this paper can be accessed on http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11751299

  14. Detection of Biochemical Pathogens, Laser Stand-off Spectroscopy, Quantum Coherence, and Many Body Quantum Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-24

    AND SUBTITLE Detection of Biochemical Pathogens, Laser Stand-off Spectroscopy, Quantum Coherence, and Many Body Quantum Optics 6. AUTHORS Marian O...Maximum 200 words) Results of our earlier research in the realm of quantum optics were extended in order to solve the challenging technical problems of...efficient methods of generating UV light via quantum coherence. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum coherence, quantum optics, lasers 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 15

  15. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven R.; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  16. biochem4j: Integrated and extensible biochemical knowledge through graph databases

    PubMed Central

    Batista-Navarro, Riza; Dunstan, Mark; Jervis, Adrian J.; Vinaixa, Maria; Ananiadou, Sophia; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Kell, Douglas B.

    2017-01-01

    Biologists and biochemists have at their disposal a number of excellent, publicly available data resources such as UniProt, KEGG, and NCBI Taxonomy, which catalogue biological entities. Despite the usefulness of these resources, they remain fundamentally unconnected. While links may appear between entries across these databases, users are typically only able to follow such links by manual browsing or through specialised workflows. Although many of the resources provide web-service interfaces for computational access, performing federated queries across databases remains a non-trivial but essential activity in interdisciplinary systems and synthetic biology programmes. What is needed are integrated repositories to catalogue both biological entities and–crucially–the relationships between them. Such a resource should be extensible, such that newly discovered relationships–for example, those between novel, synthetic enzymes and non-natural products–can be added over time. With the introduction of graph databases, the barrier to the rapid generation, extension and querying of such a resource has been lowered considerably. With a particular focus on metabolic engineering as an illustrative application domain, biochem4j, freely available at http://biochem4j.org, is introduced to provide an integrated, queryable database that warehouses chemical, reaction, enzyme and taxonomic data from a range of reliable resources. The biochem4j framework establishes a starting point for the flexible integration and exploitation of an ever-wider range of biological data sources, from public databases to laboratory-specific experimental datasets, for the benefit of systems biologists, biosystems engineers and the wider community of molecular biologists and biological chemists. PMID:28708831

  17. biochem4j: Integrated and extensible biochemical knowledge through graph databases.

    PubMed

    Swainston, Neil; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carbonell, Pablo; Dobson, Paul D; Dunstan, Mark; Jervis, Adrian J; Vinaixa, Maria; Williams, Alan R; Ananiadou, Sophia; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Mendes, Pedro; Kell, Douglas B; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breitling, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Biologists and biochemists have at their disposal a number of excellent, publicly available data resources such as UniProt, KEGG, and NCBI Taxonomy, which catalogue biological entities. Despite the usefulness of these resources, they remain fundamentally unconnected. While links may appear between entries across these databases, users are typically only able to follow such links by manual browsing or through specialised workflows. Although many of the resources provide web-service interfaces for computational access, performing federated queries across databases remains a non-trivial but essential activity in interdisciplinary systems and synthetic biology programmes. What is needed are integrated repositories to catalogue both biological entities and-crucially-the relationships between them. Such a resource should be extensible, such that newly discovered relationships-for example, those between novel, synthetic enzymes and non-natural products-can be added over time. With the introduction of graph databases, the barrier to the rapid generation, extension and querying of such a resource has been lowered considerably. With a particular focus on metabolic engineering as an illustrative application domain, biochem4j, freely available at http://biochem4j.org, is introduced to provide an integrated, queryable database that warehouses chemical, reaction, enzyme and taxonomic data from a range of reliable resources. The biochem4j framework establishes a starting point for the flexible integration and exploitation of an ever-wider range of biological data sources, from public databases to laboratory-specific experimental datasets, for the benefit of systems biologists, biosystems engineers and the wider community of molecular biologists and biological chemists.

  18. Prostate-specific antigen screening impacts on biochemical recurrence in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Ohori, Makoto; Shimodaira, Kenji; Kaburaki, Naoto; Hirasawa, Yosuke; Satake, Naoya; Gondo, Tatsuo; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Namiki, Kazunori; Ohno, Yoshio

    2018-06-01

    To clarify the impact of prostate-specific antigen screening on surgical outcomes of prostate cancer. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were divided into two groups according to prostate-specific antigen testing opportunity (group 1, prostate-specific antigen screening; group 2, non-prostate-specific antigen screening). Perioperative clinical characteristics were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum and χ 2 -tests. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent predictors of postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival. In total, 798 patients (63.2%) and 464 patients (36.8%) were categorized into groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 2 patients were more likely to have a higher prostate-specific antigen level and age at diagnosis and larger prostate volume. Clinical T stage, percentage of positive cores and pathological Gleason score did not differ between the groups. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was 83.9% for group 1 and 71.0% for group 2 (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen testing opportunity (hazard ratio 2.530; P < 0.001) was an independent predictive factor for biochemical recurrence after surgery, as well as pathological T stage, pathological Gleason score, positive surgical margin and lymphovascular invasion. Additional analyses showed that prostate-specific antigen screening had a greater impact on biochemical recurrence in a younger patients, patients with a high prostate-specific antigen level, large prostate volume and D'Amico high risk, and patients meeting the exclusion criteria of the Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance study. Detection by screening results in favorable outcomes after surgery. Prostate-specific antigen screening might contribute to reducing biochemical recurrence in patients with localized prostate cancer. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Improved prediction of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy by genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Morote, Juan; Del Amo, Jokin; Borque, Angel; Ars, Elisabet; Hernández, Carlos; Herranz, Felipe; Arruza, Antonio; Llarena, Roberto; Planas, Jacques; Viso, María J; Palou, Joan; Raventós, Carles X; Tejedor, Diego; Artieda, Marta; Simón, Laureano; Martínez, Antonio; Rioja, Luis A

    2010-08-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms are inherited genetic variations that can predispose or protect individuals against clinical events. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphism profiling may improve the prediction of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. We performed a retrospective, multi-institutional study of 703 patients treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer who had at least 5 years of followup after surgery. All patients were genotyped for 83 prostate cancer related single nucleotide polymorphisms using a low density oligonucleotide microarray. Baseline clinicopathological variables and single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed to predict biochemical recurrence within 5 years using stepwise logistic regression. Discrimination was measured by ROC curve AUC, specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination index. The overall biochemical recurrence rate was 35%. The model with the best fit combined 8 covariates, including the 5 clinicopathological variables prostate specific antigen, Gleason score, pathological stage, lymph node involvement and margin status, and 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms at the KLK2, SULT1A1 and TLR4 genes. Model predictive power was defined by 80% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value and an AUC of 0.78. The model based on clinicopathological variables plus single nucleotide polymorphisms showed significant improvement over the model without single nucleotide polymorphisms, as indicated by 23.3% net reclassification improvement (p = 0.003), integrated discrimination index (p <0.001) and likelihood ratio test (p <0.001). Internal validation proved model robustness (bootstrap corrected AUC 0.78, range 0.74 to 0.82). The calibration plot showed close agreement between biochemical recurrence observed and predicted probabilities. Predicting biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy based on

  20. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B

    2016-08-01

    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  1. Biochemical phenotypes to discriminate microbial subpopulations and improve outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Galar, Alicia; Kulldorff, Martin; Rudnick, Wallis; O'Brien, Thomas F; Stelling, John

    2013-01-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide constitute an invaluable resource for monitoring emerging threats and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We studied the growing number of biochemical tests routinely performed on clinical isolates to explore their value as epidemiological markers. Microbiology laboratory results from January 2009 through December 2011 from a 793-bed hospital stored in WHONET were examined. Variables included patient location, collection date, organism, and 47 biochemical and 17 antimicrobial susceptibility test results reported by Vitek 2. To identify biochemical tests that were particularly valuable (stable with repeat testing, but good variability across the species) or problematic (inconsistent results with repeat testing), three types of variance analyses were performed on isolates of K. pneumonia: descriptive analysis of discordant biochemical results in same-day isolates, an average within-patient variance index, and generalized linear mixed model variance component analysis. 4,200 isolates of K. pneumoniae were identified from 2,485 patients, 32% of whom had multiple isolates. The first two variance analyses highlighted SUCT, TyrA, GlyA, and GGT as "nuisance" biochemicals for which discordant within-patient test results impacted a high proportion of patient results, while dTAG had relatively good within-patient stability with good heterogeneity across the species. Variance component analyses confirmed the relative stability of dTAG, and identified additional biochemicals such as PHOS with a large between patient to within patient variance ratio. A reduced subset of biochemicals improved the robustness of strain definition for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. Surveillance analyses suggest that the reduced biochemical profile could improve the timeliness and specificity of outbreak detection algorithms. The statistical approaches explored can improve the robust recognition of microbial subpopulations with routinely available

  2. Biochemical Phenotypes to Discriminate Microbial Subpopulations and Improve Outbreak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Galar, Alicia; Kulldorff, Martin; Rudnick, Wallis; O'Brien, Thomas F.; Stelling, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide constitute an invaluable resource for monitoring emerging threats and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We studied the growing number of biochemical tests routinely performed on clinical isolates to explore their value as epidemiological markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Microbiology laboratory results from January 2009 through December 2011 from a 793-bed hospital stored in WHONET were examined. Variables included patient location, collection date, organism, and 47 biochemical and 17 antimicrobial susceptibility test results reported by Vitek 2. To identify biochemical tests that were particularly valuable (stable with repeat testing, but good variability across the species) or problematic (inconsistent results with repeat testing), three types of variance analyses were performed on isolates of K. pneumonia: descriptive analysis of discordant biochemical results in same-day isolates, an average within-patient variance index, and generalized linear mixed model variance component analysis. Results: 4,200 isolates of K. pneumoniae were identified from 2,485 patients, 32% of whom had multiple isolates. The first two variance analyses highlighted SUCT, TyrA, GlyA, and GGT as “nuisance” biochemicals for which discordant within-patient test results impacted a high proportion of patient results, while dTAG had relatively good within-patient stability with good heterogeneity across the species. Variance component analyses confirmed the relative stability of dTAG, and identified additional biochemicals such as PHOS with a large between patient to within patient variance ratio. A reduced subset of biochemicals improved the robustness of strain definition for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. Surveillance analyses suggest that the reduced biochemical profile could improve the timeliness and specificity of outbreak detection algorithms. Conclusions The statistical approaches explored can improve the

  3. [Biochemical failure after curative treatment for localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Zouhair, Abderrahim; Jichlinski, Patrice; Mirimanoff, René-Olivier

    2005-12-07

    Biochemical failure after curative treatment for localized prostate cancer is frequent. The diagnosis of biochemical failure is clear when PSA levels rise after radical prostatectomy, but may be more difficult after external beam radiation therapy. The main difficulty once biochemical failure is diagnosed is to distinguish between local and distant failure, given the low sensitivity of standard work-up exams. Metabolic imaging techniques currently under evaluation may in the future help us to localize the site of failures. There are several therapeutic options depending on the initial curative treatment, each with morbidity risks that should be considered in multidisciplinary decision-making.

  4. Arsenic Uptake, Toxicity, Detoxification, and Speciation in Plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Ghulam; Murtaza, Behzad; Bibi, Irshad; Shahid, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Amjad, Muhammad; Hussain, Munawar; Natasha

    2018-01-01

    Environmental contamination with arsenic (As) is a global environmental, agricultural and health issue due to the highly toxic and carcinogenic nature of As. Exposure of plants to As, even at very low concentration, can cause many morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes. The recent research on As in the soil-plant system indicates that As toxicity to plants varies with its speciation in plants (e.g., arsenite, As(III); arsenate, As(V)), with the type of plant species, and with other soil factors controlling As accumulation in plants. Various plant species have different mechanisms of As(III) or As(V) uptake, toxicity, and detoxification. This review briefly describes the sources and global extent of As contamination and As speciation in soil. We discuss different mechanisms responsible for As(III) and As(V) uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants, at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. This review highlights the importance of the As-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as their damaging impacts on plants at biochemical, genetic, and molecular levels. The role of different enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (salicylic acid, proline, phytochelatins, glutathione, nitric oxide, and phosphorous) substances under As(III/V) stress have been delineated via conceptual models showing As translocation and toxicity pathways in plant species. Significantly, this review addresses the current, albeit partially understood, emerging aspects on (i) As-induced physiological, biochemical, and genotoxic mechanisms and responses in plants and (ii) the roles of different molecules in modulation of As-induced toxicities in plants. We also provide insight on some important research gaps that need to be filled to advance our scientific understanding in this area of research on As in soil-plant systems. PMID:29301332

  5. Automatising the analysis of stochastic biochemical time-series

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical systems has seen a lot of effort devoted to the definition and implementation of high-performance mechanistic simulation frameworks. Within these frameworks it is possible to analyse complex models under a variety of configurations, eventually selecting the best setting of, e.g., parameters for a target system. Motivation This operational pipeline relies on the ability to interpret the predictions of a model, often represented as simulation time-series. Thus, an efficient data analysis pipeline is crucial to automatise time-series analyses, bearing in mind that errors in this phase might mislead the modeller's conclusions. Results For this reason we have developed an intuitive framework-independent Python tool to automate analyses common to a variety of modelling approaches. These include assessment of useful non-trivial statistics for simulation ensembles, e.g., estimation of master equations. Intuitive and domain-independent batch scripts will allow the researcher to automatically prepare reports, thus speeding up the usual model-definition, testing and refinement pipeline. PMID:26051821

  6. Upgrading Laccase Production and Biochemical Properties: Strategies and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Brandt; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2017-07-01

    Improving laccases continues to be crucial in novel biotechnological developments and industrial applications, where they are concerned. This review breaks down and explores the potential of the strategies (conventional and modern) that can be used for laccase enhancement (increased production and upgraded biochemical properties such as stability and catalytic efficiency). The challenges faced with these approaches are briefly discussed. We also shed light on how these strategies merge and give rise to new options and advances in this field of work. Additionally, this article seeks to serve as a guide for students and academic researchers interested in laccases. This document not only gives basic information on laccases, but also provides updated information on the state of the art of various technologies that are used in this line of investigation. It also gives the readers an idea of the areas extensively studied and the areas where there is still much left to be done. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1015-1034, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. The ONIOM molecular dynamics method for biochemical applications: cytidine deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Toshiaki; Dupuis, Michel; Aida, Misako

    2007-03-22

    Abstract We derived and implemented the ONIOM-molecular dynamics (MD) method for biochemical applications. The implementation allows the characterization of the functions of the real enzymes taking account of their thermal motion. In this method, the direct MD is performed by calculating the ONIOM energy and gradients of the system on the fly. We describe the first application of this ONOM-MD method to cytidine deaminase. The environmental effects on the substrate in the active site are examined. The ONIOM-MD simulations show that the product uridine is strongly perturbed by the thermal motion of the environment and dissociates easily from the activemore » site. TM and MA were supported in part by grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. MD was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy DOE. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE.« less

  8. Plasma adiponectin complexes have distinct biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schraw, Todd; Wang, Zhao V; Halberg, Nils; Hawkins, Meredith; Scherer, Philipp E

    2008-05-01

    Adipocytes release the secretory protein adiponectin in a number of different higher-order complexes. Once synthesized and assembled in the secretory pathway of the adipocyte, these complexes circulate as biochemically distinct and stable entities with little evidence of interchange between the different forms that include a high-molecular-weight (HMW) species, a hexamer (low-molecular-weight form), and a trimeric form of the complexes. Here, we validate a high-resolution gel filtration method that reproducibly separates the three complexes in recombinant adiponectin and adiponectin from human and murine samples. We demonstrate that the HMW form is prominently reduced in male vs. female subjects and in obese, insulin-resistant vs. lean, insulin-sensitive individuals. A direct comparison of human and mouse adiponectin demonstrates that the trimer is generally more abundant in human serum. Furthermore, when the production of adiponectin is reduced, either by obesity or in mice carrying only a single functional allele of the adiponectin locus, then the amount of the HMW form is selectively reduced in circulation. The complex distribution of adiponectin can be regulated in several ways. Both mouse and human HMW adiponectin are very stable under basic conditions but are exquisitely labile under acidic conditions below pH 7. Murine and human adiponectin HMW forms also display differential susceptibility to the presence of calcium in the buffer. A mutant form of adiponectin unable to bind calcium is less susceptible to changes in calcium concentrations. However, the lack of calcium binding results in a destabilization of the structure. Disulfide bond formation (at position C39) is also important for complex formation. A mutant form of adiponectin lacking C39 prominently forms HMW and trimer but not the low-molecular-weight form. Injection of adiponectin with a fluorescent label reveals that over time, the various complexes do not interconvert in vivo. The stability of

  9. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    cypermethrin on the erythropoiesis. An increase of plasma enzyme activities in GOT, GPT and CPK were recorded, explain a high energy-generating product. An increase, in the plasma enzyme activity in Alkaline phosphatase, related to their role in the cell permeability. The histopathological results showed lesions and morphological changes of hepato-cellular, fibrosis and appearance of inflammatory infiltrate, confirmed disturbances of the biochemical parameters. These changes were much underlines during the animal toxicity.

  10. [Morphological and biochemical adaptations to feeding in some herbivorous gastropods].

    PubMed

    Aliakrinskaia, O I

    2005-01-01

    Diet and feeding modes as well as morphological and biochemical adaptations to feeding are analyzed in herbivorous mollusks. The content of hemoglobin in radular tissues and weight properties of the radula are evaluated for different modes of feeding.

  11. CELLULAR, BIOCHEMICAL, AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cellular, molecular and biochemical approaches vastly expand the possibilities for revealing the underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. The increasing interest in embryonic development as a model system for the study of gene expression has resulted in a cornucopia of i...

  12. [Interpretation of false positive results of biochemical prenatal tests].

    PubMed

    Sieroszewski, Piotr; Słowakiewicz, Katarzyna; Perenc, Małgorzata

    2010-03-01

    Modern, non-invasive prenatal diagnostics based on biochemical and ultrasonographic markers of fetal defects allows us to calculate the risk of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies with high sensitivity and specificity An introduction of biochemical, non-invasive prenatal tests turned out to result in frequent false positive results of these tests in cases when invasive diagnostics does not confirm fetal defects. However prospective analysis of these cases showed numerous complications in the third trimester of the pregnancies.

  13. Determination of Urease Biochemical Properties of Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp sesquipedalis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zusfahair; Ningsih, D. R.; Fatoni, A.; Pertiwi, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    Urease is enzyme that plays a role in nitrogen metabolism during plant germination. Plants that produce a lot of urease are grains. This study used asparagus bean as source of urease. The purpose of this research is to learn the effect of germination time on the activity of urease enzyme from asparagus bean and its biochemical properties. The research was started by germination of asparagus bean on day 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Asparagus bean sprouts were extracted using acetone and separated by centrifugation to obtain the crude extract of urease. The biochemical properties of the crude extract of urease was further determined including: the effect of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and metal addition to urease activity. The urease activity is determined by the Nessler method. The germination time of asparagus bean in yielding urease enzyme reached the optimum activity on the 8th day with activity value of 593.7 U/mL. The biochemical properties of urease from asparagus bean have optimum activity at 35 °C, pH 7.0 and substrate concentration 0.125% with activity value of 600 U/mL. Addition of CaCl2, SnCl2 and ZnCl2 metals decrease the activity of urease.

  14. Luteal phase deficiency in regularly menstruating women: prevalence and overlap in identification based on clinical and biochemical diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Stanford, Joseph B; Kissell, Kerri A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Perkins, Neil J; Ahrens, Katherine A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mendola, Pauline; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-06-01

    Although adequate luteal hormone production is essential for establishing pregnancy, luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is poorly characterized among eumenorrheic women. We assessed the prevalence and overlap of two established LPD diagnostic criteria: short luteal phase duration less than10 days (clinical LPD) and suboptimal luteal progesterone of 5 ng/mL or less (biochemical LPD) and their relationship with reproductive hormone concentrations. We conducted a prospective study in western New York (2005-2007) following 259 women, aged 18-44 years, for up to two menstrual cycles. Among ovulatory cycles with recorded cycle lengths (n = 463), there were 41 cycles (8.9%) with clinical LPD, 39 cycles (8.4%) with biochemical LPD, and 20 cycles (4.3%) meeting both criteria. Recurrent clinical and biochemical LPD was observed in eight (3.4%) and five (2.1%) women, respectively. Clinical and biochemical LPD were each associated with lower follicular estradiol (both P ≤ .001) and luteal estradiol (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) after adjusting for age, race, and percentage body fat. Clinical, but not biochemical, LPD was associated with lower LH and FSH across all phases of the cycle (P ≤ .001). Clinical and biochemical LPD were evident among regularly menstruating women. Estradiol was lower in LPD cycles under either criterion, but LH and FSH were lower only in association with shortened luteal phase (ie, clinical LPD), indicating that clinical and biochemical LPD may reflect different underlying mechanisms. Identifying ovulation in combination with a well-timed luteal progesterone measurement may serve as a cost-effective and specific tool for LPD assessment by clinicians and researchers.

  15. Luteal Phase Deficiency in Regularly Menstruating Women: Prevalence and Overlap in Identification Based on Clinical and Biochemical Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Kissell, Kerri A.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although adequate luteal hormone production is essential for establishing pregnancy, luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is poorly characterized among eumenorrheic women. Objective: We assessed the prevalence and overlap of two established LPD diagnostic criteria: short luteal phase duration less than10 days (clinical LPD) and suboptimal luteal progesterone of 5 ng/mL or less (biochemical LPD) and their relationship with reproductive hormone concentrations. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a prospective study in western New York (2005–2007) following 259 women, aged 18–44 years, for up to two menstrual cycles. Results: Among ovulatory cycles with recorded cycle lengths (n = 463), there were 41 cycles (8.9%) with clinical LPD, 39 cycles (8.4%) with biochemical LPD, and 20 cycles (4.3%) meeting both criteria. Recurrent clinical and biochemical LPD was observed in eight (3.4%) and five (2.1%) women, respectively. Clinical and biochemical LPD were each associated with lower follicular estradiol (both P ≤ .001) and luteal estradiol (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) after adjusting for age, race, and percentage body fat. Clinical, but not biochemical, LPD was associated with lower LH and FSH across all phases of the cycle (P ≤ .001). Conclusions: Clinical and biochemical LPD were evident among regularly menstruating women. Estradiol was lower in LPD cycles under either criterion, but LH and FSH were lower only in association with shortened luteal phase (ie, clinical LPD), indicating that clinical and biochemical LPD may reflect different underlying mechanisms. Identifying ovulation in combination with a well-timed luteal progesterone measurement may serve as a cost-effective and specific tool for LPD assessment by clinicians and researchers. PMID:24606080

  16. Organic solvent pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Pei, Zhijian; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents the largest potential volume and lowest cost for biofuel and biochemical production. Pretreatment is an essential component of biomass conversion process, affecting a majority of downstream processes, including enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and final product separation. Organic solvent pretreatment is recognized as an emerging way ahead because of its inherent advantages, such as the ability to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose components with high purity, as well as easy solvent recovery and solvent reuse. Objectives of this review were to update and extend previous works on pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals using organic solvents, especially on ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, acetic acid, and formic acid. Perspectives and recommendations were given to fully describe implementation of proper organic solvent pretreatment for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger: biochemical aspects, membrane transport and modeling.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Citric acid is regarded as a metabolite of energy metabolism, of which the concentration will rise to appreciable amounts only under conditions of substantive metabolic imbalances. Citric acid fermentation conditions were established during the 1930s and 1940s, when the effects of various medium components were evaluated. The biochemical mechanism by which Aspergillus niger accumulates citric acid has continued to attract interest even though its commercial production by fermentation has been established for decades. Although extensive basic biochemical research has been carried out with A. niger, the understanding of the events relevant for citric acid accumulation is not completely understood. This review is focused on citric acid fermentation by A. niger. Emphasis is given to aspects of fermentation biochemistry, membrane transport in A. niger and modeling of the production process.

  18. [Mitochondrial diseases in children including Leigh syndrome--biochemical and molecular background].

    PubMed

    Pronicka, Ewa; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Pronicki, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases in children are more frequently caused by mutations in nuclear DNA then in mtDNA. Special clinical phenotypes are associated with the mutations in SURF1 gene, in SCO2 gene and with mtDNA depletion syndromes. Leigh syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of various mitochondrial disorders during childhood. Elevation of lactate in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine is a simple biochemical marker of mitochondrial disorders but its specificity and sensitivity are low. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy and search for mitochondrial mutations remain a gold standard in the diagnosis. The standarized diagnostic criteria to establish level of diagnostic certainty (possible, probable, definite) are proposed to be used in practice; these include clinical features, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy investigations. Further research directions to improve our understanding of mitochondrial pathologies in children are suggested.

  19. Phaeochromocytoma: diagnostic challenges for biochemical screening and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Jeffrey

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this article is to provide knowledge of the origin of catecholamines and metabolites so that there can be an informed approach to the methods for biochemical screening for a possible phaeochromocytoma; The article includes a review of catecholamine and metadrenaline metabolism, with methods used in biochemical screening. In the adrenal medulla and a phaeochromocytoma, catecholamines continuously leak from chromaffin granules into the cytoplasm and are converted to metadrenalines. For a phaeochromocytoma to become biochemically detectable, metnoradrenaline secretion needs to rise fourfold, whereas noradrenaline secretion needs to rise 15-fold. The prevalence of a sporadic phaeochromocytoma is low; therefore false-positive results exceed true-positive results. Assay sensitivity is high because it is important not to miss a possible phaeochromocytoma. The use of urine or plasma fractionated metadrenalines as the first-line test has been recommended due to improved sensitivity. A negative result excludes a phaeochromocytoma. Only after a sporadic phaeochromocytoma has been diagnosed biochemically is it cost effective to request imaging. Sensitivities and specificities of the assays differ according to pre-test probabilities of the presence of a phaeochromocytoma, with hereditary and incidentalomas having a higher pre-test probability than sporadic phaeochromocytoma. In conclusion, in screening for a possible phaeochromocytoma, biochemical investigations should be completed first to exclude or establish the diagnosis. The preferred biochemical screening test is fractionated metadrenalines, including methoxytyramine so as not to miss dopamine-secreting tumours.

  20. Are There Any Promising Biochemical Correlates of Achievement Behavior and Motivation? The Evidence for Serum Uric Acid and Serum Cholesterol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasl, Stanislav V.

    1974-01-01

    This review examines the available evidence in support of the argument that serum uric acid (SUA) possesses considerable promise as an indicator of one type of biochemical influence on achievement behavior. The evidence arguing for further research into the role of serum cholesterol in achievement behavior is also examined. (Author/JR)

  1. ALX receptor ligands define a biochemical endotype for severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Isabell; Barkas, Ioanna; Duvall, Melody G.; Grossman, Nicole L.; Israel, Elliot; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Mauger, David T.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Coverstone, Andrea M.; Fajt, Merritt L.; Hastie, Annette T.; Johansson, Mats W.; Peters, Michael C.; Phillips, Brenda R.; Levy, Bruce D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In health, inflammation resolution is an active process governed by specialized proresolving mediators and receptors. ALX/FPR2 receptors (ALX) are targeted by both proresolving and proinflammatory ligands for opposing signaling events, suggesting pivotal roles for ALX in the fate of inflammatory responses. Here, we determined if ALX expression and ligands were linked to severe asthma (SA). METHODS. ALX expression and levels of proresolving ligands (lipoxin A4 [LXA4], 15-epi-LXA4, and annexin A1 [ANXA1]), and a proinflammatory ligand (serum amyloid A [SAA]) were measured in bronchoscopy samples collected in Severe Asthma Research Program-3 (SA [n = 69], non-SA [NSA, n = 51] or healthy donors [HDs, n = 47]). RESULTS. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 were decreased and SAA was increased in SA relative to NSA. BAL macrophage ALX expression was increased in SA. Subjects with LXA4loSAAhi levels had increased BAL neutrophils, more asthma symptoms, lower lung function, increased relative risk for asthma exacerbation, sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and were assigned more frequently to SA clinical clusters. SAA and aliquots of LXA4loSAAhi BAL fluid induced IL-8 production by lung epithelial cells expressing ALX receptors, which was inhibited by coincubation with 15-epi-LXA4. CONCLUSIONS. Together, these findings have established an association between select ALX receptor ligands and asthma severity that define a potentially new biochemical endotype for asthma and support a pivotal functional role for ALX signaling in the fate of lung inflammation. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Severe Asthma Research Program-3 (SARP-3; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01606826) FUNDING Sources. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the NIH, and the German Society of Pediatric Pneumology. PMID:28724795

  2. Osteoarthritis Year in Review 2016: biomarkers (biochemical markers).

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, A; Bay-Jensen, A-C; van Spil, W E; Larkin, J; Levesque, M C

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this "Year in Review" article is to summarize and discuss the implications of biochemical marker related articles published between the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) 2015 Congress in Seattle and the OARSI 2016 Congress in Amsterdam. The PubMed/MEDLINE bibliographic database was searched using the combined keywords: 'biomarker' and 'osteoarthritis'. The PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted using the Advanced Search Builder function (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/advanced). Over two hundred new biomarker-related papers were published during the literature search period. Some papers identified new biomarkers whereas others explored the biological properties and clinical utility of existing markers. There were specific references to several adipocytokines including leptin and adiponectin. ADAM Metallopeptidase with Thrombospondin Type 1 motif 4 (ADAMTS-4) and aggrecan ARGS neo-epitope fragment (ARGS) in synovial fluid (SF) and plasma chemokine (CeC motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) were reported as potential new knee biomarkers. New and refined proteomic technologies and novel assays including a fluoro-microbead guiding chip (FMGC) for measuring C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in serum and urine and a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based technology (termed magnetic capture) for collecting and concentrating CTX-II, were described this past year. There has been steady progress in osteoarthritis (OA) biomarker research in 2016. Several novel biomarkers were identified and new technologies have been developed for measuring existing biomarkers. However, there has been no "quantum leap" this past year and identification of novel early OA biomarkers remains challenging. During the past year, OARSI published a set of recommendations for the use of soluble biomarkers in clinical trials, which is a major step forward in the clinical use of OA biomarkers and bodes well for future OA biomarker development. Copyright © 2016 The

  3. Fast and Cost-Effective Biochemical Spectrophotometric Analysis of Solution of Insect "Blood" and Body Surface Elution.

    PubMed

    Łoś, Aleksandra; Strachecka, Aneta

    2018-05-09

    Using insect hemolymph ("blood") and insect body surface elutions, researchers can perform rapid and cheap biochemical analyses to determine the insect's immunology status. The authors of this publication describe a detailed methodology for a quick marking of the concentration of total proteins and evaluation of the proteolytic system activity (acid, neutral, and alkaline proteases and protease inhibitors), as well as a methodology for quick "liver" tests in insects: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urea and glucose concentration analyses. The meaning and examples of an interpretation of the results of the presented methodology for biochemical parameter determination are described for the example of honey bees.

  4. [Impact of Gleason score on biochemical recurrence free survival after radical prostatectomy with positive surgical margins].

