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Sample records for aleaciones al-6si-3cu-xmg t6

  1. Environmental Assessment: T-6 Aircraft Basing and Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    The operating characteristics of the T -6 are similar to the T-37. Thus, the T-6 traffic pattern aircraft ground tracks, profiles , and airspeeds are...low-income populations.” Adverse is defined by the Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice as “having a deleterious effect on...types of aircraft (i.e., large and trainer) was considered a significant safety issue. Safety concerns include mixing the flight profiles of two

  2. T-6A Texan II Systems Engineering Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Appendix C. T-6 Type Certificate Data Sheet….……………………………...……….....74 Appendix D. Amendment……………….………………...………………...………….….78 T-6A Texan II...DOCUMENT (SRD) ANTHROPOMETRY , REQUIRED VERSUS DESIRED

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Lynch, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Increment 51 - 52 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T6) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John; Lynch, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T6) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the T6 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.; Wallace, Neil C.; Simpson, Huw

    2010-01-01

    The T6 ion engine is a 22-cm diameter, 4.5-kW Kaufman-type ion thruster produced by QinetiQ, Ltd., and is baselined for the European Space Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury and is being qualified under ESA sponsorship for the extended range AlphaBus communications satellite platform. The heritage of the T6 includes the T5 ion thruster now successfully operating on the ESA GOCE spacecraft. As a part of the T6 development program, an engineering model thruster was subjected to a suite of performance tests and plume diagnostics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The engine was mounted on a thrust stand and operated over its nominal throttle range of 2.5 to 4.5 kW. In addition to the typical electrical and flow measurements, an E x B mass analyzer, scanning Faraday probe, thrust vector probe, and several near-field probes were utilized. Thrust, beam divergence, double ion content, and thrust vector movement were all measured at four separate throttle points. The engine performance agreed well with published data on this thruster. At full power the T6 produced 143 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 4120 seconds and an efficiency of 64%; optimization of the neutralizer for lower flow rates increased the specific impulse to 4300 seconds and the efficiency to nearly 66%. Measured beam divergence was less than, and double ion content was greater than, the ring-cusp-design NSTAR thruster that has flown on NASA missions. The measured thrust vector offset depended slightly on throttle level and was found to increase with time as the thruster approached thermal equilibrium.

  6. Effect of service usage on tensile, fatigue, and fracture properties of 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made to determine the effects of extensive service usage on some basic material properties of 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 aluminum alloy materials. The effects of service usage were determined by comparing material properties for new material (generally obtained from the literature) with those for material cut from the center wing box of a C-130B transport airplane with 6385 flight-hours of service. The properties investigated were notched and unnotched fatigue strengths, fatigue-crack-growth rate, fracture toughness, and tensile properties. For the properties investigated and the parameter ranges considered (crack length, stress ratio, etc.), the results obtained showed no significant difference between service and new materials.

  7. Effect of specimen thickness of fatigue-crack-growth behavior and fracture toughness of 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects of specimen thickness on fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 aluminum alloy sheet and plate. Specimen thicknesses ranged from 5.1 to 12.7 mm (0.20 to 0.50 in.) for 7075-T6 and from 1.3 to 6.4 mm (0.05 to 0.25 in.) for 7178-T6. The stress ratios R used in the crack growth experiments were 0.02 and 0.50. For 7075-T6, specimen thickness had relatively little effect on fatigue-crack growth. However, the fracture toughness of the thickness of the thickest gage of 7075-T6 was about two-thirds of the fracture toughness of the thinner gages of 7075-T6. For 7178-T6, fatigue cracks generally grew somewhat faster in the thicker gages than in the thinnest gage. The fracture toughness of the thickest gage of 7178-T6 was about two-thirds of the fracture toughness of the thinner gages of 7178-T6. Stress intensity methods were used to analyze the experimental results. For a given thickness and value of R, the rate of fatigue crack growth was essentially a single-valued function of the stress intensity range for 7075-T6 and 7178-T6. An empirical equation developed by Forman, Kearney, and Engle fit the 7075-T6 and 7178-T6 crack growth data reasonably well.

  8. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.

    2013-06-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  9. Low velocity impact of 6082-T6 aluminum plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocian, Oana Alexandra; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Sandu, Marin; Sorohan, Ştefan

    2018-02-01

    The low velocity domain covers vehicle impacts, ship collisions and even accidentally tool drops. Even though more and more research is needed into these fields, most of the papers concerning impact problems focus on impact at medium and high velocities. Understanding the behavior of structures subjected to low velocity impact is of major importance when referring to impact resistance and damage tolerance. The paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the low velocity behavior of 6082-T6 aluminum plates. Impact tests were performed using an Instron Ceast 9340 drop-weight testing machine. In the experimental procedure, square plates were mounted on a circular support, fixed with a pneumatic clamping system and impacted with a hemispherical steel projectile. Specimens were impacted at constant weight and different impact velocities. The effect of different impact energies was investigated. The impact event was then simulated using the nonlinear finite element code LS_DYNA in order to determine the effect of strain rate upon the mechanical behavior of the aluminum plates. Moreover, in order to capture the exact behavior of the material, a special attention has been given to the selection of the correct material model and its parameters, which, in large extent, depend on the observed behavior of the aluminum plate during the test and the actual response of the plate under simulation. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental observations and the applicability of the numerical model for further researches is analyzed.

  10. Uniform Corrosion and General Dissolution of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, I.-Wen

    Uniform corrosion and general dissolution of aluminum alloys was not as well-studied in the past, although it was known for causing significant amount of weight loss. This work comprises four chapters to understand uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6. A preliminary weight loss experiment was performed for distinguishing corrosion induced weight loss attributed to uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The result suggested that uniform corrosion generated a greater mass loss than pitting corrosion. First, to understand uniform corrosion mechanism and kinetics in different environments, a series of static immersion tests in NaCl solutions were performed to provide quantitative measurement of uniform corrosion. Thereafter, uniform corrosion development as a function of temperature, pH, Cl-, and time was investigated to understand the influence of environmental factors. Faster uniform corrosion rate has been found at lower temperature (20 and 40°C) than at higher temperature (60 and 80°C) due to accelerated corrosion product formation at high temperatures inhibiting corrosion reactions. Electrochemical tests including along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the temperature effect. Second, in order to further understand the uniform corrosion influence on pit growth kinetics, a long term exposures for 180 days in both immersion and ASTM-B117 test were performed. Uniform corrosion induced surface recession was found to have limited impact on pit geometry regardless of exposure methods. It was also found that the competition for limited cathodic current from uniform corrosion the primary rate limiting factor for pit growth. Very large pits were found after uniform corrosion growth reached a plateau due to corrosion product coverage. Also, optical microscopy and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging has provided more insights of distinctive pitting geometry and subsurface damages found from immersion samples and B117

  11. The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Prevents SirT6 Degradation through Noncanonical Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Wu, Yaxu; McDonough, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) regulates protein quality control, and CHIP deletion accelerates aging and reduces the life span in mice. Here, we reveal a mechanism for CHIP's influence on longevity by demonstrating that CHIP stabilizes the sirtuin family member SirT6, a lysine deacetylase/ADP ribosylase involved in DNA repair, metabolism, and longevity. In CHIP-deficient cells, SirT6 protein half-life is substantially reduced due to increased proteasome-mediated degradation, but CHIP overexpression in these cells increases SirT6 protein expression without affecting SirT6 transcription. CHIP noncanonically ubiquitinates SirT6 at K170, which stabilizes SirT6 and prevents SirT6 canonical ubiquitination by other ubiquitin ligases. In CHIP-depleted cells, SirT6 K170 mutation increases SirT6 half-life and prevents proteasome-mediated degradation. The global decrease in SirT6 expression in the absence of CHIP is associated with decreased SirT6 promoter occupancy, which increases histone acetylation and promotes downstream gene transcription in CHIP-depleted cells. Cells lacking CHIP are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but DNA repair and cell viability are rescued by enforced expression of SirT6. The discovery of this CHIP-SirT6 interaction represents a novel protein-stabilizing mechanism and defines an intersection between protein quality control and epigenetic regulation to influence pathways that regulate the biology of aging. PMID:24043303

  12. Essentiality of threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A), a universal tRNA modification, in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Thiaville, Patrick C.; Yacoubi, Basma El; Köhrer, Caroline; Thiaville, Jennifer J.; Deutsch, Chris; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Bacusmo, Jo Marie; Armengaud, Jean; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Wetzel, Collin; Cao, Xiaoyu; Limbach, Patrick A.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a modified nucleoside universally conserved in tRNAs in all three kingdoms of life. The recently discovered genes for t6A synthesis, including tsaC and tsaD, are essential in model prokaryotes but not essential in yeast. These genes had been identified as antibacterial targets even before their functions were known. However, the molecular basis for this prokaryotic-specific essentiality has remained a mystery. Here, we show that t6A is a strong positive determinant for aminoacylation of tRNA by bacterial-type but not by eukaryotic-type isoleucyl-tRNA synthetases and might also be a determinant for the essential enzyme tRNAIle-lysidine synthetase. We confirm that t6A is essential in Escherichia coli and a survey of genome-wide essentiality studies shows that genes for t6A synthesis are essential in most prokaryotes. This essentiality phenotype is not universal in Bacteria as t6A is dispensable in Deinococcus radiodurans, Thermus thermophilus, Synechocystis PCC6803 and Streptococcus mutans. Proteomic analysis of t6A- D. radiodurans strains revealed an induction of the proteotoxic stress response and identified genes whose translation is most affected by the absence of t6A in tRNAs. Thus, although t6A is universally conserved in tRNAs, its role in translation might vary greatly between organisms. PMID:26337258

  13. Chitin-induced T6SS in Vibrio cholerae is dependent on ChiS activation.

    PubMed

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Das, Suman; Dhar, Debarpan; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is known to be initiated by the activation of a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in the presence of GlcNAc2 (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) residues generated by the action of chitinases on chitin. It is known that T6SS in V. cholerae is generally induced by chitin. However, the effect of ChiS activation on T6SS is unknown. Here, we found that ChiS inactivation resulted in impaired bacterial killing and reduced expression of T6SS genes. Active ChiS positively affected T6SS-mediated natural transformation in V. cholerae. ChiS depletion or inactivation also resulted in reduced colonization on insoluble chitin surfaces. Therefore, we have shown that V. cholerae colonization on chitinous surfaces activates ChiS, which promotes T6SS-dependent bacterial killing and horizontal gene transfer. We also highlight the importance of chitinases in T6SS upregulation.

  14. MIX and match: mobile T6SS MIX-effectors enhance bacterial fitness

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein secretion systems that mediate interbacterial competition secret a wide repertoire of antibacterial toxins. A major player in these competitions is the newly discovered bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS). We recently found that a subset of polymorphic MIX-effectors, which are a widespread class of effectors secreted by T6SSs, are horizontally shared between marine bacteria and are used to diversify their T6SS effector repertoires, thus enhancing their environmental fitness. In this commentary, I expand on the ideas that were introduced in the previous report, and further speculate on the possible mobility of other MIX-effectors. In addition, I discuss the possible role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of MIX-effectors through bacterial genomes, as well as its possible role in diversifying the T6SS effector repertoire. PMID:27066305

  15. Coarsening of AA6013-T6 Precipitates During Sheet Warm Forming Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Ciano, M.; DiCecco, S.; Esmaeili, S.; Wells, M. A.; Worswick, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    The use of warm forming for AA6xxx-T6 sheet is of interest to improve its formability; however, the effect warm forming may have on the coarsening of precipitates and the mechanical strength of these sheets has not been well studied. In this research, the coarsening behavior of AA6013-T6 precipitates has been explored, in the temperature range of 200-300 °C, and time of 30 s up to 50 h. Additionally, the effect of warm deformation on coarsening behavior was explored using: (1) simulated warm forming tests in a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator and (2) bi-axial warm deformation tests. Using a strong obstacle model to describe the yield strength (YS) evolution of the AA6013-T6 material, and a Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW) particle coarsening law to describe the change in precipitate size with time, the coarsening kinetics were modeled for this alloy. The coarsening kinetics in the range of 220-300 °C followed a trend similar to that previously found for AA6111 for the 180-220 °C range. There was strong evidence that coarsening kinetics were not altered due to warm deformation above 220 °C. For warm forming between 200 and 220 °C, the YS of the AA6013-T6 material increased slightly, which could be attributed to strain hardening during warm deformation. Finally, a non-isothermal coarsening model was used to assess the potential reduction in the YS of AA6013-T6 for practical processing conditions related to auto-body manufacturing. The model calculations showed that 90% of the original AA6013-T6 YS could be maintained, for warm forming temperatures up to 280 °C, if the heating schedule used to get the part to the warm forming temperature was limited to 1 min.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tamjidy, Mehran; Baharudin, B T Hang Tuah; Paslar, Shahla; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Sulaiman, Shamsuddin; Fadaeifard, Firouz

    2017-05-15

    The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated. In order to obtain the optimal values of process parameters that simultaneously optimize the ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and minimum hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ), a metaheuristic, multi objective algorithm based on biogeography based optimization is proposed. The Pareto optimal frontiers for triple and dual objective functions are obtained and the best optimal solution is selected through using two different decision making techniques, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Shannon's entropy.

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Tamjidy, Mehran; Baharudin, B. T. Hang Tuah; Paslar, Shahla; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Sulaiman, Shamsuddin; Fadaeifard, Firouz

    2017-01-01

    The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated. In order to obtain the optimal values of process parameters that simultaneously optimize the ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and minimum hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ), a metaheuristic, multi objective algorithm based on biogeography based optimization is proposed. The Pareto optimal frontiers for triple and dual objective functions are obtained and the best optimal solution is selected through using two different decision making techniques, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Shannon’s entropy. PMID:28772893

  18. Parametric studies on tensile strength in joining AA6061- T6 and AA7075-T6 by gas metal arc welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M.; Noordin, N. F. M.; Shah, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Proper selection of the welding parameters can result in better joining. In this study, the effects of various welding parameters on tensile strength in joining dissimilar aluminum alloys AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 were investigated. 2 mm thick samples of both base metals were welded by semi-automatic gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using filler wire ER5356. The welding current, arc voltage and welding speed were chosen as variables parameters. The strength of each specimen after the welding operations were tested and the effects of these parameters on tensile strength were identified by using Taguchi method. The range of parameter for welding current were chosen from 100 to 115 A, arc voltage from 17 to 20 V and welding speed from 2 to 5 mm/s. L16 orthogonal array was used to obtained 16 runs of experiments. It was found that the highest tensile strength (194.34 MPa) was obtained with the combination of a welding current of 115 A, welding voltage of 18 V and welding speed of 4 mm/s. Through analysis of variance (ANOVA), the welding voltage was the most effected parameter on tensile strength with percentage of contribution at 41.30%.

  19. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  20. Involvement of Trichoderma asperellum strain T6 in regulating iron acquisition in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Jiaojiao

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major plant nutritional disorder in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with saline soils. Among the numerous root-associated microbes that are beneficial for plant nutrient uptake, Trichoderma spp. are the most effective rhizosphere fungi for enhancing plant growth and plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the potential mechanisms of action of Trichoderma on insoluble Fe in the soil, which is difficult for plants to absorb and utilize, a high siderophore-producing strain of Trichoderma T6, was isolated from the rhizosphere of cucumber plants. The strain was identified as T. asperellum based on the morphological features and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Applying strain T6 to sterile soil could increase soil levels of Fe(2+) and siderophores, as well as increase Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)-chelate reductase (FCR) activity in cucumber tissues. Purified siderophore eluent (PSE) increased plant growth, thus confirming its role in plant growth promotion. Moreover, extracellular Fe(3+) reducing activity and three kinds of organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of strain T6. These results indicate that strain T6 influences plant Fe absorption in several ways. Siderophore-based Fe chelation is effective in providing Fe to plants, organic acids, and Fe(3+) reducing enzymes may participate in the solubilization and reduction of insoluble Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Dry Sliding Wear Charactristics of Aluminum 6061-T6, Magnesium AZ31 and Rock Dust Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, R.; Balasundaram, R.; Rajkumar, G.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the use of aluminum composite is gaining popularity in a wide range of applications like automobiles, aerospace and constructions (both interior & exterior) panels etc., due to its high strength, low density characteristics. Various reinforcing materials are used with aluminum 6061-T6 in order to have better mechanical properties. The addition of 0.3% of magnesium AZ31 will increase the ultimate tensile strength by 25 %. The reinforcement of rock dust will decrease the density. Hence, in order to have an advantages of magnesium AZ31 and rock dust, in this work, these two constitutes are varied from 1% to 2% on the base material of Al6061-T6 in stir casting. To evaluate the wear characteristics, Pin on disc is used in these composites. The input parameters are speed, time & load. The output response is wear. To minimize the number of experiments, L9 orthogonal array is used. The test results showed that a composite of 97% of Al (6061-T6), 1% Mg (AZ31) & 2 % of rock dust produced less wear. To find the best value of operating parameter for each sample, ANN-GA is used.

  2. Effect of the layer of anodized 7075-T6 aluminium corrosion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya Z, R. D.; L, E. Vera; Pineda T, Y.; Cedeño, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are widely used in various sectors of industry. The 7075-T6 alloy corresponding to an Al-Zn T6, is mostly used as structural component in the aviation industry, due to the good relationship between weight and mechanical properties. However, the negative point of this alloys is the resistance to corrosion, which is why they need to be coated with an anodic film. Different surface treatments, such as anodizing, are used to improve corrosion resistance. Anodizing is an electrolytic process by which a protective layer on aluminium known as “alumina” is formed, this is formed by the passage of an electric current in an acidic electrolyte. This investigation presents a study of the effect of the thickness of layers of alumina deposited by anodized method, in the corrosion resistance of 7075-T6 aluminium. This study was performed by using in a solution of tartaric acid - sulfuric acid and an inorganic salt. To evaluate the influence alumina layer thickness on the corrosion properties some tests were carried out by using the electrochemical spectroscopy impedances (EIS) technique and Tafel polarization curves. It was found that the grown of the thickness of film favourably influences in the corrosion resistance.

  3. Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for Al7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for Al7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: Al7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and Al7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.

  4. Global translational impacts of the loss of the tRNA modification t6A in yeast.

    PubMed

    Thiaville, Patrick C; Legendre, Rachel; Rojas-Benítez, Diego; Baudin-Baillieu, Agnès; Hatin, Isabelle; Chalancon, Guilhem; Glavic, Alvaro; Namy, Olivier; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The universal tRNA modification t 6 A is found at position 37 of nearly all tRNAs decoding ANN codons. The absence of t 6 A 37 leads to severe growth defects in baker's yeast, phenotypes similar to those caused by defects in mcm 5 s 2 U 34 synthesis. Mutants in mcm 5 s 2 U 34 can be suppressed by overexpression of tRNA Lys UUU , but we show t 6 A phenotypes could not be suppressed by expressing any individual ANN decoding tRNA, and t 6 A and mcm 5 s 2 U are not determinants for each other's formation. Our results suggest that t 6 A deficiency, like mcm 5 s 2 U deficiency, leads to protein folding defects, and show that the absence of t 6 A led to stress sensitivities (heat, ethanol, salt) and sensitivity to TOR pathway inhibitors. Additionally, L-homoserine suppressed the slow growth phenotype seen in t 6 A-deficient strains, and proteins aggregates and Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) were increased in the mutants. The global consequences on translation caused by t 6 A absence were examined by ribosome profiling. Interestingly, the absence of t 6 A did not lead to global translation defects, but did increase translation initiation at upstream non-AUG codons and increased frame-shifting in specific genes. Analysis of codon occupancy rates suggests that one of the major roles of t 6 A is to homogenize the process of elongation by slowing the elongation rate at codons decoded by high abundance tRNAs and I 34 :C 3 pairs while increasing the elongation rate of rare tRNAs and G 34 :U 3 pairs. This work reveals that the consequences of t 6 A absence are complex and multilayered and has set the stage to elucidate the molecular basis of the observed phenotypes.

  5. Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, N. S.; Joshi, V. S.; Harris, B. W.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these materials. Although the two tempers show similar elongation at breakage, the ultimate tensile strength of T651 temper is generally lower than the T6 temper. Johnson-Cook strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from high strain rate tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250°C. The Johnson-Cook fracture model constants are determined from quasi-static and medium strain rate as well as high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. Although the J-C strength model constants are similar, the fracture model constants show wide variations. Details of the experimental method used and the results for the two alloys are presented.

  6. A Pseudomonas T6SS effector recruits PQS-containing outer membrane vesicles for iron acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinshui; Zhang, Weipeng; Cheng, Juanli; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Kaixiang; Wang, Yao; Wei, Gehong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    Iron sequestration by host proteins contributes to the defence against bacterial pathogens, which need iron for their metabolism and virulence. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant lacking all three known iron acquisition systems retains the ability to grow in media containing iron chelators, suggesting the presence of additional pathways involved in iron uptake. Here we screen P. aeruginosa mutants defective in growth in iron-depleted media and find that gene PA2374, proximal to the type VI secretion system H3 (H3-T6SS), functions synergistically with known iron acquisition systems. PA2374 (which we have renamed TseF) appears to be secreted by H3-T6SS and is incorporated into outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by directly interacting with the iron-binding Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a cell–cell signalling compound. TseF facilitates the delivery of OMV-associated iron to bacterial cells by engaging the Fe(III)-pyochelin receptor FptA and the porin OprF. Our results reveal links between type VI secretion, cell–cell signalling and classic siderophore receptors for iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. PMID:28348410

  7. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  8. Transient thermal analysis during friction stir welding between AA2014-T6 and pure copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhavi, A. R.; Ghetiya, N. D.; Patel, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    AA2xxx-Cu alloys showed larger applications in the defence sectors and in aerospace industries due to high strength to weight ratio and toughness. FSW in a butt joint configuration was carried out between AA2014-T6 and pure Copper placing AA2014 on AS and Cu on RS. Temperature profiles were observed by inserting K-type thermocouples in the mid-thickness at various locations of the plate. A sharp decrease in temperature profiles was observed on Copper side due to its higher thermal conductivity. A thermal numerical model was prepared in ANSYS to compare the simulated temperature profiles with the experimental temperature profiles and both the temperature profiles were found to be in good agreement.

  9. The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 aluminum by a polyurethane-sealed anodized coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 anodized aluminum afforded by a newly patented polyurethane seal was studied using the ac impedance technique. Values of the average corrosion rates over a 27-day exposure period in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions at pH 5.2 and pH 9.5 compared very favorably for Lockheed-prepared polyurethane-sealed and dichromate-sealed coats of the same thickness. Average corrosion rates for both specimens over the first 7 days of exposure compared well with those for a hard anodized, dichromate-sealed coat, but rose well above those for the hard anodized coat over the entire 27-day period. This is attributed both to the greater thickness of the hard anodized coat, and possibly to its inherently better corrosion protective capability.

  10. A Micro-Electrochemical Study of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum 6061-T6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz M.

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of friction stir welded Aluminum alloy 606 1-T6 was studied using a micro-electrochemical cell. The micro-electrochemical cell has a measurement area of about 0.25 square mm which allows for measurement of corrosion properties at a very small scale. The corrosion and breakdown potentials were measured at many points inside and outside the weld along lines perpendicular to the weld. The breakdown potential is approximately equal inside and outside the weld; however, it is lower in the narrow border between the weld and base material. The results of electrochemical measurements were correlated to micro-structural analysis. The corrosion behavior of the friction stir welded samples was compared to tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded samples of the same material.

  11. The abp gene in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 encodes a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase.

    PubMed

    Salama, Rachel; Alalouf, Onit; Tabachnikov, Orly; Zolotnitsky, Gennady; Shoham, Gil; Shoham, Yuval

    2012-07-30

    In this study we demonstrate that the abp gene in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 encodes a family 27 glycoside hydrolase β-L-arabinopyranosidase. The catalytic constants towards the chromogenic substrate pNP-β-L-arabinopyranoside were 0.8±0.1 mM, 6.6±0.3 s(-1), and 8.2±0.3 s(-1) mM(-1) for K(m), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), respectively. (13)C NMR spectroscopy unequivocally showed that Abp is capable of removing β-L-arabinopyranose residues from the natural arabino-polysaccharide, larch arabinogalactan. Most family 27 enzymes are active on galactose and contain a conserved Asp residue, whereas in Abp this residue is Ile67, which shifts the specificity of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical characterization of cerium-based conversion coatings on aluminum alloy 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Simon

    This research used electrochemical techniques to characterize the deposition and corrosion protection behavior of cerium-based conversion coatings on Al 7075-T6. Alkaline activation decreased native oxide impedance (5.9 kO-cm2) by ˜25% promoting deposition of 250--500 nm coatings. Activation in NaOH solutions deposited coatings with large cracks and craters, whereas Na2CO3 activation resulted in uniform coatings, i.e., fewer cracks and almost no craters. Uniformly deposited coatings exhibited better cathodic inhibition and higher impedance (˜200 kO-cm 2) than on NaOH activated substrates (˜100 kO-cm 2). Subsurface crevices, caused by Cl- and H 2O2 in the deposition solution, were found under large cracks and craters. Thus, Na2CO3 activation produced fewer subsurface crevices. To reduce subsurface crevice formation, Ce(NO3) 3 and CeCl3 were used in different ratios. Coatings made using 100% Ce(NO3)3 solutions were ˜60 nm thick without subsurface crevices, but the coatings offered little corrosion protection. Despite formation of subsurface crevices, Cl- was necessary as impedance increased linearly with Cl- concentration in the deposition solution. To characterize the different non-uniform features of the coatings, microelectrochemical testing was performed and it showed three distinct regions: active, intermediate, and passive. Humidity experiments were performed to understand the effect of moisture during salt spray testing and showed an increase in coating impedance by making the exposed substrate oxide more passive. However, this passive oxide could not provide corrosion resistance in a chloride environment. Dissolution studies showed that cerium migration was only possible at pH ≤2. Overall, deposition of uniform 250--500 nm thick outings was essential to make it an effective barrier to Cl - attach and prevent subsurface crevices on Al 7075-T6.

  13. Effect of Preexisting Corrosion on Fatigue Cracking of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3 and 7075-T6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    alloys 2024 -T3 and 7075-T6. It was determined that preexisting corrosion has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of aluminum alloys 2024 -T3 and...following conclusions were drawn: 1. Preexisting corrosion has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of aluminum alloys 2024 -T3 and 7075-T6. The...corrosion has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of aluminum alloys

  14. Experiments and simulation for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy resistance spot welded lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florea, Radu Stefanel

    This comprehensive study is the first to quantify the fatigue performance, failure loads, and microstructure of resistance spot welding (RSW) in 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) alloy according to welding parameters and process sensitivity. The extensive experimental, theoretical and simulated analyses will provide a framework to optimize the welding of lightweight structures for more fuel-efficient automotive and military applications. The research was executed in four primary components. The first section involved using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) scanning, tensile testing, laser beam profilometry (LBP) measurements, and optical microscopy(OM) images to experimentally investigate failure loads and deformation of the Al-alloy resistance spot welded joints. Three welding conditions, as well as nugget and microstructure characteristics, were quantified according to predefined process parameters. Quasi-static tensile tests were used to characterize the failure loads in specimens based upon these same process parameters. Profilometer results showed that increasing the applied welding current deepened the weld imprints. The EBSD scans revealed the strong dependency between the grain sizes and orientation function on the process parameters. For the second section, the fatigue behavior of the RSW'ed joints was experimentally investigated. The process optimization included consideration of the forces, currents, and times for both the main weld and post-heating. Load control cyclic tests were conducted on single weld lap-shear joint coupons to characterize the fatigue behavior in spot welded specimens. Results demonstrate that welding parameters do indeed significantly affect the microstructure and fatigue performance for these welds. The third section comprised residual strains of resistance spot welded joints measured in three different directions, denoted as in-plane longitudinal, in-plane transversal, and normal, and captured on the fusion zone, heat affected zone

  15. The Glucuronic Acid Utilization Gene Cluster from Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6

    PubMed Central

    Shulami, Smadar; Gat, Orit; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Shoham, Yuval

    1999-01-01

    A λ-EMBL3 genomic library of Bacillus stearothermophilus T-6 was screened for hemicellulolytic activities, and five independent clones exhibiting β-xylosidase activity were isolated. The clones overlap each other and together represent a 23.5-kb chromosomal segment. The segment contains a cluster of xylan utilization genes, which are organized in at least three transcriptional units. These include the gene for the extracellular xylanase, xylanase T-6; part of an operon coding for an intracellular xylanase and a β-xylosidase; and a putative 15.5-kb-long transcriptional unit, consisting of 12 genes involved in the utilization of α-d-glucuronic acid (GlcUA). The first four genes in the potential GlcUA operon (orf1, -2, -3, and -4) code for a putative sugar transport system with characteristic components of the binding-protein-dependent transport systems. The most likely natural substrate for this transport system is aldotetraouronic acid [2-O-α-(4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronosyl)-xylotriose] (MeGlcUAXyl3). The following two genes code for an intracellular α-glucuronidase (aguA) and a β-xylosidase (xynB). Five more genes (kdgK, kdgA, uxaC, uxuA, and uxuB) encode proteins that are homologous to enzymes involved in galacturonate and glucuronate catabolism. The gene cluster also includes a potential regulatory gene, uxuR, the product of which resembles repressors of the GntR family. The apparent transcriptional start point of the cluster was determined by primer extension analysis and is located 349 bp from the initial ATG codon. The potential operator site is a perfect 12-bp inverted repeat located downstream from the promoter between nucleotides +170 and +181. Gel retardation assays indicated that UxuR binds specifically to this sequence and that this binding is efficiently prevented in vitro by MeGlcUAXyl3, the most likely molecular inducer. PMID:10368143

  16. In vitro biosynthesis of a universal t6A tRNA modification in Archaea and Eukarya

    PubMed Central

    Perrochia, Ludovic; Crozat, Estelle; Hecker, Arnaud; Zhang, Wenhua; Bareille, Joseph; Collinet, Bruno; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a modified nucleotide found in all transfer RNAs (tRNAs) decoding codons starting with adenosine. Its role is to facilitate codon–anticodon pairing and to prevent frameshifting during protein synthesis. Genetic studies demonstrated that two universal proteins, Kae1/YgjD and Sua5/YrdC, are necessary for t6A synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. In Archaea and Eukarya, Kae1 is part of a conserved protein complex named kinase, endopeptidase and other proteins of small size (KEOPS), together with three proteins that have no bacterial homologues. Here, we reconstituted for the first time an in vitro system for t6A modification in Archaea and Eukarya, using purified KEOPS and Sua5. We demonstrated binding of tRNAs to archaeal KEOPS and detected two distinct adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent steps occurring in the course of the synthesis. Our data, together with recent reconstitution of an in vitro bacterial system, indicated that t6A cannot be catalysed by Sua5/YrdC and Kae1/YgjD alone but requires accessory proteins that are not universal. Remarkably, we observed interdomain complementation when bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic proteins were combined in vitro, suggesting a conserved catalytic mechanism for the biosynthesis of t6A in nature. These findings shed light on the reaction mechanism of t6A synthesis and evolution of molecular systems that promote translation fidelity in present-day cells. PMID:23258706

  17. The effects of pitting on fatigue crack nucleation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, LI; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    A high-strength aluminum alloy, 7075-T6, was studied to quantitatively evaluate chemical pitting effects of its corrosion fatigue life. The study focused on pit nucleation, pit growth, and fatigue crack nucleation. Pitting corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution under constant amplitude sinusoidal loading at two frequencies, 5 and 20 Hz. Smooth and unnotched specimens were used in this investigation. A video recording system was developed to allow in situ observation of the surface changes of the specimens during testing. The results indicated that pitting corrosion considerably reduces the fatigue strength by accelerating fatigue crack nucleation. A metallographic examination was conducted on the specimens to evaluate the nature of corrosion pits. First, the actual shapes of the corrosion pits were evaluated by cross-sectioning the pits. Secondly, the relation between corrosion pits and microstructure was also investigated. Finally, the possibility of another corrosion mechanism that might be involved in pitting was explored in this investigation. The fractography of the tested specimens showed that corner corrosion pits were responsible for fatigue crack nucleation in the material due to the associated stress concentration. The pits exhibited variance of morphology. Fatigue life for the experimental conditions appeared to be strongly dependent on pitting kinetics and the crack nucleation stage.

