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Sample records for aldrin dieldrin endrin

  1. Rocky Mountain Arsenal pilot exposure study. Part 2. Analysis of exposure to diisopropylmethylphosphate, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and chlorophenylmethsulfone. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsongas, T.A.; Reif, J.S.; Mitchel, J.

    1996-08-01

    A pilot exposure study was undertaken in communities surrounding Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in order to determine whether exposures to several chemicals were greater among persons who resided there than among residents of a comparison area. In Part II of the exposure study, participants were screened for four organochlorine pesticides (dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, and isodrin): and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP), and byproduct of nerve agent manufacture, which was producted at RMA by the the United States Army. Urine samples were also screen for chlorophenyl-methylsulfone (CPMSO2), and oxidation product of chlorophenyl-methylsulfide (CPMS). CPMS is an intermediate in the synthesis of nitralin, a herbicide once manufactured at the RMA.

  2. 40 CFR 129.100 - Aldrin/dieldrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fallout from air emissions of aldrin/dieldrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year... runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions...

  3. 40 CFR 129.100 - Aldrin/dieldrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fallout from air emissions of aldrin/dieldrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year... runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 129.100 - Aldrin/dieldrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fallout from air emissions of aldrin/dieldrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year... runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 129.100 - Aldrin/dieldrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fallout from air emissions of aldrin/dieldrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year... runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions...

  6. 40 CFR 129.100 - Aldrin/dieldrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fallout from air emissions of aldrin/dieldrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year... runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions...

  7. Bioremediation of the organochlorine pesticides, dieldrin and endrin, and their occurrence in the environment.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Emiko; Kawanaka, Youhei; Yun, Sun-Ja; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    Dieldrin and endrin are persistent organic pollutants that cause serious environmental problems. Although these compounds have been prohibited over the past decades in most countries around the world, they are still routinely found in the environment, especially in the soil in agricultural fields. Bioremediation, including phytoremediation and rhizoremediation, is expected to be a useful cleanup method for this soil contamination. This review provides an overview of the environmental contamination by dieldrin and endrin, along with a summary of our current understanding and recent advances in bioremediation and phytoremediation of these pollutants. In particular, this review focuses on the types and abilities of plants and microorganisms available for accumulating and degrading dieldrin and endrin.

  8. Biodegradation of Aldrin and Dieldrin by the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Nawfa, Refdinal; Martak, Fahimah; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Aldrin and its metabolite dieldrin are persistent organic pollutants that contaminate soil in many parts of the world. Given the potential hazards associated with these pollutants, an efficient degradation method is required. In this study, we investigated the ability of Pleurotus ostreatus to transform aldrin as well as dieldrin in pure liquid cultures. This fungus completely eliminated aldrin in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium during a 14-day incubation period. Dieldrin was detected as the main metabolite, and 9-hydroxylaldrin and 9-hydroxyldieldrin were less abundant metabolites. The proposed route of aldrin biotransformation is initial metabolism by epoxidation, followed by hydroxylation. The fungus was also capable of degrading dieldrin, a recalcitrant metabolite of aldrin. Approximately 3, 9, and 18% of dieldrin were eliminated by P. ostreatus in low-nitrogen, high-nitrogen, and PDB media, respectively, during a 14-day incubation period. 9-Dihydroxydieldrin was detected as a metabolite in the PDB culture, suggesting that the hydroxylation reaction occurred in the epoxide ring. These results indicate that P. ostreatus has potential applications in the transformation of aldrin as well as dieldrin.

  9. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  10. Novel metabolic pathways of organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and aldrin by the white rot fungi of the genus Phlebia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Pengfei; Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-09-01

    White rot fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this experiment, 20 white rot fungi, belonging to genus Phlebia, were investigated for their ability to degrade dieldrin. Based on the screening results, we further investigated Phlebia acanthocystis, Phlebia brevispora, and Phlebia aurea to determine their degradation capacity and metabolic products towards dieldrin and aldrin. The three fungi were able to remove over 50% of dieldrin in a low nitrogen medium, after 42 d of incubation. Three hydroxylated products were detected as metabolites of dieldrin, suggesting that in Phlebia strains, hydroxylation reactions might play an important role in the metabolism of dieldrin. In contrast to dieldrin, aldrin exhibited higher levels of degradation activity. Over 90% of aldrin was removed after 28 d of incubation, and several new metabolites of aldrin in microorganisms, including 9-hydroxyaldrin and two carboxylic acid products, were detected in fungal cultures. These results indicate that the methylene moiety of aldrin and dieldrin molecules might be prone to enzymatic attack by white rot fungi. In this study, we describe for the first time a new metabolic pathway of both compounds by fungi of genus Phlebia.

  11. Endrin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Endrin ; CASRN 72 - 20 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects ) a

  12. Photochemical processing of aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions under arctic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Glenn A; Bausch, Alexandra R; Grannas, Amanda M

    2011-05-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants are transported to the Polar Regions, where they have the potential to bioaccumulate, presenting a threat to the health of wildlife and indigenous communities. They deposit onto snowpack during winter, and accumulate until spring, when they experience prolonged solar irradiation until snowmelt occurs. Photochemical degradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin, in frozen aqueous solution made from MilliQ water, 500 μM hydrogen peroxide solution or locally-collected melted snow were measured in a field campaign near Barrow, AK, during spring-summer 2008. Significant photoprocessing of both pesticides occurs; the reactions depend on temperature, depth within the snowpack and whether the predominant phase is ice or liquid water. The effect of species present in natural snowpack is comparable to 500 μM hydrogen peroxide, pointing to the potential significance of snowpack-mediated reactions. Aldrin samples frozen at near 0 °C were more reactive than comparable liquid samples, implying that the microenvironments experienced on frozen ice surfaces are an important consideration.

  13. Aldrin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aldrin ; CASRN 309 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  14. The adverse effects of aldrin and dieldrin on both myometrial contractions and the secretory functions of bovine ovaries and uterus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobel, Michał H. Grzeszczyk, Marlena; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-05-15

    Aldrin and dieldrin are chloroorganic insecticides which are recognised as endocrine disruptors. The aim of the study was to investigate their effect on the secretory functions of the uterus and ovary and on myometrial contractions. Myometrial strips and uterine and ovarian cells from nonpregnant cows were incubated with the xenobiotics (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml) for 24 or 72 h. Next, their effect on viability of myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells, myometrial strip contractions, the synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins (PGs: PGF2α and PGE2) from uterine cells, the secretion of oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells and the secretion of progesterone (P4) and OT from luteal cells were determined. Neither of the xenobiotics (10 ng/ml) affected (P > 0.05) the viability of the ovarian and uterine cells, while both (0.1–10 ng/ml) decreased (P < 0.05) the basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions. In spite of these effects, neither of the insecticides affected (P > 0.05) the synthesis and the secretion of PGs from the myometrial cells. Although they also did not impair the secretion of the PGs from the endometrial cells, they abolished (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of OT (P < 0.05) on the secretion of the PGs and stimulated (P < 0.05) the secretion of OT from the granulosa and luteal cells. Moreover, aldrin and dieldrin stimulated secretion of E2 and T from the granulosa cells, while only dieldrin increased (P < 0.05) the secretion of P4 from luteal cells. The data show that aldrin and dieldrin stimulated the secretory function of the cultured granulosa and luteal cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions of cows in vitro, which may affect on natural parturition. - Highlights: • Aldrin and dieldrin inhibited bovine myometrial contractions. • The studied xenobiotics stimulated steroids and oxytocin secretion from ovaries. • Prostaglandins are not involved in adverse effect of the xenobiotics on

  15. The adverse effects of aldrin and dieldrin on both myometrial contractions and the secretory functions of bovine ovaries and uterus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Michał H; Grzeszczyk, Marlena; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-05-15

    Aldrin and dieldrin are chloroorganic insecticides which are recognised as endocrine disruptors. The aim of the study was to investigate their effect on the secretory functions of the uterus and ovary and on myometrial contractions. Myometrial strips and uterine and ovarian cells from nonpregnant cows were incubated with the xenobiotics (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml) for 24 or 72 h. Next, their effect on viability of myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells, myometrial strip contractions, the synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins (PGs: PGF2α and PGE2) from uterine cells, the secretion of oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells and the secretion of progesterone (P4) and OT from luteal cells were determined. Neither of the xenobiotics (10 ng/ml) affected (P>0.05) the viability of the ovarian and uterine cells, while both (0.1-10 ng/ml) decreased (P<0.05) the basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions. In spite of these effects, neither of the insecticides affected (P>0.05) the synthesis and the secretion of PGs from the myometrial cells. Although they also did not impair the secretion of the PGs from the endometrial cells, they abolished (P<0.05) the stimulatory effect of OT (P<0.05) on the secretion of the PGs and stimulated (P<0.05) the secretion of OT from the granulosa and luteal cells. Moreover, aldrin and dieldrin stimulated secretion of E2 and T from the granulosa cells, while only dieldrin increased (P<0.05) the secretion of P4 from luteal cells. The data show that aldrin and dieldrin stimulated the secretory function of the cultured granulosa and luteal cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions of cows in vitro, which may affect on natural parturition.

  16. Cellular Localization of Dieldrin and Structure–Activity Relationship of Dieldrin Analogues in Dopaminergic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Erin M. G.; Florang, Virginia R.; Davenport, Laurie L.; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Doorn, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) correlates with environmental exposure to pesticides, such as the organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin. Previous studies found an increased concentration of the pesticide in the striatal region of the brains of PD patients and also that dieldrin adversely affects cellular processes associated with PD. These processes include mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species production. However, the mechanism and specific cellular targets responsible for dieldrin-mediated cellular dysfunction and the structural components of dieldrin contributing to its toxicity (toxicophore) have not been fully defined. In order to identify the toxicophore of dieldrin, a structure–activity approach was used, with the toxicity profiles of numerous analogues of dieldrin (including aldrin, endrin, and cis-aldrin diol) assessed in PC6-3 cells. The MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to monitor cell viability and membrane permeability after treatment with each compound. Cellular assays monitoring ROS production and extracellular dopamine metabolite levels were also used. Structure and stereochemistry for dieldrin were found to be very important for toxicity and other end points measured. Small changes in structure for dieldrin (e.g., comparison to the stereoisomer endrin) yielded significant differences in toxicity. Interestingly, the cis-diol metabolite of dieldrin was found to be significantly more toxic than the parent compound. Disruption of dopamine catabolism yielded elevated levels of the neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, for many organochlorines. Comparisons of the toxicity profiles for each dieldrin analogue indicated a structure-specific effect important for elucidating the mechanisms of dieldrin neurotoxicity. PMID:23763672

  17. Dieldrin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dieldrin ; CASRN 60 - 57 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  18. Residues of DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor in earthworms during two years following application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gish, C.D.; Hughes, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Study was conducted at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in December 1963. Plots were treated with DDT, dieldrin, or heptachlor. Earthworms and soils were sampled from each plot when treated and 0.5, 1.2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 months thereafter. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for residues of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, BHC, DDT and DDE.

  19. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, J L

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife and human health effects and understanding patterns of disease requires better access to these data. In the last 20 years, substantial databases have been created and now are becoming available on the Internet. This review is a detailed examination of 2 of the 12 POPs, aldrin and dieldrin, and how scientific groups identify and measure their effects. It draws on research findings from a variety of environmental monitoring networks in the United States. An overview of the ecologic and health effects of aldrin and dieldrin provides examples of how to streamline some of the programs and improve access to mutually useful scientific data. The research groups are located in many government departments, universities, and private organizations. Identifying databases can provide an "information accelerator" useful to a larger audience and can help build better plant and animal research models across scientific fields. PMID:11250811

  20. Literature Review of Biodegradation in Soil of Selected Rocky Mountain Arsenal Contaminants: Isodrin, Dieldrin, Diisopropylmethyl-Phosphonate, 1.2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane, and p-Chloro-Phenylmethylsulfoxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    and other unidentified metabolites (Tu et al., 1968). There were 13 out of 20 dieldrin-degrading organisms that also transformed aldrin, with the...carried out by fungi and actinomycetes than by bacilli (Tu et al., 1968). 3 In a series of 150 soil cultures, 25 were able to convert endrin to

  1. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  2. FISH TISSUE RESIDUE-BASED WILDLIFE VALUES FOR PISCIVOUOUS WILDLIFE: CHLORDANE, DDT, DIELDRIN, HEXACHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish tissue residue-based wildlife values were derived for chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, mercury and PCBs. Piscivorous wildlife for which these benchmarks were derived include belted kingfisher, river otter and mink. Toxic endpoint selection, criteria for t...

  3. Disappearance and persistence of aldrin after five annual applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation was initiated in 1965 to ascertain the disappearance rate of aldrin applied on loam soils at the recommended level of 1.5 lb per acre from 1960 through 1964. There was no further application of pesticides. Sampling began in 1965 and extended into 1970. Data from gas chromatographic analyses of soil and earthworm samples, collected spring and fall, showed that more than 95 percent of the pesticide had disappeared before the study began. There was no significant (P > 0.05) reduction in aldrin plus dieldrin residues throughout 6 years of study. Similarly, residues in earthworms (Allolobophora caligimosa) failed to decline during the 6 years. Average combined residues for 11 semi-annual collection periods was 0.11 ppm in soils, 0.61 ppm in earthworms, wet-weight bases. Results showed that high levels of pesticide did not accumulate and remain in the soil as a result of annual applications and that a large part of applied aldrin had disappeared within 1 year. Earthworms contained 4 to 15 times (average 5.6) as much aldrin plus dieldrin as was found in soils.

  4. Partial hydrolysis of dieldrin by Aerobacter aerogenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1968-01-01

    Although dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro- 6,7-epoxy-1 ,4 ,4a ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8, 8a-octahydro-1 ,4-endo, exo-5, 8-dimethanonaphthalene) metabolism by mammals (F. Korte and H. Arent, Life Sci. 4:2017, 1965) and insects (D. F. Heath and M. Vanderkar, Brit. J. Ind. Med. 21:269, 1964) has been reported, little is known about the degradation of this important pesticide by microorganisms. Korte et al. (Ann. Chem. Liebigs 656:135, 1962) and Chacko et al. (Science 154: 893, 1966) reported that a number of ubiquitous microorganisms were incapable of degrading dieldrin; however, more recently Matsumura and Boush (Science 156:959, 1967) isolated several species of Pseudomonas and Bacillus which could degrade dieldrin, from a number of soil samples having similar activity. They did not specifically attempt to identify the dieldrin metabolites formed, but they did suggest, on the basis of an identical RF value with an authentic control that 6,7-trans-dihydroxydihydroaldrin (aldrin diol) might be a major product. Work carried out concurrently in this laboratory has shown that another ubiquitous bacterium, Aerobacter aerogenes, converts dieldrin in vitro to a compound chromatographically similar to 6,7-trans-dihydroxydihydroaldrin.

  5. Partial hydrolysis of dieldrin by Aerobacter aerogenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Although dieldrin (1,2,3 ,4,10,10-hexachloro- 6,7-epoxy-1 ,4 ,4a ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8, 8a-octahydro-1 ,4-endo, exo-5, 8-dimethanonaphthalene) metabolism by mammals (F. Korte and H. Arent, Life Sci. 4:2017, 1965) and insects (D. F. Heath and M. Vanderkar, Brit. J. Ind. Med. 21:269, 1964) has been reported, little is known about the degradation of this important pesticide by microorganisms. Korte et al. (Ann. Chem. Liebigs 656:135, 1962) and Chacko et al. (Science 154: 893, 1966) reported that a number of ubiquitous microorganisms were incapable of degrading dieldrin; however, more recently Matsumura and Boush (Science 156:959, 1967) isolated several species of Pseudomonas and Bacillus which could degrade dieldrin, from a number of soil samples having similar activity. They did not specifically attempt to identify the dieldrin metabolites formed, but they did suggest, on the basis of an identical RF value with an authentic control that 6,7-trans-dihydroxydihydroaldrin (aldrin diol) might be a major product. Work carried out concurrently in this laboratory has shown that another ubiquitous bacterium, Aerobacter aerogenes, converts dieldrin in vitro to a compound chromatographically

  6. Reproduction and health of mallards fed endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Hulse, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of 0, 1 and 3 ppm endrin in dry duck mash were fed to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) starting in December, and health and reproduction were measured the following spring and summer. One male fed 3 ppm endrin died with 2.0 ppm endrin (wet weight), a diagnostically lethal level, in its brain. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin reproduced as well as, if not better than, controls. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin had significantly greater hatching success of fertile eggs than did those fed 0 or 3 ppm, and their clutches hatched significantly earlier than did those of birds fed 3 ppm. Mallards fed 3 ppm endrin appeared to reproduce more poorly than controls, but this finding must be regarded with caution because the results of statistical tests often were not significant. Endrin accumulated in eggs to a mean of 1.1 and 2.9 ppm (wet weight) when fed to hens at 1 and 3 ppm. The concentration of endrin in the cacasses of adults was similar to that in eggs, but the concentration in the fat of adults was about 4 to 7 times higher than in eggs.

  7. 40 CFR 129.102 - Endrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... person who produces, prepares or processes a formulated product comprising a mixture of endrin and inert... which there is no endrin being manufactured at any plant or facility which normally contributes to the... average monthly production level for the most recent preceding 360 days of actual operation of the...

  8. Soil-food chain-pesticide wildlife relationships in aldrin-treated fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  9. 40 CFR 129.102 - Endrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and other runoff except as hereinafter provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section; and (2) Water used for routine cleanup or cleanup of spills. (ii) These standards do not apply to stormwater runoff... endrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year 24-hour rainfall event....

  10. 40 CFR 129.102 - Endrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and other runoff except as hereinafter provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section; and (2) Water used for routine cleanup or cleanup of spills. (ii) These standards do not apply to stormwater runoff... endrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year 24-hour rainfall event....

  11. 40 CFR 129.102 - Endrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and other runoff except as hereinafter provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section; and (2) Water used for routine cleanup or cleanup of spills. (ii) These standards do not apply to stormwater runoff... endrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year 24-hour rainfall event....

  12. 40 CFR 129.102 - Endrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and other runoff except as hereinafter provided in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section; and (2) Water used for routine cleanup or cleanup of spills. (ii) These standards do not apply to stormwater runoff... endrin; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten year 24-hour rainfall event....

  13. Endrin versus 12-ketoendrin in birds and rodents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Kaiser, T.E.; Reichel, W.L.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    British workers showed that in rats the endrin metabolite, 12-ketoendrin, was five times as toxic as endrin, was probably the ultimate cause of death, and was the main form of endrin in the brain at death. In cows and rabbits, however, they detected little of this metabolite. They found none in hens. We found no 12-ketoendrin in birds of four orders that had been heavily exposed to or killed by endrin. We suggest that residue work with birds need not consider this compound unless birds have been eating endrin-killed rodents. White mice had much less 12-ketoendrin than rats, but had more endrin. In tests with spiked samples, 12-ketoendrin was successfully recovered from extracts by gel permeation chromatography, but not by florisil.

  14. Endrin in birds: Lethal residues and secondary poisoning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Hughes, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Endrin residues in brains that are diagnostic of death were determined for several species of birds. Residues of 0.8 ppm or more of endrin in brain meant death; 0.6 ppm or less meant survival; between was a zone of overlap. These criteria indicate that some wild birds of the U.S., particularly white pelicans in the Northwest and two bald eagles, have been killed by endrin. Signs of endrin poisoning in experimental birds are described. The important and highly toxic metabolite in rodents, 12-ketoendrin, was sought but not found.

  15. Long-term Persistence of Cyclodiene Pesticide in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, J.; Kawabe, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Cyclodiene pesticide dose not easily break down and tend to accumulate in soils. It is also proved toxic to an animals including human. However, the crops, especially carrot and cucumber, are easy to absorb persistent pesticide. We investigate the persistent agrichemicals (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin) in a farm field in Tokyo, Japan. Aldrin and Endrin had been used for agrichemical in 30 to 40 years ago. The surface soil in this field is Kanto-loam and thickly distributed. 0.06 [mg/kg] of dieldrin was detected in only a shallow part of the depth and the other pesticide was not detected even aldrin. Dieldrin was not directly used as pesticide but closely related to aldrin. The epoxidation of aldrin in the environment leads to the more persistent dieldrin. Aldrin is not toxic to insects but it is oxidized in the insect to form dieldrin. Only dieldrin last for several decades in soil.

  16. Aldrin, Edwin Eugene, Jr [`Buzz'] (1930-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronaut, born in Montclair, NJ, trained as a fighter pilot (Korean War), he space-walked during the Gemini 12 mission, and was pilot of the lunar module of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing. Aldrin followed NEIL ARMSTRONG as the second man to walk on the Moon....

  17. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

  18. Sorption of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite clays.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianjia; Wang, Jun; Fan, Bin; Luan, Zhaokun

    2009-08-30

    It has been discovered previously that clay minerals may have a greater potential for sorption of pesticides. In this paper, the sorption of endrin, a nonionic persistent organochlorine pesticide, to montmorillonite and kaolinite was investigated. The effect of pH, ionic strength on the sorption was studied. The effect of intercalation of hydroxyl aluminium species on sorption of endrin to montmorillonite was also investigated. The results show that, the sorption isotherm of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite was linear. The sorption increases with the increase in ionic strength. pH has effect on the sorption and the sorption on both montmorillonite and kaolinite has obvious troughs at pH about 7.2 and 5.4, respectively. The intercalation of hydroxyl aluminium species decreases the sorption. Sorption mechanism of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite was suggested to be a combination of hydrophobic interaction and charge-dipole interaction and troughs in the effect of pH on sorption was attributed to the proton shift reaction of the broken bonds at the clay edges.

  19. Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington state. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was on evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success.

  20. Histopathologic lesions in cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) exposed chronically to the insecticide endrin.

    PubMed

    Eller, L L

    1971-08-01

    Pathologic conditions associated with exposure to endrin were found in the gill, liver, pancreas, brain and gonad of cutthroat trout. Edema, hemorrhage and possibly intracapillary congestion characterized gill damage after exposure to the highest level of endrin in bath. Hepatic lesions in young trout were of a type frequently described as preceding the development of hepatomas in nutritionally deficient fish. The increased incidence and severity of hepatic degenerative changes observed in fish exposed to high levels of endrin suggested nutritional deficiency enhanced by exposure to endrin. Marked hyperplasia of pancreatic islets and irregular, atypical oocytes were observed after exposure to high endrin levels.

  1. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Speaks With Wife Joan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. On arrival at Ellington Air Force base near the MSC, the crew, still under a 21 day quarantine in the MQF, were greeted by their wives. Pictured here is Joan Aldrin, wife of Buzz Aldrin, speaking with her husband via telephone patch.

  2. The toxicity of dieldrin to man

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Wayland J.

    1959-01-01

    Increased use of dieldrin for malaria control has been caused by several factors, including sporadic resistance of some vectors to DDT. Poisoning of spray-men by dieldrin has been recognized in five widely separated countries and reported informally from several others. In some cases illness has recurred months after the last exposure. Observations of antimalaria programmes in Kenya, Tanganyika, Indonesia, India (Bombay State), and Iran and a review of the relevant literature have shown that the hazard associated with dieldrin is proportional to the degree of workers' exposure as determined by concentration of spray, area of bare skin, duration of contact, and lack of hygiene. Measurements of workers' exposure and a review of toxicity by different routes incriminates skin contamination as the greatest hazard under practical conditions. It is considered that dieldrin should not be used without justification; if it is required, then certain individual and group protective measures listed in this paper may minimize, but not necessarily eliminate, the risk. The author enumerates certain features of the toxicology of dieldrin which require intensive research. PMID:14400335

  3. Effects of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides upon quail and pheasants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1955-01-01

    Previous studies had shown that heavy or repeated applications of DDT resulted in decreases.in bird populations, but long-range effects of this and other chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides had not been fully evaluated. Experiments were conducted to determine toxiCitY to quail and pheasants of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and strobane, and to determine effects of these compounds upon survival, growth, and reproduction....Feeding of diets containing 0.02% DDT to breeding quail resulted in significant decreases in hatchability of eggs and in viability of chiCks. Similar results were obtained by feeding 0.001% dieldrin, but effects upon reproduct.ion of short-term feeding of aldrin and endrin could not be determined....Aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin were lethal to both male and female quail when fed at levels of 0.0005% in the diets. Female pheasants appeared more resistant than males to the effects of these compounds.

  4. Toxicity of chlorinated insecticides to quail and pheasants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1956-01-01

    'Residues from insecticidal applications of chlorinated hydrocarbons may remain toxic for extended periods. In experiments designed to furnish information on the effects upon quail and pheasants of prolonged feeding upon diets containing small percentages of these compounds, it was shown that aldrin, dieldrin and endrin are cumulative, and that quail are unable to survive after ingesting 5-10 mg./kg, of aldrin, 30-50 mg./kg, of dieldrin, or 6-15 mg./kg, of endrin. Maximum levels (p.p.m.) in the diets permitting survival for extended periods were: DDT, 200; strobane, above 500; aldrin, 0.5; dieldrin, 1.0; endrin, 1.0. Inclusion of these compounds in the diets of breeding quail and pheasants affected hatchability of eggs and viability of chicks, even though the adult birds appeared unaffected.' Detailed figures are given for all points mentioned.

  5. Partial hydrolysis of dieldrin by aerobacter aerogenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Although dieldrin (1 , 2, 3 , 4, 10, 10-hexachloro-6, 7-epoxy-1 ,4 ,4a ,5 ,6, 7,8, 8a-octahydro-1 ,4-endo, exo-5, 8-dirnethanonaphthalene) metabolism by mammals (F. Korte and H. Arent, Life Sci. 4:2017, 1965) and insects (D. F. Heath and M. Vanderkar, Brit. J. Ind. Med. 21:269, 1964) has been reported, little is known about the degradation of this important pesticide by microorganisms.

  6. Dieldrin uptake and translocation in plants growing in hydroponic medium.

    PubMed

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Sakai, Mizuki

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that the Cucurbitaceae family takes up a large amount of persistent organic pollutants from soils and that the translocation of those compounds in cucurbits is higher than those in non-cucurbits. To understand the persistent organic pollutant uptake mechanisms of plant species, we compared the dieldrin absorption and transportation potentials of several plants in hydroponic medium. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Moench), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), soybean (Glycine max), komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. peruviridis), white-flowered gourd (Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were grown in a dieldrin-added hydroponic medium for 10 d, and then the amount of dieldrin in their shoots and roots was measured. All of the roots contained dieldrin, whereas only the cucurbits (white-flowered gourd, cucumber, and zucchini) contained considerable amounts of dieldrin in their shoots. The dieldrin uptake to the roots depended on the concentration of the n-hexane soluble components in the roots, regardless of whether the dieldrin in the roots was translocated to shoots or not. The dieldrin uptake from the solution to the roots was thought to be due to a passive response, such as adsorption on the roots. The translocation of dieldrin from the roots to the shoots was probably through the xylems. The amounts of dieldrin in the shoots per transpiration rates were higher for cucurbits than for non-cucurbits. It seems likely that cucurbits have uptake mechanisms for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

  7. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) larger for the 25-ppm-dieldrin group. Pituitary glands were smaller and thyroids were larger in dieldrin-fed deer. Weight gains of fawns were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2 of 3 years in dieldrin-treated groups. Placental transfer of dieldrin occurred. Whole milk from does fed 25 ppm dieldrin contained residues of 17 ppm. Residue levels in brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27

  8. Contaminants in aquatic systems at the Rocky Mountain arsenal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenlund, B.; Jennings, D.; Kurey, B.

    1986-01-29

    The objective of this study, conducted from May to November, 1984, are to: document the amount of Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, and Hg in various trophic levels of aquatic life throughout the lower lakes and the pathway these contaminants follow from sediment to fish; and to document the difference in Aldrin, Dieldrn, Endrin, and Hg contamination between samples captured from lake bottom locations known to be high or low in sediment contamination. The body of the report consists of data on water quality and in aquatic vegetation, aquatic insects, amphibians, and fish. Appendices: Laboratory methods, Colorado epidemiological pesticide study center; laboratory quality control; and preliminary investigation of Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, and Hg residues in eggs and young of waterfowl nesting at RMA.

  9. Diagnostic brain residues of dieldrin: Some new insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Johnson, R.W.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Forty adult male cowbirds were fed a diet containing 20 ppm dieldrin; 20 of the birds were randomly selected to die from dieldrin poisoning and 20 were sacrificed when dieldrin had made them too sick to eat. An average of 6.8 ppm dieldrin (range of 1.51 to 11.7) in the brain on a wet-weight basis was associated with a treatment-related cessation of feeding, whereas an average of 16.3 ppm (range of 9.84 to 23.5) was found in the brains of birds that died from dieldrin poisoning; the latter concentrations agreed with those determined in other studies. Dieldrin-induced starvation was generally irreversible; therefore, brain levels of dieldrin that are clearly sublethal may nevertheless present a grave hazard to birds by initiating a process that leads to death. Fatter cowbirds were able to survive longer on dieldrin treatment but contained brain residues similar to those in cowbirds that died sooner. Some cowbirds survived for 2 months or longer with unexpectedly large amounts of body fat remaining when they died or were sacrificed. Fatter cowbirds also survived longer after they had stopped eating.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 induction by dieldrin in dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun; Lee, Jung-Sup; Kim, Dae-Joong; Son, Jin H; Chun, Hong Sung

    2005-04-04

    We investigated the transcriptional events and signaling pathways involved in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by dieldrin, an environmental risk factor of Parkinson's disease, in a dopaminergic neuronal cells (SN4741). Dieldrin exposure caused dose-dependent and time-dependent induction of heme oxygenase activity and HO-1 protein expression. Deletional and mutational analyses showed that the 5' distal enhancers, E1 and E2, mediate dieldrin-induced HO-1 gene transcription, and the AP-1 DNA binding sites in the E2 enhancer are critical for E2-mediated HO-1 gene activation. Furthermore, both the p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are utilized for HO-1 transcriptional activation by dieldrin. HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP IX reduced the expression of HO-1 but enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by dieldrin.

  11. Chronic toxicity to quail and pheasants of some chlorinated insecticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1956-01-01

    Quantitative report of tests. 'Inclusion of 1 p.p.m, of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin in diets fed growing quail resulted in high mortality rates, but the birds survived on diets containing 100 p.p.m, of DDT or 50 p.p.m. of strobane. Young pheasants survived on diets containing 50 p.p.m, of DDT or strobane, but failed to survive on diets containing 5 p.p.m, of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin. No ill effects were noted when quail were fed winter diets containing 50 p.p.m, of strobane, or 1 p.p.m, of dieldrin or endrin, but nearly all birds died when fed diets containing 0.5 p.p.m, of aldrin. Mortality rates among pheasants fed 50 p.p.m, and of quail fed 100 p.p.m. of DDT were higher than for birds receiving normal diets, but none of the birds displayed symptoms characteristic of DDT poisoning. Egg production, fertility, and hatchability were relatively unaffected by inclusion of insecticides in diets fed breeding quail, but chicks from these matings showed high mortality rates even when reared on insecticide-free diets. Lowered viability of quail chicks was most pronounced in groups receiving DDT and strobane in the reproduction diets. Hatchability of pheasant eggs and viability of chicks were adversely affected by inclusion of aldrin, dieldrin, or endrin in the reproduction diets.'

  12. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  13. View of Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in Lunar Module taken from television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is seen in this color reproduction taken from the third television transmission from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during its translunar journey toward the moon. Aldrin is inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the background are some of the LM's controls and displays. A LM window is on the right. The LM is still docked nose to nose with the Command/Service modules . Apollo 11 was approximately 176,000 nautical miles from earth, and traveling at a speed of about 3,200 feet per second when this photograph was taken.

  14. Exposure of spray-men to dieldrin in residual spraying.

    PubMed

    FLETCHER, T E; PRESS, J M; WILSON, D B

    1959-01-01

    A study of the exposure of spray-men to dieldrin was made in a pilot scheme of residual spraying in the Taveta-Pare area of East Africa. A detailed work study was completed on the operators, and sources of contamination were enumerated. Filter paper pads were placed on the skin and outside clothing and the pick-up was estimated chemically. A spray-man, while using the daily average of 2.12 kg (4.7 pounds) of dieldrin and observing the protective measures laid down, received a dermal exposure of 1.8 mg of dieldrin per kg of body-weight per day. This was possibly reduced somewhat by washing with soap and water upon completion of each day's work. The sixteen spray-men and assistants were exposed for 180 days per year and there was an interim period of 2 months between spray cycles. No clinical symptoms of poisoning were observed.Comparison is made with certain programmes where dieldrin poisoning has occurred. Attention is drawn to the reduced time of exposure in the Taveta-Pare scheme, personal washing, the great value of protective clothing and of its daily washing in soap and water and the need to use a dilute suspension of wettable powder for spraying.

  15. Effects of dieldrin treatment on physiological and biochemical aspects of the toad embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Gauna, L.; Caballero de Castro, A.; Chifflet de Llamas, M.; Pechen de D'Angelo, A.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Dieldrin is a cylclodiene insecticide highly persistent in nature due to its chemical stability. The exposure of toad embryos to Dieldrin induces hyperactivity in the swimming larvae and inhibition of cholinesterases. However, the inhibition of these enzymes during early development is not life threatening. The present report provides a physiological and biochemical study of the noxious effect of Dieldrin on the toad embryonic development.

  16. Toxic effects of endrin and toxaphene on the southern leopard frog Rana sphenocephala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Swineford, D.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs, larvae and sub-adults of the southern leopard frog Rana sphenocephala were exposed to endrin and toxaphene. Exposure was in water by a continuous-flow technique, following standards that have been used successfully in the study of fish and invertebrates. R. sphenocephala is more sensitive to both pesticides than are higher vertebrates but is slightly less sensitive than fish. Eggs seem to be resistant to the effects of both pesticides and are probably poor indicators of environmental hazard. The toxic level of endrin is about equal in larvae and transformed frogs (LC50, 0?005-0?015 ppm). Toxaphene is less toxic to sub-adults (LC50, 0?37-0?790 ppm) than to larvae (LC50, 0?032-0?054 ppm). Delayed mortality, behavioural aberrations and effects on growth have been seen in toxaphene-dosed larvae observed over 30-day periods. Behavioural effects are more severe than those reported in other groups of animals. Effects on growth resulting from a 96-h exposure begin in the 0?013-0?018 ppm range. The maximum accumulation of residues observed for each chemical represented bioconcentration factors of about 100. Endrin residues are apparently lost more readily than toxaphene residues; relative depuration rates correlate well with the time course of toxic action in each chemical. Although less sensitive to these pesticides than fish, amphibians may not be protected in their natural habitats. Future studies of the effects of toxicants on amphibians should employ larvae if only one stage can be tested, should expose subjects for at least 96 h and should continue observations for a total of at least 30 days.

  17. Acute toxicities of toxaphene and endrin to larvae of seven species of amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Seven species of amphibian larvae were exposed to toxaphene and endrin in a continuous-flow dosing system to determine differences in sensitivity to the two compounds, EC50 and LC50 estimates varied from those for Rana sphenocephala by no more than one order of magnitude when calculated on the basis of intended concentrations. Removal of pesticides from water by the test animals was significant and it makes interpretation of results difficult. Continuous-flow toxicity tests conflict with the adaptations of amphibian larvae for static water; use of such tests for amphibians requires further evaluation.

  18. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.b (aldrin): An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of aldrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Mesquida, Charline; Wielgosz, Robert; Rosso, Adriana; Ruiz de Arechavaleta, Mariana; Davies, Stephen; Wang, Hongjie; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; de Freitas Guimarães, Evelyn; Vinicius Barreto Sousa, Marcus; Monteiro, Tânia Maria; Alves das Neves Valente, Laura; Marques Violante, Fernando Gustavo; Rubim Ribeiro Almeida, Renato; Baptista Quaresma, Maria Cristina; Nogueira, Raquel; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ming; Shao, Mingwu; Wei, Chao; Wong, Siu-kay; Cabillic, Julie; Gantois, Fanny; Philipp, Rosemarie; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Hein, Sebastian; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Castro, Esther; Gonzalez, Norma; Krylov, Anatoly; Tang Lin, Teo; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; Prévoo, D.; Archer, M.; Visser, R.; Nlhapo, N.; de Vos, B.; Ahn, Seonghee; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Wiangnon, Kanjana; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Muaksang, Kittiya; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Mine; LeGoff, Thierry; Bearden, Dan; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David; Hancock, Diane; Lang, Brian; Lippa, Katrice; Schantz, Michele; Sieber, John

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.b, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2010/2011. Nineteen national measurement institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of aldrin present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K55.b which consisted of technical grade aldrin obtained from the National Measurement Institute Australia that had been subject to serial recrystallization and drying prior to sub-division into the units supplied for the comparison. Aldrin was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of medium structural complexity [molar mass range 300 Da to 500 Da] and low polarity (pKOW < -2) for which related structure impurities can be quantified by capillary gas phase chromatography (GC). The key comparison reference value (KCRV) for the aldrin content of the material was 950.8 mg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.85 mg/g. The KCRV was assigned by combination of KCRVs assigned by consensus from participant results for each orthogonal impurity class. The relative expanded uncertainties reported by laboratories having results consistent with the KCRV ranged from 0.3% to 0.6% using a mass balance approach and 0.5% to 1% using a qNMR method. The major analytical challenge posed by the material proved to be the detection and quantification of a significant amount of oligomeric organic material within the sample and most participants relying on a mass balance approach displayed a positive bias relative to the KCRV (overestimation of aldrin content) in excess of 10 mg/g due to not having adequate procedures in place to detect and quantify the non-volatile content—specifically the non-volatile organics content—of the comparison sample. There

  19. Toxic impact of aldrin on acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros: In vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.S.; Jayaprada, P.; Rao, K.V.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The increasing contamination of the aquatic environment by the indiscriminate and widespread use of different kinds of pesticides is a serious problem for environmental biologists. Organochlorine insecticides are more hazardous since they are not only more toxic but also leave residues in nature. The deleterious effects of aldrin on several crustaceans have been studied. But studies concerning the impact of aldrin on biochemical aspects of crustaceans are very much limited. The present study is aimed at probing the in vitro effects of aldrin on the acid and alkaline phosphatase activity levels in selected tissues of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius).

  20. Effects of toxaphene and endrin at very low dietary concentrations on discrimination acquisition and reversal in bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus were fed toxaphene (chlorinated camphene, 67?69% chlorine) at 10 and 50 ppm or endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4-endo-endo,5,8-dimethanonaphalene) at 0?1 and 1?0 ppm and their performance on non-spatial discrimination reversal tasks was measured. The birds were on dosage for 138 days (beginning at the age of 3 days) prior to testing. Two tests (with different pairs of patterns) were conducted with toxaphene-treated birds and five with endrin-treated birds. The toxaphene-treated birds made 50% more errors than did controls (p < 0?02). There was no difference between the effects of the two treatment levels. The performance of the treated birds on a second test equalled that of the controls, indicating that the birds were able to adjust to the pesticide whilst on treatment. Endrin-treated birds made from 36 to 139% more errors than did controls (p < 0?025). The difference between the number of errors made by the controls and the number made by the treated birds on the acquisition, or initial problem of each test, increased exponentially over the first four tests. The 0?1 ppm birds made significantly more errors than the 1?0 ppm birds after reversal 3 or 4 in the first three tests. The endrin effects were reversed after 50 days of untreated feed. The principal effect of endrin was to impair the birds' ability to solve a novel problem. The effects of toxaphene in birds treated as adults appeared after about 30 days of treatment and those of endrin after about 40 days of treatment. Mean brain residues in endrin-treated birds were 0?075 ppm (wet weight basis) for the 0?1 ppm level birds and 0?35 ppm for the 1?0 ppm level birds.

  1. Functional profiling discovers the dieldrin organochlorinated pesticide affects leucine availability in yeast.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, Brandon D; Loguinov, Alex V; Lantz, Stephen R; Lerot, Jan-Michael; Denslow, Nancy D; Vulpe, Chris D

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to organochlorinated pesticides such as dieldrin has been linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, endocrine disruption, and cancer, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity behind these effects remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate, using a functional genomics approach in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that dieldrin alters leucine availability. This model is supported by multiple lines of congruent evidence: (1) mutants defective in amino acid signaling or transport are sensitive to dieldrin, which is reversed by the addition of exogenous leucine; (2) dieldrin sensitivity of wild-type or mutant strains is dependent upon leucine concentration in the media; (3) overexpression of proteins that increase intracellular leucine confer resistance to dieldrin; (4) leucine uptake is inhibited in the presence of dieldrin; and (5) dieldrin induces the amino acid starvation response. Additionally, we demonstrate that appropriate negative regulation of the Ras/protein kinase A pathway, along with an intact pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is required for dieldrin tolerance. Many yeast genes described in this study have human orthologs that may modulate dieldrin toxicity in humans.

  2. Harvester ant bioassay for assessing hazardous chemical waste sites. [Pogonomyrmex owhyeei

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.; Carlile, D.W.; Rogers, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    A technique was developed for using harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owhyeei, in terrestrial bioassays. Procedures were developed for maintaining stock populations, handling ants, and exposing ants to toxic materials. Relative toxicities were determined by exposing ants to 10 different materials. These materials included three insecticides, Endrin, Aldrin, and Dieldrin; one herbicide, 2,4-D; three complex industrial waste residuals, wood preservative sludge, drilling fluid, and slop oil; and three heavy metals, copper zinc, and cadium. Ants were exposed in petri dishes containing soil amended with a particular toxicant. Under these test conditions, ants showed no sensitivity to the metals or 2,4-D. Ants were sensitive to the insecticides and oils in repeated tests, and relative toxicity remained consistent throughout. Aldrin was the most toxic material followed by Dieldrin, Endrin, wood preservative sludge, drilling fluid, and slop oil. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Harvester ant bioassay for assessing hazardous chemical waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.; Carlile, D.W.; Rogers, L.E.

    1984-12-01

    A technique was developed for using harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owhyeei, in terrestrial bioassays. Procedures were developed for maintaining stock populations, handling ants, and exposing ants to toxic materials. Relative toxicities were determined by exposing ants to 10 different materials. These materials included three insecticides, Endrin, Aldrin, and Dieldrin; one herbicide, 2,4-D; three oil-like compounds, wood preservative, drilling fluid, and slop oil; and three heavy metals, copper, zinc, and cadmium. Ants were exposed in petri dishes containing soil amended with a particular toxicant. Under these test conditions, ants showed no sensitivity to the metals or 2,4-D. Ants were sensitive to the insecticides and oils in repeated tests, and relative toxicity remained consistent throughout. Aldrin was the most toxic material, followed by Dieldrin, Endrin, wood preservative, drilling fluid, and slop oil. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Aldrin, with wife and Schweickart, near Lunar Module at ASVC prior to grand opening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. and his wife, Lois, stand near an Apollo Lunar Module suspended from the ceiling of the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. Several Apollo astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft compo- nents, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/ Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  5. Detection of persistent organic pollutants in the Mississippi Delta using semipermeable membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Bastian, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    From semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) placed in five Mississippi Delta streams in 1996 and 1997, the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) aldrin, chlordane, DCPA, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, nonachlor, and toxaphene were detected. In addition, the insecticides chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were detected. Two low-solubility herbicides not detected commonly in surface water, pendimethalin and trifluralin, were also detected. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Contamination of urban, industrial and continental waters by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kessabi, M; Elhraiki, A; Nader, B

    1988-05-01

    Residual waters (urban, industrial and continental) of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast situated between Tangier and Al Hoceima were found to be contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin and heptachlor were frequently encountered. The contamination was relatively low for endrin and dieldrin and irregular for DDT and its derivatives. The levels detected differed from traces to 0.5 ppm. The areas of high urban density showed the highest contamination, with some seasonal variation.