    PubMed

    Roux, V; Eyraud, R; Brureau, L; Gourtaud, G; Senechal, C; Fofana, M; Blanchet, P

    Research of predictive factors of biochemical recurrence to guide the establishment of an adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy for cancer with positive surgical margins. A retrospective cohort of 1577 afro-caribbean patients undergoing radical prostatectomy operated between 1st January 2000 and 1st July 2013 was analyzed. In this cohort, 406 patients had positive surgical margin, we excluded 11 patients who received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, hormonotherapy, radio-hormonotherapy) and 2 patients for whom histological analysis of the surgical specimen was for a pT4 pathological stage. After a descriptive analysis, we used a Cox model to look for predictors of survival without biochemical recurrence then, depending on the significant variables, we separated our population into six groups: stage pT2 with Gleason score≤3+4 (group 1), stage pT2 with a score of Gleason≥4+3 (group 2), stage pT3a with a Gleason core≤3+4 (group 3), pT3a stage with a score of Gleason≥4+3 (group 4), stage pT3b with a Gleason score≤3+4 (group 5) and stage pT3b Gleason≥with a score of 4+3 (group 6) and compared survival without biochemical recurrence using a log rank test. After radical prostatectomy with surgical margins with an anatomopathological stage≤pT3b, a Gleason score≥4+3 had a pejorative survival without biochemical recurrence than pathological stage (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, predictors of survival without biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy with positive surgical margins were the majority Gleason postoperative (P<0.0001), pathological stage (P=0.049) adjusted preoperative PSA (P=0.826), with the body mass index (BMI) (P=0.59) and tumor volume (P=0.95). A high postoperatively Gleason score (≥4+3) has a better predictive value of biochemical recurrence than pathological stage pT2 or pT3 at the patients having been treated for prostate cancer by radical prostatectomy with positive surgical margins. 4. Copyright

  5. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  6. [Design of high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator system in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Lu, Qi-Peng; Peng, Zhong-Qi; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2013-05-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of system is necessary to obtain accurate blood components in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis. In order to improve SNR of analytical system, high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator (DCPC) system was researched, which was aimed at increasing light utilization efficiency. Firstly, with the request of collection efficiency in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis, the characteristic of emergent rays through compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) was analyzed. Then the maximum focusing angle range of the first stage CPC was determined. Secondly, the light utilization efficiency of truncated type was compared with standard DCPC, thus the best structure parameters of DCPC system were optimized. Lastly, combined with optical parameters of skin tissue, calculations were operated when incident wavelength is 1 000 nm. The light utilization efficiency of DCPC system, CPC-focusing mirror system, and non-optical collecting system was calculated. The results show that the light utilization efficiency of the three optical systems is 1.46%, 0.84% and 0.26% respectively. So DCPC system enhances collecting ability for human diffuse reflection light, and helps improve SNR of noninvasive biochemical analysis system and overall analysis accuracy effectively.

  7. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS BY ANTHROPOMETRIC AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLEGE BASKETBALL PLAYERS].

    PubMed

    Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés Esteban Roberto; Cárcamo-Araneda, Cristian Rodolfo; Hermosilla-Rodríguez, Freddy Patricio; Oyarzún-Ruiz, Jean Pierre; Viveros-Herrera, José Francisco Javier

    2015-12-01

    in relation to the student population, their class schedules, hours of study, budget shortages, among others, do not allow them to have good eating habits and sedentary ago. Within this context are the sports teams, which must deal with the above. knowing the nutritional status of a group of college basketball players (BU) by anthropometric and biochemical parameters. the research provides a non-experimental, descriptive, transversal, with a quantitative approach The sample was selected on a non-probabilistic approach. which included 12 players design. Anthropometric parameters for body mass index (BMI), somatotype and body composition was assessed. For biochemical glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. have a BMI of 24.6 (kg/m2), are classified as endomesomorfas (5,5-4,3-1,2) have a fat mass 39.9% and 37.8% of muscle mass, glucose values are 68.7 (mg/dl), triglycerides 128 (mg/dl) and 189 cholesterol (mg/dl). the BU have normal values for BMI and biochemical parameters, but dig deeper greater amount of adipose tissue is found as reported by body composition and somatotype, a situation that could be related to poor eating habits, however is required further study to reach a categorical conclusion. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical and genetic analysis of the role of the viral polymerase in enterovirus recombination.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Andrew; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Evans, David J

    2016-08-19

    Genetic recombination in single-strand, positive-sense RNA viruses is a poorly understand mechanism responsible for generating extensive genetic change and novel phenotypes. By moving a critical cis-acting replication element (CRE) from the polyprotein coding region to the 3' non-coding region we have further developed a cell-based assay (the 3'CRE-REP assay) to yield recombinants throughout the non-structural coding region of poliovirus from dually transfected cells. We have additionally developed a defined biochemical assay in which the only protein present is the poliovirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which recapitulates the strand transfer events of the recombination process. We have used both assays to investigate the role of the polymerase fidelity and nucleotide turnover rates in recombination. Our results, of both poliovirus intertypic and intratypic recombination in the CRE-REP assay and using a range of polymerase variants in the biochemical assay, demonstrate that RdRp fidelity is a fundamental determinant of recombination frequency. High fidelity polymerases exhibit reduced recombination and low fidelity polymerases exhibit increased recombination in both assays. These studies provide the basis for the analysis of poliovirus recombination throughout the non-structural region of the virus genome and provide a defined biochemical assay to further dissect this important evolutionary process. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test notes are shown in paragraph (e) of this section. Table—EUP Biochemical Pesticides Nontarget... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test notes are shown in paragraph (e) of this section. Table—EUP Biochemical Pesticides Nontarget... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test notes are shown in paragraph (e) of this section. Table—EUP Biochemical Pesticides Nontarget... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... test notes are shown in paragraph (e) of this section. Table—EUP Biochemical Pesticides Nontarget... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides...

  13. Conditions for duality between fluxes and concentrations in biochemical networks

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Ronan M.T.; Vlassis, Nikos; Thiele, Ines; Saunders, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical networks is often done in terms of either the concentrations of molecular species or the fluxes of biochemical reactions. When is mathematical modelling from either perspective equivalent to the other? Mathematical duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one manner. We present a novel stoichiometric condition that is necessary and sufficient for duality between unidirectional fluxes and concentrations. Our numerical experiments, with computational models derived from a range of genome-scale biochemical networks, suggest that this flux-concentration duality is a pervasive property of biochemical networks. We also provide a combinatorial characterisation that is sufficient to ensure flux-concentration duality. The condition prescribes that, for every two disjoint sets of molecular species, there is at least one reaction complex that involves species from only one of the two sets. When unidirectional fluxes and molecular species concentrations are dual vectors, this implies that the behaviour of the corresponding biochemical network can be described entirely in terms of either concentrations or unidirectional fluxes. PMID:27345817

  14. Conditions for duality between fluxes and concentrations in biochemical networks

    DOE PAGES

    Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Vlassis, Nikos; Thiele, Ines; ...

    2016-06-23

    Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical networks is often done in terms of either the concentrations of molecular species or the fluxes of biochemical reactions. When is mathematical modelling from either perspective equivalent to the other? Mathematical duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one manner. We present a novel stoichiometric condition that is necessary and sufficient for duality between unidirectional fluxes and concentrations. Our numerical experiments, with computational models derived from a range of genome-scale biochemical networks, suggest that this flux-concentration duality is a pervasive property of biochemical networks. We alsomore » provide a combinatorial characterisation that is sufficient to ensure flux-concentration duality.The condition prescribes that, for every two disjoint sets of molecular species, there is at least one reaction complex that involves species from only one of the two sets. When unidirectional fluxes and molecular species concentrations are dual vectors, this implies that the behaviour of the corresponding biochemical network can be described entirely in terms of either concentrations or unidirectional fluxes« less

  15. Conditions for duality between fluxes and concentrations in biochemical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Vlassis, Nikos; Thiele, Ines

    Mathematical and computational modelling of biochemical networks is often done in terms of either the concentrations of molecular species or the fluxes of biochemical reactions. When is mathematical modelling from either perspective equivalent to the other? Mathematical duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one manner. We present a novel stoichiometric condition that is necessary and sufficient for duality between unidirectional fluxes and concentrations. Our numerical experiments, with computational models derived from a range of genome-scale biochemical networks, suggest that this flux-concentration duality is a pervasive property of biochemical networks. We alsomore » provide a combinatorial characterisation that is sufficient to ensure flux-concentration duality.The condition prescribes that, for every two disjoint sets of molecular species, there is at least one reaction complex that involves species from only one of the two sets. When unidirectional fluxes and molecular species concentrations are dual vectors, this implies that the behaviour of the corresponding biochemical network can be described entirely in terms of either concentrations or unidirectional fluxes« less

  16. Maximizing the Biochemical Resolving Power of Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Alessandro; Popleteeva, Marina; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have focused on achieving spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit. However, the inherent capability of fluorescence microscopy to non-invasively resolve different biochemical or physical environments in biological samples has not yet been formally described, because an adequate and general theoretical framework is lacking. Here, we develop a mathematical characterization of the biochemical resolution in fluorescence detection with Fisher information analysis. To improve the precision and the resolution of quantitative imaging methods, we demonstrate strategies for the optimization of fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence anisotropy and hyperspectral detection, as well as different multi-dimensional techniques. We describe optimized imaging protocols, provide optimization algorithms and describe precision and resolving power in biochemical imaging thanks to the analysis of the general properties of Fisher information in fluorescence detection. These strategies enable the optimal use of the information content available within the limited photon-budget typically available in fluorescence microscopy. This theoretical foundation leads to a generalized strategy for the optimization of multi-dimensional optical detection, and demonstrates how the parallel detection of all properties of fluorescence can maximize the biochemical resolving power of fluorescence microscopy, an approach we term Hyper Dimensional Imaging Microscopy (HDIM). Our work provides a theoretical framework for the description of the biochemical resolution in fluorescence microscopy, irrespective of spatial resolution, and for the development of a new class of microscopes that exploit multi-parametric detection systems. PMID:24204821

  17. [Biochemical study of the dental pulp in the calf].

    PubMed

    Vernole, B; Caprioglio, D; Mincione, E; Vannini, V; Tomasi, A; Bini, A; Franceschini, V

    1990-01-01

    A biochemical study of dental pulp of calves has been performed concerning: a) peroxydability b) A, E, C vitamins content c) glutation (GSH) content d) presence of paramagnetic compounds e) phosphorylation ratio The dental pulp from incisors of 5-months-old calves has been preserved. Immediately after decapitation the pulp was immersed in liquid nitrogen. Chromatographic (HPLC) and spectroscopic (NMR-ESR) techniques have been used. GSH in dental pulp are present and dosable (4.56 +/- 0.08 n moles/mg prot.) and GSSG (1.05 +/- 0.01 n moles/mg prot.). Because of blood traces in the extracted pulps, the AA. have determined the hemoglobin (Hb) dosage and GSH of erythrocytic derivation (Fig. 1). After deduction of GSH of erythrocytic derivation, the GSH really present in the pulp was 4.41 n moles/mg prot. and the GSSG was 0.90 n moles/mg prot. Peroxydability of the dental pulp has been evaluated with Lowry method with dental pulp homogenate and rat liver homogenate (see Table 1). The ESR spectre shows 4 resonances with the following values: g. 2.24-2.04-2.00-1.97; there are some free intermediary radicals (gr.-2.00) (Fig.2). The NMR spectre shows the presence of ATP (0.22 n moles/g) of inorganic phosphate (16.58 n moles g) (Fig.3). The pulp seems to have a lot of antioxidant factors. The next researches will be to study E, A and C vitamins concentrations. This high presence of GSH and GSSG may be an embryonic peculiarity.

  18. Microfluidics meets metabolomics to reveal the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Mercier, Kelly A; McRitchie, Susan; Cavallo, Tammy B; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Stewart, Delisha; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic devices that are currently being used in pharmaceutical research also have a significant potential for utilization in investigating exposure to infectious agents. We have established a microfluidic device cultured with Caco-2 cells, and utilized metabolomics to investigate the biochemical responses to the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In the microfluidic devices, Caco-2 cells polarize at day 5, are uniform, have defined brush borders and tight junctions, and form a mucus layer. Metabolomics analysis of cell culture media collected from both Caco-2 cell culture systems demonstrated a more metabolic homogenous biochemical profile in the media collected from microfluidic devices, compared with media collected from transwells. GeneGo pathway mapping indicated that aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was perturbed by fluid flow, suggesting that fluid dynamics and shear stress impacts the cells translational quality control. Both microfluidic device and transwell culturing systems were used to investigate the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical processes. Caco-2 cells cultured in either system were infected at day 5 with C. jejuni 81-176 for 48 h. Metabolomics analysis clearly differentiated C. jejuni 81-176 infected and non-infected medias collected from the microfluidic devices, and demonstrated that C. jejuni 81-176 infection in microfluidic devices impacts branched-chain amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. In contrast, no distinction was seen in the biochemical profiles of infected versus non-infected media collected from cells cultured in transwells. Microfluidic culturing conditions demonstrated a more metabolically homogenous cell population, and present the opportunity for studying host-pathogen interactions for extended periods of time.

  19. Microfluidics Meets Metabolomics to Reveal the Impact of Campylobacter jejuni Infection on Biochemical Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ninell P.; Mercier, Kelly A.; McRitchie, Susan; Cavallo, Tammy B.; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Stewart, Delisha; Sumner, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices that are currently being used in pharmaceutical research also have a significant potential for utilization in investigating exposure to infectious agents. We have established a microfluidic device cultured with Caco-2 cells, and utilized metabolomics to investigate the biochemical responses to the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. In the microfluidic devices, Caco-2 cells polarize at day 5, are uniform, have defined brush borders and tight junctions, and form a mucus layer. Metabolomics analysis of cell culture media collected from both Caco-2 cell culture systems demonstrated a more metabolic homogenous biochemical profile in the media collected from microfluidic devices, compared with media collected from transwells. GeneGo pathway mapping indicated that aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis was perturbed by fluid flow, suggesting that fluid dynamics and shear stress impacts the cells translational quality control. Both microfluidic device and transwell culturing systems were used to investigate the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical processes. Caco-2 cells cultured in either system were infected at day 5 with C. jejuni 81-176 for 48 hours. Metabolomics analysis clearly differentiated C. jejuni 81-176 infected and non-infected medias collected from the microfluidic devices, and demonstrated that C. jejuni 81-176 infection in microfluidic devices impacts branched-chain amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. In contrast, no distinction was seen in the biochemical profiles of infected versus non-infected media collected from cells cultured in transwells. Microfluidic culturing conditions demonstrated a more metabolically homogenous cell population, and present the opportunity for studying host-pathogen interactions for extended periods of time. PMID:27231016

  20. Varenicline in Autism: Theory and Case Report of Clinical and Biochemical Changes.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Mojdeh; Hardy, Paul; Arnold, L Eugene

    2016-11-01

    To explore the potential benefits of varenicline (CHANTIX ® ), a highly specific partial agonist of neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), for autistic symptoms, and present resulting biochemical changes in light of dopamine-related genotype. The clinical and biochemical changes exhibited by a 19-year-old severely autistic man following the use of low-dose varenicline in an ABA experiment of nature, and his genotype, were extracted from chart review. Clinical outcome was measured by the Ohio Autism Clinical Impression Scale and 12 relevant urine and saliva metabolites were measured by Neuroscience Laboratory. With varenicline, this patient improved clinically and autonomic biochemical indicators in saliva and urine normalized, including dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), epinephrine, norepinephrine, taurine, and histamine levels. In addition, with varenicline, the dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) antibody titer as well as the percent of baseline calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM KII) activity dropped significantly. When varenicline stopped, he deteriorated; when it was resumed, he again improved. Doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg daily were tried before settling on a dose of 1.5 mg daily. He has remained on varenicline for over a year with no noticeable side effects. This report is, to the best of our knowledge, only the second to demonstrate positive effects of varenicline in autism, the first to show it in a severe case, and the first to show normalization of biochemical parameters related to genotype. As with the previous report, these encouraging results warrant further controlled research before clinical recommendations can be made.

  1. 68Ga Bombesin PET/MRI in Patients with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer and Noncontributory Conventional Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702...AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR...prostate cancer (PCa). Methods : We enrolled 15 men with biochemically recurrent PCa from May to Sep 2017, 63-79 year-old (mean±standard deviation (SD

  2. Designing Epigenome Editors: Considerations of Biochemical and Locus Specificities.

    PubMed

    Sen, Dilara; Keung, Albert J

    2018-01-01

    The advent of locus-specific protein recruitment technologies has enabled a new class of studies in chromatin biology. Epigenome editors enable biochemical modifications of chromatin at almost any specific endogenous locus. Their locus specificity unlocks unique information including the functional roles of distinct modifications at specific genomic loci. Given the growing interest in using these tools for biological and translational studies, there are many specific design considerations depending on the scientific question or clinical need. Here we present and discuss important design considerations and challenges regarding the biochemical and locus specificities of epigenome editors. These include how to account for the complex biochemical diversity of chromatin; control for potential interdependency of epigenome editors and their resultant modifications; avoid sequestration effects; quantify the locus specificity of epigenome editors; and improve locus specificity by considering concentration, affinity, avidity, and sequestration effects.

  3. Changes in Biochemical Properties of the Blood in Winter Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Teleglow, Aneta; Marchewka, Jakub; Marchewka, Anna; Kulpa, Jan

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of winter swimming on biochemical indicators of the blood. The subjects - winter swimmers - belonged to the Krakow Walrus Club "Kaloryfer" - "The Heater". The study group consisted of 11 men, aged 30-50 years, 'walrusing' throughout the whole season from November to March. Statistically significant changes throughout the 'walrusing' season were observed for the following biochemical parameters: a decrease in sodium (mmol/1), chloride (mmol/1), alpha-2 globulin(g/1), gamma globulin (g/1), IgG (g/1), and an increase in albumin (g/1), indicator A/G, IgA (g/l ), Herpes simplex virus IgM. Seasonal effort of winter swimmers has a positive influence on biochemical blood parameters.

  4. Measurement of biochemical oxygen demand of the leachates.

    PubMed

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the leachates originally from the different types of landfill sites was studied based on the data measured using the two manometric methods. The measurements of BOD using the dilution method were carried out to assess the typical physicochemical and biological characteristics of the leachates together with some other parameters. The linear regression analysis was used to predict rate constants for biochemical reactions and ultimate BOD values of the different leachates. The rate of a biochemical reaction implicated in microbial biodegradation of pollutants depends on the leachate characteristics, mass of contaminant in the leachate, and nature of the leachate. Character of leachate samples for BOD analysis of using the different methods may differ significantly during the experimental period, resulting in different BOD values. This work intends to verify effect of the different dilutions for the manometric method tests on the BOD concentrations of the leachate samples to contribute to the assessment of reaction rate and microbial consumption of oxygen.

  5. Incidence of Abnormal Liver Biochemical Tests in Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tiffany Y.; Shekar, Anshula O.; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen their severity. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Design Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients Patients ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban U.S. medical center between 2002–2016. Measurements Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] concentration < 0.3 mIU/L or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) and/or thyroxine (T4) concentration [total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. Results In this cohort of 1,514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0.02 mIU/L, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. Conclusions This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:28199740

  6. Incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiffany Y; Shekar, Anshula O; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W; Saab, Sammy; Wilson, Mark; Leung, Angela M

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal serum liver function tests are common in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis, even prior to the initiation of antithyroidal medications that may worsen the severity of the abnormal serum liver biochemistries. There is a wide range of the incidence of these abnormalities in the published literature. The aim of this study was to assess the risks factors and threshold of thyrotoxicosis severity for developing an abnormal liver biochemical test upon the diagnosis of new thyrotoxicosis. Single-institution retrospective cohort study. Patients of ≥18 years old receiving medical care at a large, academic, urban US medical centre between 2002-2016. Inclusion criteria were a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration of <0·3 mIU/l or ICD-9 code for thyrotoxicosis, with thyrotoxicosis confirmed by either a concurrent elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) concentration ([total or free] within 3 months), and an available liver biochemical test(s) within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis. The biochemical liver tests assessed were serum aspartate transaminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin, and conjugated bilirubin concentrations. In this cohort of 1514 subjects, the overall incidence of any biochemical liver test abnormality within 6 months of thyrotoxicosis was 39%. An initial serum TSH concentration <0·02 mIU/l, male gender, and African-American race were significant predictors of an abnormal serum liver biochemical test within 6 months of the diagnosis of new-onset untreated thyrotoxicosis. This study identifies risk factors for patients who develop an abnormal serum liver biochemical test result within 6 months of a diagnosis of untreated thyrotoxicosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Biotinidase deficiency: Genotype-biochemical phenotype association in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    Borsatto, Taciane; Sperb-Ludwig, Fernanda; Lima, Samyra E.; S. Carvalho, Maria R.; S. Fonseca, Pablo A.; S. Camelo, José; M. Ribeiro, Erlane; F. V. de Medeiros, Paula; M. Lourenço, Charles; F. M. de Souza, Carolina; Boy, Raquel; Félix, Têmis M.; M. Bittar, Camila; L. C. Pinto, Louise; C. Neto, Eurico; J. Blom, Henk; D. Schwartz, Ida V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The association between the BTD genotype and biochemical phenotype [profound biotinidase deficiency (BD), partial BD or heterozygous activity] is not always consistent. This study aimed to investigate the genotype-biochemical phenotype association in patients with low biotinidase activity. Methods All exons, the 5'UTR and the promoter of the BTD gene were sequenced in 72 Brazilian individuals who exhibited low biotinidase activity. For each patient, the expected biochemical phenotype based on the known genotype was compared with the observed biochemical phenotype. Additional non-genetic factors that could affect the biotinidase activity were also analysed. Results Most individuals were identified by neonatal screening (n = 66/72). When consecutive results for the same patient were compared, age, prematurity and neonatal jaundice appeared to affect the level of biotinidase activity. The biochemical phenotype at the time of the second blood collection changed in 11/22 patients compared to results from the first sample. Three novel variants were found: c.1337T>C (p.L446P), c.1466A>G (p.N489S) and c.962G>A (p.W321*). Some patients with the same genotype presented different biochemical phenotypes. The expected and observed biochemical phenotypes agreed in 68.5% of cases (concordant patients). The non-coding variants c.-183G>A, c.-315A>G and c.-514C>T were present in heterozygosis in 5/17 discordant patients. In addition, c.-183G>A and c.-514C>T were also present in 10/37 concordant patients. Conclusions The variants found in the promoter region do not appear to have a strong impact on biotinidase activity. Since there is a disparity between the BTD genotype and biochemical phenotype, and biotinidase activity may be affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors, we suggest that the diagnosis of BD should be based on more than one measurement of plasma biotinidase activity. DNA analysis can be of additional relevance to differentiate between partial BD and

  8. Rapid Methods for Biochemical Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Blazevic, Donna J.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid biochemical tests for nitrate, indole, gelatin, starch, esculin, and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside were performed on 112 strains of anaerobic bacteria. All tests were incubated under aerobic conditions, and results were recorded within 4 h. The tests for nitrate, indole, and starch showed a 95% or greater correlation when compared to the standard biochemical tests. Tests for esculin and gelatin showed an agreement of 86 and 77%, respectively. PathoTec test strips for nitrate, indole, esculin, o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, Voges-Proskauer, and urease were also tested and showed encouraging results. PMID:4613268

  9. Physiological and molecular biochemical mechanisms of bile formation

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2013-01-01

    This review considers the physiological and molecular biochemical mechanisms of bile formation. The composition of bile and structure of a bile canaliculus, biosynthesis and conjugation of bile acids, bile phospholipids, formation of bile micellar structures, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids are described. In general, the review focuses on the molecular physiology of the transporting systems of the hepatocyte sinusoidal and apical membranes. Knowledge of physiological and biochemical basis of bile formation has implications for understanding the mechanisms of development of pathological processes, associated with diseases of the liver and biliary tract. PMID:24259965

  10. Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

  11. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Design and experiment of micro biochemical detector based on micro spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing-hua; Wen, Zhi-yu; Chen, Gang; Dai, Wei-wei; Liu, Nian-ci; Wu, Xin

    2012-03-01

    According to the requirements of rapid detection of important life parameters for the sick and wounded, a new micro bio-chemical detection configuration was proposed utilizing continuous spectroscopy analysis, which was founded on MOEMS and embedded technology. The configuration was developed as so much research work was carried out on the detecting objects and methods. Important parameters such as stray light, absorbance linearity, absorbance ratability, stability and temperature accuracy of the instrument were tested, which are all in good agreement with the design requirements. Clinic tests show that it can detect multiple life parameters quickly (Na+, GLU, Hb eg.).

  13. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    PubMed Central

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

  14. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  15. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multilayer biochemical dry deposition model (MLBC) described in the accompanying paper was tested against half-hourly eddy correlation data from six field sites under a wide range of climate conditions with various plant types. Modeled CO2, O3, SO2<...

  16. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 1. MODEL FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration ...

  17. Correlations between female breast density and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Park, Hyong-Keun; Yang, Han-Jun

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify biochemical markers related to breast density. The study was performed with 200 patients who received mammography and biochemical marker testing between March 1, 2014 to October 1, 2014. [Subjects and Methods] Following the American College of Radiology, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS), breast parenchymal pattern density from mammography was categorized into four grades: grade 1, almost entirely fat; grade 2, fibroglandular densities; grade 3, heterogeneously dense; and grade 4, extremely dense. Regarding biochemical markers, subjects underwent blood and urine tests after a 12-h fast. We analyzed correlations among breast density, general characteristics, and biochemical markers. [Results] Breast density-related factors were age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), hematocrit, MCH, RDW, AST, ALT, ALP, uric acid, γGT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol. [Conclusion] The results can be used as basic and comparative data for the prevention and early control of breast cancer.

  18. Biochemical tests of placental function for assessment in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Neilson, James P

    2012-08-15

    Biochemical tests of placental or feto-placental function were widely used in the 1960s and 1970s in high-risk pregnancies to try to predict, and thus try to avoid, adverse fetal outcome. To assess the effects of performing biochemical tests of placental function in high-risk, low-risk, or unselected pregnancies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (10 May 2012). Controlled trials (randomized or 'quasi-randomized') that compare the use of biochemical tests of placental function in pregnancy with non-use. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted by the review author. A single eligible trial of poor quality was identified. It involved 622 women with high-risk pregnancies who had had plasma (o)estriol estimations. Women were allocated to have their (o)estriol results revealed or concealed on the basis of hospital record number (with attendant risk of selection bias). There were no obvious differences in perinatal mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36 to 2.13) or planned delivery (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.15) between the two groups. The available trial data do not support the use of (o)estriol estimation in high-risk pregnancies. The single small trial available does not have the power to exclude a beneficial effect but this is probably of historical interest since biochemical testing has been superseded by biophysical testing in antepartum fetal assessment.

  19. The Stereochemistry of Biochemical Molecules: A Subject to Revisit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centelles, Josep J.; Imperial, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Although Fischer's convention for stereoisomers is useful for simple molecules, the stereochemistry of complex biochemical molecules is often poorly indicated in textbooks. This article reports on errors in stereochemistry of complex hydrosoluble vitamin B12 molecule. Twenty-five popular biochemistry textbooks were examined for their treatment of…

  20. Biochemical Characterization of Prion Strains in Bank Voles

    PubMed Central

    Pirisinu, Laura; Marcon, Stefano; Di Bari, Michele Angelo; D’Agostino, Claudia; Agrimi, Umberto; Nonno, Romolo

    2013-01-01

    Prions exist as different strains exhibiting distinct disease phenotypes. Currently, the identification of prion strains is still based on biological strain typing in rodents. However, it has been shown that prion strains may be associated with distinct PrPSc biochemical types. Taking advantage of the availability of several prion strains adapted to a novel rodent model, the bank vole, we investigated if any prion strain was actually associated with distinctive PrPSc biochemical characteristics and if it was possible to univocally identify strains through PrPSc biochemical phenotypes. We selected six different vole-adapted strains (three human-derived and three animal-derived) and analyzed PrPSc from individual voles by epitope mapping of protease resistant core of PrPSc (PrPres) and by conformational stability and solubility assay. Overall, we discriminated five out of six prion strains, while two different scrapie strains showed identical PrPSc types. Our results suggest that the biochemical strain typing approach here proposed was highly discriminative, although by itself it did not allow us to identify all prion strains analyzed. PMID:25437201

  1. BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS: A SPECIES COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existence of endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment has been clearly established in several studies. Exposure of organisms to both natural and synthetic xenoestrogens have been found to alter biochemical homeostatis and, in some cases, result in reproductive and d...

  2. Biochemical and physiological consequences of the Apollo flight diet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hander, E. W.; Leach, C. S.; Fischer, C. L.; Rummel, J.; Rambaut, P.; Johnson, P. C.

    1971-01-01

    Six male subjects subsisting on a typical Apollo flight diet for five consecutive days were evaluated for changes in biochemical and physiological status. Laboratory examinations failed to demonstrate any significant changes of the kind previously attributed to weightlessness, such as in serum electrolytes, endocrine values, body fluid, or hematologic parameters.

  3. Development of a new first-aid biochemical detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jingfei; Liao, Haiyang; Su, Shilin; Ding, Hao; Liu, Suquan

    2016-10-01

    The traditional biochemical detector exhibits poor adaptability, inconvenient carrying and slow detection, which can't meet the needs of first-aid under field condition like natural or man-made disasters etc. Therefore a scheme of first-aid biochemical detector based on MOMES Micro Spectrometer, UV LED and Photodiode was proposed. An optical detection structure combined continuous spectrum sweep with fixed wavelength measurement was designed, which adopted mobile detection optical path consisting of Micro Spectrometer and Halogen Lamp to detect Chloride (Cl-), Creatinine (Cre), Glucose (Glu), Hemoglobin (Hb). The UV LED and Photodiode were designed to detect Potassium (K-), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Sodium (Na+). According to the field diagnosis and treatment requirements, we designed the embedded control hardware circuit and software system, the prototype of first-aid biochemical detector was developed and the clinical trials were conducted. Experimental results show that the sample's absorbance repeatability is less than 2%, the max coefficient of variation (CV) in the batch repeatability test of all 7 biochemical parameters in blood samples is 4.68%, less than the clinical requirements 10%, the correlation coefficient (R2) in the clinical contrast test with AU5800 is almost greater than 0.97. To sum up, the prototype meets the requirements of clinical application.

  4. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  5. Chemical and biochemical thermodynamics: Is it time for a reunification?

    PubMed

    Iotti, Stefano; Raff, Lionel; Sabatini, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The thermodynamics of chemical reactions in which all species are explicitly considered with atoms and charge balanced is compared with the transformed thermodynamics generally used to treat biochemical reactions where atoms and charges are not balanced. The transformed thermodynamic quantities suggested by Alberty are obtained by execution of Legendre transformation of the usual thermodynamic potentials. The present analysis demonstrates that the transformed values for Δ r G' 0 and Δ r H' 0 can be obtained directly without performing Legendre transformations by simply writing the chemical reactions with all the pseudoisomers explicitly included and charges balanced. The appropriate procedures for computing the stoichiometric coefficients for the pseudoisomers are fully explained by means of an example calculation for the biochemical ATP hydrolysis reaction. It is concluded that the analysis has reunited the "two separate worlds" of conventional thermodynamics and transformed thermodynamics. In addition, it is also shown that the value of the conditional Gibbs energy of reaction, Δ r G', for a biochemical reaction is the same of the value of Δ r G for any chemical reaction involving pseudoisomers of the biochemical reagents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of biochemical methods in extraterrestrial life detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Gene

    2006-08-01

    Instrument development for in situ extraterrestrial life detection focuses primarily on the ability to distinguish between biological and non-biological material, mostly through chemical analysis for potential biosignatures (e.g., biogenic minerals, enantiomeric excesses). In constrast, biochemical analysis techniques commonly applied to Earth life focus primarily on the exploration of cellular and molecular processes, not on the classification of a given system as biological or non-biological. This focus has developed because of the relatively large functional gap between life and non-life on Earth today. Life on Earth is very diverse from an environmental and physiological point of view, but is highly conserved from a molecular point of view. Biochemical analysis techniques take advantage of this similarity of all terrestrial life at the molecular level, particularly through the use of biologically-derived reagents (e.g., DNA polymerases, antibodies), to enable analytical methods with enormous sensitivity and selectivity. These capabilities encourage consideration of such reagents and methods for use in extraterrestrial life detection instruments. The utility of this approach depends in large part on the (unknown at this time) degree of molecular compositional differences between extraterrestrial and terrestrial life. The greater these differences, the less useful laboratory biochemical techniques will be without significant modification. Biochemistry and molecular biology methods may need to be "de-focused" in order to produce instruments capable of unambiguously detecting a sufficiently wide range of extraterrestrial biochemical systems. Modern biotechnology tools may make that possible in some cases.