  18. Modeling the effect of laser heating on the strength and failure of 7075-T6 aluminum

    DOE PAGES

    Florando, J. N.; Margraf, J. D.; Reus, J. F.; ...

    2015-06-06

    The effect of rapid laser heating on the response of 7075-T6 aluminum has been characterized using 3-D digital image correlation and a series of thermocouples. The experimental results indicate that as the samples are held under a constant load, the heating from the laser profile causes non-uniform temperature and strain fields, and the strain-rate increases dramatically as the sample nears failure. Simulations have been conducted using the LLNL multi-physics code ALE3D, and compared to the experiments. The strength and failure of the material was modeled using the Johnson–Cook strength and damage models. Here, in order to capture the response, amore » dual-condition criterion was utilized which calibrated one set of parameters to low temperature quasi-static strain rate data, while the other parameter set is calibrated to high temperature high strain rate data. The thermal effects were captured using temperature dependent thermal constants and invoking thermal transport with conduction, convection, and thermal radiation.« less

  19. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade Hub using Aluminium Alloy AA 6061-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, S.; Jaswanthvenkatram, V.; Sai kumar, Y. J. N. V.; Sohaib, S. Md.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the design and analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade hub using different material. The hub is very crucial part of the wind turbine, which experience the loads from the blades and the loads were transmitted to the main shaft. At present wind turbine is more expensive and weights more than a million pounds, with the nacelle, rotor hub and blades accounting for most of the weight. In this work Spheroidal graphite cast iron GGG 40.3 is replaced by aluminium alloy 6061-T6 to enhance the casting properties and also to improve the strength-weight ratio. This transition of material leads to reduction in weight of the wind turbine. All the loads caused by wind and extreme loads on the blades are transferred to the hub. Considering the IEC 61400-1 standard for defining extreme loads on the hub the stress and deflection were calculated on the hub by using Finite element Analysis. Result obtained from ANSYS is compared and discussed with the existing design.

  20. Built-up edge investigation in vibration drilling of Al2024-T6.

    PubMed

    Barani, A; Amini, S; Paktinat, H; Fadaei Tehrani, A

    2014-07-01

    Adding ultrasonic vibrations to drilling process results in an advanced hybrid machining process, entitled "vibration drilling". This study presents the design and fabrication of a vibration drilling tool by which both rotary and vibrating motions are applied to drill simultaneously. High frequency and low amplitude vibrations were generated by an ultrasonic transducer with frequency of 19.65 kHz. Ultrasonic transducer was controlled by a MPI ultrasonic generator with 3 kW power. The drilling tool and workpiece material were HSS two-flute twist drill and Al2024-T6, respectively. The aim of this study was investigating on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on built-up edge, surface quality, chip morphology and wear mechanisms of drill edges. Therefore, these factors were studied in both vibration and ordinary drilling. Based on the achieved results, vibration drilling offers less built-up edge and better surface quality compared to ordinary drilling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical properties of dissimilar metal joints composed of DP 980 steel and AA 7075-T6

    DOE PAGES

    Squires, Lile; Lim, Yong Chae; Miles, Michael; ...

    2015-03-18

    In this study, a solid state joining process, called friction bit joining, was used to spot weld aluminium alloy 7075-T6 to dual phase 980 steel. Lap shear failure loads for specimens without adhesive averaged ~10kN, while cross-tension specimens averaged 2·8 kN. Addition of adhesive with a thickness up to 500 μm provided a gain of ~50% to lap shear failure loads, while a much thinner layer of adhesive increased cross-tension failure loads by 20%. Microstructures of the welds were martensitic, but the hardness of the joining bit portion was greater than that of the DP 980, owing to its highermore » alloy content. Softening in the heat affected zone of a welded joint appeared to be relatively small, though it was enough to cause nugget pullout failures in some lap shear tension specimens. Finally, other failures in lap shear tension were interfacial, while all of the failures in cross-tension were interfacial.« less

  2. Involvement of T6 pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keiji Richard; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2012-02-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is known to cause self-limiting purulent infections in humans. The role of GAS pili in host cell adhesion and biofilm formation is likely fundamental in early colonization. Pilus genes are found in the FCT (fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding protein, and trypsin-resistant antigen) genomic region, which has been classified into nine subtypes based on the diversity of gene content and nucleotide sequence. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that FCT type 1 strains, including serotype M6, produce large amounts of monospecies biofilm in vitro. We examined the direct involvement of pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 clinical isolates. In the majority of tested strains, deletion of the tee6 gene encoding pilus shaft protein T6 compromised the ability to form biofilm on an abiotic surface. Deletion of the fctX and srtB genes, which encode pilus ancillary protein and class C pilus-associated sortase, respectively, also decreased biofilm formation by a representative strain. Unexpectedly, these mutant strains showed increased bacterial aggregation compared with that of the wild-type strain. When the entire FCT type 1 pilus region was ectopically expressed in serotype M1 strain SF370, biofilm formation was promoted and autoaggregation was inhibited. These findings indicate that assembled FCT type 1 pili contribute to biofilm formation and also function as attenuators of bacterial aggregation. Taken together, our results show the potential role of FCT type 1 pili in the pathogenesis of GAS infections.

  3. Experimental Research on Fatigue Failure for 2219-T6 Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guo-Qin; Niu, Jiang-Pei; Chen, Ya-Jing; Sun, Feng-Yang; Shang, De-Guang; Chen, Shu-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The fatigue experiment was executed for the 2219-T6 aluminum alloy friction stir-welded joints at the rotation speed of 800 r/min and the welding velocity of 150 mm/min. Most fatigue failures occurred in the weld nugget zone (WNZ), the thermo-mechanical affected zone and the nearby areas. The experimental results demonstrated that the sudden hardness gradient increases sites corresponding to the fatigue failure locations. The high-angle grain boundaries with the highest concentration were scattered within the WNZ. The microcracks initiated at the intersection of the soft grains. More than one crack initiation site was observed within the WNZ and the thermo-mechanical affected zone, when the fracture occurred in these areas. The rough surface of the welding area should be one of the main reasons for the fatigue failure occurrence. The fatigue crack growth rate in the WNZ at the first stage was fastest in comparison with the fatigue crack growth rate in the other areas of the joint.

  4. High speed machinability of the aerospace alloy AA7075 T6 under different cooling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Rinaldi, Sergio; Suarez, Asier Gurruchaga; Arrazola, Pedro J.; Umbrello, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation aimed to st udy the machinability of AA7075 T6 (160 HV) for aerospace industry at high cutting speeds. The paper investigates the effects of different lubri-cooling strategies (cryogenic, M QL and dry) during high speed turning process on cutting forces, tool wear, chip morphology and cutting temperatures. The cutting speeds selected were 1000m/min, 1250m/min and 1500 m/min, while the feed rate values used were 0.1mm/rev and 0.3 mm/rev. The results of cryogenic and M QL application is compared with dry application. It was found that the cryogenic and M QL lubri-cooling techniques could represent a functional alternative to the common dry cutting application in order to implement a more effect ive high speed turning process. Higher cuttingparameters would be able to increase the productivity and reduce the production costs. The effects of the cutting parameters and on the variables object of study were investigated and the role of the different lubri-cooling conditions was assessed.

  5. Erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in mineral oil and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 under cavitation attack in distilled water, ordinary tap water and a viscous mineral oil are presented. The mean depth of penetration for the mineral oil was about 40 percent of that for water at the end of a 40 min test. The mean depth of penetration and its rate did not differ significantly for distilled and tap water. The mean depth of penetration rate for both distilled and tap water increased to a maximum and then decreased with test duration, while that for mineral oil had a maximum during the initial period. The ratio h/2a of the pit depth h to the pit diameter 2a varied from 0.04 to 0.13 in water and from 0.06 to 0.20 in mineral oil. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the pits are initially formed over the grain boundaries and precipitates while the surface grains are deformed under cavitation attack.

  6. Identification of modes of fracture in a 2618-T6 aluminum alloy using stereophotogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Salas Zamarripa, A., E-mail: a.salaszamarripa@gmail.com; Pinna, C.; Brown, M.W.

    2011-12-15

    The identification and the development of a quantification technique of the modes of fracture in fatigue fracture surfaces of a 2618-T6 aluminum alloy were developed during this research. Fatigue tests at room and high temperature (230 Degree-Sign C) were carried out to be able to compare the microscopic fractographic features developed by this material under these testing conditions. The overall observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fracture surfaces showed a mixture of transgranular and ductile intergranular fracture. The ductile intergranular fracture contribution appears to be more significant at room temperature than at 230 Degree-Sign C. A quantitative methodologymore » was developed to identify and to measure the contribution of these microscopic fractographic features. The technique consisted of a combination of stereophotogrammetry and image analysis. Stereo-pairs were randomly taken along the crack paths and were then analyzed using the profile module of MeX software. The analysis involved the 3-D surface reconstruction, the trace of primary profile lines in both vertical and horizontal directions within the stereo-pair area, the measurements of the contribution of the modes of fracture in each profile, and finally, the calculation of the average contribution in each stereo-pair. The technique results confirmed a higher contribution of ductile intergranular fracture at room temperature than at 230 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, there was no indication of a direct relationship between this contribution and the strain amplitudes range applied during the fatigue testing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stereophotogrammetry and image analysis as a measuring tool of modes of fracture in fatigue fracture surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixture of ductile intergranular and transgranular fracture was identified at room temperature and 230 Degree-Sign C testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of a quantitative

  7. Recovery of Mechanical Properties of a 6061-T6 Aluminum Weld by Heat Treatment After Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Javier Serrano; Ambriz, Ricardo Rafael; López, Francisco Fernando Curiel; Vigueras, David Jaramillo

    2016-07-01

    The dilution effects in welds of a 6061-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) alloy obtained by the modified indirect electric arc (MIEA), using an ER4043 filler metal (Al-Si), and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) were analyzed. The soft zone (55 to 70 HV0.1) formed by the microstructural transformation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was eliminated. The hardness measurements were presented on a traditional microhardness profile and mapping representation. A hardening effect of the fusion zone was observed; the hardness values were above 120 HV0.1 and tended to be uniform. This behavior could be attributed to the chemical composition of the filler metal, the Mg migration from the base to the weld metal, and the reversible process of the PWHT, which promotes precipitation hardening. Improvement for yield (260 MPa) and tensile strength (310 MPa) of the MIEA joints was observed; these values were similar to those obtained for the base metal. However, the presence of porosity in the fusion zone limits the ductility of the joints (4.3 pct). Even though the yield and tensile strengths of the base metal and welded joints were similar, the stress concentration due to porosity in the weld metal generated data dispersion in fatigue life. As a consequence, the high-cycle fatigue life decreases with respect to the base metal. In contrast, when the crack propagates under elastic conditions, the crack-tip singularity is affected by the porosity in the weld metal (stress liberator). This aspect, in conjunction with the hardening effect in joints subjected to PWHT, improves the fatigue crack growth rate when compared to the as-welded condition.

  8. 2MASS J20261584-2943124: an Unresolved L0.5 + T6 Spectral Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelino, Christopher R.; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2010-07-01

    We identify the L dwarf 2MASS J20261584-2943124 as an unresolved spectral binary, based on low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from IRTF/SpeX. The data reveal a peculiar absorption feature at 1.6 μm, previously noted in the spectra of other very low-mass spectral binaries, which likely arises from overlapping FeH and CH4 absorption bands in the blended light of an L dwarf/T dwarf pair. Spectral template matching analysis indicates component types of L0.5 and T6, with relative brightness ΔH = 4.2 ± 0.6. Laser guide star adaptive optics imaging observations with Keck/NIRC2 fail to resolve the source, indicating a maximum separation at the observing epoch of 0farcs25, or a projected separation of 9 AU assuming a distance of 36 ± 5 pc. With an age that is likely to be relatively older (gsim5 Gyr) based on the system's large V tan and mass ratio arguments, the relative motion of the potentially "massive" (0.06-0.08 M sun) components of 2MASS J2026-2943 may be detectable through radial velocity variations, like its earlier-type counterpart 2MASS J03202839-0446358 (M8+T5), providing dynamical mass measurements that span the hydrogen burning limit. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Sensitivity of polycrystal plasticity to slip system kinematic hardening laws for Al 7075-T6

    DOE PAGES

    Hennessey, Conor; Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The prediction of formation and early growth of microstructurally small fatigue cracks requires use of constitutive models that accurately estimate local states of stress, strain, and cyclic plastic strain. However, few research efforts have attempted to systematically consider the sensitivity of overall cyclic stress-strain hysteresis and higher order mean stress relaxation and plastic strain ratcheting responses introduced by the slip system back-stress formulation in crystal plasticity, even for face centered cubic (FCC) crystal systems. This paper explores the performance of two slip system level kinematic hardening models using a finite element crystal plasticity implementation as a User Material Subroutine (UMAT)more » within ABAQUS, with fully implicit numerical integration. The two kinematic hardening formulations aim to reproduce the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline Al 7075-T6 in terms of both macroscopic cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop shape, as well as ratcheting and mean stress relaxation under strain- or stress-controlled loading with mean strain or stress, respectively. The first formulation is an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening-dynamic recovery law for evolution of the back stress. This approach is capable of reproducing observed deformation under completely reversed uniaxial loading conditions, but overpredicts the rate of cyclic ratcheting and associated mean stress relaxation. The second formulation corresponds to a multiple back stress Ohno-Wang type hardening law with nonlinear dynamic recovery. The adoption of this back stress evolution law greatly improves the capability to model experimental results for polycrystalline specimens subjected to cycling with mean stress or strain. As a result, the relation of such nonlinear dynamic recovery effects are related to slip system interactions with dislocation substructures.« less

  10. Ratcheting fatigue behaviour of Al-7075 T6 alloy: Influence of stress parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Lala; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    The use of aluminium and aluminium based alloys are increasing rapidly on account of its high formability, good thermal and electrical conductivity, high strength and lightness. Aluminium alloys are extensively used in aerospace, automobile, marine and space research industries and are also put into structural applications where chances of fatigue damage cannot be ruled out. In the current work, it is intended to study the ratcheting fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminium alloy at room temperature. This Al alloy is potentially used in aviation, marine and automotive components as well as in bicycle parts, rock mounting equipment and parts of ammunition where there is every chance of failure of the parts due to deformation caused by ratcheting. Ratcheting is the process of accruement of plastic stain produced when a component is subjected to asymmetric cyclic loading under the influence of low cycle fatigue. To accomplish the requirements of the projected research, stress-controlled cyclic loading experiments were done using a ±250 kN servo-hydraulic universal testing machine (Instron: 8800R). The effect of stress parameters such as mean stress and stress amplitude were investigated on the ratcheting behavior of the selected aluminium alloy. It was observed that, ratcheting strain increased with increase in the value of stress amplitude at any constant mean stress while a saturation in strain accumulation attained in the investigated material after around 10-20 cycles, under all test conditions. The analyses of hysteresis loop generated during cyclic loading indicate that the material exhibits cyclic hardening in the initial fifty cycles which gets softened in further loading up to about 70-80 cycles and finally attains a steady state. The increase in the ratcheting strain value with stress parameters happens owing to increased deformation domain during cycling. The cyclic hardening accompanied by softening is correlated with characteristic precipitation features of

  11. Involvement of T6 Pili in Biofilm Formation by Serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Keiji Richard; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Terao, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is known to cause self-limiting purulent infections in humans. The role of GAS pili in host cell adhesion and biofilm formation is likely fundamental in early colonization. Pilus genes are found in the FCT (fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding protein, and trypsin-resistant antigen) genomic region, which has been classified into nine subtypes based on the diversity of gene content and nucleotide sequence. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that FCT type 1 strains, including serotype M6, produce large amounts of monospecies biofilm in vitro. We examined the direct involvement of pili in biofilm formation by serotype M6 clinical isolates. In the majority of tested strains, deletion of the tee6 gene encoding pilus shaft protein T6 compromised the ability to form biofilm on an abiotic surface. Deletion of the fctX and srtB genes, which encode pilus ancillary protein and class C pilus-associated sortase, respectively, also decreased biofilm formation by a representative strain. Unexpectedly, these mutant strains showed increased bacterial aggregation compared with that of the wild-type strain. When the entire FCT type 1 pilus region was ectopically expressed in serotype M1 strain SF370, biofilm formation was promoted and autoaggregation was inhibited. These findings indicate that assembled FCT type 1 pili contribute to biofilm formation and also function as attenuators of bacterial aggregation. Taken together, our results show the potential role of FCT type 1 pili in the pathogenesis of GAS infections. PMID:22155780

  12. Structural insights into methanol-stable variants of lipase T6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Dror, Adi; Kanteev, Margarita; Kagan, Irit; Gihaz, Shalev; Shahar, Anat; Fishman, Ayelet

    2015-11-01

    Enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohol, catalyzed by lipases, offers an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to the chemically catalyzed process while using low-grade feedstocks. Methanol is utilized frequently as the alcohol in the reaction due to its reactivity and low cost. However, one of the major drawbacks of the enzymatic system is the presence of high methanol concentrations which leads to methanol-induced unfolding and inactivation of the biocatalyst. Therefore, a methanol-stable lipase is of great interest for the biodiesel industry. In this study, protein engineering was applied to substitute charged surface residues with hydrophobic ones to enhance the stability in methanol of a lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. We identified a methanol-stable variant, R374W, and combined it with a variant found previously, H86Y/A269T. The triple mutant, H86Y/A269T/R374W, had a half-life value at 70 % methanol of 324 min which reflects an 87-fold enhanced stability compared to the wild type together with elevated thermostability in buffer and in 50 % methanol. This variant also exhibited an improved biodiesel yield from waste chicken oil compared to commercial Lipolase 100L® and Novozyme® CALB. Crystal structures of the wild type and the methanol-stable variants provided insights regarding structure-stability correlations. The most prominent features were the extensive formation of new hydrogen bonds between surface residues directly or mediated by structural water molecules and the stabilization of Zn and Ca binding sites. Mutation sites were also characterized by lower B-factor values calculated from the X-ray structures indicating improved rigidity.

  13. Sensitivity of polycrystal plasticity to slip system kinematic hardening laws for Al 7075-T6

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Conor; Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    The prediction of formation and early growth of microstructurally small fatigue cracks requires use of constitutive models that accurately estimate local states of stress, strain, and cyclic plastic strain. However, few research efforts have attempted to systematically consider the sensitivity of overall cyclic stress-strain hysteresis and higher order mean stress relaxation and plastic strain ratcheting responses introduced by the slip system back-stress formulation in crystal plasticity, even for face centered cubic (FCC) crystal systems. This paper explores the performance of two slip system level kinematic hardening models using a finite element crystal plasticity implementation as a User Material Subroutine (UMAT)more » within ABAQUS, with fully implicit numerical integration. The two kinematic hardening formulations aim to reproduce the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline Al 7075-T6 in terms of both macroscopic cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop shape, as well as ratcheting and mean stress relaxation under strain- or stress-controlled loading with mean strain or stress, respectively. The first formulation is an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening-dynamic recovery law for evolution of the back stress. This approach is capable of reproducing observed deformation under completely reversed uniaxial loading conditions, but overpredicts the rate of cyclic ratcheting and associated mean stress relaxation. The second formulation corresponds to a multiple back stress Ohno-Wang type hardening law with nonlinear dynamic recovery. The adoption of this back stress evolution law greatly improves the capability to model experimental results for polycrystalline specimens subjected to cycling with mean stress or strain. As a result, the relation of such nonlinear dynamic recovery effects are related to slip system interactions with dislocation substructures.« less

  14. [Effects of blueberry on apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in HSC-T6].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuang; Cheng, Mingliang; Yang, Demeng; Liu, Yang; Guan, Li; Wu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the effects of blueberry on the apoptosis, expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in rat hepatic stellate cell (HSC-T6). 10% blueberry serum at low, middle and high dose, 10% Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum and 10% saline serum were prepared by method of serum pharmacology. Subcultured HSC-T6 was divided into saline serum control group, blueberry serum at low, middle, high dose and Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum group, and then was respectively incubated at different dose of 10% blueberry serum, 10% Fu-Fang-Bie-Jia-Ruan-Gan tablet serum and 10% saline serum for 72 hours.Apoptosis of HSC-T6 was detected using flow cytometry with annexin V FITC/PI double staining. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in HSC-T6 were examined using immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. There was no significant difference for HSC-T6 Bax protein expression in the low, middle and high dose blueberry serum groups, compared with saline serum control group, respectively.In the high-dose blueberry serum group HSC-T6 early and total apoptosis rate increased significantly compared with the saline serum control group (5.55% ± 0.98% vs 2.53% ± 0.46%, 7.01% ± 1.05% vs 2.96% ± 0.81%, both P<0.05); Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased (A value, 82 ± 35 vs 51 ± 13, P<0.05); Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly decreased (0.26 ± 0.02 vs 0.46 ± 0.03, P<0.05); HSC-T6 early and total apoptosis rate, Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the low and the middle dose blueberry serum group showed no significant difference with the saline serum control group. Blueberry can induce HSC-T6 apoptosis by down-regulating Bcl-2 expression and decreasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in HSC-T6 cells, so it may have potential interference effects on hepatic fibrosis.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Isolate T6, a Thermophilic Bacterium Collected from a Thermal Spring in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Elio M.; Berretta, Marcelo F.; Benintende, Graciela B.; Zandomeni, Rubén O.

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus sp. isolate T6 was collected from a thermal spring in Salta, Argentina. The draft genome sequence (3,767,773 bp) of this isolate is represented by one major scaffold of 3,46 Mbp, a second one of 207 kbp, and 20 scaffolds of <13 kbp. The assembled sequences revealed 3,919 protein-coding genes. PMID:26184933

  16. Flow and fracture behavior of aluminum alloy 6082-T6 at different tensile strain rates and triaxialities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuanzhen; Peng, Yong; Peng, Shan; Yao, Song; Chen, Chao; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the flow and fracture behavior of aluminum alloy 6082-T6 (AA6082-T6) at different strain rates and triaxialities. Two groups of Charpy impact tests were carried out to further investigate its dynamic impact fracture property. A series of tensile tests and numerical simulations based on finite element analysis (FEA) were performed. Experimental data on smooth specimens under various strain rates ranging from 0.0001~3400 s-1 shows that AA6082-T6 is rather insensitive to strain rates in general. However, clear rate sensitivity was observed in the range of 0.001~1 s-1 while such a characteristic is counteracted by the adiabatic heating of specimens under high strain rates. A Johnson-Cook constitutive model was proposed based on tensile tests at different strain rates. In this study, the average stress triaxiality and equivalent plastic strain at facture obtained from numerical simulations were used for the calibration of J-C fracture model. Both of the J-C constitutive model and fracture model were employed in numerical simulations and the results was compared with experimental results. The calibrated J-C fracture model exhibits higher accuracy than the J-C fracture model obtained by the common method in predicting the fracture behavior of AA6082-T6. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) of fractured specimens with different initial stress triaxialities were analyzed. The magnified fractographs indicate that high initial stress triaxiality likely results in dimple fracture.

  17. Flow and fracture behavior of aluminum alloy 6082-T6 at different tensile strain rates and triaxialities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuanzhen; Peng, Shan; Yao, Song; Chen, Chao; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the flow and fracture behavior of aluminum alloy 6082-T6 (AA6082-T6) at different strain rates and triaxialities. Two groups of Charpy impact tests were carried out to further investigate its dynamic impact fracture property. A series of tensile tests and numerical simulations based on finite element analysis (FEA) were performed. Experimental data on smooth specimens under various strain rates ranging from 0.0001~3400 s-1 shows that AA6082-T6 is rather insensitive to strain rates in general. However, clear rate sensitivity was observed in the range of 0.001~1 s-1 while such a characteristic is counteracted by the adiabatic heating of specimens under high strain rates. A Johnson-Cook constitutive model was proposed based on tensile tests at different strain rates. In this study, the average stress triaxiality and equivalent plastic strain at facture obtained from numerical simulations were used for the calibration of J-C fracture model. Both of the J-C constitutive model and fracture model were employed in numerical simulations and the results was compared with experimental results. The calibrated J-C fracture model exhibits higher accuracy than the J-C fracture model obtained by the common method in predicting the fracture behavior of AA6082-T6. Finally, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) of fractured specimens with different initial stress triaxialities were analyzed. The magnified fractographs indicate that high initial stress triaxiality likely results in dimple fracture. PMID:28759617

  18. Structural conservation, variability, and immunogenicity of the T6 backbone pilin of serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul G; Moreland, Nicole J; Loh, Jacelyn M; Bell, Anita; Atatoa Carr, Polly; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N

    2014-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a broad range of diseases ranging from acute pharyngitis to the poststreptococcal sequelae of acute rheumatic fever. GAS pili are highly diverse, long protein polymers that extend from the cell surface. They have multiple roles in infection and are promising candidates for vaccine development. This study describes the structure of the T6 backbone pilin (BP; Lancefield T-antigen) from the important M6 serotype. The structure reveals a modular arrangement of three tandem immunoglobulin-like domains, two with internal isopeptide bonds. The T6 pilin lysine, essential for polymerization, is located in a novel VAKS motif that is structurally homologous to the canonical YPKN pilin lysine in other three- and four-domain Gram-positive pilins. The T6 structure also highlights a conserved pilin core whose surface is decorated with highly variable loops and extensions. Comparison to other Gram-positive BPs shows that many of the largest variable extensions are found in conserved locations. Studies with sera from patients diagnosed with GAS-associated acute rheumatic fever showed that each of the three T6 domains, and the largest of the variable extensions (V8), are targeted by IgG during infection in vivo. Although the GAS BP show large variations in size and sequence, the modular nature of the pilus proteins revealed by the T6 structure may aid the future design of a pilus-based vaccine. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Effect of holding pressure on microstructure and fracture behavior of low-pressure die cast A356-T6 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Yun, Ying; Zhang, Huarui; Ma, Zhen; Jia, Lina; Tao, Tongxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-12-01

    The effect of different holding pressures on microstructure, tensile properties and fracture behavior of A356-T6 aluminum alloy was investigated. It was observed that the ultimate strength, yield strength and elongation of A356-T6 aluminum alloy increased with the increasing of holding pressure from 85 kPa to 300 kPa. This was attributed to the finer microstructure and the elimination of porosity defects caused by high holding pressure. The fractographs of specimens obtained under lower holding pressure displayed mixed quasi-cleavage and dimple type morphology with flat dimples and large amount of porosities. However, the fractographs of specimens obtained under high holding pressure of 300 kPa clearly exhibited a dimple morphology with small and deep dimples. The differences in the tensile fracture were attributed to the different shape of eutectic Si particle and different amount of porosity defects.

  20. Experimental studies on mechanical properties of T6 treated Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondur, D. G.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Effect of T6 treatment on the mechanical properties of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy was evaluated by conducting mechanical tests on test pieces using universal testing machine. Increase in the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, hardness and % elongation was observed. Microstructure characterization revealed the modification in the size and shapes of the precipitates formed during the homogenization process. This modification increases the anisotropy of the microstructure and the stresses in the as cast structure. The increase in the hardness of T6 treated alloy is due to the partial recrystallization, fragmentation and redistribution of primary Mg2Si phase, precipitation of fine θ, Q phases. The high volume fractions of uniformly dispersed hard β-particles greatly increase the flow stress and provide an appreciable impediment to plastic deformation. Thus increasing the hardness of the alloy.

  1. Mitigating Diminishing Manufacturing Sources Material Shortages (DMS/MS) and Obsolescence for the T-6 Canopy Fracturing Initiation System (CFIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    6 CANOPY FRACTURING INITIATION SYSTEM (CFIS) THESIS Richard P. Carrano, DP- 5 , USN AFIT/GSE/ENV/12-M01DL DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...inventory. This trial is the optimal solution for three reasons: 45 1) The current retrofit line operates at a rate of approximately 5 - 6 ...SOURCES/MATERIAL SHORTAGES (DMS/MS) AND OBSOLESCENCE FOR THE T- 6 CANOPY FRACTURING INITIATION SYSTEM (CFIS) THESIS Presented to the Faculty

  2. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  3. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  4. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  5. Mechanism of N6-threonylcarbamoyladenonsine (t(6)A) biosynthesis: isolation and characterization of the intermediate threonylcarbamoyl-AMP.