  7. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Offpost Private Well Inventory, Sampling nd Information Response Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    the production of herbicides and organochlorine pesticides (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin) until 1982. The waste disposal practices at RMA resulted in...Sanitation District (SACISD). The alluvial aquifer consists of fine sands, clay, and silt deposits near the ground surface (ESE and HLA, 1988). The...confining layers serve to restrict flow between the alluvial, Denver, and Arapahoe aquifers, and partially isolate one aquifer from another. Inter

  8. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  9. PROCEDURES FOR DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING SEDIMENT BENCHMARKS (ESBS) FOR THE PROTECTION OF BENTHIC ORGANISMS: DIELDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations of the insecticide dieldrin in sediment which are protective of the presence of benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it acco...

  10. Dieldrin and DDT: accumulation from water and food by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    In the laboratory we measured the amounts of dieldrin and p,p'DDT accumulated by fish from contaminated water and food to determine how fish from Lake Michigan accumulate high concentrations of these insecticides from an environment where the concentrations in water are generally less than 0.01 ppb. Eight groups of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to different combinations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and food. Concentrations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT ranged from 0.006 to 0.010 ppb in water and from 1,700 to 2,300 ppb in food (Oregon moist pellets). After 152 days of exposure to insecticides in water, fish had accumulated an average of 478 ppb dieldrin or 352 ppb p,p'DDT. Fish exposed to dieldrin and p,p'DDT in food accumulated 470 and 648 ppb, respectively. However, it was difficult to determine exactly how much of either insecticide was accumulated from the food because trace amounts (0.003-0.004 ppb) had leached from food or feces. After exposure to the insecticide was terminated, fish eliminated dieldrin at a much faster rate than p,p'DDT. In fish exposed to a combination of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and then held for 125 days in uncontaminated water, the total amount of dieldrin (I?g) declined 89%, but the total amount of p,p'DDT remained unchanged. We used data from this study to estimate how much p,p'DDT adult Lake Michigan coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) accumulated from water and from food during a 104-day period (May-August 1968). The estimates suggest that during these months coho salmon accumulated most of the body burden of p,p'DDT from food.

  11. Protective effects of quercetin on dieldrin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2016-10-19

    Dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide still used in several developing countries, has been proposed as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Quercetin is one of the potent bioactive flavonoids present in numerous plants. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of quercetin on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin in cultured dopaminergic SN4741 cells. Our initial experiments showed that quercetin (10-40 μM) dose dependently prevented dieldrin (20 μM)-induced cytotoxicity in SN4741 cells. Pretreatment for 1 h with quercetin before dieldrin application could significantly suppress dieldrin-induced apoptotic characteristics, including nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3/7 activation. Results showed that dieldrin-induced markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response such as chaperone GRP78, heme oxygenase-1, and phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. In addition, dieldrin reduced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, but significantly elevated a proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. Furthermore, RNA interference to CHOP almost completely repressed dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, quercetin prevented the changes in dieldrin-induced ER stress markers. These results suggest that quercetin may suppress the ER stress-CHOP pathway and dieldrin-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

  12. DDE, DDT + dieldrin: Residues in American kestrels and relations to reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Porter, Ron; Hensler, G.L.; Maestrelli, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) given long-term dietary dosages of DDT and dieldrin in combination, at low and high rates, were compared with controls to determine the effects of the toxicants on reproductive success and eggshell thickness. Additional kestrels were dosed with DDE to determine its effect on shell thickness. Tissues of birds that died or were sacrificed, and eggs, were analyzed for DDE, DDD, DDT, and dieldrin. Eight paired birds, mostly males, given a high dosage of DDT + dieldrin died of dieldrin poisoning. Three periods of heavy mortality involving only dosed birds, which occurred in summer 1966, fall 1967, and spring 1968, followed temperature declines and other stress factors. Organochlorine concentrations in tissues of sacrificed birds and eggs in all units of the DDT + dieldrin study were significantly different among treatments. Residue concentrations in tissues of birds on high dosage of DDT + dieldrin were about 3 times higher than those on low dosage, a difference similar to the relative magnitude of the dose rates. Concentrations of some toxicants, especially DDE, were significantly higher in tissues of males than females, although these differences were difficult to interpret because males generally were sacrificed later than females. Concentrations in tissues and eggs of dosed yearlings, placed on clean food 7 to 9 weeks before pairing, were often significantly lower than in those yearlings that remained on dosage. Concentrations of each toxicant were usually highly correlated (r > 0.85) among tissues, especially for DDE and dieldrin. Organochlorine concentrations in brains and eggs could be predicted from concentrations in carcasses. DDE and dieldrin concentrations in eggs were about one-half those in carcasses, DDD about one-seventh, and DDT 1.5 to 2 times higher in eggs than carcasses. Eggshells of DDT + dieldrin-dosed kestrels were 6-23% thinner than eggshells of corresponding controls in different groups and years

  13. Occurrence of pesticides in fish tissues, water and soil sediment from Manzala Lake and River Nile.

    PubMed

    Osfor, M M; Abd el Wahab, A M; el Dessouki, S A

    1998-02-01

    Pesticides constitute the major source of potential environmental hazard to man and animal as they are present and concentrated in the food chain. This study was conducted on 136 samples of water, sediment and fish for detection and determination of pesticide residues in this ecosystem. Highly significant differences were found in levels of Indian, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, P,P'-DDE and propoxur in River Nile water when compared with that of Manzala Lake. Levels of Indian, endrin, malathion and diazinon were significantly higher in soil sediment of Manzala Lake, while the levels of heptachlor, aldrine, P,P'-DDE, DDT, parathion, propoxur and zectran were significantly higher in soil sediment of River Nile. Boury fish of Manzala Lake contained higher levels of heptachlor, aldrin, P,P'-DDE and malathion, while boury fish of River Nile contained a higher level of zectran only. This survey, thus indicated that Manzala Lake and even the River Nile which was used as control are heavily contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons (Indian, heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, P,P'-DDE and DDT), organic phosphorus compounds (malathion, dimethoat, diazinon and parathion) and carbamate pesticides (propoxur and zectran).

  14. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  15. Tissue distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Wu, Yuping

    2014-09-15

    Eleven persistent organic pollutant (POP) compounds including ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ∑CHLs, dieldrin, HCB, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of Sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the Pearl River Estuary in China during 2007-2013. For most parameters of POPs measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, heptachlor and endrin in the melon tissue exhibited significant correlations with body length, whereas PCBs and heptachlor also displayed significant regression with age. Our studies showed hepatic concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and mirex in S. chinensis were generally higher than those found in cetaceans from other geographic locations. The high levels of POP residues in the testis of one male dolphin suggested an increasing risk of infertility in the species.

  16. Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Seung; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Chun-Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Sung-Jun; Chun, Hong Sung

    2008-08-27

    Carnosic acid (CA) is one of the bioactive polyphenols present in extracts of the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). In this study, we examined possible protective effects of CA on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide implicated in sporadic Parkinson's disease, in cultured dopaminergic cells (SN4741). CA (5-10 muM) pretreatment showed potent protective effects in a concentration-related manner and prevented dieldrin (10 muM)-induced caspase-3 activation, Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, and caspase-12 activation. Furthermore, dieldrin-induced downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production was significantly attenuated by CA. These results suggest that CA may safeguard dopaminergic neuronal cells from environmental neurotoxins by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and repressing apoptotic molecules.

  17. Breeding success of barn owls (Tyto alba) fed low levels of DDE and dieldrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, V.M.; Klaas, E.E.; McLane, M.A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The relative importance of two organochlorine pesticides in the recent reproductive failure of raptors was investigated. Captive barn owls were fed 3.0 ppm DDE and 0.5 ppm dieldrin; doses were given separately and in combination for two years. Breeding success was followed from the laying of eggs through natural incubation and rearing of young. DDE was associated with significant eggshell thinning, egg breakage, embryo mortality, and reduced production per pair. Dieldrin alone was associated with slight but significant eggshell thinning, but not with reduction of breeding success. Ecological implications of the results are discussed; it is suggested that DDE had a much more severe effect on reproduction in wild raptors than dieldrin, which contributed to their decline primarily through adult mortality.

  18. Tissue residues of dieldrin in relation to mortality in birds and mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Spann, J.W.; Miller, M.W.; Berg, G.G.

    1969-01-01

    An experiment was performed with Coturnix to learn what residue levels were indicative of death from dieldrin poisoning. Birds were fed diets containing 250, 50, 10, and 2 ppm dieldrin for periods up to 158 days. The dieldrin was 95% pure HEOD, which is 1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6, 7.epoxy. l,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-l,4-endo,exo-5,8- dimethanonaphthalene. When half of a group was dead, the other half was sacrificed for comparison of residues in dead and survivors. Dosage levels controlled time to death, but did not control residue levels in the dead. Residues in liver and carcass proved to be misleading and complicated by changes in lipid content. Brain residues correlated well with death although residues in dead and survivors overlapped. Brain residues of animals killed by dieldrin in the field and in other experiments are listed. Data agree in general for several species of birds and mammals. There is evidence, however, for species differences in average lethal brain residues. It is concluded that brain residues of 4 or 5 ppm (wet weight) or higher indicate that the animal was in the known danger zone and may have died from dieldrin. Brain residues averaged lower in wild than in experimental animals. Possible explanations include species differences, more stress and exertion in the wild, and overrepresentation in the field series of individuals that will die with low but lethal brain residues. The latter is supported by the fact that the first Coturnix to die in each sex and treatment group had the lowest brain residue of its group. Birds receiving 2 ppm dieldrin, and some receiving 10 ppm, were able to maintain low brain residues throughout the experiment. However, birds of the 10 ppm group could withstand little stress and mobilization of toxicant, for a few micrograms in the brain were lethal and bodies contained hundreds or thousands of micrograms.

  19. DDT AND DIELDRIN IN RIVERS: A REPORT OF THE NATIONAL WATER QUALITY NETWORK.

    PubMed

    BREIDENBACH, A W; LICHTENBERG, J J

    1963-09-06

    As a part of the waterquality surveillance activities of the National Water Quality Network at 101 sampling stations, insecticides were identified in 38 samples from ten rivers during the period May through December 1962. Both DDT and dieldrin were identified by infrared and gas chromatographic analysis of carbon adsorption extracts.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS, DIELDRIN, AND METHYL MERCURY MIXTURES TO THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological interactions were assessed on the reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca throughout a chronic exposure to methyl mercury (0.9, 4.7, 23.3 nM), chlorpyrifos (0.01, 0.05, 0.24), dieldrin (0.5, 2.3, 11.4 nM) and their binary mixtures. H. azteca were exposed to the...

  1. Dieldrin-induced mortality in an endangered species, the gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; LaVal, R.K.; Swineford, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Brains of juvenile gray bats, Myotis grisescens, found dead beneath maternity roosts in two Missouri caves contained lethal concentrations of dieldrin. One colony appeared to be abnormally small, and more dead bats were found a year after the juvenile bats had been collected. This is the first report to link the field mortality of bats directly to insecticide residues acquired through the food chain.

  2. Comparative Dietary Toxicities of Pesticides to Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.; Kreitzer, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents measurements of the lethal dietary toxicity of 89 pesticidal chemicals to young bowhites, Japanese quail, ring-necked pheasants, and mallards. Toxicity is expressed as the median lethal concentration (LC 50) of active chemical in a 5-day ad libitum diet. LC 50's and associated statistics are derived by methods of probit analysis. Endrin consistently was the most toxic chemical while aldrin and dieldrin were among the six most toxic chemicals of those tested on all species. In general, organophosphates were less toxic than aldrin or dieldrin and herbicides were of a low order of toxicity. There were obvious inconsistencies in the relative sensitivity of the four species to various chemicals.

  3. Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

  4. Genetic sex separation of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, by exposing eggs to dieldrin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used with success for suppressing or eliminating important insect pests of agricultural or veterinary importance. In order to develop SIT for mosquitoes, female elimination prior to release is essential as they are the disease-transmitting sex. A genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Anopheles arabiensis was created based on resistance to dieldrin, and methods of sex separation at the egg stage were developed. The use of this strain for SIT will require sexually sterile males: useful radiation doses for this purpose were determined for pupae and adults. Methods For the creation of the sexing strain, dieldrin-resistant males were irradiated with 40 Gy using a 60Co source and were subsequently crossed to homozygous susceptible virgin females. Individual families were screened for semi-sterility and for male resistance to dieldrin. For sex separation, eggs of a resulting GSS, ANO IPCL1, were exposed to varying concentrations of dieldrin for different durations. Percent hatch, larval survival, and male and female emergence were recorded. Radiation induced sterility was determined following adult and pupa exposure to gamma rays at 0–105 Gy. Mortality induced by dieldrin treatment, and levels of sterility post radiation were investigated. Results ANO IPCL1 contains a complex chromosome aberration that pseudo-links the male-determining Y chromosome and dieldrin resistance, conferring high natural semi-sterility. Exposure of eggs to 2, 3, and 4 ppm dieldrin solutions resulted in complete female elimination without a significant decrease of male emergence compared to the controls. A dose of 75 Gy reduced the fertility to 3.8 and 6.9% when males were irradiated as pupae or adults respectively, but the proportions of progeny of these males reaching adulthood were 0.6 and 1.5% respectively Conclusion The GSS ANO IPCL1 was shown to be a suitable strain for further testing for SIT though high semi-sterility is a

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction and mild saponification for determination of organochlorine pesticides in oyster samples.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M-C; Llompart, M; Yebra, M-C; Mouteira, A

    2002-10-01

    A sample-preparation procedure (extraction and saponification) using microwave energy is proposed for determination of organochlorine pesticides in oyster samples. A Plackett-Burman factorial design has been used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction and mild saponification on a freeze dried sample spiked with a mixture of aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachorepoxide, isodrin, transnonachlor, p, p'-DDE, and p, p'-DDD. Six variables: solvent volume, extraction time, extraction temperature, amount of acetone (%) in the extractant solvent, amount of sample, and volume of NaOH solution were considered in the optimization process. The results show that the amount of sample is statistically significant for dieldrin, aldrin, p, p'-DDE, heptachlor, and transnonachlor and solvent volume for dieldrin, aldrin, and p, p'-DDE. The volume of NaOH solution is statistically significant for aldrin and p, p'-DDE only. Extraction temperature and extraction time seem to be the main factors determining the efficiency of extraction process for isodrin and p, p'-DDE, respectively. The optimized procedure was compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

  6. Avian species differences in the intestinal absorption of xenobiotics (PCB, dieldrin, Hg2+)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of a polychlorinated biphenyl, dieldrin, and mercury (from HgCl2) was measured in adult Northern bobwhites, Eastern screech owls, American kestrels, black-crowned night-herons and mallards in vivo by an in situ luminal perfusion technique. bobwhites, screech owls and kestrels absorbed much more of each xenobiotic than black-crowned night-herons and mallards. Mallards absorbed less dieldrin and mercury than black-crowned night-herons. Mercury absorption by kestrels was more than twice that in screech owls and eight times that observed in mallards. Pronounced differences in xenobiotic absorption rates between bobwhites, screech owls and kestrels on the one hand, and black-crowned night-herons and mallards on the other, raise the possibility that absorptive ability may be associated with the phylogenetic classification of birds.

  7. DDT and dieldrin: effects on resident Peregrine Falcon populations in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, P; Emison, B; Mooney, N; Brothers, N

    1992-12-01

    Organochlorine residues in eggs and prey species of the Peregrine Falcon,Falco peregrinus, were determined in parts of three south-eastern Australian States: Tasmania (1975-91), Victoria (1975-83) and South Australia (1977-1981). Relationships between residues detected and eggshell thickness, nest site occupancy and productivity were examined. Temporal changes and, in particular, the relative effects of DDE and dieldrin were also investigated. DDE was detected in all 137 eggs analysed. The concentration of DDE residues in eggs peaked in the late 1970s to early 1980s in Victoria, but peaked earlier and had declined to low concentrations by the 1980s in Tasmania. Maximum concentrations reached 82 ppm, in Victoria. The geometric means were: Victoria 12.4 ppm; Tasmania 1970s 10.1 ppm, 1980s 1.5 ppm; and South Australia 1.95 ppm. Dieldrin was detected in approximately half the eggs, but all except one egg (1.5 ppm) contained concentrations considered noncritical (<1 ppm). The degree of shell-thinning and reproductive success were related to DDE content, but not to that of dieldrin.Organochlorine concentrations in prey reflected general concentrations in eggs and, with a few exceptions, were low. In Tasmania, reproductive success increased as DDE contamination declined. In Victoria, despite mean concentrations of DDE well above that considered to be critical for successful reproduction (>15-20 ppm) for at least seven years, the breeding population declined by <2% a year. We interpret this result as evidence that DDE causes a slow decline in population and that the dramatic declines observed in some other parts of the world were mainly attributable to contamination by dieldrin or to other confounding factors.

  8. Dopamine and norepinephrine depletion in ring doves fed DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Contrera, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of dopamine and norepinephrine were measured in one-half of the brain of ring doves fed a control diet or a diet containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm DDE; 1, 4, or 16 ppm dieldrin; or 1, 10, or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. Levels of DDE, dieldrin, or Aroclor 1254 were determined in the other half of each brain. The intermediate and high levels of each chemical caused depletions in both neurotransmitters, and brain residues of each chemical were negatively correlated with levels of neurotransmitters. The highest concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254 depressed averages of dopamine to 42.4, 41.4, and 45.2% of the control level and norepinephrine to 61.6, 62.0, and 56.9% of controls, respectively. Depletions of dopamine and norepinephrine could result in abnormal behavior of contaminated birds in the wild, and the detection of such depletions could become an important tool in assessing contaminant-induced behavioral aberrations in birds.

  9. Persistence and changes in bioavailability of dieldrin, DDE and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms over 45 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Gale, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The finding of dieldrin (88 ng/g), DDE (52 ng/g), and heptachlor epoxide (19 ng/g) in earthworms from experimental plots after a single moderate application (9 kg/ha) 45 years earlier attests to the remarkable persistence of these compounds in soil and their continued uptake by soil organisms. Half-lives (with 95 % confidence intervals) in earthworms, estimated from exponential decay equations, were as follows: dieldrin 4.9 (4.3-5.7) years, DDE 5.3 (4.7-6.1) years, and heptachlor epoxide 4.3 (3.8-4.9) years. These half-lives were not significantly different from those estimated after 20 years. Concentration factors (dry weight earthworm tissue/dry weight soil) were initially high and decreased mainly during the first 11 years after application. By the end of the study, average concentration factors were 1.5 (dieldrin), 4.0 (DDE), and 1.8 (heptachlor epoxide), respectively.

  10. The effect of oxygen on chemical dechlorination of dieldrin using iron sulphides.

    PubMed

    Hara, Junko

    2011-02-01

    The degradation of dieldrin by ferric sulphide (FeS(2)) in aqueous solution was investigated when shielded against sunlight. An oxidative dechlorination process was observed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; oxygen volume changed the degradation rate of dieldrin and the generation rate of reaction products. The dechlorination rate under microaerophilic conditions was fastest among the anaerobic to air oxygen concentrations. For this experiment, over 99% of the dieldrin was degraded, and 90% of the released chloride was detected after 30 d under 10 μ mol oxygen. The major reaction products were different depending on the dose of oxygen. In the case of aerobic conditions, low molecular weight organic acids, such as formic acid, lactic acid, and oxalic acid, were generated as major reaction products. However, under anaerobic conditions, C(16)H(22)O(4) (dibutyl phthalate) and C(6)H(13)ClO (3-chloro-4-methyl-2-pentanol) were detected as reaction intermediates, and small amounts of succinic acid, malonic acid, and formic acid were also generated. These reactions proceed by FeS(2) interface reactions with H(2)O under anaerobic condition, or O(2) under aerobic condition.

  11. Protective effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) upon dieldrin-induced toxicity in male rat.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean-Claude; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) upon dieldrin-induced perturbations of haematological parameters and damages to liver and kidney of male Wistar rats. Under our experimental conditions, dieldrin poisoning resulted in 1) an alteration of several haematological parameters, 2) an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipids peroxidation level associated with an increase of superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in hepatic and renal tissues, 3) increased levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, uric acid and proteins in blood, 4) increased activities of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases in blood. Previous administration of fenugreek was found to hinder these dieldrin-induced damages: all hematological, renal and hepatic biomarkers, level of lipids peroxidation and activities of catalase and glutathione-peroxidase in liver and kidney were kept close to control values. This protective effect is mainly attributed to antioxidant properties of fenugreek.

  12. Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Donald J.; Stein, Roy A.

    1974-01-01

    Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of fishes is poorly known. Studies of the uptake, distribution, and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons have suggested that uptake or degradation is rapid in the intestine (GROSS 1969; MACEK et al. 1970; GRZENDA et al. 1970, 1971). The present study was designed to determine the short-term fate of a single oral dose of dieldrin in the digestive tract of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

  13. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in sediment and water from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Atiemo, Sampson Manukure; Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei; Blankson-Arthur, Sarah; Tutu, Anita Osei; Fosu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the aquatic ecosystem from the Densu river revealed varying levels of concentration in water and the sediment samples. Three locations were sampled along the river to evaluate the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in the river. Sediment and surface water samples were extracted by soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively and analyzed using Gas Chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin. The other pesticides that were investigated are gamma-chlordane, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, methoxychlor, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The order of increasing frequency of detection of samples was higher in sediment than water. In sediment, the mean concentration ranged from 0.030 μg kg(-1) dry weight (endrin) to 10.98 μg kg(-1) dry weight (aldrin). The highest detected concentration of organochlorine in water was endosulfan sulfate with mean concentration of 0.185 μg L(-1). Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for most organochlorine pesticide residue in the sediment sampled from the various locations. Some of the levels of organochlorine pesticides detected in water were relatively high compared to guideline values set by World Health Organization and Australia and thus could be harmful if the trend is not checked.

  14. Ecological risk characterization based on exposure to contaminants through the Rocky Mountain Arsenal aquatic food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Toll, J.E.; Cothern, K.A.; Pavlou, S.; Tate, D.J.; Armstrong, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes ecological risk characterization methods and results for characterizing potential risk from exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants of concern (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, DDT, DDE, and mercury) through the lake food chains at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA). Aquatic risks were estimated for the bald eagle, great blue heron, shorebird, and water bird using a prey-tissue-concentration-based food web model. Methods for estimating missing tissue concentration data were developed on a case-by-case basis and will be described. A sediment-based food web model was also considered and the reasons for its rejection will be described. Generalizable insights from the aquatic ecological risk characterization will be discussed.

  15. A survey of organochlorine pesticide residues in cheese samples from three Mexican regions.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A; Alpuche, L; Bárcenas, C; Rendón, J

    1990-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in cheese samples from three Mexican regions. All samples were found to be contaminated by these residues: p,p'-DDE was present in 100% of the samples. Other pesticides found with high frequencies were HCB, three of the BHC isomers, as well as heptachlor and its epoxide. Also found, although less frequently, were residues of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. Samples from the region known as Comarca Lagunera had the highest number of pesticides per sample. The highest concentrations of residues were found in cheese samples from the Soconusco and the Comarca Lagunera regions.

  16. Environmental neurotoxin dieldrin induces apoptosis via caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta): Implications for neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kitazawa, Masashi; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2008-01-01

    Background In previous work, we investigated dieldrin cytotoxicity and signaling cell death mechanisms in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Dieldrin has been reported to be one of the environmental factors correlated with Parkinson's disease and may selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons. Methods Here we further investigated dieldrin toxicity in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model of Parkinson's disease, namely N27 cells, using biochemical, immunochemical, and flow cytometric analyses. Results In this study, dieldrin-treated N27 cells underwent a rapid and significant increase in reactive oxygen species followed by cytochrome c release into cytosol. The cytosolic cytochrome c activated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and the increased caspase-3 activity was observed following a 3 hr dieldrin exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, dieldrin caused the caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) into 41 kDa catalytic and 38 kDa regulatory subunits in N27 cells as well as in brain slices. PKCδ plays a critical role in executing the apoptotic process in dieldrin-treated dopaminergic neuronal cells because pretreatment with the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin, or transfection and over-expression of catalytically inactive PKCδK376R, significantly attenuates dieldrin-induced DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Conclusion Together, we conclude that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of PKCδ is a critical event in dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuronal cells. PMID:18945348

  17. Modeling of gene expression pattern alteration by p,p′-DDE and dieldrin in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, David; Gross, Timothy; Denslow, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, largemouth bass (LMB) were subchronically exposed to p,p′-DDE or dieldrin in their diet to evaluate the effect of exposure on expression of genes involved in reproduction and steroid homeostasis. Using real-time PCR, we detected a different gene expression pattern for each OCP, suggesting that they each affect LMB in a different way. We also detected a different expression pattern among sexes, suggesting that sexes are affected differently by OCPs perhaps reflecting the different adaptive responses of each sex to dysregulation caused by OCP exposure.

  18. Differential uptake and translocation of β-HCH and dieldrin by several plant species from hydroponic medium.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Sayuri; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Satoh, Shinobu

    2015-03-01

    To compare the uptake and translocation of hydrophobic organic chemicals by plant species, the authors performed uptake experiments with β-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and 1,2,3,4,10,10-Hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-endo-1,4-exo-5,8-dimethanonaphthalene (dieldrin) using 5 species: Hordeum vulgare, Glycine max, Solanum lycopersicum, Brassica oleracea, and Cucurbita pepo. The present study evaluated uptake ability using root concentration factor (RCF) and translocation ability by transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF). The RCFs of β-HCH and dieldrin did not differ remarkably among species, except that the RCF of β-HCH in B. oleracea was high. The TSCFs of β-HCH and dieldrin were high in C. pepo, which was not superior in uptake as estimated by RCF. The TSCF of dieldrin in C. pepo was decreased in darkness and was markedly decreased by heating of roots. These results support the hypothesis that transport proteins produced in the root contribute to dieldrin translocation. In contrast, TSCF of β-HCH was not decreased by these treatments. Therefore, translocation of β-HCH might not need the contribution of transport proteins. It is possible that C. pepo has a certain function to transport hydrophobic organic chemicals smoothly in root tissues.

  19. Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Caudle, W Michael; Wang, Minzheng; Dean, E Danielle; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity. At 12 wk of age, protein and mRNA levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were increased by perinatal dieldrin exposure in a dose-related manner. We then administered MPTP (2 x 10 mg/kg s.c) at 12 wk of age and observed a greater reduction of striatal dopamine in dieldrin-exposed offspring, which was associated with a greater DAT:VMAT2 ratio. Additionally, dieldrin exposure during development potentiated the increase in GFAP and alpha-synuclein levels induced by MPTP, indicating increased neurotoxicity. In all cases there were greater effects observed in the male offspring than the female, similar to that observed in human cases of PD. These data suggest that developmental exposure to dieldrin leads to persistent alterations of the developing dopaminergic system and that these alterations induce a "silent" state of dopamine dysfunction, thereby rendering dopamine neurons more vulnerable later in life.

  20. Impurity analysis of pure aldrin using heart-cut multi-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Dai, Xinhua; Yin, Xiong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Yingchen; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Ting; Li, Hongmei

    2013-02-15

    Identification and quantification of related-structure impurity is a research focus in the purity assessment of organic compounds. Determination of the purity value and uncertainty assessment are also important in the metrological research. A method for the determination of related-structure impurity in pure aldrin sample has been developed by using heart-cut multi-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC/MS). Compared to the traditional one-dimensional (1-D) GC system, the two separated columns in the MDGC/MS system can effectively reduce co-elution, enhance separation capability, and thus improve detectability of the trace-level impurities. In addition, MDGC/MS system was simultaneously equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) or electron capture detector (ECD) in the first GC unit and mass spectrometry (MS) detector in the second GC unit. Therefore, accurate quantitative results of the trace-level impurities can be easily achieved by isolation of principal component to the second dimension column using "heart-cut" process. The mass fraction of related-structure impurities in aldrin samples obtained using MDGC/MS system ranged from 6.8×10⁻³ mg g⁻¹ to 26.47 mg g⁻¹ with five orders of magnitude, which is hard to be realized by mean of the 1-D GC. Excellent linearity with correlation coefficients of above 0.999 was achieved for each impurity analysis over a wide range of concentrations. Limits of quantification (LOQ) varied from 250 ng g⁻¹ to 330 ng g⁻¹ for FID, and from 1.0 ng g⁻¹ to 2.0 ng g⁻¹ detected by ECD. The combined standard uncertainty (u(c)) was lower than 0.37 mg g⁻¹ and 0.040 mg g⁻¹ detected using FID and ECD, respectively. Therefore, performance characterization of MDGC/MS used in the study is fit for quantification analysis of trace-level impurity. These results demonstrate that the MDGC/MS is extremely suitable for the purity assessment of organic compounds with medium structural complexity and low

  1. Seasonal variations in aldrin epoxidase (MFO) activity of yellow-legged herring gulls: the relationship to breeding and PCB residues

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A.

    1988-09-01

    The hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) constitute a defense mechanism which enables the organism to make xenobiotics more polar and thus render them more readily excretable. The degree of induction of this system is an expression of its exposure to xenobiotics, but it is also a function of endogenous physiological mechanisms. These two forms of induction may lead to mutual interference: foreign compounds may stimulate hepatic hydroxylation and affect the metabolism of steroid hormones; the later may in turn stimulate the activity of the MFO system favoring the degradation of the xenobiotics. Induction and detoxication processes of endogenous and exogenous compounds have been observed in mammals in laboratory experiments. Relationships between MRO activity, the reproductive cycle and variations in tissue levels of liposoluble xenobiotics, have been reported for marine organisms. In birds, seasonal variations of MFO levels have been observed, but the relationship between these enzyme variations and the levels of contaminants in the animal tissues has never been made clear. The authors aim to clarify this relationship by determining the levels of PCBs residues and aldrin epoxidase activities in Yellow-legged Herring gull (Larus cachinnans) specimens from different areas of Italy collected during two phases of the annual cycle, namely those of reproduction (spring) and of sexual inactivity (autumn). This species was chosen because of its wide distribution, its opportunistic feeding habits and its adaptive capacity in polluted environments.

  2. Induction of lipid peroxidation by hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, TCDD, carbon tetrachloride, and hexachlorobenzene in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, M.R.; Shara, M.A.; Stohs, S.J.

    1988-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH) and dieldrin are all halogenated lipophilic environmental contaminants. A common biologic property of these compounds is their ability to induce hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, exposure of laboratory animals to these xenobiotics elicits a number of similar effects including porphyria, hypothyroidism, a wasting syndrome and lethality. Perturbation of membrane lipids and lipid peroxidation may be responsible for at least part of the toxic effects of HCCH. TCDD has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Based on the similar toxic manifestations of HCB, HCCH, TCDD and dieldrin, the authors have examined the effects of these xenobiotics on hepatic lipid peroxidation following an acutely toxic dose. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by determining the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the liver, employing malondialdehyde as the standard. Animals were also treated with carbon tetrachloride, a well know inducer of lipid peroxidation, as a positive control. Furthermore, the ability of these xenobiotics to inhibit selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX) activity was determined.

  3. DIELDRIN INDUCES CYTOSOLIC 7,12-[3H-]DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE BINDING BUT NOT MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEINS IN RAINBOW TROUT LIVER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously it was demonstrated that biliary excretion of a single dose of [14C]dieldrin or [3H]7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was stimulated up to 700% and 300%, respectively, in rainbow trout fed 0.3-0.4 mg dieldrin/kg/d for 9-12 wk. This was not explained by increased ac...

  4. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Σ endosulfan > Σ HCH > Σ heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Σ HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ≤ 0.05). PMID:18777151

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton, Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siriwong, W; Thirakhupt, K; Sitticharoenchai, D; Borjan, M; Robson, M

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10-3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Sigma endosulfan > Sigma HCH > Sigma heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Sigma HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p

  6. Stress proteins hsp60 and hsp70 in three species of amphipods exposed to cadmium, diazinon, dieldrin and fluoranthene

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, I.; Nagel, R.

    1997-11-01

    To investigate the use of stress proteins hsp60 and hsp70 as sublethal biomarkers for contaminant exposure in sediments, two infaunal (Ampelisca abdita, estuarine; Rhepoxynius abronius, marine) and one epifaunal (Hyalella azteca, freshwater) amphipod species were exposed for 24 h to solutions of the heavy metal cadmium, the pesticides diazinon and dieldrin, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene. All three species are routinely used in standard sediment toxicity tests. Analysis of hsp60 and hsp70 was performed using western blotting techniques with subsequent comparative quantification by densitometry. Results demonstrated compound and species-specific induction of stress protein synthesis. Whereas one member of the hsp70 protein family showed the most sensitive response to xenobiotic compounds in H. azteca, several members of the hsp60 protein family were the main proteins induced in A. abdita and R. abronius. Sensitivity of the detected stress protein response was highest in H. azteca with significant effects at concentrations 110-, 50-, >1,000-, and >1-fold lower than LC50 values for cadmium, diazinon, dieldrin, and fluoranthene, respectively. The corresponding values were >5 (cadmium), 0.7 (diazinon), >1 (dieldrin), and 2.9 (fluoranthene) for A. abdita, and >2 (cadmium), 3.1 (diazinon), > 100 (dieldrin), and >2.9 (fluoranthene) for R. abronius.

  7. Responsiveness of 6 to 14 generations of birds to dietary dieldrin toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The lethal dietary toxicity of dieldrin was estimated repeatedly during 8 years of testing young bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Toxicities, quantified as 8-day LC50 values (5 days on toxic diet, followed by 3 days of untreated feed), were estimated at least 18 times per species. Average dietary LC50 values (ppm) and their 95% confidence limits for 14-day-old quail and 10-day-old pheasants and mallards were: bobwhite, 38 (34?42); Japanese quail, 61 (58?64); ring-necked pheasant, 56 (53?59); and mallard, 179 (163?195). No time-related changes were detected in LC50 values for any of the species.

  8. Long-term persistence of dieldrin, DDT, and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Earthworms can accumulate persistent soilborne insecticides and are an important source of contamination of terrestrail wildlife. We treated experimental plots once with dieldrin, DDT, or heptachlor, and measured changes in insecticide concentrations in earthworms over a 20-year period. We estimated 'half-times,' defined as the time for a concentration in earthworms to be reduced by half. Deldrin had a half-time of 5.4 years. DDE, the metabolite of DDT most important to wildlife, increased until the third year and then decreased with a half-time of 5.7 years. Heptachlor epoxide, the metabolite of hepatachlor most important to wildlife, increased until the second year and then decreased with a half-time of 4.3 years. The declining parts of the curves of all three compounds fit exponential decay equations reasonably well. The estimates persistence are relevant to insecticides at low or moderate concentrations in relatively undistrubed soils in temperate climates.

  9. Developmental neurotoxicants target neurodifferentiation into the serotonin phenotype: Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dieldrin and divalent nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, Theodore A. Seidler, Frederic J.

    2008-12-01

    Developmental exposure to organophosphates (OP) produces long-term changes in serotonin (5HT) synaptic function and associated behaviors, but there are disparities among the different OPs. We contrasted effects of chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as well as non-OP neurotoxicants (dieldrin, Ni{sup 2+}) using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, a well-established neurodevelopmental model. Agents were introduced at 30 {mu}M for 24 or 72 h, treatments devoid of cytotoxicity, and we evaluated the mRNAs encoding the proteins for 5HT biosynthesis, storage and degradation, as well as 5HT receptors. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon both induced tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for 5HT biosynthesis, but chlorpyrifos had a greater effect, and both agents suppressed expression of 5HT transporter genes, effects that would tend to augment extracellular 5HT. However, whereas chlorpyrifos enhanced the expression of most 5HT receptor subtypes, diazinon evoked overall suppression. Dieldrin evoked even stronger induction of tryptophan hydroxylase, and displayed a pattern of receptor effects similar to that of diazinon, even though they come from different pesticide classes. In contrast, Ni{sup 2+} had completely distinct actions, suppressing tryptophan hydroxylase and enhancing the vesicular monoamine transporter, while also reducing 5HT receptor gene expression, effects that would tend to lower net 5HT function. Our findings provide some of the first evidence connecting the direct, initial mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicant action on specific transmitter pathways with their long-term effects on synaptic function and behavior, while also providing support for in vitro test systems as tools for establishing mechanisms and outcomes of related and unrelated neurotoxicants.

  10. Subacute dietary toxicities of dicrotophos and dieldrin in time-replicated trials with young ring-necked pheasants and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The dietary toxicities of (E)-phosphoric acid 3-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-3-oxo-1-propenyl dimethyl ester (dicrotophos) and 3,4,5,6,9,9-hexachloro-1a,2,2a,3,6,6a,7,7a-octahydro-2,7:3,6-dimethanonaphth[2,3-b]oxirene (dieldrin) to 10-day-old ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and 5-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were compared in five time-replicated trials. Toxicities were calculated as median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on 5 days of ad libitum feeding on geometrically spaced concentrations of toxicant. The LC50s were more uniform for dieldrin than for dicrotophos with both species and more uniform for pheasants than for mallards with both compounds. The LC50s of dieldrin and dicrotophos averaged 59 [standard deviation (SD) = 4.4] and 45 ppm (SD = 5.0) for pheasants, and 156 (SD = 24.9) and 102 ppm (SD = 24.9) for mallards. Changes in LC50s between successive trials, although possibly haphazard, were nearly always in the same direction for both compounds with both species. Feeding rates at various concentrations of equivalent potency gave meaningful insight into the sensitivity and vulnerability of both species to these insecticides. Comparisons of 5 and 10-day-old mallards demonstrated the importance of age differences to interpretation of short-term subacute toxicity data. For example, at 5 days dicrotophos was 1.5 times more toxic than dieldrin, but at 10 days dieldrin was 2.6 times more toxic. These differences are explained.

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in raft mussels coming from Galician rías.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2017-04-05

    This survey gives an overview of the range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) α and γ-HCH (lindane), HCB, pp´-DDE, pp´-DDD, op´-DDT, pp´-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor in raft mussels cultivated in several polygons of the Galician Rías (Ares-Betanzos, Muros-Noia, Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo) during the period 1998-2014. A significant number of OCPs were detected, but the levels found were generally low, mainly in the recent samplings (2010-2014). The levels of ∑DDs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites, pp´-DDE and pp´-DDD) ranged between 0.22 ng/g dry weight (dw) in samples from the Ría of Pontevedra and 46.4 ng/g dw in mussels from the Ría of Arousa. Both aldrin and endrin were not detected or were below the analytical limits of detection. With regard to other pesticides, dieldrin is the major compound, followed by γ-HCH, isodrin, α-HCH and transnonachlor. Significant ANOVA regressions indicated variations in levels of some OCPs with the biological parameters (lipid, condition index and shell length). Univariate and multivariate analysis of OCP levels revealed no significant differences between Rías. Temporal trends showed an important decline of OCPs in the studied samples during the period 1998-2014.

  12. A column test for leaching of organochlorines from soil by amphiphilic nonionic nanopolymers.

    PubMed

    Karnchanasest, Benjalak; Hawker, Darryl W

    2011-01-01

    Amphiphilic nonionic cross-linked nanopolymers (NPs) were synthesized to examine removal of five organochlorines (OCs), namely lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT, from a range of Thai agricultural soils. The synthesized NP particles had polarity characteristics similar to those of nonionic surfactant micelles and were largely in the size range of 55-155 nm. This work aimed to determine the optimal conditions for leaching of OC contaminated soil with NPs and also to investigate the role and influence of soil properties on this leaching. An investigation of the concentrations of aqueous dispersions of these particles found that a concentration of 10 g L(-1). was found most effective in leaching the OCs from a column of spiked soil. The optimal contact time that allowed a NP dispersion and spiked soil to reach equilibrium was 48 h. The results indicated influencing factors for OC removal and soil remediation were properties both of the soil and the compounds themselves. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil texture played an important role on the sorption as well as compound hydrophobicity expressed as log K(OW) values. The removal efficiency was found to be in the range of 85.2-92.8 % for all soil samples and in the order of DDT < aldrin < heptachlor < dieldrin < endrin < lindane regardless of soil type. This order is inversely related to the log K(OC) values of these compounds. For OC compounds with a similar molecular structure, removal efficiency was related to molecular weight (MW).

  13. Relationship between organochlorine pesticides and stress indicators in hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at Punta Xen (Campeche), Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Nelly; Ortíz Arana, Alejandro; González Jáuregui, Mauricio; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico). Of the 30 sampled sea turtles, endosulfans, aldrin related (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endrin ketone, endrin aldehyde) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) families were detected in 17, 21 and 26, respectively. Significant correlation existed between the size of sea turtles with the concentration of methoxychlor, cholinesterase activity in plasma and heptachlors family, and catalase activity and hexachlorohexane family. Cholinesterase activity in washed erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation were positively correlated with glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant enzyme actions seem adequate as no lipids damages were correlated with any OCPs. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of OCPs on males of the area due to the significant detection of methoxychlor, which target endocrine functioning and increases its concentration with sea turtles size.

  14. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters of Konya Closed Basin, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β-HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015–0.065 μg/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μg/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μg/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn < Cu < Ni < As < Cr < Fe. In some samples, As, Fe, and Cr concentrations exceeded the drinking water quality recommended by EU, US EPA, WHO, and Turkish Regulation, while Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations are below the guideline values. The levels of both OCPs and heavy metals were also compared with other previously published data. PMID:23533363

  15. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in surface waters of Konya closed basin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α -, β -, γ -, and δ -hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β -HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015-0.065 μ g/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μ g/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μ g/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn

  16. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residue in fishes from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Yeboah, Philip O; Nyarko, Elvis; Golow, Abledze A

    2013-04-01

    The study was carried out to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in five fish species Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli, Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus from the Densu river basin (Weija) in Ghana. The fishes sampled from the Weija fish landing site were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), δ-Hexachlorocyclohexane, aldrin and dieldrin. Others investigated were alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The total contamination levels of the individual fishes varied in the decreasing order of 9.19 ng g(-1) (O. niloticus), 4.16 ng g(-1) (T. zilli), 3.69 ng g(-1) (C. nigrodigitatus), 3.68 ng g(-1) (H. odoe) and 3.09 ng g(-1) (H. niloticus). The highest organochlorine pesticide residue recorded in the study was alpha-endosulfan while dieldrin was the least pesticide observed. Analysis of variance indicated significant statistical differences for most organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples. The levels of organochlorine pesticides found in fish samples in the study were below maximum residue limit for food safety stipulated by EU, US FDA, FAO, Italy and Australia and thus safe for human consumption.