  7. Metstoich--Teaching Quantitative Metabolism and Energetics in Biochemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kelvin W. W.; Barford, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Metstoich, a metabolic calculator developed for teaching, can provide a novel way to teach quantitative metabolism to biochemical engineering students. It can also introduce biochemistry/life science students to the quantitative aspects of life science subjects they have studied. Metstoich links traditional biochemistry-based metabolic approaches…

  8. Physiologic and biochemical aspects of skeletal muscle denervation and reinnervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Mayer, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the physiologic and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle following denervation and reinnervation are considered and some comparisons are made with changes observed following altered motor function. The nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties are discussed, including the effects of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase and the role of the acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Diming; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-01-15

    Smartphone has been widely integrated with sensors, such as test strips, sensor chips, and hand-held detectors, for biochemical detections due to its portability and ubiquitous availability. Utilizing built-in function modules, smartphone is often employed as controller, analyzer, and displayer for rapid, real-time, and point-of-care monitoring, which can significantly simplify design and reduce cost of the detecting systems. This paper presents a review of biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone for portable biochemical detections. The biosensors and bioelectronics based on smartphone can mainly be classified into biosensors using optics, surface plasmon resonance, electrochemistry, and near-field communication. The developments of these biosensors and bioelectronics on smartphone are reviewed along with typical biochemical detecting cases. Sensor strategies, detector attachments, and coupling methods are highlighted to show designs of the compact, lightweight, and low-cost sensor systems. The performances and advantages of these designs are introduced with their applications in healthcare diagnosis, environment monitoring, and food evaluation. With advances in micro-manufacture, sensor technology, and miniaturized electronics, biosensor and bioelectronic devices on smartphone can be used to perform biochemical detections as common and convenient as electronic tag readout in foreseeable future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MATLAB-Based Teaching Modules in Biochemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kilho; Comolli, Noelle K.; Kelly, William J.; Huang, Zuyi

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models play an important role in biochemical engineering. For example, the models developed in the field of systems biology have been used to identify drug targets to treat pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms. In addition, competitive binding models for chromatography processes have been developed to predict expanded…

  11. A stopped-flow calorimeter for biochemical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J V; Millar, N C; Gutfreund, H

    1987-01-01

    A rapid-response stopped-flow calorimeter for small samples of reagents is described. The construction, performance characteristics and operational limitations are described, along with an example of its ability to resolve the kinetics of an enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis. It is thought likely that the method would find useful application in a variety of chemical and biochemical investigations. PMID:3435478

  12. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  13. The biochemical properties of antibodies and their fragments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are a powerful molecular recognition tools that can be used to identify minute quantities of a given target analyte. Their antigen binding properties define both the sensitivity and selectivity of an immunoassay. Understanding the biochemical properties of this c...

  14. Biochemical correlates in an animal model of depression

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    A valid animal model of depression was used to explore specific adrenergic receptor differences between rats exhibiting aberrant behavior and control groups. Preliminary experiments revealed a distinct upregulation of hippocampal beta-receptors (as compared to other brain regions) in those animals acquiring a response deficit as a result of exposure to inescapable footshock. Concurrent studies using standard receptor binding techniques showed no large changes in the density of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, or dopaminergic receptor densities. This led to the hypothesis that the hippocampal beta-receptor in responses deficient animals could be correlated with the behavioral changes seen after exposure to the aversive stimulus.more » Normalization of the behavior through the administration of antidepressants could be expected to reverse the biochemical changes if these are related to the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. This study makes three important points: (1) there is a relevant biochemical change in the hippocampus of response deficient rats which occurs in parallel to a well-defined behavior, (2) the biochemical and behavioral changes are normalized by antidepressant treatments exhibiting both serotonergic and adrenergic mechanisms of action, and (3) the mode of action of antidepressants in this model is probably a combination of serotonergic and adrenergic influences modulating the hippocampal beta-receptor. These results are discussed in relation to anatomical and biochemical aspects of antidepressant action.« less

  15. Biochemical and Structural Studies of RNA Modification and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chio Mui

    2009-01-01

    RNA modification, RNA interference, and RNA repair are important events in the cell. This thesis presents three projects related to these three fields. By using both biochemical and structural methods, we characterized enzymatic activities of pseudouridine synthase TruD, solved the structure of "A. aeolicus" GidA, and reconstituted a novel…

  16. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes.

  17. Recommendations for terminology and databases for biochemical thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Alberty, Robert A; Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Goldberg, Robert N; Hammes, Gordon G; Tipton, Keith; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2011-05-01

    Chemical equations are normally written in terms of specific ionic and elemental species and balance atoms of elements and electric charge. However, in a biochemical context it is usually better to write them with ionic reactants expressed as totals of species in equilibrium with each other. This implies that atoms of elements assumed to be at fixed concentrations, such as hydrogen at a specified pH, should not be balanced in a biochemical equation used for thermodynamic analysis. However, both kinds of equations are needed in biochemistry. The apparent equilibrium constant K' for a biochemical reaction is written in terms of such sums of species and can be used to calculate standard transformed Gibbs energies of reaction Δ(r)G'°. This property for a biochemical reaction can be calculated from the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation Δ(f)G(i)'° of reactants, which can be calculated from the standard Gibbs energies of formation of species Δ(f)G(j)° and measured apparent equilibrium constants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Tables of Δ(r)G'° of reactions and Δ(f)G(i)'° of reactants as functions of pH and temperature are available on the web, as are functions for calculating these properties. Biochemical thermodynamics is also important in enzyme kinetics because apparent equilibrium constant K' can be calculated from experimentally determined kinetic parameters when initial velocities have been determined for both forward and reverse reactions. Specific recommendations are made for reporting experimental results in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P < 0.0001). Protein synthesis was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at 6, 12, and 18 h of preservation (P < 0.05). This lung slice model allows the rapid and efficient screening of lung preservation solutions and their components using quantifiable biochemical endpoints. Using this model, we have developed a novel solution that improves the biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p < 0.05). Capacity for protein synthesis was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, and 18 hours of cold storage (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS This myocardial slice model allows the rapid and efficient screening of cardiac preservation solutions and their components using quantifiable biochemical endpoints. Using this model, we have developed a novel preservation solution which improves the biochemical function of myocardial slices during cold storage.

  20. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptional analysis of onion bulbs during storage

    PubMed Central

    Chope, Gemma A.; Cools, Katherine; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims During the transition from endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy and subsequent growth, the onion bulb undergoes the transition from sink organ to source, to sustain cell division in the meristematic tissue. The mechanisms controlling these processes are not fully understood. Here, a detailed analysis of whole onion bulb physiological, biochemical and transcriptional changes in response to sprouting is reported, enabling a better knowledge of the mechanisms regulating post-harvest onion sprout development. Methods Biochemical and physiological analyses were conducted on different cultivars (‘Wellington’, ‘Sherpa’ and ‘Red Baron’) grown at different sites over 3 years, cured at different temperatures (20, 24 and 28 °C) and stored under different regimes (1, 3, 6 and 6 → 1 °C). In addition, the first onion oligonucleotide microarray was developed to determine differential gene expression in onion during curing and storage, so that transcriptional changes could support biochemical and physiological analyses. Key Results There were greater transcriptional differences between samples at harvest and before sprouting than between the samples taken before and after sprouting, with some significant changes occurring during the relatively short curing period. These changes are likely to represent the transition from endo-dormancy to sprout suppression, and suggest that endo-dormancy is a relatively short period ending just after curing. Principal component analysis of biochemical and physiological data identified the ratio of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) to disaccharide (sucrose), along with the concentration of zeatin riboside, as important factors in discriminating between sprouting and pre-sprouting bulbs. Conclusions These detailed analyses provide novel insights into key regulatory triggers for sprout dormancy release in onion bulbs and provide the potential for the development of biochemical or transcriptional markers for sprout

  1. Aspects on the Physiological and Biochemical Foundations of Neurocritical Care

    PubMed Central

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Koskinen, Lars-Owe; Olivecrona, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Neurocritical care (NCC) is a branch of intensive care medicine characterized by specific physiological and biochemical monitoring techniques necessary for identifying cerebral adverse events and for evaluating specific therapies. Information is primarily obtained from physiological variables related to intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and from physiological and biochemical variables related to cerebral energy metabolism. Non-surgical therapies developed for treating increased ICP are based on knowledge regarding transport of water across the intact and injured blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the regulation of CBF. Brain volume is strictly controlled as the BBB permeability to crystalloids is very low restricting net transport of water across the capillary wall. Cerebral pressure autoregulation prevents changes in intracranial blood volume and intracapillary hydrostatic pressure at variations in arterial blood pressure. Information regarding cerebral oxidative metabolism is obtained from measurements of brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and biochemical data obtained from intracerebral microdialysis. As interstitial lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio instantaneously reflects shifts in intracellular cytoplasmatic redox state, it is an important indicator of compromised cerebral oxidative metabolism. The combined information obtained from PbtO2, LP ratio, and the pattern of biochemical variables reveals whether impaired oxidative metabolism is due to insufficient perfusion (ischemia) or mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral microdialysis and PbtO2 give information from a very small volume of tissue. Accordingly, clinical interpretation of the data must be based on information of the probe location in relation to focal brain damage. Attempts to evaluate global cerebral energy state from microdialysis of intraventricular fluid and from the LP ratio of the draining venous blood have recently been presented. To be of clinical relevance, the

  2. Utility of biochemical verification of tobacco cessation in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon; Jiang, Yunyun; Duffy, Sonia A

    2013-03-01

    Research on the validity of self-report tobacco use has varied by the population studied and has yet to be examined among smokers serviced by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of returning a biochemical urine test and the specificity and sensitivity of self-reported tobacco use status compared to biochemical verification. This was a sub-analysis of the larger Tobacco Tactics research study, a pre-/post-non-randomized control design study to implement and evaluate a smoking cessation intervention in three large VA hospitals. Inpatient smokers completed baseline demographic, health history and tobacco use measures. Patients were sent a follow-up survey at six-months to assess tobacco use and urine cotinine levels. A total of 645 patients returned six-month surveys of which 578 also returned a urinary cotinine strip at six-months. Multivariate analysis of the predictors of return rate revealed those more likely to return biochemical verification of their smoking status were younger, more likely to be thinking about quitting smoking, have arthritis, and less likely to have heart disease. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report tobacco use were 97% (95% confidence interval=0.95-0.98) and 93% (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.98) respectively. The misclassification rate among self-reported quitters was 21%. The misclassification rate among self-reported tobacco users was 1%. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report tobacco use were high among veteran smokers, yet among self-report quitters that misclassification rate was high at 21% suggesting that validating self-report tobacco measures is warranted in future studies especially in populations that are prone to misclassification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Universal dynamical properties preclude standard clustering in a large class of biochemical data.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ralph L; Stoop, Ruedi

    2014-09-01

    Clustering of chemical and biochemical data based on observed features is a central cognitive step in the analysis of chemical substances, in particular in combinatorial chemistry, or of complex biochemical reaction networks. Often, for reasons unknown to the researcher, this step produces disappointing results. Once the sources of the problem are known, improved clustering methods might revitalize the statistical approach of compound and reaction search and analysis. Here, we present a generic mechanism that may be at the origin of many clustering difficulties. The variety of dynamical behaviors that can be exhibited by complex biochemical reactions on variation of the system parameters are fundamental system fingerprints. In parameter space, shrimp-like or swallow-tail structures separate parameter sets that lead to stable periodic dynamical behavior from those leading to irregular behavior. We work out the genericity of this phenomenon and demonstrate novel examples for their occurrence in realistic models of biophysics. Although we elucidate the phenomenon by considering the emergence of periodicity in dependence on system parameters in a low-dimensional parameter space, the conclusions from our simple setting are shown to continue to be valid for features in a higher-dimensional feature space, as long as the feature-generating mechanism is not too extreme and the dimension of this space is not too high compared with the amount of available data. For online versions of super-paramagnetic clustering see http://stoop.ini.uzh.ch/research/clustering. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparison of biochemical cartilage imaging techniques at 3 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Rehnitz, C; Kupfer, J; Streich, N A; Burkholder, I; Schmitt, B; Lauer, L; Kauczor, H-U; Weber, M-A

    2014-10-01

    To prospectively compare chemical-exchange saturation-transfer (CEST) with delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 mapping to assess the biochemical cartilage properties of the knee. Sixty-nine subjects were prospectively included (median age, 42 years; male/female = 32/37) in three cohorts: 10 healthy volunteers, 40 patients with clinically suspected cartilage lesions, and 19 patients about 1 year after microfracture therapy. T2 mapping, dGEMRIC, and CEST were performed at a 3 T MRI unit using a 15-channel knee coil. Parameter maps were evaluated using region-of-interest analysis of healthy cartilage, areas of chondromalacia and repair tissue. Differentiation of damaged from healthy cartilage was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Chondromalacia grade 2-3 had significantly higher CEST values (P = 0.001), lower dGEMRIC (T1-) values (P < 0.001) and higher T2 values (P < 0.001) when compared to the normal appearing cartilage. dGEMRIC and T2 mapping correlated moderately negative (Spearman coefficient r = -0.56, P = 0.0018) and T2 mapping and CEST moderately positive (r = 0.5, P = 0.007), while dGEMRIC and CEST did not significantly correlate (r = -0.311, P = 0.07). The repair tissue revealed lower dGEMRIC values (P < 0.001) and higher CEST values (P < 0.001) with a significant negative correlation (r = -0.589, P = 0.01), whereas T2 values were not different (P = 0.54). In healthy volunteers' cartilage, CEST and dGEMRIC showed moderate positive correlation (r = 0.56), however not reaching significance (P = 0.09). ROC-analysis demonstrated non-significant differences of T2 mapping vs CEST (P = 0.14), CEST vs dGEMRIC (P = 0.89), and T2 mapping vs dGEMRIC (P = 0.12). CEST is able to detect normal and damaged cartilage and is non-inferior in distinguishing both when compared to dGEMRIC and T2 mapping. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical characterization of the selenoproteome in Gallus gallus via bioinformatics analysis: structure-function relationships and interactions of binding molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Yong; Li, Xue-Nan; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Lin, Jia; Li, Wei; Zhang, Cong; Li, Jin-Long

    2017-02-22

    Knowledge about mammalian selenoproteins is increasing. However, the selenoproteome of birds remains considerably less understood, especially concerning its biochemical characterization, structure-function relationships and the interactions of binding molecules. In this work, the SECIS elements, subcellular localization, protein domains and interactions of binding molecules of the selenoproteome in Gallus gallus were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. We carried out comprehensive analyses of the structure-function relationships and interactions of the binding molecules of selenoproteins, to provide biochemical characterization of the selenoproteome in Gallus gallus. Our data provided a wealth of information on the biochemical functions of bird selenoproteins. Members of the selenoproteome were found to be involved in various biological processes in chickens, such as in antioxidants, maintenance of the redox balance, Se transport, and interactions with metals. Six membrane-bound selenoproteins (SelI, SelK, SelS, SelT, DIO1 and DIO3) played important roles in maintaining the membrane integrity. Chicken selenoproteins were classified according to their ligand binding sites as zinc-containing matrix metalloselenoproteins (Sep15, MsrB1, SelW and SelM), POP-containing selenoproteins (GPx1-4), FAD-interacting selenoproteins (TrxR1-3), secretory transport selenoproteins (GPx3 and SelPa) and other selenoproteins. The results of our study provided new evidence for the unknown biological functions of the selenoproteome in birds. Future research is required to confirm the novel biochemical functions of bird selenoproteins.

  6. What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris M; Davison, Gareth W

    2010-02-01

    Cold-water immersion (CWI) is a popular recovery intervention after exercise. The scientific rationale is not clear, and there are no clear guidelines for its use. The aim of this review was to study the physiological and biochemical effect of short periods of CWI. A computer-based literature search, citation tracking and related articles searches were undertaken. Primary research studies using healthy human participants, immersed in cold water (<15 degrees C), for 5 min durations or less were included. Data were extracted on body temperature, cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical response. 16 studies were included. Sample size was restricted, and there was a large degree of study heterogeneity. CWI was associated with an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory minute volume and metabolism. Decreases in end tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure and a decrease in cerebral blood flow were also reported. There was evidence of increases in peripheral catecholamine concentration, oxidative stress and a possible increase in free-radical-species formation. The magnitude of these responses may be attenuated with acclimatisation. CWI induces significant physiological and biochemical changes to the body. Much of this evidence is derived from full body immersions using resting healthy participants. The physiological and biochemical rationale for using short periods of CWI in sports recovery still remains unclear.

  7. Text-based phenotypic profiles incorporating biochemical phenotypes of inborn errors of metabolism improve phenomics-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica J Y; Gottlieb, Michael M; Lever, Jake; Jones, Steven J M; Blau, Nenad; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2018-05-01

    Phenomics is the comprehensive study of phenotypes at every level of biology: from metabolites to organisms. With high throughput technologies increasing the scope of biological discoveries, the field of phenomics has been developing rapid and precise methods to collect, catalog, and analyze phenotypes. Such methods have allowed phenotypic data to be widely used in medical applications, from assisting clinical diagnoses to prioritizing genomic diagnoses. To channel the benefits of phenomics into the field of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), we have recently launched IEMbase, an expert-curated knowledgebase of IEM and their disease-characterizing phenotypes. While our efforts with IEMbase have realized benefits, taking full advantage of phenomics requires a comprehensive curation of IEM phenotypes in core phenomics projects, which is dependent upon contributions from the IEM clinical and research community. Here, we assess the inclusion of IEM biochemical phenotypes in a core phenomics project, the Human Phenotype Ontology. We then demonstrate the utility of biochemical phenotypes using a text-based phenomics method to predict gene-disease relationships, showing that the prediction of IEM genes is significantly better using biochemical rather than clinical profiles. The findings herein provide a motivating goal for the IEM community to expand the computationally accessible descriptions of biochemical phenotypes associated with IEM in phenomics resources.

  8. An integrative top-down and bottom-up qualitative model construction framework for exploration of biochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    Computational modelling of biochemical systems based on top-down and bottom-up approaches has been well studied over the last decade. In this research, after illustrating how to generate atomic components by a set of given reactants and two user pre-defined component patterns, we propose an integrative top-down and bottom-up modelling approach for stepwise qualitative exploration of interactions among reactants in biochemical systems. Evolution strategy is applied to the top-down modelling approach to compose models, and simulated annealing is employed in the bottom-up modelling approach to explore potential interactions based on models constructed from the top-down modelling process. Both the top-down and bottom-up approaches support stepwise modular addition or subtraction for the model evolution. Experimental results indicate that our modelling approach is feasible to learn the relationships among biochemical reactants qualitatively. In addition, hidden reactants of the target biochemical system can be obtained by generating complex reactants in corresponding composed models. Moreover, qualitatively learned models with inferred reactants and alternative topologies can be used for further web-lab experimental investigations by biologists of interest, which may result in a better understanding of the system.

  9. From molecules to mating: Rapid evolution and biochemical studies of reproductive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wilburn, Damien B.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual reproduction and the exchange of genetic information are essential biological processes for species across all branches of the tree of life. Over the last four decades, biochemists have continued to identify many of the factors that facilitate reproduction, but the molecular mechanisms that mediate this process continue to elude us. However, a recurring observation in this research has been the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. In animals, the competing interests of males and females often result in arms race dynamics between pairs of interacting proteins. This phenomenon has been observed in all stages of reproduction, including pheromones, seminal fluid components, and gamete recognition proteins. In this article, we review how the integration of evolutionary theory with biochemical experiments can be used to study interacting reproductive proteins. Examples are included from both model and non-model organisms, and recent studies are highlighted for their use of state-of-the-art genomic and proteomic techniques. Significance Despite decades of research, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate fertilization remain poorly characterized. To date, molecular evolutionary studies on both model and non-model organisms have provided some of the best inferences to elucidating the molecular underpinnings of animal reproduction. This review article details how biochemical and evolutionary experiments have jointly enhanced the field for 40 years, and how recent work using high-throughput genomic and proteomic techniques have shed additional insights into this crucial biological process. PMID:26074353

  10. Bias due to Preanalytical Dilution of Rodent Serum for Biochemical Analysis on the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Jennifer L.; Moorhead, Kaitlin A.; Hu, Jing; Moorhead, Roberta C.

    2018-01-01

    Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus. Rats were obtained from end of study research projects. Mice were obtained from sentinel testing programs. For both, whole blood was collected via terminal cardiocentesis into empty tubes and serum was harvested. Biochemical parameters were measured on fresh and thawed frozen samples run straight and at dilution factors 2–10. Dilutions were performed manually, utilizing either ultrapure water or enzyme diluent per manufacturer recommendations. All diluted samples were generated directly from the undiluted sample. Preanalytical dilution caused clinically unacceptable bias in most analytes at dilution factors four and above. Dilution-induced bias in total calcium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and uric acid was considered unacceptable with any degree of dilution, based on the more conservative of two definitions of acceptability. Dilution often caused electrolyte values to fall below assay range precluding evaluation of bias. Dilution-induced bias occurred in most biochemical parameters to varying degrees and may render dilution unacceptable in the exploratory research and clinical veterinary environments. Additionally, differences between results obtained at different dilution factors may confound statistical comparisons in research settings. Comparison of data obtained at a single dilution factor is highly recommended. PMID:29497614

  11. ESTIMATING GASEOUS EXCHANGES BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND PLANTS USING A COUPLED BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study gaseous exchanges between the soil, biosphere and atmosphere, a biochemical model was coupled with the latest version of Meyers Multi-Layer Deposition Model. The biochemical model describes photosynthesis and respiration and their coupling with stomatal resistance for...

  12. Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: two instructive case reports.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M F; Reed, P; Weinkove, C; Moriarty, K J; Ralston, A J

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical features of two patients with phaeochromocytomas illustrate the inadvisability of depending on a single group of analytes for the diagnosis. The first case presented as a surgical emergency with retroperitoneal haemorrhage. Biochemical diagnosis was difficult since total 24 hour urinary free catecholamine excretion was within normal limits in two out of three samples, and only marginally raised in the third with an atypical preponderance of adrenaline. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were also normal. But urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites, metadrenaline and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy mandelic acid (HMMA), was consistently raised. In contrast, the second patient presenting with headache and labile hypertension showed normal metabolite excretion in the face of grossly increased free noradrenaline excretion and raised plasma noradrenaline concentrations. It is therefore recommend that, as well as urinary free catecholamines, one group of their main metabolites, the 3-methoxy amines (normetadrenaline and metadrenaline) or HMMA, should routinely be measured whenever a phaeochromocytoma is suspected. PMID:8463426

  13. Adult amphibian epidermal proteins: biochemical characterization and developmental appearance.

    PubMed

    Reeves, O R

    1975-08-01

    The keratin-like proteins (KLPs) from the epidermis of adult frogs of the species Xenopus laevis have been isolated and biochemically characterized by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, tryptic peptide mapping, amino-terminal end-group analysis and isoelectric focusing. One particular protein fraction of rather unusual amino acid composition found only in epidermal tissue was isolated in quantity by preparative gel electrophoresis and monospecific antibodies prepared against it. Using this anti-KLP antibody preparation it was possible to show that at least one kine of keratin-like protein characteristic of the adult epidermis first appears within the larval epidermis during metamorphosis. This is the first reported biochemical characterization of a tissue-specific protien from adult amphibian skin.

  14. Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Campanella, Clarissa Martina; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Campanella, Carlo Edoardo; Armenise, Mario Nicola

    2013-03-01

    For a number of years, the scientific community has been paying growing attention to the monitoring and enhancement of public health and the quality of life through the detection of all dangerous agents for the human body, including gases, proteins, virus, and bacterial agents. When these agents are detected through label-free biochemical sensors, the molecules are not modified structurally or functionally by adding fluorescent or radioactive dyes. This work focuses on label-free optical ring resonator-based configurations suited for bio-chemical sensing, highlighting their physical aspects and specific applications. Resonant wavelength shift and the modal splitting occurring when the analyte interacts with microresonant structures are the two major physical aspects analyzed in this paper. Competitive optical platforms proposed in the literature are also illustrated together with their properties and performance.

  15. Biochemical Diagnosis in Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenwen; Liu, Huifeng; Xie, Xiaohu; Liu, Haixiong; Zhou, Wenhua

    2017-01-01

    An optimal biochemical marker for addiction would be some easily traced molecules in body specimens, which indicates indulgent addictive behaviors, or susceptibility to certain addictive stimuli. In this chapter, we discussed existing literature about possible biomarkers, and classified them into three categories: origin forms and metabolites of substances, markers from biochemical responses to certain addiction, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers suggesting susceptibility to addiction. In every category, we examined studies concerning certain type of addiction one by one, with focuses mainly on opiates, psychostimulants, and pathological gambling. Several promising molecules were highlighted, including those of neurotrophic factors, inflammatory factors, and indicators of vascular injury, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers such as serum miRNAs. DNA methylation signatures and signal nucleotide polymorphism of candidate gene underlying the addiction.

  16. Biochemical and genetic analysis of Leigh syndrome patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jin Sook; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Hirano, Michio

    2008-06-01

    Sixteen Korean patients with Leigh syndrome were identified at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital in 2001-2006. Biochemical or molecular defects were identified in 14 patients (87.5%). Thirteen patients had respiratory chain enzyme defects; 9 had complex I deficiency, and 4 had combined defects of complex I+III+IV. Based on the biochemical defects, targeted genetic studies in 4 patients with complex I deficiency revealed two heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations in ND genes. One patient had the mitochondrial DNA T8993G point mutation. No mitochondrial DNA defects were identified in 11 (68.7%) of our LS patients, who probably have mutations in nuclear DNA. Although a limited study based in a single tertiary medical center, our findings suggest that isolated complex I deficiency may be the most common cause of Leigh syndrome in Korea.

  17. Biochemical markers in the assessment of bone disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.

    1997-01-01

    As the mean age of our population increases, increasing attention has been paid to the diseases associated with aging, including diseases of the skeleton such as osteoporosis. Effective means of treating and possibly preventing such skeletal disorders are emerging, making their early recognition an important goal for the primary care physician. Although bone density measurements and skeletal imaging studies remain of primary diagnostic importance in this regard, a large number of assays for biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption are being developed that promise to complement the densitometry measurements and imaging studies, providing an assessment of the rates of bone turnover and an earlier evaluation of the effects of therapy. In this review, emphasizing the recent literature, the major biochemical markers currently in use or under active investigation are described, and their application in a number of diseases of the skeleton including osteoporosis is evaluated.

  18. Adiabatic coarse-graining and simulations of stochastic biochemical networks

    PubMed Central

    Sinitsyn, N. A.; Hengartner, Nicolas; Nemenman, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    We propose a universal approach for analysis and fast simulations of stiff stochastic biochemical networks, which rests on elimination of fast chemical species without a loss of information about mesoscopic, non-Poissonian fluctuations of the slow ones. Our approach is similar to the Born–Oppenheimer approximation in quantum mechanics and follows from the stochastic path integral representation of the cumulant generating function of reaction events. In applications with a small number of chemical reactions, it produces analytical expressions for cumulants of chemical fluxes between the slow variables. This allows for a low-dimensional, interpretable representation and can be used for high-accuracy, low-complexity coarse-grained numerical simulations. As an example, we derive the coarse-grained description for a chain of biochemical reactions and show that the coarse-grained and the microscopic simulations agree, but the former is 3 orders of magnitude faster. PMID:19525397

  19. Biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes with phage displayed peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The development of a general approach for the biochemical functionalization of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) could open up existing opportunities in both fundamental studies as well as a variety of applications. PNTs are spontaneously assembled organic nanostructures made from peptides. Phage display has emerged as a powerful approach for identifying selective peptide binding motifs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the biochemical functionalization of PNTs via peptides identified from a phage display peptide library. The phage-displayed peptides are shown to recognize PNTs. These advances further allow for the development of bifunctional peptides for the capture of bacteria and the self-assembly of silver particles onto PNTs. We anticipate that these results could provide significant opportunities for using PNTs in both fundamental studies and practical applications, including sensors and biosensors nanoelectronics, energy storage devices, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  20. Biochemical and biomechanical characterisation of equine cervical facet joint cartilage.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S A; White, J L; Hu, J C; Athanasiou, K A

    2018-04-15

    The equine cervical facet joint is a site of significant pathology. Located bilaterally on the dorsal spine, these diarthrodial joints work in conjunction with the intervertebral disc to facilitate appropriate spinal motion. Despite the high prevalence of pathology in this joint, the facet joint is understudied and thus lacking in viable treatment options. The goal of this study was to characterise equine facet joint cartilage and provide a comprehensive database describing the morphological, histological, biochemical and biomechanical properties of this tissue. Descriptive cadaver studies. A total of 132 facet joint surfaces were harvested from the cervical spines of six skeletally mature horses (11 surfaces per animal) for compiling biomechanical and biochemical properties of hyaline cartilage of the equine cervical facet joints. Gross morphometric measurements and histological staining were performed on facet joint cartilage. Creep indentation and uniaxial strain-to-failure testing were used to determine the biomechanical compressive and tensile properties. Biochemical assays included quantification of total collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and DNA content. The facet joint surfaces were ovoid in shape with a flat articular surface. Histological analyses highlighted structures akin to articular cartilage of other synovial joints. In general, biomechanical and biochemical properties did not differ significantly between the inferior and superior joint surfaces as well as among spinal levels. Interestingly, compressive and tensile properties of cervical facet articular cartilage were lower than those of articular cartilage from other previously characterised equine joints. Removal of the superficial zone reduced the tissue's tensile strength, suggesting that this zone is important for the tensile integrity of the tissue. Facet surfaces were sampled at a single, central location and do not capture the potential topographic variation in cartilage properties. This

  1. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.; Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical and foliar biochemical markers indicate perturbations in biological processes in healthy red spruce trees across the northeastern USA. Previous research on the dendrochemistry of red spruce stemwood indicated that under uniform environmental conditions, stemwood concentrations of Ca and Mg decreased with increasing radial distance from the pith. For nine forest locations, frequency analysis shows that 28 and 52% of samples of red spruce stemwood formed in the 1960s are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively, relative to wood formed prior to and after the 1960s. This enrichment in trees throughout the northeastern USA may be interpretable as a signal of increased availability of essential cations in forest soils. Such a temporary increase in the availability of Ca and Mg could be caused by cation mobilization, a consequence of increased acidic deposition. During cation mobilization, essential Ca and Mg as well as potentially harmful Al become more available for interaction with binding sites in the soil and absorbing roots. As conditions which favor cation mobilization continue, Ca and Mg can be leached or displaced from the soil. A measure of the interaction between Ca and Al is the Al/Ca binding ratio (molar charge ratio of exchangeable Al to exchangeable Ca). As the Al/Ca binding ratio in the root zone increased from 0.3 to 1.9, the foliar concentration of the biochemical stress marker putrescine also increased from 45 to 145 nm g-1. The correlation of the putrescine concentration to the Al/Ca binding ratio (adj. r2 = 0.68, P < 0.027) suggests that foliar stress may be linked to soil chemistry.