    PubMed

    Lauhon, Charles T

    2012-11-06

    Genetic and biochemical studies have recently implicated four proteins required in bacteria for the biosynthesis of the universal tRNA modified base N6-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A). In this work, t(6)A biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis has been reconstituted in vitro and found to indeed require the four proteins YwlC (TsaC), YdiB (TsaE), YdiC (TsaB) and YdiE (TsaD). YwlC was found to catalyze the conversion of L-threonine, bicarbonate/CO(2) and ATP to give the intermediate L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP (TC-AMP) and pyrophosphate as products. TC-AMP was isolated by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR. NMR analysis showed that TC-AMP decomposes to give AMP and a nearly equimolar mixture of L-threonine and 5-methyl-2-oxazolidinone-4-carboxylate as final products. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.5, 37 °C, 2 mM MgCl(2)), the half-life of TC-AMP was measured to be 3.5 min. Both YwlC (in the presence of pyrophosphatase) and its Escherichia coli homologue YrdC catalyze the formation of TC-AMP while producing only a small molar fraction of AMP. This suggests that CO(2) and not an activated form of bicarbonate is the true substrate for these enzymes. In the presence of pyrophosphate, both enzymes catalyze clean conversion of TC-AMP back to ATP. Purified TC-AMP is efficiently processed to t(6)A by the YdiBCE proteins in the presence of tRNA substrates. This reaction is ATP independent in vitro, despite the known ATPase activity of YdiB. The estimated rate of conversion of TC-AMP by YdiBCE to t(6)A is somewhat lower than the initial rate from L-threonine, bicarbonate and ATP, which together with the stability data, is consistent with previous studies that suggest channeling of this intermediate.

  6. Review of renal carcinoma with t(6;11)(p21;q12) with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Tanaka, Azusa; Sasaki, Naomi; Ishihara, Akira; Matsuura, Keiko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Nagashima, Yoji; Inoue, Keiji; Petersson, Fredrik; Martignoni, Guido; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2013-06-01

    Recently, a new category of MiTF/TFE family translocation carcinomas of the kidney has been proposed. This category includes Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the t(6;11) RCC. These tumors share clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features. In this article, we review t(6;11) RCC. This tumor predominantly affects children and young adults. Macroscopically, the tumor generally forms a well circumscribed mass. Satellite nodules may be observed. Histologically, the tumor comprises large cells and small cells surrounded by basement membrane material. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells show nuclear immunolabeling for TFEB and usually express Cathepsin-K in the cytoplasm. Karyotyping detects the rearrangement between chromosome 6p21 and chromosome 11q12. Alpha-TFEB fusion can be detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Most cases affecting children and young adults seem to be indolent, but some adult cases have presented with metastasis or caused death. As previously reported cases remain limited to date, further examination in a large scale study will be needed in order to elucidate clinical behavior and molecular characteristics.

  7. A study of fatigue and fracture in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy in vacuum and air environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Axial load fatigue life, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture toughness experiments were conducted on sheet specimens made of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. These experiments were conducted at pressures ranging from atmospheric to 5 x 10 to the minus 8th torr. Analysis of the results from the fatigue life experiments indicated that for a given stress level, lower air pressures produced longer fatigue lives. At a pressure of 5 x 10 to the minus 8th torr fatigue lives were 15 or more times as long as at atmospheric pressure. Analysis of the results from the fatigue crack propagation experiments indicated that for small stress intensity factor ranges the fatigue crack propagation rates were up to twice as high at atmospheric pressure as in vacuum. The fracture toughness of 7075-T6 was unaffected by the vacuum environment. Fractographic examination showed that specimens tested in both vacuum and air developed fatigue striations. Considerably more striations developed on specimens tested at atmospheric pressure, however.

  8. An extensive allelic series of Drosophila kae1 mutants reveals diverse and tissue-specific requirements for t6A biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Jung; Smibert, Peter; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Hu, Jennifer F.; Ramroop, Johnny; Kellner, Stefanie M.; Benton, Matthew A.; Govind, Shubha; Dedon, Peter C.; Sternglanz, Rolf; Lai, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenosine (t6A) is one of the few RNA modifications that is universally present in life. This modification occurs at high frequency at position 37 of most tRNAs that decode ANN codons, and stabilizes cognate anticodon–codon interactions. Nearly all genetic studies of the t6A pathway have focused on single-celled organisms. In this study, we report the isolation of an extensive allelic series in the Drosophila ortholog of the core t6A biosynthesis factor Kae1. kae1 hemizygous larvae exhibit decreases in t6A that correlate with allele strength; however, we still detect substantial t6A-modified tRNAs even during the extended larval phase of null alleles. Nevertheless, complementation of Drosophila Kae1 and other t6A factors in corresponding yeast null mutants demonstrates that these metazoan genes execute t6A synthesis. Turning to the biological consequences of t6A loss, we characterize prominent kae1 melanotic masses and show that they are associated with lymph gland overgrowth and ectopic generation of lamellocytes. On the other hand, kae1 mutants exhibit other phenotypes that reflect insufficient tissue growth. Interestingly, whole-tissue and clonal analyses show that strongly mitotic tissues such as imaginal discs are exquisitely sensitive to loss of kae1, whereas nonproliferating tissues are less affected. Indeed, despite overt requirements of t6A for growth of many tissues, certain strong kae1 alleles achieve and sustain enlarged body size during their extended larval phase. Our studies highlight tissue-specific requirements of the t6A pathway in a metazoan context and provide insights into the diverse biological roles of this fundamental RNA modification during animal development and disease. PMID:26516084

  9. The t6A modification acts as a positive determinant for the anticodon nuclease PrrC, and is distinctively nonessential in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Bacusmo, Jo Marie; Orsini, Silvia S; Hu, Jennifer; DeMott, Michael; Thiaville, Patrick C; Elfarash, Ameer; Paulines, Mellie June; Rojas-Benítez, Diego; Meineke, Birthe; Deutsch, Chris; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Limbach, Patrick A; Dedon, Peter C; Rice, Kelly C; Shuman, Stewart; Crécy-Lagard, Valérie de

    2017-07-20

    Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA Lys UUU in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t 6 A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t 6 A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t 6 A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species. Streptococcus mutans is one of the few bacteria where the t 6 A synthesis gene tsaE (brpB) is dispensable and its genome encodes a PrrC toxin. We had previously shown using an HPLC-based assay that the S. mutans tsaE mutant was devoid of t 6 A. However, we describe here a novel and a more sensitive hybridization-based t 6 A detection method (compared to HPLC) that showed t 6 A was still present in the S. mutans ΔtsaE, albeit at greatly reduced levels (93% reduced compared with WT). Moreover, mutants in 2 other S. mutans t 6 A synthesis genes (tsaB and tsaC) were shown to be totally devoid of the modification thus confirming its dispensability in this organism. Furthermore, analysis of t 6 A modification ratios and of t 6 A synthesis genes mRNA levels in S. mutans suggest they may be regulated by growth phase.

  10. Accidental finding of Hashimoto-like thyroiditis in male B.U.T. 6 turkeys at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Plesch, P; Schade, B; Breithaupt, A; Bellof, G; Kienzle, E

    2014-10-01

    In the context of a study on the tolerance of rapeseed meal in B.U.T. 6 turkeys, thyroid glands were histologically and immunohistochemically examined because of potential thyreostatic effects. In all groups including the controls with no rapeseed meal in their food, there was a high incidence of lymphocytic infiltration and thyroiditis (14% of thyroids with moderate to severe lymphocytic thyroiditis). Thirty per cent of mononuclear inflammatory cells were immunohistochemically identified as T cells. There were occasional accumulations of PAX-5 labelled cells, indicating germinal centre development. These lesions resemble Hashimoto's disease in humans. The effect on thyroid function is unknown. Mild hypothyreosis might enhance productivity but also explain dispositions towards diseases seen in context with thyroid dysfunction such as skin diseases (foot pad disease?) and cardiovascular problems. Further studies on thyroid function in these turkeys are needed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Mechanical Properties of SiC, Al2O3 Reinforced Aluminium 6061-T6 Hybrid Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, S. Senthil; Jegan, V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains the investigation of tensile, compression and impact characterization of SiC, Al2O3 reinforced Aluminium 6061-T6 matrix hybrid composite. Hybrid matrix composite fabrication was done by stir casting method. An attempt has been made by keeping Al2O3 percentage (7%) constant and increasing SiC percentage (10, 15, and 20%). After fabricating, the samples were prepared and tested to find out the various mechanical properties like tensile, compressive, and impact strength of the developed composites of different weight % of silicon carbide and Alumina in Aluminium alloy. The main objective of the study is to compare the values obtained and choose the best composition of the hybrid matrix composite from the mechanical properties point of view.

  12. Effect of T6 heat treatment on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhruv; Davda, Chintan; Solanki, P. S.; Keshvani, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, it is aimed to optimize the conditions for T6 heat treatment of permanent die cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys. Various solutionizing temperatures, aging treatments and soaking times were used to improve / modify the mechanical properties of presently studied alloys. Formation mechanism of the particles was understood by carrying out optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy measurements. Spherical particles of alloys were studied for their microstructural properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness test was performed to investigate their mechanical properties. Dependence of cluster formation and microhardness of the alloys on the adequate solutionizing temperature, aging treatment and soaking time has been discussed in detail.

  13. Investigation of Hot Cracking Behavior in Transverse Mechanically Arc Oscillated Autogenous AA2014 T6 TIG Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, N. S.; Raman, R.

    2012-09-01

    Hot cracking studies on autogenous AA2014 T6 TIG welds were carried out. Significant cracking was observed during linear and circular welding test (CWT) on 4-mm-thick plates. Weld metal grain structure and amount of liquid distribution during the terminal stages of solidification were the key cause for hot cracking in aluminum welds. Square-wave AC TIG welding with transverse mechanical arc oscillation (TMAO) was employed to study the cracking behavior during linear and CWT. TMAO welds with amplitude = 0.9 mm and frequency = 0.5 Hz showed significant reduction in cracking tendency. The increase in cracking resistance in the arc-oscillated weld was attributed to grain refinement and improved weld bead morphology, which improved the weld metal ductility and uniformity, respectively, of residual tensile stresses that developed during welding. The obtained results were comparable to those of reported favorable results of electromagnetic arc oscillation.

  14. Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Formed by Arc and Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Nele, L.

    2016-01-01

    Butt welds formed by arc welding in inert gas with nonconsumable electrode (tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) and by friction stir welding (FSW) from aluminum alloy AA6061 T6 are studied. Comparative analysis of the structures and mechanical properties of the welded joints is performed using the results of optical and electron microscopy, tensile tests, tests for residual bending ductility, and measurements of microhardness. The changes in the microstructure in different zones and the degrees of degradation of the mechanical properties after the welding are determined. It is shown that the size of the tool for the friction stir welding affects the properties of the welds. Quantitative results showing the relation between the microscopic behavior of the alloy and the welding-induced changes in the microstructure are obtained. Friction stir welding is shown to provide higher properties of the welds.

  15. Effects of die quench forming on sheet thinning and 3-point bend testing of AA7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Samuel; Omer, Kaab; Rahmaan, Taamjeed; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lab-scaled AA7075 aluminum side impact beams were manufactured using the die quenching technique in which the sheet was solutionized and then quenched in-die during forming to a super saturated solid state. Sheet thinning measurements were taken at various locations throughout the length of the part and the effect of lubricant on surface scoring and material pick-up on the die was evaluated. The as-formed beams were subjected to a T6 aging treatment and then tested in three-point bending. Simulations were performed of the forming and mechanical testing experiments using the LS-DYNA finite element code. The thinning and mechanical response was predicted well.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a family 43 β-d-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6

    SciTech Connect

    Brüx, Christian; Niefind, Karsten; Ben-David, Alon

    2005-12-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a β-d-xylosidase from G. stearothermophilus T-6, a family 43 glycoside hydrolase, is described. Native and catalytic inactive mutants of the enzymes were crystallized in two different space groups, orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 and tetragonal P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (or the enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2), using a sensitive cryoprotocol. The latter crystal form diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.2 Å. β-d-Xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37) are hemicellulases that cleave single xylose units from the nonreducing end of xylooligomers. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a β-d-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6more » (XynB3), a family 43 glycoside hydrolase, is described. XynB3 is a 535-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 61 891 Da. Purified recombinant native and catalytic inactive mutant proteins were crystallized and cocrystallized with xylobiose in two different space groups, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 98.32, b = 99.36, c = 258.64 Å) and P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (or the enantiomorphic space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2; unit-cell parameters a = b = 140.15, c = 233.11 Å), depending on the detergent. Transferring crystals to cryoconditions required a very careful protocol. Orthorhombic crystals diffract to 2.5 Å and tetragonal crystals to 2.2 Å.« less

  17. Application of Plant-Growth-Promoting Fungi Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 Enhances Tolerance of Wheat to Salt Stress through Improvement of Antioxidative Defense System and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuwu; Gan, Yantai; Xu, Bingliang

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a serious problem worldwide that reduces agricultural productivity. Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 (T6) has been shown to promote wheat growth and induce plant resistance to parasitic nematodes, but whether the plant-growth-promoting fungi T6 can enhance plant tolerance to salt stress is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of plant-growth-promoting fungi T6 on wheat seedlings’ growth and development under salt stress, and investigated the role of T6 in inducing the resistance to NaCl stress at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Wheat seedlings were inoculated with the strain of T6 and then compared with non-inoculated controls. Shoot height, root length, and shoot and root weights were measured on 15 days old wheat seedlings grown either under 150 mM NaCl or in a controlled setting without any NaCl. A number of colonies were re-isolated from the roots of wheat seedlings under salt stress. The relative water content in the leaves and roots, chlorophyll content, and root activity were significantly increased, and the accumulation of proline content in leaves was markedly accelerated with the plant growth parameters, but the content of leaf malondialdehyde under saline condition was significantly decreased. The antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in wheat seedlings were increased by 29, 39, and 19%, respectively, with the application of the strain of T6 under salt stress; the relative expression of SOD, POD, and CAT genes in these wheat seedlings were significantly up-regulated. Our results indicated that the strain of T6 ameliorated the adverse effects significantly, protecting the seedlings from salt stress during their growth period. The possible mechanisms by which T6 suppresses the negative effect of NaCl stress on wheat seedling growth may be due to the improvement of the antioxidative defense system and gene expression in the stressed wheat plants. PMID:27695475

  18. Dislocation density evolution of AA 7020-T6 investigated by in-situ synchrotron diffraction under tensile load

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.Y., E-mail: zhengye.zhong@hzg.de; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-21502 Geesthacht; Brokmeier, H.-G.

    2015-10-15

    The dislocation density evolution along the loading axis of a textured AA 7020-T6 aluminum alloy during uniaxial tension was investigated by in-situ synchrotron diffraction. The highly parallel synchrotron beam at the High Energy Materials Science beamline P07 in PETRA III, DESY, offers excellent conditions to separate different influences for line broadening from which micro-strains are obtained using the modified Williamson–Hall method which is also for defect density investigations. During tensile loading the dislocation density evolution was documented from the as-received material (initial micro-strain state) to the relaxation of the strains during elastic deformation. After yield, the increasing rate of dislocationmore » density growth was relatively fast till half-way between yield and UTS. After that, the rate started to decrease and the dislocation density fluctuated as the elongation increased due to the generation and annihilation of dislocations. When dislocation generation is dominant, the correlation between the flow stress and dislocation density satisfies the Taylor equation. Besides, a method to correct the thickness effect on peak broadening is developed in the present study. - Highlights: • In-situ synchrotron diffraction was applied to characterize peak broadening. • Dislocation evolution along the loading axis during uniaxial tension was investigated. • A method to correct the sample thickness effect on peak broadening was developed. • Dislocation density and flow stress satisfy the Taylor equation at a certain range. • The texture before load and after sample fracture was analyzed.« less

  19. EN AW-4032 T6 Piston Alloy After High-Temperature Exposure: Residual Strength and Microstructural Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, Eleonora; Ceschini, Lorella; Morri, Alessandro; Morri, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of prolonged thermal exposure on both microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the EN AW-4032 T6 piston alloy. For the purpose, the experimental activities have been carried out on samples machined from forged and heat-treated automotive pistons. The effects of overaging have been investigated in the temperature range of 140-290 °C, firstly by evaluating the time-temperature-hardness curves and then by carrying out room-temperature tensile tests on overaged samples. The material softening was substantial and extremely rapid when the soaking temperature exceeded 250 °C. During overaging, both the tensile strength and the residual hardness considerably decreased, and a relationship between these parameters has been established. The alloy behavior in the plastic field has been modeled according to the Hollomon's equation, showing that both the strain hardening exponent and the strength coefficient are a function of the residual hardness. The results were finally related to the corresponding microstructural changes: OM and FEG-SEM metallographic and fractographic analyses on overaged samples gave evidence of coarsened precipitates along the grain boundaries.

  20. Effect of laser shot peening on precipitation hardened aluminum alloy 6061-T6 using low energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyajith, S.; Kalainathan, S.

    2012-03-01

    Mechanical properties of engineering material can be improved by introducing compressive residual stress on the material surface and refinement of their microstructure. Variety of mechanical process such as shot peening, water jet peening, ultrasonic peening, laser shot peening were developed in the last decades on this contrast. Among these, lasers shot peening emerged as a novel industrial treatment to improve the crack resistance of turbine blades and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenic stainless steel in power plants. In this study we successfully performed laser shot peening on precipitation hardened aluminum alloy 6061-T6 with low energy (300 mJ, 1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser using different pulse densities of 22 pulses/mm 2 and 32 pulses/mm 2. Residual stress evaluation based on X-ray diffraction sin 2 ψ method indicates a maximum of 190% percentage increase on surface compressive stress. Depth profile of micro-hardness shows the impact of laser generated shock wave up to 1.2 mm from the surface. Apart from that, the crystalline size and micro-strain on the laser shot peened surfaces have been investigated and compared with the unpeened surface using X-ray diffraction in conjunction with line broadening analysis through the Williamson-Hall plot.

  1. Effects of Different Filler Metals on the Mechanical Behaviors of GTA Welded AA7A52(T6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Fengyuan; Lv, Yaohui; Liu, Yuxin; Lin, Jianjun; Sun, Zhe; Xu, Binshi; He, Peng

    2014-06-01

    ER4043, ER5356, and AA7A52 on behalf of the Al-Si, Al-Mg, and Al-Zn-Mg-based welding material, respectively, were chosen as the filler metal to weld AA7A52(T6) plates by GTAW. The variance in mechanical performances of the joints caused by the various filler materials was investigated with reference to the SEM and EDS test results for the weld seam and the fracture surface. Failure was found in the seam for all the welded joints. With regard to the joint obtained with ER4043 welding wire, the total elongation was limited by the brittle intergranular compound Mg2Si of which Mg was introduced by convection mass transfer. As for the other two welds, the content ratio of Zn and Mg was found to play the dominant role in deciding the mechanical properties of the intergranular Mg-Zn compounds which were responsible for the tensile behavior of the joints. The content ratio (wt.%) of beyond 2:1 gave birth to the strengthening phase MgZn2 leading to a ductile fracture. Cr in the seam obtained with AA7A52 filler metal was found to enhance the strength of the joint through isolated particles.

  2. VARIABLE AND POLARIZED RADIO EMISSION FROM THE T6 BROWN DWARF WISEP J112254.73+255021.5

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.; Gizis, J. E., E-mail: pwilliams@cfa.harvard.edu

    2017-01-10

    Route and Wolszczan recently detected five radio bursts from the T6 dwarf WISEP J112254.73+255021.5 and used the timing of these events to propose that this object rotates with an ultra-short period of ∼17.3 minutes. We conducted follow-up observations with the Very Large Array and Gemini-North but found no evidence for this periodicity. We do, however, observe variable, highly circularly polarized radio emission. Assuming that the radio emission of this T dwarf is periodically variable on ∼hour timescales, like other radio-active ultracool dwarfs, we infer a likely period of 116 minutes. However, our observation lasted only 162 minutes and so more data are needed to test thismore » hypothesis. The handedness of the circular polarization switches twice and there is no evidence for any unpolarized emission component, the first time such a phenomenology has been observed in radio studies of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. We suggest that the object’s magnetic dipole axis may be highly misaligned relative to its rotation axis.« less

  3. ATGL and CGI-58 are lipid droplet proteins of the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Thomas O; Grumet, Lukas; Taschler, Ulrike; Hartler, Jürgen; Heier, Christoph; Woblistin, Aaron; Pajed, Laura; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Günter; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contain large amounts of vitamin A [in the form of retinyl esters (REs)] as well as other neutral lipids such as TGs. During times of insufficient vitamin A availability, RE stores are mobilized to ensure a constant supply to the body. To date, little is known about the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of neutral lipid esters, in particular of REs, in HSCs. In this study, we aimed to identify LD-associated neutral lipid hydrolases by a proteomic approach using the rat stellate cell line HSC-T6. First, we loaded cells with retinol and FAs to promote lipid synthesis and deposition within LDs. Then, LDs were isolated and lipid composition and the LD proteome were analyzed. Among other proteins, we found perilipin 2, adipose TG lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), known and established LD proteins. Bioinformatic search of the LD proteome for α/β-hydrolase fold-containing proteins revealed no yet uncharacterized neutral lipid hydrolases. In in vitro activity assays, we show that rat (r)ATGL, coactivated by rat (r)CGI-58, efficiently hydrolyzes TGs and REs. These findings suggest that rATGL and rCGI-58 are LD-resident proteins in HSCs and participate in the mobilization of both REs and TGs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Analysis of cooling media effects on microstructure and mechanical properties during FSW/UFSW of AA 6082-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif Wahid, Mohd; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A.; Sharma, Nidhi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of cooling media on the temperature distribution, microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint produced during Underwater Friction Stir Welding (UFSW) in normal water, cold water (water with crushed ice (CFSW)) and air (FSW), for aluminum alloy (AA) 6082-T6. The results showed that peak temperature during UFSW and CFSW were significantly lower than the FSW. The temperature at the advancing side (AS) of the joint was higher than the retreating side (RS). Substantial reduction in TMAZ/HAZ width was observed during UFSW and CFSW as compared to FSW. Al-Mn-Fe-Si intermetallic phases were seen in all the joints along with the BM. The main strengthening precipitates found in UFSW and CFSW was β″ (Mg5Si6) which changed to β (Mg2Si) precipitates during FSW due to increased temperature. The tensile strength of the joints was best during UFSW followed by FSW and CFSW. The controlled temperature distribution resulted in improved tensile strength whereas both undercooling and overcooling resulted in decreased tensile strength, however, increased cooling rate does not improve the elongation. A typical ‘W’ shape hardness profile was observed in all the joints irrespective of the cooling media used. Maximum hardness was obtained in the UFSW joint due to refined grain structure, high-density dislocations and presence of β″ phases.

  5. Investigation of the effect of vacuum environment on the fatigue and fracture behavior of 7075-T6.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Axial-load fatigue-life, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture-toughness experiments were conducted on sheet specimens made of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. These experiments were conducted at air pressures ranging from 101 kN/sq m to 7 micronewtons/sq m to determine the effect of air pressure on fatigue behavior. Analysis of the results from the fatigue-life experiments indicated that for a given stress level, the lower the air pressure was the longer the fatigue life. At a pressure of 7 micronewtons/sq m, fatigue lives were 15 to 30 times longer than at 101 kN/sq m. Analysis of the results from the fatigue-crack-growth experiments indicates that at low values of stress-intensity range, the fatigue-crack-growth rates were approximately twice as high at atmospheric pressure as in vacuum. However, at higher values of stress-intensity range, the fatigue-crack-growth rates were nominally the same in vacuum and at atmospheric pressure.

  6. Plastic Stress-strain Relations for 75S-T6 Aluminum Alloy Subjected to Biaxial Tensile Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marin, Joseph; Ulrich, B H; Hughes, W P

    1951-01-01

    In this investigation, the material tested was a 75S-T6 aluminum alloy and the stresses were essentially biaxial and tensile. The biaxial tensile stresses were produced in a specially designed testing machine by subjecting a thin-walled tubular specimen to axial tension and internal pressure. Plastic stress-strain relations for various biaxial stress conditions were obtained using a clip-type SR-4 strain gage. Three types of tests were made: Constant-stress-ratio tests, variable-stress-ratio tests, and special tests. The constant-stress-ratio test results gave control data and showed the influence of biaxial stresses on the yield, fracture, and ultimate strength of the material. By means of the variable-stress-ratio tests, it is possible to determine whether there is any significant difference between the flow and deformation type of theory. Finally, special tests were conducted to check specific assumptions made in the theories of plastic flow. The constant-stress-ratio tests show that the deformation theory based on the octahedral, effective; or significant stress-strain relations is in approximate agreement with the test results. The variable-stress-ratio tests show that both the deformation and flow theory are in equally good agreement with the test results.

  7. Evaluation of Fatigue Behavior and Surface Characteristics of Aluminum Alloy 2024 T6 After Electric Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Shahid; Shah, Masood; Pasha, Riffat Asim; Sultan, Amir

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric discharge machining (EDM) on surface quality and consequently on the fatigue performance of Al 2024 T6 is investigated. Five levels of discharge current are analyzed, while all other electrical and nonelectrical parameters are kept constant. At each discharge current level, dog-bone specimens are machined by generating a peripheral notch at the center. The fatigue tests are performed on four-point rotating bending machine at room temperature. For comparison purposes, fatigue tests are also performed on the conventionally machined specimens. Linearized SN curves for 95% failure probability and with four different confidence levels (75, 90, 95 and 99%) are plotted for each discharge current level as well as for conventionally machined specimens. These plots show that the electric discharge machined (EDMed) specimens give inferior fatigue behavior as compared to conventionally machined specimen. Moreover, discharge current inversely affects the fatigue life, and this influence is highly pronounced at lower stresses. The EDMed surfaces are characterized by surface properties that could be responsible for change in fatigue life such as surface morphology, surface roughness, white layer thickness, microhardness and residual stresses. It is found that all these surface properties are affected by changing discharge current level. However, change in fatigue life by discharge current could not be associated independently to any single surface property.

  8. Corrosion behaviour of friction-bit-joined and weld-bonded AA7075-T6/galvannealed DP980

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Yong Chae; Squires, Lile; Pan, Tsung-Yu; ...

    2016-12-22

    Joining of aluminium alloys 7075-T6 and galvannealed dual phase 980 steel was achieved by friction bit joining (FBJ) and weld-bonding (FBJ + adhesive) processes. Accelerated laboratory-scale corrosion tests were performed on both FBJ only and weld-bonded specimens to study joint strength under a corrosive environment. Static lap shear tests showed that both FBJ only and weld-bonded cases generally retained more than 80% of the joint strength of non-corroded specimens at the end of corrosion testing. The presence of Zn/Fe coating on the steel substrate resulted in improved corrosion resistance for FBJ specimens, compared to joints produced with bare steel. Finally,more » an optical microscopy was used for cross-sectional analysis of corroded specimens. Some corrosion on the joining bit was observed near the bit head. However, the joining bit was still intact on the steel substrate, indicating that the primary bond was sound.« less

  9. Corrosion behaviour of friction-bit-joined and weld-bonded AA7075-T6/galvannealed DP980

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Yong Chae; Squires, Lile; Pan, Tsung-Yu

    Joining of aluminium alloys 7075-T6 and galvannealed dual phase 980 steel was achieved by friction bit joining (FBJ) and weld-bonding (FBJ + adhesive) processes. Accelerated laboratory-scale corrosion tests were performed on both FBJ only and weld-bonded specimens to study joint strength under a corrosive environment. Static lap shear tests showed that both FBJ only and weld-bonded cases generally retained more than 80% of the joint strength of non-corroded specimens at the end of corrosion testing. The presence of Zn/Fe coating on the steel substrate resulted in improved corrosion resistance for FBJ specimens, compared to joints produced with bare steel. Finally,more » an optical microscopy was used for cross-sectional analysis of corroded specimens. Some corrosion on the joining bit was observed near the bit head. However, the joining bit was still intact on the steel substrate, indicating that the primary bond was sound.« less

  10. Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA 2024-T6 Alloy at Different Welding Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avula, Dhananjayulu; Devuri, Venkateswarlu; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The influence of welding speed on the friction stir welded joint properties of hardness, tensile properties, defects and microstructure characterization are studied in the present study. The friction stir welding was conducted on AA2014-T6 heat treated alloy with 5 mm thickness plate in butt joint configuration. The welding speed was varied from 8 mm/min to 120 mm/min at the fixed travel speed and load conditions. It is observed that the welding speeds at higher rate with wide range can be possible to weld this alloy at higher rates of tool revolution suggesting that the inherent capability of friction stir welding technique for aluminum 2014 alloys. The strength of the joints gradually increases with enhancing of welding speed. The micro structural observations exhibited the formation of equiaxed grains in the stir zone and slightly in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. In addition, the size of the grains decreases with increase in welding speed owing to the presence of low heat input. Hence the hardness of the joints slightly increased in the stir zones over the other zones of the weld nugget. The joint strength initially increases with the welding speed and starts to decreases after reaching to the maximum value. The relationship between the welding conditions and friction stir welded joint properties has been discussed.

  11. Artificial neural networks application for modeling of friction stir welding effects on mechanical properties of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, E.

    2015-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining technique that is widely adopted in manufacturing and industry fields to join different metallic alloys that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction stir welding is a very complex process comprising several highly coupled physical phenomena. The complex geometry of some kinds of joints makes it difficult to develop an overall governing equations system for theoretical behavior analyse of the friction stir welded joints. Weld quality is predominantly affected by welding effective parameters, and the experiments are often time consuming and costly. On the other hand, employing artificial intelligence (AI) systems such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) as an efficient approach to solve the science and engineering problems is considerable. In present study modeling of FSW effective parameters by ANNs is investigated. To train the networks, experimental test results on thirty AA-7075-T6 specimens are considered, and the networks are developed based on back propagation (BP) algorithm. ANNs testing are carried out using different experimental data that they are not used during networks training. In this paper, rotational speed of tool, welding speed, axial force, shoulder diameter, pin diameter and tool hardness are regarded as inputs of the ANNs. Yield strength, tensile strength, notch-tensile strength and hardness of welding zone are gathered as outputs of neural networks. According to the obtained results, predicted values for the hardness of welding zone, yield strength, tensile strength and notch-tensile strength have the least mean relative error (MRE), respectively. Comparison of the predicted and the experimental results confirms that the networks are adjusted carefully, and the ANN can be used for modeling of FSW effective parameters.