  17. Pesticides and breast cancer risk: a review of DDT, DDE, and dieldrin.

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, S M

    2001-01-01

    Established risk factors for breast cancer explain breast cancer risk only partially. Hence, there has been interest in evaluating what role environmental chemicals, especially those with evidence of being hormonally active agents, play in breast cancer risk. Organochlorine pesticides have received the most attention because of their persistence in the environment, ability to concentrate up the food chain, continued detection in the food supply and breast milk, and ability to be stored in the adipose tissue of animals and humans. Although several early descriptive studies and a cohort study identified a strong positive association with breast cancer risk and adipose or blood levels of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and/or its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), most of the more recent case--control and nested case--control studies have not supported this association. In this review I discuss these findings and explore how exposure to different forms of DDT with varying estrogenicities may have affected the results of these studies. I also address how other factors influence the interpretation of the studies on DDT, DDE, and breast cancer risk. These include the effect of analytic methods, dietary factors, menopausal status, use of different types of control populations, lactation history, estrogen receptor status, ethnic/racial subgroups, breast tumor characteristics, and polymorphisms. I also discuss the emerging research on whether serum levels of the persistent organochlorine insecticide dieldrin are related to breast cancer risk in Danish and American women. Further research needs are also identified. PMID:11250804

  18. Relationship between deer mouse population parameters and dieldrin contamination in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, D.L.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    A small-mammal capture-recapture study was conducted in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge to quantify the effects of soil contamination with dieldrin on demographic parameters of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations. Increased dieldrin concentrations were significantly associated with larger deer mouse populations, although the size of populations on contaminated sites decreased during the study. The most parsimonious model for estimating survival rates was one in which survival was a decreasing function of dieldrin concentration. A significantly higher proportion of female deer mice in the populations residing on the more highly contaminated sites exhibited signs of reproductive activity. Development of genetic resistance in P. maniculatus to chronic chemical exposure is suggested as a possible mechanism responsible for the species' observed dominance and relatively high densities on contaminated sites. Under the additional stress of unfavorable environmental conditions, however, these populations may suffer disproportionately greater mortality. The design and analytical methods presented offer a rigorous statistical approach to assessing the effects of environmental contamination on small mammals at the population level.

  19. Correlation of a resistance-associated Rdl mutation in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L), with persistent dieldrin resistance in two Danish field populations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kenneth Klingenberg; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2005-08-01

    Danish Blattella germanica (L) populations carry the resistance-associated mutation A302S within the Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene. The mutation has remained in field populations long after the discontinuation of dieldrin for cockroach control. The mutation has also persisted in our laboratory strains with high and intermediate frequencies for more than 8 years without selection. The toxicity of dieldrin was tested by topical application to male cockroaches in the susceptible strain DPIL-SUS and two field strains, Zo960302 and Su960304, which were 1270- and 15-fold resistant to dieldrin at LD50. We report the sequencing of exon 7 of the B. germanica Rdl gene and the finding of the putative resistance-associated A302S mutation. We have developed and implemented a PCR-based diagnostic method with the detection of a restriction endonuclease polymorphism, which allows for easy discrimination of susceptible, resistant and heterozygote genotypes. The frequency of the resistance-associate allele A302S was 0.97 and 0.38 in the Zo960302 and Su960304 populations, respectively. The cockroach Rdl A302S allele confers high dieldrin resistance in homozygotes and intermediate resistance in heterozygotes, and its presence is responsible for the persisting dieldrin resistance in Danish populations of B. germanica.

  20. Year and age effects on residues of dieldrin and heptachlor in dead gray bats, Franklin County, Missouri--1976, 1977, and 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bunck, C.M.; Cromartie, E.; LaVal, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Dead gray bats (Myotis grisescens) containing lethal concentrations of dieldrin were found beneath a maternity roost in Bat Cave Nos. 2 and 3, Franklin County, Missouri, in 1976, 1977 and 1978. Whereas residues of dieldrin, DDE [I, I --dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] and PCB polychlorinated biphenyls in bats appeared not to change significantly over the 3 years, residues of heptachlor-related chemicals increased in 1977 to potentially dangerous concentrations and remained elevated in 1978. Lethal brain levels of dieldrin in adult bats (geometric mean = 12.1 ?g/g), compared with juvenile bats (geometric mean = 6.5 ?g/g), indicated that juveniles are nearly twice as sensitive. The estimated population of gray bats (as maximum number of nonflying young) at Bat Cave Nos. 2 and 3 in 1976 and 1978 was 1,800 bats, but in 1979 no bats were present. Dieldrin, perhaps in conjunction with heptachlor, may have caused the decline and disappearance of this colony. However, dieldrin was banned in 1974 and Missouri's authorization to use heptachlor on corn expired in 1981. Furthermore, three organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, dyfonate and mocap) are to be substituted. We hope that the gray bats remaining in this area of Missouri survive the residues of dieldrin and heptachlor still in their food chains and prove to be unaffected by the new organophosphates

  1. Organochlorines (PCBs and pesticides) in the bivalves Anadara (Senilis) senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna perna from the lagoons of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Otchere, Fred A

    2005-09-15

    The bivalves, Anadara (Senilia) senilis (n=95), Crassostrea tulipa (n=75) and Perna perna (n=30) from Ghana, were analyzed for their organochlorines (pesticides and PCBs) concentrations and the body burden. A comparison was done based on two different standard PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) with the percentage individual congener contribution and that of the sample. From these comparisons, it appeared that the pattern of PCB residues in the samples was neither Aroclor 1254 nor 1260. On the other hand, there was seasonal qualitative difference in the pattern that is purely marine (in the dry season) versus terrestrial input (in the wet season). SigmaPCB was 0.10 microg/g dw or 2.2 microg/g lw (median values). There was no correlation between PCB concentration and lipid content reflecting the importance of indirect contamination of the bivalves. The pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, DDTs, HCH, HCB, endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide and heptachlor, were detected. The most abundant pesticides were the SigmaDDT: 73 and SigmaHCH: 29 ng/g dw. DDT/DDE and hept./heptachlor epoxide ratios reflect their recent applications, while the ratio for aldrin/dieldrin suggests that the use of aldrin has been discontinued, at least on the coast of Ghana.

  2. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  3. Contamination from organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils of Kuttanad agroecosystem in India and related potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Sruthi, S N; Shyleshchandran, M S; Mathew, Sunil Paul; Ramasamy, E V

    2017-01-01

    The presence and distribution of a few organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the paddy fields of the Kuttanad agroecosystem (KAE) was examined in the present study. Kuttanad forms a part of the Vembanad wetland system which is a Ramsar site of international importance in the state of Kerala. This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report on the occurrence of OCP residues in KAE. Pesticide residue analysis was done with gas chromatograph (GC-ECD). Twenty-one soil samples were collected for the multiresidual analysis of OCPs. Sixteen OCP residues with a notable concentration were observed from the study area. α-BHC; β-BHC; γ-BHC; δ-BHC; α-chlordane; γ-chlordane; heptachlor; 4,4-DDT; 4,4-DDE; 4,4-DDD; α-endosulfan; β-endosulfan; aldrin; dieldrin; endrin aldehyde; and endrin ketone were the residues observed. The percentage-wise occurrence of OCP residues in the soil samples analysed (total of 63 samples from 21 sites, three samples per site) exhibits the following order: Σ BHC˃ Σ chlordane ˃ Σ dieldrin ˃ Σ aldrin ˃ Σ endrin˃ Σ heptachlor = endosulfan˃ Σ DDT. All pesticides detected from KAE are in the list of priority pollutants of US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The distribution pattern of OCPs in the KAE soils revealed their origin as both historical and recent application of pesticides. Health risk assessment of OCP residues on human population was also conducted. The findings indicated that the concentrations of OCPs were within the permissible limits of USEPA, thus, the human population in the study area was safe.

  4. Sediment toxicity, contamination and amphipod abundance at a DDT- and dieldrin-contaminated site in San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.C.; Cole, F.A.; Lamberson, J.O.; Ferraro, S.P.; Schults, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment toxicity to the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, sediment contamination, and the abundance of amphipods were examined along a contamination gradient in the Lauritzen Channel and adjacent parts of Richmond Harbor, California. Dieldrin and DDT were formulated and ground at this site from 1945 to 1966. Sediment contamination by both dieldrin and the sum of DDT and its metabolites (DDT's) was positively correlated with sediment toxicity and negatively correlated with the abundance of amphipods excluding Grandidierella japonica. The maximum dieldrin and DDT's concentrations in toxic units were 0.018 and 9.43, respectively, indicating that DDT's was the dominant ecotoxicological factor. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and metals were not sufficient to cause appreciable toxicity, except at one PAH-contaminated station. Relations between DDT's, sediment toxicity, and amphipod abundance are similar at three DDT's-contaminated sites. The 10-d LC50 for DDT's in field-collected sediment was 2,500 micrograms/gram organic carbon (OC) for Eohaustorius estuarius in the study, 1,040 micrograms/gram OC for Rhepoxynius abronius exposed to Palos Verdes Shelf, California, sediment, and 2,580 micrograms/gram OC for Hyalella azteca exposed to sediment from a freshwater stream system near Huntsville, Alabama. The threshold for 10-d sediment toxicity occurred at about 300 micrograms DDT's/gram OC. The abundance of amphipods (except Grandidierella japonica) was reduced at DDT's concentrations >100 micrograms/gram OC. Correlations between toxicity, contamination, and biology indicate that acute sediment toxicity to Eohaustorius estuarius, Rhopoxynius abronius, or Hyalella azteca in lab tests provides reliable evidence of biologically adverse sediment contamination in the field.

  5. Actions of picrodendrin antagonists on dieldrin-sensitive and -resistant Drosophila GABA receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hosie, A. M.; Ozoe, Y.; Koike, K.; Ohmoto, T.; Nikaido, T.; Sattelle, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    1. A series of terpenoid compounds, recently isolated from Picrodendron baccatum, share a picrotoxane skeleton with picrotoxinin, an antagonist of ionotropic GABA receptors. Referred to as picrodendrins, they inhibit the binding of [35S]-tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to rat GABAA receptors. Hitherto, their effects on GABA receptors have not been investigated electrophysiologically. Under two-electrode voltage-clamp, the actions of picrodendrins and related terpenoids have been assayed on homooligomeric GABA receptors formed by the expression of a Drosophila GABA receptor subunit (RDLac) in Xenopus oocytes. 2. All the terpenoids tested, dose-dependently antagonized currents induced by 30 microM (EC50) GABA. 3. Tutin and its analogues (dihydrotutin and isohyenanchin) differ in the structure of their axial C4 substituents. Of these compounds, tutin, which bears an isopropenyl group at this carbon atom, was the most potent antagonist of RDLac homo-oligomers, whereas isohyenanchin, which bears a hydroxyisopropyl group, was the least potent antagonist tested. 4. Picrodendrins differ mainly in the structure of their C9 substituents. The IC50s of picrodendrins ranged from 17 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-Q) to 1006 +/- 1.3 nM (picrodendrin-O). As such, the most potent picrodendrins (Q, A and B) were approximately equipotent with picrotoxinin as antagonists of RDLac homo-oligomers. 5. Certain picrodendrin compounds effected a use-dependent blockade of RDLac homo-oligomers. Such a biphasic block was not observed with tutin analogues. 6. Picrotoxin-resistant RDLacA3025 homo-oligomers, which have a single amino acid substitution (A302S) in the 2nd transmembrane region, were markedly less sensitive to picrodendrin-O than the wild-type, dieldrin-sensitive, homo-oligomers. 7. The relative potency of tutin analogues demonstrates that the structure-activity relationship of the C4 substituent of picrotoxane-based compounds is conserved in vertebrates and insects. However, the

  6. Drin pesticides removal from aqueous solutions using acid-treated date stones.

    PubMed

    El Bakouri, H; Usero, J; Morillo, J; Rojas, R; Ouassini, A

    2009-05-01

    This work describes the potential applicability of chemically and thermally treated date stones for removing drin pesticides (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) from aqueous solutions. The effect of several parameters, such as sorbent particle size, adsorbent dose, shaking speed, shaking time, concentration of pesticide solution and temperature, was evaluated by batch experiments. Pesticide determination was carried out using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Maximum removal efficiency (93%) was reached using 0.1 g of acid-treated date stones (ATDS) (63-100 microm) and 100 mL of aldrin (0.5 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiency of drin pesticides decreased in the order of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin, and decreased as the temperature rose. Adsorption data were processed according to various kinetic models. Lagergren and Morris-Weber equations were applied to fit the kinetic results. The second order model was the most suitable on the whole, and intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 3.5h were considered as the equilibrium time for determining adsorption isotherms. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process. In addition, thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaG were calculated. Negative values of DeltaH and DeltaG indicate the exothermic and spontaneous nature of pesticide adsorption on ATDS.

  7. Molecular networks related to the immune system and mitochondria are targets for the pesticide dieldrin in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Andrew M; Sarty, Kathleena I; Mercer, Angella; Koh, Jin; Kidd, Karen A; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-03-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the behavioral and molecular responses in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) central nervous system (CNS) following a dietary exposure to the pesticide dieldrin. Zebrafish were fed pellets spiked with 0.03, 0.15, or 1.8μg/g dieldrin for 21days. Behavioral analysis revealed no difference in exploratory behaviors or those related to anxiety. Transcriptional networks for T-cell aggregation and selection were decreased in expression suggesting an immunosuppressive effect of dieldrin, consistent with other studies investigating organochlorine pesticides. Processes related to oxidative phosphorylation were also differentially affected by dieldrin. Quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap identified 226 proteins that were different following one or more doses. These proteins included ATP synthase subunits (mitochondrial) and hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 which were decreased and NADH dehydrogenases (mitochondrial) and signal recognition particle 9 which were up-regulated. Thus, proteins affected were functionally associated with the mitochondria and a protein network analysis implicated Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease as diseases associated with altered proteins. Molecular networks related to mitochondrial dysfunction and T-cell regulation are hypothesized to underlie the association between dieldrin and PD. These data contribute to a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic biomarker framework for pesticide exposures and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While DDT and dieldrin have been banned in most countries, contaminated agricultural sites exist in many areas and wildlife exposure is still of concern. Soil was obtained from a historical orchard that received routine pesticide applications more than 40 years ago. Bioavailability of DDT and diel...

  9. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  10. Water-quality investigation of the Flat Bayou watershed, Jefferson County, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study, in 1977-78, of surface-water quality in the Flat Bayou watershed, Jefferson County, Ark. are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service programs. Analysis of samples collected at two sites showed that oxygen depletion, as low as 32 percent of saturation at times, and high concentrations of pesticides on the streambed were the most serious water-quality problems in the watershed. The pesticides aldrin, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, and toxaphene were found in samples of the bottom material. One sample of bottom material contained an unusually high toxaphene concentration of 160 micrograms per kilogram. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. A biomimetic absorbent for removal of trace level persistent organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Ru, Jia; Wang, Zijian

    2007-05-01

    A novel biomimetic absorbent containing the lipid triolein was developed for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. The structural characteristics of the absorbent were obtained by SEM and a photoluminescence method. Under optimum preparation conditions, triolein was perfectly embedded in the cellulose acetate (CA) spheres, the absorbent was stable and no triolein leaked into the water. Dieldrin, endrin, aldrin and heptachlor epoxide were effectively removed by the CA--triolein absorbent in laboratory batch experiments. This suggests that CA-triolein absorbent may serve as a good absorbent for those selected POPs. Triolein in the absorbent significantly increased the absorption capacity, and lower residual concentrations of POPs were achieved when compared to the use of cellulose acetate absorbent. The absorption rate for lipophilic pollutants was very fast and exhibited some relationship with the octanol--water partition coefficient of the analyte. The absorption mechanism is discussed in detail.

  12. Organochlorine residues in bird species collected dead in Ontario 1972-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Organochlorine residues have been reported in many species of birds found dead or shot around the Great Lakes Basin. Raptors and fish-eating birds have had very high residues in the past while terrestrial seed- and insect-eaters have had relatively low residues. Most of the organochlorine insecticides like DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, endrin and heptachlor have been removed from field use, and controls have been placed on the dispersal of organochlorine industrial chemicals like mirex and PCB. These substances are very persistent. The major sources of contamination now are environmental residues picked up by birds in their normal feeding. These compounds bioaccumulate in bird species, and the highest residues accumulate at the top of the food chain. This paper is a compilation of data obtained from dead birds collected in the Great Lakes Basin over the last 16 years and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk from agricultural region in Northwestern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    La Riva, C. de ); Anadon, A. )

    1991-04-01

    During the past 30 years, the variety and usage of pesticides have increased in Spain and worldwide. Agricultural use of pesticides can be expected to result in residues in or food and feed. Several limited monitoring programs have received an extensive investigation in order to detect residues from organochlorine compounds in milk. This paper reports the findings of a pesticide residue study in cow's milk samples examined during the time period of one year between May of 1987 and March of 1988. The cow's milk samples destined to human consumption were collected from an agrarian area located at a geographic region of northwestern Spain. Analyses were conducted for DDT complex DDT{sub s}, DDD, DDE and isomers alpha, beta and gamma (lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, metoxichlor and mirex.

  14. Most unwanted.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B E

    1999-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can travel thousands of miles, accumulate in the food chain, and persist in the environment, taking as long as centuries to degrade. POPs are known to play a role in birth defects, cancer, immune system dysfunction, and reproductive problems in wildlife. While the effects of POPs on human health are unclear, many researchers believe that long-term exposure contributes to increasing rates of birth defects, fertility problems, greater susceptibility to disease, diminished intelligence, and certain cancers. Twelve POPs have been identified by the United Nations Environment Programme as requiring urgent regulatory attention. They include the pesticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, and toxaphene. Of the remaining three POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls are industrial products (used in electrical transformers), and dioxins and furans are unintentional by-products of industrial processes. PMID:9872725

  15. A First Application of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Screening Cyclodiene Insecticides in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Thurman, E.M.; Mohrman, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate kit for screening of cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, and heptachlor) was evaluated for sensitivity, cross reactivity, and overall performance using groundwater samples from a contaminated site. Ground-water contaminants included several pesticide compounds and their manufacturing byproducts, as well as many other organic and inorganic compounds. Cross-reactivity studies were carried out for the cyclodiene compounds, and results were compared to those listed by the manufacturer. Data obtained were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ELISA kit to the cyclodiene compounds in ground water samples with a contaminated matrix. The method quantitation limit for the ELISA kit was 15 ??g/L (as chlordane). Of the 56 ground-water samples analyzed using the ELISA plate kits, more than 85% showed cyclodiene insecticide contamination. The ELISA kit showed excellent potential as a screening tool for sites with suspected groundwater contamination by insecticides.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk from organic farms in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rey; Ruíz, Jorge Luis; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamazaki, Alberto; de Lourdes Ramírez, María

    2012-10-01

    Thirty six samples of bovine milk were collected from Chiapas State, Mexico between January 2011 and December 2011 with the intention of identifying and quantifying organochlorine pesticide residues in organic farms. The analyses were done using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (Ni(63)). In general the values found in raw milk were lower than the permissible limit proposed by FAO/WHO/Codex Alimentarius 2006. Average concentrations for alpha + beta HCH were 3.62 ng/g, gamma HCH 0.34 ng/g, heptachlor + epoxide 0.67 ng/g, DDT and isomers 1.53 ng/g, aldrin + dieldrin 0.77 ng/g, and endrin 0.66 ng/g (only present in samples from farm 2). The organic milk from Chiapas has shown low concentrations of pesticide residues in recent years and satisfies international and national regulations for commercialization.

  17. Organochlorine insecticide residues in soils and soil invertebrates from agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gish, C.D.

    1970-01-01

    Soils and earthworms and other soil invertebrates were collected from 67 agricultural fields in eight States. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for DDE, DDD, DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and gamma-chlordane insecticides. Organochlorine insecticides in soils averaged 1.5 ppm, dry weight, and in earthworms, 13.8 ppm. Residues in earthworms averaged nine times that in soils. Residues ranged from a trace to 19.1 ppm in soils and from a trace to 159.4 ppm in earthworms. Residues in beetle larvae from two fields averaged 0.6 ppm; in snails from two fields, 3.5 ppm; and in slugs from four fields, 89.0 ppm. Amounts of insecticides in earthworms varied directly with amounts in soils. Coefficients of correlation between residues in soils and residues in earthworms usually were significant for DDE, DDD, and DDT regardless of crop or soil type.

  18. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  19. Mercury and Chlorinated Pesticides on the Highest Level of the Food Web as Exemplified by Herring from the Southern Baltic and African Penguins from the Zoo.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Lucyna; Reindl, Andrzej R; Szumiło, Emilia; Kwaśniak, Justyna; Staniszewska, Marta; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Anita; Krause, Izabela

    2013-05-01

    Aquatic birds are often used as a health indicator of the marine ecosystem. African penguins living in the zoo make good research material as they form a link between the marine and the terrestrial ecosystem in terms of xenobiotic circulation. Tests were performed on whole herring-the food of the penguins-as well as on bird muscle, liver, brain, eggs, feathers and guano in order to determine total mercury, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan isomers, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites. In herring and penguin, the tests did not show the presence of β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, aldrin and isodrin. It was shown that penguins absorb about 36.8 μg of organochlorine pesticides and 4.6 μg of mercury with their food on a daily basis. Xenobiotics accumulate mostly in the liver, from where they are transported to the muscles and the brain, where the highest bioaccumulation factor is reached by endrin and pp'-DDT. Conceivably, the older the penguin, the higher is the concentration level of pesticides in its liver and brain. Molting was found to be the most effective way of eliminating mercury, dieldrin and methoxychlor from the system. Insecticides, such as DDT and its metabolites, were removed most effectively by females through laying of eggs. The standard four eggs laid within a year may have contained up to 20 % of the total amount of pesticides which had been absorbed with food, but no more than 5 % of mercury.

  20. Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in cattle meat and organs slaughtered in selected towns in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Letta, Bayessa D; Attah, Louis E

    2013-01-01

    Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in a total of 90 cattle samples comprising meat, liver and kidney collected from carcasses slaughtered in six towns in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia, (Ambo, Guder, Ginchi, Gedo, Holeta and Tikur Inchini), have been determined. The pesticides were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantification was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A good linearity (r(2) > 0.998) was found in the range 0.001-7.00 mg/kg for the samples studied. Most of the pesticides had recoveries in the range 81-99% and values of relative standard deviation (RSD) <7.2% for repeatability and reproducibility, showing good accuracy and precision of the method. The concentration level of the studied organochlorines followed the order: p, p' dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) > endosulfan>o,p'-DDT >lindane>dieldrin>endrin>aldrin>chlorothanolin while the order of contamination in the analyzed organs was liver > kidney > meat. Heat treatment of the meat, kidney and liver samples (boiling for 90 min.) produced an overall reduction of 62.2%, 44.5%, 37.7%, 29%, 31%, 34.3% and 30.8% in lindane, o, p'-DDT, endosulfan, p, p'-DDT, chlorothanolin, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin, respectively. Although the residual contents of the organochlorines detected in all the contaminated samples analyzed from the six cities were below the respective maximal permissible levels set by international organizations, samples from Holeta town were more contaminated and may necessitate effective monitoring as bioaccumulation of these residues may pose health problems in human beings.

  1. Anopheles arabiensis egg treatment with dieldrin for sex separation leaves residues in male adult mosquitoes that can bioaccumulate in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc JB; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie RL; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC–ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. PMID:23983078

  2. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in air in China and over the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Ghim, Young-Sung; Grados, Amélie; Gao, Huiwang; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lohmann, Rainer

    The occurrence of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in China and possibly their regional transport in the Yellow and East China Seas region was studied. Organochlorines in atmospheric gas-phase and particulate matter were collected by high-volume sampling (filters and polyurethane foams) during 2 weeks in June 2003 (dry season) simultaneously at a Yellow Sea coastal site in an urban area, Qingdao, China, and a rural island site, Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea. Using GC methods, the samples were analysed for 9 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated under the global POP convention, namely aldrin, chlordane ( cis- and trans-isomers CC and TC), DDT and metabolites ( o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex and PCB (congeners number 28, 52, 101, 153 and 180), and for hexachlorocyclohexane ( α-, β- and γ-isomers), a PTS and now considered for regulation under the convention, too. At the coastal site additionally o, p'-DDE and -DDD, β-endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlorepoxide and δ-HCH, and at the island site additionally p, p'-DDT and 12 additional PCB congeners were analysed. 9 samples were collected at the coastal and 15 (for PCBs 5) at the island site. Long-range advection pathways were determined based on analysed back-trajectory calculations. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, HCB, HCH, and PCB at the coast were in the 100-1000 pg m -3 range. Higher concentrations prevailed during nighttime. The levels were in general lower at the island site, but not for DDT. Local sources are likely. PCBs were even 2 orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that PCBs are not subject to regional transport but elevated concentrations in air are limited to the source areas. Organochlorine pesticide levels on the other hand were seemingly determined by regional transport over Mainland China rather than by emissions in the coastal area. The currently used pesticides mirex and chlordane were found at elevated

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Potomac River Basin: analysis of available pesticide data, 1972-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert; Fisher, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    report-ing limits. Compounds reported in surface water included 2,4-D, atrazine, aldrin, chlordane, DDT and related compounds, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, prometone, prometryne, and simazine. For bottom material samples, 19 of 31 pesticides and related compounds analyzed had concentrations equal to or greater than the reporting limits. Compounds reported in bottom material included aldrin, chlor-dane, DDT and related compounds, diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, ethion, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, parathion, and tox-aphene. In ground-water samples, 14 of 39 pesticides and related compounds analyzed had concentrations equal to or greater than the report-ing limits. Compounds reported in ground water included 2,4-D, atrazine, chlordane, cyanazine, DDT and related compounds, diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, malathion, methyl parathion, simazine. For fish- tissue sam-ples, 30 of the 37 pesticides and related compounds analyzed had concentrations equal to or greater than the reporting limits. Compounds reported included aldrin, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endrin, HCB, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor, mirex, PCA, toxaphene, and those compounds related to chlordane, DDT, and lindane.

  4. Data on polychlorinated biphenyls, dieldrin, lead, and cadmium in Wisconsin and Upper Michigan tributaries to Green Bay, July 1987 through April 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Neither dieldrin nor cadmium was detected in any of the sampled tributaries. Detectable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and lead were found at only three sites. Polychorinated biphenyls (0.10 microgram per gram) and lead (10 milligrams per kilogram) were found in the bottom sediment of Duck Creek, a western-shore tributary near the city of Green Bay. Lead (10 milligrams per kilogram) also was found in the bottom sediment of the Suamico River near the mouth, about 5 miles north of Duck Creek. Lead (4 micrograms per liter) was detected in a spring-runoff sample from the Fishdam River, a tributary from upper Michigan.

  5. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Natasha A; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Beyer, W Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L; Novak, Jeffrey M; Anderson, Marya O; Cantrell, Keri B

    2014-02-01

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4'-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R(2) = 0.97; p < 0.001), indicating TF-SPE provided an accurate uptake simulation. Bioavailability of residues in soil was compared with a spiked soil aged for 90d in laboratory. Dieldrin and DDX were respectively 18% and 11% less bioavailable in contaminated soil relative to spiked soil despite >40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

  6. Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many regulatory jurisdictions attempt to control human exposures with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify a soil's maximum allowable concentration. Pesticides are important soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread surface soil application. Worldwide, at least 174 regulatory jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have published more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs for at least 739 chemically unique pesticides. This manuscript examines the variability of the guidance values that are applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POP) pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene) for which at least 1667 RGVs have been promulgated. Results indicate that the spans of the RGVs applied to each of these pesticides vary from 6.1 orders of magnitude for Toxaphene to 10.0 orders of magnitude for Mirex. The distribution of values across these value spans resembles the distribution of lognormal random variables, but also contain non-random value clusters. Approximately 40% of all the POP RGVs fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) RGV cancer risk model. Another 22% of the values fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the USEPA's non-cancer risk model, but the cancer risk calculations yield the binding (lowest) value for all POP pesticides except Endrin. The results presented emphasize the continued need to rationalize the RGVs applied worldwide to important soil contaminants.

  7. Spatial distribution and partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide in water and sediment from Sarno River and Estuary, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Nardone, Antonio; Esposito, Francesco; Triassi, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The Sarno River is nicknamed "the most polluted river in Europe". The main goal of this study is to enhance our knowledge on the Sarno River water and sediment quality and on its environmental impact on the gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) in order to become a useful assessment tool for the regional administrations. For these reasons, 32 selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and aldrin, α-BHC, β-BHC, δ-BHC, γ-BHC (lindane), 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulphate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide (isomer B) and methoxychlor were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 1.4 to 24.9 ng L(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and from 1.01 to 42.54 ng g(-1) in sediment samples. The concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) obtained in water (sum of DP and SPM) ranged from 0.54 to 7.32 ng L(-1) and from 0.08 to 5.99 ng g(-1) in sediment samples. Contaminant discharges of PCBs and OCPs into the sea were calculated in about 1,247 g day(-1) (948 g day(-1) of PCBs and 326 g day(-1) of OCPs), showing that this river should account as one of the main contribution sources of PCBs and OCPs to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in canned tuna and sardines on the Serbian market.

    PubMed

    Kartalović, Brankica; Novakov, Nikolina J; Mihaljev, Željko; Petrović, Jelena; Prica, Nadežda; Babić, Jelena; Ćirković, Miroslav A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in 57 samples of canned tuna and 31 samples of canned sardines in vegetable oil, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. OC pesticides α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDE, DDD, dielderin, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulan sulfate, endrin, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, aldrin, metoxichlor, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane were determined using a GS-MS method. The highest concentrations (µg kg(-1), arithmetic means) in canned tuna were for δ-HCH (60.6 ± 97.0) and p, p´-DDT (55.0 ± 25.1), while the corresponding values in canned sardines were for δ-HCH (90.7 ± 102.7) and endosulfane II (78.0 ± 145.9). Mean level for the sum of endosulfans was above the maximum limit in canned sardines (85.0 µg kg(-1)). Also, dieldrin (39.7 µg kg(-1)) was measured above the ML.

  9. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J

    2007-07-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 microl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/microl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/microl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula.

  10. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. The four study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil at each of the four sites, and ge

  11. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p'-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p'-DDT < p,p'-DDT by increasing order of log K ow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  12. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds. PMID:26301249

  13. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrade, Natasha A.; Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Anh, Nguyen; Beyer, W. Nelson; Chaney, Rufus L.; Novak, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Marya O.; Cantrell, Keri B.

    2014-01-01

    Improved approaches are needed to assess bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds in contaminated soils. Performance of thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate was compared to earthworm bioassay (Lumbricus terrestris). A DDT and dieldrin contaminated soil was amended with four organic carbon materials to assess the change in bioavailability. Addition of organic carbon significantly lowered bioavailability for all compounds except for 4,4′-DDT. Equilibrium concentrations of compounds in the polymer were correlated with uptake by earthworms after 48d exposure (R2 = 0.97; p 40yr of aging. Results show that TF-SPE can be useful in examining potential risks associated with contaminated soils and to test effectiveness of remediation efforts.

  14. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

  15. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

    2014-11-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ∑HCHs, mirex, endrin, ∑chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions.

  16. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of pesticides in water, sediments, Clarias gariepinus, and Tilapia zilli from the Owan River was investigated to evaluate the pollution status and potential hazard in the river system. A total of 16 pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The concentration of pesticide residues ranged from ND to 0.43 μg/l for water samples, 0.82 to 2.14 μg/kg/dw for sediment, 0.04 to 2.34 μg/kg/ww for C. gariepinus, and 0.02 to 1.73 μg/kg/ww for T. zilli. High concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, specifically benzenehexachloride (α-BHC, γ-BHC, and β-BHC) observed in all environmental media, are an indication of the current illegal use of banned pesticides for agricultural activities in the region. Analysis of data showed a strong correlation (r (2) = 0.7) between total organic carbon (TOC) and total pesticide residues in sediment samples. Meanwhile, risk quotient estimates for heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan aldehyde, and phosphomethylglycine showed potential risk to aquatic organism under observed mean concentrations (risk quotient (RQ) ≥ 1). Estimated average daily intake (EADI) for organochlorine pesticides (γ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) was above their respective acceptable average daily intake (ADI), while hazard quotient for each of these pesticides was above the unity value (1). This indicates that there is a potential cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of pesticide-contaminated fish.

  17. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from laboratory exposure and a contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Kroll, Kevin J; Supowit, Samuel D; Halden, Rolf U; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Tissue concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides in laboratory-exposed largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and in bass collected from Lake Apopka, FL were determined by both total mass and lipid normalized mass to better understand the bioaccumulation pathways of contaminants. In the laboratory study, male bass were orally administered a single dose of a mixture of two pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dieldrin) and then fed uncontaminated food for 28 days. Gastrointestinal tract, liver, brain, gonad, kidney, spleen, and muscle were collected for chemical analysis. Different profiles were observed by total contaminant mass in tissues compared to lipid normalized mass. On a lipid normalized basis, p,p'-DDE was highest in the gastrointestinal tract followed by the liver, gonad, spleen, muscle, kidney and then brain. Dieldrin, on the other hand, was highest in the gastrointestinal tract and spleen and then followed by the gonad, muscle, liver, kidney, and brain. Distribution of the chemicals among the organs differed by their log KOW values and generally followed the blood flow path after the gastrointestinal tract. The low contaminant levels found in kidney and brain suggest insufficient time for equilibration into these tissues, especially into the brain where the blood-brain barrier may be slow to traverse. In Lake Apopka fish, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDXs, sum of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT), Drins (sum of aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found. For DDXs, the lipid normalized concentrations in each tissue were about the same, as predicted from theory. For Drins and HCHs, the lipid normalized concentrations were similar for kidney, spleen, brain, gonad and muscle, but much lower in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, probably because of metabolism occurring in those tissues.

  18. Residual levels and identify possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in Korea atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Soo; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2011-12-01

    The nationwide monitoring program was established in 2008 to monitor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Korea. Under this program, it was observed air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 37 sites from January to October of 2008, to determine the residue levels and identify possible sources in Korea atmosphere. Samples of OCPs including HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide were collected with high volume air sampler and analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The concentrations were in the range of 41.2-344.3 pg m -3 for HCB, ND-47.55 pg m -3 for DDTs (sum of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD), ND-38.97 pg m -3 for chlordanes (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane), ND-9.19 pg m -3 for heptachlors (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) and ND-4.32 pg m -3 for dieldrin. The predominant compound in air was HCB. However, HCB itself has not ever been registered and used as a pesticide in Korea. The elevated concentration of HCB in Korea might be contributed to geographical location and long range transport. For DDTs, it was found that no more fresh input occurred recently and technical type DDTs was prevailing in Korea. Higher concentration of chlordane was observed in winter, which was contributed to the fresh input technical chlordane and long range transport. Relatively lower levels of heptachlor and dieldrin despite much more consumption than other pesticides were resulted from shorter half-lives in environment.

  19. Removal of persistent organic pollutants from micro-polluted drinking water by triolein embedded absorbent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Ru, Jia; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Wang, Zijian; Hu, Chun

    2009-06-01

    A new biomimetic absorbent, cellulose acetate (CA) embedded with triolein (CA-triolein), was prepared and applied for the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from micro-polluted aqueous solution. The comparison of CA-triolein, CA and granular activated carbon (GAC) for dieldrin removal was investigated. Results showed that CA-triolein absorbent gave a lowest residual concentration after 24 h although GAC had high removal rate in the first 4 h adsorption. Then the removal efficiency of mixed POPs (e.g. aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor epoxide), absorption isotherm, absorbent regeneration and initial column experiments of CA-triolein were studied in detail. The linear absorption isotherm and the independent absorption in binary isotherm indicated that the selected POPs are mainly absorbed onto CA-triolein absorbent by a partition mechanism. The absorption constant, K, was closely related to the hydrophobic property of the compound. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the absorption was spontaneous, with a high affinity and the absorption was an endothermic reaction. Rinsing with hexane the CA-triolein absorbent can be regenerated after absorption of POPs. No significant decrease in the dieldrin removal efficiency was observed even when the absorption-regeneration process was repeated for five times. The results of initial column experiments showed that the CA-triolein absorbent did not reach the breakthrough point at a breakthrough empty-bed volume (BV) of 3200 when the influent concentration was 1-1.5 microg/L and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) was 20 min.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Tiber River and Estuary: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Aurino, Sara; Garzonio, Fatima; Triassi, Maria

    2016-11-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in the Tiber River and its environmental impact on the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. 32 PCBs and 17 OCPs (aldrin, α-BHC, β-BHC, δ-BHC, lindane, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor) were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment samples. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 0.54 to 74.75ngL(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and from 3.73 to 79.30ngg(-1) dry weigh in sediment samples; while the concentrations of total OCPs collected in water (sum of DP and SPM) ranged from 0.07 to 7.04ngL(-1) and from 0.66 to 10.02ngg(-1) dry weigh in sediment samples. Contaminant discharges into the sea were calculated in about 227.08kgyear(-1) for PCBs and 24.91kgyear(-1) for OCPs, showing that this river should account as one of the main contribution sources of PCBs and OCPs to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The ∑TEQPCB from the sediment samples ranged from 0.0006 to 0.37ngg(-1) with an average level of 0.13ngg(-1). Based on Sediments Quality Guidelines, biological adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem were rare to occasional for PCB and OCP levels in Tiber water system.

  1. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Ashurova, Zebunisso J; Kukaniev, Mukhamadcho A; Avloev, Hakbarqul K; Khaidarov, Karim K; Jamshedov, Jamshed N; Rahmatullova, Oygul S; Atolikshoeva, Sunbula S; Mamadshova, Sakina S; Manzenyuk, Oksana

    2017-05-01

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil and generally low in meat, dairy, and plant products. DDT was consistently the highest measured individual pesticide at each of the four sampling areas, along with BHC isomers and endosulfan II. Soil concentrations of pesticides were extremely heterogeneous at the Vakhsh and Konibodam disposal sites with many soil samples greater than 10 ppm. In contrast, samples from farms in Chimbuloq and Garm had low concentrations of pesticides. Pesticide contamination in raw foods was generally low, indicating minimal transfer from the pesticide sites into local food

  2. Residue patterns of currently, historically and never-used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils across China and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Siyu; Liu, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with different usage states, such as currently, historically or never used, may show different behaviors and potential risks in the environment. It is essential to identify their distribution patterns and fates and to assess their associated health risks to humans. In this study, based on a nationwide sampling campaign across China, we determined the concentrations of currently (endosulfan), historically (chlordane and heptachlor) and never-used (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) OCPs in agricultural soils. The total residue inventories of ∑Endosulfans, ∑Chlordanes, heptachlor and ∑Drins in soils were 260, 64.3, 54.2 and 88.6 t, respectively. The residues of endosulfan were influenced by current usage, showing a latitude transect trend. Drins were mainly from long-range transport, but the illegal usage in China still affected their residues. This finding indicates that endosulfan and drins in Chinese agricultural soils mainly follow the primary and secondary distribution pattern, respectively. Both primary and secondary distribution have a great impact on the distribution pattern of chlordane, which had been banned for only 4 years at the time we sampled. The health risks of these OCPs were estimated based on their concentrations. There were 0.813% and 1.63% of samples that exceeded the target values for chlordane and endrin according to the Netherlands guideline for unpolluted soil. Their residues in most of the samples posed no or few non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human beings. The results from this study will provide powerful support for pollution control and management.

  3. Residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Elephant Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Metcalfe, Chris D; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Muelbert, Mônica M C; Colares, Elton P; Martinez, Pablo E; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-06-01

    Contamination of blubber tissues by organochlorine pesticides (OC) and PCBs was assessed in female and male pups and juveniles, as well as in adult females and subdominant adult males of the Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, from Elephant Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. All residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants analyzed were found in blubber samples, except for beta-HCH, endosulfan II, endrin, heptachlor, and aldrin. The relative concentrations of the analytes detected were sigmaDDT > sigmaPCB > sigmachlordane > mirex > dieldrin > HCB> sigmaendosulfan > methoxychlor > sigmaHCHs > other OC pesticides. OC and PCBs concentrations were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found in pinnipeds from northern hemisphere. The ratio sigmaDDT/sigmaPCB was higher in southern elephant seals. The relative importance of some OC residues indicates that pesticides used either currently or in the recent past in countries in the southern hemisphere are the sources of contamination in the Antarctic region. Data showed that concentrations of contaminants generally increased from pups < juveniles < adults and suggested that pups accumulated contaminants through transfer from the mother seals via transplacental and lactational routes.

  4. Residential surface soil guidance applied worldwide to the pesticides added to the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Due to the widespread use of agricultural and residential pesticides, the potential for pesticide soil contamination is a worldwide concern. In response, regulatory jurisdictions in at least 54 nations have promulgated guidance values to specify the maximum allowable concentration of pesticides in soils. Guidance values may be found for more than 700 pesticides. A previous analysis examined the values applied to the original "dirty dozen" persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides that were addressed in the 2001 Stockholm Convention (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene). Results are presented here for the "new POP" pesticides that were added to the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and 2011 (isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane, Chlordecone, and isomers of Endosulfan). The guidance value extremes used worldwide for these pesticides vary by as much as 8.5 orders of magnitude and the randomness in their distributions resembles that of lognormal random variables. However, there are nonrandom value clusters in some distributions that may identify values around which consensuses are forming. The current value distributions imply that a wide range of human health risks are being accepted. Hopefully, the results presented will help regulatory jurisdictions and the regulated communities identify values that should be revised to be adequately protective of human health.

  5. Current status and regulatory aspects of pesticides considered to be persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2010-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs). The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years.

  6. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  7. Occurrence, sources, and risk assessment of OCPs in surface sediments from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Junhong; Xi, Min; Zhao, Qingqing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wen, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247.21, 232.91, and 114.92 μg/kg, respectively, and the predominant OCPs were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Source diagnostics illustrated that there might be recent input of HCHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfan in some sampling sites. Based on the soil quality thresholds of China, both HCHs and DDTs fell within the range of class II criteria except for some sediment samples in urban rivers with lower levels (below class I criteria). According to sediment quality guidelines, 92.86 % of samples were predicted to be toxic. The health risk assessment showed that OCPs would not pose a threat to people via dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation, and the followed order of incremental lifetime cancer risks for OCPs in sediment samples was reclamation-affected river > urban river > rural river.

  8. Natural attenuation of pesticide water contamination by using ecological adsorbents: Application for chlorinated pesticides included in European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakouri, Hicham; Morillo, José; Usero, José; Ouassini, Abdelhamid

    2009-01-01

    SummaryIn this work, a series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the potential use of natural organic substances (NOS) as an ecological technique to prevent pesticide contamination of ground water resources. A preliminary test has been carried out for determining the potentialities of ten NOS in the elimination of alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane), simazine and trifluralin. The best adsorbents that present higher removal efficiency were date and olives stones, and in minor measurement Raphanus raphanistrum and Cistus ladaniferus. Experimental results showed that the pH and temperature of pesticide solutions negatively affect the adsorption process. According to adsorption kinetic data, 8 h were considered as the equilibrium time for realizing adsorption isotherms. Adsorption data were fit with Freundlich isotherm model which describes better the adsorption process. The K f values depended mainly on the nature of each adsorbent and ranged from 4.53 for Eucalyptus gomphocephala to 13.54 for date stones.