  2. Impaired telomere length and telomerase activity in peripheral blood leukocytes and granulosa cells in patients with biochemical primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Chen, Xinxia; Zhang, Xiruo; Liu, Yixun; Wang, Zhao; Wang, Peng; Du, Yanzhi; Qin, Yingying; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Are telomere length and telomerase activity associated with biochemical primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? Shortened telomere length and diminished telomerase activity were associated with biochemical POI. POI is a result of pathological reproductive aging and encompasses occult, biochemical and overt stages. Studies have indicated telomere length as a biomarker for biological aging. A total of 120 patients with biochemical POI and 279 control women were recruited by the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Shandong University. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes (LTL) and granulosa cells (GTL) was measured using a modified Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. The relative telomerase activity (RTA) in granulosa cells was detected using a modified quantitative-telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. After adjusting for age, patients with biochemical POI (n = 120) exhibited significantly shorter LTLs (0.75 ± 0.09 vs 1.79 ± 0.12, P < 0.001; OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.43-0.68) and GTLs (0.78 ± 0.09 vs 1.90 ± 0.23, P < 0.001; OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70) than the controls (n = 279 for LTLs; n = 90 for GTLs). Significantly diminished RTAs in granulosa cells were detected in patients with biochemical POI (n = 31) compared with the controls (n = 38) (1.57 ± 0.59 vs 4.63 ± 0.93, P = 0.025; OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72-0.98). N/A. The cross-sectional nature of this study might have its limit in telomere length as well as telomerase activity along with the progressing decline in ovarian function. These findings suggest that telomere length and telomerase activity may be considered as indicators for progression of ovarian decline. This research was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2012CB944700), Science research foundation item of no-earnings health vocation (201402004) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31471352, 81270662, 81471509, 81300461, 81522018

  3. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    PubMed

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: what does it mean?

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael; Srougi, Victor; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Baghdadi, Mohammed; Rembeyo, Gregory; Eiffel, Sophie S.; Barret, Eric; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been used as the main primary treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) for many years with excellent oncologic results. However, approximately 20-40% of those patients has failed to RP and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has been the pivotal tool for recurrence diagnosis, but there is no consensus about the best PSA threshold to define BCR until this moment. The natural history of BCR after surgical procedure is highly variable, but it is important to distinguish biochemical and clinical recurrence and to find the correct timing to start multimodal treatment strategy. Also, it is important to understand the role of each clinical and pathological feature of prostate cancer in BCR, progression to metastatic disease and cancer specific mortality (CSM). Review design A simple review was made in Medline for articles written in English language about biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Objective To provide an updated assessment of BCR definition, its meaning, PCa natural history after BCR and the weight of each clinical/pathological feature and risk group classifications in BCR, metastatic disease and CSM. PMID:29039897

  5. Scalable Parameter Estimation for Genome-Scale Biochemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Hasenauer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks using ordinary differential equation (ODE) models has improved our understanding of small- and medium-scale biological processes. While the same should in principle hold for large- and genome-scale processes, the computational methods for the analysis of ODE models which describe hundreds or thousands of biochemical species and reactions are missing so far. While individual simulations are feasible, the inference of the model parameters from experimental data is computationally too intensive. In this manuscript, we evaluate adjoint sensitivity analysis for parameter estimation in large scale biochemical reaction networks. We present the approach for time-discrete measurement and compare it to state-of-the-art methods used in systems and computational biology. Our comparison reveals a significantly improved computational efficiency and a superior scalability of adjoint sensitivity analysis. The computational complexity is effectively independent of the number of parameters, enabling the analysis of large- and genome-scale models. Our study of a comprehensive kinetic model of ErbB signaling shows that parameter estimation using adjoint sensitivity analysis requires a fraction of the computation time of established methods. The proposed method will facilitate mechanistic modeling of genome-scale cellular processes, as required in the age of omics. PMID:28114351

  6. [Biochemical changes in apoptosis and methods for their determination (review)].

    PubMed

    Sedláková, A; Kohút, A; Kalina, I

    1999-08-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a physiological process which occurs at different biological states as well as at disease process. Morphologically it is characterized by the chromatine condensation and other changes with preserved integrity of plasmatic membrane. The major and most frequently studied biochemical characteristic of apoptosis is a DNA fragmentation. In our paper attention is directed to the early biochemical changes in cell membranes, i.g., the externalization of phosphatidylserine, hydrolysis of sphingomyeline on the ceramide and activation of phospholipases especially phospholipase A2. In one part we described the changes of cysteine proteases (caspases), which play a key role in the execution of apoptosis. These biochemical changes are associated with ceramide signalization of apoptosis. Briefly are presented also some dates about apoptosis induction with reactive oxygen radicals and the role of the arachidonic acid metabolites in this process. We consider the investigation and determination of these changes as important parameters of apoptosis at some diseases, e.g., cancer or degenerative diseases, and of their treatment.

  7. Design of a biochemical circuit motif for learning linear functions

    PubMed Central

    Lakin, Matthew R.; Minnich, Amanda; Lane, Terran; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Learning and adaptive behaviour are fundamental biological processes. A key goal in the field of bioengineering is to develop biochemical circuit architectures with the ability to adapt to dynamic chemical environments. Here, we present a novel design for a biomolecular circuit capable of supervised learning of linear functions, using a model based on chemical reactions catalysed by DNAzymes. To achieve this, we propose a novel mechanism of maintaining and modifying internal state in biochemical systems, thereby advancing the state of the art in biomolecular circuit architecture. We use simulations to demonstrate that the circuit is capable of learning behaviour and assess its asymptotic learning performance, scalability and robustness to noise. Such circuits show great potential for building autonomous in vivo nanomedical devices. While such a biochemical system can tell us a great deal about the fundamentals of learning in living systems and may have broad applications in biomedicine (e.g. autonomous and adaptive drugs), it also offers some intriguing challenges and surprising behaviours from a machine learning perspective. PMID:25401175

  8. Design of a biochemical circuit motif for learning linear functions.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Matthew R; Minnich, Amanda; Lane, Terran; Stefanovic, Darko

    2014-12-06

    Learning and adaptive behaviour are fundamental biological processes. A key goal in the field of bioengineering is to develop biochemical circuit architectures with the ability to adapt to dynamic chemical environments. Here, we present a novel design for a biomolecular circuit capable of supervised learning of linear functions, using a model based on chemical reactions catalysed by DNAzymes. To achieve this, we propose a novel mechanism of maintaining and modifying internal state in biochemical systems, thereby advancing the state of the art in biomolecular circuit architecture. We use simulations to demonstrate that the circuit is capable of learning behaviour and assess its asymptotic learning performance, scalability and robustness to noise. Such circuits show great potential for building autonomous in vivo nanomedical devices. While such a biochemical system can tell us a great deal about the fundamentals of learning in living systems and may have broad applications in biomedicine (e.g. autonomous and adaptive drugs), it also offers some intriguing challenges and surprising behaviours from a machine learning perspective.

  9. Biochemical differences in ethnic groups in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Lujín-García, Azalia; Sosa-Macías, Martha; Lazalde-Ramos, Blanca; Loera-Castañeda, Veronica; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Villanueva-Fierro, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biochemical differences between Tepehuano indigenous people, and Mennonite and Mestizo populations of Durango, Mexico. Our study involved 334 volunteers aged 15 to 80 years; 132 Mennonite and 130 Mestizo individuals from Nuevo Ideal Municipality and 72 Tepehuano indigenous people from Mezquital Durango were evaluated. A clinical history and fast determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, urea and creatinine were performed on each studied case. Statistically significant differences between the three studied groups were found for age, weight and height (P < .05), with higher values observed in men. The highest plasma urea levels were found in Mennonite compared to Mestizo people, followed by the Tepehuano indigenous. Higher biochemical parameters were found in men (vs women) in the studied groups. The percentage of individuals with abnormal levels for AST, ALT and uric acid were higher in Tepehuano indigenous people than in Mestizo, whereas the urea and creatinine percentages were higher in Mestizo people. The differences found on biochemical tests, could be explained by differences in lifestyle such as diet and sanitary habits.

  10. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical and nutritional components of selected honey samples.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Adnan, Nur Ardawati

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of biochemical (enzymes) and nutritional components in the selected honey samples from Malaysia. The relationship is important to estimate the quality of honey based on the concentration of these nutritious components. Such a study is limited for honey samples from tropical countries with heavy rainfall throughout the year. A number of six honey samples that commonly consumed by local people were collected for the study. Both the biochemical and nutritional components were analysed by using standard methods from Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Individual monosaccharides, disaccharides and 17 amino acids in honey were determined by using liquid chromatographic method. The results showed that the peroxide activity was positively correlated with moisture content (r = 0.8264), but negatively correlated with carbohydrate content (r = 0.7755) in honey. The chromatographic sugar and free amino acid profiles showed that the honey samples could be clustered based on the type and maturity of honey. Proline explained for 64.9% of the total variance in principle component analysis (PCA). The correlation between honey components and honey quality has been established for the selected honey samples based on their biochemical and nutritional concentrations. PCA results revealed that the ratio of sucrose to maltose could be used to measure honey maturity, whereas proline was the marker compound used to distinguish honey either as floral or honeydew.

  12. Discovering Reliable Sources of Biochemical Thermodynamic Data to Aid Students' Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Me´ndez, Eduardo; Cerda´, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Students of physical chemistry in biochemical disciplines need biochemical examples to capture the need, not always understood, of a difficult area in their studies. The use of thermodynamic data in the chemical reference state may lead to incorrect interpretations in the analysis of biochemical examples when the analysis does not include relevant…

  13. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections 158.2081...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections 158.2081...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections 158.2081...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections 158.2081...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections 158.2081...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements...: (d) Table. The following table shows the data requirements for experimental use permit biochemical...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements...: (d) Table. The following table shows the data requirements for experimental use permit biochemical...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements...: (d) Table. The following table shows the data requirements for experimental use permit biochemical...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements...: (d) Table. The following table shows the data requirements for experimental use permit biochemical...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Experimental use permit biochemical... Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements...: (d) Table. The following table shows the data requirements for experimental use permit biochemical...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General. (1... table shows the data requirements for biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes are...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General. (1... table shows the data requirements for biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes are...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General. (1... table shows the data requirements for biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes are...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of... Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data... determine the human health assessment data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. (2...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of... Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data... determine the human health assessment data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. (2...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General. (1... table shows the data requirements for biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes are...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of... Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data... determine the human health assessment data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. (2...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of... Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data... determine the human health assessment data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. (2...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2050 - Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides human health... § 158.2050 Biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. (a) General. (1... table shows the data requirements for biochemical pesticides human health assessment. The test notes are...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2083 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticides human health assessment data requirements table. 158.2083 Section 158.2083 Protection of... Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2083 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides human health assessment data... determine the human health assessment data requirements for a particular biochemical pesticide product. (2...

  13. State-of-the-Art of (Bio)Chemical Sensor Developments in Analytical Spanish Groups

    PubMed Central

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed. PMID:22319260

  14. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  15. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  16. SABIO-RK: an updated resource for manually curated biochemical reaction kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Maja; Weidemann, Andreas; Kania, Renate; Müller, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract SABIO-RK (http://sabiork.h-its.org/) is a manually curated database containing data about biochemical reactions and their reaction kinetics. The data are primarily extracted from scientific literature and stored in a relational database. The content comprises both naturally occurring and alternatively measured biochemical reactions and is not restricted to any organism class. The data are made available to the public by a web-based search interface and by web services for programmatic access. In this update we describe major improvements and extensions of SABIO-RK since our last publication in the database issue of Nucleic Acid Research (2012). (i) The website has been completely revised and (ii) allows now also free text search for kinetics data. (iii) Additional interlinkages with other databases in our field have been established; this enables users to gain directly comprehensive knowledge about the properties of enzymes and kinetics beyond SABIO-RK. (iv) Vice versa, direct access to SABIO-RK data has been implemented in several systems biology tools and workflows. (v) On request of our experimental users, the data can be exported now additionally in spreadsheet formats. (vi) The newly established SABIO-RK Curation Service allows to respond to specific data requirements. PMID:29092055

  17. Biochemical and morphological changes associated with macrophages and osteoclasts when challenged with infection - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, Erin Callie; Johnson, William; Tucci, Michelle; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of the bone that occurs frequently as a complication of open fractures and various kinds of orthopedic surgery. This infection can often lead to more extensive surgeries and even death of the patient. In animal models of osteomyelitis, the site of infection by Staphylococcus aureus was observed to have high numbers of both macrophages and osteoclasts, both of which may contribute to large amounts of osteolysis and tissue damage. In order to evaluate the immune response in both types of cells, two cells lines, a macrophage cell line and a macrophage cell line stimulated to become osteoclasts by the addition of receptor activator of nuclear-factor B (RANKL), were exposed to lipopolysaccharides, opsonized S. aureus, and unopsonized S. aureus. The results showed that both cell types activated a biochemical cascade that included the release of cytokines and nitric oxide associated with cell damage and death in response to infection. However, macrophages and osteoclasts differed in response magnitude, most likely due to differences in cell-membrane receptors. This data supports the growing body of research that links the immune and skeletal systems. Further understanding of biochemical pathways shared by the two systems could lead to significant advances in the treatment of osteomyelitis and the success of prostheses.

  18. Characterization of physical and biochemical changes in plasma treated spinach seed during germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hye Ji, Sang; Ki, Se Hoon; Kang, Min Ho; Choi, Jin Sung; Park, Yeunsoo; Oh, Jaesung; Kim, Seong Bong; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2018-04-01

    Despite the accumulating data on the effect of plasma on seed germination, mechanisms of plasma action need more extensive research. In a previous study, we observed that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma enhanced the germination of spinach seeds and subsequent seedling growth. As a follow-up study, we investigated the physico-chemical, biochemical, and molecular changes in seed after plasma treatment, focusing on the early germination stage, to elucidate mechanism(s) for the stimulating effects of plasma on seed germination. The primary radicle protruded from seeds exposed to high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot) slightly faster than the control seeds. The hydrophilicity of the seed surface significantly increased after treatment with high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma (one shot). However, a very subtle increase in water uptake by plasma treated seeds was observed. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy analyses on chloroform extract of seed coats demonstrated no significant chemical etching on the surface of plasma treated seeds. This may be related to no dramatic increase in water absorption by seeds. The level of GA hormone and starch hydrolysis inside the plasma treated seeds was significantly elevated within 24 h. Taken together, our results suggest that high voltage nanosecond pulsed plasma may not only enhance hydrophilicity of the seed surface but also stimulate biochemical and molecular processes inside seed, leading to enhanced embryonic development.

  19. Proteins Annexin A2 and PSA in Prostate Cancer Biopsies Do Not Predict Biochemical Failure.

    PubMed

    Lamb, David S; Sondhauss, Sven; Dunne, Jonathan C; Woods, Lisa; Delahunt, Brett; Ferguson, Peter; Murray, Judith; Nacey, John N; Denham, James W; Jordan, T William

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported the use of mass spectrometry and western blotting to identify proteins from tumour regions of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies from 16 men who presented with apparently localized prostate cancer, and found that annexin A2 (ANXA2) appeared to be a better predictor of subsequent biochemical failure than prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In this follow-up study, ANXA2 and PSA were measured using western blotting of proteins extracted from biopsies from 37 men from a subsequent prostate cancer trial. No significant differences in ANXA2 and PSA levels were observed between men with and without biochemical failure. The statistical effect sizes were small, d=0.116 for ANXA2, and 0.266 for PSA. ANXA2 and PSA proteins measured from biopsy tumour regions are unlikely to be good biomarkers for prediction of the clinical outcome of prostate cancer presenting with apparently localized disease. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical signatures mimicking multiple carboxylase deficiency in children with mutations in MT-ATP6.

    PubMed

    Larson, Austin A; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Christodoulou, John; Burrage, Lindsay C; Marom, Ronit; Graham, Brett H; Diaz, George A; Glamuzina, Emma; Hauser, Natalie; Heese, Bryce; Horvath, Gabriella; Mattman, Andre; van Karnebeek, Clara; Lane Rutledge, S; Williamson, Amy; Estrella, Lissette; Van Hove, Johan K L; Weisfeld-Adams, James D

    2018-01-04

    Elevations of specific acylcarnitines in blood reflect carboxylase deficiencies, and have utility in newborn screening for life-threatening organic acidemias and other inherited metabolic diseases. In this report, we describe a newly-identified association of biochemical features of multiple carboxylase deficiency in individuals harboring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in MT-ATP6 and in whom organic acidemias and multiple carboxylase deficiencies were excluded. Using retrospective chart review, we identified eleven individuals with abnormally elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) or hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) with mutations in MT-ATP6, most commonly m.8993T>G in high heteroplasmy or homoplasmy. Most patients were ascertained on newborn screening; most had normal enzymatic or molecular genetic testing to exclude biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiencies. MT-ATP6 is associated with some cases of Leigh disease; clinical outcomes in our cohort ranged from death from neurodegenerative disease in early childhood to clinically and developmentally normal after several years of follow-up. These cases expand the biochemical phenotype associated with MT-ATP6 mutations, especially m.8993T>G, to include acylcarnitine abnormalities mimicking carboxylase deficiency states. Clinicians should be aware of this association and its implications for newborn screening, and consider mtDNA sequencing in patients exhibiting similar acylcarnitine abnormalities that are biotin-unresponsive and in whom other enzymatic deficiencies have been excluded. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom.

    PubMed

    Fluyau, Dimy; Revadigar, Neelambika

    2017-01-01

    Kratom ( Mitragyna speciosa ) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules). Some case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, intrahepatic cholestasis, other medical conditions, and deaths. The clinical manifestations of kratom effects are not well defined and the clinical studies are limited. Data research suggest that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, in addition to antinociceptive, antidepressant activity, anxiolytic-like effects, and anorectic effects, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are believed to have been caused by extracts of the plant. There is a dearth of double blind controlled studies. In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world. Literature review using databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Mendeley from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated by all authors to analyze current state on benefits, risks, and diagnosis evaluation of kratom ( M. speciosa ). Data analysis suggested that kratom possesses some benefits such as stimulant and sedative effects as wells as antinociceptive effects. It seems to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator release and vascular permeability and can enhance immunity. In addition, it may be an antidepressant and anorectic. However, kratom can cause

  2. Examining the Relationship between Gender and Drug-Using Behaviors in Adolescents: The Use of Diagnostic Assessments and Biochemical Analyses of Urine Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Moore, David D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gender and drug use among adolescents using diagnostic assessments and biochemical analyses of urine samples. Statistical significance was found in the relationship between gender and marijuana use. The study confirms that more research is needed in this area. (Author/MKA)

  3. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding biochemical markers from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Eugene V; Vasikaran, Samuel; Cooper, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    The best indirect evidence that increased bone turnover contributes to fracture risk is the fact that most of the proven therapies for osteoporosis are inhibitors of bone turnover. The evidence base that we can use biochemical markers of bone turnover in the assessment of fracture risk is somewhat less convincing. This relates to natural variability in the markers, problems with the assays, disparity in the statistical analyses of relevant studies and the independence of their contribution to fracture risk. More research is clearly required to address these deficiencies before biochemical markers might contribute a useful independent risk factor for inclusion in FRAX(®). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Early hypofractionated salvage radiotherapy for postprostatectomy biochemical recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kruser, Tim J; Jarrard, David F; Graf, Andrew K; Hedican, Sean P; Paolone, David R; Wegenke, John D; Liu, Glenn; Geye, Heather M; Ritter, Mark A

    2011-06-15

    Postprostatectomy adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy, when using standard fractionation, requires 6.5 to 8 weeks of treatment. The authors report on the safety and efficacy of an expedited radiotherapy course for salvage prostate radiotherapy. A total of 108 consecutive patients were treated with salvage radiation therapy to 65 grays (Gy) in 26 fractions of 2.5 Gy. Median follow-up was 32.4 months. Median presalvage prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 0.44 (range, 0.05-9.50). Eighteen (17%) patients received androgen deprivation after surgery or concurrently with radiation. The actuarial freedom from biochemical failure for the entire group at 4 years was 67% ± 5.3%. An identical 67% control rate was seen at 5 years for the first 50 enrolled patients, whose median follow-up was longer at 43 months. One acute grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred, with no acute grade 3 gastrointestinal and no late grade 3 toxicities observed. On univariate analysis, higher Gleason score (P = .006), PSA doubling time ≤12 months (P = .03), perineural invasion (P = .06), and negative margins (P = .06) showed association with unsuccessful salvage. On multivariate analysis, higher Gleason score (P = .057) and negative margins (P = .088) retained an association with biochemical failure. Hypofractionated radiotherapy (65 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions in about 5 weeks) reduces the length of treatment by from 1-½ to 3 weeks relative to other treatment schedules commonly used, produces low rates of toxicity, and demonstrates encouraging efficacy at 4 to 5 years. Hypofractionation may provide a convenient, resource-efficient, and well-tolerated salvage approach for the estimated 20,000 to 35,000 US men per year experiencing biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  5. Experimental Theileria lestoquardi infection in sheep: Biochemical and hematological changes.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2017-09-01

    Malignant theileriosis (Theileria lestoquardi infection) is a hemoparasitic tick-borne disease that affects both wild and domestic small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and hematological characteristics of sheep after being experimentally infected by T. lestoquardi. T. lestoquardi infection was induced in seven Baluchi sheep of six-to-eight months old via experimentally-infected Hyalomma anatolicum adult ticks. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured twice a week during the three weeks' post infection. Twenty-three biochemical analytes and seven hematological ones were measured. After three to four days infection, body temperature rose above 40 ° C. Maximum and minimum parasitaemia were 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. Piroplasms and schizont were seen on average from days 7.2 and 4 post infection, respectively. The concentrations and activities of Alb, HDL, ALT, T3, T4, Ca, Fe, Mg, iP, WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb, Plt, neutrophil and lymphocytes significantly decreased (P≤0.05) during experimental infection. However, concentrations and activities of BT, GGT, Glu, BUN, Crea, FIB and Cu significantly increased (P≤0.05). There was no significant change in the serum amounts of Chol, LDL, TG, VLDL and Zn. The observed hypoalbuminemia and increase of FIB concentrations referred to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the raising of GGT activity indicates liver damage, cholestatic disorders or schizont infiltration. The disease stress and corticosteroids are suspected to cause the Glu concentration increase. The present study is aimed at improving the knowledge of malignant theileriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  7. Synchronization in Biochemical Substance Exchange Between Two Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Balaž, Igor

    In this paper, Mihailović et al. [Mod. Phys. Lett. B 25 (2011) 2407-2417] introduce a simplified model of cell communication in a form of coupled difference logistic equations. Then we investigated stability of exchange of signaling molecules under variability of internal and external parameters. However, we have not touched questions about synchronization and effect of noise on biochemical substance exchange between cells. In this paper, we consider synchronization in intercellular exchange in dependence of environmental and cell intrinsic parameters by analyzing the largest Lyapunov exponent, cross sample entropy and bifurcation maps.

  8. BASIC BIOCHEMICAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS OF NONINVASIVE TESTS HELIC.

    PubMed

    Dmitrienko, M A; Dmitrienko, V S; Kornienko, E A; Parolova, N I; Colomina, E O; Aronov, E B

    Biochemical process that lay in the core of non-invasive detection of Helico ho cter pylod with the help of HELIC Ammonia breath test, manufactured by AMA Co Ltd., St.Petersburg, is shown. Patents from various countries, describing ammonia as H.pyiori diagnostic marker, are reviewed. Approaches for evaluation of efficacy of the test-system are analyzed, validation and verification data is provided. High diagnostic characteristics are confirmed by the results of comparative studies on patients of different age groups, reaching 97% sensitivity and 96% specificity.

  9. Single-molecule detection: applications to ultrasensitive biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Alonso; Shera, E. Brooks

    1995-06-01

    Recent developments in laser-based detection of fluorescent molecules have made possible the implementation of very sensitive techniques for biochemical analysis. We present and discuss our experiments on the applications of our recently developed technique of single-molecule detection to the analysis of molecules of biological interest. These newly developed methods are capable of detecting and identifying biomolecules at the single-molecule level of sensitivity. In one case, identification is based on measuring fluorescence brightness from single molecules. In another, molecules are classified by determining their electrophoretic velocities.

  10. Fibre optic system for biochemical and microbiological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penwill, L. A.; Slater, J. H.; Hayes, N. W.; Tremlett, C. J.

    2007-07-01

    This poster will discuss state-of-the-art fibre optic sensors based on evanescent wave technology emphasising chemophotonic sensors for biochemical reactions and microbe detection. Devices based on antibody specificity and unique DNA sequences will be described. The development of simple sensor devices with disposable single use sensor probes will be illustrated with a view to providing cost effective field based or point of care analysis of major themes such as hospital acquired infections or bioterrorism events. This presentation will discuss the nature and detection thresholds required, the optical detection techniques investigated, results of sensor trials and the potential for wider commercial application.

  11. Construction and engineering of large biochemical pathways via DNA assembler

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Summary DNA assembler enables rapid construction and engineering of biochemical pathways in a one-step fashion by exploitation of the in vivo homologous recombination mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has many applications in pathway engineering, metabolic engineering, combinatorial biology, and synthetic biology. Here we use two examples including the zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway and the aureothin biosynthetic gene cluster to describe the key steps in the construction of pathways containing multiple genes using the DNA assembler approach. Methods for construct design, pathway assembly, pathway confirmation, and functional analysis are shown. The protocol for fine genetic modifications such as site-directed mutagenesis for engineering the aureothin gene cluster is also illustrated. PMID:23996442

  12. Laser induced fluorescence of biochemical for UV LIDAR application.

    PubMed

    Gupta, L; Sharma, R C; Razdan, A K; Maini, A K

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the ultraviolet regime has been used for the detection of biochemical through a fiber coupled CCD detector from a distance of 2 m. The effect of concentration and laser excitation energy on the fluorescence spectra of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been investigated. The signature fluorescence peak of NADH was centred about 460 nm. At lower concentration Raman peak centred at 405 nm was also observed. The origin of this peak has been discussed. Detection limit with the proposed set up is found to be 1 ppm.

  13. [Biochemical markers of bone remodeling: pre-analytical variations and guidelines for their use. SFBC (Société Française de Biologie Clinique) Work Group. Biochemical markers of bone remodeling].

    PubMed

    Garnero, P; Bianchi, F; Carlier, M C; Genty, V; Jacob, N; Kamel, S; Kindermans, C; Plouvier, E; Pressac, M; Souberbielle, J C

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover have been developed over the past 20 years that are more specific for bone tissue than conventional ones such as total alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline. They have been widely used in clinical research and in clinical trials of new therapies as secondary end points of treatment efficacy. Most of the interest has been devoted to their use in postmenopausal osteoporosis, a condition characterized by subtle modifications of bone metabolism that cannot be detected readily by conventional markers of bone turnover. Although several recent studies have suggested that biochemical markers may be used for the management of the individual patient in routine clinical practice, this has not been clearly defined and is a matter of debate. Because of the crucial importance to clarify this issue, the Société Francaise de Biologie Clinique prompted an expert committee to summarize the available data and to make recommendations. The following paper includes a review on the biochemical and analytical aspects of the markers of bone formation and resorption and on the sources of variability such as sex, age, menstrual cycle, pregnancy and lactation, physical activity, seasonal variation and effects of diseases and treatments. We will also describe the effects of pre-analytical factors on the measurements of the different markers. Finally based on that review, we will make practical recommendations for the use of these markers in order to minimize the variability of the measurements and improve the clinical interpretation of the data.

  14. A review on bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) for the syngas and value added biochemicals production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Zhen, Guangyin; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya

    2017-06-01

    Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) are the microbial systems which are employed to produce electricity directly from organic wastes along with some valuable chemicals production such as medium chain fatty acids; acetate, butyrate and alcohols. In this review, recent updates about value-added chemicals production concomitantly with the production of gaseous fuels like hydrogen and methane which are considered as cleaner for the environment have been addressed. Additionally, the bottlenecks associated with the conversion rates, lower yields and other aspects have been mentioned. In spite of its infant stage development, this would be the future trend of energy, biochemicals and electricity production in greener and cleaner pathway with the win-win situation of organic waste remediation. Henceforth, this review intends to summarise and foster the progress made in the BESs and discusses its challenges and outlook on future research advances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Renewable Biochemical Methane Potential through Anaerobic Co-digestion from Selective Feed Stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thara, K.; Navis Karthika, Ignatius; Dheenadayalan, M. S., Dr

    2017-08-01

    Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) analysis provides a measure of the anaerobic biodegradability of a given substrate. BMP test is also used to evaluate the potential biogas (methane) production between various Co-digestion substrates. This test is also used to determine the amount of organic carbon in a given material that can be an aerobically converted to methane-Biogas. Studies were carried out for the production of biogas from the leather solid waste. Co-digestion (simultaneous digestion of two or more substrates) studies were carried out in batch reactor using the fleshing (a solid waste generated during the processing of raw hides or skins into finished leather) along with the fruit and vegetable waste at mesophilic condition 35° C). The anaerobic methanogenic seed sludge prepared separately followed by standard BMP test, which was used as the seed inoculums. Recent research on this topic is reviewed in this current paper.

  16. Sensors, Volume 3, Part II, Chemical and Biochemical Sensors Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göpel, Wolfgang; Jones, T. A.; Kleitz, Michel; Lundström, Ingemar; Seiyama, Tetsuro

    1997-06-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This is the second of two volumes focusing on chemical and biochemical sensors. It includes a detailed description of biosensors which often make use of transducer properties of the basic sensors and usually have additional biological components. This volume provides a unique overview of the applications, the possibilities and limitations of sensors in comparison with conventional instrumentation in analytical chemistry. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including environmental, biotechnological, medical, or chemical process control. This book is an indispensable reference work for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  17. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-29

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species.

  18. Genomic analysis of thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains: efficient producers for platform bio-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microbial strains with high substrate efficiency and excellent environmental tolerance are urgently needed for the production of platform bio-chemicals. Bacillus coagulans has these merits; however, little genetic information is available about this species. Here, we determined the genome sequences of five B. coagulans strains, and used a comparative genomic approach to reconstruct the central carbon metabolism of this species to explain their fermentation features. A novel xylose isomerase in the xylose utilization pathway was identified in these strains. Based on a genome-wide positive selection scan, the selection pressure on amino acid metabolism may have played a significant role in the thermal adaptation. We also researched the immune systems of B. coagulans strains, which provide them with acquired resistance to phages and mobile genetic elements. Our genomic analysis provides comprehensive insights into the genetic characteristics of B. coagulans and paves the way for improving and extending the uses of this species. PMID:24473268

  19. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  20. Biochemical and physiological MR imaging of skeletal muscle at 7 tesla and above.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Cárdenas-Blanco, Arturo; Schweitzer, Mark E; Recht, Michael P; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2010-06-01

    Ultra-high field (UHF; >or=7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its greater signal-to-noise ratio, offers the potential for increased spatial resolution, faster scanning, and, above all, improved biochemical and physiological imaging of skeletal muscle. The increased spectral resolution and greater sensitivity to low-gamma nuclei available at UHF should allow techniques such as (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS), (31)P MRS, and (23)Na MRI to be more easily implemented. Numerous technical challenges exist in the performance of UHF MRI, including changes in relaxation values, increased chemical shift and susceptibility artifact, radiofrequency (RF) coil design/B (1)(+) field inhomogeneity, and greater RF energy deposition. Nevertheless, the possibility of improved functional and metabolic imaging at UHF will likely drive research efforts in the near future to overcome these challenges and allow studies of human skeletal muscle physiology and pathophysiology to be possible at >or=7 T.