  12. t(6;11) Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Expanded Immunohistochemical Profile Emphasizing Novel RCC Markers and Report of 10 New Genetically Confirmed Cases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathaniel E.; Illei, Peter B.; Allaf, Mohamed; Gonzalez, Nilda; Morris, Kerry; Hicks, Jessica; DeMarzo, Angelo; Reuter, Victor E.; Amin, Mahul B.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Netto, George J.; Argani, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) harboring the t(6;11)(p21;q12) translocation were first described in 2001 and recently recognized by the 2013 International Society of Uro-logical Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia. Although these RCCs are known to label for melanocytic markers HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cath-epsin K by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a comprehensive IHC profile has not been reported. We report 10 new t(6;11) RCCs, all confirmed by break-apart TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization. A tissue microarray containing 6 of these cases and 7 other previously reported t(6;11) RCCs was constructed and immunolabeled for 21 different antigens. Additional whole sections of t(6;11) RCC were labeled with selected IHC markers. t(6;11) RCC labeled diffusely and consistently for cathepsin K and Melan A (13 of 13 cases) and almost always at least focally for HMB45 (12 of 13 cases). They labeled frequently for PAX8 (14 of 23 cases), CD117 (10 of 14 cases), and vimentin (9 of 13 cases). A majority of cases labeled at least focally for cytokeratin Cam5.2 (8 of 13 cases) and CD10 and RCC marker antigen (10 of 14 cases each). In contrast to a prior study's findings, only a minority of cases labeled for Ksp-cadherin (3 of 19 cases). The median H score (product of intensity score and percentage labeling) for phosphorylated S6, a marker of mTOR pathway activation, was 101, which is high relative to most other RCC subtypes. In summary, IHC labeling for PAX8, Cam5.2, CD10, and RCC marker antigen supports classification of the t(6;11) RCC as carcinomas despite frequent negativity for broad-spectrum cytokeratins and EMA. Labeling for PAX8 distinguishes the t(6;11) RCC from epithelioid angiomyolipoma, which otherwise shares a similar immunoprofile. CD117 labeling is more frequent in the t(6;11) RCC compared with the related Xp11 translocation RCC. Increased pS6 expression suggests a possible molecular target for the uncommon t(6;11) RCCs that

  13. t(6;11) renal cell carcinoma (RCC): expanded immunohistochemical profile emphasizing novel RCC markers and report of 10 new genetically confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathaniel E; Illei, Peter B; Allaf, Mohamed; Gonzalez, Nilda; Morris, Kerry; Hicks, Jessica; Demarzo, Angelo; Reuter, Victor E; Amin, Mahul B; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Argani, Pedram

    2014-05-01

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) harboring the t(6;11)(p21;q12) translocation were first described in 2001 and recently recognized by the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia. Although these RCCs are known to label for melanocytic markers HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cathepsin K by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a comprehensive IHC profile has not been reported. We report 10 new t(6;11) RCCs, all confirmed by break-apart TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization. A tissue microarray containing 6 of these cases and 7 other previously reported t(6;11) RCCs was constructed and immunolabeled for 21 different antigens. Additional whole sections of t(6;11) RCC were labeled with selected IHC markers. t(6;11) RCC labeled diffusely and consistently for cathepsin K and Melan A (13 of 13 cases) and almost always at least focally for HMB45 (12 of 13 cases). They labeled frequently for PAX8 (14 of 23 cases), CD117 (10 of 14 cases), and vimentin (9 of 13 cases). A majority of cases labeled at least focally for cytokeratin Cam5.2 (8 of 13 cases) and CD10 and RCC marker antigen (10 of 14 cases each). In contrast to a prior study's findings, only a minority of cases labeled for Ksp-cadherin (3 of 19 cases). The median H score (product of intensity score and percentage labeling) for phosphorylated S6, a marker of mTOR pathway activation, was 101, which is high relative to most other RCC subtypes. In summary, IHC labeling for PAX8, Cam5.2, CD10, and RCC marker antigen supports classification of the t(6;11) RCC as carcinomas despite frequent negativity for broad-spectrum cytokeratins and EMA. Labeling for PAX8 distinguishes the t(6;11) RCC from epithelioid angiomyolipoma, which otherwise shares a similar immunoprofile. CD117 labeling is more frequent in the t(6;11) RCC compared with the related Xp11 translocation RCC. Increased pS6 expression suggests a possible molecular target for the uncommon t(6;11) RCCs that

  14. Effect of caffeine on motility and vitality of sperm and in vitro fertilization of outbreed mouse in T6 and M16 media.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Narges; Todehdehghan, Fatemeh; Shiravi, Abdollhossein

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine increases the CAMP production that stimulates spermatozoa movement. Caffeine is also used for induction of in vitro acrosome reaction in mammalian spermatozoa, an important step in achieving fertilization. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on sperm's motility, vitality and laboratory fertilization rates in mouse in two T6 and M16 media. Epididymal mouse sperms were collected and treated by caffine in T6 and M16 media and their motility and vitality rates were evaluated. The pretreated sperms were added to oocytes in T6 and M16 media with and without caffeine and fertilization rates were recorded after 24 hours incubation. Sperm's motility (81.7±1.67%) and vitality (88.7±1.33%) rates and percentage of fertilized oocytes (67.52±8.16%) in T6 medium plus caffeine compare to control group have increased and shown significant differences at p≤0.01. While the percentages of these parameters in M16 medium supplemented with caffeine were 68.3±6.01%, 78±6.11%, and 42.6±12.96 respectively and in comparison to control group (M16 without caffeine) have not shown significant differences. Addition of caffeine to T6 medium promotes the sperm's motility and vitality and enhances fertilization and early in vitro development of mouse embryos. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Narges Navabi).

  15. Effect of caffeine on motility and vitality of sperm and in vitro fertilization of outbreed mouse in T6 and M16 media

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Narges; Todehdehghan, Fatemeh; Shiravi, Abdollhossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caffeine increases the CAMP production that stimulates spermatozoa movement. Caffeine is also used for induction of in vitro acrosome reaction in mammalian spermatozoa, an important step in achieving fertilization. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on sperm's motility, vitality and laboratory fertilization rates in mouse in two T6 and M16 media. Materials and Methods: Epididymal mouse sperms were collected and treated by caffine in T6 and M16 media and their motility and vitality rates were evaluated. The pretreated sperms were added to oocytes in T6 and M16 media with and without caffeine and fertilization rates were recorded after 24 hours incubation. Results: Sperm's motility (81.7±1.67%) and vitality (88.7±1.33%) rates and percentage of fertilized oocytes (67.52±8.16%) in T6 medium plus caffeine compare to control group have increased and shown significant differences at p≤0.01. While the percentages of these parameters in M16 medium supplemented with caffeine were 68.3±6.01%, 78±6.11%, and 42.6±12.96 respectively and in comparison to control group (M16 without caffeine) have not shown significant differences. Conclusion: Addition of caffeine to T6 medium promotes the sperm's motility and vitality and enhances fertilization and early in vitro development of mouse embryos. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Narges Navabi) PMID:24639814

  16. Validity of the Catapult ClearSky T6 Local Positioning System for Team Sports Specific Drills, in Indoor Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Luteberget, Live S.; Spencer, Matt; Gilgien, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of position, distance traveled and instantaneous speed of team sport players as measured by a commercially available local positioning system (LPS) during indoor use. In addition, the study investigated how the placement of the field of play relative to the anchor nodes and walls of the building affected the validity of the system. Method: The LPS (Catapult ClearSky T6, Catapult Sports, Australia) and the reference system [Qualisys Oqus, Qualisys AB, Sweden, (infra-red camera system)] were installed around the field of play to capture the athletes' motion. Athletes completed five tasks, all designed to imitate team-sports movements. The same protocol was completed in two sessions, one with an assumed optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (optimal condition), and once with a sub-optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (sub-optimal condition). Raw two-dimensional position data were extracted from both the LPS and the reference system for accuracy assessment. Position, distance and speed were compared. Results: The mean difference between the LPS and reference system for all position estimations was 0.21 ± 0.13 m (n = 30,166) in the optimal setup, and 1.79 ± 7.61 m (n = 22,799) in the sub-optimal setup. The average difference in distance was below 2% for all tasks in the optimal condition, while it was below 30% in the sub-optimal condition. Instantaneous speed showed the largest differences between the LPS and reference system of all variables, both in the optimal (≥35%) and sub-optimal condition (≥74%). The differences between the LPS and reference system in instantaneous speed were speed dependent, showing increased differences with increasing speed. Discussion: Measures of position, distance, and average speed from the LPS show low errors, and can be used confidently in time-motion analyses for indoor team sports. The calculation of instantaneous speed from LPS raw data is not valid. To enhance

  17. Effect of T6 treatment on the coefficient of friction of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondur, D. G.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Effect of T6 treatment on the coefficient of friction of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy was evaluated by conducting wear test on pin on disc wear testing machine. Wear test parameters such as the load and the speed were varied by keeping one constant and varying the other respectively. It was observed that the coefficient of friction is high for as cast condition due to the brittle microstructure. After T6 heat treatment the precipitates formed such as the Chinese scripts and the Mg2Si blocks got modified that lead to improvement in the hardness and the wear resistance. This reduces the coefficient of friction.

  18. Functional anticodon architecture of human tRNALys3 includes disruption of intraloop hydrogen bonding by the naturally occurring amino acid modification, t6A.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J W; Gdaniec, Z; Guenther, R; Marszalek, M; Sochacka, E; Malkiewicz, A; Agris, P F

    2000-11-07

    The structure of the human tRNA(Lys3) anticodon stem and loop domain (ASL(Lys3)) provides evidence of the physicochemical contributions of N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A(37)) to tRNA(Lys3) functions. The t(6)A(37)-modified anticodon stem and loop domain of tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) (ASL(Lys3)(UUU)- t(6)A(37)) with a UUU anticodon is bound by the appropriately programmed ribosomes, but the unmodified ASL(Lys3)(UUU) is not [Yarian, C., Marszalek, M., Sochacka, E., Malkiewicz, A., Guenther, R., Miskiewicz, A., and Agris, P. F., Biochemistry 39, 13390-13395]. The structure, determined to an average rmsd of 1.57 +/- 0.33 A (relative to the mean structure) by NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics, is the first reported of an RNA in which a naturally occurring hypermodified nucleoside was introduced by automated chemical synthesis. The ASL(Lys3)(UUU)-t(6)A(37) loop is significantly different than that of the unmodified ASL(Lys3)(UUU), although the five canonical base pairs of both ASL(Lys3)(UUU) stems are in the standard A-form of helical RNA. t(6)A(37), 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, adopts the form of a tricyclic nucleoside with an intraresidue H-bond and enhances base stacking on the 3'-side of the anticodon loop. Critically important to ribosome binding, incorporation of the modification negates formation of an intraloop U(33).A(37) base pair that is observed in the unmodified ASL(Lys3)(UUU). The anticodon wobble position U(34) nucleobase in ASL(Lys3)(UUU)-t(6)A(37) is significantly displaced from its position in the unmodified ASL and directed away from the codon-binding face of the loop resulting in only two anticodon bases for codon binding. This conformation is one explanation for ASL(Lys3)(UUU) tendency to prematurely terminate translation and -1 frame shift. At the pH 5.6 conditions of our structure determination, A(38) is protonated and positively charged in ASL(Lys3)(UUU)-t(6)A(37) and the unmodified ASL(Lys3)(UUU). The ionized carboxylic acid moiety

  19. Structure-specificity relationships in Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Shifra; Salama, Rachel; Solomon, Hodaya V; Feinberg, Hadar; Belrhali, Hassan; Shoham, Yuval; Shoham, Gil

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose sugar residues are relatively abundant in plants and are found mainly in arabinan polysaccharides and in other arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans and pectic arabinogalactans. The majority of the arabinose units in plants are present in the furanose form and only a small fraction of them are present in the pyranose form. The L-arabinan-utilization system in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6, a Gram-positive thermophilic soil bacterium, has recently been characterized, and one of the key enzymes was found to be an intracellular β-L-arabinopyranosidase (Abp). Abp, a GH27 enzyme, was shown to remove β-L-arabinopyranose residues from synthetic substrates and from the native substrates sugar beet arabinan and larch arabinogalactan. The Abp monomer is made up of 448 amino acids, and based on sequence homology it was suggested that Asp197 is the catalytic nucleophile and Asp255 is the catalytic acid/base. In the current study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of wild-type Abp (at 2.28 Å resolution) and its catalytic mutant Abp-D197A with (at 2.20 Å resolution) and without (at 2.30 Å resolution) a bound L-arabinose product are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of the Abp monomer correlates with the general fold observed for GH27 proteins, consisting of two main domains: an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain and a C-terminal all-β domain. The two catalytic residues are located in the TIM-barrel domain, such that their carboxylic functional groups are about 5.9 Å from each other, consistent with a retaining mechanism. An isoleucine residue (Ile67) located at a key position in the active site is shown to play a critical role in the substrate specificity of Abp, providing a structural basis for the high preference of the enzyme towards arabinopyranoside over galactopyranoside substrates. The crystal structure demonstrates that Abp is a tetramer

  20. Dioscin Inhibits HSC-T6 Cell Migration via Adjusting SDC-4 Expression: Insights from iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lianhong; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Xu, Lina; Han, Xu; Tao, Xufeng; Song, Shasha; Peng, Jinyong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) migration, an important bioprocess, contributes to the development of liver fibrosis. Our previous studies have found the potent activity of dioscin against liver fibrosis by inhibiting HSCs proliferation, triggering the senescence and inducing apoptosis of activated HSCs, but the molecular mechanisms associated with cell migration were not clarified. In this work, iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolution quantitation)-based quantitative proteomics study was carried out, and a total of 1566 differentially expressed proteins with fold change ≥2.0 and p < 0.05 were identified in HSC-T6 cells treated by dioscin (5.0 μg/mL). Based on Gene Ontology classification, String and KEGG pathway assays, the effects of dioscin to inhibit cell migration via regulating SDC-4 were carried out. The results of wound-healing, cell migration and western blotting assays indicated that dioscin significantly inhibit HSC-T6 cell migration through SDC-4-dependent signal pathway by affecting the expression levels of Fn, PKCα, Src, FAK, and ERK1/2. Specific SDC-4 knockdown by shRNA also blocked HSC-T6 cell migration, and dioscin slightly enhanced the inhibiting effect. Taken together, the present work showed that SDC-4 played a crucial role on HSC-T6 cell adhesion and migration of dioscin against liver fibrosis, which may be one potent therapeutic target for fibrotic diseases.

  1. Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia Associated with t(6;14)(p21;q32) and IGH Rearrangement: A Case Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Young; Lim, Gayoung; Oh, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Joo; Suh, Jin-Tae; Lee, Juhie; Lee, Woo-In; Lee, Hong Ghi; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Park, Tae Sung

    2011-01-01

    Because plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and distinct variant among plasma cell dyscrasias, recent clinical and cytogenetic studies have been performed in different ethnic groups to define the characteristics of these PCL patients. As far as we know, IGH rearrangements involving t(11;14) and (14;16) are significantly more frequent in PCL than in myeloma patients. However, PCL cases associated with t(6;14)(p21;q32) or IGH-CCND3 rearrangement are extremely rare in the literature; only one PCL case with t(6;14) has been documented. A 61-year-old female was admitted due to fatigue, weight loss, and exertional dyspnea. Plasmacytoid cells were counted up to 76% at a peripheral blood film, but bone marrow aspiration failed because of dry-tapping. Flow cytometric analysis showed positive for CD138 and cytoplasmic kappa light chain. Chromosome analysis revealed t(6;14)(p21;q32), which was confirmed by an IGH split-out probe in FISH analysis. Immunofixation electrophoresis also presented monoclonal bands identified as IgG and kappa light chain. Finally, she was diagnosed as primary PCL associated with t(6;14) and IGH rearrangement. Although considerable advances have been made in the understanding of the biology and molecular pathogenesis of PCL, further clinical, laboratory, and genetic studies of PCL associated with such a rare IGH rearrangement would be necessary in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PCL associated with t(6;14) as a sole chromosomal abnormality.

  2. Reinforcement with alumina particles at the interface region of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 alloys during friction stir welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok Kumar, R.; Thansekhar, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals the combinational effect of friction stir welding and friction stir processing on dissimilar AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys. For that, alumina particles are reinforced at interface region of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys. Friction Stir Welding and Friction Stir Processing are done simultaneously for various sizes of groove. To analyze the welding quality and surface modifications, mechanical, wear and microstructural tests are carried out. Among these, smallest groove of 0.5 mm width and 1 mm depth reveals highest tensile and bending strengths and largest groove of 2 mm width and 3 mm depth gives maximum hardness and wear resistance. Taguchi technique shows that groove width is most influencing parameter. Developed second order models with interaction predict the responses with minimum error.

  3. Preferences of AAA/AAG codon recognition by modified nucleosides, τm5s2U34 and t6A37 present in tRNALys.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Kailas D; Kamble, Asmita S; Fandilolu, Prayagraj M

    2017-12-27

    Deficiency of 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine, τm 5 s 2 U at the 34th 'wobble' position in tRNA Lys causes MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers), a neuromuscular disease. This modified nucleoside of mt tRNA Lys , recognizes AAA/AAG codons during protein biosynthesis process. Its preference to identify cognate codons has not been studied at the atomic level. Hence, multiple MD simulations of various molecular models of anticodon stem loop (ASL) of mt tRNA Lys in presence and absence of τm 5 s 2 U 34 and N 6 -threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t 6 A 37 ) along with AAA and AAG codons have been accomplished. Additional four MD simulations of multiple ASL mt tRNA Lys models in the context of ribosomal A-site residues have also been performed to investigate the role of A-site in recognition of AAA/AAG codons. MD simulation results show that, ASL models in presence of τm 5 s 2 U 34 and t 6 A 37 with codons AAA/AAG are more stable than the ASL lacking these modified bases. MD trajectories suggest that τm 5 s 2 U recognizes the codons initially by 'wobble' hydrogen bonding interactions, and then tRNA Lys might leave the explicit codon by a novel 'single' hydrogen bonding interaction in order to run the protein biosynthesis process smoothly. We propose this model as the 'Foot-Step Model' for codon recognition, in which the single hydrogen bond plays a crucial role. MD simulation results suggest that, tRNA Lys with τm 5 s 2 U and t 6 A recognizes AAA codon more preferably than AAG. Thus, these results reveal the consequences of τm 5 s 2 U and t 6 A in recognition of AAA/AAG codons in mitochondrial disease, MERRF.

  4. Direct-reading design charts for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, William A; Dow, Norris F

    1951-01-01

    Direct-reading design charts are presented for 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy flat compression panels having longitudinal extruded Z-section stiffeners. These charts, which cover a wide range of proportions, make possible the direct determination of the stress and all panel dimensions required to carry a given intensity of loading with a given skin thickness and effective length of panel.

  5. The potential of species-specific tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group for galactose reduction in fermented dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-04-01

    Residual lactose and galactose in fermented dairy foods leads to several industrial and health concerns. There is very little information pertaining to manufacture of fermented dairy foods that are low in lactose and galactose. In the present study, comparative genomic survey demonstrated the constant presence of chromosome-encoded tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group. Lactose/galactose utilization tests and β-galactosidase assay suggest that PTS Gal system, PTS Lac system and T6P pathway are major contributors for lactose/galactose catabolism in this group of organisms. In addition, it was found than lactose catabolism by Lb. casei group accumulated very limited galactose in the MRS-lactose medium and in reconstituted skim milk, whereas Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) strains secreted high amount of galactose extracellularly. Moreover, co-culturing Lb. casei group with Str. thermophilus showed significant reduction in galactose content, while co-culturing Lb. casei group with Lb. bulgaricus showed significant reduction in lactose content but significant increase in galactose content in milk. Overall, the present study highlighted the potential of Lb. casei group for reducing galactose accumulation in fermented milks due to its species-specific T6P pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-existence of t(6;13)(p21;q14.1) and trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fábio Morato; de Figueiredo Pontes, Lorena Lobo; Bassi, Sarah Cristina; Dalmazzo, Leandro Felipe Figueiredo; Falcão, Roberto Passetto

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old man diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and presence of a rare t(6;13)(p21;q14.1) in association with an extra copy of chromosome 12. Classical cytogenetic analysis using the immunostimulatory combination of DSP30 and IL-2 showed the karyotype 47,XY,t(6;13)(p21;q14.1), +12 in 75% of the metaphase cells. Spectral karyotype analysis (SKY) confirmed the abnormality previously seen by G-banding. Additionally, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using an LSI CEP 12 probe performed on peripheral blood cells without any stimulant agent showed trisomy of chromosome 12 in 67% of analyzed cells (134/200). To the best of our knowledge, the association of t(6;13)(p21;q14.1) and +12 in CLL has never been described. The prognostic significance of these new findings in CLL remains to be elucidated. However, the patient has been followed up since 2009 without any therapeutic intervention and has so far remained stable.

  7. Tn-Seq Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization Reveals a Role for T6SS-Mediated Antibacterial Activity in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Waldor, Matthew K.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Analysis of genes required for host infection will provide clues to the drivers of evolutionary fitness of pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, a mounting threat to global heath. We used transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) to comprehensively assess the contribution of nearly all V. cholerae genes toward growth in the infant rabbit intestine. Four hundred genes were identified as critical to V. cholerae in vivo fitness. These included most known colonization factors and several new genes affecting the bacterium's metabolic properties, resistance to bile, and ability to synthesize cyclic AMP-GMP. Notably, a mutant carrying an insertion in tsiV3, encoding immunity to a bacteriocidal type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector VgrG3, exhibited a colonization defect. The reduced in vivo fitness of tsiV3 mutants depends on their cocolonization with bacterial cells carrying an intact T6SS locus and VgrG3 gene, suggesting that the V. cholerae T6SS is functional and mediates antagonistic interbacterial interactions during infection. PMID:24331463

  8. Time exposure studies on stress corrosion cracking of aluminum 2014-T6, 2219-T87, 2014-T651, 7075-T651, and titanium 6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of a constant applied stress in crack initiation of aluminum 2014-T6, 2219-T87, 2014-T651, 7075-T651 and titanium 6Al-4V has been investigated. Aluminum c-ring specimens (1-inch diameter) and u-band titanium samples were exposed continuously to a 3.5% NaCl solution (pH 7) and organic fluids of ethyl, methyl, and iso-propyl alcohol (reagent purity), and demineralized distilled water. Corrosive action was observed to begin during the first and second day of constant exposure as evidenced by accumulation of hydrogen bubbles on the surface of stressed aluminum samples. However, titanium stressed specimens showed no reactions to its environment. Results of this investigation seems to suggest that aluminum 2014-T6, aluminum 7075-T651 and aluminum 2014-T651 are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in chloride solution (NaCl), while aluminum 2219-T87 seem to resist stress corrosion cracking in sodium chloride at three levels of stress (25%, 50%, and 75% Y.S.). In organic fluids of methyl, ethyl, and iso-propyl alcohol, 2014-T6 and 7075-T651 did not fail by SCC; but 2014-T651 was susceptible to SCC in methly alcohol, but resistant in ethyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol and demineralized distilled water.

  9. Clausa, a Tomato Mutant with a Wide Range of Phenotypic Perturbations, Displays a Cell Type-Dependent Expression of the Homeobox Gene LeT6/TKn21

    PubMed Central

    Avivi, Yigal; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Morozova, Nadya; Libs, Laurence; Williams, Leor; Zhao, Jing; Varghese, George; Grafi, Gideon

    2000-01-01

    Class I knox genes play an important role in shoot meristem function and are thus involved in the ordered development of stems, leaves, and reproductive organs. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the expression pattern of these homeobox genes, we studied a spontaneous tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant that phenotypically resembles, though is more extreme than, transgenic plants misexpressing class I knox genes. This mutant was found to carry a recessive allele, denoted clausa:shootyleaf (clau:shl)—a newly identified allele of clausa. Mutant plants exhibited abnormal leaf and flower morphology, epiphyllus inflorescences, fusion of organs, calyx asymmetry, and navel-like fruits. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed that such fruits carried ectopic ovules, various vegetative primordia, as well as “forests” of stalked glandular trichomes. In situ RNA hybridization showed a peculiar expression pattern of the class I knox gene LeT6/TKn2; expression was restricted to the vascular system and palisade layer of mature leaves and to the inner part of ovules integuments. We conclude that CLAUSA regulates various aspects of tomato plant development, at least partly, by rendering the LeT6/TKn2 gene silent in specific tissues during development. Considering the expression pattern of LeT6/TKn2 in the clausa mutant, we suggest that the control over a given homeobox gene is maintained by several different regulatory mechanisms, in a cell type-dependent manner. PMID:11027705

  10. Galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718 and graphite-epoxy composite material: Corrosion occurrence and prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Higgins, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of galvanic coupling between D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, Inconel 718, and graphite-epoxy composite material (G/E) in 3.5% NaCl were studied. Measurements of corrosion potentials, galvanic currents and corrosion rates of the bare metals using weight-loss methods served to establish the need for corrosion protection in cases where D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum are galvanically coupled to G/E in salt water while Inconel 718 was shown to be compatible with G/E. Six tests were made to study corrosion protective methods for eliminating galvanic corrosion in the cases of D6AC steel and 6061-T6 aluminum coupled to G/E. These results indicate that, when the G/E is completely coated with paint or a paint/polyurethane resin combination, satisfactory protection of the D6AC steel is achieved with either a coat of zinc-rich primer or a primer/topcoat combination. Likewise, satisfactory corrosion protection of the aluminum is achieved by coating it with an epoxy coating system.

  11. Influence of Fluidized Bed Quenching on the Mechanical Properties and Quality Index of T6 Tempered B319.2-Type Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, Kh. A.; Samuel, A. M.; Al-Ahmari, A. M. A.; Samuel, F. H.; Doty, H. W.

    2013-11-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of fluidized sand bed (FB) quenching on the mechanical performance of B319.2 aluminum cast alloys. Traditional water and conventional hot air (CF) quenching media were used to establish a relevant comparison with FB quenching. Quality charts were generated using two models of quality indices to support the selection of material conditions on the basis of the proposed quality indices. The use of an FB for the direct quenching-aging treatment of B319.2 casting alloys yields greater UTS and YS values compared to conventional furnace quenched alloys. The strength values of T6 tempered B319 alloys are greater when quenched in water compared with those quenched in an FB or CF. For the same aging conditions (170°C/4h), the fluidized bed quenched-aged 319 alloys show nearly the same or better strength values than those quenched in water and then aged in a CF or an FB. Based on the quality charts developed for alloys subjected to different quenching media, higher quality index values are obtained by conventional furnace quenched-aged T6-tempered B319 alloys. The modification factor has the most significant effect on the quality results of the alloys investigated, for all heat treatment cycles, as compared to other metallurgical parameters. The results of alloys subjected to multi-temperature aging cycles reveal that the optimum strength properties of B319.2 alloys, however, is obtained by applying multi-temperature aging cycles such as, for example, 240 °C/2 h followed by 170 °C/8 h, rather than T6 aging treatments. The regression models indicate that the mean quality values of B319 alloys are highly quench sensitive due to the formation of a larger percent of clusters in Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys. These clusters act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for precipitation and enhance the aging process.

  12. Structure-function analysis of Sua5 protein reveals novel functional motifs required for the biosynthesis of the universal t6A tRNA modification.

    PubMed

    Pichard-Kostuch, Adeline; Zhang, Wenhua; Liger, Dominique; Daugeron, Marie-Claire; Letoquart, Juliette; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Ines; Forterre, Patrick; Collinet, Bruno; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Basta, Tamara

    2018-04-12

    N6-threonyl-carbamoyl adenosine (t6A) is a universal tRNA modification found at position 37, next to the anticodon, in almost all tRNAs decoding ANN codons (where N = A, U, G or C). t6A stabilizes the codon-anticodon interaction and hence promotes translation fidelity. The first step of the biosynthesis of t6A, the production of threonyl-carbamoyl adenylate (TC-AMP), is catalyzed by the Sua5/TsaC family of enzymes. While TsaC is a single domain protein, Sua5 enzymes are composed of the TsaC-like domain, a linker and an extra domain called SUA5 of unknown function. In the present study, we report structure-function analysis of Pyrococcus abyssi Sua5 (Pa-Sua5). Crystallographic data revealed binding sites for bicarbonate substrate and pyrophosphate product. The linker of Pa-Sua5 forms a loop structure that folds into the active site gorge and closes it. Using structure-guided mutational analysis we established that the conserved sequence motifs in the linker and the domain-domain interface are essential for the function of Pa-Sua5. We propose that the linker participates actively in the biosynthesis of TC-AMP by binding to ATP/PPi and by stabilizing the N-carboxy-L-threonine intermediate. Hence, TsaC orthologs which lack such a linker and SUA5 domain use different mechanism for TC-AMP synthesis. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Effect of Quenching Medium on Mechanical Properties of Alloy Al7049-T6 and Lowering of its After-Machining Warpage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, Saeed Aliakbari; Feizabadi, Javad; Pourgharibshahi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-07-01

    Aluminum alloy Al 7049 is studied in state T6. Heat treatment of the specimens is performed in different quenching media (cold water, boiling water, aqueous polymer solutions). The mechanical properties and the Brinell hardness of the alloy are determined after different modes of heat treatment. Comparative analysis is used to find the maximum residual stresses responsible for warpage of the alloy after machining. The relation between the warpage and the dimensionless Biot number is obtained. Quenching modes removing the warpage in billets of Al7049 are determined.