  9. Monitoring of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in water during different seasons of Tighra reservoir Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of pesticides during different seasons for pesticidal contamination in water samples of Tighra reservoir was carried out on gas chromatograph-electron capture detector with capillary columns following multiresidual analytical technique. Organochlorine pesticides, viz., hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), beta-BHC, γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, o,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p-DDD, p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endrin, and organophosphorus pesticides, viz., choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, diazion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, and parathion, were detected in water samples during different seasons. However, the pesticide concentration varied during different seasons at different sites. The prominent reason of contamination is the use of pesticides (both organochlorine and organophosphorus) in the agricultural fields near Tighra reservoir. On the basis of our observations, more extensive monitoring studies need to be carried out, covering all wetlands of Madhya Pradesh to enforce the policies for the restricted application of pesticides in agricultural fields adjacent to wetlands.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants carried on plastic resin pellets from two beaches in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Juying; Wang, Jing; Ma, Deyi

    2015-10-15

    Microplastics provide a mechanism for the long-range transport of hydrophobic chemical contaminants to remote coastal and marine locations. In this study, plastic resin pellets were collected from Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach in China. The collected pellets were analyzed for PAHs, PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. The total concentration of PCBs ranged from 34.7-213.7 ng g(-1) and from 21.5-323.2 ng g(-1) in plastic resin pellets for Zhengmingsi Beach and Dongshan Beach respectively. The highest concentrations of PCBs were observed for congeners 44, 110, 138, 155 and 200. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 136.3-1586.9 ng g(-1) and from 397.6-2384.2 ng g(-1) in the plastic pellets, whereas DDTs concentration ranged from 1.2-101.5 ng g(-1) and from 1.5-127.0 ng g(-1) for the two beaches. The elevated concentrations of pollutants appear to be related to extensive industrial development, agricultural activity and the use of coal in the area.

  11. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residue in edible cattle tissues from northeastern part of Egypt: High accumulation level of OCPs in tongue.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abdallah Fikry A; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yohannes, Yared B; Darwish, Wageh S; Eldaly, Elsaid A; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In order to assess the potential human health risks associated with OCPs, edible cattle tissues (liver, kidney and tongue) were collected from three slaughter houses in Mansoura, Zagazig and Ismailia cities, Egypt. Levels of 22 OCPs such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin and endrin (Drins), chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HPTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues were investigated. Among the investigated OCPs, HCHs represented the most dominant group with high proportions of γ-HCH isomer (53-91% of total HCHs). Mansoura city had the highest OCPs contamination load ranged from 0.1 to 2827 ng g(-1) lw (lipid weight). Surprisingly, tongue samples collected from Mansoura showed the highest concentration of HCHs (448 ng g(-1) lw) in comparison to liver (152 ng g(-1) lw) and kidney (266 ng g(-1) lw). Generally, contamination pattern of OCPs was in the order of HCHs > Drins > CHLs > DDTs ≅ HCB and HPTs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) through dietary consumption of cattle tissues were lower than the recommended acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) established by FAO/WHO. However, the hazard ratios (HRs) based on cancer risk were greater than 1.0 for HCHs based on the average and 95th centile concentrations, indicating carcinogenic effects to consumers through cattle tissues consumption.

  12. Occurrence, distribution and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soil of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xue-Tong; Jia, Ying; Wang, Fei; Wu, Ming-Hong; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2009-10-30

    Surface soil samples from agricultural soil of Shanghai were collected and analyzed for 24 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations were in the ranges of nd-10.38 n gg(-1) for HCHs (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH), 0.77-247.45 ng g(-1) for DDTs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-DDT), 0.84-10.08 ng g(-1) for CHLs (sum of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor), nd-3.68 ng g(-1) for endosulfan (sum of alpha- and beta-endosulfan), 0.10-3.62 ng g(-1) for HCB and nd-5.69 ng g(-1) for other OCPs (sum of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin). The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 265.24 ng g(-1) and the main contaminated areas were distributed in the south regions of Shanghai (including Fengxian, Nanhui and Jinshan districts). According to the measured concentrations and detection frequencies, HCHs, DDTs, HCB and heptachlor epoxide were the most dominant compounds among the 24 OCPs. The different compositions of DDT, HCH, chlordane and endosulfan indicated that the residues of these compounds in most soil samples originated from historical application, besides slight recent introduction at some sampling locations. The correlation analysis showed no significant relationship between TOC and OCPs. The quality of Shanghai agricultural soil was classified as low pollution by OCPs.

  13. [Bioindication of organochlorine pesticides by night heron in Taihu wetland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanhua; An, Qiong; Gong, Zhongming; Wang, Hui

    2002-02-01

    Based on field ecological investigation on the colony of herons in Yuantouzhu of Taihu in 1999, the regurgitated foods by chicks of night heron were collected for prey type identification and chemical analysis. Besides, eggs of night heron, and sediments and waters in foraging habitats were sampled for chemical analysis as well. alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in laboratory by gas chromatography. The results indicated that HCH isomers, DDT and its metabolites could be detected in various environments and preys of night heron, although the organochlorined chemicals were banned for almost 20 years. Moreover, The results showed that eggs of night heron could accumulate organochlorine pesticides by as much as a factor of 10(3)-10(4), which can make chemical analysis much easier. So they are good bio-indicators for organochlorine contamination level in wetland environments.

  14. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  15. Distribution and risk assessment of suspected endocrine-disrupting pesticides in creek water of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Singare, Pravin U

    2016-01-15

    The present study deals with the investigation of existing pollution levels and potential ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in the Vasai Creek water near Mumbai. The average concentration of α- and β-endosulfan (137.75 ng·L(-1)) exceeds the chronic criteria level of α- and β-endosulfan (6.5 ng·L(-1)) set by US EPA for freshwater aquatic organisms. The concentration levels of aldrin (75.31 ng·L(-1)), dieldrin (71.19 ng·L(-1)) and endrin (76.60 ng·L(-1)) was found to exceed the respective criteria levels of <0.13, 65.1, and 61 ng·L(-1) as set by US EPA for protection of freshwater aquatic organisms. In addition, the level of chlorpyrifos (208.77 ng·L(-1)) exceeds the recommended concentration value of <35 ng·L(-1) set by Ministry of Environment of British Colombia. The results of our study give an indication of probable ecotoxicological risk to the marine breeding organisms of creek.

  16. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water.

  17. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  18. Installation Restoration Program for Langley AFB, Virginia. Phase II. Field Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Endrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Toxaphene , Chlordane, Dieldrin, DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-TP (Silvex). 6 S I 1 The recommendations of the Phase I report...and Sediment Parameter (ug/l) (ug/kg) I Pesticides Y-BHC (Lindane) 1 5 I Dieldrin 1 5 Endrin 1 5 Methoxychlor 10 50 Chlordane 1 5 Toxaphene 10 50 PCBs...a-Chlordane Mirex Methoxychlor Toxaphene PCB s Sources: Federal Register. 44(233):69504. Monday, December 3, 1979. EPA Method 608. U.S. EPA. H.E.R.L

  19. Organochlorine insecticide residues in African Fauna: 1971-1995.

    PubMed

    Wiktelius, S; Edwards, C A

    1997-01-01

    maximum and mean residues in the various groups of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, residues in the fauna were the greatest for DDT, followed in turn by those of dieldrin, HCH, endosulfan, and endrin, with small amounts of aldrin and toxaphene being found in some animals. There were relatively few reports of OCL residues in terrestrial invertebrates and virtually none in aquatic invertebrates. Only a few reports demonstrated OCL residues in terrestrial vertebrates, although high levels of DDT, dieldrin, and HCH were found in crocodile eggs and large residues of dieldrin occurred in bats, squirrels, and monkeys. Considerable OCL residues were reported in a few species of fish, especially Barbus, Clarias, Hydrocynus, Labeo, Sarotherodon, Epiplatys, and Synodontis. These residues were at levels that could have caused chronic toxicity or behavioral changes. The calculated maximum and mean OCL residues in the various elements of the African fauna until 1995 were compared with those calculated for corresponding faunal groups in Europe and the U.S. from their development and introduction up to 1973. The OCL residues reported in African fauna between 1971 and 1975 tended to be significantly higher overall than those published for Europe and the U.S. In particular, residues of DDT and dieldrin in African birds and their eggs were greater than those that had been incriminated as causing significant eggshell thinning and reproductive failure in European and U.S. aquatic and terrestrial birds up to 1973. Additionally, high DDT and dieldrin residues were reported from some species of African fish at levels that could potentially affect their reproduction, have chronic toxic and behavioral effects, and even drastically affect populations. Holistic case studies on the use of OCLs to control tsetse flies and desert locusts were discussed. OCL levels in trophic levels of fauna associated with Lake Kariba (between Zambia and Zimbabwe) were summarized. (AB

  20. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  2. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. I: Concentrations of organo chlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin equivalents, and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Vandervoort, C.; Heaton, S. N.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Ludwig, M.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Fishes of the Great Lakes contain hazardous chemicals such as synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons and metals. These fish can move from the lakes into the Great Lakes tributaries of Michigan. In doing so, they transport concentrationsof contaminants which may represent a risk to wildlife. Concentrations of mercury (Hg), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), total DDT complex, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, endosulfan-I, methoxychlor, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor were determined in composite samples of fishes from above and below Michigan hydroelectric dams, which separate the fishes which have access to the Great Lakes from fishes that do not. Mean concentrations of total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, DDT, and most of the other pesticides were greater in composite samples of six species of fishes from below than above the dams on the Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon Rivers. Concentrations of mercury, were the same or greater above the dams than below. However, this difference was statistically significant only on the Au Sable. Mercury concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 mg/kg to 0.73 mg Hg/kg, ww. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 0.02 to 1.7 mg/kg, ww. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents varied among fishes and locations. The concentrations of TCDD-EQ ranged from 2.4 to 71 μg/kg, ww, with concentrations in carp being the greatest. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ were greater than the concentrations which would be expected to occur, due solely to the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and technical mixtures of PCBs.

  3. Atmospheric bulk deposition measurements of organochlorine pesticides at three alpine summits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Körner, Wolfgang; Offenthaler, Ivo; Moche, Wolfgang; Weiss, Peter; Schaub, Marcus; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected at three elevated summits in different parts of the Alps from 2005 to 2010. Deposition samples were analyzed for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). HCHs, DDT, DDD, DDE, chlordanes, cis-heptachlor, HCB, dieldrin and endrin were found in all samples, only aldrin was found less frequently. Differences in the mean deposition rates between the three sites reflect the different amounts of precipitation at these sites. At the northern edge of the Alps with the highest annual total precipitations, mean annual deposition rates were at least twice those at the Swiss site for most of the investigated OCP. Average annual deposition of α-HCH amounted to 602, 461 and 216 ng m-2 year-1, the sum of DDT, DDD and DDE to 579, 210 and 144 ng m-2 year-1 and the sum of trans- and cis-chlordane to 35, 47, 16 ng m-2 year-1 at Zugspitze, Sonnblick, and Weissfluhjoch, respectively. A quite distinct seasonal pattern of OPC deposition was observed at all three locations. For most of the HCH isomers, higher deposition rates were observed in summer than in winter at all three sites, which may be caused by enhanced re-volatilization due to higher summer temperatures and the ongoing application of HCH-containing products in some regions as well. For the other investigated OCPs, higher summer deposition rates were found only at Weissfluhjoch. This site is more often affected by air masses crossing the river Po basin than the other two sites, an area exhibiting higher summer temperatures compared to other regions adjacent to the Alps.

  4. Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

    2015-02-01

    Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; results of investigations of surface-water quality, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, K.H.; Garcia, Rene; Jarrett, G.L.; Porter, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the water quality of the Kentucky River Basin in Kentucky as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Data collected during 1987-90 were used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water-quality constituents including metals and trace elements, nutrients, sediments, pesticides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Oil-production activities were the source of barium, bromide, chloride, magnesium, and sodium in several watersheds. High concentrations of aluminum, iron, and zinc were related to surface mining in the Eastern Coal Field Region. High concentrations of lead and zinc occurred in streambed sediments in urban areas, whereas concentrations of arsenic, strontium, and uranium were associated with natural geologic sources. Concentrations of phosphorus were significantly correlated with urban and agricultural land use. The high phosphorus content of Bluegrass Region soils was an important source of phosphorus in streams. At many sites in urban areas, most of the stream nitrogen load was attributable to wastewater-treatment-plant effluent. Average suspended-sediment concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. There was a downward trend in suspended-sediment concentrations downstream in the Kentucky River main stem during the study. The most frequently detected herbicides in water samples were atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Diazinon, malathion, and parathion were the most frequently detected organophosphate insecticides in water samples. Detectable concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, DDT, DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane were found in streambed-sediment samples. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were sometimes below the minimum concentration needed to sustain aquatic life. At some sites, high concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were found and water samples did not meet sanitary water-quality criteria.

  6. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area.

  7. Evaluation of different adsorbents for large-volume pre-concentration for analyzing atmospheric persistent organic pollutants at trace levels.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Notardonato, Ivan; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the performance of some adsorbents, Carbopack B, Tenax-GC, and XAD-2, in a SPE and GC analytical method for sampling and determining some persistent organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes, naphthalene, anthracene, fluorene, fluoranthene, benzo(i,k)fluorene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, and PCB congeners (nos. 1, 15, 44, 77, and 209). Adsorbents evaluated in this study are Carbopack B, Tenax-GC, and XAD-2. Before applying the analytical method to air samples, it was widely investigated in laboratory: the sampler is constituted by a glass pyrex vial home-filled with 300 mg (sampling section) and 50 mg of adsorbent material (backup section). The re-extraction is performed by CS(2) (1-2 mL) and analysis is performed by GC-FID and GC-ECD. The evaluation of breakthrough volumes and desorption efficiencies shows the XAD-2 performance in the enrichment of different organic species present in atmosphere at trace levels (ppt) to be more advantageous than the other two materials in terms of analytical and technical parameters. One of the advantages is the high volume of sampled air with high concentration factor and limited loss of analytes (breakthrough volumes are higher than 5,000 L g(-1) for high-boiling compounds and higher than 400 L g(-1) for low-boiling solutes). Another advantage is the possibility of easy and speed re-extraction of analytes using small volumes of solvent (a few milliliters). The recoveries are about 100% with a RSD ≤ 2.3 for low-boiling compounds, and between 77% and 109% with a RSD ≤ 5.7% for high-boiling species. The XAD-2 adsorbent was applied to real air samples collected in different polluted areas (urban, industrial, rural, and remote locations) demonstrating the wide application of such methodology in various environmental situation.

  8. Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

  9. [Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in nine herbs by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Feng, Di; Li, Shenjie; Zhao, Yakui; Yang, Hui

    2005-05-01

    The solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography was introduced for determining 13 organochlorine pesticide residues including alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), betaBHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC, p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (pp'-DDE), p,p'-dichloro-di-phenyl-dichloroethane (pp'-DDD), o,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (op'-DDT), pp'-DDT, heptachlor (HEPT), aldrin, heptachlor epoxide (HCE), dieldrin and endrin in Scutellaria baicalensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Belamcanda chinensis, Paeoniae lactiflora, Angelica dahurica, Arisaema erubescens, Fructus arctii, Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Platycodon grandiflorum. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from herbs with mixed solvents of acetone and n-hexane by ultrasonic and cleaned up by Florisil solid-phase extraction column. Then, the extract was separated by capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm) and detected by electrochemical detector. The carrier gas was N2 (99.999%) with the flow rate of 1.4 mL/min. The split ratio was 1:2.2. The injector temperature was 220 degrees C and the detector temperature was 330 degrees C. The column temperature was increased by the rate of 20 degrees C/min from 100 degrees C to 190 degrees C (hold for 1. 0 min), then to 235 degrees C by the rate of 4 degrees C/min and hold for 7 min at 235 degrees C. The good linearities were obtained for 13 organochlorine pesticides. The detection limits were between 0.064-0.61 microg/L. The average recoveries were between 87.3%-102.3% and relative standard deviations of 1.3%-6.8%. The method is effective, fast and accurate.

  10. The incidence of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in the eggs of the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis): an evaluation of the situation in four Greek wetlands of international importance.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, I K; Goutner, V; Albanis, T A

    2000-07-20

    This study contributed to identifying the current levels of organochlorine pollutants in four Greek wetlands of international importance (the Evros and Axios Deltas, and Kerkini and Prespa Lakes), using the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis as a suitable bioindicator in a region where such information is scarce. Residue levels of eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 13 organochlorine pesticide (OC) compounds were measured in cormorant eggs. Most PCBs and OCs (except dieldrin and endrin) were found in at least some of the study areas. Median concentrations of five PCBs (IUPAC 8, 20, 52, 138, 180) and of six OCs (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT) differed significantly among the areas. The median totals of the PCBs were highly significant among the areas, being unexpectedly highest in Prespa Lake (68.43 ppb), despite its remoteness, and lowest in Evros Delta samples (12.17 ppb). Aldrin that was found in samples from Evros, Axios and Prespa probably accumulated in wintering grounds. In all of the areas, the relative proportions of alpha-BHC and 2,4'-DDD were the highest of all OCs. Fingerprint and cluster analyses illustrated overall differences in the PCB patterns, being greatest between the deltas than between the lakes, but, inversely, for OCs the differences were smaller in the deltas. Differences were attributed to large variations in the cormorants' diet between areas and different regimes of pollutant management in the two types of wetland. Correlations of pollutants varied considerably among areas and they were more diverse in OCs. The sum of OCs/ sum of PCBs ratio indicates agrochemical pollution in all areas. An important finding was that levels of both pollutant groups were too low to have any biological implications on the cormorants and, additionally, suggest that they have a negligible impact on the environment of the wetlands studied.

  11. [Characteristics of organochlorine pesticide residues in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jin-Gang; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhou, Jie-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thirty surface soil samples were collected to investigate the residue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in July 2008. Those samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and determined by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-microECD). Results showed that the concentrations of OCPs (dry weight) ranged between 3.11-117.47 ng x g(-1), with mean value of 26.25 ng x g(-1). Two major contaminants of OCPs were DDTs and HCHs, the concentration of which varied from 0.14 ng x g(-1) to 77.89 ng x g(-1) and from 1.14 ng x g(-1) to 22.43 ng x g(-1), respectively. At the same times, hexachlorobenzene (0.23-11.63 ng x g(-1)), aldrin (0.03-0.75 ng x g(-1)), heptachlor epoxide (0.05-1.44 ng x g(-1)), dieldrin (0.05-5.33 ng x g(-1)), endrin (ND-14.66 ng x g(-1)) and mirex (0.03-10.58 ng x g(-1)) could also be detected. Most of DDTs had been degraded to DDD and DDE, with the major compounds of DDE (about 64.7%), and the recent existed DDT was the residue of early input. All of the four isomers of HCHs were detected, and the contents of alpha-HCH (about 48.1%) and beta-HCH (about 33.4%) were the maximum. The highest OCPs residues appeared in the soil of farm cultivation compared to greenhouse cultivation and ordinary open-air cultivation.

  12. Pesticides: Environmentalists Seek New Victory in a Frustrating War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther

    1973-01-01

    Describes the continuing efforts of environmentalists to eliminate the use of chlorinated hydrocarbons as pesticides, and in particular discusses the opposing positions taken by the Environmental Defense Fund and the Shell Chemical Company on the use of aldrin and dieldrin. (JR)

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in Argentinian butter.

    PubMed

    Lenardón, A; Maitre de Hevia, M I; Enrique de Carbone, S

    1994-04-29

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in 150 samples of butter collected from several places in the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario (Argentine Republic) over a period of 18 months. Pesticides analysed in butter were: HCH (alpha and gamma isomers), heptachlor and its epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT (p,p' DDE, o,p' DDT and p,p' DDT). Most samples contained residues of gamma-HCH (Lindane) and heptachlor (92% and 78%, respectively); alpha-HCH and aldrin were detected in 58% and 55% of samples; dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, DDT isomers were found in few cases (30%). Mean values of pesticides residues in butter fat were: sigma HCH 0.029 ppm; sigma heptachlor 0.064 ppm; sigma aldrin 0.11 ppm and sigma DDT 0.024 ppm. Residue levels exceeded the limits prescribed by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization in only very few cases.

  14. Use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDS) to determine bioavailable organochlorine pesticide residues in streams receiving irrigation drainwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, Jimmie D.; Huckins, James N.; Martin, D.B.; Adornato, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), consisting of a neutral lipid (triolein) enclosed in polyethylene layflat tubing, is very effective in sequestering bioavailable organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the environment. We used SPMDs to sequester OC pesticide residues in streams receiving irrigation drainwater and found toxaphene, the DDT complex, dieldrin, and endrin. Ambient water concentrations of the OC pesticides were calculated using an algorithm developed previously. Toxaphene residues were estimated to range from 300 to 7,000 ng/L.

  15. The effect of sublethal dosages of five pesticides and a polychlorinated biphenyl on the avoidance response of coturnix quail chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.; Heinz, G.H.

    1974-01-01

    Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix) chicks were given sublethal amounts of chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, DDE, Ceresan M, or Aroclor 1254 (a polychlorinated biphenyl) in their feed, beginning at seven days of age, and their avoidance response to a moving silhouette was measured daily for fourteen days. The birds were on dosage for eight days, and on untreated feed for six days immediately thereafter. Group avoidance response was significantly suppressed (P from 0?01 to <0?001) by chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, Ceresan M, and Aroclor 1254. No effect of DDE on the birds' behaviour could be detected. The behaviour of the endrin-treated birds returned to normal after two days on untreated feed. The data indicated partial recovery for birds treated with dieldrin and chlordane, but none for those Ceresan M, or Aroclor 1254. The percentage of controls responding to the silhouette dropped from an average of 84 for the first four days to 70 on the sixth day; then it increased until the end of the test when it was almost 80. This apparently aberrant behaviour of healthy birds is tentatively attributed to a daily decrease in the discrepancy between the moving silhouette and the birds' schema for the silhouette, followed by maturation of the central nervous system, beginning at about the fourteenth day of age. We believe this maturation effected revival of interest and hence a heightened reaction to the stimulus.

  16. Investigating the levels and trends of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Porter, Nichola A; Marriott, Philip J; Blackbeard, Judy R

    2010-05-01

    A study was completed to investigate temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, hexachlorbenzene, and DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge. Between 2004 and 2006 the concentration of OCPs and PCBs in Australian sewage sludge (n=829) was consistently <1000mugkg(-1) dry solids DS. Dieldrin, chlordane and DDE were detected in 68%, 27% and 13% at maximum concentrations of 770, 290 and 270 microgkg(-1) DS, respectively. Time series analysis (1995-2006) of OCPs and PCBs sewage sludge concentrations (n=2266) taken from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the same geographic region found that lindane, aldrin HCB, heptachlor, DDT, DDD and PCBs were infrequently detected (<8%). A correlation between dieldrin and chlordane levels was found (P<0.05) which provides evidence of similar environmental mechanisms facilitating movement of dieldrin and chlordane through environment compartments. It has taken more than 10years for dieldrin and chlordane to reduce to less than detectable concentrations in freshly generated sewage sludge in Australia following government restrictions. Internationally, reported sewage sludge OCP concentrations were consistently low and often less than detection limits. Therefore, OCPs are not considered to be a contaminant of regulatory concern for countries that phased out OCP use several decades ago. Concentrations of PCBs in sewage sludge were also consistently low and rarely exceeded European contaminant limits and therefore, regulatory limits may warrant review. The authors recommend that Australian authorities revise regulatory requirements for OCP and PCBs contaminant levels in sewage sludge destined for beneficial reuse as biosolids.

  17. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from rivers in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Wieser, C.; May, T.W.; Ellersieck, M.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites located in the Mobile (MRB), Apalachicola-Flint-Chattahoochee (ARB), Savannah (SRB), and Pee Dee (PRB) River Basins to document spatial trends in accumulative chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the primary contaminants of concern. Concentrations of Hg in bass samples from all basins exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous mammals (> 0.1????g/g ww), juvenile and adult fish (> 0.2????g/g ww), and piscivorous birds (> 0.3????g/g ww). Total PCB concentrations in samples from the MRB, ARB, and PRB were > 480??ng/g ww and may be a risk to piscivorous wildlife. Selenium concentrations also exceeded toxicity thresholds (> 0.75????g/g ww) in MRB and ARB fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dacthal, endosulfan, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, and methoxychlor) organochlorine residues were generally low or did not exceed toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife. TCDD-EQs exceeded wildlife dietary guidelines (> 5??pg/g ww) in MRB and PRB fish. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was generally greatest in MRB bass and carp. Altered fish health indicators and reproductive biomarker were noted in individual fish, but mean responses were similar among basins. The field necropsy and histopathological examination determined that MRB fish were generally in poorer health than those from the other basins, primarily due to parasitic infestations. Tumors were found in few fish (n = 5; 0.01%); ovarian tumors of smooth muscle

  18. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  19. Crater-lake Santa Maria del Oro as a Pristine Reference for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP' s) and Heavy Metals Content in Environmental Investigations in Western Mexico (Project Conacyt-Semarnat 2002-C01-0463, in Progress).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-Del Valle, P. F.; Gomez-Hermosillo, C. M.; Venegas-Garcia, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    Santa Maria del Oro Lake ( SMO) (21.37° N, 104.57° W; 750 m a.s.l.) is a quaternary crater-lake located at western Mexico in the natural border between two geological provinces: the plio-quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the oligo-miocenic silicic volcanic province Sierra Madre Occidental. SMO, a tropical freshwater lake, is a warm-monomictic lake having a diameter of ca. 2 km and a mean depth at the depocenter of ca. 60 m, where three benthos cores were recovered. Contents of POP' s, total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and heavy metals were analyzed. Geochemistry and mineralogy also were studied in shallow sediments which corresponded to the decade of 50-60's, otherwise the beginning of industrial development of central Mexico; which is considered the possible source of emission of POP' s and heavy metals. Dioxin, furan, plaguicides and PCB' s contents were analyzed by a GC-MS applying USEPA methods. In the first 40 cm (n= 20) of the sedimentary column ( SC) the absence of POP' s was evidenced, applying a method detection limit ( MDL) of 5 μ g/ml for dioxin, furan and PCB' s. For plaguicides like chlordane and toxaphene the MDL was 0.5 μ g/ml and for plaguicides like DDT, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlore and mirex the MDL was 5 μ g/ml. The MDL for HCB was 1 μ g/ml. The average (n= 30) for TIC, TOC and total carbon (TC) for the first 40 cm of the SC is as follows: TIC 2.4 %, TOC 3.7 % and TC 6.12 %. The average (n= 20) content (in ppm) of heavy metals for the first 20 cm of the SC is as follows: As 5.97, Cr 27.54, Cu 16.31, Ni 12.29, Pb 21.35 and Zn 82.46. These contents are roughly similar to the clarke of these metals in volcanic rocks. After the criteria of severe effect level ( SEL) of heavy metal in sediments, the content of these metals is below SEL levels. These results permit us to conclude that the sediments of SMO can be considered in unaffected state with respect to antropogenic contamination like POP' s and heavy

  20. Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in a rural population.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A M; Semchuk, K M; McDuffie, H H; Ledingham, D L; Cordeiro, D M; Cessna, A J; Irvine, D G; Senthilselvan, A; Dosman, J A

    1999-06-25

    Exposure to environmentally and occupationally encountered toxicants can be associated with the development of certain autoimmune diseases and with the induction of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Some chemicals used in the agricultural industry are known to affect immune function but their roles in the induction of autoimmunity in general, and ANA in particular, have not been reported previously. This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of ANA in a rural population and to determine environmental and occupational exposures with which they are associated. This cross-sectional study represented one component of an interdisciplinary project (Prairie Ecosystem Study [PECOS], Eco-Research Program, Tri-Council Secretariat of Canada) designed to explore, in a rural population, the roles of environmental exposures as determinants of human health status. Information regarding lifetime, current, and main occupational exposures in the rural-dwelling study population was derived from a self-administered questionnaire. Sera from consenting subjects, collected during the months of February and March 1996, were assayed for ANA by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells. The study population comprised 322 adult subjects (mean age 49.3+/-14.7 yr; range 16-87 yr). Statistical analyses adjusted for age and sex revealed that the presence of ANA among the participants was associated with a current agricultural occupation that included oilseed production, hog production, or poultry production. There was a significant association between ANA positivity and a current main farming operation of crop production. There was also an association among individual participants between lifetime exposure to the insecticide class of pesticides and the presence of ANA. In this rural study population, ANA positivity was significantly associated with lifetime exposure specifically to carbamate, organochlorine (including aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and lindane, but

  1. Development of a simple extraction and clean-up procedure for determination of organochlorine pesticides in soil using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rashid, A; Nawaz, S; Barker, H; Ahmad, I; Ashraf, M

    2010-04-23

    A procedure based on QuEChERS extraction and a simultaneous liquid-liquid partition clean-up was developed. The procedure involved extraction of hydrated soil samples using acetonitrile and clean-up by liquid-liquid partition into n-hexane. The hexane extracts produced were clean and suitable for determination using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated by analysis of soil samples, spiked at five levels between 1 and 200 microg kg(-1). The recovery values were generally between 70 and 100% and the relative standard deviation values (%RSDs) were at or below 20%. The procedure was validated for determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides. These were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide (trans), aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane (trans), chlordane (cis), oxychlordane, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE. The method achieved low limits of detection (LOD; typically 0.3 microg kg(-1)) and low limits of quantification (LOQ; typically 1.0 microg kg(-1)). The method performance was also assessed using five fortified soil samples with different physico-chemical properties and the method performance was consistent for the different types of soil samples. The proposed method was compared with an established procedure based on Soxtec extraction. This comparison was carried out using six soil samples collected from regions of Pakistan with a history of intensive pesticide use. The results of this comparison showed that the two procedures produced results with good agreement. The proposed method produced cleaner extracts and therefore led to lower limits of quantification. The proposed method was less time consuming and safer to use. The six samples tested during this comparison showed that soils from cotton growing regions contained a number of persistent OC residues at relatively low levels (<10 microg kg(-1)). These

  2. Tracking the spring migration of a bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) across the Himalaya with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Javed, Salim; Takekawa, John Y.; Douglas, David C.; Rahmani, Asad R.; Kanai, Yutaka; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Choudhury, Binod C.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  3. Pesticide residues and heavy metals in Lake Victoria Nile perch, Lates niloticus, belly flap oil.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, P; Muyonga, J H; Sserunjogi, M L

    2009-05-01

    Oil was extracted from the belly flaps of varied sizes of Nile perch caught from Lake Victoria (Uganda). The oil was analyzed for pesticide residues and heavy metals. Total residual concentration of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, endosulfan, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, chlordane, endrin, aldrin and chlorofenvinphos increased significantly (p < 0.05) with fish size. Mercury and lead were detected in most samples while arsenic and cadmium were below detection limits. Nile perch may, therefore, accumulate significant amount of chemical contaminants. Levels of contaminants in Nile perch oil were, in general, within limits considered acceptable by the stringent German Food Law for human consumption.

  4. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. II. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of 16 Substances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Puccinia graminis tritici); stripe rust (Puccinia glumarum); wheat Tea -i--u-st--iucTiia rub-Tgovera); stem rust; cereal rust; •-ccinia recondita; Pucc nia...Labrador tea , and Spiraea accumulated 500 to 3,500 ppb mercury in leaves and stems (dry weight basis) if their roots were in direct contact with a...J. Radoniski, M. Keplinger and M. BalkuIs, "Tumorigenicity of Aldrin, Diledrin and Endrin in the Albino Rat," Ind. Med. .9urq.., 39, 426-434 (1970

  5. Organochlorine chemical residues in white pelicans and western grebes from the Klamath Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boellstorff, D.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Anderson, D.W.; O'Neill, E.J.; Keith, J.O.; Prouty, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples were analyzed for 12 organochlorine chemicals. Concentrations of DDT + DDD and dieldrin in American white pelican(Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) eggs collected at the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges decreased from 1969 to 1981; DDE and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues did not significantly change. Differences between PCB residues in eggs collected from Lower Klamath and Clear Lake colonies in 1969 suggest different migration routes or wintering areas between populations nesting at these two locations. White pelican and western grebe(Aechmophorus occidentalis) PCB/DDE ratios were 0.13 and 1.58, respectively, suggesting different exposure patterns. White pelican eggshell thickness increased between 1969 and 1981, but remained significantly less than pre-1947 values. Western grebe shell thickness was not significantly different from pre-1947 values. Endrin caused some of the pelican mortalities in the Klamath Basin from 1975 to 1981. Pelicans may have acquired endrin in California, but possibly from areas outside of the Klamath Basin.

  6. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (III) a,b 339.8 1.000 Chromium (VI) a,b 16.02 0.982 Cyanide c 22 n/a Dieldrin d 0.24 n/a Endrin d 0.086...) CF. The CMCd shall be rounded to two significant digits. c CMC should be considered free cyanide as...) Conversion factor (CF) Arsenic (III) a,b 147.9 1.000 Chromium (VI) a,b 10.98 0.962 Cyanide c 5.2 n/a...

  8. Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

    1988-02-01

    The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

  9. Estimated ages of some large giant sequoias: General Sherman keeps getting younger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.

    2000-01-01

    During 1975-77, 168 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found moribund or dead in 29 states were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); 32 specimens from 13 states were analyzed for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). PCBs were present in 166 bald eagle carcasses and DDE was found in 165. TDE and dieldrin were identified in 137 samples, trans-nonachlor in 118, and oxychlordane in 90. Brains of five eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin, and two eagles possibly died of endrin poisoning. Nine eagle livers, analyzed because of suspected lead poisoning, contained high levels of lead. Twenty percent of the eagles died from shooting, the most common cause of death; this cause of death, however, has declined.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide, PCB, and PBB residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 29 states--1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaiser, T.E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    During 1975-77, 168 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found moribund or dead in 29 states were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); 32 specimens from 13 states were analyzed for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). PCBs were present in 166 bald eagle carcasses and DDE was found in 165. TDE and dieldrin were identified in 137 samples, trans-nonachlor in 118, and oxychlordane in 90. Brains of five eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin, and two eagles possibly died of endrin poisoning. Nine eagle livers, analyzed because of suspected lead poisoning, contained high levels of lead. Twenty percent of the eagles died from shooting, the most common cause of death; this cause of death, however, has declined.

  11. Environmental Review Guide for Operations (ERGO) - A Compliance Assessment Manual for Use at All USACE Civil-Funded Projects and Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    dithiolan-2-y Carbamic chloride. I x U097 79-44-7 dimethyl- Carbaryl 100 x 63-25-2 Carbofuran 10/10,000 10 1563-66-2 Carbon disulfide 10.000 100 x P022 75...107-12-0 Propenenitrile,3-chloro- 1000 1000 P027 542-76-7 Propoxur x 114-26-I Propyl chloroformate 500 109-61-5 Propylene (Propene) x 115-07-1...and 141.40(n)(12)) Organic Contaminants Aldrin Butachlor Carbaryl Dicaniba Dieldrin 3-H5 droxycarbofuran ,Metholll I Metolachlor Metribuzin

  12. A summary of pesticides in ground-water data collected by government agencies in Indiana, December 1985 to April 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    More than 1 pesticide was present in 16 of the 51 samples that had detections, for a total of 90 individual pesticide detections. Concentrations of the detected pesticides ranged from 0.04 to 49 micrograms per liter, and two-thirds of the detected concentrations were less than 1 microgram per liter. In about 29 percent of all detections, the concentration of 9 pesticides alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, dieldrin, EDB, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, simazine, and terbufos exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or adult lifetime Health Advisory.

  13. Pesticide residue levels in Argentinian pasteurised milk.

    PubMed

    Maitre, M I; de la Sierra, P; Lenardon, A; Enrique, S; Marino, F

    1994-10-14

    Pasteurised milk--120 samples--was analysed (in Santa Fe City, Argentina) to determine organochlorinated pesticides. Almost all samples showed the presence of such residues; the compounds more frequently detected being: heptachlor and its epoxide (98%) and hexachlorocyclohexane .HCH. alpha and gamma isomers. Residues of aldrin and dieldrin; chlordane (alpha and gamma); endosulfan (I and II); DDT (o,p-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p-DDD, p,p'-DDD) as well as hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB) were also found. Despite their presence high concentrations are sporadic, the mean values being less than FAO/OMS tolerance limits. Relations between maxima concentrations and seasons were not found.

  14. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  15. Pesticide mortality of young white-faced ibis in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Meeker, D.L.

    1972-01-01

    The combination of the symptoms observed in sick and dying birds and the high brain residues in the three birds collected dying, as well as in two of the four collected dead, implicate dieldrin as at least one of the causes of mortality of young ibis at the Lavaca Bay colony. Mercury residues in the kidneys of all four dead young, including those with low brain residues of dieldrin, suggest that birds were exposed to mercury in rice fields and that mercury may also have contributed to the mortality. Since adult ibis normally feed their young on invertebrates collected in rice fields treated with aldrin and Ceresan L, the use of these rice pesticides appears to be a serious hazard to this species, and probably to other wild birds with similar habits.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from coastal environment of Cantabria (northern Spain) and evaluation of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sonia; Gorri, Daniel; Irabien, Angel

    2011-05-01

    This paper documents levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in coastal surface sediments from selected reference sites on the northern Atlantic Spanish coast. One hundred eight samples covering three estuaries in the Cantabrian Coast were sampled in 2006 and analyzed in the finer fraction (<63 μm) for 19 OCs by gas chromatography with electron capture detector after confirmation by mass spectrometry. Detected organochlorine pesticides were endosulfan α, endosulfan β, endosulfan sulfate, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, dieldrin, methoxychlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDD). Total OCs concentrations ranged from 1.8 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) to 3.9 ng g(-1) dw, showing a uniform distribution along the studied area, and being consistent with recorded levels in the literature for coastal sediments in other reference sites with low levels of pollution by OCs along the Atlantic Ocean. Endosulfan, 4,4'-DDD, HCB, aldrin, and dieldrin seemed to be ubiquitous as the legacy of past uses and deposition. OCs concentrations were significantly correlated to organic matter content and particle size distribution. No adverse biological effects derived from these pollutants are expected to take place as it can be concluded from the comparison with the existent marine sediment quality guidelines.

  17. Residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Fang, Li; Wang, Junliang; Liu, Weiping; Yuan, Hejin; Jantunen, Liisa; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-03-28

    Studies on residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) facilitate the assessment of the contamination level, distribution, sources, transportation, and trend of these selected OCPs in China. In this work we investigated the concentration levels of endosulfans and chlordane, which are currently used, and the never used aldrin and dieldrin in the province of Zhejiang, a rainy, and hilly tea-growing province in eastern China. The average/mean residue levels of OCPs was in the order ∑endosulfan > ∑chlordane > aldrin > dieldrin. The residue level was in good agreement with the usage of OCPs in Zhejiang. The spatial distribution showed that the residues of OCPs in soils from the mountain area were always higher than those in soils from the plains. The distribution characteristics were related to usage for current-use OCPs and temperature for never used OCPs. The isomeric ratios and enantiomeric fractions are useful tools to identify the degradation preference of contaminants. The wide range of ratios between trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) indicated that the degradation of the two isomers of chlordane was different at different sites. Nonracemic residues of TC and CC were observed in most soils; this is significant since the enantiomers have different toxicities.

  18. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in umbilical cord blood and related lifestyle and dietary intake factors among pregnant women of the Huaihe River Basin in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Pu, Yabing; Tian, Haoyuan; Cheng, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Xin; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with highly lipophilic properties, long half-lives, and persistence in the environment, are prevalent in the environment even though they have been banned for >30years. We aimed to investigate the current OCP exposure levels in cord blood from healthy pregnant women residing in the Huaihe River Basin, China, and examined the association between OCP levels and dietary habits and lifestyle factors. In this study, we measured the exposure levels of 17 OCPs in the umbilical cord blood from 999 healthy pregnant women; we also administered 1000 self-reported questionnaires regarding the general characteristics and dietary habits of those women. Our results showed that ρ,ρ'-DDE, ρ,ρ'-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor, which had higher measured concentrations (2.01±1.89, 4.31±5.68, 7.29±8.74, 5.27±7.65, and 0.98±1.42ng/mL, respectively) and detection frequencies (99.69%, 100.00%, 81.79%, 75.00%, and 74.49%, respectively), were the predominant OCPs in cord blood, and the higher levels of DDTs, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were mainly due to recent use. In addition, most of the HCHs in cord blood were derived not only from historical use of technical HCH, but also from the additional use of lindane. In addition, we found that the education level of the pregnant women and monthly household income were positively correlated with OCP levels, particularly ρ,ρ'-DDE, aldrin, and dieldrin. Furthermore, the consumption of red meat (pork, beef, and lamb), fish, and bean products may be an important contributing factor to the increased concentrations of OCPs in cord blood, while the intake of poultry and pickles was negatively correlated with aldrin level. This study is the first to provide adequate data on current OCP exposure levels in cord blood from pregnant women in the Huaihe River Basin.

  19. Toxicity studies with dieldrin: teratological studies in mice dosed orally with HEOD.

    PubMed

    Dix, K M; van der Pauw, C L; McCarthy, W V

    1977-08-01

    Dose of 1.5 and 4.0 mg/kg/day of HEOD in corn oil and 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day of HEOD in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were administered to pregnant CF1 mice on days 6 to 14 (inclusive) of gestation. Some maternal and foetal toxicity was seen in the HEOD in DMSO and DMSO control groups compared with the untreated controls, such as reduced body weight gains, some maternal deaths, lower foetal body weights and increased incidence of delayed ossification of the foetal bones. No maternal or foetal toxicity was seen in the HEOD in corn oil or the corn oil control groups. No compound-related teratogenic effects were observed.

  20. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

    1981-03-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  1. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  2. Determination of chlorinated insecticides in bottom sediment using an electron-capture gas chromatography screening method, Austin, Texas, 1991 and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert D.; Murtagh, Lucinda K.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two bottom-sediment samples were collected from Town Lake in Austin, Texas, in 1991 and 1992 and analyzed for chlorinated insecticides by a reconnaissance-quality, electron-capture gas chromatography screening method developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Four different chlorinated insecticides (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDT) and two degradation products of p,p'-DDT (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) were detected in these samples. The most significant insecticides detected were chlordane, which was detected in 20 of the 22 samples at concentrations that ranged from 26 to 140 micrograms per kilogram, and p,p'-DDT, which was detected in all 22 samples at concen- trations that ranged from 5 to 40 micrograms per kilogram. Degradation products of p,p'-DDT were detected in all 22 samples. Concentrations of p,p'-DDD ranged from not detected to 117 micrograms per kilogram and for p,p'-DDE from 9 to 97 micrograms per kilogram. Of the 22 samples collected, 15 also were analyzed by the standard USGS laboratory analytical method for chlorinated insecticides to determine the comparability of the two methods. Correlation coefficients were calculated for chlordane (0.8662), p,p'-DDT (0.6393), p,p'-DDD (0.9401), p,p'-DDE (0.8595), and dieldrin (0.3819). A paired sign test at the 95 percent confidence level showed no significant difference between the screening method and laboratory analytical method for all detected insecticides except aldrin. P-values were calculated from the data for chlordane (l.0000), p,p'-DDT (0.1796), p,p'-DDD (l,0000), p,p'-DDE (0.1796), and dieldrin (0.2891).