  1. Interaction of metal oxide nanoparticles with higher terrestrial plants: Physiological and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenchao; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Ji, Rong; Yin, Ying; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Multiple applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) could result in their accumulation in soil, threatening higher terrestrial plants. Several reports have shown the effects of MONPs on plants. In this review, we analyze the most recent reports about the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to stress imposed by MONPs. Findings demonstrate that MONPs may be taken up and accumulated in plant tissues causing adverse or beneficial effects on seed germination, seedling elongation, photosynthesis, antioxidative stress response, agronomic, and yield characteristics. Given the importance of determining the potential risks of MONPs on crops and other terrestrial higher plants, research questions about field long-term conditions, transgenernational phytotoxicity, genotype specific sensitivity, and combined pollution problems should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemical and bioinformatic analysis of the MYO19 motor domain

    PubMed Central

    Adikes, Rebecca C.; Unrath, William C.; Yengo, Christopher M.; Quintero, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on both the microtubule and actin cytoskeletal systems. Evidence for the involvement of myosin motors has been described in many systems, and until recently a candidate mitochondrial transport motor had not been described in vertebrates. Myosin-XIX (MYO19) was predicted to represent a novel class of myosin and had previously been shown to bind to mitochondria and increase mitochondrial network dynamics when ectopically expressed. Our analyses comparing ∼40 MYO19 orthologs to ∼2000 other myosin motor domain sequences identified instances of homology well-conserved within class XIX myosins that were not found in other myosin classes, suggesting MYO19-specific mechanochemistry. Steady-state biochemical analyses of the MYO19 motor domain indicate that Homo sapiens MYO19 is a functional motor. Insect cell-expressed constructs bound calmodulin as a light chain at the predicted stoichiometry and displayed actin-activated ATPase activity. MYO19 constructs demonstrated high actin affinity in the presence of ATP in actin-cosedimentation assays, and translocated actin filaments in gliding assays. Expression of GFP-MYO19 containing a mutation impairing ATPase activity did not enhance mitochondrial network dynamics, as occurs with wild-type MYO19, indicating that myosin motor activity is required for mitochondrial motility. The measured biochemical properties of MYO19 suggest it is a high-duty ratio motor that could serve to transport mitochondria or anchor mitochondria, depending upon the cellular microenvironment. PMID:23568824

  3. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath

    2011-06-01

    To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 °C. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin.

  4. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25??C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45??C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25??C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447-615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179-289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7-38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15-35??C) and durations (15-60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  5. Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome: overlapping clinical and biochemical phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Greenhaw, G A; Hebert, A; Duke-Woodside, M E; Butler, I J; Hecht, J T; Cleaver, J E; Thomas, G H; Horton, W A

    1992-01-01

    Two siblings are described whose clinical presentation of cutaneous photosensitivity and central nervous system dysfunction is strongly reminiscent of the DeSanctis-Cacchione syndrome (DCS) variant of xeroderma pigmentosum. An extensive clinical evaluation supported a diagnosis of DCS and documented previously unreported findings. In vitro fibroblast studies showed UV sensitivity that was two to three times that of normal controls. However, neither a post-UV-irradiation DNA excision-repair defect indicative of XP nor a semiconservative DNA replication defect indicative of XP variant was found. Rather, a failure of RNA synthesis to recover to normal levels after UV exposure was observed, a biochemical abnormality seen in Cockayne syndrome (CS), one of the premature-aging syndromes with clinical UV sensitivity. These patients, therefore, clinically have XP, but their biochemical characteristics suggest CS. The reason(s) for the severe neurologic disease, in light of the relatively mild cutaneous abnormalities, is unclear. Other cases with unusual fibroblast responses to irradiation have been noted in the literature and, along with the data from our patients, reinforce the notion of the complexity of DNA maintenance and repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1372469

  6. The clinical presentation and biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly and gigantism.

    PubMed

    Jialal, I; Nathoo, B C; Joubert, S; Asmal, A C; Pillay, N L

    1982-04-24

    Over a 5-year period 14 patients with acromegaly and gigantism were seen at the endocrine clinic of King Edward VIII Hospital: 9 were Blacks and 5 Indians; 8 of the patients were women. The mean age of the patients was 46 years. Surprisingly, only 2 patients complained of acral overgrowth. Symptomatology was varied and not characteristic of the condition. On examination all patients had unequivocal signs of soft-tissue and bony overgrowth, 64% had visual abnormalities and 50% hypertension. Radiologically, 88% showed an enlarged pituitary fossa. On biochemical investigation, the fasting levels of growth hormone (GH) were increased in 12 patients and during oral glucose tolerance tests, the GH levels in these 12 patients were not suppressed. One patient in whom the fasting GH level was not increased had progressed to the stage of panhypopituitarism, in the remaining patient challenge with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) led to increased GH levels and L-dopa challenge resulted in a paradoxical decrease in GH levels. Seven patients with increased GH levels who were challenged with L-dopa showed the typical decrease in GH levels found in this condition; in 5 of these patients, challenged with TRH, GH levels increased. The findings emphasize that despite the ease of clinical diagnosis, appropriate biochemical investigations are necessary to confirm the exact status of the disease, which is rare in the population studied.

  7. Optimal Signal Processing in Small Stochastic Biochemical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Etay; Nemenman, Ilya; Wiggins, Chris H.

    2007-01-01

    We quantify the influence of the topology of a transcriptional regulatory network on its ability to process environmental signals. By posing the problem in terms of information theory, we do this without specifying the function performed by the network. Specifically, we study the maximum mutual information between the input (chemical) signal and the output (genetic) response attainable by the network in the context of an analytic model of particle number fluctuations. We perform this analysis for all biochemical circuits, including various feedback loops, that can be built out of 3 chemical species, each under the control of one regulator. We find that a generic network, constrained to low molecule numbers and reasonable response times, can transduce more information than a simple binary switch and, in fact, manages to achieve close to the optimal information transmission fidelity. These high-information solutions are robust to tenfold changes in most of the networks' biochemical parameters; moreover they are easier to achieve in networks containing cycles with an odd number of negative regulators (overall negative feedback) due to their decreased molecular noise (a result which we derive analytically). Finally, we demonstrate that a single circuit can support multiple high-information solutions. These findings suggest a potential resolution of the “cross-talk” phenomenon as well as the previously unexplained observation that transcription factors that undergo proteolysis are more likely to be auto-repressive. PMID:17957259

  8. Molecular and biochemical characterization of tomato farnesyl-protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D; Callan, K; Gruissem, W

    1996-10-01

    The prenylation of membrane-associated proteins involved in the regulation of eukaryotic cell growth and signal transduction is critically important for their subcellular localization and biological activity. In contrast to mammalian cells and yeast, however, the function of protein prenylation in plants is not well understood and only a few prenylated proteins have been identified. We partially purified and characterized farnesyl-protein transferase from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, LeFTase) to analyze its biochemical and molecular properties. Using Ras- and G gamma-specific peptide substrates and competition assays we showed that tomato protein extracts have both farnesyl-protein transferase and geranylgeranyl-protein transferase 1 activities. Compared with the heterologous synthetic peptide substrates, the plant-specific CaaX sequence of the ANJ1 protein is a less efficient substrate for LeFTase in vitro. LeFTase activity profiles and LeFTase beta-subunit protein (LeFTB) levels differ significantly in various tissues and are regulated during fruit development. Partially purified LeFTase requires Zn2+ and Mg2+ for enzymatic activity and has an apparent molecular mass of 100 kD Immunoprecipitation experiments using anti-alpha LeFTB antibodies confirmed that LeFTB is a component of LeFTase but not of tomato geranylgeranyl-protein transferase 1. Based on their conserved bio-chemical activities, we expect that prenyltransferases are likely integrated with the sterol biosynthesis pathway in the control of plant cell growth.

  9. Breast cancer diagnosis: Imaging techniques and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seyed Hamed; Saadatpour, Zahra; Salmaninejad, Arash; Momeni, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Nahand, Javid Sadri; Rahmati, Majid; Mirzaei, Hamed; Kianmehr, Mojtaba

    2018-07-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease which is found as the second cause of cancer-associated death among women. Accumulating of evidence indicated that various factors (i.e., gentical and envirmental factors) could be associated with initiation and progression of breast cancer. Diagnosis of breast cancer patients in early stages is one of important aspects of breast cancer treatment. Among of various diagnosis platforms, imaging techniques are main diagnosis approaches which could provide valuable data on patients with breast cancer. It has been showed that various imaging techniques such as mammography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), Computed tomography (CT), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be used for diagnosis and monitoring patients with breast cancer in various stages. Beside, imaging techniques, utilization of biochemical biomarkers such as proteins, DNAs, mRNAs, and microRNAs could be employed as new diagnosis and therapeutic tools for patients with breast cancer. Here, we summarized various imaging techniques and biochemical biomarkers could be utilized as diagnosis of patients with breast cancer. Moreover, we highlighted microRNAs and exosomes as new diagnosis and therapeutic biomarkers for monitoring patients with breast cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biochemical transformation of lignin for deriving valued commodities from lignocellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, Daniel L.; Ralph, John; Donohue, Timothy J.

    The biochemical properties of lignin present major obstacles to deriving societally beneficial entities from lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable feedstock. Similar to other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, polypeptides, and ribonucleic acids, lignin polymers are derived from multiple types of monomeric units. However, lignin’s renowned recalcitrance is largely attributable to its racemic nature and the variety of covalent inter-unit linkages through which its aromatic monomers are linked. Indeed, unlike other biopolymers whose monomers are consistently inter-linked by a single type of covalent bond, the monomeric units in lignin are linked via non-enzymatic, combinatorial radical coupling reactions that give rise tomore » a variety of inter-unit covalent bonds in mildly branched racemic polymers. Yet, despite the chemical complexity and stability of lignin, significant strides have been made in recent years to identify routes through which valued commodities can be derived from it. This paper discusses emerging biological and biochemical means through which degradation of lignin to aromatic monomers can lead to the derivation of commercially valuable products.« less

  11. Biochemical transformation of lignin for deriving valued commodities from lignocellulose

    DOE PAGES

    Gall, Daniel L.; Ralph, John; Donohue, Timothy J.; ...

    2017-03-24

    The biochemical properties of lignin present major obstacles to deriving societally beneficial entities from lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable feedstock. Similar to other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, polypeptides, and ribonucleic acids, lignin polymers are derived from multiple types of monomeric units. However, lignin’s renowned recalcitrance is largely attributable to its racemic nature and the variety of covalent inter-unit linkages through which its aromatic monomers are linked. Indeed, unlike other biopolymers whose monomers are consistently inter-linked by a single type of covalent bond, the monomeric units in lignin are linked via non-enzymatic, combinatorial radical coupling reactions that give rise tomore » a variety of inter-unit covalent bonds in mildly branched racemic polymers. Yet, despite the chemical complexity and stability of lignin, significant strides have been made in recent years to identify routes through which valued commodities can be derived from it. This paper discusses emerging biological and biochemical means through which degradation of lignin to aromatic monomers can lead to the derivation of commercially valuable products.« less

  12. Deterministic modelling and stochastic simulation of biochemical pathways using MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M; Schmidt, H; Cho, K H; Wolkenhauer, O

    2006-03-01

    The analysis of complex biochemical networks is conducted in two popular conceptual frameworks for modelling. The deterministic approach requires the solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs, reaction rate equations) with concentrations as continuous state variables. The stochastic approach involves the simulation of differential-difference equations (chemical master equations, CMEs) with probabilities as variables. This is to generate counts of molecules for chemical species as realisations of random variables drawn from the probability distribution described by the CMEs. Although there are numerous tools available, many of them free, the modelling and simulation environment MATLAB is widely used in the physical and engineering sciences. We describe a collection of MATLAB functions to construct and solve ODEs for deterministic simulation and to implement realisations of CMEs for stochastic simulation using advanced MATLAB coding (Release 14). The program was successfully applied to pathway models from the literature for both cases. The results were compared to implementations using alternative tools for dynamic modelling and simulation of biochemical networks. The aim is to provide a concise set of MATLAB functions that encourage the experimentation with systems biology models. All the script files are available from www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/ publications_matlab-paper.html.

  13. Investigation on energy conversion technology using biochemical reaction elements, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    For measures taken for resource/energy and environmental issues, a study is made on utilization of microbial biochemical reaction. As a reaction system using chemical energy, cited is production of petroleum substitution substances and food/feed by CO2 fixation using hydrogen energy and hydrogen bacteria. As to photo energy utilization, regarded as promising are CO2 fixation using photo energy and microalgae, and production of hydrogen and useful carbon compound using photosynthetic organisms. As living organism/electric energy interconversion, cited is the culture of chemoautotrophic bacteria which fix CO2 using electric energy. For enhancing its conversion efficiency, it is important to develop a technology of gene manipulation of the bacteria and a system to use functional biochemical elements adaptable to the electrode reaction. With regard to utilization of the microorganism metabolic function, the paper presents emission of soluble nitrogen in the hydrosphere into the atmosphere using denitrifying bacteria, removal of phosphorus, reduction in environmental pollution caused by heavy metal dilute solutions, and recovery as resources, etc.

  14. Biochemical markers for the assessment of aquatic environment contamination

    PubMed Central

    Havelková, Marcela; Randák, Tomáš; Blahová, Jana; Slatinská, Iveta; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2008-01-01

    The need for assessment of aquatic ecosystem contamination and of its impact on water dwelling organisms was developed in response to rising aquatic environmental pollution. In this field study, liver enzymes of phase I and phase II of xenobiotic transformation, namely cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase and tripeptide glutathione were used to assess the contamination of the aquatic environment at different rivers in the Czech Republic. The indicator species selected was the male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Chemical analyses included also the assessment of the most important inductors of previously mentioned biochemical markers. The major inductors of monitored biomarkers are industrial contaminants which belong to a large group of organic pollutants (PCB, PAH, PCDD/F, DDT, HCH, HCB and OCS), persistent in the environment. Four different groups of river basins were assessed: the River Tichá Orlice and its tributary the Kralický brook; important tributaries of the River Elbe (the rivers Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina); major rivers in the Czech Republic (the rivers Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra) and the River Vltava. The use of the biochemical markers together with chemical analyses seems to be an effective way to monitor the quality of aquatic environment. PMID:21218108

  15. Combination of biochemical and mechanical cues for tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Testa, Stefano; Costantini, Marco; Fornetti, Ersilia; Bernardini, Sergio; Trombetta, Marcella; Seliktar, Dror; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    Tendinopathies negatively affect the life quality of millions of people in occupational and athletic settings, as well as the general population. Tendon healing is a slow process, often with insufficient results to restore complete endurance and functionality of the tissue. Tissue engineering, using tendon progenitors, artificial matrices and bioreactors for mechanical stimulation, could be an important approach for treating rips, fraying and tissue rupture. In our work, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblast cell line was exposed to a combination of stimuli: a biochemical stimulus provided by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) and Ascorbic Acid (AA); a three-dimensional environment represented by PEGylated-Fibrinogen (PEG-Fibrinogen) biomimetic matrix; and a mechanical induction exploiting a custom bioreactor applying uniaxial stretching. In vitro analyses by immunofluorescence and mechanical testing revealed that the proposed combined approach favours the organization of a three-dimensional tissue-like structure promoting a remarkable arrangement of the cells and the neo-extracellular matrix, reflecting into enhanced mechanical strength. The proposed method represents a novel approach for tendon tissue engineering, demonstrating how the combined effect of biochemical and mechanical stimuli ameliorates biological and mechanical properties of the artificial tissue compared to those obtained with single inducement. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. A Biochemical Oscillator Using Excitatory Molecules for Nanonetworks.

    PubMed

    Shitiri, Ethungshan; Cho, Ho-Shin

    2016-10-01

    For nanonetworks to be able to achieve large-scale functionality, such as to respond collectively to a trigger, synchrony between nanomachines is essential. However, to facilitate synchronization, some sort of physical clocking mechanism is required, such as the oscillators driven by auto-inhibitory molecules or by auto-inducing molecules. In this study, taking inspiration from the widely studied biological oscillatory phenomena called Calcium (Ca 2+ ) oscillations, we undertake a different approach to design an oscillator. Our model employs three different types of excitatory molecules that work in tandem to generate oscillatory phenomenon in the concentration levels of the molecule of interest. The main objective of the study is to model a high frequency biochemical oscillator, along with the investigations to identify and determine the parameters that affect the period of the oscillations. The investigations entail and highlight the design of the reserve unit, a reservoir of the molecule of interest, as a key factor in realizing a high frequency stable biochemical oscillator.

  17. A biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Echeverri-Ruiz, Nancy; Haynes, Tracy; Landers, Joseph; Woods, Justin; Gemma, Michael J; Hughes, Michael; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2018-01-15

    The use of antioxidants in tissue regeneration has been studied, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we analyze the role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in retina regeneration. Embryonic chicks are able to regenerate their retina after its complete removal from retinal stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM) of the eye only if a source of exogenous factors, such as FGF2, is present. This study shows that NAC modifies the redox status of the CM, initiates self-renewal of the stem/progenitor cells, and induces regeneration in the absence of FGF2. NAC works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals either independently or through the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), and/or by reducing oxidized proteins through a thiol disulfide exchange activity. We dissected the mechanism used by NAC to induce regeneration through the use of inhibitors of GSH synthesis and the use of other antioxidants with different biochemical structures and modes of action, and found that NAC induces regeneration through its thiol disulfide exchange activity. Thus, our results provide, for the first time, a biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration. Furthermore, NAC induction was independent of FGF receptor signaling, but dependent on the MAPK (pErk1/2) pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure and Biochemical Activities of Escherichia coli MgsA

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Asher N.; George, Nicholas P.; Marceau, Aimee H.

    2012-02-27

    Bacterial 'maintenance of genome stability protein A' (MgsA) and related eukaryotic enzymes play important roles in cellular responses to stalled DNA replication processes. Sequence information identifies MgsA enzymes as members of the clamp loader clade of AAA{sup +} proteins, but structural information defining the family has been limited. Here, the x-ray crystal structure of Escherichia coli MgsA is described, revealing a homotetrameric arrangement for the protein that distinguishes it from other clamp loader clade AAA{sup +} proteins. Each MgsA protomer is composed of three elements as follows: ATP-binding and helical lid domains (conserved among AAA{sup +} proteins) and a tetramerizationmore » domain. Although the tetramerization domains bury the greatest amount of surface area in the MgsA oligomer, each of the domains participates in oligomerization to form a highly intertwined quaternary structure. Phosphate is bound at each AAA{sup +} ATP-binding site, but the active sites do not appear to be in a catalytically competent conformation due to displacement of Arg finger residues. E. coli MgsA is also shown to form a complex with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein through co-purification and biochemical studies. MgsA DNA-dependent ATPase activity is inhibited by single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Together, these structural and biochemical observations provide insights into the mechanisms of MgsA family AAA{sup +} proteins.« less

  19. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Chen, Yi-Yun; Tew, Kwee Siong; Meng, Pei-Jei; Chen, Chaolun A

    2012-01-01

    The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures), remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata) was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW) medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity), and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids), the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora) or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora). Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  20. Estimating rare events in biochemical systems using conditional sampling.

    PubMed

    Sundar, V S

    2017-01-28

    The paper focuses on development of variance reduction strategies to estimate rare events in biochemical systems. Obtaining this probability using brute force Monte Carlo simulations in conjunction with the stochastic simulation algorithm (Gillespie's method) is computationally prohibitive. To circumvent this, important sampling tools such as the weighted stochastic simulation algorithm and the doubly weighted stochastic simulation algorithm have been proposed. However, these strategies require an additional step of determining the important region to sample from, which is not straightforward for most of the problems. In this paper, we apply the subset simulation method, developed as a variance reduction tool in the context of structural engineering, to the problem of rare event estimation in biochemical systems. The main idea is that the rare event probability is expressed as a product of more frequent conditional probabilities. These conditional probabilities are estimated with high accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations, specifically the Markov chain Monte Carlo method with the modified Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Generating sample realizations of the state vector using the stochastic simulation algorithm is viewed as mapping the discrete-state continuous-time random process to the standard normal random variable vector. This viewpoint opens up the possibility of applying more sophisticated and efficient sampling schemes developed elsewhere to problems in stochastic chemical kinetics. The results obtained using the subset simulation method are compared with existing variance reduction strategies for a few benchmark problems, and a satisfactory improvement in computational time is demonstrated.

  1. Dust Fertilization of the Western Atlantic Biota: a Biochemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Every year an estimated 50 million tons of African dust reaches the Western Atlantic. This dust is composed of quartz sand, clay, and a mixture of quartz and clay particles agglutinated with micronutrient enriched ferruginous cement. However, whether it is friend or foe to biochemical systems is a matter of conjecture. Corals are ideal recorders of changing conditions as the layers can be dated so that the record of chemical changes is easily assessed. There is extensive shallow-and deep water coral development bordering the Florida Straits. The changes in trace element chemistry within these corals show a positive relationship with the African dust record. Recently, it has been demonstrated that many of the metals contained within the dust are necessary micronutrients in the fertilization of plankton. Using the results of these studies, a biochemical model has been constructed. This model suggests a path from inorganic dust through microbial transformation to micronutrient enzymes (i.e. Cd-enriched carbonic anahydrase) and carbonate precipitation on the Bahamian Banks. It is estimated that more than ten million metric tons of this fine, metal-rich sediment is formed each year. However, for much of this sediment, its deposition is temporary, as it is transported into the Florida Straits yearly by tropical cyclones. This metal-enriched fine carbonate becomes nutrients for phytoplankton, providing food for the corals, both shallow and deep.

  2. Visualizing Antimicrobials in Bacterial Biofilms: Three-Dimensional Biochemical Imaging Using TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Fearn, Sarah; Allsopp, Luke P; Harrison, Freya; Ware, Ecaterina; Diggle, Stephen P; Filloux, Alain; McPhail, David S; Bundy, Jacob G

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are groups of bacteria that exist within a self-produced extracellular matrix, adhering to each other and usually to a surface. They grow on medical equipment and inserts such as catheters and are responsible for many persistent infections throughout the body, as they can have high resistance to many antimicrobials. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause both acute and chronic infections and is used as a model for research into biofilms. Direct biochemical methods of imaging of molecules in bacterial biofilms are of high value in gaining a better understanding of the fundamental biology of biofilms and biochemical gradients within them. Time of flight-secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is one approach, which combines relatively high spatial resolution and sensitivity and can perform depth profiling analysis. It has been used to analyze bacterial biofilms but has not yet been used to study the distribution of antimicrobials (including antibiotics and the antimicrobial metal gallium) within biofilms. Here we compared two methods of imaging of the interior structure of P. aeruginosa in biological samples using TOF-SIMS, looking at both antimicrobials and endogenous biochemicals: cryosectioning of tissue samples and depth profiling to give pseudo-three-dimensional (pseudo-3D) images. The sample types included both simple biofilms grown on glass slides and bacteria growing in tissues in an ex vivo pig lung model. The two techniques for the 3D imaging of biofilms are potentially valuable complementary tools for analyzing bacterial infection. IMPORTANCE Modern analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important in the life sciences; imaging mass spectrometry offers the opportunity to gain unprecedented amounts of information on the distribution of chemicals in samples-both xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. In particular, simultaneous imaging of antibiotics (and other antimicrobial compounds) and bacterium

  3. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  4. Metabolic network failures in Alzheimer’s disease: A biochemical road map

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Jon B.; Arnold, Matthias; Kastenmüuller, Gabi; Chang, Rui; Baillie, Rebecca A.; Han, Xianlin; Thambisetty, Madhav; Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Suhre, Karsten; Thompson, J. Will; St. John-Williams, Lisa; MahmoudianDehkordi, Siamak; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Jack, John R.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Risacher, Shannon L.; Blach, Colette; Lucas, Joseph E.; Massaro, Tyler; Louie, Gregory; Zhu, Hongjie; Dallmann, Guido; Klavins, Kristaps; Koal, Therese; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Shen, Li; Casanova, Ramon; Varma, Sudhir; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Moseley, M. Arthur; Zhu, Kuixi; Henrion, Marc Y. R.; van der Lee, Sven J.; Harms, Amy C.; Demirkan, Ayse; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Weiner, Michael W.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The Alzheimer’s Disease Research Summits of 2012 and 2015 incorporated experts from academia, industry, and nonprofit organizations to develop new research directions to transform our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and propel the development of critically needed therapies. In response to their recommendations, big data at multiple levels are being generated and integrated to study network failures in disease. We used metabolomics as a global biochemical approach to identify peripheral metabolic changes in AD patients and correlate them to cerebrospinal fluid pathology markers, imaging features, and cognitive performance. Methods Fasting serum samples from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (199 control, 356 mild cognitive impairment, and 175 AD participants) were analyzed using the AbsoluteIDQ-p180 kit. Performance was validated in blinded replicates, and values were medication adjusted. Results Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed that sphingomyelins and ether-containing phosphatidylcholines were altered in preclinical biomarker-defined AD stages, whereas acylcarnitines and several amines, including the branched-chain amino acid valine and α-aminoadipic acid, changed in symptomatic stages. Several of the analytes showed consistent associations in the Rotterdam, Erasmus Rucphen Family, and Indiana Memory and Aging Studies. Partial correlation networks constructed for Aβ1–42, tau, imaging, and cognitive changes provided initial biochemical insights for disease-related processes. Coexpression networks interconnected key metabolic effectors of disease. Discussion Metabolomics identified key disease-related metabolic changes and disease-progression-related changes. Defining metabolic changes during AD disease trajectory and its relationship to clinical phenotypes provides a powerful roadmap for drug and biomarker discovery. PMID:28341160

  5. Tank cultivation of the red algae Palmaria mollis: Effects of nutrients on growth rate, biochemical quality, and epiphytic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, D.; Langdon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis) is a candidate for aquaculture production in Oregon due to its high protein content, fast growth rate, and ability to fare in cold water conditions. Current cultivation methods use the F/2 medium to supply nutrients to macroalgae cultures. The F/2 medium is a costly mixture of nitrate, phosphate, trace metals and vitamins. The F/2 medium has been the standard for microalgae cultivation, but research has lacked on the necessity of all or part of this mixture for macroalgae cultivation. This study is designed to contribute to the development of Pacific dulse cultivation by measuring how different fertilizer regimens affect the growth, biochemical composition, and quality of Palmaria mollis (C-3 variety) in hopes to reduce the production cost. I hypothesis that dulse will not require additional nutrients during summer cultivation, due to summer upwelling conditions. Experiments were conducted in a flow-through water system, controlling for flow rate, stocking density, and nutrient supplementation. To test this, two replicates of four nutrient regimes were organized: no supplemental nutrients, all nutrients (standard F/2 medium), nitrate/phosphate only, and nitrate/phosphate with trace metals. Each tank was monitored weekly for color quality, epiphytic growth, specific growth rate, production and a final biochemical analysis. This study has preliminarily concluded that supplemental nutrients have no significant effect on production or biochemical quality, but does have an effect quality of epiphytic growth.

  6. Quantitative biochemical characterization and biotechnological production of caspase modulator, XIAP: Therapeutic implications for apoptosis-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Si-Eun; Nam, Min-Kyung; Rhim, Hyangshuk

    2018-07-01

    Regulating apoptosis is a common and essential therapeutic strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Based on basic studies of apoptotic mechanisms, various researches have attempted to overcome the pathogenesis of such diseases by activating or inhibiting apoptosis. Generally, the biochemical characteristics of the target molecules should be evaluated along with understanding of their mechanisms of action during drug development. Among apoptotic regulators, XIAP serves as a potent negative regulator to block apoptosis through the inhibition of caspase (CASP)-9 and -3/7. Although XIAP is an attractive target with such apoptotic-modulating property, biochemical and biophysical studies of XIAP are still challenging. In this study, the CASP-9 and -3/7 inhibitors XIAP, 242Δ and Δ230 were prepared using the pGEX expression system and biochemically characterized. These inhibitors were expressed in Escherichia coli at a concentration of ≥20 mg/L culture under a native condition with 0.01 mM IPTG induction. Notably, using a simple and rapid affinity purification technique, these CASP-9 and -3/7 inhibitors have been purified, yielding ≥5 mg/L culture at approximately 90% purity. We have determined that HtrA2 specifically binds to the BIR2 and BIR3 of XIAP at a 1:1 molecular ratio. Moreover, in vitro cell-free CASP-9 and -3/7 activation-apoptosis assays have demonstrated that these purified XIAP proteins dramatically inhibit CASP-9 and -3/7 action. Our system is suitable for biochemical studies, such as quantitation of the number of molecules acting on the apoptosis regulation, and provides a basis and insights that can be applied to the development of therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple Ion Binding Equilibria, Reaction Kinetics, and Thermodynamics in Dynamic Models of Biochemical Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C.; Wu, Fan; Kushmerick, Martin J.; Beard, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of biochemical systems in vivo and in vitro is strongly influenced by complex interactions between biochemical reactants and ions such as H+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+. These are important second messengers in metabolic and signaling pathways that directly influence the kinetics and thermodynamics of biochemical systems. Herein we describe the biophysical theory and computational methods to account for multiple ion binding to biochemical reactants and demonstrate the crucial effects of ion binding on biochemical reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. In simulations of realistic systems, the concentrations of these ions change with time due to dynamic buffering and competitive binding. In turn, the effective thermodynamic properties vary as functions of cation concentrations and important environmental variables such as temperature and overall ionic strength. Physically realistic simulations of biochemical systems require incorporating all of these phenomena into a coherent mathematical description. Several applications to physiological systems are demonstrated based on this coherent simulation framework. PMID:19216922

  8. Clinical and Biochemical Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Peroxisomal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Huffnagel, Irene C; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomal disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic metabolic disorders, caused by a defect in peroxisome biogenesis or a deficiency of a single peroxisomal enzyme. The peroxisomal disorders include the Zellweger spectrum disorders, the rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata spectrum disorders, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and multiple single enzyme deficiencies. There are several core phenotypes caused by peroxisomal dysfunction that clinicians can recognize. The diagnosis is suggested by biochemical testing in blood and urine and confirmed by functional assays in cultured skin fibroblasts, followed by mutation analysis. This review describes the phenotype of the main peroxisomal disorders and possible pitfalls in (laboratory) diagnosis to aid clinicians in the recognition of this group of diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The biochemical basis for thermoregulation in heat-producing flowers

    PubMed Central

    Umekawa, Yui; Seymour, Roger S.; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoregulation (homeothermy) in animals involves a complex mechanism involving thermal receptors throughout the body and integration in the hypothalamus that controls shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The flowers of some ancient families of seed plants show a similar degree of physiological thermoregulation, but by a different mechanism. Here, we show that respiratory control in homeothermic spadices of skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) is achieved by rate-determining biochemical reactions in which the overall thermodynamic activation energy exhibits a negative value. Moreover, NADPH production, catalyzed by mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase in a chemically endothermic reaction, plays a role in the pre-equilibrium reaction. We propose that a law of chemical equilibrium known as Le Châtelier’s principle governs the homeothermic control in skunk cabbage. PMID:27095582

  10. Overview of the biochemical and genetic processes in malignant mesothelioma*

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro; Isoldi, Mauro César

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive form of cancer, has a long latency period, and is resistant to chemotherapy. It is extremely fatal, with a mean survival of less than one year. The development of MM is strongly correlated with exposure to asbestos and erionite, as well as to simian virus 40. Although various countries have banned the use of asbestos, MM has proven to be difficult to control and there appears to be a trend toward an increase in its incidence in the years to come. In Brazil, MM has not been widely studied from a genetic or biochemical standpoint. In addition, there have been few epidemiological studies of the disease, and the profile of its incidence has yet to be well established in the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the processes of malignant transformation, as well as the respective mechanisms of tumorigenesis, in MM. PMID:25210967

  11. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of artichoke waste: the inoculum effect.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of artichoke waste resulting from industrial transformation. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests was performed in order to evaluate the biochemical methane potential of the matrix in respect of the process. A comparison of the different performances of the laboratory-scale reactors operating in mesophilic conditions and utilizing three different values of the inoculum/substrate ratio was carried out. The best performance was achieved with an inoculum/substrate ratio of 2. Artichoke-processing byproducts showed a classical organic waste decomposition behaviour: a fast start-up phase, an acclimation stage, and a final stabilization phase. Following this approach, artichoke waste reached chemical oxygen demand removal of about 90% in 40 days. The high methane yield (average 408.62 mL CH4 gvs (-1) voltatile solids), makes artichoke waste a good product to be utilized in anaerobic digestion plants for biogas production.