  14. Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma t(6;11)(p21;q12) and Sickle Cell Anemia: First Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chaste, Damien; Vian, Emmanuel; Verhoest, Gregory; Blanchet, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    Translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a family of rare tumors recently identified in the pediatric and young adult population. We report the first case of a young woman from French West Indies with sickle cell anemia who developed a translocation RCC t(6;11)(p21;q12). Usually people with the sickle cell condition are known to develop renal medullary carcinoma (RMC). To our knowledge, this is the first case described in the literature of a translocation RCC associated with sickle cell disease. Here we discuss the relation between translocation RCC, RMC, and sickle cell disease.

  15. Triterpenoid Saponins from Anemone rivularis var. Flore-Minore and Their Anti-Proliferative Activity on HSC-T6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Gao, Hui; Xie, Xiao-Jie; Jurhiin, Jirimubatu; Zhang, Mu-Zi-He; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Liu, Rui; Ning, Meng; Han, Jin; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2018-02-23

    Five previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins ( 1 - 5 ), along with eight known ones ( 6 - 13 ), were isolated from the whole plants of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore . Their structures were clarified by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. For the first time, the lupane-type saponins ( 3 and 12 ) were reported from the Anemone genus. The anti-proliferative activity of all isolated saponins was evaluated on hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). Saponins 12 and 13 , which possess more monosaccharides than the others, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity, with IC 50 values of 18.21 and 15.56 μM, respectively.

  16. Investigation of the Discharge Characteristics of the T6 Hollow Cathode Operating on Several Inert Gases and a Kr/Xe Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed Rudwan, M.; Gabriel, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of the discharge characteristics of the T6 hollow cathode operating on several inert Xenon is currently the propellant of choice for gridded ion thrusters. But in order to make deep space missions feasible, an increase in the Specific Impulse (SI) that these thrusters can achieve is necessary. One method of achieving this is to use a propellant with a lower atomic mass (e.g. argon), as the propellant exhaust velocity is inversely proportional to the square root of the propellant mass. However, the feasibility of operating the hollow cathode using these alternative propellants has to be demonstrated. Moreover, interest in decreasing the propellant cost in missions and ground testing (especially life tests) have led to the comprehensive discharge characterisation of several gases that will be presented in this paper. A Kr/Xe mixture in the naturally occurring ratio, for example, could offer a 15 times cost saving when compared to pure xenon and 2-3 times cost saving when compared to pure krypton. The T6 hollow cathode discharge behaviour as well as its initiation characteristics have been studied. The tests were carried out in diode configuration using a T6 hollow cathode with an enclosed keeper design employing xenon, krypton, argon and a Kr/Xe mix. The discharge initiation tests were undertaken with a view to investigate some of the factors thought to influence the starting potential such as mass flow rate and tip temperature. It was found that, for mass flow rates ranging from 0.2-1.1 mg/s and cathode tip temperatures ranging from 900-1300oC, the breakdown potential was less than 50V for argon, less than 25V for krypton, less than 21V for xenon and less than 35V for the Kr/Xe mix. The discharge initiation results were then compared to those obtained by Fearn et al. with a T5 cathode operating on mercury and with a T6 cathode utilising an open keeper design using xenon propellant. The xenon breakdown potentials were found to be lower than those

  17. A translocation t(6;14) in two cases of leiomyosarcoma: Molecular cytogenetic and array-based comparative genomic hybridization characterization.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Marieke A; de Jong, Daniëlle; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Bovée, Judith V M G; Szuhai, Károly

    2015-11-01

    Leiomyosarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors that recapitulate smooth muscle cell differentiation. Tumors are characterized by a genetic heterogeneity with complex karyotypes without a tumor-specific genetic aberration. Their pathobiology is still poorly understood and no specific targeted treatment is currently available for these aggressive tumors. For six leiomyosarcomas, cells were cultured and analyzed by combined binary ratio labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization (COBRA-FISH) karyotyping. A t(6;14) was identified in two cases. FISH breakpoint mapping of case L1339 reveals a breakpoint at chromosome 6p21.31 close to HMGA1, and a small deletion was observed on the distal side of the gene. A small homozygous deletion was also found in the breakpoint region of chromosome 14q24.1 involving ACTN1. The second case revealed a der(6)t(6;14)(p21.1;q21.3), with a duplication adjacent to the breakpoint at chromosome 6. Confirmatory FISH revealed a second leiomyosarcoma with an aberration at 14q24.1. Alterations at this locus were found in 5% (2 of 39) of the leiomyosarcomas in this study. The other identified breakpoints appeared to be non-recurrent, because they were not detected in other leiomyosarcomas, uterine leiomyomas, undifferentiated spindle cell sarcomas, or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Global and local investigations of the electrochemical behavior the T6 heat treated Mg-Zn-RE magnesium alloy thixo-cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Zbigniew; Bisztyga, Magdalena; Krawiec, Halina; Lityńska-Dobrzyńska, Lidia; Rogal, Łukasz

    2017-05-01

    The influence of semi-solid metal processing (SSM called also as thixoforming) of ZE41A magnesium alloy on the electrochemical behavior in 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated. To describe the corrosion behavior of ZE41A alloy, the electrochemical measurements were conducted in global and local scale for two types of specimens: (1) ingot-feedstock, (2) specimen after thixoforming and T6 treatment. The heat treatment and thixoforming significantly improved mechanical properties of ZE41A alloy. The global corrosion potential is slightly higher for treated sample what is related to the presence of Zr-Zn nanoparticles distributed in solid solution. The corrosion behavior differences between feedstock and thixo-cast after T6 samples are also visible in local scale, what has been revealed by using microcapillary technique. However there is no improvement in corrosion behavior after treatment. Corrosion morphology of the treated sample indicate higher susceptibility to pitting and filiform corrosion. Corrosion rate is also slightly higher.

  19. Assessment of abdominal muscle function in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Squair, Jordan W; Chua, Romeo; Lam, Tania; Chen, Zhen; Carpenter, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    To use transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography to assess the potential for preserved function in the abdominal muscles in individuals classified with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6. Five individuals with spinal cord injury (C5-T3) and 5 able-bodied individuals. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the abdominal region of primary motor cortex during resting and sub-maximal (or attempted) contractions. Surface electromyography was used to record motor-evoked potentials as well as maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions in the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in the abdominal muscles occurred in all spinal cord injury subjects. Latencies of muscle response onsets were similar in both groups; however, peak-to-peak amplitudes were smaller in the spinal cord injury group. During maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions all spinal cord injury subjects were able to elicit electromyography activity above resting levels in more than one abdominal muscle across tasks. Individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 were able to activate abdominal muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and during maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions. The activation was induced directly through corticospinal pathways, and not indirectly by stretch reflex activations of the diaphragm. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography measurements provide a useful method to assess motor preservation of abdominal muscles in persons with spinal cord injury.

  20. Microscopic Observation of the Side Surface of Dynamically-Tensile-Fractured 6061-T6 and 2219-T87 Aluminum Alloys with Pre-Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itabashi, Masaaki; Nakajima, Shigeru; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    After unexpected failure of metallic structure, microscopic investigation will be performed. Generally, such an investigation is limited to search striation pattern with a SEM (scanning electron microscope). But, when the cause of the failure was not severe repeated stress, this investigation is ineffective. In this paper, new microscopic observation technique is proposed to detect low cycle fatigue-impact tensile loading history. Al alloys, 6061-T6 and 2219-T87, were fractured in dynamic tension, after severe pre-fatigue. The side surface of the fractured specimens was observed with a SEM. Neighboring fractured surface, many opened cracks on the side surface have been generated. For each specimen, the number of the cracks was counted together with information of individual sizes and geometric features. For 6061-T6 alloy specimen with the pre-fatigue, the number of the cracks is greater than that for the specimen without the pre-fatigue. For 2219-T87 alloy, the same tendency can be found after a certain screening of the crack counting. Therefore, the crack counting technique may be useful to detect the existence of the pre-fatigue from the dynamically fractured specimen surface.

  1. Extracellular ATP is a mitogen for 3T3, 3T6, and A431 cells and acts synergistically with other growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, N; Wang, D J; Heppel, L A

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular ATP in concentrations of 5-50 microM displayed very little mitogenic activity by itself but it caused synergistic stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, adenosine, or 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamidoadenosine. Cultures of Swiss 3T3, Swiss 3T6, A431, DDT1-MF2, and HFF cells were used. The percent of cell nuclei labeled with [3H]thymidine and cell number were also increased. ADP was equally mitogenic, while UTP and ITP were much less active. The effect of ATP was not due to hydrolysis by ectoenzymes to form adenosine, a known growth factor. Thus, the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate was mitogenic. In addition, it was found that ATP showed synergism in 3T6 and 3T3 cells when present for only the first hour of an incorporation assay, during which time no significant hydrolysis occurred. Furthermore, prolonged preincubation of cells with ATP reduced the mitogenic response to ATP but not to adenosine; preincubation with adenosine or N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine had the reverse effect. Finally, the effect of adenosine, but not of ATP, was inhibited by aminophylline. We conclude that extracellular ATP is a mitogen that interacts with P2 purinoceptors on the plasma membrane. PMID:2813367

  2. Renal cell carcinoma with t(6:11) (p21;q12). A case report highlighting distinctive immunohistologic features of this rare tumor.

    PubMed

    Arneja, Sarabjeet Kaur; Gujar, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with t(6:11) (p21;q12) are extremely rare, fewer than 30 cases have been reported in literature. These tumors are characterized by specific chromosomal translocation involving TFEB, as against the more commonly known TFE3 (Xp11.2) translocation associated RCCs. The distinctive immnohistologic features are helpful in enabling a diagnosis of this rare tumor, otherwise diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, specific for detecting TFEB gene rearrangement. Herein, we report a case of this rare tumor in a 11 years old boy, with the objective of highlighting distinctive light microscopic and immuno-phenotypic features of this rare sub-type of translocation associated renal cell carcinoma, otherwise diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Morphologically tumor showed distinctive biphasic population of cells, large epitheloid cells with voluminous eosinophillic cytoplasm and smaller cells with much lesser amount of cytoplasm and small rounded nuclei. The smaller cells at places clustered around hyaline pink material forming "pseudorosettes". population. Immunohistochemically both types of tumor cells showed negativity for pan CK (cytokeratin), EMA (epitheleal membrane antigen) and TFE3 (transcription factor E3). HMB 45 (human melanoma black 45) and Melan- A /MART 1 (melanoma antigen recognized by T cells) were moderate to strongly expressed. On review of literature, most RCCs with t(6;11) translocation have been reported to be negative for pan cytokeratins and EMA. Published literature also shows that the most distinctive immunohistochemical feature of t(6;11) translocation RCC is nuclear staining for TFEB protein. Immunostains for TFE3 have always been negative in the reported cases. It is noteworthy that immunoreactivity for melanocytic markers HMB45 and Melan A and immunonegativity for epithelial markers pan CK and EMA may lead to misdiagnosis of angiomyolipoma to the unwary. Knowledge of distinctive

  3. Investigation of Microstructure and Microhardness in Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welded AA2014-T6 and AA2219-T87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, K. Renee; McGill, Preston; Barkey, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. This work reports on the microstructure and microhardness of SR-FSW between two dissimilar aluminum alloys. Specifically, the study examines the cross section of the weld joint formed between an AA2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA2219-T87 plate on the retreating side. The microstructural analysis shows an irregularly displaced weld seam from the advancing side past the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) into the weld nugget region. There are sharp variations in the microhardness across the weld. These variations are described in the paper and mechanisms for their formation are discussed.

  4. CalR is required for the expression of T6SS2 and the adhesion of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyu; Osei-Adjei, George; Zhang, Ying; Gao, He; Yang, Wenhui; Zhou, Dongsheng; Huang, Xinxiang; Yang, Huiying; Zhang, Yiquan

    2017-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus expresses one major virulence determinant T6SS2, which is constituted into three putative operons, i.e., VPA1027-1024, VPA1043-1028, and VPA1044-1046. CalR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, was originally identified as a repressor of the swarming motility and T3SS1 gene expression. As shown in this study, CalR binds to the promoter-proximal region of each of the three operons to activate their transcription, and moreover, CalR activates the adhesion of V. parahaemolyticus to HeLa cells. In addition, competitive EMSAs demonstrated that CalR acts as an antagonist of H-NS in V. parahaemolyticus. Collectively, these studies confirmed a new physiological role for CalR in V. parahaemolyticus.

  5. Comparison of wear behaviour and mechanical properties of as-cast Al6082 and Al6082-T6 using statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani Rana, Sandhya; Pattnaik, A. B.; Patnaik, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work the wear behavior and mechanical properties of as cast A16082 and A16086-T6 were compared and analyzed using statistical analysis. The as cast Al6082 alloy was solutionized at 550°C, quenched and artificially aged at 170°C for 8hrs. Metallographic examination and XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic compounds Al6Mn.Hardness of heat treated Al6082 was found to be more than as cast sample. Wear tests were carried out using Pin on Disc wear testing machine according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. Experiments were conducted under normal load 10-30N, sliding speed 1-3m/s, sliding distance 400,800,1200m respectively. Sliding speed was found to be the dominant factor for wear in both as cast and aged Al 6082 alloy. Sliding distance increases the wear rate up to 800m and then after it decreases.

  6. Experimental Study on Dissimilar Friction Stir welding of Aluminium Alloys (5083-H111 and 6082-T6) to investigate the mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, H. M. Anil; Venkata Ramana, V.; Pawar, Mayur

    2018-03-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative technology in the joining realm of metals and alloys. This technique is highly economical and suitable especially for non ferrous alloys compared to ferrous alloys. It finds many applications in various fields of aeronautics, automobile, ship building industries etc. The paper presents the comparative results of mechanical properties such as tensile strength, microstructure, macro structure and hardness on the similar and dissimilar aluminum alloys AA5083-H111 and AA6082-T6 under certain selected variables - constant tool rotational speed, its tilt angle, welding speed using friction stir welding process. It is observed from the experimental results that joint efficiency of dissimilar aluminium alloys is higher than the similar aluminum alloys.

  7. The young's modulus of 1018 steel and 67061-T6 aluminum measured from quasi-static to elastic precursor strain-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Philip J; Trujillo, Carl; Lovato, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that Young's modulus is strain-rate invariant is tested for 6061-T6 aluminium alloy and 1018 steel over 10 decades of strain-rate. For the same billets of material, 3 quasi-static strain-rates are investigated with foil strain gauges at room temperature. The ultrasonic sound speeds are measured and used to calculate the moduli at approximately 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. Finally, ID plate impact is used to generate an elastic pre-cursor in the alloys at a strain-rate of approximately 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} from which the longitudinal sound speed may be obtained. It is found that indeed the Young's modulus is strain-ratemore » independent within the experimental accuracy.« less

  8. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile strength and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded butt joints of AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balaji, H.; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-08-01

    Friction stir welded (FSWed) joints of aluminum alloys exhibited a hardness drop in both the advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS) of the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) due to the thermal cycle involved in the FSW process. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methods. FSW butt (FSWB) joints of Al-Cu (AA2014-T6) alloy were PWHT by two methods such as simple artificial aging (AA) and solution treatment followed by artificial aging (STA). Of these two treatments, STA was found to be more beneficial than the simple aging treatment to improve the tensile properties of the FSW joints of AA2014 aluminum alloy.

  9. High-Speed Friction Stir Welding of AA7075-T6 Sheet: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Micro-texture, and Thermal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2018-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a cost-effective and high-quality joining process for aluminum alloys (especially heat-treatable alloys) that is historically operated at lower joining speeds (up to hundreds of millimeters per minute). In this study, we present a microstructural analysis of friction stir welded AA7075-T6 blanks with high welding speeds up to 3 M/min. Textures, microstructures, mechanical properties, and weld quality are analyzed using TEM, EBSD, metallographic imaging, and Vickers hardness. The higher welding speed results in narrower, stronger heat-affected zones (HAZs) and also higher hardness in the nugget zones. The material flow direction in the nugget zone is found to be leaning towards the welding direction as the welding speed increases. Results are coupled with welding parameters and thermal history to aid in the understanding of the complex material flow and texture gradients within the welds in an effort to optimize welding parameters for high-speed processing.

  10. Effects of aging treatment and heat input on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TIG-welded 6061-T6 alloy joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong; Shen, Jun; Tang, Qin; Wu, Cui-ping; Zhou, Yan-bing

    2013-03-01

    Aging treatment and various heat input conditions were adopted to investigate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TIG welded 6061-T6 alloy joints by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, and tensile tests. With an increase in heat input, the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases and grains in the fusion zone (FZ) coarsen. Moreover, the hardness of the HAZ decreases, whereas that of the FZ decreases initially and then increases with an increase in heat input. Low heat input results in the low ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints due to the presence of partial penetrations and pores in the welded joints. After a simple artificial aging treatment at 175°C for 8 h, the microstructure of the welded joints changes slightly. The mechanical properties of the welded joints enhance significantly after the aging process as few precipitates distribute in the welded seam.

  11. Novel Chromosomal Rearrangements and breakpoints at the t(6;9) in Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: association with MYB-NFIB chimeric fusion, MYB expression, and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Roberts, Dianna B.; Stephens, Philip J.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Zhang, Li; Mitani, Mutsumi; Weber, Randal S.; Lippman, Scott M.; Caulin, Carlos; El-Naggar, Adel K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular-genetic heterogeneity associated with the t(6:9) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and correlate the findings with patient clinical outcome. Experimental Design Multi-molecular and genetic techniques complemented with massive pair-ended sequencing and SNP array analyses were used on tumor specimens from 30 new and 52 previously RT-PCR analyzed fusion transcript negative ACCs. MYB mRNA expression level was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The results of 102 tumors (30 new and 72 previously reported cases) were correlated with the clinicopathologic factors and patients’ survival. Results The FISH analysis showed 34/82 (41.5%) fusion positive tumors and molecular techniques identified fusion transcripts in 21 of the 82 (25.6%) tumors. Detailed FISH analysis of 11 out the 15 tumors with gene fusion without transcript formation showed translocation of NFIB sequences to proximal or distal sites of the MYB gene. Massive pair-end sequencing of a subset of tumors confirmed the proximal translocation to an NFIB sequence and led to the identification of a new fusion gene (NFIB-AIG1) in one of the tumors. Overall, MYB-NFIB gene fusion rate by FISH was in 52.9% while fusion transcript forming incidence was 38.2%. Significant statistical association between the 5′ MYB transcript expression and patient survival was found. Conclusions We conclude that: 1) t(6;9) results in a complex genetic and molecular alterations in ACC, 2) MYB-NFIB gene fusion may not always be associated with chimeric transcript formation, 3) non-canonical MYB, NFIB gene fusions occur in a subset of tumors, 4) high MYB expression correlates with worse patient survival. PMID:21976542

  12. Evaluation of Surface Roughness by Image Processing of a Shot-Peened, TIG-Welded Aluminum 6061-T6 Alloy: An Experimental Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Nathir A.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection through image processing of welding and shot-peened surfaces is necessary to overcome equipment limitations, avoid measurement errors, and accelerate processing to gain certain surface properties such as surface roughness. Therefore, it is important to design an algorithm to quantify surface properties, which enables us to overcome the aforementioned limitations. In this study, a proposed systematic algorithm is utilized to generate and compare the surface roughness of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded aluminum 6061-T6 alloy treated by two levels of shot-peening, high-intensity and low-intensity. This project is industrial in nature, and the proposed solution was originally requested by local industry to overcome equipment capabilities and limitations. In particular, surface roughness measurements are usually only possible on flat surfaces but not on other areas treated by shot-peening after welding, as in the heat-affected zone and weld beads. Therefore, those critical areas are outside of the measurement limitations. Using the proposed technique, the surface roughness measurements were possible to obtain for weld beads, high-intensity and low-intensity shot-peened surfaces. In addition, a 3D surface topography was generated and dimple size distributions were calculated for the three tested scenarios: control sample (TIG-welded only), high-intensity shot-peened, and low-intensity shot-peened TIG-welded Al6065-T6 samples. Finally, cross-sectional hardness profiles were measured for the three scenarios; in all scenarios, lower hardness measurements were obtained compared to the base metal alloy in the heat-affected zone and in the weld beads even after shot-peening treatments. PMID:29748520

  13. Evaluation of Surface Roughness by Image Processing of a Shot-Peened, TIG-Welded Aluminum 6061-T6 Alloy: An Experimental Case Study.

    PubMed

    Atieh, Anas M; Rawashdeh, Nathir A; AlHazaa, Abdulaziz N

    2018-05-10

    Visual inspection through image processing of welding and shot-peened surfaces is necessary to overcome equipment limitations, avoid measurement errors, and accelerate processing to gain certain surface properties such as surface roughness. Therefore, it is important to design an algorithm to quantify surface properties, which enables us to overcome the aforementioned limitations. In this study, a proposed systematic algorithm is utilized to generate and compare the surface roughness of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded aluminum 6061-T6 alloy treated by two levels of shot-peening, high-intensity and low-intensity. This project is industrial in nature, and the proposed solution was originally requested by local industry to overcome equipment capabilities and limitations. In particular, surface roughness measurements are usually only possible on flat surfaces but not on other areas treated by shot-peening after welding, as in the heat-affected zone and weld beads. Therefore, those critical areas are outside of the measurement limitations. Using the proposed technique, the surface roughness measurements were possible to obtain for weld beads, high-intensity and low-intensity shot-peened surfaces. In addition, a 3D surface topography was generated and dimple size distributions were calculated for the three tested scenarios: control sample (TIG-welded only), high-intensity shot-peened, and low-intensity shot-peened TIG-welded Al6065-T6 samples. Finally, cross-sectional hardness profiles were measured for the three scenarios; in all scenarios, lower hardness measurements were obtained compared to the base metal alloy in the heat-affected zone and in the weld beads even after shot-peening treatments.

  14. Determination of forming limit diagrams of AA6013-T6 aluminum alloy sheet using a time and position dependent localized necking criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicecco, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Boettcher, E.; Chu, E.; Shi, C.

    2016-11-01

    The forming limit behaviour of AA6013-T6 aluminium alloy sheet was characterized under isothermal conditions at room temperature (RT) and 250°C using limiting dome height (LDH) tests. Full field strain measurements were acquired throughout testing using in situ stereoscopic digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. Limit strain data was generated from the resulting full field strain measurements using two localized necking criteria: ISO12004- 2:2008 and a time and position dependent criterion, termed the “Necking Zone” (NZ) approach in this paper, introduced by Martinez-Donaire et al. (2014). The limit strains resulting from the two localization detection schemes were compared. It was found that the ISO and NZ limit strains at RT are similar on the draw-side of the FLD, while the NZ approach yields a biaxial major limit strain 14.8% greater than the ISO generated major limit strain. At 250°C, the NZ generated major limit strains are 31-34% greater than the ISO generated major limit strains for near uniaxial, plane strain and biaxial loading conditions, respectively. The significant variance in limit strains between the two methodologies at 250°C highlights the need for a validation study regarding warm FLC determination.

  15. Study of mechanical joint strength of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and dual phase steel 980 welded by friction bit joining and weld-bonding under corrosion medium

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Yong Chae; Squires, Lile; Pan, Tsung-Yu; ...

    2014-12-30

    We have employed a unique solid-sate joining process, called friction bit joining (FBJ), to spot weld aluminum alloy (AA) 7075-T6 and dual phase (DP) 980 steel. Static joint strength was studied in the lap shear tension configuration. In addition, weld-bonding (adhesive + FBJ) joints were studied in order to evaluate the ability of adhesive to mitigate the impact of corrosion on joint properties. Accelerated laboratory cyclic corrosion tests were carried out for both FBJ only and weld-bonding joints. Furthermore, the FBJ only joints that emerged from corrosion testing had lap shear failure loads that were significantly lower than freshly preparedmore » joints. However, weld-bonding specimens retained more than 80% of the lap shear failure load of the freshly prepared weld-bonding specimens. Moreover, examination of joint cross sections confirmed that the presence of adhesive in the weld-bonding joints mitigated the effect of the corrosion environment, compared to FBJ only joints.« less

  16. The structure of the TsaB/TsaD/TsaE complex reveals an unexpected mechanism for the bacterial t6A tRNA-modification.

    PubMed

    Missoury, Sophia; Plancqueel, Stéphane; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Ines; Zhang, Wenhua; Liger, Dominique; Durand, Dominique; Dammak, Raoudha; Collinet, Bruno; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2018-05-08

    The universal N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) modification at position A37 of ANN-decoding tRNAs is essential for translational fidelity. In bacteria the TsaC enzyme first synthesizes an l-threonylcarbamoyladenylate (TC-AMP) intermediate. In cooperation with TsaB and TsaE, TsaD then transfers the l-threonylcarbamoyl-moiety from TC-AMP onto tRNA. We determined the crystal structure of the TsaB-TsaE-TsaD (TsaBDE) complex of Thermotoga maritima in presence of a non-hydrolysable AMPCPP. TsaE is positioned at the entrance of the active site pocket of TsaD, contacting both the TsaB and TsaD subunits and prohibiting simultaneous tRNA binding. AMPCPP occupies the ATP binding site of TsaE and is sandwiched between TsaE and TsaD. Unexpectedly, the binding of TsaE partially denatures the active site of TsaD causing loss of its essential metal binding sites. TsaE interferes in a pre- or post-catalytic step and its binding to TsaBD is regulated by ATP hydrolysis. This novel binding mode and activation mechanism of TsaE offers good opportunities for antimicrobial drug development.

  17. Role of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 and cytochrome P-450 in store-operated calcium entry in 3T6 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Javier; Moreno, Juan J

    2005-09-01

    Store-operated calcium (SOC) channels and capacitative Ca2+ entry play a key role in cellular functions, but their mechanism of activation remains unclear. Here, we show that thapsigargin induces [3H] arachidonic acid (AA) release, 45Ca2+ influx and a subsequent enhancement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i. Thapsigargin-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was inhibited by cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and by cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase inhibitor and was reverted by 11,12 EET addition. However, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors have no effect. Moreover, we observed that four EETs were able to induce 45Ca2+ influx. Finally, we reported that the effect of 11,12 EET on 45Ca2+ influx was sensible to receptor-operated Ca2+ channel blockers (NiCl2, LaCl3) but not to voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker as verapamil. Thus, AA released by Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 and AA metabolism through cytochrome P-450 pathway may be crucial molecular determinant in thapsigargin activation of SOC channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway in 3T6 fibroblasts. Moreover, EETs, the main cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of AA, are involved in thapsigargin-stimulated Ca2+ influx. In summary, our results suggest that EETs are components of calcium influx factor(s).

  18. Design, fabrication and test of a hydrogen heat pipe. [extruding and grooving 6063-T6 aluminum tubes for cryogenic heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    Re-entrant groove technology was extended to hydrogen heat pipes. Parametric analyses are presented which optimize the theoretical design while considering the limitations of state-of-the-art extrusion technology. The 6063-T6 aluminum extrusion is 14.6 mm OD with a wall thickness of 1.66 mm and contains 20 axial grooves which surround a central 9.3 mm diameter vapor core. Each axial groove is 0.775 mm diameter with a 0.33 mm opening. An excess vapor reservoir is provided at the evaporator to minimize the pressure containment hazard during ambient storage. Modifications to the basic re-entrant groove profile resulted in improved overall performance. While the maximum heat transport capacity decreased slightly to 103 w-m the static wicking height increased markedly to 4.5 cm. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated: (1) maximum heat transport capacity of 5.4 w-m; (2) static wicking height of 1.42 cm; and (3) overall heat pipe conductance of 1.7 watts/deg C.

  19. High-Speed Friction Stir Welding of AA7075-T6 Sheet: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Micro-texture, and Thermal History

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingyi; Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri

    Friction-stir-welding (FSW) is a cost-effective and high quality joining process for aluminum alloys (especially heat-treatable allo ys) that has been applied successfully in the aerospace industry. However, the full potential of FSW on more cost-sensitive applications is still limited by the production rate, namely the welding speed of the process. The majority of literature evaluating FSW of aluminum alloys is based on welds made in the range of welding speeds around hundreds of millimeters per minute, and only a handful are at a moderate speed of 1 m/min. In this study we present a microstructural analysis of friction stir weldedmore » AA7075-T6 blanks with welding speeds up to 3 m/min. Textures, microstructures, mechanical properties, and weld quality are analyzed using TEM, EBSD, metallographic imaging, and Vickers hardness. Results are coupled with welding parameters to aid in the understanding of the complex material flow and texture gradients within the welds in an effort to optimize welding parameters for high speed processing.« less

  20. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  1. Validation of the Two-Parameter-Fracture Criterion for Various Crack Configurations Made of 2014-T6 (TL) Aluminum Alloy Using Finite Element Fracture Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuilkin, Martin

    The Two-Parameter- Fracture-Criterion (TPFC) was validated using an elastic-plastic two-dimensional (2D) finite-element code, ZIP2D, with the plane-strain- core concept. Fracture simulations were performed on three crack configurations: (1) middle-crack-tension, M(T), (2) single-edge- crack-tension, SE(T), and (3) single-edge crack-bend, SE(B), specimens. They were made of 2014-T6 (TL) aluminum alloy. Fracture test data from Thomas Orange work (NASA) were only available on M(T) specimens (one-half width, w = 1.5 to 6 in.) and they were all tested at cryogenic (-320 o F) temperature. All crack configurations were analysed over a very wide range of widths (w = 0.75 to 24 in.) and crack-length- to-width ratios ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. The TPFC was shown to fit the simulated fracture data fairly well (within 6.5%) for all crack configurations for net-section stresses less than the material proportional limit. For M(T) specimens, a simple approximation was shown to work well for net-section stresses greater than the proportional limit. Further study is needed for net-section stresses greater than the proportional limit for the SE(T) and SE(B) specimens.