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in the blood of people living in areas of intensive pesticide use in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Ahmed B; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed M A; Elzorgani, Gafar A; Laing, Mark D

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-six human blood samples were collected from six locations that represent areas of intensive pesticide use in Sudan, which included irrigated cotton schemes (Wad Medani, Hasaheesa, Elmanagil, and Elfaw) and sugarcane schemes (Kenana and Gunaid). Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), heptachlor epoxide, γ-HCH, and dieldrin were detected in blood from all locations surveyed. Aldrin was not detected in any of the samples analyzed, probably due to its conversion to dieldrin. The levels of total organochlorine burden detected were higher in the blood from people in the irrigated cotton schemes (mean 261 ng ml(-1), range 38-641 ng ml(-1)) than in the blood of people from the irrigated sugarcane schemes (mean 204 ng ml(-1), range 59-365 ng ml(-1)). The highest levels of heptachlor epoxide (170 ng ml(-1)) and γ-HCH (92 ng ml(-1)) were observed in blood samples from Hasaheesa, while the highest levels of DDE (618 ng ml(-1)) and dieldrin (82 ng ml(-1)) were observed in blood samples from Wad Medani and Kenana, respectively. The organochlorine levels in blood samples seemed to decrease with increasing distance from the old irrigated cotton schemes (Wad Medani, Hasaheesa, and Elmanagil) where the heavy application of these pesticides took place historically.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River and its tributary streams, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, R.J.; Clifton, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in bed sediments were assessed from samples collected at 24 sites in the San Joaquin River and its tributaries in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Sampling was designed to collect the finest grained bed sediments present in the vicinity of each site. One or more of the 14 pesticides analyzed were detected at every site. Pesticides detected at one or more sites were chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan, mirex, and toxaphene. Pesticides not detected were endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, methoxychlor, and perthane. The most frequently detected pesticides were DDD (83% of sites), DDE (all sites), DDT (33% of sites), and dieldrin (58% of sites). Maximum concentrations of these pesticides, which were correlated with each other and with the amount of organic carbon in the sample, were DDD, 260 micrograms/kg; DDE, 430 micrograms/kg; DDT, 420 micrograms/kg; and dieldrin, 8.9 micrograms/kg. Six small tributary streams that drain agricultural areas west of the San Joaquin River had the highest concentrations. Water concentrations and loads were estimated for each pesticide from its concentration in bed sediments, the concentration of suspended sediment, and streamflow. Estimated loadings of DDD, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin from tributaries to the San Joaquin River indicate that most of the loading to the river at the time of the study was probably from the westside tributaries. Estimated water concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criterion for the sum of DDD, DDE, and DDt of 0.001 microgram/L at nine of the 24 sites sampled. Five of the nine sites are westside tributaries and one is the San Joaquin River near Vernalis. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    PubMed

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-03-01

    Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America.

  6. Federal chemist reports on insecticide dangers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1957-01-01

    There's been much discussion, and considerable argument, in recent years regarding the effects of crop dusting on game populations. In an attempt to get some of the answers, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been conducting a series of experiments, using captive quail? and pheasants.....By. feeding. specified amounts??of various insecticides, they found how 'much it would take to kill outright all test birds, how much to produce partIal kill, and how much would have relatively little effect. An interesting result? of the experiments was the proof that even non-fatal doses would stunt growth and reduce egg fertility, and that birds were unable to reproduce at all after two generations of exposure to these poisons....Of the cheriricals tested, aldrin and endrin were the most poisonous to the birds. If aldrin were applied at the rate of one pound per acre, each square? foot of ground would have enough poison? to kill two adult quail or 20 two-week-old birds.

  7. Interlaboratory analysis of high molecular weight organochlorines in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.

    High volume air samples were collected in Boston, MA, and Columbia, SC using a glass fiber filter — polyurethane foam trap, and the pooled sample extracts from each location were distributed among nine laboratories for organochlorine analysis. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were reported by all laboratories, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 26-39 % for total PCB. The total PCB concentration in Boston was 7.1 ng m -3, compared to 4.4 ng m -3 in Columbia. Other organochlorines identified by three or more laboratories included hexachlorobenzene and the pesticides DDT, DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane, and polychloroterpenes. RSDs for most pesticides ranged from 35-75% and as high as 116% for polychloroterpenes (quantified as toxaphene). In general, pesticide levels were an order of magnitude higher in Columbia than in Boston.

  8. Toxicities of several pesticides to two species of Cladocerans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, Herman O.; Cope, Oliver B.

    1966-01-01

    The organophosphate insecticides were generally more toxic than the chlorinated hydrocarbons to both species. DDVP was the most toxic compound investigated. DDT was the most toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon tested, and lindane the least. There was a wide range in the toxicity of hydrocarbons to D. pulex, with 48-hour EC50 values ranging from 0.36 to 460 ppb. DDT was 2.9 times more toxic at 50 F than at 80 F. Malathion was 8.8 times more toxic at 50 F than at 70 F to S. serrulatus. Endrin was 12 times more toxic than dieldrin to D. pulex. DDT was 2.6 times more toxic at 60 F to first-instar organisms up to 18 hours old than to 7-day-old organisms.

  9. Brief communication: Organochlorine pesticides in an archived firn core from Law Dome, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Marie; Curran, Mark A. J.; Moy, Andrew D.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Cropp, Roger; Teixeira, Camilla F.; Bengtson Nash, Susan M.

    2016-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were, for the first time, quantified in archived firn cores from East Antarctica representative of 1945-1957 and 1958-1967 (current era, C.E.). The core sections were melted under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, and the meltwater was analysed. Methods allowed quantification of hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlor, trans-chlordane, dieldrin and endrin. While the core presented evidence of nominal contamination by modern-use chemicals, indicating handling and/or storage contamination, legacy OCP concentrations and deposition rates reported are orders of magnitude lower than those from Arctic regions, lending support for their validity. The study further provides a description of equipment used and suggests methods to overcome logistical challenges associated with trace organic contaminant detection in polar regions.

  10. The Status of the Macroinvertebrate Community in the St. Croix River, MN and WI: an examination of ecological health using techniques of multivariate analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, T.P.; Strand, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981-82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane and mirex. Compounds looked for but not positively identified include oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, endrin, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene. PCB levels in black duck wings declined between the 1979-80 and 1981-82 collections. PCB levels in black duck wings from the northern region of the Atlantic Flyway were higher than those in wings from the southern region. Mean DDE residues in mallard wings declined between collections and differed among flyways and regions. PCB levels in mallard wings differed only among flyways and regions.

  11. The relative toxicities of several pesticides to naiads of three species of stoneflies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, Herman O.; Cope, Oliver B.

    1968-01-01

    Static bioassays were conducted to determine the relative acute toxicities of some insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, a defoliant, and a molluscicide to the naiads of three species of stonef!y, Pteronarcys califomica, Pteronarcella badia, and Claassenia sabulosa. Toxic effects were measured by determination of median lethal concn (Lcoo) for 24-, 48-, and 96-hr exposures, at 15.5C. Endrin and dieldrin were the most and DDT the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides tested. Parathion was the most toxic organophosphate insecticide to P. califomica naiads, but dursban was the most toxic to P. badia and C. sabulosa naiads. Trichlorofon ( Dipterex) was the least toxic to all three species. P. badia, the species of smallest size, was the species most susceptible to most pesticides, followed in descending order of sensitivity by C. sabulosa and P. califomica. Smaller specimens of P. californica naiads were consistently more susceptible to some insecticides than larger specimens of the same species.

  12. Effects of lindane on the glucose metabolism in rat brain cortex cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pulido, J.A.; del Hoyo, N.; Perez-Albarsanz, M.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The influence of 0.5 mM {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane) on glucose transport has been investigated using the analog 3-O-methyl-D(U-{sup 14}C) glucose. The glucose uptake was lineal for at least 10 sec. Preincubation of dissociated brain cortex cells with lindane decreased the transport of glucose with respect to the controls. The treatment of brain cortex cells with other organochlorine compounds indicated that the {alpha}-, {delta}-HCH isomers and dieldrin reproduced the same inhibitory pattern, while {beta}-HCH and endrin were inactive. The total radioactivity incorporated into CO{sub 2} from (U-{sup 14}C) glucose in the cerebral cortex is also inhibited by lindane in a time dependent manner.

  13. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of Maya women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Inmaculada Riba López, M; Angel DelValls Casillas, T; León, Jesús Alfredo Araujo; Anjan Kumar Prusty, B; Álvarez Cervera, Fernando J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities. About 30% of the Maya population consumes water directly from contaminated wells and sinkholes, resulting in a chronic exposure to OCP. The samples served to identify and quantify high levels of OCP residues (18.43 mg/kg of heptachlor epoxide and 1.92 mg/kg of endrin in the metropolitan zone; 2.10 mg/kg of dieldrin, 0.117 mg/kg of endosulfan II, 0.103 mg/kg of heptachlor, 0.178 mg/kg of endrin, and 0.127 mg/kg of endrin aldehyde in the main agricultural zone and on the west coast). The detected levels of OCP residues are a major concern and represent a potential risk to women and children in the region. This could be associated with the high rates of cervical uterine and breast cancer mortality in Yucatan. Thus, regulations on the usage of OCP and their enforcement are necessary, and it is important to establish a yearly monitoring program for OCP residues in breast milk and groundwater, as well as to implement health promotion programs for women in particular and the general population in general.

  14. Water-quality trends in White Rock Creek Basin from 1912-1994 identified using sediment cores from White Rock Lake Reservoir, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.

    1997-01-01

    continued at least until 1990. Recent use of dieldrin and aldrin, which degrades to dieldrin, has not been reported; however, increasing trends in dieldrin since the 1970s suggest recent urban use could have occurred.

  15. From the 1988 drought to the 1993 flood: Transport of halogenated organic compounds with the Mississippi river suspended sediment at Thebes, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Suspended sediment was isolated from water samples collected from the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL, eight times over a 5-year period from May 1988 through September 1993 in order to evaluate the transport of lipophilic halogenated organic compounds associated with the suspended sediment. Two hydrologic extremes were included-the 1988 drought and the 1993 flood. Halogenated organic compounds included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, DCPA (dacthal), trifluralin, aldrin, dieldrin, and chlordane components. Sediment transport of most of these organic compounds was substantially higher during the 1993 flood then at other sampling times. The extreme transports during the flood were due to unusually high concentrations of some contaminants on the suspended sediment, low to average concentrations of suspended sediment being transported, and unusually high water discharges.

  16. The status and trends of trace element and organic contaminants in oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in the waters of the Carolinas, USA.

    PubMed

    Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Cantillo, Adriana Y; O'Connor, Thomas P

    2002-02-21

    Concentrations of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn), lindane and six groups of organic contaminants (total-chlordane, total-PCB, total-DDT, Dieldrin and Aldrin, total-butyltins, total-PAHs) at the 11 NOAA mussel watch project (MWP) sites located in North and South Carolina have been compared with the national US MWP data. Three sites from North and South Carolina had concentrations of PAHs in the upper 15th percentile on a national scale. One site had high concentrations of butyltins, and two sites had high Se concentrations. All sites from Beaufort, North Carolina, south had high As concentrations. Decreasing temporal trends were found for As, Cd, total-chlordane, DDT, PCB, and PAHs at some sites.

  17. Insecticide residues in big game mammals of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Greichus, Y.A.; Hugghins, E.J.

    1967-01-01

    An analysis was made of eight insecticide residues in the renal fat tissue of 23 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 13 mule deer (O. hemionus), 9 pronghorns (Antilocapra americana), and 2 elk (Cervus canadensis) collected in South Dakota during the fall of 1964. Identification and quantitative analysis of the insecticide residues were accomplished by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography. Eighty-five percent of the samples had residues of DDT with an average of 0.13 ppm. DDD residues were found in 11 percent of the samples, DDE in 38 percent, dieldrin in 38 percent, and lindane in 15 percent, with an average of 0.07, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.04 ppm, respectively. Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and aldrin were not detected in concentrations above the limits of the experiment set by the investigators.

  18. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kräuchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W

    2009-12-01

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude.

  19. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Desoto Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Chlordane 2.4 0.0043 ----- DDT 1.1 0.001 ----- DDD 0.6 0.0031 0.0031 DDE 1,050 0.0022 0.0022 Dieldrin 0.24 0.00054 0.00054 Endosulfan (Alpha) 0.22 0.056...9.9 Alpha-BHC (alpha-Lindane) 0.4 5.1 DDD 0.7 9.9 Beta-BHC (beta-Lindane) 1.0 5.1 DDT 1.0 9.9 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane) 1.8 5.1 Methoxychlor 1.2... DDT 0.004 0.1 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane) 0.014 0.05 Methoxychlor 0.005 0.5 Gamma-BHC (gamma-Lindane) 0.035 0.05 Aldrin 0.008 0.5 Gamma-Chlordane

  20. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Indian Cave State Park Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    DDT 1.1 0.001 ----- DDD 0.6 0.0031 0.0031 DDE 1,050 0.0022 0.0022 Dieldrin 0.24 0.00054 0.00054 Endosulfan (Alpha) 0.22 0.056...Limit (g/kg) Reporting Limit (g/kg) DDE 0.8 9.9 Alpha-BHC (alpha-Lindane) 0.4 5.1 DDD 0.7 9.9 Beta-BHC (beta-Lindane) 1.0 5.1 DDT 1.0 9.9 Delta...BHC (beta-Lindane) 0.009 0.05 DDT 0.004 0.1 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane) 0.014 0.05 Methoxychlor 0.005 0.5 Gamma-BHC (gamma-Lindane) 0.035 0.05 Aldrin

  1. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Campoy, C; Jiménez, M; Olea-Serrano, M F; Moreno-Frías, M; Cañabate, F; Olea, N; Bayés, R; Molina-Font, J A

    2001-11-01

    In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of Poniente Hospital in El Ejido, Almería. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed. The cleaning of the sample before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used silica Sep-Pak. Among other pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and its metabolites, lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan were identified. The presence of these products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The identification and quantification of these organochlorine molecules is important because they have estrogenic effects.

  2. Organochlorine residues and shell thickness in eggs of the clapper rail, common gallinule, purple gallinule, and limpkin (Class Aves), eastern and southern United States, 1972-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Cromartie, E.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  3. Assessment of average exposure to organochlorine pesticides in southern Togo from water, maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Mawussi, G; Sanda, K; Merlina, G; Pinelli, E

    2009-03-01

    Drinking water, cowpea and maize grains were sampled in some potentially exposed agro-ecological areas in Togo and analysed for their contamination by some common organochlorine pesticides. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides were investigated in ten subsamples of maize, ten subsamples of cowpea and nine subsamples of drinking water. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of pesticides were also determined. Pesticides residues in drinking water (0.04-0.40 microg l(-1)) were higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.03 microg l(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan levels (13.16-98.79 microg kg(-1)) in cowpea grains exceeded MRLs applied in France (10-50 microg kg(-1)). Contaminants' levels in maize grains (0.53-65.70 microg kg(-1)) were below the MRLs (20-100 microg kg(-1)) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the WHO. EDIs of the tested pesticides ranged from 0.02% to 162.07% of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Population exposure levels of dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide were higher than the FAO/WHO standards. A comprehensive national monitoring programme on organochlorine pesticides should be undertaken to include such other relevant sources like meat, fish, eggs and milk.

  4. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; ForsströM, Sanja; Muir, Derek C. G.; Pohjola, Veijo; van de Wal, Roderik; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2010-09-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some "low-persistence" pesticides with high OH· reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar environment. In 2005, we drilled an ice core on Holtedahlfonna, one of the major ice fields on Svalbard, Norway to measure the input of 47 CUPs and 17 LPs to a high-elevation abiotic environment with no local pesticide sources. Of these, 9 CUPs and 12 LPs were observed in at least one of 6 core segments dating to 1953: 15 of these were found in enough core segments to reveal time-related trends. CUPs often observed included chlorpyrifos, dacthal, α- and β- endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, trifluralin, and γ-HCH. LPs most often observed included methoxychlor, α- and γ-chlordane, cis- and trans- nonachlor, endrin, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDE. In our comparison of core burdens at Holtedahlfonna and Austfonna (220 km ENE from Holtedahlfonna), we found twice as many CUPs at Austfonna along with greater amounts of dieldrin, methoxychlor, α-endosulfan and chlorpyrifos suggesting different accumulation processes or sources. Air mass back trajectories over a 10-year period of comparison between sites (1986-1995) show air mass flow from Eurasia 74% of the time to Austfonna and 45% to Holtedahfonna which may account for some of the differences.

  5. Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine residues and shell thicknesses were surveyed in eggs of the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica), common gallinule (Gallinula chloropas), and limpkin (Aramus guarauna) from the eastern and southern United States. Clapper rail eggs were collected during 1972-73 in New Jersey, Virginia, and South Carolina. During 1973-74, gallinule eggs were collected in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and limpkin eggs were collected in Florida. Egg contents were analyzed for residues of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, TDE, DDE, dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphene, and endrin, and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Shell thicknesses of recent eggs of these species were compared with archival eggs that had been collected before 1947. With the exception of the limpkin, the majority of eggs analyzed contained residues of p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Geometric means ranged from 0.10 ppm to 1.3 ppm. Small amounts (less than 1.0 ppm) of mirex, dieldrin, cis-chlordane (and/or trans-nonachlor), TDE, and DDT were detected in a few eggs. No evidence of eggshell thinning was found for any of the species studied. DDE residues in clapper rail eggs were higher in New Jersey and Virginia than in South Carolina.

  6. Assessing the estrogenic potential of organochlorine pesticides in primary cultures of male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Okoumassoun, Liliane-Eustache; Averill-Bates, Diana; Gagné, François; Marion, Michel; Denizeau, Francine

    2002-09-16

    Many organochlorine pesticides are suspected of impairing natural hormonal function in organisms by mimicking endogenous estrogen. The aim of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of the organochlorine pesticides o,p'-DDT, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, mirex and DDT in rainbow trout hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (Vtg) as the biomarker. A wide range of pesticide concentrations (0.0001-100 microM) was evaluated. Among the pesticides tested, o,p'-DDT was the most potent inducer of Vtg. The lower potency of technical grade DDT relative to o,p'-DDT could be explained by the fact that this pesticide is a mixture of two different pesticides (18% o,p'-DDT and 77% p,p'-DDT). This suggests that o,p'-DDT is a stronger inducer of Vtg than p,p'-DDT. A simple hypothesis could be that pesticides mixed together competed for the same receptor to favor the formation of a complex with reduced activity towards EREs. If these compounds are classified according to the level of Vtg secreted, we observed the following decreasing order: 17beta-estradiol (E(2))>o,p'-DDT>dieldrin>aldrin>DDT. Non-toxic levels of these compounds competed with E(2) for binding to the estrogen receptor. Heptachlor and mirex did not induce Vtg. Since the latter compounds failed to stimulate Vtg production, the possibility that they could interfere with the estrogenic response by inhibiting E(2) action was tested. In the presence of heptachlor, Vtg production triggered by E(2) significantly decreased. The EC50 value for inhibition of ER binding by heptachlor was cytotoxic for hepatocytes in culture, and this could in part explain the lack of Vtg response observed with this compound at the concentrations tested. Our results indicate that organochlorine pesticides can act as positive or negative modulators of estrogenic function in rainbow trout.

  7. Pesticide residues in river Yamuna and its canals in Haryana and Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, C P; Sharma, H R; Jain, S; Dawra, J; Kaushik, A

    2008-09-01

    Yamuna, a prominent river of India covers an extensive area of 345,843 km(2) from Yamunotri glacier through six Indian states. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) namely, isomers of HCH and endosulfan, DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, dieldrin, were analysed in water of river Yamuna along its 346 km stretch passing through Haryana-Delhi-Haryana and the canals originating from it. beta-HCH, p.p'-DDT, p.p'-DDE and p.p'-DDD had maximum traceability in test samples (95-100%) followed by gamma-HCH, alpha-HCH and o.p'-DDD (60-84%) and o.p'-DDT, delta-HCH and o.p'-DDE (7-30%) while aldrin, dieldrin, alpha and beta endosulfan remained below detection limits (BDL). The concentration of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT at different sites of the river ranged between 12.76-593.49 ng/l (with a mean of 310.25 ng/l) and 66.17-722.94 ng/l (with a mean of 387.9 ng/l), respectively. In canals the values were found between 12.38-571.98 ng/l and 109.12-1572.22 ng/l for SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT, respectively. Water of Gurgaon canal and Western Yamuna canal contained maximum and minimum concentration, respectively both of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT residues. Sources of these pesticides and suggested measures to check pesticide pollution of this major Indian river, keeping in view its vital link with life, are discussed in this paper.

  8. Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

    2013-01-15

    Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance.

  9. THE PESTICIDE ENDOSULFAN, TOXAPHENE, AND DIELDRIN HAVE ESTROGENIC EFFECTS ON HUMAN ESTROGEN SENSITIVE CELLS. (R828676C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Installation Restoration Program Environmental Technology Development. Biodegradation of DIMP, Dieldrin, Isodrin, DBCP, and PCPMSO in Rocky Mountain Arsenal Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-30

    this labora- tory investigation. The use of radioisotopes is the single most sensitive and precise method of evaluating the biodegradation of organic...in the production of the herbicide Planavin®. PCPMSO is formed from the incomplete tungstate - catalyzed oxidation of the corresponding p...Woodward, 1976. Prob- lem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants IV: Physical, Chemical, Toxicological , and Biological Proper- ties of

  11. Biodegradation of DIMP, Dieldrin, Isodrin, DBCP, and PCPMSO in Rocky Mountain Arsenal Soils. Installation Restoration Program, Environmental Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    use of radioisotopes is the single most sensitive and precise method of evaluating the biodegradation of organic chemicals in environmental media. The...herbicide Planavin®. PCPMSO is formed from the incomplete tungstate - catalyzed oxidation of the corresponding p-chlorophenylmethyl- sulfide (PCPMS) with...1976. Prob- lem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants IV: Physical, Chemical, Toxicological , and Biological Proper- ties of Benzene

  12. Determination of hazardous substances in food basket eggs in Tehran, Iran: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Salar-Amoli, Jamileh; Ali-Esfahani, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Extensive distribution of hazardous substances in food chain and the deleterious effect of their residues on public health are a great concern of the society. Chicken eggs, as one of the most popular food commodities, in different parts of Tehran (Iran) were analyzed for two groups of hazardous substances including some organochlorine pesticides (OC) such as aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlor and endusulfan) and heavy metals namely mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Gas chromatography- electron capture detector, hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry, cold- vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and conductively coupled plasma atomic optical spectrometry were used to determine the levels of OCs, As, Hg and the others, respectively. For OCs, the results revealed none of the levels were more than maximum residues levels (MRLs), but three of them (Aldrin, lindane and endusulphan) were detectable. Moreover, 100% of 50 eggs had heavy metals with levels higher than limit of detection of the procedure. The levels of Pb and Hg in all eggs and Cd in 47% of samples were more than MRLs. It seems that the regular national monitoring of egg producing chain specially the quality of chicken feed should be taken into account seriously in order to safeguard public general health. PMID:26261712

  13. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata; bioaccumulation from bedded sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.; Dillon, T.M.

    1993-09-01

    In previous studies with San Francisco Bay sediments, minimal chronic sublethal effects were detected (Miscellaneous Paper D-93-1 and another Miscellaneous Paper in preparation by Moore and Dillon). To ensure that the lack of effects was not due to a lack of contaminant uptake, a bioaccumulation experiment was conducted. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediments was evaluated following a 9-week exposure with the marine polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Two sediments were evaluated, a contaminated San Francisco Bay test sediment and a clean control sediment from Sequim, WA. Animals were exposed as early juveniles through adulthood. Tissues were analyzed for metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides. Worms exposed to the contaminated San Francisco Bay sediment had significantly higher tissue residues of silver (0.30 mg/kg dry weight) and tributyltin (0.298 mg/kg dry weight). Conversely, tissue residues of control animals were significantly higher in cadmium (0.67 mg/kg dry weight) and lead (1.89 mg/kg dry weight). Small Amounts (0.02 mg/kg dry weight) of aldrin and dieldrin were measured in worms exposed to the contaminated sediment, while dieldrin and 8-BHC were found in Bioaccumulation, Neanthes, Chronic sublethal, San Francisco Bay, Dredged, Material, Sediment.

  14. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Mobile, Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint, Savannah, and Pee Dee River Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; May, Tom W.; Claunch, Rachael; Wieser, Carla; Anderson, Patrick J.; Coyle, James J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected from 13 sites in 4 river basins in the southeastern United States to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Mercury concentrations in bass samples from all sites exceeded toxicity thresholds for mammals [>0.1 micrograms per gram wet weight (ug/g ww)], fish (>0.2 ug/g ww), and birds (>0.3 ug/g ww) and were greatest (>0.5 ug/g ww) in samples from the Alabama River at Eureka Landing, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks, Alabama; the Apalachicola River at Blountstown, Florida; the Savannah River at Sylvania, Georgia; and the Pee Dee River at Bucksport, South Carolina. Selenium concentrations were relatively high (>0.75 ug/g ww) in fish from the Tombigbee River at Lavaca, Alabama; the Mobile River at Bucks; and the Chattahoochee River at Omaha, Georgia compared to those from other sites. Concentrations of 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)- 1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were high in fish from the Chattahoochee River at Omaha and the Mobile River near Bucks, which was near a 2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-1,1- dichloroethylene (DDT) formulating facility that historically discharged into the lower Mobile River. Toxaphene concentrations in fish from the Flint River near Albany, Georgia (60-100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) ww) may pose a risk to fish. Concentrations of other formerly used (total chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, aldrin, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene) and currently used (pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole

  15. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and metals in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Sauther, Michelle L; Rainwater, Katherine A E; Mills, Rachel E; Cuozzo, Frank P; Zhang, Baohong; McDaniel, Les N; Abel, Michael T; Marsland, Eric J; Weber, Martha A; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2009-12-01

    Like most of Madagascar's endemic primates, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) face a number of threats to their survival. Although habitat loss is of greatest concern, other anthropogenic factors including environmental contamination may also affect lemur health and survival. In this study, we examined ring-tailed lemurs from the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), southern Madagascar for exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metals and examined differences in contaminant concentrations between sexes and among age groups, troops, and habitats. A total of 14 pesticides and 13 metals was detected in lemur blood (24 individuals) and hair (65 individuals) samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin were among the most prevalent pesticides detected. Surprisingly, the persistent metabolite of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, was not detected. The most commonly detected metals were aluminum, zinc, boron, phosphorus, silicon, and copper, whereas metals considered more hazardous to wildlife (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, vanadium) were not found above detection limits. Overall, concentrations of OC pesticides and metals were low and similar to those considered to be background concentrations in other studies examining the ecotoxicology of wild mammals. Few inter-sex, -age, -troop, and -habitat differences in contaminant concentrations were observed, suggesting a uniform distribution of contaminants within the reserve. Several statistically significant relationships between lemur body size and contaminant concentrations were observed, but owing to the lack of supportive data regarding contaminant exposure in wild primates, the biological significance of these findings remains uncertain. Results of this study document exposure of ring-tailed lemurs at BMSR to multiple OC pesticides and metals and provide essential baseline data for future health and toxicological evaluations of lemurs and other wild primates

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vargas-González, Héctor H; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato A; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A

    2016-07-02

    This study examines the potential public health risk due to the massive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in agriculture in the Gulf of California. Specimens of the clam Chione californiensis were collected from three coastal lagoons (Yavaros, Altata and Reforma). Sites were classified as polluted/nonpolluted based on the presence/absence of OCs as an indicator of the persistence of these pollutants; in polluted sites, the time elapsed since pesticide application (past or recent) was estimated. Screening values (SV) for protecting human health as per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were used for risk assessment. OCs detected were ranked according to frequency of occurrence as follows: γ-chlordane (75%) > endrin (54%) > aldrin (48%) > heptachlor, and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDE) (37%) > β-heptachlor epoxide (30%) > lindane (α-BHC, δ-BHC) and endosulphan I (≤ 6%). Specifically, OCs detected at the highest concentration were heptachlor in Yavaros (0.0168 µgg(-1)) and Altata (0.0046 µgg(-1)), and aldrin in Reforma (0.0019 µgg(-1)). β-Heptachlor epoxide in Altata and Reforma was the only OC with a concentration exceeding the EPA Screening Value. From our results and based on the monthly consumption limit set forth by EPA, the maximum safe consumption of clams to avoid a carcinogenic risk derived from β-heptachlor epoxide in the fishing villages of Yavaros and Altata is 4 servings per month (1 serving = 0.227 kg) by a 70-kg person. These findings suggest that concentrations of OCs and their isomers in C. californiensis populations reflect environmental persistence as well as recent inputs of OCs into coastal lagoons in the Gulf of California.

  17. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10(-5)Ω(-1)m(-1), 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t1/2=22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature.

  18. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  19. Simultaneous monitoring method of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere using activated carbon fiber filter paper.

    PubMed

    Yagoh, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tominaga, Yasuko; Shibuya, Nobuo; Masuda, Yoshio

    2006-04-01

    In order to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of PAHs and POPs in the atmosphere, an activated carbon fiber filter paper (ACFP) was used as the adsorbing material in this study. The pressurized liquid extraction method (PLE method) was used to extract PAHs and POPs collected on the ACFP. Toluene was an effective solvent to extract them from ACFP using the PLE method, but some of PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, were hardly extracted. These PAHs were adsorbed on the particulate matter in the atmosphere. In general, these forms of particulate matter could be collected using a quartz fiber paper (QFP); these PAHs were efficiently extracted from the QFP using the PLE method with toluene. In this study, the collecting method of the PAHs was modified by using QFP overlapped in front of the ACFP. Atmospheric monitoring of PAHs and POPs in Niigata area was performed using this method, and most of the target compounds were detected. However, some of the POPs, such as aldrin, endrin, mirex, could not be detected. The POPs, such as hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and chlordanes, and most of the PAHs were detected from all of the samples collected throughout the monitoring period. It was confirmed that these methods were effective to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of the PAHs and POPs in the atmosphere.

  20. Low level contaminant detection: Implications to loading estimates and management of coastal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.; West, D.; Uhler, A.; Peven, C.

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of effluents using low level analytical method detection limits has been applied during an eighteen-month long characterization of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Deer Island primary treated sewage effluent. Nine metals, 40 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), C{sub 10} to C{sub 14} linear alkyl benzenes (LAB), 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 16 persistent chlorinated pesticides were measured. Contaminant concentrations ranged as follows: total PAH, 13 and 32 {micro}g/L; total PCBs, 17--110 ng/L; total chlordanes, 0--74 ng/L; lindane, 2--16 ng/L; total LABs, 7.5--22 {micro}g/L; dieldrin < 5 {micro}g/L. Metal concentrations (in {micro}g/L) were: Ag, 3--7.5; Cd, 0.4--1.4; Cr, 2.7--11; Cu, 48--111; Hg, 0.1--0.26; Mo, 5--25; Ni, 4.6--9; Pb, 6--26; Zn, 70--136. Seasonal trends were observed for some contaminant. Organic compounds were consistently less that the acute water quality criteria in the undiluted effluent. Values p,p{prime}-DDT, Ag, Cu, Hg, and Pb and occasionally for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor exceeded the chronic marine criteria. Dilution of the effluent will quickly reduce contaminants concentrations below the chronic criteria. Application of these methods has resulted in substantial improvements to estimates of contaminant discharge to the coastal waters of Massachusetts Bay. Further, measurements of the efficiency of the planned secondary treatment processes has demonstrated that secondary treatment will be highly effective in removal of many organic compounds and metals from the primary effluent and that secondary treatment will significantly alter the source signature of PAHs in the discharge. Availability of such information is providing environmental planners with more effective tools for monitoring impact from this treatment facility.

  1. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg(-1) dw) and HCHs (393ngkg(-1)) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg(-1)) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg(-1)) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest.

  2. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits.

  3. Organochlorine residues in fish and water samples from lake victoria, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kasozi, G N; Kiremire, B T; Bugenyi, F W B; Kirsch, N H; Nkedi-Kizza, P

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia and Nile perch samples from Lake Victoria were analyzed for lindane (gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene), alpha-endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3- benzo(e) dioxathiepin-3-oxide), dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4,5,8-dimethanonaphthalene), DDE (p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene), and DDT (p,p'-1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane). No significant difference (alpha = 0.05) in the residue levels between fish types for lindane, alpha-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin was observed. The aldrin levels in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) were significantly higher than the levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). No difference was observed in the distribution of residues in the different parts of Nile tilapia, although a difference for p,p'-DDE was observed in the Nile perch. No significant difference was observed in the average fat content of the tissue of Nile perch and Nile tilapia; however, the distribution of fat was significantly different in the different parts of the fish, with the abdominal portion having the highest amount of fat. There was no correlation observed in this study between fat content and organochlorine concentration. Lower p,p'-DDT residues levels compared with the p,p'-DDE levels observed in this study indicate that DDT is no longer in use. The levels of organochlorine pesticide residues found in fish samples in this study were below the FAO, U.S. FDA, Australian, and German extraneous residue limits and maximum residue limits. The concentration of organochlorine residues in surface water within the Napoleon Gulf of Lake Victoria was below detection limit (0.1 microg L(-1)).

  4. Determination of pesticide residues (> 0.5 microg/L) in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 19 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pesticide residues determined were 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (2,4'-DDD); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD); alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; dieldrin; aldrin; ethion; chlorpyrifos; beta-endosulfan; malathion; methyl-parathion; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-HCH; delta-HCH; and gamma-HCH. Blind fortification solutions containing 4 different levels of pesticide residues (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/L) were provided to 8 collaborating laboratories who used them to create test samples in 6 matrixes (also provided): 2 colas, a diet cola, a clear lemon-lime soft drink, an orange soft drink, and a sports drink. Reproducibility (RSDR) for all 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 7 to 151% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 11 to 121% at 0.5 microg/L, and 14 to 67% at 1.0 microg/L. Repeatability (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and the sports drink, ranged from 1 to 76% for the 19 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level, 9 to 38% at 0.5 microg/L, and 9 to 38% at 1.0 microg/L. Recoveries for the 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 77 to 645% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 60 to 231% at 0.5 microg/L, and 61 to 146% at 1.0 microg/L. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action with a limit of quantification (LOQ) equal to 0.5 microg/L for 4,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDD; 4,4'-DDE; 4,4'-DDD; 2,4'-DDE; aldrin; dieldrin; alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; chlorpyrifos; and ethion, and an LOQ equal to 1.0 microg/L for beta-endosulfan; alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; delta-HCH; gamma-HCH; methyl-parathion; and

  5. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  6. Toxicoproteomics in Aquatic Toxicology: iTRAQ Reveals Insight into Proteins Affected by 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, Dieldrin, and 17â-trenbolone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicoproteomics is an emerging discipline in toxicology for characterizing chemical modes of action at the molecular level. We have successfully utilized a quantitative proteomics method termed isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to measure protein re...

  7. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved approaches are needed to rapidly and accurately assess the bioavailability of persistent, hydrophobic organic compounds in soils at contaminated sites. The performance of a thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) assay using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate polymer was compared to...

  8. Organochlorines in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine.

    PubMed Central

    Gladen, B C; Monaghan, S C; Lukyanova, E M; Hulchiy, O P; Shkyryak-Nyzhnyk, Z A; Sericano, J L; Little, R E

    1999-01-01

    Reports of environmental problems in the former Soviet Union, including excess use of pesticides, have led to concerns about high levels of contamination in humans, but little information is available to assess whether these concerns are warranted. Samples of breast milk from 197 women from two cities in Ukraine were analyzed for p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and results were compared to previous reports from Europe. The median ss-HCH concentration was 731 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than other reports from Europe but lower than reports from other parts of the world. The median DDE concentration was 2,457 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than most but not all other reports from Europe. Concentrations of other chemicals were comparable to or lower than other reports from Europe. Concentrations from the city of Kyiv were generally lower than those from Dniprodzerzhinsk, but the magnitudes of these differences were modest. PMID:10339445

  9. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  10. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  11. Pesticides in ground water beneath irrigated farmland in Nebraska, August 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, R.F.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1980-09-01

    During the 1978 irrigation season, 14 ground water samples were collected in the Central Platte region of Nebraska, an area known to have high nitrate-nitrogen (NO/sub 3/--N) levels, and analyzed for the presence of 13 pesticide residues. Atrazine levels ranged from 0.06 microgram/liter to 3.12 microgram/liter and were correlated to NO/sub 3/--N concentrations with a coefficient of r . +0.55. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were measured as indicators of deep percolation from irrigated lands and ranged from 17.1 mg/liter to 34.3 mg/liter. Alachlor levels ranged from less than 0.01 microgram/liter to 0.71 microgram/liter. The amounts of 2,4-D were indeterminate because of experimental problems. Levels of the herbicides silvex and EPTC were below the limits of detectability. Levels of the organochlorine insecticides endrin, gamma-BHC (lindane), dieldrin, DDT and its primary metabolite DDE, heptachlor and its primary derivative heptachlor epoxide, and methoxychlor were all below the detectable limits of 0.005-0.010 microgram/liter.

  12. Water: pesticides in ground water beneath irrigated farmland in Nebraska, August 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, R.F.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1980-09-01

    During the 1978 irrigation season, 14 ground water samples were collected in the Central Platte region of Nebraska, an area known to have high nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) levels, and analyzed for the presence of 13 pesticide residues. Atrazine levels ranged from 0.06 ..mu..g/liter to 3.12 ..mu..g/liter and were correlated to NO/sub 3/-N concentrations with a coefficient of r = +0.55. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were measured as indicators of deep percolation from irrigated lands and ranged from 17.1 mg/liter to 34.3 mg/liter. Alachlor levels ranged from <0.01 ..mu..g/liter to 0.71 ..mu..g/liter. The amounts of 2,4-D were indeterminate because of experimental problems. Levels of the herbicides silvex and EPTC were below the limits of detectability. Levels of the oragnochlorine insecticides endrin, ..gamma..-BHC (lindane), dieldrin, DDT and its primary metabolite DDE, heptachlor and its primary derivative heptachlor epoxide, and methoxychlor were all below the detectable limits of 0.005 and 0.010 ..mu..g/liter.

  13. Evaluation of organic compounds and trace elements in Amazon Creek Basin, Oregon, September 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water and bottom sediment were collected from Amazon Creek, Oregon during a summer low-flow condition and analyzed for different classes of organic compounds, including many from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's priority pollutant list. Bottom sediment also was analyzed for trace elements typically associated with urban runoff. Trace-element concentrations in the less than 63 micrometer fraction of Amazon Creek bottom-sediment samples were compared with baseline concentrations (expected 95 percent confidence range) for soils from the Western United States and with concen- trations found in bottom sediment from the Willamette River Basin. Total-digestion concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, titanium, and zinc were enriched at some or all sites sampled. Whole-water samples from some sites contained concentrations of several chlorophenoxy-acid herbicides, the organophosphorus insecticide diazinon, and several semivolatile priority pollutants. Classes of compounds not detected in whole-water samples included carbamate insecticides, triazine and other nitrogen-containing herbicides, and purgeable organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples contained many organochlorine compounds, including chlordane, DDT plus metabolites, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide (a metabolite of heptachlor), and PCBs at some or all sites sampled. Twenty-four of 54 semivolatile compounds were detected in bottom- sediment samples at some or all sites sampled.

  14. Organotropism of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus in NE Greenland.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Ancora, Stefania; Bianchi, Nicola; Mariotti, Giacomo; Leonzio, Claudio; Christiansen, Jørgen S

    2014-10-15

    The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus is an opportunistic feeder, a top predator, and a very long-lived species. The brain, liver, red and white muscle, gonads, fat, skin, pancreas, and spleen of Greenland sharks from NE Greenland fjords were analysed for PCBs, PCDDs/DFs, PBDEs; DDT isomers; HCH isomers; dieldrin; endrin; HCB; Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. PCBs (2.01-103 ng/g wet wt) and PBDEs (7.9-3050 pg/g wet wt) were detected in most of the samples. PCDDs/DFs showed high values when detected. DDTs, HCB and HCHs were only detected in some tissues. The ΣTEQ was 5.76 pg/g in muscle. Cadmium mainly accumulated in the pancreas and liver (19.6 and 10.7 mg/kg dry wt, respectively); mercury in red muscle (4.10-6.91 mg/kg dry wt); selenium in the pancreas (3.57 mg/kg dry wt) and spleen (1.95 mg/kg dry wt); lead in the skin (0.358 mg/kgd ry wt). The selenium-mercury ratio in the liver was also evaluated.

  15. An evaluation of EPA`s proposed national sediment quality criteria applied to Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, T.H.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed national marine and freshwater sediment quality criteria for five chemicals of concern: acenaphthene, dieldrin, endrin, fluoranthene and phenanthrene. The criteria values EPA developed were based on an equilibrium partitioning approach and are normalized to the organic carbon of the sediment. The Department of Ecology compared the proposed national marine sediment criteria for the three PAH compounds to Washington`s Sediment Management Standards (173-204 WAC), most of which were derived using the empirical ``Apparent Effects Threshold`` approach. The number of stations in Puget Sound exceeding the State`s chemical Sediment Quality Standards (SQS) was 1.7--8.1 times greater those exceeding the proposed criteria. It also appeared from early results that the latter were less sensitive predictors of stations known to exhibit significant adverse biological effects. Thus, the proposed criteria may not be as effective as the SQS when used as a regulatory tool to screen for biological effects in Puget Sound. These and other findings will be presented which generally support the EPA Science Advisory Board recommendation to use proposed national criteria in conjunction with other chemical and biological sediment quality indicators to make regulatory decisions.

  16. Current-use and legacy pesticide history in the Austfonna Ice Cap, Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Compher, Kevin M; Li, Y F; Igarashi, Makoto; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    2005-11-01

    The Svalbard archipelago in arctic Norway receives considerable semivolatile organic contaminant (SOC) inputs from the atmosphere. To measure the history of net SOC accumulation there, we analyzed the upper 40 m of an ice core from Austfonna, the largest ice cap in Eurasia, for several legacy organochlorine (OC) compounds and current-use pesticides (CUPs) including organophosphorus (OP), triazine, dinitroaniline, and chloroacetamide compounds. Five OP compounds (chlorpyrifos, terbufos, diazinon, methyl parathion, and fenitrothion), two OCs (methoxychlor and dieldrin), and metolachlor--an herbicide--had historical profiles in the core. The highest OC concentration observed was aldrin (69.0 ng L(-1)) in the surface sample (1992-1998). The most concentrated OP was dimethoate (87.0 ng L(-1)) between 1986 and 1992. The surface sample also had highest concentrations of pendimethalin (herbicide, 18.6 ng L(-1)) and flutriafol, the lone observed fungicide (9.6 ng L(-1)). The apparent atmospheric persistence of CUPs likely results from little or no oxidation by OH* during the dark polar winter and in spring. Long-range atmospheric pesticide transport to Svalbard from Eurasia is influenced by the positive state of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index since 1980 and also by occasional fast-moving summer air masses from northern Eurasian croplands.