  12. Biochemical markers for prediction of preclampsia: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most common diseases worldwide, complicating ~5% of all pregnancies. Although no major progress has been achieved in the treatment of PE, our ability to identify women at highrisk has increased considerably during the past decade. The early identification of patients with an increased risk for preeclampsia is therefore one of the most important goals in obstetrics. Today, several markers may offer the potential to be used, most likely in a combinatory analysis, as predictors or diagnostic tools. We present here the current knowledge on the biology of preeclampsia and review several biochemical markers which may be used to monitor preeclampsia in a future, that, we hope, is not to distant from today. PMID:22439080

  13. Biochemical markers for prediction of preclampsia: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Monte, Santo

    2011-07-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most common diseases worldwide, complicating ~5% of all pregnancies.Although no major progress has been achieved in the treatment of PE, our ability to identify women at highrisk has increased considerably during the past decade.The early identification of patients with an increased risk for preeclampsia is therefore one of the most important goals in obstetrics. Today, several markers may offer the potential to be used, most likely in a combinatory analysis, as predictors or diagnostic tools. We present here the current knowledge on the biology of preeclampsia and review several biochemical markers which may be used to monitor preeclampsia in a future, that, we hope, is not to distant from today.

  14. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-07-03

    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.

  15. Developing biochemical and molecular markers for cyanobacterial inoculants.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, R; Madhan, K; Singh, R N; Chauhan, A K; Nain, L

    2010-09-01

    Markers for evaluating the establishment of cyanobacteria based on their sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics, saccharide utilization patterns and PCR generated fingerprints were developed. Four selected strains (isolates from rhizosphere soils of diverse agro-ecosystems) have shown potential as diazotrophs and exhibited plant growth promoting abilities. Different responses were obtained on screening against 40 antibiotics, which aided in developing selectable antibiotic markers for each strain. Biochemical profiles generated using standardized chromogenic identification system (including saccharide utilization tests) revealed that 53 % of the saccharides tested were not utilized by any strain, while some strains exhibited unique ability for utilization of saccharides such as melibiose, cellobiose, maltose and glucosamine. PCR based amplification profiles developed using a number of primers based on repeat sequences revealed the utility of 3 primers in providing unique fingerprints for the strains.

  16. Ultrasensitive biochemical sensing device and method of sensing analytes

    DOEpatents

    Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2017-06-06

    Systems and methods biochemically sense a concentration of a ligand using a sensor having a substrate having a metallic nanoparticle array formed onto a surface of the substrate. A light source is incident on the surface. A matrix is deposited over the nanoparticle array and contains a protein adapted to binding the ligand. A detector detects s-polarized and p-polarized light from the reflective surface. Spacing of nanoparticles in the array and wavelength of light are selected such that plasmon resonance occurs with an isotropic point such that -s and -p polarizations of the incident light result in substantially identical surface Plasmon resonance, wherein binding of the ligand to the protein shifts the resonance such that differences between the -S and -P polarizations give in a signal indicative of presence of the ligand.

  17. Integration of biochemical sensors into wearable biomaterial platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandhyala, Sidhartha; Walper, Scott A.; Cargill, Allison A.; Ozual, Abigail; Daniele, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    With rapidly inflating healthcare costs, a limited supply of physicians and an alarming surge in lifestyle diseases, radical changes must be made to improve preventative medicine and ensure a sustainable healthcare system. A compelling solution is to equip the population with wearable health monitors to continuously record representative and actionable physiological data. Herein, we present a preliminary design and evaluation of a biochemical sensor node enabled by a substrate comprised of a nanocellulose thin-film that conforms to the skin and carries a printed sensor element. The nanocellulose layer ensures conformal and biocompatible contact with the skin, while a printed layer provides a high surface-area electrode. While the recognition/transduction element can be exchanged for many different sensing motifs, we utilize the general structure of an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  18. Hybrid nanogenerator for concurrently harvesting biomechanical and biochemical energy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Benjamin J; Liu, Ying; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor.

  19. Complexity of generic biochemical circuits: topology versus strength of interactions.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Bialek, William

    2016-12-06

    The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem. We quantify the intuition that for generic networks, optimization of interaction strengths is a crucial ingredient of achieving high complexity, defined here as the number of fixed points the network can accommodate. We propose a new methodology for characterizing the relative role of parameter optimization for topologies of a given class.

  20. Biochemical and structural investigations on phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Stefano; Garavaglia, Silvia; Ferraris, Davide M.; Miggiano, Riccardo; Mori, Shigetarou; Shibayama, Keigo

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis represents one model for studying the biology of its pathogenic relative Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structural characterization of a M. tuberculosis ortholog protein can serve as a valid tool for the development of molecules active against the M. tuberculosis target. In this context, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of M. smegmatis phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PrsA), the ortholog of M. tuberculosis PrsA, the unique enzyme responsible for the synthesis of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). PRPP is a key metabolite involved in several biosynthetic pathways including those for histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides and decaprenylphosphoryl-arabinose, an essential precursor for the mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Since M. tuberculosis PrsA has been validated as a drug target for the development of antitubercular agents, the data presented here will add to the knowledge of the mycobacterial enzyme and could contribute to the development of M. tuberculosis PrsA inhibitors of potential pharmacological interest. PMID:28419153

  1. Biochemical and structural investigations on phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Donini, Stefano; Garavaglia, Silvia; Ferraris, Davide M; Miggiano, Riccardo; Mori, Shigetarou; Shibayama, Keigo; Rizzi, Menico

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis represents one model for studying the biology of its pathogenic relative Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structural characterization of a M. tuberculosis ortholog protein can serve as a valid tool for the development of molecules active against the M. tuberculosis target. In this context, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of M. smegmatis phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PrsA), the ortholog of M. tuberculosis PrsA, the unique enzyme responsible for the synthesis of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). PRPP is a key metabolite involved in several biosynthetic pathways including those for histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides and decaprenylphosphoryl-arabinose, an essential precursor for the mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Since M. tuberculosis PrsA has been validated as a drug target for the development of antitubercular agents, the data presented here will add to the knowledge of the mycobacterial enzyme and could contribute to the development of M. tuberculosis PrsA inhibitors of potential pharmacological interest.

  2. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  3. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Haematological and biochemical effects of polyphenolics in animal models.

    PubMed

    Gnanamani, Arumugam; Sudha, Munusamy; Deepa, G; Sudha, M; Deivanai, K; Sadulla, S

    2008-07-01

    Polyphenols of natural and synthetic origin are exploited in tanning sector to convert putrescible skin/hide to non-putrescible leather. However, only 30-40% of the inputs have been taken up for processing, the remaining is released as unspent. The existing conventional wastewater treatment systems are inefficient in removing or degrading these unspent polyphenols and thus detrimental to ecosystem. The present study demonstrates the evaluation of impact of both synthetic and natural polyphenols on biochemical and haematological properties of blood and serum in animal models. The results reveal that concentrations of polyphenols play a major role. At higher concentrations, irrespective of their nature, there was a marked change in the lipid profile (81% reduction), followed by insignificant change in glucose levels, RBC and WBC counts and other haematological parameters. At lower concentrations, no significant changes in the above said properties were observed.

  5. Optical bio-chemical sensors on SNOW ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Clarke, Nigel; Anantram, M P; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2011-08-29

    In this paper, we propose and analyze novel ring resonator based bio-chemical sensors on silicon nanowire optical waveguide (SNOW) and show that the sensitivity of the sensors can be increased by an order of magnitude as compared to silicon-on-insulator based ring resonators while maintaining high index contrast and compact devices. The core of the waveguide is hollow and allows for introduction of biomaterial in the center of the mode, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. A sensitivity of 243 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) is achieved for a change in bulk refractive index. For surface attachment, the sensor is able to detect monolayer attachments as small as 1 Å on the surface of the silicon nanowires.

  6. Optical bio-chemical sensors on SNOW ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Clarke, Nigel; Anantram, M. P.; Singh Saini, Simarjeet

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose and analyze novel ring resonator based bio-chemical sensors on silicon nanowire optical waveguide (SNOW) and show that the sensitivity of the sensors can be increased by an order of magnitude as compared to silicon-on-insulator based ring resonators while maintaining high index contrast and compact devices. The core of the waveguide is hollow and allows for introduction of biomaterial in the center of the mode, thereby increasing the sensitivity of detection. A sensitivity of 243 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) is achieved for a change in bulk refractive index. For surface attachment, the sensor is able to detect monolayer attachments as small as 1 Å on the surface of the silicon nanowires.

  7. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects—and possibly in some vertebrates—gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling. PMID:28121487

  8. Biophysical constraints on the computational capacity of biochemical signaling networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj

    Biophysics fundamentally constrains the computations that cells can carry out. Here, we derive fundamental bounds on the computational capacity of biochemical signaling networks that utilize post-translational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). To do so, we combine ideas from the statistical physics of disordered systems and the observation by Tony Pawson and others that the biochemistry underlying protein-protein interaction networks is combinatorial and modular. Our results indicate that the computational capacity of signaling networks is severely limited by the energetics of binding and the need to achieve specificity. We relate our results to one of the theoretical pillars of statistical learning theory, Cover's theorem, which places bounds on the computational capacity of perceptrons. PM and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems Grant, and NIH Grant No. 1R35GM119461 (both to PM).

  9. Isolation of Clostridium absonum and its cultural and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hayase, M; Mitsui, N; Tamai, K; Nakamura, S; Nishida, S

    1974-01-01

    A new procedure for isolation of Clostridium absonum was devised. Sixtyseven strains of C. absonum were isolated from 135 soil samples, but no strain of C. absonum could be found from human fecal samples. The lecithinase, hemolysin, and lethal toxin in the culture filtrates of this species exhibited low avidity for C. perfringens type A antitoxin. The three activities were inseparable by the present method of purification. A reinvestigation of biochemical properties revealed that incomplete suppression of lecithinase reaction by C. perfringens type A antitoxin and no fermentation of raffinose, melibiose, and starch are useful criteria to differentiate C. absonum from C. perfringens, and that positive, although weak, gelatin liquefaction and fermentation of trehalose are useful to differentiate it from C. paraperfringens.

  10. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

  11. Polyphenol Oxidases in Crops: Biochemical, Physiological and Genetic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Taranto, Francesca; Pasqualone, Antonella; Mangini, Giacomo; Tripodi, Pasquale; Miazzi, Monica Marilena; Pavan, Stefano; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes. Genomic investigations ultimately led to the isolation of PPO homologs in several crops, which will be possibly characterized at the functional level in the near future. Here, focusing on the botanic families of Poaceae and Solanaceae, we provide an overview on available scientific literature on PPOs, resulting in useful information on biochemical, physiological and genetic aspects. PMID:28208645

  12. γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases: sequence, structure, biochemical properties, and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Merlino, Antonello

    2012-10-01

    γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases (γ-GTs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of γ-glutamyl bonds in glutathione and glutamine and the transfer of the released γ-glutamyl group to amino acids or short peptides. These enzymes are involved in glutathione metabolism and play critical roles in antioxidant defense, detoxification, and inflammation processes. Moreover, γ-GTs have been recently found to be involved in many physiological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes. In this review, the main biochemical and structural properties of γ-GTs isolated from different sources, as well as their conformational stability and mechanism of catalysis, are described and examined with the aim of contributing to the discussion on their structure-function relationships. Possible applications of γ-glutamyltranspeptidases in different fields of biotechnology and medicine are also discussed.

  13. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of semen in infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Adejuwon, C A; Ilesanmi, A O; Ode, E O; Akinlade, K S

    1996-09-01

    Biophysical analysis of semen was performed in fifty-eight Nigerian male partners of infertile marriages. Sperm count concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in oligospermics compared to normospermics as expected. However, there was no significant difference in sperm volume or motility percentage between the normospermics and the oligospermics; of course, no sperms were seen in the azoospermics. Biochemical analyses of serum zinc, copper, magnesium, and manganese by atomic absorption spectrophotometry [8] were further correlated in fifty-two patients. There were no statistically significant differences observed in the serum levels of zinc, magnesium, and copper among the normospermics, oligospermics, and azoospermics. The normospermic infertile patients, however, exhibited higher serum manganese when compared with oligospermics and azoospermics (P < 0.001). This finding suggests a potential role for manganese in the evaluation of infertile males.

  14. [The biochemical carcinogenesis of selected heavy metals in bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Rorbach-Dolata, Anna; Marchewka, Zofia; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer takes the second place in the classification of morbidity of urinary system cancers. Many chemical factors take part in cancerogenesis. It is suggested that exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, nickel and cadmium as well as its metabolites may trigger the bladder cancer through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress formation which are responsible for DNA damage. In patients with bladder cancer is observed the disorder of processes regulated by p-53, including apoptosis. There are many patients with bladder cancer with confirmed absence of retinoblastoma protein, which is responsible of holding on the process of coming up the cells with mutation into synthesis, where the replication process undergoes. It is mentioned that excessive expression of proto-oncogenes may also cause the bladder cancer. The article concerns biochemical effects of exposure to chosen heavy metals and their potential role in bladder cancer progression.

  15. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    response to support growth at higher temperatures. The biochemical changes observed in response to the increasing temperature provide leads into understanding plant adaptation to harsh environmental conditions, which will be very helpful in developing strategies for R. communis crop improvement research.

  16. A systematic petri net approach for multiple-scale modeling and simulation of biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Hu, Minjie; Hofestädt, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    A method to exploit hybrid Petri nets for modeling and simulating biochemical processes in a systematic way was introduced. Both molecular biology and biochemical engineering aspects are manipulated. With discrete and continuous elements, the hybrid Petri nets can easily handle biochemical factors such as metabolites concentration and kinetic behaviors. It is possible to translate both molecular biological behavior and biochemical processes workflow into hybrid Petri nets in a natural manner. As an example, penicillin production bioprocess is modeled to illustrate the concepts of the methodology. Results of the dynamic of production parameters in the bioprocess were simulated and observed diagrammatically. Current problems and post-genomic perspectives were also discussed.

  17. Biochemical markers and neuropsychological functioning in distal urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, Susan E; Cuthbertson, David; Burgard, Peter; Holbert, Amy; McCarter, Robert; Cederbaum, Stephen

    2018-02-08

    Urea cycle disorders often present as devastating metabolic conditions, resulting in high mortality and significant neuropsychological damage, despite treatment. The Urea Cycle Disorders Longitudinal Study is a natural history study that collects data from regular clinical follow-up and neuropsychological testing. This report examines links between biochemical markers (ammonia, glutamine, arginine, citrulline) and primary neuropsychological endpoints in three distal disorders, argininosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency (ASD or citrullinemia type I), argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency (ASA or ALD), and arginase deficiency (ARGD). Laboratory results and test scores from neuropsychological evaluations were assessed in 145 study participants, ages 3 years and older, with ASD (n = 64), ASA (n = 65) and ARGD (n = 16). Mean full scale IQ was below the population mean of 100 ± 15 for all groups: (ASD = 79 ± 24; ASA = 71 ± 21; ARGD = 65 ± 19). The greatest deficits were noted in visual performance and motor skills for all groups. While ammonia levels remain prominent as prognostic biomarkers, other biomarkers may be equally valuable as correlates of neuropsychological functioning. Cumulative exposure to the biomarkers included in the study proved to be highly sensitive indicators of neuropsychological outcomes, even when below the cut-off levels generally considered toxic. Blood levels of biomarkers obtained on the day of neuropsychological evaluations were not correlated with measures of functioning for any disorder in any domain. The importance of cumulative exposure supports early identification and confirms the need for well-controlled management of all biochemical abnormalities (and not just ammonia) that occur in urea cycle disorders.

  18. Biochemical transport modeling, estimation, and detection in realistic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye

    2006-05-01

    Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.

  19. Biochemical composition of the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaye, Sushant Vilas; Pawar, Ashwini Pandurang; Rivonker, Chandrasheker Umanath; Sreepada, Rayadurga Anantha; Ansari, Zakir Ali; Ram, Anirudh

    2017-11-01

    Considering the economic importance in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and lack of baseline information, we evaluated the proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, trace element content and C:N ratio in the alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus. Amongst proximate principals, a crude protein formed the major biochemical component ((58.9±2.2)% dry weight). Mean percent concentrations (dry weight) of other components such as a total lipid (TL), ash and nitrogen-free extract measured were, (1.8±0.2)%, (19.2±2.2)% and (20.1±0.45)%, respectively. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of 27 saturated fatty acids (SFA) with 13 straight-chained and 14 branched-chained, 28 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with 14 monounsaturated and 14 polyunsaturated and nine other minor fatty acids. Mean percent contributions of total SFAs and UFAs to TL were found to be (55.41±0.24)% and (44.05±0.25)%, respectively. Altogether, 16 different amino acids with an equal number of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NAA) ones were identified. Percent contributions by EAA and NAA to the total amino acid content were 38.11% and 61.89%, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in S. biaculeatus were generally low and their distribution followed the order, Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Hg>Co. The C:N ratio was (4.37±0.04)%. The profile of major biochemical constituents in alligator pipefish, S. biaculeatus revealed its potential use in TCM as well as a nutritional diet for human consumption. The results of the study would also form the basis for formulation and optimization of diets for the culture of S. biaculeatus.

  20. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25A?C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45A?C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25A?C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447a??615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179a??289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7a??38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15a??35A?C) and durations (15a??60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  1. Timescale analysis of rule-based biochemical reaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Klinke, David J.; Finley, Stacey D.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of information within a cell is governed by a series of protein-protein interactions that can be described as a reaction network. Mathematical models of biochemical reaction networks can be constructed by repetitively applying specific rules that define how reactants interact and what new species are formed upon reaction. To aid in understanding the underlying biochemistry, timescale analysis is one method developed to prune the size of the reaction network. In this work, we extend the methods associated with timescale analysis to reaction rules instead of the species contained within the network. To illustrate this approach, we applied timescale analysis to a simple receptor-ligand binding model and a rule-based model of Interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling in näive CD4+ T cells. The IL-12 signaling pathway includes multiple protein-protein interactions that collectively transmit information; however, the level of mechanistic detail sufficient to capture the observed dynamics has not been justified based upon the available data. The analysis correctly predicted that reactions associated with JAK2 and TYK2 binding to their corresponding receptor exist at a pseudo-equilibrium. In contrast, reactions associated with ligand binding and receptor turnover regulate cellular response to IL-12. An empirical Bayesian approach was used to estimate the uncertainty in the timescales. This approach complements existing rank- and flux-based methods that can be used to interrogate complex reaction networks. Ultimately, timescale analysis of rule-based models is a computational tool that can be used to reveal the biochemical steps that regulate signaling dynamics. PMID:21954150

  2. Biochemical profile of stone-forming patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pak, Charles Y C; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson; Preminger, Glenn M; Poindexter, John R; Peterson, Roy D; Pietrow, Paul; Ekeruo, Wesley

    2003-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that stone-forming patients with type II diabetes (DM-II) have a high prevalence of uric acid (UA) stones and present with some of the biochemical features of gouty diathesis (GD). The demographic and initial biochemical data from 59 stone-forming patients with DM-II (serum glucose greater than 126 mg/dL, no insulin therapy, older than 35 years of age) from Dallas, Texas and Durham, North Carolina were retrieved and compared with data from 58 patients with GD and 116 with hyperuricosuric calcium oxalate urolithiasis (HUCU) without DM. UA stones were detected in 33.9% of patients with DM-II compared with 6.2% of stone-forming patients without DM (P <0.001). Despite similar ingestion of alkali, the urinary pH in patients with DM-II and UA stones (n = 20) was low (pH = 5.5), as it is in patients with GD, and was significantly lower than in patients with HUCU. The urinary pH in patients with DM-II and calcium stones (n = 39) was intermediate between that in those with DM-II and UA stones and those with HUCU. However, both DM groups had fractional excretion of urate that was not depressed, as it is in those with GD, and was comparable to the value obtained in those with HUCU. The urinary content of undissociated UA was significantly higher, and the saturation of calcium phosphate (brushite) and sodium urate was significantly lower in those with DM-II and UA stones than in those with HUCU. Stone-forming patients with DM-II have a high prevalence of UA stones. Diabetic patients with UA stones share a key feature of those with GD, namely the passage of unusually acid urine, but not the low fractional excretion of urate.

  3. Clinical and biochemical significance of toxin production by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed Central

    Kindschuh, M; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ruiz-Palacios, G

    1987-01-01

    Production of cytotoxin and enterotoxin by Aeromonas strains obtained from stools of 50 children in Mexico and Texas and from blood of 9 children with sepsis was determined. Results were correlated with clinical features of infected children as well as with biochemical traits of Aeromonas strains. Cytotoxin was produced by 40 of 42 Aeromonas strains (95%) isolated from stools of children with diarrhea, by all 8 isolates from stools of well children, and by all 9 isolates from children with sepsis. There was no difference in the quantities (amount of cytotoxin per milligram of protein required to kill 50% of the cells) of cytotoxin produced and in clinical manifestations among the groups. None of the isolates produced a toxin that could be neutralized by antiserum raised against Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae 1 60R. Heat-labile-like enterotoxin (LT) was produced by 26 of 42 stool isolates (62%), while only 1 of the 42 isolates (2%) produced enterotoxinlike activity in suckling mice; 65% of the cytotoxin-producing strains also produced an LT-like material. All strains from blood produced LT-like material, and 2 of 6 (33%) produced activity in suckling mice. All strains produced hemolysin; 37 of 57 (65%) were Voges-Proskauer positive; 27 of 57 (47%) were lysine decarboxylase positive by API 20E strips, none were positive for lysine decarboxylose production by lysin-iron agar slants at 24 h, but 17 of 54 (31%) were positive at 48 h. There was no correlation between biochemical reactions and enterotoxin or cytotoxin production. There appears to be no correlation between toxin production by Aeromonas spp. and gastroenteritis. PMID:3584426

  4. Biochemical and nutritional markers and antioxidant activity in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernabé García, Juana; Zafrilla Rentero, Pilar; Mulero Cánovas, Juana; Gómez Jara, Purificación; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Abellán Alemán, José

    2014-01-01

    1) Nutritional assessment of the diet followed by patients with metabolic syndrome, and 2) biochemical analysis of the oxidation-reduction level in patients with metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with metabolic syndrome in Murcia. Fifty-three patients, 33 with and 20 without (control group) metabolic syndrome, were selected. The intervention consisted of completion of a recall survey and a test to nutritionally assess dietary intake. Anthropometric and laboratory variables, including those related to antioxidant activity, were also tested. Antioxidant activity was within normal limits in both groups (1.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L in the control group and 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L in the metabolic syndrome group) (NS). Superoxide dismutase levels were not significantly different between the groups. Mean glutathione reductase levels (U/L) were higher in the control group as compared to patients with metabolic syndrome (P<.05). As regards oxidative stress biomarkers, mean isoprostane levels were higher in the control group (4.9 ± 6.2 ng/mL) than in metabolic syndrome patients (3.5 ± 3.9 ng/mL) (P<.05). Oxidized LDL values tended to be higher in metabolic syndrome patients (96 ± 23.2U/L) as compared to the control group (86.2 ± 17.3 U/L), but differences were not significant. There is a trend to a poorer nutritional and biochemical profile in patients with metabolic syndrome, who also tend to have a greater degree of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Tyrosine aminotransferase: biochemical and structural properties and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Lemkul, Justin A; Vavricka, Christopher J; Robinson, Howard; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) catalyzes the transamination of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acids. The enzyme is thought to play a role in tyrosinemia type II, hepatitis and hepatic carcinoma recovery. The objective of this study is to investigate its biochemical and structural characteristics and substrate specificity in order to provide insight regarding its involvement in these diseases. Mouse TAT (mTAT) was cloned from a mouse cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was produced using Escherichia coli cells and purified using various chromatographic techniques. The recombinant mTAT is able to catalyze the transamination of tyrosine using α-ketoglutaric acid as an amino group acceptor at neutral pH. The enzyme also can use glutamate and phenylalanine as amino group donors and p-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate, phenylpyruvate and alpha-ketocaproic acid as amino group acceptors. Through macromolecular crystallography we have determined the mTAT crystal structure at 2.9 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed the interaction between the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate cofactor and the enzyme, as well as the formation of a disulphide bond. The detection of disulphide bond provides some rational explanation regarding previously observed TAT inactivation under oxidative conditions and reactivation of the inactive TAT in the presence of a reducing agent. Molecular dynamics simulations using the crystal structures of Trypanosoma cruzi TAT and human TAT provided further insight regarding the substrate-enzyme interactions and substrate specificity. The biochemical and structural properties of TAT and the binding of its cofactor and the substrate may help in elucidation of the mechanism of TAT inhibition and activation.

  6. Densitometric and biochemical values of broiler tibias at different ages.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, F R; Sagula, A L; Junqueira, O M; Pereira, G T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the normal values of bone radiographic density (BRD) by using the optical densitometry in radiographic images and the biochemical values represented by serum calcium, ash percentage, and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) from tibia ash of Cobb broilers at 8, 22, and 43 d of age. A total of 14 broilers were used for densitometric analysis, and 15 were used for biochemical dosages. The BRD values increased (P < 0.05) with age and in all tibia regions (proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis), concluding that growth was a determinative factor for bone performance, demanding a higher BRD during broiler development. Tibia proximal epiphysis presented higher BRD values in relation to the other bone regions (P < 0.05), as a result of a possible biomechanical adaptation to ligaments and tension of the muscle tendons at this region, allowing the support of the muscle mass increase. The serum calcium values were kept constant, as a result of the appropriate nutritional levels of the diet that supported the animal homeostasis. The bone ash and mineral percentage increased (P < 0.05) at 22 d of age, due to the higher mineral requirement in this age. The correlation between bone densitometry and the invasive techniques showed that the bone densitometry can substitute the determination of mineral percentage in the ash. This experiment presented normal values of the noninvasive and invasive methods more used in aviculture, allowing us to compare, subsequently, pathological and physiological values or results of broilers fed with different diets.

  7. Simulation methods with extended stability for stiff biochemical Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rué, Pau; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Burrage, Kevin

    2010-08-11

    With increasing computer power, simulating the dynamics of complex systems in chemistry and biology is becoming increasingly routine. The modelling of individual reactions in (bio)chemical systems involves a large number of random events that can be simulated by the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). The key quantity is the step size, or waiting time, tau, whose value inversely depends on the size of the propensities of the different channel reactions and which needs to be re-evaluated after every firing event. Such a discrete event simulation may be extremely expensive, in particular for stiff systems where tau can be very short due to the fast kinetics of some of the channel reactions. Several alternative methods have been put forward to increase the integration step size. The so-called tau-leap approach takes a larger step size by allowing all the reactions to fire, from a Poisson or Binomial distribution, within that step. Although the expected value for the different species in the reactive system is maintained with respect to more precise methods, the variance at steady state can suffer from large errors as tau grows. In this paper we extend Poisson tau-leap methods to a general class of Runge-Kutta (RK) tau-leap methods. We show that with the proper selection of the coefficients, the variance of the extended tau-leap can be well-behaved, leading to significantly larger step sizes. The benefit of adapting the extended method to the use of RK frameworks is clear in terms of speed of calculation, as the number of evaluations of the Poisson distribution is still one set per time step, as in the original tau-leap method. The approach paves the way to explore new multiscale methods to simulate (bio)chemical systems.

  8. Trematode infection modulates cockles biochemical response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Luísa; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2018-10-01

    Resulting mainly from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) build-up, seawater temperature rise is among the most important climate change related factors affecting costal marine ecosystems. Global warming will have implications on the water cycle, increasing the risk of heavy rainfalls and consequent freshwater input into the oceans but also increasing the frequency of extreme drought periods with consequent salinity increase. For Europe, by the end of the century, projections describe an increase of CO 2 concentration up to 1120 ppm (corresponding to 0.5 pH unit decrease), an increase in the water temperature up to 4 °C and a higher frequency of heavy precipitation. These changes are likely to impact many biotic interactions, including host-parasite relationships which are particularly dependent on abiotic conditions. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule, exposed to different salinity, temperature and pH levels as proxy for climate change, modify the infection success of the trematode parasite Himasthla elongata, with consequences to cockles biochemical performance. The results showed that the cercariae infection success increased with acidification but higher biochemical alterations were observed in infected cockles exposed to all abiotic experimental stressful conditions tested. The present study suggested that changes forecasted by many models may promote the proliferation of the parasites infective stages in many ecosystems leading to enhanced transmission, especially on temperate regions, that will influence the geographical distribution of some diseases and, probably, the survival capacity of infected bivalves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic significance of biochemical markers in African Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F K N; Owusu, L; Yeboah, F A; Rettig, T; Osei-Akoto, A

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) remains the prevalent form of paediatric cancer in tropical Africa with subtle pathological differences. This calls for intensified efforts to validate the global prognostic markers within local settings for improved cancer treatment and survival. This study proposes prognostic markers for enhanced eBL treatment and management. PATIENTS AND METHOD One hundred and eighty histologically and/or clinically diagnosed BL patients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana were eligible for this cross-sectional eight-year retrospective study. Biochemical, clinical and demographic data, before chemotherapy administration, were documented and examined for their progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) significance. RESULTS A mean age of 6 (SD=2.7, range: 1-16) years was observed with general male dominance (M:F=1.69:1). Total serum lactate dehydrogenase (HR=2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.32; log rank=8.3; p=0.004), serum creatinine (HR=3.59; 95% CI, 1.62-7.98; log rank=15.4; p=0.002) and St. Jude stage (HR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.73; log rank=8.0; p=0.015) were important independent prognostic biochemical markers for both PFS and OS. Age, serum calcium, uric acid, potassium, sodium and phosphorus were non-prognostic. CONCLUSION The better monitoring of these prognostic indices coupled with risk-stratification treatment may improve patients' survival, especially in resource-limited settings.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Turteltaub, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10 9) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10 13-15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels for tracing biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. Our primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subjects research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3H, 41Ca and 26Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications.