  2. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Emily K.; Tobias, Menachem E.; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin) and outer layer resistance (Rout) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 140 Ω/cm2) compared to 21 days (Rin = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm2, Rout = 1060 Ω/cm2) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. PMID:25715925

  3. [Renal cell carcinoma with t(6;11)(p21.2;q13)/MALAT1-TFEB fusion: a clinical and pathological analysis].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiuyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Shen, Qin; Wei, Xue; Wang, Xuan; Ma, Henghui; Lu, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Rao, Qiu

    2015-12-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, differential diagnosis and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with t(6;11)(p21.2;q13)/MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion. A total of 9 cases of such rare tumor were selected for clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis, with review of literature. The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 42 years (mean=31.3 years). The patients included four men and five women. Histologically, 4 of the 9 cases studied showed classic morphologic features of TFEB RCC, with hyaline material, pigments and psammoma bodies frequently identified. The remaining 5 cases demonstrated uncommon morphology, mimicking perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm, clear cell RCC, chromophobe RCC or papillary RCC. Immunohistochemical study showed that TFEB and vimentin were positive in all cases. Most of the tumors studied also expressed Ksp-cadherin, E-cadherin, CD117, HMB45, Melan A and Cathepsin K. CKpan showed immunostaining in only 1 case. The staining for TFE3, CD10 and CK7 were all negative. TFEB gene rearrangement was detected in all the 9 cases studied using fluorescence in-situ hybridization. MALAT1-TFEB fusion gene was identified in 2 cases by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. TFEB RCC seemed to be an indolent tumor. During a mean follow-up of 31 months, none developed tumor recurrence, progression, or metastasis. TFEB fusion-associated RCC is a rare neoplasm, tends to occur in young age group and carries an indolent behavior. Diagnosis relies on clinicopathologic findings and immunohistochemical analysis. TFEB break-apart FISH assay is a reliable tool in confirming the diagnosis.

  4. Protein Engineering by Random Mutagenesis and Structure-Guided Consensus of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Lipase T6 for Enhanced Stability in Methanol

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Adi; Shemesh, Einav; Dayan, Natali

    2014-01-01

    The abilities of enzymes to catalyze reactions in nonnatural environments of organic solvents have opened new opportunities for enzyme-based industrial processes. However, the main drawback of such processes is that most enzymes have a limited stability in polar organic solvents. In this study, we employed protein engineering methods to generate a lipase for enhanced stability in methanol, which is important for biodiesel production. Two protein engineering approaches, random mutagenesis (error-prone PCR) and structure-guided consensus, were applied in parallel on an unexplored lipase gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. A high-throughput colorimetric screening assay was used to evaluate lipase activity after an incubation period in high methanol concentrations. Both protein engineering approaches were successful in producing variants with elevated half-life values in 70% methanol. The best variant of the random mutagenesis library, Q185L, exhibited 23-fold-improved stability, yet its methanolysis activity was decreased by one-half compared to the wild type. The best variant from the consensus library, H86Y/A269T, exhibited 66-fold-improved stability in methanol along with elevated thermostability (+4.3°C) and a 2-fold-higher fatty acid methyl ester yield from soybean oil. Based on in silico modeling, we suggest that the Q185L substitution facilitates a closed lid conformation that limits access for both the methanol and substrate excess into the active site. The enhanced stability of H86Y/A269T was a result of formation of new hydrogen bonds. These improved characteristics make this variant a potential biocatalyst for biodiesel production. PMID:24362426

  5. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Emily K; Tobias, Menachem E; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin ) and outer layer resistance (Rout ) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin  = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 140 Ω/cm(2) ) compared to 21 days (Rin  = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 287 Ω/cm(2) ) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin  = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 1060 Ω/cm(2) ) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin  = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 287 Ω/cm(2) ). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel 304 after being exposed to hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Nofrijon Bin Imam

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide used as a decontaminant agent on selected aircraft metallic materials has been investigated. The work is divided into three sections; bacterial attachment behavior onto an austenitic stainless steel 304 surface; effect of decontamination process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aircraft metallic structural materials of two aluminum alloys, i.e. 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, and an austenitic stainless steel 304 as used in galley and lavatory surfaces; and copper dissolution rate into hydrogen peroxide. With respect to bacterial attachment, the results show that surface roughness plays a role in the attachment of bacteria onto metallic surfaces at certain extent. However, when the contact angle of the liquid on a surface increased to a certain degree, detachment of bacteria on that surface became more difficult. In its relation to the decontamination process, the results show that a corrosion site, especially on the austenitic stainless steel 304 weld and its surrounding HAZ area, needs more attention because it could become a source or a harborage of bio-contaminant agent after either incidental or intentional bio-contaminant delivery. On the effect of the decontamination process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aircraft metallic structural materials, the results show that microstructural effects are both relatively small in magnitude and confined to a region immediately adjacent to the exposed surface. No systematic effect is found on the tensile properties of the three alloys under the conditions examined. The results of this investigation are promising with respect to the application of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide as a decontaminant agent to civilian aircraft, in that even under the most severe circumstances that could occur; only very limited damage was observed. The results from the dissolution of copper by concentrated liquid hydrogen peroxide showed that the rate of copper dissolution increased for

  7. An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Vacuum Environment on the Fatigue Life, Fatigue-Crack-Growth Behavior, and Fracture Toughness of 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Axial load fatigue life, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were conducted on 0.090-inch thick specimens made of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. The fatigue life and fatigue-crack propagation experiments were conducted at a stress ratio of 0.02. Maximum stresses ranged from 33 to 60 ksi in the fatigue life experiments, and from 10 to 40 ksi in the fatigue-crack propagation experiments, and fatigue life experiments were conducted at gas pressures of 760, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.00000005 torr. Fatigue-crack-growth and fracture toughness experiments were conducted at gas pressures of 760 and 5 x 10 to the minus 8th power torr. Residual stress measurements were made on selected fatigue life specimens to determine the effect of such stresses on fatigue life. Analysis of the results from the fatigue life experiments indicated that fatigue life progressively increased as the gas pressure decreased. Analysis of the results from the fatigue-crack-growth experiments indicates that at low values of stress-intensity range, the fatigue crack growth rates were approximately twice as high in air as in vacuum. Fracture toughness data showed there was essentially no difference in the fracture toughness of 7075-T6 in vacuum and in air.

  8. Familial translocation t(6;20)(p21;p13) resulting in partial trisomy 6p and partial monosomy 20p: report of a new case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Berner, A L; Bağci, S; Wohlleber, E; Engels, E; Müller, A; Bartmann, P; Weber, R G; Reutter, H

    2012-01-01

    Carriers of completely balanced chromosomal translocations have all necessary genetic information. Nevertheless, because of the possibility of maldistribution during gametogenesis, they are at increased risk for infertility, miscarriage, stillbirth or having a child with congenital anomalies including mental retardation. As postnatal clinical reports are infrequent, prediction of clinical course for specific unbalanced karyotypes diagnosed during pregnancy remains difficult. Here, we report the 6th case of partial trisomy 6p and partial monosomy 20p due to an unbalanced adjacent-1 segregation of the rare familial translocation t(6;20)(p21;p13). We give a thorough clinical description of the present case, demonstrating broad phenotypic overlap with the 5 previously published cases reviewed here, providing important data on postnatal outcome. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Novel chromosomal rearrangements and break points at the t(6;9) in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma: association with MYB-NFIB chimeric fusion, MYB expression, and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Futreal, P Andrew; Roberts, Dianna B; Stephens, Philip J; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Zhang, Li; Mitani, Mutsumi; Weber, Randal S; Lippman, Scott M; Caulin, Carlos; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2011-11-15

    To investigate the molecular genetic heterogeneity associated with the t(6:9) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and correlate the findings with patient clinical outcome. Multimolecular and genetic techniques complemented with massive pair-ended sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism array analyses were used on tumor specimens from 30 new and 52 previously analyzed fusion transcript-negative ACCs by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). MYB mRNA expression level was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The results of 102 tumors (30 new and 72 previously reported cases) were correlated with the clinicopathologic factors and patients' survival. The FISH analysis showed 34 of 82 (41.5%) fusion-positive tumors and molecular techniques identified fusion transcripts in 21 of the 82 (25.6%) tumors. Detailed FISH analysis of 11 out the 15 tumors with gene fusion without transcript formation showed translocation of NFIB sequences to proximal or distal sites of the MYB gene. Massive pair-end sequencing of a subset of tumors confirmed the proximal translocation to an NFIB sequence and led to the identification of a new fusion gene (NFIB-AIG1) in one of the tumors. Overall, MYB-NFIB gene fusion rate by FISH was in 52.9% whereas fusion transcript forming incidence was 38.2%. Significant statistical association between the 5' MYB transcript expression and patient survival was found. We conclude that: (i) t(6;9) results in complex genetic and molecular alterations in ACC, (ii) MYB-NFIB gene fusion may not always be associated with chimeric transcript formation, (iii) noncanonical MYB-NFIB gene fusions occur in a subset of tumors, (iv) high MYB expression correlates with worse patient survival.

  10. Double-hit lymphoma demonstrating t(6;14;18)(p25;q32;q21), suggesting two independent dual-hit translocations, MYC/BCL-2 and IRF4/BCL-2.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Rie; Yasumizu, Ryoji; Tabata, Chiharu; Kojima, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a rare case of double-hit lymphoma, demonstrating t(6;14;18)(p25;q32;q21), suggesting two independent dual-translocations, c-MYC/BCL-2 and IRF4/BCL-2. The present case had a rare abnormal chromosome, t(6;14;18)(p25;q32;q21), independently, in addition to known dual-hit chromosomal abnormalities, t(14;18)(q32;q21) and t(8;22)(q24;q11.2). Lymph node was characterized by a follicular and diffuse growth pattern with variously sized neoplastic follicles. The intrafollicular area was composed of centrocytes with a few centroblasts and the interfollicular area was occupied by uniformly spread medium- to large-sized lymphocytes. CD23 immunostaining demonstrated a disrupted follicular dendritic cell meshwork. The intrafollicular tumor cells had a germinal center phenotype with the expression of surface IgM, CD10, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, and MUM1/IRF4. However, the interfollicular larger cells showed plasmacytic differentiation with diminished CD20, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, and positive intracytoplasmic IgM, and co-expression of MUM1/IRF4 and CD138 with increased Ki-67-positive cells (> 90%). MUM1/IRF4 has been found to induce c-MYC expression, and in turn, MYC transactivates MUM1/IRF4, creating a positive autoregulatory feedback loop. On the other hand, MUM1/IRF4 functions as a tumor suppressor in c-MYC-induced B-cell leukemia. The present rare case arouses interest in view of the possible "dual" activation of both c-MYC and MUM1/IRF4 through two independent dual-translocations, c-MYC/BCL-2 and IRF4/BCL-2.

  11. Structural insights into the T6SS effector protein Tse3 and the Tse3-Tsi3 complex from Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveal a calcium-dependent membrane-binding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Defen; Shang, Guijun; Zhang, Heqiao; Yu, Qian; Cong, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Jupeng; He, Fengjuan; Zhu, Chunyuan; Zhao, Yanyu; Yin, Kun; Chen, Yuanyuan; Hu, Junqiang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Yuan, Zenglin; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Cang, Huaixing; Gu, Lichuan

    2014-06-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to deliver the muramidase Tse3 into the periplasm of rival bacteria to degrade their peptidoglycan (PG). Concomitantly, P. aeruginosa uses the periplasm-localized immunity protein Tsi3 to prevent potential self-intoxication caused by Tse3, and thus gains an edge over rival bacteria in fierce niche competition. Here, we report the crystal structures of Tse3 and the Tse3-Tsi3 complex. Tse3 contains an annexin repeat-like fold at the N-terminus and a G-type lysozyme fold at the C-terminus. One loop in the N-terminal domain (Loop 12) and one helix (α9) from the C-terminal domain together anchor Tse3 and the Tse3-Tsi3 complex to membrane in a calcium-dependent manner in vitro, and this membrane-binding ability is essential for Tse3's activity. In the C-terminal domain, a Y-shaped groove present on the surface likely serves as the PG binding site. Two calcium-binding motifs are also observed in the groove and these are necessary for Tse3 activity. In the Tse3-Tsi3 structure, three loops of Tsi3 insert into the substrate-binding groove of Tse3, and three calcium ions present at the interface of the complex are indispensable for the formation of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A high incidence of adjacent-1 meiotic segregation pattern, revealed by multicolor sperm FISH, in a carrier boar of a new reciprocal translocation t(6;16)(p13;q23).

    PubMed

    Kociucka, B; Szczerbal, I; Bugaj, S; Orsztynowicz, M; Switonski, M

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations pose a serious problem in pig breeding due to the reduced fertility of the carriers. This paper presents a new reciprocal translocation in a phenotypically normal, but hypoprolific (20% reduction) boar. Chromosome banding as well as the FISH technique with the use of BAC and telomeric probes was applied for a detailed characterization of this chromosome rearrangement. The karyotype of the studied boar was described as 38,XY,t(6;16)(p13;q23). The meiotic segregation of the quadrivalent was studied in 1,071 sperms by multicolor FISH. The most frequent segregation patterns were alternate (47.5%) and adjacent 1 (41.9%), while adjacent 2 and 3:1 were less frequent at 1.2 and 9.2%, respectively. Surprisingly, the frequency of the adjacent-1 segregation appeared to be relatively high, when compared with human and pig reciprocal translocations studied by sperm FISH. Our study, along with a review of the literature, shows that a reduction of fertility in the carriers and the incidence of different segregation patterns of the quadrivalent may vary within a broad range, and both aspects seem to be unrelated. A need for obligatory karyotype screening programs of artificial insemination boars is emphasized. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Informatics-Aided Density Functional Theory Study on the Li Ion Transport of Tavorite-Type LiMTO4F (M(3+)-T(5+), M(2+)-T(6+)).

    PubMed

    Jalem, Randy; Kimura, Mayumi; Nakayama, Masanobu; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2015-06-22

    The ongoing search for fast Li-ion conducting solid electrolytes has driven the deployment surge on density functional theory (DFT) computation and materials informatics for exploring novel chemistries before actual experimental testing. Existing structure prototypes can now be readily evaluated beforehand not only to map out trends on target properties or for candidate composition selection but also for gaining insights on structure-property relationships. Recently, the tavorite structure has been determined to be capable of a fast Li ion insertion rate for battery cathode applications. Taking this inspiration, we surveyed the LiMTO4F tavorite system (M(3+)-T(5+) and M(2+)-T(6+) pairs; M is nontransition metals) for solid electrolyte use, identifying promising compositions with enormously low Li migration energy (ME) and understanding how structure parameters affect or modulate ME. We employed a combination of DFT computation, variable interaction analysis, graph theory, and a neural network for building a crystal structure-based ME prediction model. Candidate compositions that were predicted include LiGaPO4F (0.25 eV), LiGdPO4F (0.30 eV), LiDyPO4F (0.30 eV), LiMgSO4F (0.21 eV), and LiMgSeO4F (0.11 eV). With chemical substitutions at M and T sites, competing effects among Li pathway bottleneck size, polyanion covalency, and local lattice distortion were determined to be crucial for controlling ME. A way to predict ME for multiple structure types within the neural network framework was also explored.

  14. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted).

    PubMed

    Ark, B; Gummere, G; Bennett, D; Artzt, K

    1991-06-01

    Pim-1 is an oncogene activated in mouse T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney and AKR mink cell focus (MCF) viruses. Pim-1 was previously mapped to chromosome 17 by somatic cell hybrids, and subsequently to the region between the hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 4 (Hba-4ps) and the alpha-crystalline gene (Crya-1) by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from panels of recombinant inbred strains. We have now mapped Pim-1 more accurately in t-haplotypes by analysis of recombinant t-chromosomes. The recombinants were derived from Tts6tf/t12 parents backcrossed to + tf/ + tf, and scored for recombination between the loci of T and tf. For simplicity all t-complex lethal genes properly named tcl-tx are shortened to tx. The Pim-1 gene was localized 0.6 cM proximal to the tw12 lethal gene, thus placing the Pim-1 gene 5.2 cM distal to the H-2 region in t-haplotypes. Once mapped, the Pim-1 gene was used as a marker for further genetic analysis of t-haplotypes. tw12 is so close to tf that even with a large number of recombinants it was not possible to determine whether it is proximal or distal to tf. Southern blot analysis of DNA from T-tf recombinants with a separation of tw12 and tf indicated that tw12 is proximal to tf. The mapping of two allelic t-lethals, t0 and t6 with respect to tw12 and tf has also been a problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A B3GALT6 variant in patient originally described as Al-Gazali syndrome and implicating the endoplasmic reticulum quality control in the mechanism of some β3GalT6-pathy mutations.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mahmoud, A; Ben-Salem, S; Al-Sorkhy, M; John, A; Ali, B R; Al-Gazali, L

    2018-06-01

    Al-Gazali syndrome encompasses several clinical features including prenatal growth retardation, large joints contractures with camptodactyly, bilateral talipes equinovarus, small mouth, anterior segment anomalies of the eyes, and early lethality. Recently, a baby with features very similar to Al-Gazali syndrome was found to have compound heterozygous variants in B3GALT6. This gene encodes Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 6 (β3GalT6), an essential component of the glycosaminoglycan synthesis pathway. Pathogenic variants in B3GALT6 have also been shown to cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type (spEDS-B3GALT6) and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type I (SEMD-JL1). In 2017, a new international classification of EDS included these 2 conditions together with the child reported to have features similar to Al-Gazali syndrome under spondylodysplastic EDS (spEDS). We report a disease-causing variant c.618C > G, p.(Cys206Trp) in 1 patient originally described as Al-Gazali syndrome and reported in 1999. We evaluated the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation, in the pathogenesis of 13 B3GALT6 variants. Retention in endoplasmic reticulum was evident in 6 of them while the c.618C > G, p.(Cys206Trp) and the other 6 variants trafficked normally. Our findings confirm the involvement of B3GALT6 in the pathogenesis of Al-Gazali syndrome and suggest that Al-Gazali syndrome represents the severe end of the spectrum of the phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in this gene. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 7075-T6 and 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Wright, Christopher W.; Johnston, William M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental test procedures for the development of fatigue crack growth rate data has been standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Over the past 30 years several gradual changes have been made to the standard without rigorous assessment of the affect these changes have on the precision or variability of the data generated. Therefore, the ASTM committee on fatigue crack growth has initiated an international round robin test program to assess the precision and variability of test results generated using the standard E647-00. Crack growth rate data presented in this report, in support of the ASTM roundrobin, shows excellent precision and repeatability.

  17. Initial, Cockpit Anthropometric Assessment of U.S. Navy T-6 Life Support Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-05

    DEP was not specified. Zone 1, 2, and 3 reach conditions to controls and pedals and clearances were in accordance with military standard...functional leg reach as operation of pedals ; cockpit volume clearances, including ejection clearances not striking objects unintention-ally; and overhead...was measured from knee to any obstruction. Reach to pedals was measured from a position where full control was achieved. Arm reach was measured for

  18. Recreation Expenditures by U. S. Consumers, 1929-l979. Publication T-6-135.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, James W.; And Others

    This study explored trends in how Americans spent disposable personal income (DPI) on recreational activities from 1929 to 1979. Statistics were compiled from the Economic Report of the President and the United States Department of Commerce. Twelve classifications of recreation expenditures are presented: (1) books and maps; (2) magazines,…

  19. Homogeneity of Mechanical Properties of Underwater Friction Stir Welded 2219-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. J.; Zhang, H. J.; Yu, L.

    2011-11-01

    Underwater friction stir welding (FSW) has been demonstrated to be available for the improvement in tensile strength of normal FSW joints. In order to illuminate the intrinsic reason for strength improvement through underwater FSW, a 2219 aluminum alloy was underwater friction stir welded and the homogeneity of mechanical properties of the joint was investigated by dividing the joint into three layers. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the three layers of the joint is all improved by underwater FSW, furthermore, the middle and lower layers have larger extent of strength improvement than the upper layer, leading to an increase in the homogeneity of mechanical properties of the joint. The minimum hardness value of each layer, especially the middle and lower layers, is improved under the integral water cooling effect, which is the intrinsic reason for the strength improvement of underwater joint.

  20. Environmental Assessment T-1, T-6, and T-37 Aircraft Operations at Perry Municipal Airport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    110 Rock Band - 1- 100 Inside Subway Train (New York) Gas Lawn Mower at 3 ft. Diesel Truck at 50 ft. - 1- 90 Food Blender at 3 ft. Noisy Urban...Daytime - 1- 80 Garbage Disposal at 3 ft. Shouting at 3 ft. Gas Lawn Mower at 100ft. Vacuum Cleaner at 10ft. - 1- 70 Commercial Area Normal

  1. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 High Strength Aluminum Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Corrosion Fatigue Corrosion fatigue is defined as the failure of metal due to a cyclical load in combination with exposure to a caustic environment...lifetime is spent creating the crack while the actual crack growth makes up a smaller portion of the total lifetime. With corrosion fatigue however

  2. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue with Different Phases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    defined by the angle = ∗ at which the stress component σθθ(θ) takes the maximum value, according to Erdogan and Sih [10] (Figure 2.7). Thus, to...find the crack propagation direction according to Erdogan and Sih criterion, the following equation is used: 24 � =∗ = 0 (2.27...becomes: Erdogan and Sih criterion: ∗ = −2 KII KI + 4.6667 � KII KI � 3 + ⋯ (2.36) Sih Cha criterion: ∗ = −2 KII KI + 8.7271 � KII KI � 3

  3. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    al. examined the effect of biaxial loading on the fatigue crack growth [52]. They conducted their fatigue tests on SUS 304 stainless steel using a...specimens. Their experiments were carried out on cruciform test coupons using a digitally controlled four actuator biaxial testing system. Steel ...as shown in Figure 3.7. The test specimen was placed between two stainless steel chambers. These chambers were connected together using screws, and

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brown dwarfs with spectral type later than T6 (Leggett+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Tremblin, P.; Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Morley, C. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present the new GNIRS and FLAMINGOS-2 spectra and the new NIRI photometry in section 4 (see also table 1). We obtained a 0.95<=λ(um)<=2.5 spectrum using GNIRS at Gemini North on 2016 December 24 and 25 via program GN-2016B-Q-46 for WISEAJ041022.75+150247.9 with R~700. We also obtained near-infrared spectra for WISEJ071322.55-291751.9 and WISEAJ114156.67-332635.5 using FLAMINGOS-2 at Gemini South on 2017 February 3 and 7, via program GS-2017A-FT-2. The JH grism was used giving R~600. We obtained photometry for WISE J085510.83-071442.5 on Gemini North using NIRI at Y and CH4(short) via program GN-2016A-Q-50, and at M' via program GN-2016A-FT-10 between 2015 December and 2016 March. The M' data for a sample of T and Y dwarfs was obtained via program GN-2016B-Q-46 using NIRI on Gemini North. Finally, we obtained H data for the Y1 WISEA J064723.24-623235.4 using FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini South, which were presented in Leggett+ (2013ApJ...763..130L). We also obtained new photometry from HST/WFC3, ESO VLT HAWK-I and Spitzer/IRAC and WISE archives; see section 5 and tables 2 and 3. (7 data files).

  5. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Notched Hole in 7075 T6 Under Different Biaxial Stress Ratios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-18

    structure [24]. 4 Researchers have already started studying crack propagation and the affect of environments on the crack growth behavior [24]. In this...saltwater environment have been started to be conducted [24, 25]. Many of these studies have focused on positive biaxial loading cases . No conclusive...between positive biaxial loading cases and negative biaxial loading cases having the same experimental setup, to study the effect of negative

  6. Integral Color Anodizing of Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6 Upper Receivers of the M16A1 Rifle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    and control upper receivers were carried, fired, and maintained by soldiers in the field undergoing basic and advanced Infantry training and by other...soldiers undergoing Ranger training . The test and control items were subjected to typical field usage conditions involving rough handhng, firing...ICA hardcoat treatment will provide a longer inservice life for the M16A1 rifle receivers than will the low- temperature hardcoat process. 12

  7. The effects of maintaining temperature in annealing heat treatment for an FSWed 6061-T6 Al alloy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Han, Min-Su; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2013-08-01

    The technological development of all kinds of lightweight transportation devices including vehicles, aircraft, ships, etc. has progressed markedly with the demand for energy saving and environmental protection. Aluminum alloy is in the spotlight as it is a suitable environmentally friendly material. However, deformation is a major problem during the welding process because aluminum alloy has a large thermal expansion coefficient. In addition, it is known that its corrosion resistance is excellent; nevertheless, in practice, considerable corrosion is generated and this is a major problem. To solve this problem, the friction stir welding (FSW) technology is applied extensively at various industrial fields as a new welding technique. This method involves a process in which materials are joined by frictional heat and physical force. Therefore, we evaluated improvements in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance through annealing heat treatment after FSW. The electrochemical experiment did not show a significant difference. However, the microstructure observation showed defectless, fine crystal particles, indicating excellent properties at 200-225°C.

  8. External And Internal Work Of A T-6 Paraplegic Propelling A Wheelchair And Arm Cranking A Cycle Ergometer: Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Charles W.

    1982-02-01

    In this, the International Year of the Disabled, attention is directed among other areas toward rehabilitation and sports participation of wheelchair users. As an application of movement analysis in medicine and rehabilitation and as an application of sports research using biomechanics, this investigation was performed to compare the results of two methods of gathering data on the stress of wheelchair propelling at equivalent work loads and to account for differences in physiological responses with a mechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling. Physiological data collected were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. A biomechanical cinematography analysis was used to determine external work in wheelchair propelling and to determine the extent to which modifications in segment actionsoccurred during increasing magnitude of work. A cycle ergometer was adjusted to replicate external work loads performed during wheelchair propelling. A t-test of equivalent external work loads indicated that heart rate was not different between the two exercise modes at the .05 level of significance. The t-test did indicate a significant difference in systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product at the .05 level of significance. The biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling established that an increase in external work was accomplished by a decrease in the range of motion and an increase in the speed of movement. During cycle ergometry the range and speed of movement remained the same while resistance was increased. Results of the study established that while heart rate for equivalent external work loads was the same for wheelchair propelling and arm cranking cycle ergometry, systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product were not the same. The suggestion was that some means of propelling a wheelchair other than that which is con-sidered "standard" might be considered which produces less stressful responses in wheelchair users.

  9. Discernible but limited introgression has occurred where Trichinella nativa and the T6 genotype occur in sympatry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic diversity within and among parasite populations provides clues to their evolutionary history. Here, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial and microsatellite variation could be used to evaluate the extent of differentiation, gene flow and historical reproductive isolation among the...

  10. On binding specificity of (6-4) photolyase to a T(6-4)T DNA photoproduct*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, Katrine Aalbæk; Solov'yov, Ilia A.

    2017-06-01

    Different factors lead to DNA damage and if it is not repaired in due time, the damaged DNA could initiate mutagenesis and cancer. To avoid this deadly scenario, specific enzymes can scavenge and repair the DNA, but the enzymes have to bind first to the damaged sites. We have investigated this binding for a specific enzyme called (6-4) photolyase, which is capable of repairing certain UV-induced damage in DNA. Through molecular dynamics simulations we describe the binding between photolyase and the DNA and reveal that several charged amino acid residues in the enzyme, such as arginines and lysines turn out to be important. Especially R421 is crucial, as it keeps the DNA strands at the damaged site inside the repair pocket of the enzyme separated. DNA photolyase is structurally highly homologous to a protein called cryptochrome. Both proteins are biologically activated similarly, namely through flavin co-factor photoexcitation. It is, however, striking that cryptochrome cannot repair UV-damaged DNA. The present investigation allowed us to conclude on the small but, apparently, critical differences between photolyase and cryptochrome. The performed analysis gives insight into important factors that govern the binding of UV-damaged DNA and reveal why cryptochrome cannot have this functionality.

  11. Enhancing Friction Stir Weldability of 6061-T6 Al and AZ31B Mg Alloys Assisted by External Non-rotational Shoulder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shude; Huang, Ruofei; Meng, Xiangchen; Zhang, Liguo; Huang, Yongxian

    2017-05-01

    In order to increase cooling rate and then reduce the amounts of intermetallic compounds, external non-rotational shoulder tool system derived from traditional tool in friction stir welding was used to join dissimilar Al and Mg alloys. In this study, based on the external non-rotational shoulder, the weldability of Al and Mg alloys was significantly improved. The non-rotational shoulder tool is propitious to make more materials into weld, increase cooling rate and then reduce material adhesion of rotational pin, obtaining sound joint with smaller flashes and smooth surface. Importantly, the thickness of intermetallic compounds layer is reduced compared with traditional tool. Meanwhile, hardness values of dissimilar joint present uneven distribution, resulting from complex intercalated structures in nugget zone (NZ) featured by intermetallic compound layers and fine recrystallized Mg and Al grains. Compared with traditional tool, non-rotational shoulder is beneficial to higher tensile properties of joint. Due to the intermetallic compound layer formed in the interface of Al-Mg, the welding joint easily fractures at the NZ, presenting the typical brittle fracture mode.

  12. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects induced by a non terpenoid polar extract of A. indica seeds on 3T6 murine fibroblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Di Ilio, Vincenzo; Pasquariello, Nicoletta; van der Esch, Andrew S; Cristofaro, Massimo; Scarsella, Gianfranco; Risuleo, Gianfranco

    2006-07-01

    Neem oil is a natural product obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its composition is very complex and the oil exhibits a number of biological activities. The most studied component is the terpenoid azadirachtin which is used for its insecticidal and putative antimicrobial properties. In this report we investigate the biological activity of partially purified components of the oil obtained from A. indica. We show that the semi-purified fractions have moderate to strong cytotoxicity. However, this is not attributable to azadirachtin but to other active compounds present in the mixture. Each fraction was further purified by appropriate extraction procedures and we observed a differential cytotoxicity in the various sub-fractions. This led us to investigate the mode of cell death. After treatment with the oil fractions we observed positivity to TUNEL staining and extensive internucleosomal DNA degradation both indicating apoptotic death. The anti-proliferative properties of the neem oil-derived compounds were also assayed by evaluation of the nuclear PCNA levels (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). PCNA is significantly reduced in cells treated with a specific fraction of neem oil. Finally, our results strongly suggest a possible involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in the apoptotic death.