  17. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in human blood from Ahmedabad (rural), India

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, V.K.; Patel, J.S.; Variya, M.R.; Venkaiah, K.; Shah, M.P.; Kashyap, S.K. )

    1992-02-01

    Assessments of human exposure to persistent organochlorine insecticides (OCI) through biological monitoring offers a profound criteria to evaluate the magnitude of potential health risk, if any, due to use of these chemicals. Residues of these chemicals especially DDT and HCH have been identified and reviewed in man and his environment from different parts of the world however, by comparison very high levels of DDT and its metabolites have been reported in human body fat, blood and milk samples in India. Since there is a definite relationship between the amount of DDT and its residues in blood and those present in human fat depot, blood can be easily be used for assessing the total body burden of persistent OCI in various populations. In view of fragmentary reports on the levels of DDT and HCH in human blood samples from India which categorically pertain to the general population of urban areas like Delhi and Lucknow. The authors attempted to provide a database on residues of DDT and HCH including other cyclodiene compounds, e.g. heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, oxygchlordane, HCB and dieldrin in blood samples collected from general population of Ahmedabad (rural) area.

  18. Organochlorine insecticide residues in fish and birds from three river systems on the North Coast Region of New South Wales

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, K.W.; Harris, C.R. ); Ahmad, N.; Higginson, F.R. )

    1989-06-01

    In a study on the occurrence and management of organochlorine (OC) insecticide residues on the North Coast Region of New South Wales (NSW), the authors recorded the presence of dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and BHC residues in dairy pasture, sugar cane, or banana plantation soils. DDT residues were seldom present in these soils but others have detected relatively low levels of DDT residues in soils on the Cudgen-Duranbah plateau, an important vegetable and tropical fruit production area overlooking the Tweed, one of the major rivers on the North Coast Region. Although OC residues in these agricultural soils were all relatively low, they could be one source of contamination of North Coast river systems. The authors report results of further work done to assess the extent to which fish and birds collected from river systems in the NSW North Coast Region are contaminated with OC residues. Three of the major rivers - Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed - on the North Coast Region were selected for study. Fish were taken between October, 1983 and February, 1984.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6%; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3%, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8%. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3%. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia).

  20. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  1. Levels of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides of cyprinid fish reared four years in a wastewater treatment pond

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrin, F. ); Burgat-Sacaze, V.; de Saqui-Sannes, P. )

    1990-03-01

    Sanitary risks to public health are certainly the most serious bottleneck for wastewater aquaculture extension. Apart from the fact of an eventual transmission to man of pathological organisms such as bacteria, viruses and parasites by fish, the wide occurrence in domestic sewage of micro-pollutants like heavy metals and pesticides, generally considered as bio-cumulative, is troublesome. In this respect, short-term analyses cannot give a good idea of potential hazard, as its is widely assumed that accumulation by fish or aquatic animals is related to age, size, feeding habits and retention time in polluted waters. The authors present here the results of a study on a sample of 14 tench (Tinca tinca) and 4 rudd (Scardinius erythrophtalmus), introduced 4 years before in a wastewater treatment pond of the town of Realmont (France). Both species may be considered as good test for heavy metal and pesticide contamination, according to their feeding behavior. After the estimation of age, growth and sanitary state of the fish, analytical results of three metals (cadmium, lead and mercury) and sic organochlorine pesticides and derived compounds (DDT, heptachloride, aldrin, dieldrin, HCB and HCH) are compared with natural water fish content and discussed in relation to international recommendations concerning food product quality.

  2. Bioaccumulation and related effects of PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides in freshwater fish Hypostomus commersoni.

    PubMed

    Bussolaro, D; Filipak Neto, F; Glinski, A; Roche, H; Guiloski, I C; Mela, M; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Brazilian native freshwater fish. In order to evaluate the bioavailability, potential risk to human exposure and the effects of POPs in the fish Hypostomus commersoni, muscle and liver samples of thirteen specimens were collected in a lake located in the city of Ponta Grossa (Parana State, Southern Brazil). Also, the liver and gills were considered for histopathological studies, and oxidative stress was investigated in the liver. Expressive concentrations of POPs were observed in the liver and muscle, with a total of 427 ± 78.7 and 69.2 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) dry weights of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Negative correlations between the concentration of several POPs and glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found. Otherwise, the cholinesterase activity in the muscle and brain presented positive correlations with the concentration of POPs. The hepatic bioaccumulation of some banned pesticides like aldrin, dieldrin and DDT was associated with various histopathological findings in the liver and gills. Necrotic areas, fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and the absence of macrophage centers were observed in the liver, indicating both chronic exposure and immunological suppression. Neoplasic changes were observed in the gills, confirming the carcinogenic potential reported for some of the investigated pollutants. The current work was the first to study the bioaccumulation of POPs in H. commersoni, an important species in ecological aspects and as a vehicle to human exposure to PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs).

  3. Micro-solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides using porous metal-organic framework MIL-101 as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-07-03

    In this study, a metal-organic framework material, MIL-101, used as a micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) sorbent for efficient enrichment of five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α-HCH, Aldrin, α-Chlordane, Dieldrin and p,p'-DDD from water samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, is reported. This study demonstrated a new application of MIL-101 using μ-SPE, an advantage of the latter being its ability to process complex aqueous matrices, due to the protection of the sorbent afforded by the hollow fiber membrane bag. Key factors affecting extraction efficiency were studied, including elution solvent, extraction and desorption time. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the calibration plots were linear from 0.05 to 50 ng/mL for α-HCH and p,p'-DDD, and 0.1 to 50 ng/mL for the other three analytes. The limits of detection were between 0.0025 and 0.016 ng/mL. The relative recoveries of the OCPs spiked into real water samples (at 5 ng/mL of each analyte) ranged from 87.6 to 98.6% with relative standard deviations of <10%.

  4. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Atlantic marsh fiddler

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, B.H.; Huish, M.T.; Kerby, J.H.; Moran, D.; National Wetlands Research Center, Slidell, LA )

    1989-09-01

    The Atlantic marsh fiddler is the only endemic species of Uca in the Mid-Atlantic region. Males display a series of visual and acoustical displays during mating, with a weak waving and bleaching of the larger claw. Egg clutch size in female varies. Larvae are released in phase with nocturnal high tides. The 5 zoeal and 1 megalops stages compose much of the estuarine plankton. First and second crab stages are weak and unable to burrow. Adult lifespan is 1--1.5 years with 1--2 molts per year. Molting is temperature dependent and ceases below 20{degree}C. Crabs feed by scrubbing the preferred muddy substratum for diatoms, fungi, vascular plants, and debris, bioturbating and recycling the marsh surface. This crab is eaten regularly by estuarine birds, fish, crabs, and some mammals. This fiddler can acclimate to lower temperatures, but dies below 2-3{degree}C or above 40{degree}C. It prefers seawater, lacking freshwater tolerance. Oxygen uptake correlates with activity. Preferred habitats are muddy substrata and short smooth cordgrass. Burrow density decreases from low to high marsh. The Atlantic marsh fiddler has the highest radiation LD-50 of sympatric species of fiddler crabs. Insecticides Temefos, DDT, DDF, Aldrin, and Dieldrin, and contaminant PCB's, mercury, and cadmium reduce populations of fiddlers, some being concentrated in their tissues. 90 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Selecting high-priority hazardous chemicals for tri-national control: a maximum-utility method applied to Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos-Burgoa, C; Downs, T J

    2000-01-01

    The dispersion of persistent, bioaccumulative toxic chemicals poses risks to human health and the integrity of the ecosystem on a continental scale. Mexico, the United States, and Canada sought to add two pollutants to an existing list of four subject to North American Regional Action Plans (chlordane, DDT, mercury, PCBs). Mexican negotiators used results from an internal selection process, applying 14 criteria in five categories-physicochemical, health-endpoint, data quality/quantity, exposure potential, and control feasibility-to a baseline group of over 4,700 substances. Using policy analysis by the multiattribute maximum-utility method, progressive application of criteria and weighting algorithms acted like successive filters to identify priority lists of 15 and 7 substances/substance groups for Mexico. The 15 are: 1) benzo-a-pyrene (1 other PAHs); 2) cadmium; 3) heptachlor; 4) hexachlorobenzene; 5) lead; 6) lindane (+ other HCH isomers); 7) 2,3, 7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (&plus other PCDDs); 8) aldrin; 9) arsenic; 10) chromium; 11) carbon tetrachloride; 12) 3-3'-dichlorobenzidine; 13) dieldrin; 14) nickel; and 15) toxaphene. The first seven are the priority list of seven.

  6. Exposure Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides, Arsenic, and Lead in Children From the Major Agricultural Areas in Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I.; Balderas-Cortés, José J.; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L.; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6–12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17–9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels <5.0 μg Pb/dL. Urinary As levels ranged from 5.4 to 199 μg As/L with an average value of 31.0 μg As/L. Levels > 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies. PMID:23254566

  7. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels <5.0 μg Pb/dL. Urinary As levels ranged from 5.4 to 199 μg As/L with an average value of 31.0 μg As/L. Levels > 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  8. Date: Aug 6, 1996 Photographer: Maria Garcia 1996 'STELLAR' program commencement activities. Special

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Date: Aug 6, 1996 Photographer: Maria Garcia 1996 'STELLAR' program commencement activities. Special guest Astronaut Buzz Aldrin drops by to tour and chat. Aldrin was attending his book signing at US Space Camp earlier in the day.

  9. Organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue in the South Platte River Basin, USA, 1992-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Heiny, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected in the South Platte River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the basin. During August-November 1992 and August 1993, bed sediment (23 sites) and fish tissue (subset of 19 sites) were sampled and analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and 27 compounds in fish tissue. More types of organochlorine compounds were detected in fish tissue than in bed sediment. Total DDT, p,p???-DDE, o,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, total PCS, Dacthal??, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p???-DDT were detected in fish tissue at >25% of the sites; p,p???-DDE, total DDT, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane were detected in bed sediment at >25% of the sites. Organochlorine concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue were related to land-use settings. Few organochlorine compounds were detected at minimally impacted sites located in rangeland, forest, and built-up land-use settings. Chlordane-related compounds and p,p???-methoxychlor in bed sediment and fish tissue, endrin in fish tissue, and endosulfan I in bed sediment were associated with urban and mixed (urban and agricultural) sites. Dacthal?? in bed sediment and fish tissue was associated with agricultural sites. The compounds HCB, ??-HCH, PCA, and toxaphene were detected only at mixed land-use sites. Although DDT and DDT-metabolites, dieldrin, and total PCB were detected in urban, mixed, and agricultural land-use settings, highest mean concentrations were detected at mixed land-use sites. Mixed land-use sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in fish tissue, whereas urban and mixed sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in bed sediment. Measuring concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue at the same site offers a more complete picture of the persistence of organochlorine compounds in the environment and their

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Owyhee and Vale Projects, Oregon and Idaho, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; Mullins, W.H.; Schuler, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    downstream manner. Constituent values at drainwater sites generally were comparable to concentrations below the irrigated ureas in the Owyhee and Vale project areas. The trace elements arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and zinc were detected in most water samples; cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium were detected in some samples at concentrations generally near the analytical reporting limit; mercury was not detected in any samples. In some water samples, concentrations of arsenic, boron, cadmium, copper, and lead exceeded State or Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Most trace elements in bottom sediment were detected at concentrations within the expected 95-percent baseline range for soils from the Western United States. Concentrations that exceeded the 95-percent baseline range for study area soils were: (1) arsenic and lead in one sample from a site in the Vale project area; (2) mercury, lead, and tin in one sample from a site in the Snake River system; (3) manganese in two samples from two sites in the Snake River system; and (4) manganese from one sample from a site in the Vale project area. Fifteen pesticides and metabolites were detected in whole-water samples collected from sites in the study area. DDT, plus its metabolites (DDE and DDD), dieldrin, endrin, 2,4-D, dicamba, and dacthal were detected in samples collected from seven or more sites. Other pesticides detected included chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, ethion, malathion, parathion, phorate, and lindane. Most of the detected pesticide concentrations generally were largest in drainwater and at the most downstream sampling locations in the Owyhee and Vale project areas. Concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria established for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in 86 percent of the whole-water samples analyzed for DDT plus its metabolites, 71 percent of the dieldrin samples, 14 percent of the endrin samples, and 10 percent of the parathion samples. Eight pesticides and

  11. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and female puberty in South Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Bapayeva, Gauri; Issayeva, Raushan; Zhumadilova, Akmaral; Nurkasimova, Raushan; Kulbayeva, Saltanat; Tleuzhan, Renata

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the puberty of females living in cotton-growing regions of South Kazakhstan, where organochlorine pesticides are widely used. The physical growth and sexual development were assessed; organochlorine pesticides, gonadotropic and steroid hormones, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 in the peripheral blood were determined. 524 females (adolescents aged 10-17) were examined. They were divided into 2 groups, depending on their place of residence. The clinical research included the assessment of physical and sexual development. All examined females lived in rural areas, i.e. they were comparable in terms of social, welfare, and climatographic factors. A high concentration of organochlorine pesticides (lindane-18.51±0.16mg/l, dieldrin-169.16±3.13mg/l, DDT-177.78±2.71mg/l, endrin-37.57±0.9mg/l) in the blood of females living in regions exposed to pesticides compared to their peers (4.05±0.41mg/l, 30.8±3.7mg/l, 109.7±2.58mg/l, 4.85±0.69mg/l respectively) was found (p<0.001). The physical and sexual development of such females was delayed. The research established a correlation between the concentration of pesticides and the endocrine status, as well as with the insulin-like growth factor 1. This shows the adverse effect of organochlorine pesticides on the development of the female reproductive system during puberty.

  13. Short-term temperature-dependent air-surface exchange and atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes and organochlorine pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Burnett, V.; Harner, T.; Jones, K.C.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, some of which have been banned for a number of years, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured at a U.K. site over periods of 6 h for 7 days resulting in 28 samples. Mean concentrations of the pesticides were {alpha}-HCH 90 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {gamma}-HCH 500, {rho},{rho}{prime}-DDE 8, dieldrin 63, endrin 22, and HCB 39. PCN mean homologue concentrations were {sub 3}CNs 67 pg m{sup {minus}3}, {sub 4}CNs 78, {sub 5}CNs 5, {sub 6}CNs 0.6, {sub 7}CNs 0.6, and {Sigma}PCNs 152. TEQ concentrations for those PCNs ascribed TEF values ranged between 0.36 and 3.6 fg m{sup {minus}3} which corresponds to {approximately}3.0--30% of the TEQ concentrations of PCDD/Fs at the same site. All the compounds measured, except HCB, exhibited a strong temperature-dependent diurnal cycling. Results from Clausius-Clapeyron plots show that pesticide concentrations were controlled by temperature-driven air-surface recycling throughout the first 5 days when stable atmospheric conditions were dominant, while during the last 2 days advection became more influential as more unstable and cooler weather started to influence the site. PCN concentrations were controlled primarily by a mixture of recycling and advection throughout the first 5 days and then by advection in the final 2 days, suggesting that there are ongoing emissions from diffuse point sources of PCNs into the U.K. atmosphere. This study provides further evidence of the rapid air-surface exchange of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and shows how different factors alone or in combination can produce rapid changes in the atmospheric concentrations of past and present SOCs.

  14. Organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Mississippi River basin, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Fish were collected in late 1995 from 34 National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations and 13 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) and in late 1996 from a reference site in West Virginia. Four composite samples, each comprising (nominally) 10 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) or black bass (Micropterus spp.) of the same sex, were collected from each site and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. At the NCBP stations, which are located on relatively large rivers, concentrations of organochlorine chemical residues were generally lower than when last sampled in the mid-1980s. Residues derived from DDT (primarily p,p???-DDE) were detected at all sites (including the reference site); however, only traces (??? 0.02 ??g/g) of the parent insecticide (p,p???-DDT) were present, which indicates continued weathering of residual DDT from past use. Nevertheless, concentrations of DDT (as p,p???-DDE) in fish from the cotton-farming regions of the lower MRB were great enough to constitute a hazard to fish-eating wildlife and were especially high at the NAWQA sites on the lower-order rivers and streams of the Mississippi embayment. Mirex was detected at only two sites, both in Louisiana, and toxaphene was found exclusively in the lower MRB. Most cyclodiene pesticides (dieldrin, chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were more widespread in their distributions, but concentrations were lower than in the 1980s except at a site on the Mississippi River near Memphis, TN. Concentrations were also somewhat elevated at sites in the Corn Belt. Endrin was detected exclusively at the Memphis site. PCB concentrations generally declined, and residues were detected (??? 0.05 ??g/g) at only 35% of the stations, mostly in the more industrialized parts of the MRB.

  15. Geohydrology, ground-water availability, and ground-water quality of Berkeley County, West Virginia, with emphasis on the carbonate-rock area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, R.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Kozar, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Berkeley County is underlain by carbonate rocks, upon which karst topography has developed, and by noncarbonate rocks. Ground-water levels tend to follow seasonal trends, and fluctuate more in carbonate areas than in noncarbonate areas. Well yields of greater than 100 gallons per minute are possible from the carbonate rocks, but are unlikely from the noncarbonate rocks. The largest springs, which yield more than 2,000 gallons per minute, are located in the carbonate rocks and are typically on or near faults or the limestone-shale contacts. Ground-water-flow velocities in the carbonate rocks ranged from 32 to 1,879 feet per day. Recharge was estimated to be about 10 inches per year for a 60-square-mile area of carbonate rocks. Specific yield for carbonate rocks ranged from 0.044 to 0.049. Estimated transmissivity values for carbonate rocks ranged from 730 to 9,140 feet squared per day. Concentrations of the following constituents exceeded the maximum and secondary maximum contaminant levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in ground water from at least one site: iron, manganese, nitrate, fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria, pH, total dissolved solids, and chloride. Analyses of the ground water indicated that the following organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides were present in detectable concentrations: chlordane, DDE, DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and malathion. Triazine herbicides that were present in detectable concentrations were atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine. Radon concentrations ranged from 92 to 1,600 picocuries per liter. Ground water from four springs in the carbonate rocks was analyzed for 36 volatile organic compounds. None of the compounds were present in detectable concentrations.

  16. Pesticide exposure and thyroid function in an agricultural population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Camila; Cremonese, Cleber; Koifman, Rosalina J; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Although numerous pesticides may interfere with thyroid function, however, epidemiological evidence supporting this relationship is limited, particularly regarding modern non-persistent pesticides. We sought to evaluate the association of agricultural work practices, use of contemporary-use pesticides, and OC pesticides residue levels in serum with circulating thyroid hormone levels in an agricultural population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 275 male and female farm residents in Farroupilha, South of Brazil. Information on sociodemographics, lifestyle and agricultural work was obtained through questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on all participants and analyzed for cholinesterase activity, serum residues of OC pesticides, and levels of free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3) and TSH. Non-persistent pesticides exposure assessment was based on questionnaire information on current use of pesticides, and frequency and duration of use, among others. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression models. Total lifetime years of use of fungicides, herbicides and dithiocarbamates in men was associated with increased TSH accompanied by decrease in FT4, with evidence of a linear trend. In addition, there was an association between being sampled in the high pesticide-use season and increased TSH levels. Conversely, farm work and lifetime use of all pesticides were related with slight decrease in TSH and increased TT3 and FT4, respectively. In general, pesticide use was not associated with thyroid hormones in women. Subjects with detected serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide B, γ-chlordane, transnonachlor, heptachlor, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethane and endosulfan II experienced slight changes in TT3; however, associations were weak and inconsistent. These findings suggest that both cumulative and recent occupational exposure to agricultural pesticides may affect the thyroid function

  17. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  18. National contaminant biomonitoring program: rEesidues of organochlorine chemicals in U.S. Freshwater Fish, 1976–1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Zajicek, Jim L.; Peterman, Paul H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service periodically determines concentrations of organochlorine chemicals in freshwater fish collected from a nationwide network of stations as part of the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP, formerly a part of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program). From late 1984 to early 1985, a total of 321 composite fish samples were collected from 112 stations and analyzed for organochlorine chemical residues. The mean concentrations of total DDT did not change from 1980–81 to 1984, following a period of steady decline through the 1970's; however, the mean concentrations ofp,p′-DDT declined significantly. The most persistent DDT homolog (p,p′-DDE) was detected at 98% of the stations sampled in 1984, and constituted 73% of total DDT residues, up from 70% in 1974–79. Collectively, these findings indicate a low rate of influx and continued weathering of DDT in the environment. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also remained widespread, but a significant downward trend in total PCBs was evident, and early eluting PCB components were present at fewer stations than in the past. Mean concentrations of dieldrin have not changed since 1978–79; concentrations remained highest in Hawaii and in the Great Lakes. Toxaphene concentrations declined from 1980–81 to 1984, especially in the Great Lakes, and the incidence of toxaphene declined from 88% of the stations sampled in 1980–81 to 69% in 1984. Mean chordane concentrations did not change from 1980–81 to 1984, following a period of decline; however,trans-nonachlor replacedcis-chlordane as the most abundant component, suggesting a lower influx of chlordane to the aquatic environment. Residues of other organochlorines—mirex, pentachloroanisole (PCA), benzene hexachloride (BHC) isomers, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and Dacthal® (DCPA)—were either found at relatively few (<25%) of the stations sampled in 1984 or were characterized by relatively low

  19. Evaluation of field-generated accumulation factors for predicting the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated PAH compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, V.A.

    1995-07-01

    Equilibrium partitioning of neutral organic chemicals between the organic carbon fraction of bedded sediments and the lipids of resident organisms provides the theoretical basis for one of the most popular approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The proposed equilibrium partitioning-based SQC seek to relate estimated doses of sediment-associated chemicals to toxicity in exposed biota. Criteria documents for several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, endrin, and dieldrin have been released by the EPA for public review, and may soon be promulgated. A procedure recommended in the Implementation Manual (the Green Book) for public law regulating ocean disposal of dredged sediments (Section 103, Public Law 92-532, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, the Ocean Dumping Act) has used equilibrium partitioning-based estimations to screen sediments for bioaccumulation potential for several years. The screening test, termed theoretical bioaccumulation potential, TBP, is also included in the draft manual for inland waters to implement dredged material testing requirements of the Clean Water Act. TBP employs an accumulation factor (AF), defined as the ratio at equilibrium of the organic carbon-normalized concentration of a neutral organic chemical in a sediment and the lipid-normalized concentration of the chemical in an exposed organism. The Green Book currently recommends using a universal AF =4 for all neutral chemicals, the rationale being that this value is suitably protective of all neutral chemicals, provided certain caveats are recognized. This study compared the predictive capability of PAH AFs derived from field data with that of the universal AF=4 in making TBP estimations.

  20. Short-term variation in ambient concentrations and gas/particle partitioning of organochlorine pesticides in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Cetin, Eylem; Bozacioglu, Sevde Seza; Sener, Gaye Devrim; Odabasi, Mustafa

    Twenty successive daytime and nighttime air samples were collected and analyzed for 23 currently used and/banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between 14 and 23 May 2003 in Izmir, Turkey. Average individual OCP concentrations ranged from 5±4 pg m -3 (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) to 391±306 pg m -3 (chlorpyrifos) and they were within the ranges previously measured at different sites. Most of the OCPs did not exhibit strong diurnal cycling. The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of OCPs investigated using Clausius-Clapeyron plots was statistically significant for β-HCH and endosulfan sulfate ( p<0.1) and was not significant for other compounds (0-21% of the variability in their gas-phase concentrations). In addition to temperature, the effect of wind speed and direction was also investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and these three parameters together explained the 2% (aldrin) to 72% (endosulfan II) of the variability in gas-phase OCP concentrations. Results of the multiple regression analysis indicated that wind speed was a statistically significant factor for most of the OCPs and wind direction was important for some compounds. The temperature-dependent diurnal cycling of most OCPs was probably masked by the higher wind speeds observed during daytime periods with high temperatures, different source sectors and ongoing sources. The lack of correlation for heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p-p'-DDT) with temperature, wind speed and direction suggested that their concentrations were affected by long-range transport. The partitioning of OCPs between particle and gas phases was investigated and compared to KOA (octanol/air partition coefficient) absorption model. The overall agreement between experimental and modeled log K p (gas/particle partition coefficient) values was good ( p<0.01, slope=0.94). Prediction of absorption model for

  1. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 19 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); alpha-endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); dieldrin; ethion; 4,4-DDD; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDT); beta-endosulfan; 4,4-DDT; and endosulfan sulfate when spiked into a 200 mL matrix sample at 0.50 microg/L. The samples were diluted with acetonitrile and water, then liquid-liquid phase extracted into petroleum ether. The resulting extract was concentrated to near dryness and diluted with hexane:dichloromethane (50:50). The concentrated samples were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The resulting solution was concentrated and separated on a Florisil substrate. The eluent was concentrated to near dryness, reconstituted to produce a 200-fold concentration, and analyzed using a GC/MS instrument operated in the selective ion monitoring mode. The GC/MS instrument was equipped with a large volume injector capable of injecting 25 microL. External standards prepared in dichloromethane were used for quantification without the need for matrix-matched calibration because the extraction step minimized the matrix effects. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficients of determination (r2) of greater than or equal to 0.9900, with the exception of one value that was 0.988. Fortification spikes at 0.50 microg/L in 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) over the course of 2 days (4 days for Gatorade), where n=8 each day, yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=64): 95.6 (24.8) for alpha-BHC; 91.9 (23.6) for beta-BHC; 89.1 (21

  2. Absorption of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and dieldrin in largemouth bass from a 60-D slow-release pellet and detection using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method for blood plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Borgert, Christopher J.; Gross, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the uptake of two organochlorine pesticides from slow-release pellets by largemouth bass and the utility of a blood plasma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for exposure verification. We measured blood and tissue levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by a novel ELISA method, and present a critical comparison of the results.

  3. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in blood of women with uterine cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Riba López, M Inmaculada; DelValls Casillas, T Ángel; Araujo León, J Alfredo; Mahjoub, Olfa; Prusty, Anjan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In Yucatan, Mexico, chronic exposure of Mayan population to pesticides is expected as about 30 per cent are drinking polluted water. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) were monitored in 18 municipalities of Yucatan with high mortality rates due to uterine cervix cancer. 70 blood samples collected from Mayan women living in livestock, agricultural and metropolitan area were analyzed for OCP. Solid Phase Extraction was performed on C18 cartridges and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. The results showed that the highest OCP levels were detected in blood of women living in the livestock area. OCP detected were endosulfan I (7.35 μg/mL), aldrin (3.69 μg/mL), 4,4' DDD (2.33 μg/mL), 1.39 and 1.46 μg/mL of δ-HCH. Women from the agricultural area had high concentrations of OCP in their blood, particularly dieldrin (1.19 μg/mL), and 1.26 μg/mL of 4,4' DDE. In the metropolitan area, 0.080 μg/mL of γ-HCH and 0.064 μg/mL of heptachlore were detected. This monitoring study was also based on epidemiological data of uterine cervical cancer. It was found that environmental factors may have facilitated the infiltration of OCP to the aquifer used for potable water supply. These factors in addition to poverty can have impacts on public health. This first exploratory study suggests that monitoring of OCP in human is important for the establishment of health promotion programs. The integrative analysis of both, environmental and social factors would be helpful to characterize the bioaccumulation of pesticides in humans.

  4. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Schmitt, Christopher J; Chojnacki, Kimberly A; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-05-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  5. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lino, Celeste Matos . E-mail: cmlino@ci.uc.pt; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-11-15

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 {mu}g/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 {mu}g/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 {mu}g/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For {sigma}-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in {sigma}-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America.

  6. Influence of parasitism in dogs on their serum levels of persistent organochlorine compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, María; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F; Cordón, Yaiza Falcón; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals, which accumulate in humans and animals, as only few species have the capability of eliminating them. However, some authors have pointed to the possibility that certain species of invertebrates (i.e. nematodes) could metabolize this type of compounds. As certain species of nematodes act as parasites of vertebrates, this research was designed to explore the influence of some of the most common parasites of the dogs in their serum levels of 56 common POPs. The study included three groups of dogs (n=64), which were prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n=24); b) dogs tested positive for intestinal parasites and negative for other parasites (n=24); and c) dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and negative for other parasites (n=16). The presence of Dirofilaria immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, anthracene and pyrene). We also found an inverse association between the hosts' serum levels of PCBs and intestinal parasites. We did not find any association with DDT or its metabolites, but this might be explained by the recently suggested ability of dogs for the efficient metabolization of these compounds. According to the results of this study certain forms of parasitism would reduce the bioavailability of the major classes of POPs in dogs. However, further studies are needed to elucidate whether this phenomenon is due to a competence between parasites and hosts or could respond to a possible capability of parasitic nematodes for the metabolization of these POPs.

  7. The heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) seems to be able to metabolize organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls: A case-control study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, María; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F; Falcón-Cordón, Yaiza; Falcón-Cordón, Soraya; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-01-01

    It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum. The study included three groups of dogs prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n=24); b) a group constituted by dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (D. immitis) and negative for other parasites (n=25); and c) the same group of parasitized dogs after the treatment against the parasite (n=25). The presence of D. immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 105, 118, 123, 138, 153, 167 and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor). The serum levels of these substances remained at very low levels after the treatment against the parasite, suggesting that D. immitis do not simply store such compounds, but they probably have some ability to metabolize these pollutants. We encourage the use of the parasite infestation status as a cofactor that needs to be taken into account in studies aimed to evaluate the serum levels of POPs.

  8. Genotoxicity of the Yamuna River water at Okhla (Delhi), India.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Asma; Malik, Abdul

    2005-07-01

    Water samples from the Yamuna River at Okhla (Delhi), India, were concentrated using XAD resins (XAD-4 and XAD-8) and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. Gas chromatographic analysis of liquid-liquid extracted water samples revealed the presence of the pesticides DDT, BHC, dieldrin, endosulfan, aldrin, 2,4-D, dimethoate, methyl parathion, and malathion at concentrations of 14, 25, 2.1, 114, 0.9, 0.6, 0.9, 1.7, and 1.9 ng/L, respectively. The genotoxicity of the extracted water samples was evaluated with the Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and bacteriophage lambda systems. The results of the Salmonella test demonstrated that the XAD-concentrated water samples had maximum mutagenicity with the TA98 strain both with and without metabolic activation. However, the liquid-liquid-extracted water samples were also found to be mutagenic with one or more of the Ames tester strains, but to a lesser extent as compared with XAD extracts. The damage brought about in the DNA repair-defective mutants in the presence of XAD-concentrated water samples was found to be markedly high as compared with that liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 microl/mL culture. All mutants invariably exhibited significant declines in their colony-forming units as compared with their isogenic wild-type counterparts. Survival decreased by 86.3 and 75.5% in the polA- strain after 6 h of treatment with XAD-concentrated and liquid-liquid-extracted water samples, respectively. A significant decrease was also observed in the survival of bacteriophage lambda when treated with the test samples. Mutagenic responses of the liquid-liquid-extracted water samples may not necessarily reflect the mutagenicity of existing pesticides in the test water, because some other organic pollutants might accompany the pesticides in the extract.

  9. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Chojnacki, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  10. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption.

  11. The vertical distribution of selected trace metals and organic compounds in bottom materials of the proposed lower Columbia River export channel, Oregon, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal to deepen the lower Columbia River navigation channel in Oregon prompted a study of the vertical distribution of selected trace metals and organic compounds in bottom sediments. These data are needed to evaluate the effects of dredging and disposal operations. Elutriation testing of bottom material indicated chemical concentrations as large as 900 ug/L for barium, 6,500 ug/L for manganese, and 14 ug/L for nickel. The amount of oxygen present during elutriation testing of reduced bottom material was shown to have a negligble effect on manganese elutriate-test concentrations, but it did affect barium and iron concentrations. Sediment-associated organochlorine compounds detected in bottom-sediment core samples were as large as 0.1 ug/kg (micrograms/kilogram) for aldrin, 2.0 ug/kg for chlordane, 27 ug/kg for DDD, 5.0 ug/kg for DDE, 0.2 ug/kg for DDT, 0.2 ug/kg for dieldrin, 37 ug/kg for PCB 's 1.0 ug/kg for PCN 's and 1.0 ug/kg for heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in selected cores were found to exceed those of local basalts. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc were as large as 3.6 ug/g, 26 ug/g, and 210 ug/g respectively. Bottom-sediment concentrations of cadmium , chromium, copper, iron, and zinc associated with the less-than-100-micrometer size fraction are larger than those associated with the greater-than-100-micrometer fraction. (USGS)

  12. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility.

    PubMed

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible.

  13. Congress Honors Glenn, Apollo 11 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Congress honored storied NASA astronauts John Glenn, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin on Wednesday, with the Gold Medal, Congress' highest expression of national appreciation for dis...

  14. Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakareka, S.; Kukharchyk, T.

    2003-04-01

    Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel combustion, ferrous industry, cement production, glass production, phosphate fertilizers production, road transport, other mobile sources and machinery, cremation, waste incineration. We can generalize that on the territory of Belarus stationary fuel combustion is the main source of emission of arsenic and nickel. Cement production is the main source of mercury, and an essential source of cadmium and lead. Electric arc furnace steel plant provides main part of zinc emissions, and significant share of cadmium and lead. In the 90s the steady reduction heavy metals emissions on the territory of Belarus occured. It especially typical for lead emissions - from in 798 tonnes in 1990 tonnes to 46 tonnes in 2000 because of prohibition of ethylated gasoline usage. As the result of POPs sources identification and estimation it was detected that main contribution into dioxin emission have non-industrial solid fuel combustion (firewood and peat), electric arc furnace and waste incineration. Firewood and peat combustion and mobile sources were revealed to make the largest contribution in PAH emissions in Belarus. Pesticides from POPs Protocol to Geneva Convention and Stockholm POPs Convention (such as DDT, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, toxaphen, endrin, dieldrine, mirex, heptachlor et. al.) are not used now in Belarus. But a large amount of them are stored in various burial sites and storage places which cause significant ecological problems due to pollutants infiltration and spills. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors were estimated as the main source of

  15. Pesticides in Ichkeul Lake-Bizerta Lagoon Watershed in Tunisia: use, occurrence, and effects on bacteria and free-living marine nematodes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Fida Ben; Said, Olfa Ben; Aissa, Patricia; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Monperrus, Mathilde; Grunberger, Olivier; Duran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most commonly used agricultural pesticides around Ichkeul Lake-Bizerta Lagoon watershed. First survey of pesticide use on agricultural watershed was performed with farmers, Regional Commissioner for Agricultural Development, and pesticide dealers. Then, sediment contamination by pesticides and response of benthic communities (bacteria and free-living marine nematode) were investigated. The analysis of 22 active organochlorine pesticides in sediments was performed according to quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method, biodiversity of indigenous bacterial community sediment was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and free-living marine nematodes were counted. The results of the field survey showed that iodosulfuron, mesosulfuron, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D), glyphosate, and fenoxaprops were the most used herbicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole the most used fungicides, and deltamethrin the most used insecticide. Sixteen organochlorine pesticide compounds among the 22 examined were detected in sediments up to 2 ppm in Ichkeul Lake, endrin, dieldrin, and hexachlorocyclohexane being the most detected molecules. The most pesticide-contaminated site in the lake presented the higher density of nematode, but when considering all sites, no clear correlation with organochlorine pesticide (OCP) content could be established. The bacterial community structure in the most contaminated site in the lake was characterized by the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) 97, 146, 258, 285, and 335 while the most contaminated site in the lagoon was characterized by the T-RFs 54, 263, 315, 403, and 428. Interestingly, T-RFs 38 and 143 were found in the most contaminated sites of both lake and lagoon ecosystems, indicating that they were resistant to OCPs and able to cope with environmental fluctuation of salinity. In contrast, the T-RFs 63, 100, 118, and 381 in the lake and the T

  16. Distribution of pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and bioavailable metals in depositional sediments of the lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Orazio, C.E.; May, T.W.; Poulton, B.C.; Peterman, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The lower Missouri River was studied to determine the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants and bioavailable metals in depositional sediments. Nineteen sites between Omaha, Nebraska and Jefferson City, Missouri were sampled. This stretch of the river receives point-source and non-point-source inputs from industrial, urban, and agricultural activities. As part of an ecological assessment of the river, concentrations of 29 legacy organochlorine pesticides (OC pesticides), including chlordanes, DDTs, and hexachlorocyclohexanes; a select list of current-use pesticides, including trifluralin, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), divalent metals (copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined. Concentrations (dry weight basis) of OC pesticides in the sediments were less than 1 ng/g, with the exception of the backwater sediment collected from the mouth of the Blue River in the Kansas City metropolitan area, which contained up to 20 ng/g total chlordane, 8.1 ng/g p,p???-DDE, 1.5 ng/g lindane, 4.8 ng/g dieldrin, and 3 ng/g endrin. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos and permethrin ranged from less than 1 ng/g to 5.5 ng/g and 44 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 11 ng/g to 250 ng/g, with the Blue River and Sibley sediments containing 100 and 250 ng/g total PCBs, respectively. Concentrations of total PAHs at 17 of the 19 sites ranged from 250 to 700 ng/g, whereas the Riverfront and Blue River sites in Kansas City contained 1100 ng/g and nearly 4000 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of the metals did not vary significantly among most sites; however, the Blue River site contained elevated concentrations of zinc (104 ??g/g), cadmium (0.7 ??g/g), and lead (34 ??g/g) compared to the other sites. The moderately high concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in the sediments suggest a low potential for metal

  17. Evaluation of the concentration of HCH, DDT, HCB, PCB and PAH in the sediments along the lower stretch of Hugli estuary, West Bengal, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Guzzella, L; Roscioli, C; Viganò, L; Saha, M; Sarkar, S K; Bhattacharya, A

    2005-05-01

    Detailed analyses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the coastal estuarine environment of West Bengal, northeast India allowed the evaluation of the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources. HCH, DDT, HCB, PCB and PAH were identified compounds in all the samples, whereas the concentrations of chlorinated pesticides (trans-eptachlorepoxide, dieldrin, endrin, metaoxychlor and mirex) were below the detection limits and were not of great concern. The pesticides did demonstrate markedly different distributions reflecting different agricultural and domestic usage in the region. The range of concentrations of HCH, HCB, DDT and PCBs in the sediments were 0.11-0.40, <0.05-0.98, 0.18-1.93 and 0.18-2.33 ng/g dry wt, respectively. Overall elevated levels of HCB, DDT and PCB were recorded at Babughat, a very closely located site of the metropolitan megacity Calcutta. Fluoranthene (flu) and pyrene (py), the dominant 4-ring PAHs, also showed an abrupt elevated concentrations at Babughat with values of 214 and 144 ng/g dry wt, respectively. Among the isomers and metabolites of HCH, DDT and PCB, alpha-HCH, pp'-DDT and PCB (101), PCB (118), PCB(153) and PCB (138) were found to be dominant. High ratios of metabolites of DDT to SigmaDDTs reveal recent use of DDT in this coastal environment. Fluoranthene, pyrene, 1,2-benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene formed the dominant congeners out of 19 identified PAHs. The sources of contamination are closely related to human activities such as domestic and industrial discharge, automobile exhausts, street runoff, slum sewage, agricultural chemicals and soil erosion due to deforestation as well as atmospheric transport. This study is compared to other coastal and

  18. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; McManus, B. Craig

    1996-01-01

    chloroform. The second most commonly detected compound was methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), which was detected in water from 24 percent of wells sampled. Several pesticides were detected in water samples collected from within the park boundaries.: chlordane, DDD, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, and simazine. Concentrations of the detected pesticides were 0.1 micrograms per liter or less and did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  19. Application of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on applying low-density organic solvent for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2012-08-24

    between 0.01 and 50μg/L for hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, endrin and o,p'-DDD, 0.05-25μg/L for heptachlor, and 0.005-50μg/L for p,p'-DDE. Finally, the polyethylene Pasteur pipette-based USAEME was successfully used for the fast determination of OCPs in river and tap water samples. The proposed method provides a simple, convenient, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly process for the determination of OCPs in water samples.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in the lower Tennessee River basin, 1980-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.R.; Powell, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, evaluated the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in samples collected in the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit. Fish tissue analysis provides a time-averaged measurement of contaminants as well as a direct measurement of the contaminants that bioaccumulate in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish tissue may result in concentrations that can affect human, wildlife, or aquatic health. Data for two types of tissue analyses were evaluated to assess the occurrence and distribution of contaminants: whole fish for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and fish fillets for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements. The fish tissue data analyzed for this study cover an 18-year span including data collected in 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; data collected from 1980 through 1997 by the Tennessee Valley Authority; and data collected from 1992 through 1997 by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Concentration data for constituents that are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant List were summarized and compared against existing action levels or guidelines.From the list of organochlorine pesticide compounds analyzed, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a breakdown product of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), was the most commonly detected compound with detections at 83 percent of the sites sampled. Eleven p,p'-DDE samples exceeded action levels or guidelines with concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 12.8 milligrams per kilogram. Five other organochlorine compounds, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls, also exceeded action levels and guidelines, but the

  1. Distribution pattern and the risks of OPCs, PHAs and PCBs in aged refuses from landfill.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ziyang; Li, Anding; Tai, Jun; Yuan, Wenxiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are the urgent risk for landfill, and should be considered before the landfill reclamation and resource. In this work, the distribution pattern of selected POPs in landfill and their ecological risks were investigated and assessed. The Σ20OCPs, Σ16PAHs and Σ19PCBs were around 157.4-329.2, 4103-19,190, and 79.1-340.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, with the mean value of 206.6, 8645.4, and 155.1μgkg(-1). While those in soil covers were only 6.3-75.4, 125.5-515.3 and 2.6-43.4μgkg(-1), with the mean value of 33.7, 257.7, and 24.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The maximum OPCs, PHAs and PCBs were in aged refuse with 13, 7, 10 disposal years. Whereas, the corresponding top content in soil covers were in 10, 13 and 16years, meaning that aged refuses were not the direct source for soil covers. Among 20 OCPs measured, α-HCH, δ-HCH, Dieldrin, and Endrin were presented in all aged refuses, with the mean concentration of 93.6, 52.1, 3.9 and 4.7μgkg(-1), respectively. For PAHs, PHE, FLU and PYR were the main composition, and reached to 1535, 1224, 1187μgkg(-1). The Σ7CarPAHs occupied around 33.3-49.9% of total Σ16PAHs tested, and could be used as the indictor for PAHs pollutant in landfill. PCB-5 content was around 40.7-263.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, and occupied around 51.5-81.8% of Σ19PCBs measured. The HCHs and DDTs in aged refuses were below the national standard GB15618-1995, and the corresponding Σ19PCBs concentrations met the standard of GB 13015-91, suggesting that aged refuse are accepted for the further utilization process.

  2. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    (dithiocarbamates, ethoprophos, carbofuran, diazinon, methamidophos, disulfoton, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor). For these pesticides, more sensitive analyses of the main food contributors are needed in order to refine exposure assessment.