  11. Tertiary Gleason patterns and biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy: proposal for a modified Gleason scoring system.

    PubMed

    Trock, Bruce J; Guo, Charles C; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Magheli, Ahmed; Loeb, Stacy; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between the tertiary Gleason component in radical prostatectomy specimens and biochemical recurrence in what is to our knowledge the largest single institution cohort to date. We evaluated data on 3,230 men who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution from 2000 to 2005. Tertiary Gleason component was defined as Gleason grade pattern 4 or greater for Gleason score 6 and Gleason grade pattern 5 for Gleason score 7 or 8. Biochemical recurrence curves for cancer with tertiary Gleason component were intermediate between those of cancer without a tertiary Gleason component in the same Gleason score category and cancer in the next higher Gleason score category. The only exception was that Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 with a tertiary Gleason component behaved like Gleason score 8. The tertiary Gleason component independently predicted recurrence when factoring in radical prostatectomy Gleason score, radical prostatectomy stage and prostate specific antigen (HR 1.45, p = 0.029). Furthermore, the magnitude of the tertiary Gleason component effect on recurrence did not differ by Gleason score category (p = 0.593). Although the tertiary Gleason component is frequently included in pathology reports, it is routinely omitted in other situations, such as predictive nomograms, research studies and patient counseling. The current study adds to a growing body of evidence highlighting the importance of the tertiary Gleason component in radical prostatectomy specimens. Accordingly consideration should be given to a modified radical prostatectomy Gleason scoring system that incorporates tertiary Gleason component in intuitive fashion, including Gleason score 6, 6.5 (Gleason score 6 with tertiary Gleason component), 7 (Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7), 7.25 (Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 with tertiary Gleason component), 7.5 (Gleason score 4 + 3), 8 (Gleason score 4 + 3 with tertiary Gleason component or Gleason score 8), 8.5 (Gleason score 8 with tertiary Gleason

  12. The Role of Compost in Stabilizing the Microbiological and Biochemical Properties of Zinc-Stressed Soil.

    PubMed

    Strachel, Rafał; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Baćmaga, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter alia, through reclamation of degraded land. At present, the use of additives supporting the reclamation process that exhibit heavy metal-sorbing properties is becoming increasingly important in soil recovery. Research was conducted to determine the role of compost in stabilizing the microbial and biochemical balance of the soil due to the significant problem of heavy metal-contaminated areas. The study was conducted on loamy sand, to which zinc was applied at the following doses: 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg Zn 2+  kg -1 DM of soil. Compost was introduced to the appropriate objects calculated on the basis of organic carbon content in the amount of 0, 10, and 20 g C org  kg -1 DM of soil. The study was conducted over a period of 20 weeks, maintaining soil moisture at 50% capillary water capacity. Zinc significantly modified soil microbiome status. The abundance of microorganisms and their biological diversity and the enzymatic activity of the soil were affected. The negative effects of contaminating zinc doses were alleviated by the introduction of compost into the soil. Organic fertilization led to microbial growth intensification and increased biochemical activity of the soil already 2 weeks after compost application. These effects persisted throughout the experiment. Therefore, it can be stated that the use of compost is an appropriate method for restoring normal functions of soil ecosystems contaminated with zinc.

  13. Biochemical characterization of an isoprene synthase from Campylopus introflexus (heath star moss).

    PubMed

    Lantz, Alexandra T; Cardiello, Joseph F; Gee, Taylor A; Richards, Michaelin G; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Fisher, Alison J

    2015-09-01

    Each year, plants emit terragram quantities of the reactive hydrocarbon isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) into the earth's atmosphere. In isoprene-emitting plants, the enzyme isoprene synthase (ISPS) catalyzes the production of isoprene from the isoprenoid intermediate dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). While isoprene is emitted from all major classes of land plants, to date ISPSs from angiosperms only have been characterized. Here, we report the identification and initial biochemical characterization of a DMADP-dependent ISPS from the isoprene-emitting bryophyte Campylopus introflexus (heath star moss). The partially-purified C. introflexus ISPS (CiISPS) exhibited a Km for DMADP of 0.37 ± 0.28 mM, a pH optimum of 8.6 ± 0.5, and a temperature optimum of 40 ± 3 °C in vitro. Like ISPSs from angiosperms, the CiISPS required the presence of a divalent cation. However, unlike angiosperm ISPSs, the CiISPS utilized Mn(2+) preferentially over Mg(2+). Efforts are currently underway in our laboratory to further purify the CiISPS and clone the cDNA sequence encoding this novel enzyme. Our discovery of the first bryophyte ISPS paves the way for future studies concerning the evolutionary origins of isoprene emission in land plants and may help generate new bryophyte model systems for physiological and biochemical research on plant isoprene function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Sulforaphane in Men with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Bernard G; Mandron, Eric; Lefort, Jean Marc; Coadou, Yves; Della Negra, Emmanuel; Corbel, Luc; Le Scodan, Ronan; Azzouzi, Abdel Rahmene; Mottet, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    Increases in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) occur commonly in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy and are designated "biochemical recurrence." Because the phytochemical sulforaphane has been studied extensively as an anticancer agent, we performed a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial with sulforaphane in 78 patients (mean age, 69 ± 6 years) with increasing PSA levels after radical prostatectomy. Treatment comprised daily oral administration of 60 mg of a stabilized free sulforaphane for 6 months (M0-M6) followed by 2 months without treatment (M6-M8). The study was designed to detect a 0.012 log (ng/mL)/month decrease in the log PSA slope in the sulforaphane group from M0 to M6. The primary endpoint was not reached. For secondary endpoints, median log PSA slopes were consistently lower in sulforaphane-treated men. Mean changes in PSA levels between M6 and M0 were significantly lower in the sulforaphane group (+0.099 ± 0.341 ng/mL) than in placebo (+0.620 ± 1.417 ng/mL; P = 0.0433). PSA doubling time was 86% longer in the sulforaphane than in the placebo group (28.9 and 15.5 months, respectively). PSA increases >20% at M6 were significantly greater in the placebo group (71.8%) than in the sulforaphane group (44.4%); P = 0.0163. Compliance and tolerance were very good. Sulforaphane effects were prominent after 3 months of intervention (M3-M6). After treatment, PSA slopes from M6 to M8 remained the same in the 2 arms. Daily administration of free sulforaphane shows promise in managing biochemical recurrences in prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Novel method of dual fiber Bragg gratings integrated in fiber ring laser for biochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, H.; Pham, T. B.; Nguyen, V. A.; Pham, V. D.; Do, T. C.; Nguyen, T. V.; Hoang, T. H. C.; Le, H. T.; Pham, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    Optical sensors have been shown to be very effective for measuring the toxic content in liquid and air environments. Optical sensors, which operate based on the wavelength shift of the optical signals, require an expensive spectrometer. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of the optical sensor device for measuring wavelength shift without using a spectrometer. This configuration has a large potential for application in biochemical sensing techniques, and comes with a low cost. This configuration uses dual fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) integrated in a fiber ring laser structure of erbium-doped fiber, in which one FBG is used as a reference to sweep over the applicable spectrum of the etched-Bragg grating. The etched-FBG as a sensing probe is suitable for bio- and/or chemical sensors. The sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor system can be improved by the narrow linewidth of emission spectra from the laser, the best limit of detection of this sensor is 1.5  ×  10‑4 RIU (RIU: refractive index unit), as achieved by the optical sensor using a high resolution spectrometer. This sensor system has been experimentally investigated to detect different types of organic compounds, gasoline, mixing ratios of organic solvents in gasoline, and nitrate concentration in water samples. The experimental results show that this sensing method could determine different mixing ratios of organic solvents with good repeatability, high accuracy, and rapid response: e.g. for ethanol and/or methanol in gasoline RON 92 (RON: research octane number) of 0%–14% v/v, and nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0–50 ppm. These results suggest that the proposed configuration can construct low-cost and accurate biochemical sensors.

  16. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus strain expressing exogenous FomA protein.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Li, Fei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Feng, Xiping

    2018-04-30

    In previous research, to combine the immunogenicity of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), we constructed a FomA-expressing L. acidophilus strain and assessed its immunogenicity. Our findings indicated that oral administration of the recombinant L. acidophilus strain reduced the risk of periodontal infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and F. nucleatum. However, because the exogenous FomA is an heterologous protein for the original bacterium, in this study, we assessed whether the biochemical characteristics of the recombinant L. acidophilus strain change due to the expression of the exogenous FomA protein. To test the biochemical characteristics of a recombinant L. acidophilus strain expressing exogenous FomA and assess its antibiotic sensitivity. We assessed the colony morphology, growth, acid production, and carbohydrate fermentation abilities of the recombinant L. acidophilus strain. In addition, we tested the adhesive ability and antimicrobial activity of the recombinant and assessed its antibiotic sensitivity through a drug susceptibility test. The experimental results showed that the colony and microscopic morphology of the recombinant L. acidophilus strain was consistent with the original strain, and the recombinant strain grew well when cultured under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, exhibiting a growth rate that was identical to that of the standard strain. Similarly, the supernatants of the recombinant L. acidophilus can inhibit the growth of E. coli and P. gingivalis at different concentrations, and the recombinant strain displayed essentially the same drug sensitivity profile as the original L. acidophilus. However, to our surprise, the recombinant strains exhibited a greater adhesion ability than the reference strain. Our study demonstrated that, in addition to an increased adhesion ability, the recombinant L. acidophilus strain maintained the basic

  17. Chemical and Biochemical Approaches in the Study of Histone Methylation and Demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Keqin Kathy; Luo, Cheng; Wang, Dongxia; Jiang, Hualiang; Zheng, Y. George

    2014-01-01

    Histone methylation represents one of the most critical epigenetic events in DNA function regulation in eukaryotic organisms. Classic molecular biology and genetics tools provide significant knowledge about mechanisms and physiological roles of histone methyltransferases and demethylases in various cellular processes. In addition to this stream line, development and application of chemistry and chemistry-related techniques are increasingly involved in biological study, and provide information otherwise difficulty to obtain by standard molecular biology methods. Herein, we review recent achievements and progress in developing and applying chemical and biochemical approaches in the study of histone methylation, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), chemical ligation, mass spectrometry (MS), biochemical assays, and inhibitor development. These technological advances allow histone methylation to be studied from genome-wide level to molecular and atomic levels. With ChIP technology, information can be obtained about precise mapping of histone methylation patterns at specific promoters, genes or other genomic regions. MS is particularly useful in detecting and analyzing methylation marks in histone and nonhistone protein substrates. Chemical approaches that permit site-specific incorporation of methyl groups into histone proteins greatly facilitate the investigation of the biological impacts of methylation at individual modification sites. Discovery and design of selective organic inhibitors of histone methyltransferases and demethylases provide chemical probes to interrogate methylation-mediated cellular pathways. Overall, these chemistry-related technological advances have greatly improved our understanding of the biological functions of histone methylation in normal physiology and diseased states, and also are of great potential to translate basic epigenetics research into diagnostic and therapeutic application in the clinic. PMID:22777714

  18. Physiological and biochemical effect of neem and other Meliaceae plants secondary metabolites against Lepidopteran insects

    PubMed Central

    Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2013-01-01

    This review described the physiological and biochemical effects of various secondary metabolites from Meliaceae against major Lepidopteran insect pest including, Noctuidae and Pyralidae. The biochemical effect of major Meliaceae secondary metabolites were discussed more in this review. Several enzymes based on food materials have critical roles in nutritional indices (food utilization) of the insect pest population. Several research work has been referred and the effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on feeding parameters of insects by demonstrating food consumption, approximate digestibility of consumed food, efficiency of converting the ingested food to body substance, efficiency of converting digested food to body substance and consumption index was reviewed in detail. Further how the digestive enzymes including a-Amylases, α and β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.1), lipases (EC 3.1.1) Proteases, serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases affected by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites was reviewed. Further effect of Meliaceae secondary metabolites on detoxifying enzymes have been found to react against botanical insecticides including general esterases (EST), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and phosphatases was reviewed. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, E.C.3.1.3.1) and acid phosphatase (ACP, E.C.3.1.3.2) are hydrolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. These enzymes were affected by the secondary metabolites treatment. The detailed mechanism of action was further explained in this review. Acethylcholine esterase (AChE) is a key enzyme that terminates nerve impulses by catalyzing the hydrolysis of neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the nervous system of various organisms. How the AChE activity was altered by the Meliaceae secondary metabolites reviewed in detail. PMID:24391591

  19. Adaptive response of rat pancreatic β-cells to insulin resistance induced by monocrotophos: Biochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Raju; Rajini, Padmanabhan Sharda

    2016-11-01

    Our previous findings clearly suggested the role of duration of exposure to monocrotophos (MCP) in the development of insulin resistance. Rats exposed chronically to MCP developed insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia without overt diabetes. In continuation of this vital observation, we sought to delineate the biochemical mechanisms that mediate heightened pancreatic β-cell response in the wake of MCP-induced insulin resistance in rats. Adult rats were orally administered (0.9 and 1.8mg/kgb.w/d) MCP for 180days. Terminally, MCP-treated rats exhibited glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion along with elevated levels of circulating IGF1, free fatty acids, corticosterone, and paraoxonase activity. Biochemical analysis of islet extracts revealed increased levels of insulin, malate, pyruvate and ATP with a concomitant increase in activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes that are known to facilitate insulin secretion and enhanced shuttle activities. Interestingly, islets from MCP-treated rats exhibited increased insulin secretory potential ex vivo compared to those isolated from control rats. Further, MCP-induced islet hypertrophy was associated with increased insulin-positive cells. Our study demonstrates the impact of the biological interaction between MCP and components of metabolic homeostasis on pancreatic beta cell function/s. We speculate that the heightened pancreatic beta cell function evidenced may be mediated by increased IGF1 and paraoxonase activity, which effectively counters insulin resistance induced by chronic exposure to MCP. Our findings emphasize the need for focused research to understand the confounding environmental risk factors which may modulate heightened beta cell functions in the case of organophosphorus insecticide-induced insulin resistance. Such an approach may help us to explain the sharp increase in the prevalence of type II diabetes worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Development of digestive enzyme activity in larvae of spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus. 1. Biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-González, C A; Moyano-López, F J; Civera-Cerecedo, R; Carrasco-Chávez, V; Ortiz-Galindo, J L; Dumas, S

    2008-12-01

    Spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus is a potential aquaculture species in Northwest Mexico. In the last few years it has been possible to close its life cycle and to develop larviculture technology at on pilot scale using live food, however survival values are low (11%) and improvements in growth and survival requires the study of the morpho-physiological development during the initial ontogeny. In this research digestive activity of several enzymes were evaluated in larvae, from hatching to 30 days after hatching (dah), and in live prey (rotifers and Artemia), by use of biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. This paper, is the first of two parts, and covers only the biochemical analysis. All digestive enzyme activities were detected from mouth opening; however the, maximum activities varied among different digestive enzymes. For alkaline protease and trypsin the maximum activities were detected from 12 to 18 dah. Acid protease activity was observed from day 12 onwards. The other digestive enzymes appear between days 4 and 18 after hatching, with marked fluctuations. These activities indicate the beginning of the juvenile stage and the maturation of the digestive system, in agreement with changes that occur during morpho-physiological development and food changes from rotifers to Artemia. All enzymatic activities were detected in rotifers and Artemia, and their contribution to enhancement the digestion capacity of the larvae appears to be low, but cannot be minimised. We concluded that the enzymatic equipment of P. maculatofasciatus larvae is similar to that of other marine fish species, that it becomes complete between days 12 and 18 after hatching, and that it is totally efficient up to 25 dah.

  1. Postmatch recovery of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sports: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-01-01

    Background Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate quality. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research evaluated players’ physical recovery postmatch; (2) team/intermittent sports; and (3) at least two postmeasurements were compared with baseline values. Results Twenty-eight studies were eligible. Mean methodological quality was 11.2±1.11. Most used performance tests and biochemical markers were the countermovement jump test, sprint tests and creatine kinase (CK), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), respectively. Summary/conclusions The current evidence demonstrates that underlying mechanisms of muscle recovery are still in progress while performance recovery is already reached. CK recovery time courses are up to ≥72 hours. Soccer and rugby players need more time to recover for sprint performance, CK and C in comparison to other team ball sports. There are more high-quality studies needed regarding recovery in various team sports and recovery strategies on an individual level should be evaluated. Clinical relevance Ongoing insufficient recovery can be prevented by the use of the presented recovery time courses as specific practical recovery guidelines. PMID:29527320

  2. Analysis of gingival pocket microflora and biochemical blood parameters in dogs suffering from periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Izabela; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Gołyńska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases in dogs are caused by bacteria colonising the oral cavity. The presence of plaque comprising accumulations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria leads to the development of periodontitis. Due to the fact that in a large percentage of cases periodontal diseases remain undiagnosed, and consequently untreated, they tend to acquire a chronic character, lead to bacteraemia and negatively impact the health of internal organs. The aim of the present study was to perform a qualitative microbiological analysis of gingival pockets and determine the correlations between selected morphological and biochemical blood parameters and the extent periodontal diseases. Twenty-one dogs treated for periodontal diseases were qualified for the study and subsequently divided into two groups: with 3rd and 4th stage of periodontal disease. Swabs from the patients' gingival pockets were taken for bacteriological testing. Blood was tested for parameters including erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit values and leukocyte count. Blood serum was analyzed with respect to the concentrations of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AspAT/AST) and urea. The microbiological analysis of gingival pockets indicated the presence of numerous pathogens with a growth tendency in bacterial cultures observed in dogs with advanced-stage periodontal disease. The concentration of biochemical blood markers was significantly higher in dogs with 4th stage of periodontal disease, to compared to the 3rd-stage group. Morphological parameters were not significantly different with the exception of haemoglobin concentration, which was lower in dogs with 4th stage disease. In both groups, elevated leukocyte counts were observed. By conducting a detailed microbiological examination, it is possible to provide a better prognosis, plan adequate treatment and monitor dogs treated for peridontopathy. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G

  3. A Randomized Phase 2 Trial of 177Lu Radiolabeled Anti-PSMA Biochemically Monoclonal Antibody J591 in Patients with High-Risk Castrate, Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    relapsed prostate cancer (PC) after local therapy. J Clin Oncol 28: 15s, 2010 (suppl; Abstr TPS248) Presentation: Poster presentation, 2010 ASCO...Annual Meeting V. Conclusions Biochemical relapse is common after local therapy for prostate cancer. Based on the physical properties of 177Lu...ketoconazole in patients (pts) with high-risk castrate biochemically relapsed prostate cancer (PC) after local therapy. S. T. Tagawa, J. Osborne, P. J

  4. How to investigate neuro-biochemical relationships on a regional level in humans? Methodological considerations for combining functional with biochemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Niall W; Wiebking, Christine; Muñoz-Torres, Zeidy; Northoff, Georg

    2014-01-15

    There is an increasing interest in combining different imaging modalities to investigate the relationship between neural and biochemical activity. More specifically, imaging techniques like MRS and PET that allow for biochemical measurement are combined with techniques like fMRI and EEG that measure neural activity in different states. Such combination of neural and biochemical measures raises not only technical issues, such as merging the different data sets, but also several methodological issues. These methodological issues – ranging from hypothesis generation and hypothesis-guided use of technical facilities to target measures and experimental measures – are the focus of this paper. We discuss the various methodological problems and issues raised by the combination of different imaging methodologies in order to investigate neuro-biochemical relationships on a regional level in humans. For example, the choice of transmitter and scan type is discussed, along with approaches to allow the establishment of particular specificities (such as regional or biochemical) to in turn make results fully interpretable. An algorithm that can be used as a form of checklist for designing such multimodal studies is presented. The paper concludes that while several methodological and technical caveats needs to be overcome and addressed, multimodal imaging of the neuro-biochemical relationship provides an important tool to better understand the physiological mechanisms of the human brain.

  5. How to investigate neuro-biochemical relationships on a regional level in humans? Methodological considerations for combining functional with biochemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Niall W; Wiebking, Christine; Munoz-Torres, Zeidy; Northoff, Georg

    2013-10-25

    There is an increasing interest in combining different imaging modalities to investigate the relationship between neural and biochemical activity. More specifically, imaging techniques like MRS and PET that allow for biochemical measurement are combined with techniques like fMRI and EEG that measure neural activity in different states. Such combination of neural and biochemical measures raises not only technical issues, such as merging the different data sets, but also several methodological issues. These methodological issues - ranging from hypothesis generation and hypothesis-guided use of technical facilities to target measures and experimental measures - are the focus of this paper. We discuss the various methodological problems and issues raised by the combination of different imaging methodologies in order to investigate neuro-biochemical relationships on a regional level in humans. For example, the choice of transmitter and scan type is discussed, along with approaches to allow the establishment of particular specificities (such as regional or biochemical) to in turn make results fully interpretable. An algorithm that can be used as a form of checklist for designing such multimodal studies is presented. The paper concludes that while several methodological and technical caveats needs to be overcome and addressed, multimodal imaging of the neuro-biochemical relationship provides an important tool to better understand the physiological mechanisms of the human brain. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Modularization of biochemical networks based on classification of Petri net t-invariants.

    PubMed

    Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Schreiber, Falk; Heiner, Monika; Sackmann, Andrea; Junker, Björn H; Grunwald, Stefanie; Speer, Astrid; Winder, Katja; Koch, Ina

    2008-02-08

    Structural analysis of biochemical networks is a growing field in bioinformatics and systems biology. The availability of an increasing amount of biological data from molecular biological networks promises a deeper understanding but confronts researchers with the problem of combinatorial explosion. The amount of qualitative network data is growing much faster than the amount of quantitative data, such as enzyme kinetics. In many cases it is even impossible to measure quantitative data because of limitations of experimental methods, or for ethical reasons. Thus, a huge amount of qualitative data, such as interaction data, is available, but it was not sufficiently used for modeling purposes, until now. New approaches have been developed, but the complexity of data often limits the application of many of the methods. Biochemical Petri nets make it possible to explore static and dynamic qualitative system properties. One Petri net approach is model validation based on the computation of the system's invariant properties, focusing on t-invariants. T-invariants correspond to subnetworks, which describe the basic system behavior.With increasing system complexity, the basic behavior can only be expressed by a huge number of t-invariants. According to our validation criteria for biochemical Petri nets, the necessary verification of the biological meaning, by interpreting each subnetwork (t-invariant) manually, is not possible anymore. Thus, an automated, biologically meaningful classification would be helpful in analyzing t-invariants, and supporting the understanding of the basic behavior of the considered biological system. Here, we introduce a new approach to automatically classify t-invariants to cope with network complexity. We apply clustering techniques such as UPGMA, Complete Linkage, Single Linkage, and Neighbor Joining in combination with different distance measures to get biologically meaningful clusters (t-clusters), which can be interpreted as modules. To find

  7. Modularization of biochemical networks based on classification of Petri net t-invariants

    PubMed Central

    Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Schreiber, Falk; Heiner, Monika; Sackmann, Andrea; Junker, Björn H; Grunwald, Stefanie; Speer, Astrid; Winder, Katja; Koch, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Background Structural analysis of biochemical networks is a growing field in bioinformatics and systems biology. The availability of an increasing amount of biological data from molecular biological networks promises a deeper understanding but confronts researchers with the problem of combinatorial explosion. The amount of qualitative network data is growing much faster than the amount of quantitative data, such as enzyme kinetics. In many cases it is even impossible to measure quantitative data because of limitations of experimental methods, or for ethical reasons. Thus, a huge amount of qualitative data, such as interaction data, is available, but it was not sufficiently used for modeling purposes, until now. New approaches have been developed, but the complexity of data often limits the application of many of the methods. Biochemical Petri nets make it possible to explore static and dynamic qualitative system properties. One Petri net approach is model validation based on the computation of the system's invariant properties, focusing on t-invariants. T-invariants correspond to subnetworks, which describe the basic system behavior. With increasing system complexity, the basic behavior can only be expressed by a huge number of t-invariants. According to our validation criteria for biochemical Petri nets, the necessary verification of the biological meaning, by interpreting each subnetwork (t-invariant) manually, is not possible anymore. Thus, an automated, biologically meaningful classification would be helpful in analyzing t-invariants, and supporting the understanding of the basic behavior of the considered biological system. Methods Here, we introduce a new approach to automatically classify t-invariants to cope with network complexity. We apply clustering techniques such as UPGMA, Complete Linkage, Single Linkage, and Neighbor Joining in combination with different distance measures to get biologically meaningful clusters (t-clusters), which can be interpreted

  8. Flow Injection Technique for Biochemical Analysis with Chemiluminescence Detection in Acidic Media

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Fang, Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    A review with 90 references is presented to show the development of acidic chemiluminescence methods for biochemical analysis by use of flow injection technique in the last 10 years. A brief discussion of both the chemiluminescence and flow injection technique is given. The proposed methods for biochemical analysis are described and compared according to the used chemiluminescence system.

  9. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2... be available for human or livestock consumption. 13. Data on fish are required for all pesticides... for human consumption. 14. Data are required when a pesticide is to be applied directly to water that...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2. The same... human or livestock consumption. 12. Data on fish are required for all pesticides applied directly to... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2... be available for human or livestock consumption. 13. Data on fish are required for all pesticides... for human consumption. 14. Data are required when a pesticide is to be applied directly to water that...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2. The same... human or livestock consumption. 12. Data on fish are required for all pesticides applied directly to... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2. The same... human or livestock consumption. 12. Data on fish are required for all pesticides applied directly to... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2... be available for human or livestock consumption. 13. Data on fish are required for all pesticides... for human consumption. 14. Data are required when a pesticide is to be applied directly to water that...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2... be available for human or livestock consumption. 13. Data on fish are required for all pesticides... for human consumption. 14. Data are required when a pesticide is to be applied directly to water that...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2040 - Biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2... be available for human or livestock consumption. 13. Data on fish are required for all pesticides... for human consumption. 14. Data are required when a pesticide is to be applied directly to water that...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2. The same... human or livestock consumption. 12. Data on fish are required for all pesticides applied directly to... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2082 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... biochemical agents in the biochemical human health assessment data requirements, § 158.2050. 2. The same... human or livestock consumption. 12. Data on fish are required for all pesticides applied directly to... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2082 Section 158.2082 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticide plant floral... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1127 Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticide plant floral... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1127 Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds...

  6. Discerning the biochemical stability of pyrogenic C in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Rosa, José M.; Paneque, Marina; Contreras-Bernal, Lidia; Miller, Ana Z.; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes approximately 2/3 of the global terrestrial C pool, which corresponds to estimated 4000 Pg to a depth of 3 m [1] and therefore, the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) in soils control a large part of the terrestrial C cycle. The term Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of pyrogenic organic materials, from partly charred material through charcoal to soot produced during fire, as well as technical chars (biochars) produced by pyrolysis of biomass. The previously common assumption of PyC being inert has long been proven wrong [2]. In theory, the pyrogenic process confers these materials a longer mean residence time in the soils than their precursors, thus the application of PyC in general and particularly biochar to soil is proposed as a valid approach to establish a significant, long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems [3]. Nevertheless, the knowledge concerning the biochemical recalcitrance of PyOM in soils is still limited. This study combines the analysis by 13C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C NMR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and CO2 emissions in incubated pots of burned and unburned soils as well as in biochar amended and un-amended soils. By using this integrated approach we achieved a more complete understanding of the stability of different forms of PyC in the soil and the chemical changes occurring during aging. Significant differences are found between the stability of PyC. They depend on the nature of the source material, surficial properties of PyC, the pyrolysis process and the soil conditions during aging. Acknowledgements: The Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions (PCIG12-GA-2012-333784-Biocharisma project and PIEF-GA-2012-328689-DECAVE project), and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) (project PCGL2012-37041) are thanked for the financial support of the present study

  7. Cherenkov imaging and biochemical sensing in vivo during radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongxiao

    While Cherenkov emission was discovered more than eighty years ago, the potential applications of imaging this during radiation therapy have just recently been explored. With approximately half of all cancer patients being treated by radiation at some point during their cancer management, there is a constant challenge to ensure optimal treatment efficiency is achieved with maximal tumor to normal tissue therapeutic ratio. To achieve this, the treatment process as well as biological information affecting the treatment should ideally be effective and directly derived from the delivery of radiation to the patient. The value of Cherenkov emission imaging was examined here, primarily for visualization of treatment monitoring and then secondarily for Cherenkov-excited luminescence for tissue biochemical sensing within tissue. Through synchronized gating to the short radiation pulses of a linear accelerator (200Hz & 3 micros pulses), and applying a gated intensified camera for imaging, the Cherenkov radiation can be captured near video frame rates (30 frame per sec) with dim ambient room lighting. This procedure, sometimes termed Cherenkoscopy, is readily visualized without affecting the normal process of external beam radiation therapy. With simulation, phantoms and clinical trial data, each application of Cherenkoscopy was examined: i) for treatment monitoring, ii) for patient position monitoring and motion tracking, and iii) for superficial dose imaging. The temporal dynamics of delivered radiation fields can easily be directly imaged on the patient's surface. Image registration and edge detection of Cherenkov images were used to verify patient positioning during treatment. Inter-fraction setup accuracy and intra-fraction patient motion was detectable to better than 1 mm accuracy. Cherenkov emission in tissue opens up a new field of biochemical sensing within the tissue environment, using luminescent agents which can be activated by this light. In the first study of

  8. Thermodynamics of stoichiometric biochemical networks in living systems far from equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Beard, Daniel A

    2005-04-22

    The principles of thermodynamics apply to both equilibrium and nonequilibrium biochemical systems. The mathematical machinery of the classic thermodynamics, however, mainly applies to systems in equilibrium. We introduce a thermodynamic formalism for the study of metabolic biochemical reaction (open, nonlinear) networks in both time-dependent and time-independent nonequilibrium states. Classical concepts in equilibrium thermodynamics-enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy of biochemical reaction systems-are generalized to nonequilibrium settings. Chemical motive force, heat dissipation rate, and entropy production (creation) rate, key concepts in nonequilibrium systems, are introduced. Dynamic equations for the thermodynamic quantities are presented in terms of the key observables of a biochemical network: stoichiometric matrix Q, reaction fluxes J, and chemical potentials of species mu without evoking empirical rate laws. Energy conservation and the Second Law are established for steady-state and dynamic biochemical networks. The theory provides the physiochemical basis for analyzing large-scale metabolic networks in living organisms.