  13. Modelisation numerique des phenomenes physiques du soudage par friction-malaxage et comportement en fatigue de joints soudes en aluminium 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemme, Frederic

    The aim of the present research project is to increase the amount of fundamental knowledge regarding the process by getting a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved in friction stir welding (FSW). Such knowledge is required to improve the process in the context of industrial applications. In order to do so, the first part of the project is dedicated to a theoretical study of the process, while the microstructure and the mechanical properties of welded joints obtained in different welding conditions are measured and analyzed in the second part. The combination of the tool rotating and translating movements induces plastic deformation and heat generation of the welded material. The material thermomechanical history is responsible for metallurgical phenomena occurring during FSW such as recrystallization and precipitate dissolution and coarsening. Process modelling is used to reproduce this thermomechanical history in order to predict the influence of welding on the material microstructure. It is helpful to study heat generation and heat conduction mechanisms and to understand how joint properties are related to them. In the current work, a finite element numerical model based on solid mechanics has been developed to compute the thermomechanical history of the welded material. The computation results were compared to reference experimental data in order to validate the model and to calibrate unknown physical parameters. The model was used to study the effect of the friction coefficient on the thermomechanical history. Results showed that contact conditions at the workpiece/tool interface have a strong effect on relative amounts of heat generated by friction and by plastic deformation. The comparison with the experimental torque applied by the tool for different rotational speeds has shown that the friction coefficient decreases when the rotational speed increases. Consequently, heat generation is far more important near the material/tool interface and the material deformation is shallower, increasing the lack of penetration probability. The variation of thermomechanical conditions with regards to the rotational speed is responsible for the variation of the nugget shape, as recrystallization conditions are not reached in the same volume of material. The second part of the research project was dedicated to a characterization of the welded joints microstructure and mechanical properties. Sound joints were obtained by using a manufacturing procedure involving process parameters optimization and quality control of the joint integrity. Five different combinations of rotational and advancing speeds were studied. Microstructure observations have shown that the rotational speed has an effect on recrystallization conditions because of the variation of the contact conditions at the material/tool interface. On the other hand, the advancing speed has a strong effect on the precipitation state in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The heat input increases when the advancing speed decreases. The material softening in the HAZ is then more pronounced. Mechanical testing of the welded joints showed that the fatigue resistance increases when the rotational speed increases and the advancing speed decreases. The fatigue resistance of FSW joints mainly depends on the ratio of the advancing speed on the rotational speed, called the welding pitch k. When the welding pitch is high (k ≥ 0,66 mm/rev), the fatigue resistance depends on crack initiation at the root of circular grooves left by the tool on the weld surface. The size of these grooves is directly related to the welding pitch. When the welding pitch is low (k ≤ 0,2 mm/rev), the heat input is high and the fatigue resistance is limited by the HAZ softening. The fatigue resistance is optimized when k stands in the 0,25-0,30 mm/rev range. Outside that range, the presence of small lateral lips is critical. The results of the characterization part of the project showed that the effects of the applied vertical force on the formation of lateral lips should be submitted to further investigations. The elimination of the lateral lip, which could be achieved with a more precise adjustment of the vertical force, could lead to an improved fatigue resistance. The elimination of lateral lips, but also the circular grooves left by the tool, may be obtained by developing an appropriate surfacing technique and could lead to an improved fatigue resistance without reducing the advancing speed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. [A nurse's experience using the super-link system theory to help a T6 spinal cord injury patient return to school].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Yeh; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Sung, Shi-Hui; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2010-04-01

    The subject of this article is a 20 year-old female with thoracic spinal cord injury with paraplegia suffered during a car accident. The article reports on the nursing experience in helping the patient manage her autonomic dysreflexia (AD), training the patient in self-catheterization, and using relevant social resources in order to achieve a successful return to her studies at school. The authors collected data using interviews, observations, and physical assessments between November 20 and December 30, 2008. The two nursing diagnoses of AD and inadequate preparation for a successful return to school during rehabilitation hospitalization were made during caring procedures. Holistic nursing assessment was employed and the Super-Link System Theory was applied to establish a link between the hospital and school. Individual nursing interventions used included understanding the inducement and treatment of AD, performing self-catheterization, and enhancing the support system by introducing successful clients and relevant social resources in order to transition the patient successfully to her new post-injury life. The patient consequently transitioned smoothly from rehabilitation hospital to school. The authors hope this case report will provide a useful reference for nurses charged with caring for patients with spinal cord injuries while still enrolled at school.

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR LABORATORY ASSISTANT TRAINING PLAN--GENERAL (UA-T-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the training sequence of incoming student laboratory assistants. The procedure is designed to provide them with an overview of the project in terms of project goals, structure, and laboratory needs. This overview familiarizes the student l...

  16. Effect of Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate at Notched Hole in 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy Under Biaxial Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-18

    Taylor and Lee studied the effect of in-plane stress biaxility on the fatigue life [22]. Research in this subject is going on but no research done to...closer picture to the hole, notch, pre -crack and the crack in one of the specimens in Abaqus program...which is the scope of this research , using fracture mechanics approach. 6 To achieve the purpose of this study , the specimen has to be test

  17. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR LABORATORY ASSISTANT TRAINING PLAN--GENERAL (UA-T-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the training sequence of incoming student laboratory assistants. The procedure is designed to provide them with an overview of the project in terms of project goals, structure, and laboratory needs. This overview familiarizes the student l...

  18. Spin Forming of an Aluminum 2219-T6 Aft Bulkhead for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Phase II Supplemental Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Squire, Michael D.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the aft bulkhead of the pressure vessel. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) 2219 aft bulkhead which will eliminate the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design that will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating welds. Phase I of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece forward pressure vessel bulkhead from aluminum-lithium 2195.

  19. Application of in situ thermography for evaluating the high-cycle and very high-cycle fatigue behaviour of cast aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg (T6).

    PubMed

    Krewerth, D; Weidner, A; Biermann, H

    2013-12-01

    The present paper illustrates the application of infrared thermal measurements for the investigation of crack initiation point and crack propagation in the high-cycle and the very high-cycle fatigue range of cast AlSi7Mg alloy (A356). The influence of casting defects, their location, size and amount was studied both by fractography and thermography. Besides internal and surface fatigue crack initiation as a further crack initiation type multiple fatigue crack initiation was observed via in situ thermography which can be well correlated with the results from fractography obtained by SEM investigations. In addition, crack propagation was studied by the development of the temperature measured via thermography. Moreover, the frequency influence on high-cycle fatigue behaviour was investigated. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and thermography can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of crack initiation and propagation in the VHCF regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MiT translocation renal cell carcinomas: two subgroups of tumours with translocations involving 6p21 [t (6; 11)] and Xp11.2 [t (X;1 or X or 17)].

    PubMed

    Hora, Milan; Urge, Tomáš; Trávníček, Ivan; Ferda, Jiří; Chudáček, Zdeněk; Vaněček, Tomáš; Michal, Michal; Petersson, Fredrik; Kuroda, Naoto; Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    MiT translocation renal cell carcinomas (TRCC) predominantly occur in younger patients with only 25% of patients being over 40 years. TRCC contains two main subgroups with translocations involving 6p21 or Xp11.2. Herein we present 10 cases. Eight cases were treated at main author's institution (identified among 1653 (0.48%) cases of kidney tumours in adults). Two cases were retrieved from the Pilsen (CZ) Tumour Registry. Six cases were type Xp11.2 and four 6p21; 7 female, 3 male patients; Xp11.2 4:2, 6p21 3:1. The mean age 49 years (range: 21-80), 5 patients (50%) over 40 years. The mean age of the group with Xp11.2 TRCCs was 55 (median 51) and 6p21 41 (32) years. One female with a 6p21 tumour (24 years) underwent nephrectomy at 4 months of pregnancy. Stage (UICC, 7th ed. 2009) was 5xI, 3xIII, 2xIV. The mean size of tumour was 80 (40-165) mm. The mean follow-up was 33.2 (1-92) months. In patients with 6p21 tumours, one (25%) died after 3 months due to widely metastatic disease. In patients with Xp11.2 tumours, 3 (50%) succumbed due to metastatic disease (range 1-8 months). Three patients with Xp11.2 are alive at 7, 52 and 92 months of follow-up, were diagnosed at early stage (T1a). TRCCs were more common in females. Patient with 6p21 tumours were younger than those with Xp11.2. Both types have definitive malignant potential Type Xp11.2 seems to be a more aggressive neoplasm than 6p21. The case with metastatic 6p21 tumour is the 4th case described in the English literature.

  1. An investigation of strain cycling behavior of 7075-T6 aluminum under combined state of strain: The effects of out-of-phase, biaxial strain cycling on low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamrik, S. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of out-of-phase strain cycling on the low cycle fatigue of biaxially loaded specimens is discussed. A method to apply phase angles between two strains imposed in two different directions was developed. The data and the proposed theoretical analysis are part of a research program on biaxial strain cycling effect on fatigue life of structural materials.

  2. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type VI Secretion System 1 Is Activated in Marine Conditions to Target Bacteria, and Is Differentially Regulated from System 2

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Gonzalez, Herman; Updegraff, Barrett L.; Orth, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium that thrives in warm climates. It is a leading cause of gastroenteritis resulting from consumption of contaminated uncooked shellfish. This bacterium harbors two putative type VI secretion systems (T6SS). T6SSs are widespread protein secretion systems found in many Gram-negative bacteria, and are often tightly regulated. For many T6SSs studied to date, the conditions and cues, as well as the regulatory mechanisms that control T6SS activity are unknown. In this study, we characterized the environmental conditions and cues that activate both V. parahaemolyticus T6SSs, and identified regulatory mechanisms that control T6SS gene expression and activity. We monitored the expression and secretion of the signature T6SS secreted proteins Hcp1 and Hcp2, and found that both T6SSs are differentially regulated by quorum sensing and surface sensing. We also showed that T6SS1 and T6SS2 require different temperature and salinity conditions to be active. Interestingly, T6SS1, which is found predominantly in clinical isolates, was most active under warm marine-like conditions. Moreover, we found that T6SS1 has anti-bacterial activity under these conditions. In addition, we identified two transcription regulators in the T6SS1 gene cluster that regulate Hcp1 expression, but are not required for immunity against self-intoxication. Further examination of environmental isolates revealed a correlation between the presence of T6SS1 and virulence of V. parahaemolyticus against other bacteria, and we also showed that different V. parahaemolyticus isolates can outcompete each other. We propose that T6SS1 and T6SS2 play different roles in the V. parahaemolyticus lifestyles, and suggest a role for T6SS1 in enhancing environmental fitness of V. parahaemolyticus in marine environments when competing for a niche in the presence of other bacterial populations. PMID:23613791

  3. Role of the type VI secretion systems during disease interactions of Erwinia amylovora with its plant host.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Pelludat, Cosima; Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-08-17

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria and have a potential role as essential virulence factors or to maintain symbiotic interactions. Three T6SS gene clusters were identified in the genome of E. amylovora CFBP 1430, of which T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 represent complete T6SS machineries, while T6SS-2 is reduced in its gene content. To assess the contribution of T6SSs to virulence and potential transcriptomic changes of E. amylovora CFBP 1430, single and double mutants in two structural genes were generated for T6SS-1 and T6SS-3. Plant assays showed that mutants in T6SS-3 were slightly more virulent in apple shoots while inducing less disease symptoms on apple flowers, indicating that T6SSs have only a minor effect on virulence of E. amylovora CFBP 1430. The mutations led under in vitro conditions to the differential expression of type III secretion systems, iron acquisition, chemotaxis, flagellar, and fimbrial genes. Comparison of the in planta and in vitro transcriptome data sets revealed a common differential expression of three processes and a set of chemotaxis and motility genes. Additional experiments proved that T6SS mutants are impaired in their motility. These results suggest that the deletion of T6SSs alters metabolic and motility processes. Nevertheless, the difference in lesion development in apple shoots and flower necrosis of T6SS mutants was indicative that T6SSs influences the disease progression and the establishment of the pathogen on host plants.

  4. Environmental Assessment Installation Development and Base Realignment and Closure Actions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    T -6 Basing and Operation ( T -6 E A). T he FONSl for the T -6 E A was s igned June 6. 2004. Constm ction...training and a ircraft operations up to the levels assessed in the T -6 E A. JFf program T -3 8 a ircrews would use the Navy’ s N ox ubee County Target... operations wi ll occur at the max imum stu dent pi lo t production levels assessed in the T -6 EA. T he max imum base populat ion wi ll be 7,47

  5. H-NS regulates the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type VI secretion system 1

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Klimko, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, employs a type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), a recently discovered protein secretion system, to combat competing bacteria. Environmental signals such as temperature, salinity, cell density and surface sensing, as well as the quorum-sensing master regulator OpaR, were previously reported to regulate T6SS1 activity and expression. In this work, we set out to identify additional transcription regulators that control the tightly regulated T6SS1 activity. To this end, we determined the effect of deletions in several known virulence regulators and in two regulators encoded within the T6SS1 gene cluster on expression and secretion of the core T6SS component Hcp1 and on T6SS1-mediated anti-bacterial activity. We report that VP1391 and VP1407, transcriptional regulators encoded within the T6SS1 gene cluster, are essential for T6SS1 activity. Moreover, we found that H-NS, a bacterial histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, which mediates transcription silencing of horizontally acquired genes, serves as a repressor of T6SS1. We also show that activation of surface sensing and high salt conditions alleviate the H-NS-mediated repression. Our results shed light on the complex network of environmental signals and transcription regulators that govern the tight regulation over T6SS1 activity. PMID:24987102

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Type VI System Clusters and Effectors in Burkholderia Species.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao Thi; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung; Seo, Young-Su

    2018-02-01

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs) are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL) were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM) of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif) (MIX T6SEs), 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

  7. Altering Trehalose-6-Phosphate Content in Transgenic Potato Tubers Affects Tuber Growth and Alters Responsiveness to Hormones during Sprouting1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Debast, Stefan; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Börnke, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is a signaling metabolite that regulates carbon metabolism, developmental processes, and growth in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), T6P signaling is, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of the SNF1-related protein kinase SnRK1. To investigate the role of T6P signaling in a heterotrophic, starch-accumulating storage organ, transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants with altered T6P levels specifically in their tubers were generated. Transgenic lines with elevated T6P levels (B33-TPS, expressing Escherichia coli osmoregulatory trehalose synthesis A [OtsA], which encodes a T6P synthase) displayed reduced starch content, decreased ATP contents, and increased respiration rate diagnostic for high metabolic activity. On the other hand, lines with significantly reduced T6P (B33-TPP, expressing E. coli OtsB, which encodes a T6P phosphatase) showed accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, hexose phosphates, and ATP, no change in starch when calculated on a fresh weight basis, and a strongly reduced tuber yield. [14C]Glucose feeding to transgenic tubers indicated that carbon partitioning between starch and soluble carbohydrates was not altered. Transcriptional profiling of B33-TPP tubers revealed that target genes of SnRK1 were strongly up-regulated and that T6P inhibited potato tuber SnRK1 activity in vitro. Among the SnRK1 target genes in B33-TPP tubers, those involved in the promotion of cell proliferation and growth were down-regulated, while an inhibitor of cell cycle progression was up-regulated. T6P-accumulating tubers were strongly delayed in sprouting, while those with reduced T6P sprouted earlier than the wild type. Early sprouting of B33-TPP tubers correlated with a reduced abscisic acid content. Collectively, our data indicate that T6P plays an important role for potato tuber growth. PMID:21670224

  8. Damage Tolerance Predictions for Spar Web Cracking in a Diminishing Stress Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    specimen crack. ....................... 40  28 NASGRO material file inputs for 7075 -T6 aluminum . .................................... 43  29 AFGROW...2024-T3511 aluminum end caps riveted to stiffened 7075 -T6 sheet metal aluminum webs. The cap-to-web attachment consisted of a double row of MS20470D8...section stress constant as the cracks 43 Fig. 28 NASGRO material file inputs for 7075 -T6 aluminum . grow. In this case, cracks are assumed to

  9. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... approximately 0.25 mile to its intersection with a trail and the 3,800-foot elevation line, T6N, R13W; then (9... mile to its intersection with the 3,600-foot elevation line, T6N, R14W; then (15) Proceed northwest... north boundary line 0.35 mile to its intersection with the 3,600-foot elevation line, T6N, R14W; then...

  10. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... approximately 0.25 mile to its intersection with a trail and the 3,800-foot elevation line, T6N, R13W; then (9... mile to its intersection with the 3,600-foot elevation line, T6N, R14W; then (15) Proceed northwest... north boundary line 0.35 mile to its intersection with the 3,600-foot elevation line, T6N, R14W; then...

  11. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... approximately 0.25 mile to its intersection with a trail and the 3,800-foot elevation line, T6N, R13W; then (9... mile to its intersection with the 3,600-foot elevation line, T6N, R14W; then (15) Proceed northwest... north boundary line 0.35 mile to its intersection with the 3,600-foot elevation line, T6N, R14W; then...

  12. Minutes of the Conference on the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue (10th) Held in Melbourne, Australia on May 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-02-01

    Effects A room temperature, axial-loading low-cycle fatigue investigation on 2024 -T4 and 7075--T6 aluminum alloys ...Hudson, C. Michael: Investigation of the Effect of Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth in 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy . To be presented at Symposium on...Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth and Mode of Fracture in 2024 -T4 and 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloys in the Low-Cycle Range. Air Force Materials Laboratory

  13. Some observations on loss of static strength due to fatigue cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illg, Walter; Hardrath, Herbert F

    1955-01-01

    Static tensile tests were performed on simple notched specimens containing fatigue cracks. Four types of aluminum alloys were investigated: 2024-T3(formerly 24S-T3) and 7075-T6(formerly 75S-T6) in sheet form, and 2024-T4(formerly 24S-T4) and 7075-T6(formerly 75S-T6) in extruded form. The cracked specimens were tested statically under four conditions: unmodified and with reduced eccentricity of loading by three methods. Results of static tests on C-46 wings containing fatigue cracks are also reported.

  14. Type VI secretion systems of human gut Bacteroidales segregate into three genetic architectures, two of which are contained on mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Michael J; Roelofs, Kevin G; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-01-15

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are contact-dependent antagonistic systems employed by Gram negative bacteria to intoxicate other bacteria or eukaryotic cells. T6SSs were recently discovered in a few Bacteroidetes strains, thereby extending the presence of these systems beyond Proteobacteria. The present study was designed to analyze in a global nature the diversity, abundance, and properties of T6SSs in the Bacteroidales, the most predominant Gram negative bacterial order of the human gut. By performing extensive bioinformatics analyses and creating hidden Markov models for Bacteroidales Tss proteins, we identified 130 T6SS loci in 205 human gut Bacteroidales genomes. Of the 13 core T6SS proteins of Proteobacteria, human gut Bacteroidales T6SS loci encode orthologs of nine, and an additional five other core proteins not present in Proteobacterial T6SSs. The Bacteroidales T6SS loci segregate into three distinct genetic architectures with extensive DNA identity between loci of a given genetic architecture. We found that divergent DNA regions of a genetic architecture encode numerous types of effector and immunity proteins and likely include new classes of these proteins. TheT6SS loci of genetic architecture 1 are contained on highly similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), as are the T6SS loci of genetic architecture 2, whereas the T6SS loci of genetic architecture 3 are not and are confined to Bacteroides fragilis. Using collections of co-resident Bacteroidales strains from human subjects, we provide evidence for the transfer of genetic architecture 1 T6SS loci among co-resident Bacteroidales species in the human gut. However, we also found that established ecosystems can harbor strains with distinct T6SS of all genetic architectures. This is the first study to comprehensively analyze of the presence and diversity of T6SS loci within an order of bacteria and to analyze T6SSs of bacteria from a natural community. These studies demonstrate that more than

  15. Two Functional Type VI Secretion Systems in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Are Involved in Different Pathogenic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiale; Bao, Yinli; Sun, Min; Dong, Wenyang; Pan, Zihao; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2014-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several Gram-negative bacteria. The VgrG protein, a core component and effector of T6SS, has been demonstrated to perform diverse functions. The N-terminal domain of VgrG protein is a homologue of tail fiber protein gp27 of phage T4, which performs a receptor binding function and determines the host specificity. Based on sequence analysis, we found that two putative T6SS loci exist in the genome of the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain TW-XM. To assess the contribution of these two T6SSs to TW-XM pathogenesis, the crucial clpV clusters of these two T6SS loci and their vgrG genes were deleted to generate a series of mutants. Consequently, T6SS1-associated mutants presented diminished adherence to and invasion of several host cell lines cultured in vitro, decreased pathogenicity in duck and mouse infection models in vivo, and decreased biofilm formation and bacterial competitive advantage. In contrast, T6SS2-associated mutants presented a significant decrease only in the adherence to and invasion of mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) line bEnd.3 and brain tissue of the duck infection model. These results suggested that T6SS1 was involved in the proliferation of APEC in systemic infection, whereas VgrG-T6SS2 was responsible only for cerebral infection. Further study demonstrated that VgrG-T6SS2 was able to bind to the surface of bEnd.3 cells, whereas it did not bind to DF-1 (chicken embryo fibroblast) cells, which further proved the interaction of VgrG-T6SS2 with the surface of BMECs. PMID:24980972

  16. Assembly mechanism of FCT region type 1 pili in serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Masanobu; Kimura, Keiji Richard; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Wada, Satoshi; Sugauchi, Akinari; Oiki, Eiji; Higashino, Miharu; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Okahashi, Nobuo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Isoda, Ryutaro; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2011-10-28

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces diverse pili depending on the serotype. We investigated the assembly mechanism of FCT type 1 pili in a serotype M6 strain. The pili were found to be assembled from two precursor proteins, the backbone protein T6 and ancillary protein FctX, and anchored to the cell wall in a manner that requires both a housekeeping sortase enzyme (SrtA) and pilus-associated sortase enzyme (SrtB). SrtB is primarily required for efficient formation of the T6 and FctX complex and subsequent polymerization of T6, whereas proper anchoring of the pili to the cell wall is mainly mediated by SrtA. Because motifs essential for polymerization of pilus backbone proteins in other Gram-positive bacteria are not present in T6, we sought to identify the functional residues involved in this process. Our results showed that T6 encompasses the novel VAKS pilin motif conserved in streptococcal T6 homologues and that the lysine residue (Lys-175) within the motif and cell wall sorting signal of T6 are prerequisites for isopeptide linkage of T6 molecules. Because Lys-175 and the cell wall sorting signal of FctX are indispensable for substantial incorporation of FctX into the T6 pilus shaft, FctX is suggested to be located at the pilus tip, which was also implied by immunogold electron microscopy findings. Thus, the elaborate assembly of FCT type 1 pili is potentially organized by sortase-mediated cross-linking between sorting signals and the amino group of Lys-175 positioned in the VAKS motif of T6, thereby displaying T6 and FctX in a temporospatial manner.

  17. Genetic diversity and features analysis of type VI secretion systems loci in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli by wide genomic scanning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiale; Sun, Min; Bao, Yinli; Pan, Zihao; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2013-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains frequently cause extra-intestinal infections and significant economic losses. Recent studies revealed that the type VI secretion system (T6SS) is involved in APEC pathogenesis. Here we provide the first evidence of three distinguishable and conserved T6SS loci in APEC genomes. In addition, we present the prevalence and comparative genomic analysis of these three T6SS loci in 472 APEC isolates. The prevalence of T6SS1, T6SS2 and T6SS3 loci were 14.62% (69/472), 2.33% (11/472) and 0.85% (4/472) positive in the APEC collections, respectively, and revealed that >85% of the strains contained T6SS loci which consisted of the virulent phylogenetic groups D and B2. Comprehensive analysis showed prominent characteristics of T6SS1 locus, including wildly prevalence, rich sequence diversity, versatile VgrG islands and excellent expression competence in various E. coli pathotypes. Whereas the T6SS2 locus infatuated with ECOR groups B2 and sequence conservation, of which are only expressed in meningitis E. coli. Regrettably, the T6SS3 locus was encoded in negligible APEC isolates and lacked several key genes. An in-depth analysis about VgrG proteins indicated that their COG4253 and gp27 domain were involved in the transport of putative effector islands and recognition of host cells respectively, which revealed that VgrG proteins played an important role in functions formation of T6SS. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Constitutive type VI secretion system expression gives Vibrio cholerae intra- and interspecific competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kitaoka, Maya; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Moloney, Jessica; Sosa, Oscar; Silva, David; Duran-Gonzalez, Jorge; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae - the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date harbor gene clusters encoding a T6SS. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device suggest that the T6SS functions as a contractile molecular syringe to inject effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Regulation of the T6SS is critical. A subset of V. cholerae strains, including the clinical O37 serogroup strain V52, express T6SS constitutively. In contrast, pandemic strains impose tight control that can be genetically disrupted: mutations in the quorum sensing gene luxO and the newly described regulator gene tsrA lead to constitutive T6SS expression in the El Tor strain C6706. In this report, we examined environmental V. cholerae isolates from the Rio Grande with regard to T6SS regulation. Rough V. cholerae lacking O-antigen carried a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global T6SS regulator VasH and did not display virulent behavior towards Escherichia coli and other environmental bacteria. In contrast, smooth V. cholerae strains engaged constitutively in type VI-mediated secretion and displayed virulence towards prokaryotes (E. coli and other environmental bacteria) and a eukaryote (the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum). Furthermore, smooth V. cholerae strains were able to outcompete each other in a T6SS-dependent manner. The work presented here suggests that constitutive T6SS expression provides V. cholerae with an advantage in intraspecific and interspecific competition.

  19. The corrosion protection of several aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded 7075-T6, 7075-T3, 6061-T6, and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys by chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing was examined using electrochemical techniques. From these studies, it is concluded that sulfuric acid anodizing provides superior corrosion protection compared to chromic acid anodizing.

  20. Type VI Secretion Systems of Erwinia amylovora Contribute to Bacterial Competition, Virulence, and Exopolysaccharide Production.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Shi, Linye; Cui, Zhongli; Hu, Baishi; Zhao, Youfu

    2017-06-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) plays a major role in mediating interbacterial competition and might contribute to virulence in plant pathogenic bacteria. However, the role of T6SS in Erwinia amylovora remains unknown. In this study, 33 deletion mutants within three T6SS clusters were generated in E. amylovora strain NCPPB1665. Our results showed that all 33 mutants displayed reduced antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli as compared with that of the wild-type (WT) strain, indicating that Erwinia amylovora T6SS are functional. Of the 33 mutants, 19 exhibited reduced virulence on immature pear fruit as compared with that of the WT strain. Among them, 6, 1, and 12 genes belonged to T6SS-1, T6SS-2, and T6SS-3 clusters, respectively. Interestingly, these 19 mutants also produced less amylovoran or levan or both. These findings suggest that E. amylovora T6SS play a role in bacterial competition and virulence possibly by influencing exopolysaccharide production.

  1. 77 FR 53907 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal Modification and Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a message or question with either of the above individuals. You will receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Assistant Secretary... Howes Work Center T. 6 S., R. 45 E., section 24, and T. 6 S., R. 46 E., section 19, being more...

  2. Genomic analysis of the type VI secretion systems in Pseudomonas spp.: novel clusters and putative effectors uncovered.

    PubMed

    Barret, Matthieu; Egan, Frank; Fargier, Emilie; Morrissey, John P; O'Gara, Fergal

    2011-06-01

    Bacteria encode multiple protein secretion systems that are crucial for interaction with the environment and with hosts. In recent years, attention has focused on type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), which are specialized transporters widely encoded in Proteobacteria. The myriad of processes associated with these secretion systems could be explained by subclasses of T6SS, each involved in specialized functions. To assess diversity and predict function associated with different T6SSs, comparative genomic analysis of 34 Pseudomonas genomes was performed. This identified 70 T6SSs, with at least one locus in every strain, except for Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. By comparing 11 core genes of the T6SS, it was possible to identify five main Pseudomonas phylogenetic clusters, with strains typically carrying T6SSs from more than one clade. In addition, most strains encode additional vgrG and hcp genes, which encode extracellular structural components of the secretion apparatus. Using a combination of phylogenetic and meta-analysis of transcriptome datasets it was possible to associate specific subsets of VgrG and Hcp proteins with each Pseudomonas T6SS clade. Moreover, a closer examination of the genomic context of vgrG genes in multiple strains highlights a number of additional genes associated with these regions. It is proposed that these genes may play a role in secretion or alternatively could be new T6S effectors.

  3. Corrosion of Graphite Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    cathodic protection of G/AI MMCs resulted in overprotection 13. Overprotection resulted from a local increase in pH near cathodic sites during...34Cathodic Overprotection of SiC/6061-T6 and G/6061- T6 Aluminum Alloy Metal Matrix Composites," Scripta Metallurgica, 22 (1988) 413-418. 14. R

  4. 27 CFR 9.156 - Diablo Grande.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section 8, Township 6 South, Range 7 East (T. 6S., R. 7E.) on the Patterson Quadrangle U.S.G.S. map. (1... proceed due south past Copper Mountain in section 16, T. 6S., R. 6E., to Mikes Peak in section 4, T. 7S...

  5. 27 CFR 9.156 - Diablo Grande.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section 8, Township 6 South, Range 7 East (T. 6S., R. 7E.) on the Patterson Quadrangle U.S.G.S. map. (1... proceed due south past Copper Mountain in section 16, T. 6S., R. 6E., to Mikes Peak in section 4, T. 7S...

  6. 27 CFR 9.156 - Diablo Grande.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 8, Township 6 South, Range 7 East (T. 6S., R. 7E.) on the Patterson Quadrangle U.S.G.S. map. (1... proceed due south past Copper Mountain in section 16, T. 6S., R. 6E., to Mikes Peak in section 4, T. 7S...

  7. Campylobacter jejuni type VI secretion system: roles in adaptation to deoxycholic acid, host cell adherence, invasion, and in vivo colonization.