  3. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  4. Herbicide concentrations in and loads transported by the Conestoga River and Pequea Creek, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Lloyd A.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Takita, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    Water samples were collected from four streams in Lancaster County from 1992 through 1995 and analyzed for selected herbicides. Samples were collected from the Little Conestoga Creek near Churchtown, Mill Creek (a tributary to the Conestoga River) at Elshelman Mill Road near Lyndon, the Conestoga River at Conestoga, and Pequea Creek at Martic Forge. Most samples were collected from stormflow that occurred during the growing season. Samples were analyzed for alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlordane, cyanazine, dieldrin, malathion, metolachlor, propazine, simazine, and toxaphene. Most samples had detectable concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine, and the loads of these constituents that were transported during each of the 4 years were computed. Of the samples collected from each of the streams?Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek?10, 12, 15, and 18 percent, respectively, had atrazine concentrations greater than 3.0 micrograms per liter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. Loads of atrazine, metolochlor, and simazine were greater than loads of any other herbicides. The largest loads were transported during 1994. Loads of atrazine transported by the four streams during periods of storm- flow from May to September 1994 totaled 3.46, 28.3, 263, and 46.8 pounds, respectively. The total loads of atrazine transported by the four streams?Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek?during calendar year 1994 were 6.48, 54.1, 498, and 102 pounds, respectively. A little less than half the atrazine load transported by each stream?45, 39, 42, and 42 percent, respectively?was transported during storms that occurred from May through September. Average annual yields of atrazine for the period 1992-95 were 0.59, 0.64, 0.68, and 0.51 pounds per square mile from the Little Conestoga Creek, Mill Creek, Conestoga River, and Pequea Creek, respectively. Average annual yields of

  5. Spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and River Ganga in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Sakthivel, S; Kumar, Bhupander; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Gaur, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged in surface water by various point and nonpoint sources thereby degrading the functioning of the ecosystem and threatening human health. Chlorinated pesticides such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) are effective pest control chemicals, used in agriculture and public health activities (malaria eradication, etc.) in India for the past several decades and are still in use. POPs can cause endocrine disruption and food chain biomagnification because of their lipophilicity and environmental persistence. This study aims to assess the environmental occurrence and spatial distribution of OCPs, PAHs and PCBs in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and Ganga ending at the of the Bay of Bengal.The order of organochlorine pesticides is as: heptachlor>HCHs>DDTs>dieldrin>aldrin>endosulfan. Diamond Harbour and Bakkhali were the two places with elevated level of all individual HCH isomers compared to all other sites. β-Endosulfan and α-Endosulfan were high at Dibrugarh than other sampling sites. This is due to the ongoing use of Endosulfan in the tea estates in Assam especially the estates close to the town of Dibrugarh. p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT levels indicate the fresh input of DDT in all the sampling sites. Heptachlor has been observed in 57% of the total samples reported in the present study.These reasons may attribute to high deposition of pesticides in the surface water of Ganga and Brahmaputra.In addition the catchments area of the Ganga River is surrounded by agricultural lands so a relatively higher residue of pesticides was prevalent. Σ27 PCBs varied from BDL to 142 (Avg±SD, 3.96±6.71) ng L-1. PCB-18, PCB-52 & PCB-44 showed the highest concentration levels for all the sampling sites. PCB-126 was observed in samples taken from sites close to the city limit of Kolkata

  6. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  7. Apollo 11 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On 16 July 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, and Michael Collins lifted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in the mammoth-sized Saturn V rocket on their way to the moon during the Apollo 11 mission. Cmdr. Armstrong and pilot Aldrin landed the spacecraft, Eagle, on the moon's Sea of Tranquillity. Apollo 11 booster stages were tested at Stennis Space Center.

  8. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  9. Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Lunar Module Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. The Moon is seen in its entirety and in close detail. Aldrin gives a brief demonstration on how the astronauts eat in space.

  10. Computational Methods in Nondestructive Evaluation: A Revolution in Maintenance (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    2007), 1731-1738. [2] J.C. Aldrin, C.V. Kropas-Hughes, J.S Knopp, J. Mandeville , D. Judd, E. Lindgren, Advanced echo-dynamic measures for the...beam/spar cap", Aging Aircraft Conf., Palm Springs, California, Jan 31 -Feb. 3, 2005. [5] J.C. Aldrin, J.R. Mandeville , D. Judd, J.R. Mandeville

  11. Reliability Demonstration for an Eddy Current NDE Technique Using A Computational Electromagnetic Model-Assisted Approach (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e. TASK NUMBER RG 6. AUTHOR(S) John C. Aldrin (Computational Tools ) Jeremy Knopp...Computational Tools Gurnee, IL 60031 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Nondestructive Evaluation Branch (AFRL/RXLP...Harold A. Sabbagh4, Elias H. Sabbagh4, and R. Kim Murphy4 1 Computational Tools , Gurnee, IL 60031, USA aldrin@computationaltools.com, 2 Air

  12. Human Health Exposure Assessment for Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 2-A. Toxicity Assessment. Version 4.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    glucanic acid excretion as a test for hepatic enzyme induction in man," The Lancet, 20 Mar, p 572-575 (1971). ntn Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC...Walker, A. I. T., ’Toxicology of dieldrin (HEOD): II. Comparative long-term oral toxicity studies in mice with dieldrin, DDT, phenobarbitone, beta -BHC

  13. 75 FR 48867 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... landfill on the property. Open burning and trenching were the primary methods of waste disposal used at the... risks due to ponded water onsite by filling in the existing site trenches with clean fill. Establish a... dieldrin; or (3) Dieldrin > 37 ppb; Backfilling the site trench; ] Institutional controls such as...

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Chemical Index. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    disulfide Bis (diisopropylaminoethyl) sulfide Borax/Boraxo powdered handsoap Carbon, activated Chloroacetic acid Dieldrin (grasshopper control...handsoap Carbon, activated Chloroacetic acid Dieldrin (grasshopper control/chemical pesticide inventory) 2-Diisopropylaminoethyl sulfonate Dimethyl...Chloroacetaldoxime - The time period should be from 1973-1982. Chloroacetic acid - This is a decomposition product of mustard. The Army should be listed as the

  15. The Soviet side of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2015-12-01

    When the Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin visited the Cosmonauts exhibition at the Science Museum in London, he was characteristically blunt, describing it as the story of a “competitor that lost”.

  16. Gemini 12 crew receive Official welcome aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after their splashdown at the end of the Gemini 12 mission.

  17. 2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    industrial wastewater- treatment and thermoelectric plants, urban runoff, and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes contribute contaminants to surface water and ground water throughout the study area. Surface water and ground water in the Great and Little Miami River Basins are classified as very hard, calcium-magnesium- bicarbonate waters. The major-ion composition and hardness of surface water and ground water reflect extensive contact with the carbonate-rich soils, glacial sediments, and limestone or dolomite bedrock. Dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan II, and lindane are the most commonly reported organochlorine pesticides in streams draining the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Peak concentrations of the her-bicides atrazine and metolachlor in streams commonly are associated with post-application runoff events. Nitrate concentrations in surface water average 3 to 4 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the larger streams and also show strong seasonal variations related to application periods and runoff events. Ambient iron concentrations in ground water pumped from aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (300 micrograms per liter). Chloride concentrations are below aesthetic drinking-water guidelines (250 mg/L), except in ground water pumped from low-yielding Ordovician shale; chloride concentrations in sodium-chloride- rich ground water pumped from the shale bedrock can exceed 1,000 mg/L. Some of the highest average nitrate concentrations in ground water in Ohio and Indiana are found in wells completed in the buried-valley aquifer; these concentrations typically are found in those parts of the sand and gravel aquifer that are not overlain by clay-rich till. Atrazine was the most commonly detected herbicide in private wells. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water generally were below Federal drinking-water standards, except near areas of known or

  19. Neil Armstrong On The Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo ll mission commander, at the modular equipment storage assembly (MESA) of the Lunar Module 'Eagle' on the historic first extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. took the photograph with a Hasselblad 70mm camera. Most photos from the Apollo 11 mission show Buzz Aldrin. This is one of only a few that show Neil Armstrong (some of these are blurry).

  20. Case Study for New Feature Extraction Algorithms, Automated Data Classification, and Model-Assisted Probability of Detection Evaluation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    J.C. Aldrin (Computational Tools , Inc.) J.S. Knopp (AFRL/MLLP) 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 05 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Computational Tools , Inc. 4275 Chatham Avenue Gurnee, IL 60031 Nondestructive Evaluation Branch...John C. Aldrin1 and Jeremy S. Knopp2 1Computational Tools , Gurnee, IL 60031, USA 2Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MLLP), Wright

  1. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    most abundant and the concentrations of sums of DDTs were in tens of pg m-3. This suggests that the main source of DDTs was possibly due to past agricultural and public health usage. The soil concentrations of DDTs at the various sites were however negligible (approx. 1 ngg-1). The highest levels of HCHs were recorded in November and December 2008. HCB and PeCB concentrations in air were low and uniform and soil levels of HCB and PeCB were negligible. Only traces of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and mirex were detected from both sites. PCBs were found at levels typical for the urban sites and the levels at the Kwabenya site were slightly lower than those measured at the East Legon site. Levels of PCBs at the rural/agricultural site (Lake Bosumtwi) were relatively lower than those measured at the urban sites. The levels of PAHs in ambient air were quite high at all sites with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Benzo(a)pyrene (a known carcinogen) levels in ambient air were however very low. The highest levels of PAHs were detected in January 2008, February 2008 and July/August 2008 at Kwabenya, East Legon, and Lake Bosumtwi, respectively. PCDD/F levels were also quite high, maximal I-TEQ was the third highest in the African region (after Egypt and Senegal). Keywords: Persistent Organic Pollutants; Background Concentrations; Ghana; PUF-disk sampler

  2. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients and other chemical constituents in bottom sediment, Tuttle Creek Lake, Northeast Kansas, 1962-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    -effects levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally less than the threshold-effects levels. Following an initial positive trend, a statistically significant negative depositional trend was indicated for DDE (degradation product of DDT), which was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected included aldrin, DDD, and dieldrin. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial increase in the production of grain corn and soybeans from the 1960s to the 1990s. This increase in production was accompanied by a pronounced increase in the number of irrigated acres. Also, during the same time period, there was an overall increase in hog production. These changes in human activity have not had a discernible effect on the deposition of chemical constituents in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake.

  3. Ground-water quality in the West Salt River Valley, Arizona, 1996-98: relations to hydrogeology, water use, and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonds, Robert J.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    2002-01-01

    February 1998. Analyses of all samples collected from the monitoring wells indicated low concentrations of pesticides and volatile organic compounds. The most frequently detected pesticides were deethylatrazine and atrazine. Trichloromethane (chloroform) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) were the most frequently detected volatile organic compounds in the monitoring wells. Two compounds [dieldrin and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-dichlorodiphenyl)ethylene (DDE)], decomposition products of two banned pesticides, aldrin and dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDT), were detected at low concentrations in samples analyzed for the agricultural land-use study. In the West Salt River Valley, a high concentration of the heavier oxygen isotope?oxygen-18?in ground water generally indicates effects of evaporation on recharge water from irrigation. Wells in undeveloped areas and wells that have openings beneath a confining bed generally yield ground water that is free of the effects of irrigation seepage. Samples from these wells did not contain detectable concentrations of pesticides. The median concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) and dissolved solids in samples from wells in undeveloped areas were 1.7 milligrams per liter and 257 milligrams per liter, respectively. The median concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) and dissolved solids in samples from wells that yield water from below confining beds were 2.0 and 747 milligrams per liter, respectively.

  4. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 145-73-3 Endothall P051 72-20-8 Endrin P051 72-20-8 Endrin, & metabolites P042 51-43-4 Epinephrine...-Dichloropropene U085 1464-53-5 1,2:3,4-Diepoxybutane (I,T) U108 123-91-1 1,4-Diethyleneoxide U028 117-81-7... Prosulfocarb. U194 107-10-8 n-Propylamine (I,T) U083 78-87-5 Propylene dichloride U148 123-33-1...

  5. 40 CFR 261.33 - Discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification species, container residues, and spill...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 145-73-3 Endothall P051 72-20-8 Endrin P051 72-20-8 Endrin, & metabolites P042 51-43-4 Epinephrine...-Dichloropropene U085 1464-53-5 1,2:3,4-Diepoxybutane (I,T) U108 123-91-1 1,4-Diethyleneoxide U028 117-81-7... Prosulfocarb. U194 107-10-8 n-Propylamine (I,T) U083 78-87-5 Propylene dichloride U148 123-33-1...

  6. Pesticide contamination of endangered gray bats and their food base in Boone County, Missouri, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clawson, R.L.; Clark, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Gray bat guano from Devil's Icebox and Hunters Caves contained dieldrin at levels previously associated with gray bat mortality. Two of four gray bats found dead in Holton Cave had lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin. Twenty-five of 28 (86%) insect samples from bat foraging areas contained measurable dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide or both. Beetle samples were most heavily contaminated containing up to 2.2 ppm and 1.1 ppm heptachlor epoxide. The addition of Holton Cave brings to five the number of Missouri caves where gray bats have died of food chain pesticide poisoning.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma- summary of information on pesticides, 1970-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Richard W.; Joseph, Robert L.; Freiwald, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Historical pesticide data from 1970-90 were compiled for 140 surface-water, 92 ground-water, 55 streambed-sediment, and 120 biological-tissue sampling sites within the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment Program study unit. Surface-water, bed-sediment, and biological-tissue sites have drainage basins predominantly in the Springfield and Salem Plateaus; ground-water sites are predominantly located in the Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain. Many sites were sampled only once or twice during this period. A large percentage of the samples were collected in the mid-1970's and early 1980's for surface water, 1990 for ground water, the late 1980's for surface water, 1990 for ground water, the late 1980's for bed sediment, and the early 1980's for biological tissue. Pesticide use was approximately 4.2 million pounds per year of active ingredients from 1982-85 in the study unit and was generally greatest in the Springfield and Salem Plateaus pasturelands and in the Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain cropland areas. The most frequently applied pesticide in the study unit was 2,4-D. Alachlor was the second most applied pesticide. Corn, pasture, rice, sorghum, and soybeans received approximately 90 percent of the pesticides applied within the study unit. The highest pesticide application rate per acre occurred on these crops in the Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain. Pastureland was the predominant crop type in 50 of the 94 counties in the study unit. Toxaphene, the pesticide having the most number of detections in surface water, was found in 17 of 866 samples from 5 of 112 sites. Concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.0 micrograms per liter. Six other pesticides or pesticide metabolites were detected in 12 or more surface-water samples: DDE, dieldrin, DDT, aldrin, 2,4-D, and lindane. The maximum concentration for these pesticides was less than 1.0 micrograms per liter. Atrazine, the pesticide having the most number of detections in ground

  8. Report on the Biosphere 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodwell, George M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses contemporary challenges for biologists, environmentalists, technologists, teachers, and political supporters of science and education in solving global problems. Discussed are nation- and worldwide accumulation of toxic materials (DDT, PCB's, kepone, radioactivity, dieldrin, mirex), transformation of natural ecosystems, and instability…

  9. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ..., Santa Fe Dam Park and El Dorado Park Lakes to address nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB... associated with nutrients, mercury, chlordane, DDT, PCBs and trash. EPA will establish TMDLs for these...

  10. 40 CFR Table 10 to Part 455 - List of Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Endothall S&E) 123 (*) Bicyclic Activated Carbon. Endrin 124 41601 Tricyclic Activated Carbon. Ethalfluralin.... Butoxypolypropoxypolyethoxyethanol-iodine complex 46901 Polymer Activated Carbon. Polyethoxypolypropoxyethanol-iodine complex 46904 Polymer Activated Carbon. Use code no. 046904 (polyethoxypolypropoxy ethanol-iodine complex) 46909...

  11. 40 CFR Table 10 to Part 455 - List of Appropriate Pollution Control Technologies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Endothall S&E) 123 (*) Bicyclic Activated Carbon. Endrin 124 41601 Tricyclic Activated Carbon. Ethalfluralin.... Butoxypolypropoxypolyethoxyethanol-iodine complex 46901 Polymer Activated Carbon. Polyethoxypolypropoxyethanol-iodine complex 46904 Polymer Activated Carbon. Use code no. 046904 (polyethoxypolypropoxy ethanol-iodine complex) 46909...

  12. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... measuring dalapon, dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin, glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram, simazine, benzo(a... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section, and in § 141.80(a)(2), the regulations set forth in this part...

  13. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... measuring dalapon, dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin, glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram, simazine, benzo(a... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section, and in § 141.80(a)(2), the regulations set forth in this part...

  14. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measuring dalapon, dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin, glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram, simazine, benzo(a... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section, and in § 141.80(a)(2), the regulations set forth in this part...

  15. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measuring dalapon, dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin, glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram, simazine, benzo(a... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section, and in § 141.80(a)(2), the regulations set forth in this part...

  16. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... measuring dalapon, dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin, glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram, simazine, benzo(a... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (k) of this section, and in § 141.80(a)(2), the regulations set forth in this part...

  17. President Nixon and Dr. Paine Wait to Meet Apollo 11 Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon and Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, watch Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin Jr., walk from the recovery helicopter to the Mobile Quarantine Facility aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The President later congratulated the astronauts by microphone, speaking through a window of the quarantine trailer. During the eight-day space mission, Armstrong and Aldrin explored the Moon's surface and brought back rock samples for scientists to study. Collins piloted the command module in the lunar orbit during their 22-hour stay on the moon. The extravehicular activity lasted more than two hours.

  18. Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A.M.; Barr, D.B.; Juncos, J.; Roman, N.; Wesseling, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously screened 400 elderly Costa Ricans for neurodegenerative disease. Those reporting occupational pesticide exposure (18%) had an increased Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk (OR 2.57, 95% CI 0.91–7.26), and worse cognition (Mini-Mental States Exam (MMSE) 24.5 versus 25.9 points, p=0.01). We subsequently measured long-lasting organochlorine pesticides (β-HCH, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin) in a sub-sample (n=89). Dieldrin and β-HCH have been linked to PD, and DDE to Alzheimer’s disease. Methods We ran regression models for MMSE and tremor-at-rest to assess associations with pesticides in 89 subjects. Results The percent of β-HCH, DDE, DDT (parent compound for DDE), and dieldrin above their limit of detection (LOD) were 100%, 93%, 75%, and 57%, respectively. Tremor-at-rest was found in 21 subjects, and the mean MMSE was 25. Those who reported occupational pesticide exposure (n=36) had more detectable dieldrin samples (p=0.005), and higher mean levels of dieldrin (p=0.01), than those not reporting exposure. Other pesticides did not differ between those with and without self-reported occupational exposure. There was a positive but non-significant trend of higher risk for tremor-at-rest with higher dieldrin (p=0.10 for linear trend). Neither DDE nor DDT showed a relationship with MMSE. However, after excluding two outliers with the lowest MMSE scores, higher DDT levels showed some modest association with lower MMSE (p=0.09 for linear trend). Conclusions Our data are limited by small sample size. However, dieldrin was high in our population, has been previously linked to PD, and could be partly responsible for the excess PD risk seen in our population. PMID:25173053

  19. Apollo 11: 20th Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission.

  20. Gemini 12 crew cut cake aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew slice a cake made aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  1. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  2. Role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Grannas, Amanda M; Pagano, Lisa P; Pierce, Brittany C; Bobby, Rachel; Fede, Alexis

    2014-09-16

    In this study, we provide evidence that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in indirect photolysis processes in ice, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leading to the efficient photodegradation of a probe hydrophobic organic pollutant, aldrin. Rates of DOM-mediated aldrin loss are between 2 and 56 times faster in ice than in liquid water (depending on DOM source and concentration), likely due to a freeze-concentration effect that occurs when the water freezes, providing a mechanism to concentrate reactive components into smaller, liquid-like regions within or on the ice. Rates of DOM-mediated aldrin loss are also temperature dependent, with higher rates of loss as temperature decreases. This also illustrates the importance of the freeze-concentration effect in altering reaction kinetics for processes occurring in environmental ices. All DOM source types studied were able to mediate aldrin loss, including commercially available fulvic and humic acids and an authentic Arctic snow DOM sample isolated by solid phase extraction, indicating the ubiquity of DOM in indirect photochemistry in environmental ices.

  3. An investigation on the sorption behaviour of montmorillonite for selected organochlorine pesticides from water.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Senar; Tor, Ali; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

    2012-06-01

    The sorption behaviour of montmorillonite towards organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous solutions is reported. After preliminary investigation of the sorption capability of clay for selected OCPs, aldrin was used as a model compound for further experiments. The batch sorption experiments were carried out as functions of contact time, pH of the solution, initial aldrin concentration and dosage of the montmorillonite. After traditional liquid-liquid extraction, the determination of OCPs was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-microECD). The results indicated that sorption of aldrin followed the second-order kinetic model and that the equilibrium time depended on the initial aldrin concentration. The film diffusion was found to be a main sorption rate control mechanism. The removal was explained according to the electrostatic bonding mechanism. The Freundlich isotherm model better represented the sorption data than the Langmuir model. The montmorillonite was also used efficiently for the removal of OCPs from fortified tap and surface (lake) water samples.

  4. Apollo 11 Facts Project [EVA Training/Washington, D. C. Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, during various pre-mission activities. They are seen training for the extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon, giving speeches in front of the White House, and during a parade in Houston.

  5. Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. A scene shows the entire Earth as seen from Apollo.

  6. Apollo 11 Facts Project: Earth Views and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, are seen performing various on-orbit activities, including systems identification and Lunar Module checkout. The Earth is seen from space.

  7. Apollo 11 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription (GOSS NET 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is the transcription of the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transmission (GOSS NET 1) from the Apollo 11 mission. Communicators in the text may be identified according to the following list [in part]: Commander: Neil A. Armstrong; Command Module Pilot: Michael Collins; Lunar Module Pilot: Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.

  8. Mobile Quarantine Facility unloaded at Ellington Air Force Base, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A Mobile Quarantine Facility, with the three Apollo 11 crewmen inside, is unloaded from a U.S. Air Force C141 transport at Ellington Air Force Base early Sunday after a flight from Hawaii. A large crowd was present to welcome Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin Aldrin Jr. back to Houston following their historic lunar landing mission.

  9. Researching Change in Caribbean Education: Curriculum, Teaching and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, T. Ed.; Ezenne, A., Ed.

    The chapters of this collection deal with a number of issues and concerns at all levels of education in the Caribbean. Section 1, "Curriculum," contains: (1) "Science Education in the Caribbean: Analysis of Current Trends" (Aldrin E. Sweeney); (2) "A Decade of Research in Technology Education: Implications for Caribbean…

  10. Simulation-Based Design of a Guided-Wave Structural Health Monitoring System for a Plate-Stiffener Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102S 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e. TASK NUMBER 41 6. AUTHOR(S) J.C. Aldrin (Computational Tools , Inc.) E.A. Medina...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Computational Tools , Inc. 4275 Chatham Avenue Gurnee, IL 60031

  11. President Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

  12. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process.

  14. Forced double suicide by fire revealed by autopsy and toxicological examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, H; Ijiri, I; Ameno, S; Fuke, C; Tanaka, N; Kubota, T; Tsujinaka, M; Ameno, K

    1997-12-01

    We report here a forced double suicide by fire. Two burned bodies discovered in the debris of a house fire were identified as a father and his son by odontological findings. In the father, the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) in the left ventricle was over 90% and endrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was also detected in the stomach contents. However, 30.5% of CO-Hb in left ventricular blood and gasoline traces from an intratracheal puncture were detected in the son who had been undergoing treatment at a neuropsychiatric clinic. From these results, we determined this case to be a double suicide forced by the father in which the father set a fire with gasoline, thus burning his son to death, and then died in the fire himself after ingestion of Endrin. This case suggests the importance of integration of the results from the detailed forensic pathological and toxicological examinations and the scene investigation.

  15. Pesticide concentrations in snail kite eggs and nestlings in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    From 1970-1977, unhatched snail kite eggs and young that were found dead at nests in Florida were analyzed by gas chromatography for residues of organochlorine pollutants. The 1970 and 1974 material showed measurable amounts of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin. Dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues were less than 0.1 ppm in the eggs and were detected in only one sample of muscle tissue at 0.11 ppm. Concentrations in ppm wet weight of p,p'-DDE, p,p' DDD, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, and PCB for two samples of muscle and three of brain tissue (all 1977 material) were not detected at the limit of quantification (0.05 ppm).

  16. Proceedings of NEUROTOX󈨜, Molecular Basis of Drug & Pesticide Action (3rd) Held in Bath, England on 10-15 April 1988: Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-15

    former component was completely blocked by lindane (7-BHC) but not by a-BHC. Therefore, this blocking action ap~ ears to be one of the factors...with glutamate, Ach or GABA, is strongly reduced with Avl. On inside-out patches, AVM applied to the inner side of the membrane, does not open any...vitro ability to decrease the radioligand binding to rat brain nenbrane preparations. Finally, the severity of malformations induced by endrin in

  17. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fluoride 1.4-2.4 Lead 0.05 Mercury 0.002 Nitrate (as N) 10 Selenium 0.01 Silver 0.05 Endrin 0.0002 Lindane 0.004 Methoxychlor 0.1 Toxaphene 0.005 2,4-D 0.1 2,4,5-TP Silver 0.01 Radium 5 pCi/1 Gross Alpha...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fluoride 1.4-2.4 Lead 0.05 Mercury 0.002 Nitrate (as N) 10 Selenium 0.01 Silver 0.05 Endrin 0.0002 Lindane 0.004 Methoxychlor 0.1 Toxaphene 0.005 2,4-D 0.1 2,4,5-TP Silver 0.01 Radium 5 pCi/1 Gross Alpha...

  19. Appendices for Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump Remedial Investigation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    COPPER CUEXT * COPPER , EXTRACTABLE CtJTOT * COPPER , TOTAL CX PHOSGENE OXIME /DICULOROFORMOXIME CYDODC CYCLODODECANE CYHX YLHXN CYHXB CYCLOHEXYLBENZENE...RNX ENDRIN KETONE ENHETHETHYL-N-HEXYL ETHER ESFS04 ENDOSULFAN SULFATE ETBD10 ETHYLBENZENE-D1O ETCYHX ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE ETC6HS ETHY-LBENZENE ETOR...RDX CYCLOTRIKETHYLENETRINITRAMINE /CYCLONITE R.EDDY RED DYE RESCI*~RESNACIDS SB ANTIMONY SILVEX SILVEX SN TIN S03 SULFITE S04 SULFATE SPIRO (11’,5

  20. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... life use. (g) Effective February 5, 2001, the chronic aquatic life criterion for selenium in Table 2 of... d 0.056 n/a Endrin d 0.036 n/a Mercury (II) a,b 0.9081 0.85 Parathion d 0.013 n/a Selenium a,b 5 0... Iron Pyrene Selenium Silver 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene Thallium...

  1. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... life use. (g) Effective February 5, 2001, the chronic aquatic life criterion for selenium in Table 2 of... d 0.056 n/a Endrin d 0.036 n/a Mercury (II) a,b 0.9081 0.85 Parathion d 0.013 n/a Selenium a,b 5 0... Iron Pyrene Selenium Silver 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene Thallium...

  2. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... life use. (g) Effective February 5, 2001, the chronic aquatic life criterion for selenium in Table 2 of... d 0.056 n/a Endrin d 0.036 n/a Mercury (II) a,b 0.9081 0.85 Parathion d 0.013 n/a Selenium a,b 5 0... Iron Pyrene Selenium Silver 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene Thallium...

  3. Size dimorphism, molt status, and body mass variation of prairiefalcons nesting in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; McKinley, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix - Tables to Part 132

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cyanides 6.0E2 4.8E4 DDT 2.0E-3 2.0E-3 1.5E-4 1.5E-4 Dieldrin 4.1E-4 4.1E-4 6.5E-6 6.5E-6 2,4... Chemical Criteria (µg/L) DDT and metabolites 1.1E-5 Mercury (including methylmercury) 1.3E-3 PCBs (class) 1...,4′-DDT; p,p′-DDT Dieldrin Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorobutadiene; hexachloro-1,...

  5. Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Bunck, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the 1976 collection, but DDT, and dieldrin occurrences decreased. DDE and dieldrin levels decreased since the 1976 collection, but the level of PCBs has increased

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1969 and 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belisle, A.A.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; DeWolf, R.B.; Cromartie, E.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  7. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states - 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, S.K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  8. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states, 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, S.K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978a??81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  9. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  10. Explosive Residue Detection Using Polypeptide-Based Biosensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and toxaphene (TXP). Aliquots plated on the W- plates were used to determine transfection efficiency. In previous screening attempts with TNT using...yeast in the presence of the organochlorine pesticides, dieldrin or toxaphene (Fig. 4). However, both the LBD(WT) and LBD(TNT) supported the growth of

  11. River otters as biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Samantha K; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E; Singh, Kuldeep; Lehner, Andreas; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Bluett, Robert D; Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan E

    2014-02-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is a biomonitor for organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) associated with a wide range of deleterious health effects in wildlife and humans. We determined concentrations of twenty OHCs in livers of 23 river otters salvaged by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources from 2009 to 2011, determined sex-dependent distribution of OHCs, and compared our results to the reported concentrations of four OHCs in Illinois river otters from 1984 to 1989. Since these contaminants have been banned for over 30 years, we predicted smaller mean concentrations than those previously reported in Illinois otters. We detected eleven of twenty OHCs; PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, and 4,4'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) were present in the greatest mean concentrations. We report the largest mean concentration of dieldrin to date in the liver of North American river otters (mean: 174, range: 14.4-534 parts per billion wet wt [ppb]). Mean PCB concentrations were significantly higher in males (mean: 851; range: 30-3450 ppb) than females (mean: 282; range: 40-850 ppb; p=0.04). Mean concentrations of dieldrin were greater than those detected in otters from 1984 to 1989 (mean: 90; range: 30-130 ppb; p<0.05). Our results suggest OHC exposure remains a concern. Future research in Illinois should focus on evaluating OHCs exposures, particularly dieldrin, at the watershed level.

  12. Preliminary observations of the behavior of male, flat-tailed horned lizards before and after an off-highway vehicle race in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, N.C.; Lovich, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Brains of juvenile gray bats, Myotis grisescens, found dead beneath maternity roosts in two Missouri caves contained lethal concentrations of dieldrin. One colony appeared to be abnormally small, and more dead bats were found a year after the juvenile bats had been collected. This is the first report to link the field mortality of bats directly to insecticide residues acquired through the food chain.

  13. Results of Analyses of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil, Its Degradation Products, and Other Selected Pesticides at 22 Surface-Water Sites in Five Southern States, 2003-04

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    050 3-hydroxycarbofuran .008 benfluralin .010 3-ketocarbofuran .020 butylate .004 acifluorfen .028 carbaryl .041 aldicarb .040 carbofuran .020...005 bromoxynil .028 dieldrin .009 caffeine .018 disulfoton .021 carbaryl .018 EPTC (s-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate) .004 carbofuran .016 ethalfluralin...040 tri-allate .006 norflurazon .020 trifluralin .009 oryzalin .012 oxamyl .030 picloram .032 propham .030 propiconazole .010 propoxur .008 siduron

  14. Water Quality Studies in the Upper Yazoo Project Area, Mississippi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    exception of METHOMYL , a carbamate insecticide. Half-life on the soil for this group ranges from 1 week to less than 6 months (Ruiz 1979). The rela- tively...DIELDRIN) Methomyl ( METHOMYL ) Endosulfan I (ENDOI) Azinphosrnethyl (AZPHI4ETH) Endosulfan II (ENDOII) Sulprofos (SULPROFO) PCB Congeners Endosulfan

  15. Protective effect of the green tea component, L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong-Suk; Kim, Seung; Lee, Sook-Young; Park, Jeong Ae; Kim, Sung-Jun; Chun, Hong Sung

    2008-07-01

    Several environmental neurotoxins and oxidative stress inducers are known to damage the nervous system and are considered major factors associated with the selective vulnerability of nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Gamma-glutamylethylamide (L-theanine), a natural glutamate analog in green tea, has been shown to exert strong anti-ischemic effect. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of L-theanine on neurotoxicity induced by PD-related neurotoxicants, rotenone and dieldrin in cultured human dopaminergic cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our initial experiments revealed that L-theanine (500 microM) attenuated both rotenone- and dieldrin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, L-theanine partially prevented both rotenone- and dieldrin-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation. Both rotenone- and dieldrin-induced down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation was significantly blocked by pretreatment with L-theanine. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-theanine significantly attenuated the down-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) production in SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that L-theanine directly provide neuroprotection against PD-related neurotoxicants and may be clinically useful for preventing PD symptoms.

  16. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues relative to an unamended control soil was assessed using Lumbricus terrestris in 4-L soil microcos...

  17. Organochlorine insecticide residues and PCBs in tissues of woodcock, mourning doves, and robins from east-central, Illinois, 1978-79

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.R.; Duzan, R.E.; Siemers, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    Reported here are levels in ppm of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE (DDE), and PCB residues assayed in muscle, heart, liver, brain, and fatty tissues of woodcock (Philohelo minor), mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura), and robins (Turdus migratorium) from east-central Illinois in 1978 and 1979.

  18. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates South Florida, Ladyfish and Tarpon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    of Veracruz , Mexico. the height of the fin. The anal fin The presence of small larvae off is larger than the dorsal. Georgia (Gehringer 1959b) and...Ecology of juvenile Tabb, D.C., and R.B. Manning. 1961. tarpon and effects of dieldrin on A checklist of the flora and fauna two associated species

  19. 76 FR 76314 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...). Benzo(a)pyrene--2.3 mg/kg. Benzo(a)anthracene--23.0 mg/kg. Dieldrin--1.2 mg/kg. Heptachlor Epoxide--2.1.... ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6 is publishing a... January 6, 2012. If adverse comments are received, EPA will publish a timely withdrawal of the...

  20. 40 CFR 401.15 - Toxic pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Toxic pollutants. 401.15 Section 401.15.../Dieldrin 1 1 Effluent standard promulgated (40 CFR part 129). 5. Antimony and compounds 2 2 The term compounds shall include organic and inorganic compounds. 6. Arsenic and compounds 7. Asbestos 8. Benzene...

  1. 40 CFR 401.15 - Toxic pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../Dieldrin 1 1 Effluent standard promulgated (40 CFR part 129). 5. Antimony and compounds 2 2 The term compounds shall include organic and inorganic compounds. 6. Arsenic and compounds 7. Asbestos 8. Benzene 9. Benzidine 1 10. Beryllium and compounds 11. Cadmium and compounds 12. Carbon tetrachloride 13....

  2. 40 CFR 401.15 - Toxic pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../Dieldrin 1 1 Effluent standard promulgated (40 CFR part 129). 5. Antimony and compounds 2 2 The term compounds shall include organic and inorganic compounds. 6. Arsenic and compounds 7. Asbestos 8. Benzene 9. Benzidine 1 10. Beryllium and compounds 11. Cadmium and compounds 12. Carbon tetrachloride 13....

  3. 40 CFR 401.15 - Toxic pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Toxic pollutants. 401.15 Section 401.15.../Dieldrin 1 1 Effluent standard promulgated (40 CFR part 129). 5. Antimony and compounds 2 2 The term compounds shall include organic and inorganic compounds. 6. Arsenic and compounds 7. Asbestos 8. Benzene...

  4. 40 CFR 401.15 - Toxic pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../Dieldrin 1 1 Effluent standard promulgated (40 CFR part 129). 5. Antimony and compounds 2 2 The term compounds shall include organic and inorganic compounds. 6. Arsenic and compounds 7. Asbestos 8. Benzene 9. Benzidine 1 10. Beryllium and compounds 11. Cadmium and compounds 12. Carbon tetrachloride 13....

  5. Moon Rock Presented to Smithsonian Institute by Apollo 11 Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronauts, (left to right) Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Neil A. Armstrong, commander, are showing a two-pound Moon rock to Frank Taylor, director of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. The rock was picked up from the Moon's surface during the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) of Aldrin and Armstrong following man's first Moon landing and was was presented to the Institute for display in the Art and Industries Building. The Apollo 11 mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Middle Decatur Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    µg/L) Aldrin 3 0.0005 0.0005 BHC 100 0.414 0.414 BHC (Alpha) ----- 0.049 0.049 BHC (Beta) ----- 0.17 0.17 Chlordane 2.4 0.0043 ----- DDT 1.1...9.9 Beta-BHC (beta-Lindane) 1.0 5.1 DDT 1.0 9.9 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane) 1.8 5.1 Methoxychlor 1.2 5.1 Gamma-BHC (gamma-Lindane) 0.6 5.1 Aldrin...alpha-Lindane) 0.009 0.05 DDD 0.005 0.1 Beta-BHC (beta-Lindane) 0.009 0.05 DDT 0.004 0.1 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane) 0.014 0.05 Methoxychlor 0.005

  7. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Wilson Island Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Aldrin 3 0.0005 0.0005 BHC 100 0.414 0.414 BHC (Alpha) ----- 0.049 0.049 BHC (Beta) ----- 0.17 0.17 Chlordane 2.4 0.0043 ----- DDT 1.1 0.001...Beta-BHC (beta-Lindane) 1.0 5.1 DDT 1.0 9.9 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane) 1.8 5.1 Methoxychlor 1.2 5.1 Gamma-BHC (gamma-Lindane) 0.6 5.1 Aldrin 0.7...µg/l) DDE 0.005 0.1 Alpha-BHC (alpha-Lindane) 0.009 0.05 DDD 0.005 0.1 Beta-BHC (beta-Lindane) 0.009 0.05 DDT 0.004 0.1 Delta-BHC (delta-Lindane

  8. Human Health Exposure Assessment for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Study Area Evaluations. Volume 6-C. Southern Study Area Exposure Assessment Version 4.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    CONTAMINANT PPLV PPLV PPLV El El El OPN (mg/kg) ( wv /kg) (mg/kg) ALDRIN 1.5E+00 1.6E.04 1.SE00 2.OE+01" 1.9E-03 Z.OE+01* 0.0E+00 PPODE 7.4E+01 9.5E+05 7.4E...RECREATIONAL VISITORS DIRECT INDIRECT CUMULATIVE DIRECT INDIRECT CUMULATIVE VEI CONTAMINANT PPLV PPLV PPLV El El El CI• (rQ/kg) ( wv /kg) (mg/kg) ALDRIN 2.IE...the critica ; exposure pathway identified. 2-121 REA5/?T’rc(’W, REA VI C 9/-,,) 12’(X) p11 • M pI I Contaminants Regulated Casual Recreational

  9. Apollo 11 Astronauts Headed For Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members (front to rear) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin leave the pick up helicopter making their way to the MQF. This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11 mission the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronaut, born in Auglaize County, OH, trained as a pilot (Korean War). He flew on Gemini 8 and in 1969, with Michael Collins and EDWIN ALDRIN, took Apollo 11 to the Moon. On 21 July 1969, at 02:56 GMT, Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon, with the famous statement, 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind'....

  11. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  12. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong looks over flight plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong is looking over flight plans while being assisted by a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  13. Apollo 11 preflight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The three prime crewmen of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission participate in a pre-flight press conference in the bldg 1 auditorium on July 5, 1969. Left to right, are Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot; and Michael Collins, command module pilot. The box-like enclosure surrounding the three astronauts was part of elaborate precautions in effect to reduce the possibility of exposing the crewmen to infectious disease in the preflight period.

  14. Application of XAD-4 solid sorbent to the collection of pesticides from water samples: Final report, November 1985-November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Manning, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the efficiency of XAD-4 resin for removing pesticides from water for subsequent analysis. A limited number of pesticides, including lindane, aldrin, and 4,4'-DDT, were added to water, extracted by elution on XAD-4, and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The method was found to be reasonably effective, at least for semiquantitative purposes.

  15. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bedia, Carmen Dalmau, Núria Jaumot, Joaquim Tauler, Romà

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  16. Hazard Assessment Computer System HACS/UIM Users’ Operation Manual. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    METHACRYLATE ETN ETHYL NITRITE ETS ETHYLTRICHLOROSILANE EVO EPOXIDIZED VEGETABLE OILS FAC FERRIC AMMONIUM CITRATE FAL FURFURYL ALCOHOL FAO FERRIC...A:ETALDEHYDE AAM ACIRYLAMIDE AAN N-AMYL ALCOHOL AAT AMMONrU? ACETATE ABC AMMONIUM I.ARDONAIE ABF AMMONIUM BIFLUORI’T ABM ACETYL BROMIDE ABR ALLYL BROMIDE...ALLYL ALCOHOL ALC ALLYL CHLORIDE ALD ALDRIN ALF ALUMINUM FLUORIDE ALM ALUMINUM SULFATE ALN ALUMINUM NITRATE ALS AMMONIUM LAURYL SULFATE ALT AMMONIUM

  17. Response Manual for Combating Spills of Floating Hazardous CHRIS chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    No HYDROGEN SULFIDE HDS Yes HYDROQUINONE HDQ No 2 - HYDROXYETHYL ACRYLATE HAI No HYDROXYLAMINE HDA No xvi Classification of CHRIS Chemicals CHRIS...Acetate C SAE-30 Oil A Ethyl Alcohol A Salt Water (25%) B Fertilizer Solution A Sea Water A # 2 Fuel Oil A Sodium Acetate Solutions T #6 Fuel Oil A... ACRYLAMIDE AAM No ACRYLIC ACID ACR No ACRYLONITRILE ACN No ADIPIC ACID ADA No ADIPONITRILE ADN Yes ALDRIN ALD No ALKYLBENZENESULFONIC ACIDS ABS No ALLYL

  18. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, B.; Grannas, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Contamination and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic, an area previously considered as pristine and removed from human influence, has become a growing concern. Volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from lower latitudes are transported to the Arctic through a process known as global distillation. The polar regions are unique in that they sit in darkness during the winter until polar sunrise. These conditions allow pollutants to accumulate during winter and then undergo 24-hours of continuous irradiance in sunlit conditions. Photochemical degradation may thus be an important pathway to consider in the spring/summer Arctic season. Additionally, active photochemistry has also been observed in mid-latitude snowpacks. However, the potential photodegradation of anthropogenic contaminants in mid-latitude snow has received little attention in the literature. Aldrin, a once globally distributed pesticide, is of particular environmental concern due to its low solubility in water, known persistence in the environment, and its ability to degrade into environmentally persistent products. To investigate the potential photochemical degradation of aldrin, samples of aqueous aldrin solution (20 µg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Following irradiation, samples were extracted with organic solvent containing an internal standard for GC-ECD analysis. Results indicated that frozen samples degrade more quickly than liquid samples. Photochemical half lives for frozen and liquid samples were found to be approximately 13.5 hours and 45 hours respectively. It was found that the addition of natural organic matter increased the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Ongoing studies will further evaluate the differences in liquid and frozen reactivity and the influence of different sources of natural organic matter.