  9. Conjugates of classical DNA/RNA binder with nucleobase: chemical, biochemical and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Saftic, Dijana; Ban, Zeljka; Matic, Josipa; Tumir, Lidija-Marija; Piantanida, Ivo

    2018-05-07

    Among the most intensively studied classes of small molecules (molecular weight < 650) in biomedical research are small molecules that non-covalently bind to DNA/RNA, and another intensively studied class are nucleobase derivatives. Both classes have been intensively elaborated in many books and reviews. However, conjugates consisting of DNA/RNA binder covalently linked to nucleobase are much less studied and have not been reviewed in the last two decades. Therefore, this review summarized reports on the design of classical DNA/RNA binder - nucleobase conjugates, as well as data about their interactions with various DNA or RNA targets, and even in some cases protein targets involved. According to these data, the most important structural aspects of selective or even specific recognition between small molecule and target are proposed, and where possible related biochemical and biomedical aspects were discussed. The general conclusion is that this, rather new class of molecules showed an amazing set of recognition tools for numerous DNA or RNA targets in the last two decades, as well as few intriguing in vitro and in vivo selectivities. Several lead research lines show promising advancements toward either novel, highly selective markers or bioactive, potentially druggable molecules. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. [The relationship between adolescent body size and health promoting behavior and biochemical indicator factors].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chen, Min-Li; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2012-06-01

    Tainan City has the third highest prevalence of junior high school student obesity of all administrative districts in Taiwan. School nurses play an important role in promoting student health. Understanding the factors that significantly impact student weight is critical to designing effective student health promotion programs. This study explored the relationships between health promotion behavior and serum biomarker variables and body size. Researchers used a cross-sectional descriptive study design and stratified cluster random sampling. Subjects were 7th graders who received an in-school health checkup with blood test at 41 public junior high schools in Tainan City between July 2010 and May 2011. Research instruments included the adolescent health promotion (AHP) scale, serum biochemical profile and BMI (body mass index). Obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 726 students who participated in this study, 22.2% were underweight and 23.8% were overweight or obese. Higher AHP scores correlated with better biomarkers and body size. Multivariate analysis found factors that increased the risk of being overweight included: being male, having a father with a relatively low level of education, playing video games frequently, and doing little or no exercise (odds ratio = 1.93, 1.75, 1.07, 1.04, respectively). Participants with relatively healthy behaviors had better biomarkers and a lower risk of being overweight. Findings can support the development of evidence-based school programs to promote student health.

  11. Soil biochemical properties of grassland ecosystems under anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrevatykh, Irina; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Inflow of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems nowadays increases dramatically, that might be led to disturbance of natural biogeochemical cycles and landscapes structure. Production of nitrogen fertilizers is one of the air pollution sources, namely by nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-). Air pollution by nitrogen compounds of terrestrial ecosystems might be affected on soil biochemical properties, which results increasing mineral nitrogen content in soil, changing soil P/N and Al/Ca ratios, and, finally, the deterioration of soil microbial community functioning. The research is focused on the assessment of anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds on soil properties of grassland ecosystems in European Russia. Soil samples (Voronic Chernozem Pachic, upper 10 cm mineral layer, totally 10) were taken from grassland ecosystem: near (5-10 m) nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), and far from it (20-30 km, served as a control) in Tula region. In soil samples the NH4+ and NO3- (Kudeyarov's photocolorimetric method), P, Ca, Al (X-ray fluorescence method) contents were measured. Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration method. Soil microbial respiration (MR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) was calculated as MR/Cmic ratio. Near NFF the soil ammonium and nitrate nitrogen contents were a strongly varied, variation coefficient (CV) was 42 and 86This study was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research Grant No. 14-04-00098, 15-44-03220, 15-04-00915.

  12. (Bio)Chemical Tailoring of Biogenic 3-D Nanopatterned Templates with Energy-Relevant Functionalities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhage, Kenneth H; Kroger, Nils

    2014-09-08

    The overall aim of this research has been to obtain fundamental understanding of (bio)chemical methodologies that will enable utilization of the unique 3-D nanopatterned architectures naturally produced by diatoms for the syntheses of advanced functional materials attractive for applications in energy harvesting/conversion and storage. This research has been conducted in three thrusts: Thrust 1 (In vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom biosilica) is directed towards elucidating the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the cellular processes of in vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom silica. Thrust 2 (Shape-preserving reactive conversion of diatom biosilica into porous, high-surface area inorganic replicas) is aimed at understandingmore » the fundamental mechanisms of shape preservation and nanostructural evolution associated with the reactive conversion and/or coating-based conversion of diatom biosilica templates into porous inorganic replicas. Thrust 3 (Immobilization of energy-relevant enzymes in diatom biosilica and onto diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas) involves use of the results from both Thrust 1 and 2 to develop strategies for in vivo and in vitro immobilization of enzymes in/on diatom biosilica and diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas, respectively. This Final Report describes progress achieved in all 3 of these thrusts.« less

  13. Predictive hypotheses are ineffectual in resolving complex biochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Fry, Michael

    2018-03-20

    Scientific hypotheses may either predict particular unknown facts or accommodate previously-known data. Although affirmed predictions are intuitively more rewarding than accommodations of established facts, opinions divide whether predictive hypotheses are also epistemically superior to accommodation hypotheses. This paper examines the contribution of predictive hypotheses to discoveries of several bio-molecular systems. Having all the necessary elements of the system known beforehand, an abstract predictive hypothesis of semiconservative mode of DNA replication was successfully affirmed. However, in defining the genetic code whose biochemical basis was unclear, hypotheses were only partially effective and supplementary experimentation was required for its conclusive definition. Markedly, hypotheses were entirely inept in predicting workings of complex systems that included unknown elements. Thus, hypotheses did not predict the existence and function of mRNA, the multiple unidentified components of the protein biosynthesis machinery, or the manifold unknown constituents of the ubiquitin-proteasome system of protein breakdown. Consequently, because of their inability to envision unknown entities, predictive hypotheses did not contribute to the elucidation of cation theories remained the sole instrument to explain complex bio-molecular systems, the philosophical question of alleged advantage of predictive over accommodative hypotheses became inconsequential.

  14. Collective behaviours: from biochemical kinetics to electronic circuits.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Burioni, Raffaella; Di Biasio, Aldo; Uguzzoni, Guido

    2013-12-10

    In this work we aim to highlight a close analogy between cooperative behaviors in chemical kinetics and cybernetics; this is realized by using a common language for their description, that is mean-field statistical mechanics. First, we perform a one-to-one mapping between paradigmatic behaviors in chemical kinetics (i.e., non-cooperative, cooperative, ultra-sensitive, anti-cooperative) and in mean-field statistical mechanics (i.e., paramagnetic, high and low temperature ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic). Interestingly, the statistical mechanics approach allows a unified, broad theory for all scenarios and, in particular, Michaelis-Menten, Hill and Adair equations are consistently recovered. This framework is then tested against experimental biological data with an overall excellent agreement. One step forward, we consistently read the whole mapping from a cybernetic perspective, highlighting deep structural analogies between the above-mentioned kinetics and fundamental bricks in electronics (i.e. operational amplifiers, flashes, flip-flops), so to build a clear bridge linking biochemical kinetics and cybernetics.

  15. Collective behaviours: from biochemical kinetics to electronic circuits

    PubMed Central

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Burioni, Raffaella; Di Biasio, Aldo; Uguzzoni, Guido

    2013-01-01

    In this work we aim to highlight a close analogy between cooperative behaviors in chemical kinetics and cybernetics; this is realized by using a common language for their description, that is mean-field statistical mechanics. First, we perform a one-to-one mapping between paradigmatic behaviors in chemical kinetics (i.e., non-cooperative, cooperative, ultra-sensitive, anti-cooperative) and in mean-field statistical mechanics (i.e., paramagnetic, high and low temperature ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic). Interestingly, the statistical mechanics approach allows a unified, broad theory for all scenarios and, in particular, Michaelis-Menten, Hill and Adair equations are consistently recovered. This framework is then tested against experimental biological data with an overall excellent agreement. One step forward, we consistently read the whole mapping from a cybernetic perspective, highlighting deep structural analogies between the above-mentioned kinetics and fundamental bricks in electronics (i.e. operational amplifiers, flashes, flip-flops), so to build a clear bridge linking biochemical kinetics and cybernetics. PMID:24322327

  16. Cushing's syndrome: update on signs, symptoms and biochemical screening.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Lynnette K

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous pathologic hypercortisolism, or Cushing's syndrome, is associated with poor quality of life, morbidity, and increased mortality. Early diagnosis may mitigate against this natural history of the disorder. The clinical presentation of Cushing's syndrome varies, in part related to the extent and duration of cortisol excess. When hypercortisolism is severe, its signs and symptoms are unmistakable. However, most of the signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome are common in the general population (e.g., hypertension and weight gain) and not all are present in every patient. In addition to classical features of glucocorticoid excess, such as proximal muscle weakness and wide purple striae, patients may present with the associated comorbidities that are caused by hypercortisolism. These include cardiovascular disease, thromboembolic disease, psychiatric and cognitive deficits, and infections. As a result, internists and generalists must consider Cushing's syndrome as a cause, and endocrinologists should search for and treat these comorbidities. Recommended tests to screen for Cushing's syndrome include 1  mg dexamethasone suppression, urine free cortisol, and late night salivary cortisol. These may be slightly elevated in patients with physiologic hypercortisolism, which should be excluded, along with exogenous glucocorticoid use. Each screening test has caveats and the choice of tests should be individualized based on each patient's characteristics and lifestyle. The objective of this review is to update the readership on the clinical and biochemical features of Cushing's syndrome that are useful when evaluating patients for this diagnosis. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Clinical, morphological, and biochemical correlates of head circumference in autism.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Roberto; Militerni, Roberto; Frolli, Alessandro; Bravaccio, Carmela; Gritti, Antonella; Elia, Maurizio; Curatolo, Paolo; Manzi, Barbara; Trillo, Simona; Lenti, Carlo; Saccani, Monica; Schneider, Cindy; Melmed, Raun; Reichelt, Karl-Ludvig; Pascucci, Tiziana; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2007-11-01

    Head growth rates are often accelerated in autism. This study is aimed at defining the clinical, morphological, and biochemical correlates of head circumference in autistic patients. Fronto-occipital head circumference was measured in 241 nonsyndromic autistic patients, 3 to 16 years old, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We assessed 1) clinical parameters using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales, intelligence quotient measures, and an ad hoc clinical history questionnaire; 2) height and weight; 3) serotonin (5-HT) blood levels and peptiduria. The distribution of cranial circumference is significantly skewed toward larger head sizes (p < .00001). Macrocephaly (i.e., head circumference >97th percentile) is generally part of a broader macrosomic endophenotype, characterized by highly significant correlations between head circumference, weight, and height (p < .001). A head circumference >75th percentile is associated with more impaired adaptive behaviors and with less impairment in IQ measures and motor and verbal language development. Surprisingly, larger head sizes are significantly associated with a positive history of allergic/immune disorders both in the patient and in his/her first-degree relatives. Our study demonstrates the existence of a macrosomic endophenotype in autism and points toward pathogenetic links with immune dysfunctions that we speculate either lead to or are associated with increased cell cycle progression and/or decreased apoptosis.

  18. Collective behaviours: from biochemical kinetics to electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Burioni, Raffaella; di Biasio, Aldo; Uguzzoni, Guido

    2013-12-01

    In this work we aim to highlight a close analogy between cooperative behaviors in chemical kinetics and cybernetics; this is realized by using a common language for their description, that is mean-field statistical mechanics. First, we perform a one-to-one mapping between paradigmatic behaviors in chemical kinetics (i.e., non-cooperative, cooperative, ultra-sensitive, anti-cooperative) and in mean-field statistical mechanics (i.e., paramagnetic, high and low temperature ferromagnetic, anti-ferromagnetic). Interestingly, the statistical mechanics approach allows a unified, broad theory for all scenarios and, in particular, Michaelis-Menten, Hill and Adair equations are consistently recovered. This framework is then tested against experimental biological data with an overall excellent agreement. One step forward, we consistently read the whole mapping from a cybernetic perspective, highlighting deep structural analogies between the above-mentioned kinetics and fundamental bricks in electronics (i.e. operational amplifiers, flashes, flip-flops), so to build a clear bridge linking biochemical kinetics and cybernetics.

  19. Biochemical composition of fluids for amnioinfusion during fetoscopy.

    PubMed

    Adama van Scheltema, P N; In't Anker, P S; Vereecken, A; Vandenbussche, F P H A; Deprest, J A; Devlieger, R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate which of the commercially available solutions is best suited for amnioinfusion during fetoscopy, based on resemblance with the biochemical properties of amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid samples from 10 pregnancies were studied. Specimens were obtained from 5 pathologic pregnancies (of which 3 were complicated by polyhydramnios) and 5 uncomplicated pregnancies. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, glucose, osmolality, pH, total protein content and albumin were determined in each sample. A literature search (PubMed, Embase) was performed to identify commercially available fluids used for amnioinfusion in clinical practice. The composition of these infusion solutions was compared to the amniotic fluid samples mentioned above. We identified two different electrolyte solutions used in clinical practice for amnioinfusion. We identified four additional commercially available solutions that could potentially be used for amnioinfusion. Most of these infusion solutions differ considerably from midtrimester amniotic fluid samples both in electrolyte composition and pH, with the most striking difference in the latter. Lactated Ringer's solution approximates amniotic fluid the closest for both electrolyte composition and pH. This infusion solution seems to be the most suitable choice for amnioinfusion during fetoscopy. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (<1 day). Average estimated hydrolysis constant for SY was 0.0141 (±0.003) day(-1), and SY2 25 % was more appropriate for faster methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  1. Bootstrapping Least Squares Estimates in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes new computational methods of computing confidence bounds for the least squares estimates (LSEs) of rate constants in mass-action biochemical reaction network and stochastic epidemic models. Such LSEs are obtained by fitting the set of deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs), corresponding to the large volume limit of a reaction network, to network’s partially observed trajectory treated as a continuous-time, pure jump Markov process. In the large volume limit the LSEs are asymptotically Gaussian, but their limiting covariance structure is complicated since it is described by a set of nonlinear ODEs which are often ill-conditioned and numerically unstable. The current paper considers two bootstrap Monte-Carlo procedures, based on the diffusion and linear noise approximations for pure jump processes, which allow one to avoid solving the limiting covariance ODEs. The results are illustrated with both in-silico and real data examples from the LINE 1 gene retrotranscription model and compared with those obtained using other methods. PMID:25898769

  2. Investigating the two-moment characterisation of subcellular biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Mukhtar; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2009-10-07

    While ordinary differential equations (ODEs) form the conceptual framework for modelling many cellular processes, specific situations demand stochastic models to capture the influence of noise. The most common formulation of stochastic models for biochemical networks is the chemical master equation (CME). While stochastic simulations are a practical way to realise the CME, analytical approximations offer more insight into the influence of noise. Towards that end, the two-moment approximation (2MA) is a promising addition to the established analytical approaches including the chemical Langevin equation (CLE) and the related linear noise approximation (LNA). The 2MA approach directly tracks the mean and (co)variance which are coupled in general. This coupling is not obvious in CME and CLE and ignored by LNA and conventional ODE models. We extend previous derivations of 2MA by allowing (a) non-elementary reactions and (b) relative concentrations. Often, several elementary reactions are approximated by a single step. Furthermore, practical situations often require the use of relative concentrations. We investigate the applicability of the 2MA approach to the well-established fission yeast cell cycle model. Our analytical model reproduces the clustering of cycle times observed in experiments. This is explained through multiple resettings of M-phase promoting factor (MPF), caused by the coupling between mean and (co)variance, near the G2/M transition.

  3. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Systems Model of Parkinson's Disease Using Biochemical Systems Theory.

    PubMed

    Sasidharakurup, Hemalatha; Melethadathil, Nidheesh; Nair, Bipin; Diwakar, Shyam

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, affects millions of people and has gained attention because of its clinical roles affecting behaviors related to motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although studies on PD from various aspects are becoming popular, few rely on predictive systems modeling approaches. Using Biochemical Systems Theory (BST), this article attempts to model and characterize dopaminergic cell death and understand pathophysiology of progression of PD. PD pathways were modeled using stochastic differential equations incorporating law of mass action, and initial concentrations for the modeled proteins were obtained from literature. Simulations suggest that dopamine levels were reduced significantly due to an increase in dopaminergic quinones and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) relating to imbalances compared to control during PD progression. Associating to clinically observed PD-related cell death, simulations show abnormal parkin and reactive oxygen species levels with an increase in neurofibrillary tangles. While relating molecular mechanistic roles, the BST modeling helps predicting dopaminergic cell death processes involved in the progression of PD and provides a predictive understanding of neuronal dysfunction for translational neuroscience.

  5. Biochemical changes in cyanobacteria during the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cepoi, L; Rudi, L; Chiriac, T; Valuta, A; Zinicovscaia, I; Duca, Gh; Kirkesali, E; Frontasyeva, M; Culicov, O; Pavlov, S; Bobrikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The methods of synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc linckia were studied. A complex of biochemical, spectral, and analytical methods was used to characterize biomass and to assess changes in the main components of biomass (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and phycobilin) during nanoparticle formation. The size and shape of Ag nanoparticles in the biomass of both types of cyanobacteria were determined. Neutron activation analysis was used to study the accumulation dynamics of the Ag quantity. The analytical results suggest that the major reduction of Ag concentration in solutions and the increase in biomass occur within the first 24 h of experiments. While in this time interval minor changes in the N. linckia and S. platensis biomass took place, a significant reduction of the levels of proteins, carbohydrates, and phycobiliproteins in both cultures and of lipids in S. platensis was observed after 48 h. At the same time, the antiradical activity of the biomass decreased. The obtained results show the necessity of determining the optimal conditions of the interaction between the biomass and the solution containing Ag ions that would allow nanoparticle formation without biomass degradation at the time of Ag nanoparticle formation by the studied cyanobacteria.

  6. Quality, microstructure, biochemical and immunochemical characteristics of hypoallergenic pasta.

    PubMed

    Susanna, S; Prabhasankar, P

    2012-08-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy, characterized by lifelong intolerance to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. This study aims to develop hypoallergenic pasta using blends of Triticum durum semolina, 40% of other non-wheat flours and additives. Formulated pasta samples were evaluated for product quality characteristics and also subjected to biochemical analysis. Results showed that cooking loss ranged from 6.9% to 7.4%, which were within the acceptable range of 8%. Color change was low and in vitro protein digestibility of the pasta was found to be insignificant. Pasting characteristics of the hypoallergenic flour showed the increased peak viscosity and decreased gelatinization temperature. The scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated less-affected microstructure of gluten network. Texture profile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis revealed that optimized hypoallergenic pasta with xanthan gum as additive was acceptable and comparable with control. SDS-PAGE pattern showed distinct protein profile and decreased intensity, which was supported by Dot-Blot. In conclusion, the hypoallergenic pasta prepared by replacing T durum flour by 40% of other non-gluten flours could be useful for celiac patients because of its low antigenic activity.

  7. Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Muelly, Emilie R; Moore, Gregory J; Bunce, Scott C; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C; Morton, D Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A

    2013-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5-35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness.

  8. Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

  9. Optical and biochemical properties of a southwest Florida whiting event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jacqueline S.; Hu, Chuanmin; Robbins, Lisa L.; Byrne, Robert H.; Paul, John H.; Wolny, Jennifer L.

    2017-09-01

    ;Whiting; in oceanography is a term used to describe a sharply defined patch of water that contains high levels of suspended, fine-grained calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Whitings have been reported in many oceanic and lake environments, and recently have been reported in southwest Florida coastal waters. Here, field and laboratory measurements were used to study optical, biological, and chemical properties of whiting waters off southwest Florida. No significant difference was found in chlorophyll a concentrations between whiting and outside waters (non-whiting water), but average particle backscattering coefficients in whiting waters were double those in outside waters, and remote sensing reflectance in whiting waters was higher at all wavelengths (400-700 nm). While other potential causes cannot be completely ruled out, particle composition and biochemical differences between sampled whiting water, contiguous water, and outside water indicate a biologically precipitated mode of whiting formation. Taxonomic examination of marine phytoplankton samples collected during a whiting event revealed a community dominated by autotrophic picoplankton and a small (<10 μm), centric diatom species, identified as Thalassiosira sp. through the use of scanning electron microscopy. Amorphous to fully formed crystals of CaCO3 were observed along the girdle bands of Thalassiosira sp. cells and autotrophic picoplankton cells. Although carbonate parameters differed from whiting and contiguous to outside water, more sampling is needed to determine if these results are statistically significant.

  10. Computational methods for diffusion-influenced biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Dobrzynski, Maciej; Rodríguez, Jordi Vidal; Kaandorp, Jaap A; Blom, Joke G

    2007-08-01

    We compare stochastic computational methods accounting for space and discrete nature of reactants in biochemical systems. Implementations based on Brownian dynamics (BD) and the reaction-diffusion master equation are applied to a simplified gene expression model and to a signal transduction pathway in Escherichia coli. In the regime where the number of molecules is small and reactions are diffusion-limited predicted fluctuations in the product number vary between the methods, while the average is the same. Computational approaches at the level of the reaction-diffusion master equation compute the same fluctuations as the reference result obtained from the particle-based method if the size of the sub-volumes is comparable to the diameter of reactants. Using numerical simulations of reversible binding of a pair of molecules we argue that the disagreement in predicted fluctuations is due to different modeling of inter-arrival times between reaction events. Simulations for a more complex biological study show that the different approaches lead to different results due to modeling issues. Finally, we present the physical assumptions behind the mesoscopic models for the reaction-diffusion systems. Input files for the simulations and the source code of GMP can be found under the following address: http://www.cwi.nl/projects/sic/bioinformatics2007/

  11. Biochemical characterization of predicted Precambrian RuBisCO

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Patrick M.; Occhialini, Alessandro; Cameron, Jeffrey C.; Andralojc, P John; Parry, Martin A. J.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The antiquity and global abundance of the enzyme, RuBisCO, attests to the crucial and longstanding role it has played in the biogeochemical cycles of Earth over billions of years. The counterproductive oxygenase activity of RuBisCO has persisted over billions of years of evolution, despite its competition with the carboxylase activity necessary for carbon fixation, yet hypotheses regarding the selective pressures governing RuBisCO evolution have been limited to speculation. Here we report the resurrection and biochemical characterization of ancestral RuBisCOs, dating back to over one billion years ago (Gyr ago). Our findings provide an ancient point of reference revealing divergent evolutionary paths taken by eukaryotic homologues towards improved specificity for CO2, versus the evolutionary emphasis on increased rates of carboxylation observed in bacterial homologues. Consistent with these distinctions, in vivo analysis reveals the propensity of ancestral RuBisCO to be encapsulated into modern-day carboxysomes, bacterial organelles central to the cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism. PMID:26790750

  12. Biochemical characterization of predicted Precambrian RuBisCO.

    PubMed

    Shih, Patrick M; Occhialini, Alessandro; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Andralojc, P John; Parry, Martin A J; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-01-21

    The antiquity and global abundance of the enzyme, RuBisCO, attests to the crucial and longstanding role it has played in the biogeochemical cycles of Earth over billions of years. The counterproductive oxygenase activity of RuBisCO has persisted over billions of years of evolution, despite its competition with the carboxylase activity necessary for carbon fixation, yet hypotheses regarding the selective pressures governing RuBisCO evolution have been limited to speculation. Here we report the resurrection and biochemical characterization of ancestral RuBisCOs, dating back to over one billion years ago (Gyr ago). Our findings provide an ancient point of reference revealing divergent evolutionary paths taken by eukaryotic homologues towards improved specificity for CO2, versus the evolutionary emphasis on increased rates of carboxylation observed in bacterial homologues. Consistent with these distinctions, in vivo analysis reveals the propensity of ancestral RuBisCO to be encapsulated into modern-day carboxysomes, bacterial organelles central to the cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism.

  13. Hematologic and biochemical characteristics of stranded green sea turtles.

    PubMed

    March, Duane T; Vinette-Herrin, Kimberly; Peters, Andrew; Ariel, Ellen; Blyde, David; Hayward, Doug; Christidis, Les; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2018-05-01

    To improve understanding of pathophysiologic processes occurring in green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas) stranded along the east coast of Australia, we retrospectively examined the hematologic and biochemical blood parameters of 127 green turtles admitted to 2 rehabilitation facilities, Dolphin Marine Magic (DMM) and Taronga Zoo (TZ), between 2002 and 2016. The predominant size class presented was small immature animals (SIM), comprising 88% and 69% of admissions to DMM and TZ, respectively. Significant differences in blood profiles were noted between facility, size, and outcome. Elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and heterophils were poor prognostic indicators in animals from TZ, but not DMM. SIM animals at both institutions had lower protein levels than large older (LO) animals. SIM animals at DMM also had lower hematocrit and monocyte concentration; SIM animals at TZ had lower heterophil counts. Urea was measured for 27 SIM animals from TZ, but the urea-to-uric acid ratio was not prognostically useful. Strong correlations were seen between AST and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; r = 0.68) and uric acid and bile acids ( r = 0.72) in the 45 SIM animals from DMM in which additional analytes were measured. χ 2 contingency tests showed that the most recently published reference intervals were not prognostically useful. A paired t-test showed that protein levels rose and heterophil numbers fell in the 15 SIM animals from TZ during the rehabilitation process. Our results indicate that further work is required to identify reliable prognostic biomarkers for green turtles.

  14. Biochemical markers of trisomy 21 in amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Spencer, K; Muller, F; Aitken, D A

    1997-01-01

    In a study of amniotic fluid from 91 Down's syndrome cases and 240 controls, we have shown that the median values of four biochemical markers (AFP, total hCG, free beta hCG, and unconjugated oestriol) in the amniotic fluid of pregnancies affected by Down's syndrome on the whole reflect those observed in the maternal serum of affected cases. The median MOM for AFP was lower than average (0.56), as was that for unconjugated oestriol (0.55), whilst those for total hCG (1.82) and free beta hCG (2.10) were increased on average. The width of the distribution of marker levels in amniotic fluid is similar to that in serum for free beta hCG and total hCG but between 1.5 and 2 times wider for unconjugated oestriol and AFP. Analysis of data by fetal sex showed a significantly higher median MOM in female control cases compared with male controls for the analytes free beta hCG, total hCG, and unconjugated oestriol, but not for AFP. Amongst the Down's syndrome cases, this trend was not statistically significant and we cannot confirm a previous study which reported that elevated levels of amniotic fluid total and free beta hCG were associated only with female fetuses.

  15. Contrast in the Photoelectric Effect of Organic and Biochemical Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, G. B.; Burke, C.; Dehlinger, P.; Griffith, O. H.

    1973-01-01

    The photoelectric effect can provide the physical basis for a new method of mapping organic and biological surfaces. The technique, photoelectron microscopy, is similar to fluorescence microscopy using incident ultraviolet light except that photoejected electrons form the image of the specimen surface. In this work the minimum wavelengths of incident light required to produce an image were determined for the molecules 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridine (acridine orange) (I), benzo[a]pyrene (II), N,N,N′,N′-tetraphenylbenzidine (III), and copper phthalocyanine (IV). The photoelectron image thresholds for these compounds are 220 (I), 215 (II), 220 (III), and 240 nm (IV), all ±5 nm. Contrast of I-IV with respect to typical protein, lipid, nucleic acid, and polysaccharide surfaces was examined over the wavelength range 240-180 nm. The low magnification micrographs exhibited bright areas corresponding to I-IV but dark regions for the biochemical surfaces. The high contrast suggests the feasibility of performing extrinsic photoelectron microscopy experiments through selective labeling of sites on biological surfaces. ImagesFIGURE 3 PMID:4704486

  16. A biochemical approach to identifying microRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Karginov, Fedor V.; Conaco, Cecilia; Xuan, Zhenyu; Schmidt, Bryan H.; Parker, Joel S.; Mandel, Gail; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying the downstream targets of microRNAs (miRNAs) is essential to understanding cellular regulatory networks. We devised a direct biochemical method for miRNA target discovery that combined RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) purification with microarray analysis of bound mRNAs. Because targets of miR-124a have been analyzed, we chose it as our model. We honed our approach both by examining the determinants of stable binding between RISC and synthetic target RNAs in vitro and by determining the dependency of both repression and RISC coimmunoprecipitation on miR-124a seed sites in two of its well characterized targets in vivo. Examining the complete spectrum of miR-124 targets in 293 cells yielded both a set that were down-regulated at the mRNA level, as previously observed, and a set whose mRNA levels were unaffected by miR-124a. Reporter assays validated both classes, extending the spectrum of mRNA targets that can be experimentally linked to the miRNA pathway. PMID:18042700

  17. Spongiosa Primary Development: A Biochemical Hypothesis by Turing Patterns Formations

    PubMed Central

    López-Vaca, Oscar Rodrigo; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. PMID:23193429

  18. Early Pregnancy Biochemical Predictors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Powe, Camille E

    2017-02-01

    Universal oral glucose tolerance-based screening is employed to identify pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as treatment of this condition decreases the risk of associated complications. A simple and accurate blood test which identifies women at low or high risk for GDM in the first trimester would have the potential to decrease costs and improve outcomes through prevention or treatment. This review summarizes published data on early pregnancy biomarkers which have been tested as predictors of GDM. A large number of first-trimester biochemical predictors of GDM have been reported, mostly in small case-control studies. These include glycemic markers (fasting glucose, post-load glucose, hemoglobin A1C), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), insulin resistance markers (fasting insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin), adipocyte-derived markers (adiponectin, leptin), placenta-derived markers (follistatin-like-3, placental growth factor, placental exosomes), and others (e.g., glycosylated fibronectin, soluble (pro)renin receptor, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin). A few large studies suggest that first-trimester fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1C may be useful for identifying women who would benefit from early GDM treatment. To translate the findings from observational studies of first-trimester biomarkers for GDM to clinical practice, trials or cost-effectiveness analyses of screening and treatment strategies based on these novel biomarkers are needed.

  19. Mercury-induced biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-An; Chi, Wen-Chang; Huang, Tsai-Lien; Lin, Chung-Yi; Quynh Nguyeh, Thi Thuy; Hsiung, Yu-Chywan; Chia, Li-Chiao; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2012-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a serious environmental pollution threats to the planet. Accumulation of Hg in plants disrupts many cellular-level functions and inhibits growth and development, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated cellular, biochemical and proteomic changes in rice roots under Hg stress. Root growth rate was decreased and Hg, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase activity were increased significantly with increasing Hg concentration in roots. We revealed a time-dependent alteration in total glutathione content and enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during Hg stress. 2-D electrophoresis revealed differential expression of 25 spots with Hg treatment of roots: 14 spots were upregulated and 11 spots downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were identified by ESI-MS/MS to be involved in cellular functions including redox and hormone homeostasis, chaperone activity, metabolism, and transcription regulation. These results may provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Hg stress response in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical measurement of bilirubin with an evanescent wave optical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poscio, Patrick; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Emery, Y.; Parriaux, Olivier M.; Voirin, Guy

    1991-09-01

    Optical sensing techniques can be considered as powerful information sources on the biochemistry of tissue, blood, and physiological fluids. Various sensing modalities can be considered: spectroscopic determination of the fluorescence or optical absorption of the biological medium itself, or more generally, of a reagent in contact with the biological medium. The principle and realization of the optical sensor developed are based on the use of polished fibers: the cladding of a monomode fiber is removed on a longitudinal section. The device can then be inserted into an hypodermic needle for in-vivo measurements. Using this minute probe, local measurements of the tissue biochemistry or metabolic processes can be obtained. The sensing mechanism is based on the propagation of the evanescent wave in the tissues or reagent: the proximity of the fiber core allows the penetration of the model field tail into the sensed medium, with a uniquely defined field distribution. Single or multi-wavelength analysis of the light collected into the fiber yields the biochemical information. Here an example of this sensing technology is discussed. In-vitro measurement of bilirubin in gastric juice demonstrates that the evanescent wave optical sensor provides a sensitivity which matches the physiological concentrations. A device is proposed for in-vivo monitoring of bilirubin concentration in the gastro-oesophageal tract.