  19. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Confirmation/Quantification Stage 1 for Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-09

    trichloro- ethane and toluene), two pesticides (aidrin and DDT isomers), nitrate, and phenol. Nitrate concentration in one monitoring well sample...and soil samples were analyzed for up to 44 constituents, including purgeable halocarbons and aromatics, pesticides , lead, nitrate, oil and grease, and...one ’ or more samples above detection limits. The detected parameters included 2 . halocarbons (1,1,1-trichloroethane and toluene), 2 pesticides (aldrin

  20. Photochemical Degradation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: A Study of Ice Photochemistry Mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, R.; Pagano, L.; Grannas, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established that ice is a reactive medium in the environment and that active photochemistry occurs in frozen systems. Snow and ice contain a number of absorbing species including nitrate, peroxide and organic matter. Upon irradiation, they can generate a variety of reactive intermediates such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. It has been shown that dissolved organic matter is a ubiquitous component of snow and ice and plays an important role in overall light absorption properties of the sample. Additionally, the reactive intermediates produced can further react with contaminants present and alter their fate in the environment. Unfortunately, the role of dissolved organic matter in ice photochemistry has received little attention. Here we present results from laboratory-based studies aimed at elucidating the role of dissolved organic matter photochemistry on contaminant degradation in ice. Aqueous samples of our target pollutant, aldrin (20 μg/L), in liquid and frozen phases, were irradiated under Q-Panel 340 lamps to simulate the UV radiation profile of natural sunlight. Results indicated that frozen samples degraded more quickly than liquid samples and that the addition of dissolved organic matter increases the aldrin degradation rate significantly. Both terrestrial (Suwannee River, U.S.) and microbial sources (Pony Lake, Antarctica) of DOM were able to sensitize aldrin loss in ice. Scavengers of singlet oxygen, such as furfuryl alcohol and β-carotene, were also added to DOM solutions. Based on the type of organic matter present, the scavengers had different effects on the photochemical degradation of aldrin. Our results indicate that natural organic matter present in ice is an important component of ice photochemical processes.

  1. Apollo 11 Astronauts Swarmed by Thousands In Mexico City Parade.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins, wearing sombreros and ponchos, are swarmed by thousands in Mexico City as their motorcade is slowed by the enthusiastic crowd. The GIANTSTEP-APOLLO 11 Presidential Goodwill Tour emphasized the willingness of the United States to share its space knowledge. The tour carried the Apollo 11 astronauts and their wives to 24 countries and 27 cities in 45 days.

  2. President Nixon Meets the Apollo 11 Astronauts on the Lawn of the White House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Nixon meets the Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin,Jr., and Michael Collins, on the lawn of the White House on their return from their Global Goodwill Tour. The GIANTSTEP-APOLLO 11 Presidential Goodwill Tour emphasized the willingness of the United States to share its space knowledge. The tour carried the Apollo 11 astronauts and their wives to 24 countries and 27 cities in 45 days.

  3. Apollo 11 Astronauts Receive a Papal Audience by Pope Paul VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Michael Collins, and their wives receive a papal audience by Pope Paul VI in the Papal Library, St. Peters Cathedral at the Vatican. The GIANTSTEP-APOLLO 11 Presidential Goodwill Tour emphasized the willingness of the United States to share its space knowledge, and carried the Apollo 11 astronauts and their wives to 24 countries and 27 cities in 45 days.

  4. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  5. Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Impact of Human Factors on Nondestructive Evaluation and Sensor Degradation on Structural Health Monitoring (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e. TASK NUMBER 41 6. AUTHOR(S) John C. Aldrin (Computational Tools ...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Computational Tools , Inc. 4275 Chatham Avenue Gurnee, IL 60031 --------------------------------------------- Enrique Medina...QadeerAhmed3, Joseph Fisher3, Jeremy S. Knopp4, Eric A. Lindgren4 1Computational Tools , Gurnee, IL 60031, USA 2Enrique Medina & Associates, P.O

  6. Fundamental Feature Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Eddy Current Data (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e. TASK NUMBER RG 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeremy S. Knopp (AFRL/RXLP) John C. Aldrin (Computational Tools ) 5f. WORK UNIT...NUMBER M04R1000 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Computational Tools Gurnee...1 and John C. ALDRINb a Air Force Research Laboratory, USA b Computational Tools ,USA Abstract. Features are investigated in eddy current

  7. Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Apollo 11 spacecraft is lifted from the ocean after its water landing (not shown) onto the deck of the USS Hornet. The crewmembers, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, are seen going from the spacecraft to the quarantine chambers. They talk to family members over the phone after their arrival at the Ellington Air Force Base. Footage shows the celebration of Armstrong's birthday and the release of the crew from quarantine.

  8. Evaluation of ecological risk to populations of a threatened plant from an invasive biocontrol insect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Louda, S.M.; Rand, T.A.; Arnett, A.E.; McClay, A.S.; McEachern, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of residues of organochlorine pollutants on reproductive success in the brown pelican. A sample egg was taken from each of 93 marked nests in the nesting colony in South Carolina. Periodic visits were made to determine the fate of marked nests. Each sample egg was analysed for residues of organochlorine pollutants. Nest success in the brown pelican was related to residues of DDE and dieldrin in sample eggs. DDE seemed primarily responsible for nest failure; however, deleterious effects of this pollutant on nest success were not satisfactorily separated from those induced by dieldrin. Significant intercorrelation of all five organochlorine residues identified in the eggs complicated the relationship of residues to nest success. Maximum DDE residues in an egg from a successful nest were 2.37 ?g/g and 8.48 ?g/g in an egg from an unsuccessful nest. Comparable maximum residues for dieldrin in sample eggs were 0.54 ?g/g (successful) and 0.99 ?g/g (unsuccessful). Nineteen of the 26 eggs from unsuccessful nests contained DDE residues that exceeded 2.37 ?g/g, and 14 of these 26 eggs contained dieldrin residues that exceeded O.54 ?g/g. Residues of DDD, DDT or PCBs in sample eggs were not significantly related to nest success. Reproductive success in the brown pelican colony was subnormal in the years of study--1971 and 1972--but reproductive success was normal in those nests in which the sample egg contained either <2,5 ?g/g of DDE or 0.54 ?g/g of dieldrin.

  9. Effects of environmental pollutants on Connecticut and Maryland ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Spitzer, P.R.; Krantz, W.C.; Lamont, T.G.; Cromartie, E.

    1975-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were exchanged between Connecticut and Maryland osprey nests in 1968 and 1969 to test the hypothesis that the decline in reproductive success of Connecticut ospreys was caused by something within the external environment of the eggs. Incubation of 30 Connecticut osprey eggs by Maryland ospreys did not improve the hatching rate. Forty-five Maryland osprey eggs incubated by Connecticut ospreys hatched at their normal rate. The results of the egg exchanges and associated observations indicated that the most probable cause of the poor reproduction of Connecticut ospreys ,was related to contamination of the birds and their eggs. Residues of DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, and PCBs were generally higher in fish from Connecticut than from Maryland. During 1968-69, average residues (on a nest basis) in osprey eggs from Maryland were: p,p'-DDE, 2.4 ppm; dieldrin, 0.25 ppm; PCB, 2.6 ppm. Average residues in eggs from Connecticut for the same period were: p,p'DDE, 8.9 ppm; dieldrin, 0.61 ppm; PCB, 15 ppm. There were no major changes in residue content of Connecticut eggs collected in 1964 compared with those collected in 1968-B9. One Connecticut osprey had a concentration of dieldrin in its brain which was in the lethal range. The average shell thickness of recently collected osprey eggs from Connecticut had declined 18 percent, and those from Maryland had declined 10 percent from pre-1947 norms. Dieldrin, DDE, and PCB are three environmental pollutants that have most likely been important factors in the greatly reduced reproductive success and rapid population decline of Connecticut ospreys.

  10. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  11. Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  13. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Apollo Director Phillips Monitors Apollo 11 Pre-Launch Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) control room, Apollo Program Director Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips monitors pre-launch activities for Apollo 11. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the KSC in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. The Effects of Using Space to Teach Standard Elementary School Curriculum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    This brief report and recommendation for further research brings to a formal close this effort, the original purpose of which is described in detail in The effects of using space to teach standard elementary school curriculum, Volume 1, included here as the Appendix. Volume 1 describes the project as a 3-year research program to determine the effectiveness of using space to teach. The research design is quasi experimental using standardized test data on students from Aldrin Elementary School and a District-identified 'control' school, which shall be referred to as 'School B.' Students now in fourth through sixth grades will be compared now (after one year at Aldrin) and tracked at least until the present sixth graders are through the eighth grade. Appropriate statistical tests will be applied to standardized test scores to see if Aldrin students are 'better' than School B students in areas such as: Overall academic performance; Performance in math/science; and Enrollments in math/science in middle school.

  16. Instrument Unit Lowered Into Place On Saturn V Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The instrument unit for the Saturn V launch vehicle, AS-506, used to propel the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is lowered into place atop the third (S-IVB) stage in the vehicle assembly building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Designed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the instrument unit served as the Saturn's 'nerve center' providing guidance and control, command and sequence of vehicle functions, telemetry, and environmental control. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC in Florida via the MSFC developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Astronauts onboard included Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  17. NASA Administrator Paine and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Await Apollo 11 Splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA administrator (left) and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon wait aboard the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, for splashdown of the Apollo 11 in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

  19. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended.

  20. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  2. Quarantined Apollo 11 Crew Debriefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The three are seen here at the MSC, still inside the MQF, undergoing their first debriefing on Sunday, August 3, 1969. Behind the glass are (L-R): Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins, and Neil Armstrong.

  3. Apollo 11 Crew Boards U.S.S. Hornet Aircraft Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here are the three astronauts (L-R) Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins leaving the recovery helicopter aboard the U.S.S. Hornet after their splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. Wearing biological isolation garments donned before leaving the spacecraft, the three went directly into the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) on the aircraft carrier. The MQF served as their home for 21 days following the mission. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  4. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-05-26

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  5. Organochlorine pesticides in squamate reptiles from southern Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Dobrovolny, Marianne; Torres, Chelsea; Torres, Cassie; Goode, Matt; Rainwater, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

    2013-06-01

    Despite recognition of the lack of reptile ecotoxicology data, the taxon remains poorly studied. Contaminant body burdens are useful in demonstrating exposures to contaminants do occur and may provide insight regarding risks. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide burdens in various tissues of terrestrial reptiles opportunistically collected in Arizona. Heptachlor, DDE, and endrin were the most common analytes detected in fat samples. Liver samples contained methoxychlor and heptachlor at greater frequency than other organochlorines. Investigations into chronic low-level exposures are rare for reptiles and research is needed to determine critical body residues associated with adverse impacts.

  6. Comprehensive Monitoring Program: Final Biota Annual Report for 1989. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Results for Soils at CMP-BSA 12 Staked Sites Table 3.1- 3 Summary of 1989 Contaminant Monitoring Field Program Table 3.1- 4 Selection Criteria for RMA...RMA in 1989 3 Table 4.2- 3 Endrin Statistical Results for Aquatic Species on RMA in 1989 Table 4.2- 4 DDT Statistical Results for Aquatic Species on RMA...Figure 3.2-2 Biota Sampling Location, Staked Site BS3- 4 Figure 3.2- 3 CMP-BSA 1, RMA Figure 3.2- 4 CMP-BSA 2, RMA 3 Figure 3.2-5 CMP-BSA 3 , RMA Figure

  7. Basin F Overburden and Soil Sampling and Analysis Study, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    identified include silty clays , inorzanic silts, and inorganic clays . Inorganic clays become more paedominant with .ncriasing depth. The varatin iL...fine grained or contain clay or both. Generally, the higher the concentration of clay in a soil, the higher the capacity for retaining contaminants...Endrin, Isodrin, organo - suiurs, D6C?, arsenic, an: fluoride. Some oF the boarngs (Nio. Z1, 22, 23, ,, *n1 70) :a-d -o :s3;cia:.! a::-=acts " .’: " con

  8. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) manual of analytical methods (Third edition). Third supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-15

    This supplement contains 34 methods of analysis for 69 toxic chemical compounds and serves as an update to the NIOSH manual of analytical methods. Methods were selected on the basis of their use, input from the clients and NIOSH chemists on need for change, and the health implications of the compounds. Methods were included for acetaldehyde, acetic-acid, acrylonitrile, aldehydes, aliphatic amines, aminoethanol compounds, asbestos bulk and fibers, 1-butanethiol, chlordane, hexavalent chromium compounds, cyanuric-acid, ethyleneamines, endrin, fibers, formaldehyde, furfuryl-alcohol, glutaraldehyde, hydrogen-cyanide, isocyanates, ketones, mercury, methyl-methacrylate, nitrosamines, pentachlorophenol, quartz in coal mine dust, ribavirin respirable crystalline silica, sulfur-dioxide, toluene diamines, and valeraldehyde.

  9. Cyclodiene insecticide, DDE, DDT, arsenic, and mercury contamination of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) foraging at a Colorado Superfund site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Everette, A.L.; Ellison, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) National Wildlife Area, near Denver, Colorado, is a Superfund site contaminated by past military and industrial uses, including pesticide manufacturing. From an ecosystem standpoint, the most critical contaminants at RMA are certain cyclodiene insecticides and metabolites, p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDT, arsenic, and mercury. Bats are important ecosystem components that can be impacted by persistent contaminants because of their position in the food chain and their potential longevity and thus duration of exposure. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were captured (n = 51) while foraging at RMA in the summers of 1997 and 1998 for determination of concentrations of contaminants of concern in carcasses, brains, and stomach contents. Adult females (n = 15) were also tracked by radiotelemetry to determine locations of nearest maternity roosts for sampling of guano for contaminant analysis and inspection for potential contaminant-induced mortality. Bats captured while foraging at RMA had measurable quantities of dieldrin and DDE in masticated insect samples from stomach contents and significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, DDE, DDT, and mercury (juveniles) in carcasses than big brown bats (n = 26) sampled at a reference area 80 km to the north. Concentrations of dieldrin and DDE in brains of bats captured while foraging at RMA were also greater than in bats from the reference area, but not high enough to suggest mortality. Maximum concentrations of DDE, DDT, and cyclodienes in brains of big brown bats were found in adult males from RMA. Guano from the two closest known roosts had significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, DDE, and mercury than guano from two roosts at the reference area. Dieldrin concentrations in carcasses of bats from RMA were highest in juveniles, followed by adult males and adult females. DDE concentrations in carcasses were lowest in adult females at both sites and highest in adult males at RMA. No contaminant

  10. The susceptibility of Culex pipiens fatigans to residual insecticides*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A.; Bransby-Williams, W. R.

    1962-01-01

    Observations have been made on Culex pipiens fatigans in the Taveta-Pare area in East Africa from 1954 to 1961, during which time dieldrin was applied to local houses over a 3½-year period as part of an experiment in malaria control. At the end of the period of residual spraying the numbers of C. p. fatigans had been reduced by two-thirds in the Taveta area, but in the South Pare area, only some 160 km away, this mosquito was twice as numerous as before spraying. The results of susceptibility tests carried out in untreated and dieldrin-treated areas showed that the susceptibility of C. p. fatigans in East Africa to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides was low compared with that of Anopheles gambiae, and varied by at least 20 times in some areas relatively short distances apart. C. p. fatigans from all areas sampled were, however, susceptible to fenthion and malathion. PMID:13993106

  11. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and chlorobiphenyls in the blubber of bycaught female common dolphins from England and Wales from 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin J; Bersuder, Philippe; Barry, Jon; Barber, Jon; Deaville, Rob; Barnett, James; Jepson, Paul D

    2013-04-15

    We report concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, HCHs, DDTs, dieldrin) and PCBs in the blubber of 43 common dolphins bycaught in fisheries operating off the SW coast of the UK from 1992 to 2006. Concentrations of ΣDDT (summed p,p'-DDT and its metabolites, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-TDE) and of 25 summed CB congeners ranged from 0.2 to 16.1 and 2.1 to 62.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of sum HCH, HCB and dieldrin were lower, ranging from not detected to 0.14, 0.01 to 0.27 and 0.01 to 0.73 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. All contaminants studied showed a downward time trend but only that for HCHs was statistically significant. Overall, 72% of the dolphins analysed had blubber PCB concentrations above an established toxicity threshold value.

  13. Impact of biofumigation with solarization on degradation of pesticides and heavy metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Pilar; Lacasa, Alfredo; Fernández, Pedro; Hellín, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2008-08-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biofumigation (with sheep and chicken manure) combined with solarization on the dissipation of pesticides (pyrifenox, DDT and dieldrin), and on soil metals accumulation. The treatments consisted of a control, and soil disinfestations by biofumigation combined with solarization (B+S) for two, four, five, six consecutive years. B+S enhanced the dissipation of pyrifenox with regard to control treatment. Significant differences were not detected among plots disinfected with B+S for consecutive years. On the other hand, B+S had no effect on the dissipation of DDT and dieldrin, probably due to the resistance of these pesticides to microbial degradation and/or high temperatures. Biofumigation is considered to be an environmentally safe practice, since no accumulation of heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, or Zn was observed after the subsequent application of organic matter through the treatments.

  14. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries.

  15. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms.

    PubMed

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Magbanua, Francis S

    2013-10-01

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ∑ endosulfans, ∑ current-use pesticides, and ∑ chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ∑ DDT, dieldrin, or ∑ chlordane concentrations above these thresholds.

  16. Occurrence of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, southern Florida--1968-72.

    PubMed

    Mattraw, H C

    1975-09-01

    The frequency with which chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides appear in samples of southern Florida surface waters decreased sharply between 1968 and 1972. Sediment analyses attest to the earlier widespread use of chlordane, DDT, and dieldrin. Insecticide residues are more frequently detected in southern Florida than in other U.S. cropland soils. Transport of DDT, DDD, and DDE from the Everglades agricultural area into water conservation areas and undeveloped parts of the Everglades of southeastern Florida is facilitated by a system of water-management canals. Canal sediments within the urban area of southern Florida have high DDD, DDE, and dieldrin residue concentrations which may reflect local use of insecticides rather than their transport from adjacent agricultural areas.

  17. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters and Sediment Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-09-06

    This report, PNNL-1 3059 Rev. 1, was published in July 2000 and replaces PNNL-1 3059 which is dated October 1999. The revision corrects tissue concentration units that were reported as dry weight but were actually wet weight, and updates conclusions based on the correct reporting units. Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathom Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissue s) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieldrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 ng/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both DDT and dieldrin were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. PCBS were not detected in water samples in 1999.

  18. Planning Documents Known Releases SWMUs Tooele Army Depot Tooele, Utah. Volume 1: Corrective Measures Study Work Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    waste (e.g., scrap metal, rubber tires, paper, garbage, and scrap wood), untreated paint sludge, grease and oil, and paper-type filters for separating...dieldrin, and carcinogenic PAHs (benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene). The COCs identified for subsurface...MODIFICATION TO APPROACH TO HANDLING CARCINOGENIC PAHs .......................................................................... A-26 A.6 EVALUATION

  19. Selected elements and organic chemicals in streambed sediment in the Salem area, Oregon, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.

    2002-09-13

    The high levels of contaminants in some Salem area streams indicates the need for further study to assess the biological effects of these contaminants. Future monitoring in the Salem area could include bioassays using benthic invertebrates and the measurement of organochlorine compounds, including DDT, DDE, DDD, and dieldrin in fish tissue. Because resident fish may be consumed by humans and wildlife, fish tissue analyses would be helpful to determine the health risk associated with fish consumption.

  20. Pesticide and PCB residues in the upper Snake River ecosystem, Southeastern Idaho, following the collapse of the Teton dam 1976.

    PubMed

    Perry, J A

    1979-01-01

    The Teton Dam in Southeastern Idaho collapsed on June 5, 1976. The resulting flood damaged a large area and caused the release of toxicants into the Snake River. A pesticide recovery team in a helicopter worked the flooded area for three weeks and collected 1,104 containers, about 35% of which contained toxicants. It was estimated that less than 60% of the lost pesticide containers were recovered. This paper addresses the results of a one-time sampling effort designed to determine the magnitude of the chemical contamination. Over 300 samples of fish, plankton, waterfowl, sediments, water, stream drift, aquatic plants, and soil were taken. Pesticide residues were measured as microgram/kg (ppb) wet weight, whole animal basis. Rainbow trout had as much as 1432 micrograms/kg total DDT plus analogs, 66 micrograms/kg dieldrin, and 1010 micrograms/kg PCBs. Utah suckers had up to 1420 micrograms/kg total DDT plus analogs, 32 micrograms/kg dieldrin, and 1800 micrograms/kg PCB. Rocky Mountain whitefish had as much as 2650 micrograms/kg total DDT and analogs, 30 micrograms/kg dieldrin and 1400 micrograms/kg PCBs. These PCB and DDT levels were high, approaching the 2,000 micrograms/kg FDA proposed tolerance, but were below the 5,000 micrograms/kg present tolerance. Dieldrin levels were low and organophosphates were undetectable. An undeveloped area (the Fort Hall Bottoms) showed higher levels of contaminants than did an industrialized area (the lower Portneuf River). This apparent discrepancy remains unexplained. Very little pre-flood data on a whole fish basis were available for comparison (Johnson et al 1977). However, it does not appear that any human health hazard due to pesticide levels exists in this portion of the Snake River.

  1. Organochlorines and mercury in osprey eggs from the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Audet, D.J.; Scott, D.S.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and mercury concentrations were determined in Osprey eggs collected from Maryland, Virginia, and Massachusetts during 1986-87. DDE concentrations were significantly different among locations. Median DDE concentrations did not decline significantly in eggs from Glenn L. Martin National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, between 1973 and 1986. The median DDE residue for eggs from Martin Refuge in 1986 surpassed the value associated with 10% eggshell thinning, but was below the value associated with production of 1.0 young per active nest, a level assumed to represent a stable population. DDD, DDT, dieldrin, PCB, and mercury residues in all eggs appeared insignificant with regard to potential effects on shell thickness or reproduction. DDE and PCB residues were lower in eggs collected in 1986-87 than in those collected in the 1970s for each area. DDD, DDT, and dieldrin were not detected in Martin Refuge eggs in 1986, representing a significant reduction since 1973. DDD, DDT, and dieldrin levels in Massachusetts and Virginia eggs in 1986-87 were similar to those in eggs from the 1970s for each state. Mercury residues in eggs from Martin Refuge may be increasing and although not significant in this study, may warrant future monitoring.

  2. In vitro combined cytotoxic effects of pesticide cocktails simultaneously found in the French diet.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Natsuko; Sanders, Pascal; Fessard, Valérie; Le Hégarat, Ludovic

    2013-02-01

    Although human populations may be constantly exposed to complex pesticide mixtures through their diet, the human health risk of pesticide exposure is currently assessed on the basis of toxicity data on individual compounds. To investigate the combined toxic effects of pesticide cocktails previously identified in the French diet, we first studied the cytotoxicity induced by seven cocktails composed of two to six pesticides on human hepatic (HepG2) and colon (Caco-2) cell lines using the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. Secondly, we challenged to assess the combined effects of the two most cytotoxic cocktails by comparing the measured effects of the mixtures with the predictions based on additive effects on two concepts-independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). For the cocktail composed of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dieldrin, the cytotoxicity of the equimolar cocktail proved greater than the additive effect estimated by the two concepts. Furthermore, apoptosis induction was higher in equimolar cocktail than predicted by summing the effects of DDT and dieldrin. Thus, some supra-additive toxicity was found in the DDT-dieldrin cocktail. Nevertheless, if IA and CA models could reveal combined effects of pesticide cocktails, an accurate evaluation remains challenging.

  3. Soil-air exchange model of persistent pesticides in the United States cotton belt.

    PubMed

    Harner, T; Bidleman, T F; Jantunen, L M; Mackay, D

    2001-07-01

    Measurements of organochlorine pesticides (lindane, cis-chlordane [CC], trans-chlordane [TC], trans-nonachlor [TN]), dieldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE], and toxaphene) in Alabama, USA, air and soil were used to assess the soil-air equilibrium status and to identify compounds with significant contributions to observed air burdens. Of the compounds tested, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene showed a significant potential for outgasing, followed by dieldrin and trans-nonachlor, which showed moderate outgasing potentials. Lindane, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane were near soil-air equilibrium. A fugacity-based, multilayered soil-air exchange model was used to predict temporal trends of chemical in air and soil resulting from reemission of soil residues to a presumed clean atmosphere (maximum emission scenario). Results showed that p,p'-DDE and toxaphene accounted for up to 50% of the observed air burden and that approximately 200 to 600 kg of p,p'-DDE and 3,000 to 11,000 kg to toxaphene are released to the atmosphere each year by soils in Alabama (area = 1.23 x 10(11) m2). High annual net fluxes were also predicted for dieldrin and trans-nonachlor (300-1,100 kg and 150-500 kg, respectively), but these only account for up to approximately 20% of their observed air burdens.

  4. POST-REMEDIATION BIOMONITORING OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENT NEAR THE UNITED HECKATHORN SUPERFUND SITE, RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-06

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and dieldrin concentrations in mussel tissues were lower than measured levels from preremediation surveys and also lower than Year 1 levels from post-remediation biomonitoring. Sediment analyses showed the presence of elevated DDT, dieldrin, PCB aroclor 1254, and very high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lauritzen Channel.

  5. A new marker, black, a useful recombination suppressor, In(2)2, and a balanced lethal for chromosome 2 of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Benedict, M Q; McNitt, L M; Cornel, A J; Collins, F H

    1999-10-01

    A new marker for the second chromosome of Anopheles gambiae, black, was isolated from progeny of 60Co-irradiated mosquitoes. The black mutation increases melanization of larval setae and portions of the cuticle that are heavily sclerotized such as the saddle and head capsule. Adults have a sooty color that almost completely eliminates white banding on wings, tarsi, and palps. Fertility and general vigor of black individuals is reduced relative to wild-type; however, this does not prevent routine use for genetic crossing. The black marker was mapped to an interval on chromosome 2 between collarless and Dieldrin resistance 22 centiMorgans (cM) from collarless and 39 cM from Dieldrin resistance. We also isolated from 60Co-irradiated mosquitoes a pericentric inversion, In(2)2, that was marked with dominant alleles of the independently assorting genes collarless and Dieldrin resistance. This inversion is in coupling with the pericentric inversion 2Rd and covers approximately two-thirds of chromosome 2 from divisions 9 to 22. While inbreeding In(2)2 heterozygotes, we isolated a stock in which the inversion was in repulsion to a chromosome marked with c b DlS and an unidentified recessive lethal. This arrangement produced a useful and stable chromosome 2 balancer system that has remained intact for 26 generations without selection. These genetic tools will reduce the effort requires to isolate, among other things, the genetic factors affecting malaria parasite interactions with the mosquito host.

  6. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended.

  7. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.; Beadle, D.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (( 35S)TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of (35S)TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 {plus minus} 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 {plus minus} 40 fmol/mg protein. (35S)TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of (35S)TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on (35S)TBPS binding. These results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current.

  8. Gene duplication in the major insecticide target site, Rdl, in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Remnant, Emily J; Good, Robert T; Schmidt, Joshua M; Lumb, Christopher; Robin, Charles; Daborn, Phillip J; Batterham, Philip

    2013-09-03

    The Resistance to Dieldrin gene, Rdl, encodes a GABA-gated chloride channel subunit that is targeted by cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides. The gene was first characterized in Drosophila melanogaster by genetic mapping of resistance to the cyclodiene dieldrin. The 4,000-fold resistance observed was due to a single amino acid replacement, Ala(301) to Ser. The equivalent change was subsequently identified in Rdl orthologs of a large range of resistant insect species. Here, we report identification of a duplication at the Rdl locus in D. melanogaster. The 113-kb duplication contains one WT copy of Rdl and a second copy with two point mutations: an Ala(301) to Ser resistance mutation and Met(360) to Ile replacement. Individuals with this duplication exhibit intermediate dieldrin resistance compared with single copy Ser(301) homozygotes, reduced temperature sensitivity, and altered RNA editing associated with the resistant allele. Ectopic recombination between Roo transposable elements is involved in generating this genomic rearrangement. The duplication phenotypes were confirmed by construction of a transgenic, artificial duplication integrating the 55.7-kb Rdl locus with a Ser(301) change into an Ala(301) background. Gene duplications can contribute significantly to the evolution of insecticide resistance, most commonly by increasing the amount of gene product produced. Here however, duplication of the Rdl target site creates permanent heterozygosity, providing unique potential for adaptive mutations to accrue in one copy, without abolishing the endogenous role of an essential gene.

  9. Apollo 11 Astronauts Headed For Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members wave to well wishers as they leave the pick up helicopter making their way to the MQF. This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Air and groundwater pollution in an agricultural region of the Turkish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, Semra G; Oztas, Nur Banu; Erduran, M Soner

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution and groundwater pollution in conjunction with agricultural activity were investigated in Antayla province on the Turkish Mediterranean coast. The air pollution was investigated in terms of gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), and particulate matter for a 6-month period in the atmosphere using a "filter pack" system, which was developed and optimized in our laboratory. Ozone was measured by using an automated analyzer. Among all of the gas-phase pollutants, HNO3 had the lowest concentration (0.42 microg x m(-3)) followed by NH3. Agricultural activities seem to be the major source of observed NH3 in the air. The current state of water pollution was investigated in terms of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides around the greenhouses, in which mainly tomato, pepper, and eggplant are cultivated. Water samples were collected from 40 points, 28 of which were wells and 12 of which were surface water. The pesticide concentrations in water samples were determined by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by a gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD)/nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD) system. In general, surface water samples were more polluted by the pesticides than groundwater samples. The most frequently observed pesticides were chlorpyriphos (57%) and aldrin (79%) in groundwater, and chlorpyriphos (75%), aldrin, and endosulfan sulfate (83%) in surface water samples. The highest concentrations were observed for fenamiphos (394.8 ng/L) and aldrin (68.51 ng/L) in groundwater, and dichlorvos (322.2 ng/L) and endosulfan sulfate (89.5 ng/L) in surface water samples. At least one pesticide had a concentration above the health limit in 38% of all the water samples analyzed.

  11. Pesticides and the environment.

    PubMed

    Kristoforović-Ilić, Miroslava

    2004-01-01

    In the period 1981-2000, an investigation was conducted on organochlorine insecticide (OCI) residues in the environment and their effects on human health. The analyses encompassed drinking and surface waters, air, foodstuffs, ready-made meals, human serum and human autopsy material. OCI residues were not detected in drinking water originating from great distributive systems in Vojvodina (purified and conditioned water) but in some sub-artesian wells there were HCH and aldrin residues. OCI residues were quantified in surface water of the river Danube which is in the required group, except for HCH in 1990/91, when it was in the III-IV group. Air was analyzed in Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Kikinda, Beojin and Apatin. OCI residues are regularly tested in Zrenjanin (1996-2000): the most frequently detected are: HCH residues (37.83% samples), lindane (21.72% samples), heptachlor (17.60% samples) and rarely DTD and aldrin; aldrin (in traces), heptachlor and HCH were detected in Novi Sad. Heptachlor, lindane and HCH were also rarely determined in Kikinda. OCI have an affinity for fat tissues and their residues can be found particularly in foodstuffs originating from animals. They are not eliminated by thermal processing and it was established in pre-school institutions, student restaurants and homes for the aging; most frequently detected was p,p 'DDE isomer, rarely p,p 'DDT as well as HCH and rarely lindane. Although use of OCI is forbidden, due to their long persistence in the environment, they can be found in human tissues, which was proved by human serum analyses. Analyses of human autopsy material indicated presence of DDT metabolite--p,p 'DDE as well as lindane in all analyzed samples (brain, liver, fat and tumorous tissues).

  12. Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind- Reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This photograph is a reproduction of the commemorative plaque that was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  14. Lunar surface photography - A study of Apollo 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, H. J. P.

    1987-10-01

    Attention is drawn to the perplexing oversight of mission planners to ensure the taking of a photograph of Neil Armstrong by Buzz Aldrin, during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The ramifications of this oversight for NASA public relations efforts are explored, together with the reasons for its occurrence that have been unearthed during subsequent investigations of both lunar walk planning and communications from earth controllers during the lunar walk activity. From Apollo 12 onwards, both lunar landing module crewmen wore Hasselblad cameras to ensure the appearance of both in numerous operational photographs.

  15. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  16. Neil Armstrong talks of his experiences at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, former Apollo 11 astronaut, and first man to walk on the moon, talks about his experiences for an enthusiastic audience at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. The occasion was a banquet celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Gene Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.

  17. Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  18. Environmental Compliance Assessment System Army National Guard (ECAS- ARNG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Appendix 3.5 Unregulated Organic and Inorganic Contaminants (40 CFR 141.40(n)(11) and 141.40(n)(12)) Organic Contaminants Aldrin Butachlor Carbaryl ...methyl-o- 100/10,000 26419-73-8 (((2,4-dimethyl-1.3- dithiolan-2-y Carbamic chloride, 1 x U097 79-44-7 dimethyl- Carbaryl 100 x 63.25-2 Carbofuran 10...12-0 Ropenenitrile.3-chloro- 1000 1000 P027 542-76-7 Propoxur x 114-26-1 Propyl chloroformnate 500 109-61-5 Propylene (Propene) x 115-07-1 Propylene

  19. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  20. Apollo 11 Crew in Raft before Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 crew await pickup by a helicopter from the USS Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The fourth man in the life raft is a United States Navy underwater demolition team swimmer. All four men are wearing Biological Isolation Garments (BIG). The Apollo 11 Command Module 'Columbia,' with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet.

  1. Apollo 11 crewmembers participate in water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The third member of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission egresses Apollo Boilerplate 1102 during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. The other two crewmen are in raft. Taking part in the training were Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. The three crewmen practiced donning and wearing biological isolation garments (B.I.G.) as a part of the exercise. The Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmer standing up, who assisted in the training, is also wearing a B.I.G.

  2. Apollo 11: The Twentieth Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows the Apollo 11 crew, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, preparing for their mission. The crewmembers are seen getting their medical examinations, suiting up, and walking out to the Astro-van. Scenes include a brief view of the Launch Control Center (LCC), ignition, liftoff, and shell and engine skirt separation. The most important images are those of the moon landing and astronauts walk on the moon. Also shown are the parachute landing of the shuttle and the celebration of the world.

  3. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in normal human breast epithelial cells after treatment with pesticides, PCBs, and PBBs, alone or in mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, K S; Wilson, M R; Hayashi, T; Chang, C C; Trosko, J E

    1996-01-01

    Chemical pollutants in the Great Lakes have found their way through the food chain into humans because of their environmental persistence and lipophilicity. Some epidemiological studies have claimed an association between metabolites of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and breast cancer, but others have reported no such association. We examined various halogenated hydrocarbons for their capacity to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) when given as single compounds or as mixtures. The scrape-loading/dye transfer and fluorescent redistribution after photobleaching techniques were used to measure GJIC; immunostaining and Western and Northern analyses were performed on connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction protein and message to determine how halogenated hydrocarbons might affect GJIC. DDT, dieldrin, and toxaphene inhibited GJIC in a dose-responsive manner after 90 min treatments. Dieldrin suppressed GJIC within 30 min with no recovery after 24 hr. Inhibition of GJIC by DDT and toxaphene was partially restored after 12 hr and fully restored after 24 hr. Several PCB and PBB congeners inhibited GJIC in a dose-responsive and time-dependent manner, but GJIC was almost restored to control values 24 hr after exposure. The highest concentrations of the individual chemicals that did not inhibit GJIC was determined, and mixtures containing two of these chemicals were tested for their ability to inhibit GJIC. Significant inhibition of GJIC was observed when cells were treated with a mixture of DDT and 2,4,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (2,4,5-HCB), dieldrin and 2,4,5-HCB, or dieldrin and 2,4,5-hexabromobiphenyl (2,4,5-HBB). These results indicate that halogenated hydrocarbons, alone or in specific combinations, can alter GJIC at the post-translational level. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DDT, dieldrin, toxaphene, 2

  4. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  5. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, a laboratory technician handles a portion of the more than 20 different plant lines that were used within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37 of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  7. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, a laboratory technician handles a portion of the more than 20 different plant lines that were used within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37 of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  8. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, technicians are transferring mice from a support germ free isolator, through a hypochlorite dunk tank, into the class III cabinetry in the Germ-free and Conventional Animal Laboratories of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, building 37, of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  9. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, laboratory technician Bart Ruark visually inspects a Japanese Qail confined within a class III cabinet in the Intervertebrae, Aves, and Fish Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Building 37 of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Deti, Habtewold; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohamed, Abdel Maaboud I; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of organochlorines in two milk-producing animals (goats and cows) grazed on the same feed to explore the extent of organochlorines availability in milk and any species effect on the bioaccumulation pattern. Six organochlorine pesticides: aldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in samples collected from four regions in Ethiopia. Aldrin (11.6μgkg(-1)) was detected only in one cow milk sample and α-endosulfan was detected in one goat milk sample at a level of 142.1μgkg(-1), and in one cow milk sample (47.8μgkg(-1)) from the same region. p,p'-DDE was detected in 40% of the milk samples analyzed while o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were found in high amounts in almost all samples. The average total DDT (excluding DDD) in the samples was 328.5μgkg(-1). Regions known for their malaria epidemics were the most contaminated with DDT residue. The accumulation pattern in both species was not clear under natural sampling.

  11. Wildlife hazards from Furadan 3G applications to rice in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.; Stout, W.F.; Mohn, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality of birds, fish, frogs, crayfish, earthworms, and nontarget insects occurred in rice fields after treatments of Furadan 3G granules in 3 Texas counties in 1970 and 1973-75. Three western sandpipers (Ereunetes mauri), 1 pectoral sandpiper (Erolia melanotos), and 2 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were found dead or moribund between 17 and 24 hours after treatment. Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans blanchardi) were intoxicated 15 minutes post-treatment, and mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) showed effects 1 hour post-treatment. Mortality of mosquito fish, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), and European carp (Cyprinus carpio) usually occurred between 24 and 28 hours after treatment. Mortality of frogs, crayfish, and nontarget insects generally occurred in rice field water between 1 and 45 hours after treatment. Mortality of earthworms in soil persisted for 52 hours. As a replacement for aldrin in Texas rice fields, Furadan 3G appeared to cause Iess mortality of birds than aldrin, but Furadan 3G was toxic to birds, fish, and invertebrates.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  13. First Apollo 11 Lunar Samples Arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. This photograph was taken as the mission's first loaded sample return container arrived at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The rock box was immediately taken to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. Happily posing for the photograph with the rock container are (L-R) Richard S. Johnston (back), special assistant to the MSC Director; George M. Low, MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program manager; George S. Trimble (back), MSC Deputy Director; Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Spaceflight at NASA headquarters; Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  14. Chemical contaminants and their effects in fish and wildlife from the industrial zone of Sumgayit, Republic of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Carol D; Donnelly, K C; Islamzadeh, Arif; Rowe, Gilbert T; Rogers, William J; Palatnikov, Grigoriy M; Mekhtiev, Arif A; Kasimov, Rafik; McDonald, Thomas J; Wickliffe, Jeffery K; Presley, Bobby J; Bickham, John W

    2003-12-01

    Sediment from a wetland adjacent to an industrial wastewater treatment plant in Sumgayit contained concentrations of total PAHs, total PCBs, aldrin, biphenyl, chlordane, DDT, mercury, beta-endosulfan, heptachlor, alpha-hexacyclohexane (alpha-HCH), gamma-HCH, and several individual PAH congeners that were elevated relative to published sediment quality guidelines. Chemical analyses of tissues from European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) had increased levels of many of the same chemicals including aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, alpha-HCH, total PCBs, total PAHs, and mercury, compared to reference turtles. In addition, turtle tissues contained elevated levels of DDD, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and pentachlorobenzene that were not elevated in the sediment sample. Some differences were observed in contaminant levels between European pond turtles and Caspian turtles (Mauremys caspica) taken from the ponds in Sumgayit. Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assays on pond sediments were negative or weakly positive. Micronuclei in European pond turtles were statistically correlated with tissue levels of mercury, heptachlor, DDD, HCB, and trans-nonachlor. Microcosm experiments using Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) showed a positive dose-response relationship between exposure to suspended contaminated pond sediment and acute toxicity. Chemical and biological assays used in this study show the industrial area of Sumgayit is heavily contaminated with a complex mixture of toxic pollutants. Exposure to contaminated sediments produced acute effects in Russian sturgeon, but genotoxic effects appear to be slight.

  15. Optimization of in-cell accelerated solvent extraction technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on aquatic biota, wildlife and human health even at low concentrations. However, conventional methods for their determination in river sediments are resource intensive. This paper presents an approach that is rapid and also reliable for the detection of OCPs. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) with in-cell silica gel clean-up followed by Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) was used to recover OCPs from sediment samples. Variables such as temperature, solvent ratio, adsorbent mass and extraction cycle were evaluated and optimized for the extraction. With the exception of Aldrin, which was unaffected by any of the variables evaluated, the recovery of OCPs from sediment samples was largely influenced by solvent ratio and adsorbent mass and, to some extent, the number of cycles and temperature. The optimized conditions for OCPs extraction in sediment with good recoveries were determined to be 4 cycles, 4.5 g of silica gel, 105 °C, and 4:3 v/v DCM: hexane mixture. With the exception of two compounds (α-BHC and Aldrin) whose recoveries were low (59.73 and 47.66% respectively), the recovery of the other pesticides were in the range 85.35-117.97% with precision <10% RSD. The method developed significantly reduces sample preparation time, the amount of solvent used, matrix interference, and is highly sensitive and selective.

  16. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Loaded Onto Trailer For Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the quarantined housing facility is being lowered from the U.S.S. Hornet, onto a trailer for transport to Hickam Field. From there, it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet and flown back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas.

  17. Apollo 11 Quarantine Facility Prepared for Loading Onto Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the inhabited MQF is prepared for loading into an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas and then on to the MSC.

  18. Apollo 11 Occupied Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) Moved For Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The occupied MQF was unloaded from the U.S.S. Hornet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In this photo, the facility is moved from the Hornet's dock enroute to Hickam Field where it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the MSC.

  19. Distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from central China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun; Wang, Jingjing; Meng, Beidi; Cheng, Junqi; Lin, Guoping; Chen, Jiachun; Zheng, Dan; Yu, Yanhong

    2013-07-01

    There is little information on the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in agricultural soils of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Surface soil samples were collected from agricultural soils in Wuhan and analyzed to determine twenty-one OCPs. According to the measured concentrations and detection frequencies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), heptachlor (HEPT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and aldrin were the predominant compounds in soil. DDTs accounted for 77.10% of total OCPs, followed by HCHs (7.83%), aldrin (4.21%), HEPTs (2.82%) and HCB (1.53%). The total DDT concentrations ranged from nd to 1198.0ngg(-1) and the main contaminated areas were distributed in Hannan and Xinzhou districts of Wuhan. The total HCH concentrations ranged from nd to 100.58ngg(-1) in soil and relatively higher levels were observed in soil samples from Huangpi and Hannan districts. Source analysis showed that OCPs residues except heptachlor originated mainly from historical application, besides slight recent introduction at some sites. Based on the China National Soil Quality Standard, DDT pollution in most samples of Wuhan agricultural soils could be considered as no and low contamination, while the level of HCHs was classified as no pollution. Our study indicated that there existed potential exposure risk of OCPs in Wuhan agricultural soils although the use of OCPs has been banned.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs. PMID:26633149