    PubMed

    Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Gamazon, Eric R; Feng, Yan; Park, Danny S; Pang, Jassia; Botka, Georgina; Graffam, Michelle E; Ge, Zhongming; Fox, James G

    2012-01-01

    The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) of proteobacteria has been shown to promote pathogenicity, competitive advantage over competing microorganisms, and adaptation to environmental perturbation. By detailed phenotypic characterization of loss-of-function mutants, in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses, we provide evidence that the enteric pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses a functional T6SS and that the secretion system exerts pleiotropic effects on two crucial processes--survival in a bile salt, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and host cell adherence and invasion. The expression of T6SS during initial exposure to the upper range of physiological levels of DCA (0.075%-0.2%) was detrimental to C. jejuni proliferation, whereas down-regulation or inactivation of T6SS enabled C. jejuni to resist this effect. The C. jejuni multidrug efflux transporter gene, cmeA, was significantly up-regulated during the initial exposure to DCA in the wild type C. jejuni relative to the T6SS-deficient strains, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation is the consequence of T6SS-mediated DCA influx. A sequential modulation of the efflux transporter activity and the T6SS represents, in part, an adaptive mechanism for C. jejuni to overcome this inhibitory effect, thereby ensuring its survival. C. jejuni T6SS plays important roles in host cell adhesion and invasion as T6SS inactivation resulted in a reduction of adherence to and invasion of in vitro cell lines, while over-expression of a hemolysin co-regulated protein, which encodes a secreted T6SS component, greatly enhanced these processes. When inoculated into B6.129P2-IL-10(tm1Cgn) mice, the T6SS-deficient C. jejuni strains did not effectively establish persistent colonization, indicating that T6SS contributes to colonization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of bacterial T6SS in host cell adhesion, invasion, colonization and, for the first time to our knowledge, adaptation to DCA

  8. The Type VI Secretion System Encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 19 Is Required for Salmonella enterica Serotype Gallinarum Survival within Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Carlos J.; Jiménez, Juan C.; Leiva, Lorenzo E.; Álvarez, Sergio A.; Pinto, Bernardo I.; Contreras, Francisca; Pezoa, David; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality that causes major economic losses in poultry production. We have reported that S. Gallinarum harbors a type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 (SPI-19) that is required for efficient colonization of chicks. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the SPI-19 T6SS functionality and to investigate the mechanisms behind the phenotypes previously observed in vivo. Expression analyses revealed that SPI-19 T6SS core components are expressed and produced under in vitro bacterial growth conditions. However, secretion of the structural/secreted components Hcp1, Hcp2, and VgrG to the culture medium could not be determined, suggesting that additional signals are required for T6SS-dependent secretion of these proteins. In vitro bacterial competition assays failed to demonstrate a role for SPI-19 T6SS in interbacterial killing. In contrast, cell culture experiments with murine and avian macrophages (RAW264.7 and HD11, respectively) revealed production of a green fluorescent protein-tagged version of VgrG soon after Salmonella uptake. Furthermore, infection of RAW264.7 and HD11 macrophages with deletion mutants of SPI-19 or strains with genes encoding specific T6SS core components (clpV and vgrG) revealed that SPI-19 T6SS contributes to S. Gallinarum survival within macrophages at 20 h postuptake. SPI-19 T6SS function was not linked to Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity or cell death of infected macrophages, as has been described for other T6SS. Our data indicate that SPI-19 T6SS corresponds to a novel tool used by Salmonella to survive within host cells. PMID:23357385

  9. Rational design of reversible inhibitors for trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunliang; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Mariano, Patrick S

    2017-03-10

    In some organisms, environmental stress triggers trehalose biosynthesis that is catalyzed collectively by trehalose 6-phosphate synthase, and trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP). T6PP catalyzes the hydrolysis of trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) to trehalose and inorganic phosphate and is a promising target for the development of antibacterial, antifungal and antihelminthic therapeutics. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of a library of aryl d-glucopyranoside 6-sulfates to serve as prototypes for small molecule T6PP inhibitors. Steady-state kinetic techniques were used to measure inhibition constants (K i ) of a panel of structurally diverse T6PP orthologs derived from the pathogens Brugia malayi, Ascaris suum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Shigella boydii and Salmonella typhimurium. The binding affinities of the most active inhibitor of these T6PP orthologs, 4-n-octylphenyl α-d-glucopyranoside 6-sulfate (9a), were found to be in the low micromolar range. The K i of 9a with the B. malayi T6PP ortholog is 5.3 ± 0.6 μM, 70-fold smaller than the substrate Michaelis constant. The binding specificity of 9a was demonstrated using several representative sugar phosphate phosphatases from the HAD enzyme superfamily, the T6PP protein fold family of origin. Lastly, correlations drawn between T6PP active site structure, inhibitor structure and inhibitor binding affinity suggest that the aryl d-glucopyranoside 6-sulfate prototypes will find future applications as a platform for development of tailored second-generation T6PP inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  11. Tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior of heat treated boron-aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, J. M.; Tenney, D. R.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the effects of heat treatment and cyclic mechanical loading on the tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior of six boron-aluminum composites having different laminate orientations and being subjected to different heat treatments. The heat treatments were as-fabricated, T6, and T6N consisting of T6 treatment followed by cryogenic quench in liquid nitrogen prior to testing. All laminates were tested in monotonic and cyclic compression, while the tensile-test data are taken from the literature for comparison purposes. It is shown that the linear elastic range of the T6- and T6N-condition specimens is larger than that of the as-fabricated specimens, and that cyclic loading in tension or compression strain hardens the specimens and extends the linear elastic range. For laminates containing 0-deg plies, the stress-strain behavior upon unloading is found to be nonlinear, whereas the other laminates exhibit a linear behavior upon unloading. Specimens in the T6 and T6N conditions show higher strain hardening than the as-fabricated specimens.

  12. An ERP Study of Good Production vis-à-vis Poor Perception of Tones in Cantonese: Implications for Top-Down Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana; Kung, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a theoretically challenging dissociation between good production and poor perception of tones among neurologically unimpaired native speakers of Cantonese. The dissociation is referred to as the near-merger phenomenon in sociolinguistic studies of sound change. In a passive oddball paradigm, lexical and nonlexical syllables of the T1/T6 and T4/T6 contrasts were presented to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a from two groups of participants, those who could produce and distinguish all tones in the language (Control) and those who could produce all tones but specifically failed to distinguish between T4 and T6 in perception (Dissociation). The presence of MMN to T1/T6 and null response to T4/T6 of lexical syllables in the dissociation group confirmed the near-merger phenomenon. The observation that the control participants exhibited a statistically reliable MMN to lexical syllables of T1/T6, weaker responses to nonlexical syllables of T1/T6 and lexical syllables of T4/T6, and finally null response to nonlexical syllables of T4/T6, suggests the involvement of top-down processing in speech perception. Furthermore, the stronger P3a response of the control group, compared with the dissociation group in the same experimental conditions, may be taken to indicate higher cognitive capability in attention switching, auditory attention or memory in the control participants. This cognitive difference, together with our speculation that constant top-down predictions without complete bottom-up analysis of acoustic signals in speech recognition may reduce one’s sensitivity to small acoustic contrasts, account for the occurrence of dissociation in some individuals but not others. PMID:23342146

  13. The Opportunistic Pathogen Serratia marcescens Utilizes Type VI Secretion To Target Bacterial Competitors ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Sarah L.; Trunk, Katharina; English, Grant; Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is the most recently described and least understood of the protein secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria. It is widely distributed and has been implicated in the virulence of various pathogens, but its mechanism and exact mode of action remain to be defined. Additionally there have been several very recent reports that some T6SSs can target bacteria rather than eukaryotic cells. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic enteric pathogen, a class of bacteria responsible for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired infections. We describe the identification of a functional T6SS in S. marcescens strain Db10, the first report of type VI secretion by an opportunist enteric bacterium. The T6SS of S. marcescens Db10 is active, with secretion of Hcp to the culture medium readily detected, and is expressed constitutively under normal growth conditions from a large transcriptional unit. Expression of the T6SS genes did not appear to be dependent on the integrity of the T6SS. The S. marcescens Db10 T6SS is not required for virulence in three nonmammalian virulence models. It does, however, exhibit dramatic antibacterial killing activity against several other bacterial species and is required for S. marcescens to persist in a mixed culture with another opportunist pathogen, Enterobacter cloacae. Importantly, this antibacterial killing activity is highly strain specific, with the S. marcescens Db10 T6SS being highly effective against another strain of S. marcescens with a very similar and active T6SS. We conclude that type VI secretion plays a crucial role in the competitiveness, and thus indirectly the virulence, of S. marcescens and other opportunistic bacterial pathogens. PMID:21890705

  14. An ERP study of good production vis-à-vis poor perception of tones in Cantonese: implications for top-down speech processing.

    PubMed

    Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana; Kung, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a theoretically challenging dissociation between good production and poor perception of tones among neurologically unimpaired native speakers of Cantonese. The dissociation is referred to as the near-merger phenomenon in sociolinguistic studies of sound change. In a passive oddball paradigm, lexical and nonlexical syllables of the T1/T6 and T4/T6 contrasts were presented to elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a from two groups of participants, those who could produce and distinguish all tones in the language (Control) and those who could produce all tones but specifically failed to distinguish between T4 and T6 in perception (Dissociation). The presence of MMN to T1/T6 and null response to T4/T6 of lexical syllables in the dissociation group confirmed the near-merger phenomenon. The observation that the control participants exhibited a statistically reliable MMN to lexical syllables of T1/T6, weaker responses to nonlexical syllables of T1/T6 and lexical syllables of T4/T6, and finally null response to nonlexical syllables of T4/T6, suggests the involvement of top-down processing in speech perception. Furthermore, the stronger P3a response of the control group, compared with the dissociation group in the same experimental conditions, may be taken to indicate higher cognitive capability in attention switching, auditory attention or memory in the control participants. This cognitive difference, together with our speculation that constant top-down predictions without complete bottom-up analysis of acoustic signals in speech recognition may reduce one's sensitivity to small acoustic contrasts, account for the occurrence of dissociation in some individuals but not others.

  15. Burkholderia Type VI Secretion Systems Have Distinct Roles in Eukaryotic and Bacterial Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Sandra; West, T. Eoin; Boyer, Frédéric; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Carl, Mike A.; Hood, Rachel D.; Rohmer, Laurence; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis (B. thai) in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. Consistent with phylogenetic analyses comparing the distribution of the B. thai T6SSs with well-characterized bacterial and eukaryotic cell-targeting T6SSs, we found that T6SS-5 plays a critical role in the virulence of the organism in a murine melioidosis model, while a strain lacking the other four T6SSs remained as virulent as the wild-type. The function of T6SS-5 appeared to be specialized to the host and not related to an in vivo growth defect, as ΔT6SS-5 was fully virulent in mice lacking MyD88. Next we probed the role of the five systems in interbacterial interactions. From a group of 31 diverse bacteria, we identified several organisms that competed less effectively against wild-type B. thai than a strain lacking T6SS-1 function. Inactivation of T6SS-1 renders B. thai greatly more susceptible to cell contact-induced stasis by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia proteamaculans—leaving it 100- to 1000-fold less fit than the wild-type in competition experiments with these organisms. Flow cell biofilm assays showed that T6S-dependent interbacterial interactions are likely relevant in the environment. B. thai cells lacking T6SS-1 were rapidly displaced in mixed biofilms with P. putida, whereas wild-type cells persisted and overran the competitor. Our data show that T6SSs within a single organism can have distinct functions in eukaryotic versus bacterial cell interactions. These systems are likely to be a decisive factor in the survival of bacterial cells of one species in intimate association with those of another, such as in polymicrobial communities present both in the environment and in many infections. PMID:20865170

  16. A Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanism Finely Tunes the Firing of Type VI Secretion System in Response to Bacterial Enemies.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Martina; Feldman, Mario F; García Véscovi, Eleonora

    2017-08-22

    The ability to detect and measure danger from an environmental signal is paramount for bacteria to respond accordingly, deploying strategies that halt or counteract potential cellular injury and maximize survival chances. Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are complex bacterial contractile nanomachines able to target toxic effectors into neighboring bacteria competing for the same colonization niche. Previous studies support the concept that either T6SSs are constitutively active or they fire effectors in response to various stimuli, such as high bacterial density, cell-cell contact, nutrient depletion, or components from dead sibling cells. For Serratia marcescens , it has been proposed that its T6SS is stochastically expressed, with no distinction between harmless or aggressive competitors. In contrast, we demonstrate that the Rcs regulatory system is responsible for finely tuning Serratia T6SS expression levels, behaving as a transcriptional rheostat. When confronted with harmless bacteria, basal T6SS expression levels suffice for Serratia to eliminate the competitor. A moderate T6SS upregulation is triggered when, according to the aggressor-prey ratio, an unbalanced interplay between homologous and heterologous effectors and immunity proteins takes place. Higher T6SS expression levels are achieved when Serratia is challenged by a contender like Acinetobacter , which indiscriminately fires heterologous effectors able to exert lethal cellular harm, threatening the survival of the Serratia population. We also demonstrate that Serratia 's RcsB-dependent T6SS regulatory mechanism responds not to general stress signals but to the action of specific effectors from competitors, displaying an exquisite strategy to weigh risks and keep the balance between energy expenditure and fitness costs. IMPORTANCE Serratia marcescens is among the health-threatening pathogens categorized by the WHO as research priorities to develop alternative antimicrobial strategies, and it was

  17. Autonomic Dysreflexia-Like Syndrome in a T12 Paraplegic During Thoracic Spine Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    pheochromocytoma , carcinoid syndrome, or thyroid storm. This presentation differs from autonomic dysreflexia because the spinal cord lesion was well below T6...instability. The differential diagnosis of isolated, abrupt intraopera- tive hypertension includes pheochromocytoma , carcinoid syndrome, thyroid storm

  18. Rules of Engagement: The Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Avatar; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Rogers, Andrew; Teschler, Jennifer; Pukatzki, Stefan; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2017-04-01

    Microbial species often exist in complex communities where they must avoid predation and compete for favorable niches. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent bacterial weapon that allows for direct killing of competitors through the translocation of proteinaceous toxins. Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen that can use its T6SS during antagonistic interactions with neighboring prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. The T6SS not only promotes V. cholerae's survival during its aquatic and host life cycles, but also influences its evolution by facilitating horizontal gene transfer. This review details the recent insights regarding the structure and function of the T6SS as well as the diverse signals and regulatory pathways that control its activation in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gage restraint measurement system comparison tests : railbound and hi-rail vehicles

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    Comparative tests were conducted to evaluate the gage restraint measurement system (GRMS) testing capabilities of a railbound GRMS vehicle, Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA's) T-6, and a hi-rail vehicle, Holland Company's TrackStar GRMS system....

  20. Diversification of Type VI Secretion System Toxins Reveals Ancient Antagonism among Bee Gut Microbes.

    PubMed

    Steele, Margaret I; Kwong, Waldan K; Whiteley, Marvin; Moran, Nancy A

    2017-12-12

    Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi , a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins. Some toxins are shared with Gilliamella apicola , a coresident gut symbiont, implicating horizontal gene transfer as a source of toxin diversity in the bee gut. We use data from a transposon mutagenesis screen to identify toxins with antibacterial function in the bee gut and validate the function and specificity of a subset of these toxin and immunity genes in Escherichia coli Using transcriptome sequencing, we demonstrate that S. alvi T6SSs and associated toxins are upregulated in the gut environment. We find that S. alvi Rhs loci have a conserved architecture, consistent with the C-terminal displacement model of toxin diversification, with Rhs toxins, toxin fragments, and cognate immunity genes that are expressed and confer strong fitness effects in vivo Our findings of T6SS activity and Rhs toxin diversity suggest that T6SS-mediated competition may be an important driver of coevolution within the bee gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE The structure and composition of host-associated bacterial communities are of broad interest, because these communities affect host health. Bees have a simple, conserved gut microbiota, which provides an opportunity to explore interactions between species that have coevolved within their host over millions of

  1. Source/sink interactions underpin crop yield: the case for trehalose 6-phosphate/SnRK1 in improvement of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, David W.; Paul, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable interest has been evoked by the analysis of the regulatory pathway in carbohydrate metabolism and cell growth involving the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose (TRE). TRE is at small concentrations in mesophytes such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Triticum aestivum, excluding a role in osmoregulation once suggested for it. Studies of TRE metabolism, and genetic modification of it, have shown a very wide and more important role of the pathway in regulation of many processes in development, growth, and photosynthesis. It has now been established that rather than TRE, it is trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) which has such profound effects. T6P is the intermediary in TRE synthesis formed from glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose, derived from sucrose, by the action of trehalose phosphate synthase. The concentration of T6P is determined both by the rate of synthesis, which depends on the sucrose concentration, and also by the rate of breakdown by trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase which produces TRE. Changing T6P concentrations by genetically modifying the enzymes of synthesis and breakdown has altered photosynthesis, sugar metabolism, growth, and development which affect responses to, and recovery from, environmental factors. Many of the effects of T6P on metabolism and growth occur via the interaction of T6P with the SnRK1 protein kinase system. T6P inhibits the activity of SnRK1, which de-represses genes encoding proteins involved in anabolism. Consequently, a large concentration of sucrose increases T6P and thereby inhibits SnRK1, so stimulating growth of cells and their metabolic activity. The T6P/SnRK1 mechanism offers an important new view of how the distribution of assimilates to organs, such as developing grains in cereal plants, is achieved. This review briefly summarizes the factors determining, and limiting, yield of wheat (particularly mass/grain which is highly conserved) and considers how T6P/SnRK1 might function to determine grain yield and might be

  2. Proteomic Identification of Novel Secreted Antibacterial Toxins of the Serratia marcescens Type VI Secretion System*

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Trunk, Katharina; Diniz, Juliana Alcoforado; Guo, Manman; Trost, Matthias; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a complex macromolecular machine used by many bacterial species to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic or bacterial cells, with significant implications for virulence and interbacterial competition. “Antibacterial” T6SSs, such as the one elaborated by the opportunistic human pathogen, Serratia marcescens, confer on the secreting bacterium the ability to rapidly and efficiently kill rival bacteria. Identification of secreted substrates of the T6SS is critical to understanding its role and ability to kill other cells, but only a limited number of effectors have been reported so far. Here we report the successful use of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to identify at least eleven substrates of the S. marcescens T6SS, including four novel effector proteins which are distinct from other T6SS-secreted proteins reported to date. These new effectors were confirmed as antibacterial toxins and self-protecting immunity proteins able to neutralize their cognate toxins were identified. The global secretomic study also unexpectedly revealed that protein phosphorylation-based post-translational regulation of the S. marcescens T6SS differs from that of the paradigm, H1-T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Combined phosphoproteomic and genetic analyses demonstrated that conserved PpkA-dependent threonine phosphorylation of the T6SS structural component Fha is required for T6SS activation in S. marcescens and that the phosphatase PppA can reverse this modification. However, the signal and mechanism of PpkA activation is distinct from that observed previously and does not appear to require cell–cell contact. Hence this study has not only demonstrated that new and species-specific portfolios of antibacterial effectors are secreted by the T6SS, but also shown for the first time that PpkA-dependent post-translational regulation of the T6SS is tailored to fit the needs of different bacterial

  3. 76 FR 40709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... aircraft systems that include TC-208s, Cessna 172s, AC-208s, T-6As, and King Air 350s. Included are ground... Force (QAF Amd 4, QAH, Amd 4) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: FMS case QAS-$33M-21Sep10 FMS case SAD... systems that include TC- 208s, Cessna 172s, AC-208s, T-6As, and King Air 350s. Included are ground...

  4. Manganese scavenging and oxidative stress response mediated by type VI secretion system in Burkholderia thailandensis

    PubMed Central

    Si, Meiru; Zhao, Chao; Burkinshaw, Brianne; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Dawei; Wang, Yao; Dong, Tao G.; Shen, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile protein export machinery widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Known to translocate protein substrates to eukaryotic and prokaryotic target cells to cause cellular damage, the T6SS has been primarily recognized as a contact-dependent bacterial weapon for microbe–host and microbial interspecies competition. Here we report contact-independent functions of the T6SS for metal acquisition, bacteria competition, and resistance to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that the T6SS-4 in Burkholderia thailandensis is critical for survival under oxidative stress and is regulated by OxyR, a conserved oxidative stress regulator. The T6SS-4 is important for intracellular accumulation of manganese (Mn2+) under oxidative stress. Next, we identified a T6SS-4–dependent Mn2+-binding effector TseM, and its interacting partner MnoT, a Mn2+-specific TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter. Similar to the T6SS-4 genes, expression of mnoT is regulated by OxyR and is induced under oxidative stress and low Mn2+ conditions. Both TseM and MnoT are required for efficient uptake of Mn2+ across the outer membrane under Mn2+-limited and -oxidative stress conditions. The TseM–MnoT-mediated active Mn2+ transport system is also involved in contact-independent bacteria–bacteria competition and bacterial virulence. This finding provides a perspective for understanding the mechanisms of metal ion uptake and the roles of T6SS in bacteria–bacteria competition. PMID:28242693

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic control in paraplegic and quadriplegic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Abreu, Elizângela Márcia; Dias, Lucas Pinto Salles; Lima, Fernanda Pupio Silva; de Paula Júnior, Alderico Rodrigues; Lima, Mário Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is commonly associated with devastating paralysis. This condition also results in cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation in individuals with and without SCI. The study included 60 individuals: 30 individuals without SCI, who formed the control group-CG and 30 individuals with SCI, who formed the SCI group-SCIG. The latter group was divided into two, one group of subjects with SCI above the spinal segment T6-SCIG (above T6) and a group of individuals with SCI below T6-SCIG (below T6). The subjects were evaluated by linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The SCIG showed significantly lower square root of the mean squares differences of successive NN intervals (rMSSD), number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms (pNN50), standard deviation of short-term HRV (SD1), and high frequency power (HF). Their low frequency power (LF) in absolute units (ms(2)) was significantly lower and their normalized units (n.u.) were significantly higher. Their LF/HF ratio was significantly higher, and sample entropy (SampEn), which indicates the complexity and irregularity of the NN intervals time series, was significantly lower compared to the CG. The differences between the SCIG and CG were derived mainly from the SCIG (above T6). The correlation test revealed very low values between each of the parameters evaluated for CG and SCIG. The SCIG (above T6) showed greater cardiovascular autonomic impairment compared to SCIG (below T6) and CG. The SCIG (below T6) also presented some degree of autonomic dysfunction. All parameters, linear or nonlinear, are suitable to demonstrate the differences between the SCIG and CG.

  6. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Friction-Stir-Welded Thin Sheet Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Emanuela; Leo, Paola; Wang, Xiang; Embury, J. D.

    2011-05-01

    Friction stir welding of thin aluminum sheets represents a potential goal for aircraft and automotive industries because of the advantages of using this new technological process. In the current work, the microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of 6082T6-6082T6, 2024T3-2024T3, and 6082T6-2024T3 thin friction-stir-welded joints were investigated. Uniaxial tensile testing at room temperature, 443 K, 473 K, and 503 K (170 °C, 200 °C, and 230 °C) was used to determine the extent to which these ultra-thin joints can be used and deformed. The tensile stress-strain curves showed a decrease of the flow stress with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. The ductility of 6082T6-6082T6 joints generally improved when deformed at warm temperatures. It was almost constant for the 6082T6-2024T3 and reached the higher value in the 2024T3-2024T3 when deformed at 443 K and 473 K (170 °C and 200 °C) when compared with the room temperature value. Tensile specimens fractured in the middle of the weld zone in a ductile mode. The precipitation and growth of S' type phases strengthens 2024T3-2024T3 joints during deformation. In the 6082T6-6082T6, β″ precipitates show some increase in size but give a lower contribution to strength. At 503 K (230 °C), recovery mechanisms (dislocation reorganization inside the deformed grains) are initiated but the temperature was not enough high to produce a homogeneous subgrain structure.

  7. Musculoskeletal Pain in High-G Aircraft Training Programs: A Survey of Student and Instructor Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    as in the literature, that a significant number of pilots do not seek medical help , especially from their flight surgeons. We tried to determine why...not seen. An aeromedical literature review on pilots’ MS issues helped design a survey that was distributed anonymously to T-6, T-38, and T-1...seen. An aeromedical literature review on pilots’ MS issues helped design a survey that was distributed anonymously to T-6, T-38, and T-1 student and

  8. A Review of Australian and New Zealand Investigations on Aeronautical Fatigue During the Period April 2011 to March 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    properties in high-strength coarse grain titanium alloy with rough and torturous fatigue surfaces - Kevin Walker, (DSTO and RMIT University Australia), and...Wanhill, R. J. H. (1995) Damage tolerance engineering property evaluations of aerospace aluminium alloys with emphasis on fatigue crack growth. National...T6/T651 alloys . The testing of 7075-T6 C(T) coupons confirmed that the properties are very similar to the 7075-T651 material. Baseline

  9. Tabulations of Propagation Data Over Irregular Terrain in the 230-to 9200-MHz Frequency Range. Part IV. Receiver Site in Grove of Trees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-01

    900 2252 135j I ~ - - ~ . - -- -- - -- -- - -- . . . , . . .-A- 1- - - - - , All path loss measurements were made at the fixed receiving site using...additional measurements were made from three of the transmitter sites (R4-10-T5, R4-Z0-T6, and R4-30-T6) on 230 and 410 MHz, using horizontally... psychrometers ; atmospheric pressures were indicated on high-grade aneroid barometers; percent relative humidity was calculated from data obtained at the site

  10. Manganese scavenging and oxidative stress response mediated by type VI secretion system in Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Si, Meiru; Zhao, Chao; Burkinshaw, Brianne; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Dawei; Wang, Yao; Dong, Tao G; Shen, Xihui

    2017-03-14

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile protein export machinery widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Known to translocate protein substrates to eukaryotic and prokaryotic target cells to cause cellular damage, the T6SS has been primarily recognized as a contact-dependent bacterial weapon for microbe-host and microbial interspecies competition. Here we report contact-independent functions of the T6SS for metal acquisition, bacteria competition, and resistance to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that the T6SS-4 in Burkholderia thailandensis is critical for survival under oxidative stress and is regulated by OxyR, a conserved oxidative stress regulator. The T6SS-4 is important for intracellular accumulation of manganese (Mn 2+ ) under oxidative stress. Next, we identified a T6SS-4-dependent Mn 2+ -binding effector TseM, and its interacting partner MnoT, a Mn 2+ -specific TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter. Similar to the T6SS-4 genes, expression of mnoT is regulated by OxyR and is induced under oxidative stress and low Mn 2+ conditions. Both TseM and MnoT are required for efficient uptake of Mn 2+ across the outer membrane under Mn 2+ -limited and -oxidative stress conditions. The TseM-MnoT-mediated active Mn 2+ transport system is also involved in contact-independent bacteria-bacteria competition and bacterial virulence. This finding provides a perspective for understanding the mechanisms of metal ion uptake and the roles of T6SS in bacteria-bacteria competition.

  11. Hcp Family Proteins Secreted via the Type VI Secretion System Coordinately Regulate Escherichia coli K1 Interaction with Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Tao, Jing; Yu, Hao; Ni, Jinjing; Zeng, Lingbing; Teng, Qihui; Kim, Kwang Sik; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several Gram-negative bacteria. Based on sequence analysis, we found that a cluster of Escherichia coli virulence factors (EVF) encoding a putative T6SS exists in the genome of the meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218. The T6SS-associated deletion mutants exhibited significant defects in binding to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) compared with the parent strain. Hcp family proteins (the hallmark of T6SS), including Hcp1 and Hcp2, were localized in the bacterial outer membrane, but the involvements of Hcp1 and Hcp2 have been shown to differ in E. coli-HBMEC interaction. The deletion mutant of hcp2 showed defects in the bacterial binding to and invasion of HBMEC, while Hcp1 was secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in HBMEC. These findings demonstrate that the T6SS is functional in E. coli K1, and two Hcp family proteins participate in different steps of E. coli interaction with HBMEC in a coordinate manner, e.g., binding to and invasion of HBMEC, the cytokine and chemokine release followed by cytoskeleton rearrangement, and apoptosis in HBMEC. This is the first demonstration of the role of T6SS in meningitis-causing E. coli K1, and T6SS-associated Hcp family proteins are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis. PMID:22184413

  12. Hcp family proteins secreted via the type VI secretion system coordinately regulate Escherichia coli K1 interaction with human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Tao, Jing; Yu, Hao; Ni, Jinjing; Zeng, Lingbing; Teng, Qihui; Kim, Kwang Sik; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Guo, Xiaokui; Yao, Yufeng

    2012-03-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are involved in the pathogenicity of several gram-negative bacteria. Based on sequence analysis, we found that a cluster of Escherichia coli virulence factors (EVF) encoding a putative T6SS exists in the genome of the meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218. The T6SS-associated deletion mutants exhibited significant defects in binding to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) compared with the parent strain. Hcp family proteins (the hallmark of T6SS), including Hcp1 and Hcp2, were localized in the bacterial outer membrane, but the involvements of Hcp1 and Hcp2 have been shown to differ in E. coli-HBMEC interaction. The deletion mutant of hcp2 showed defects in the bacterial binding to and invasion of HBMEC, while Hcp1 was secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in HBMEC. These findings demonstrate that the T6SS is functional in E. coli K1, and two Hcp family proteins participate in different steps of E. coli interaction with HBMEC in a coordinate manner, e.g., binding to and invasion of HBMEC, the cytokine and chemokine release followed by cytoskeleton rearrangement, and apoptosis in HBMEC. This is the first demonstration of the role of T6SS in meningitis-causing E. coli K1, and T6SS-associated Hcp family proteins are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis.

  13. A Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanism Finely Tunes the Firing of Type VI Secretion System in Response to Bacterial Enemies

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Martina; Feldman, Mario F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to detect and measure danger from an environmental signal is paramount for bacteria to respond accordingly, deploying strategies that halt or counteract potential cellular injury and maximize survival chances. Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are complex bacterial contractile nanomachines able to target toxic effectors into neighboring bacteria competing for the same colonization niche. Previous studies support the concept that either T6SSs are constitutively active or they fire effectors in response to various stimuli, such as high bacterial density, cell-cell contact, nutrient depletion, or components from dead sibling cells. For Serratia marcescens, it has been proposed that its T6SS is stochastically expressed, with no distinction between harmless or aggressive competitors. In contrast, we demonstrate that the Rcs regulatory system is responsible for finely tuning Serratia T6SS expression levels, behaving as a transcriptional rheostat. When confronted with harmless bacteria, basal T6SS expression levels suffice for Serratia to eliminate the competitor. A moderate T6SS upregulation is triggered when, according to the aggressor-prey ratio, an unbalanced interplay between homologous and heterologous effectors and immunity proteins takes place. Higher T6SS expression levels are achieved when Serratia is challenged by a contender like Acinetobacter, which indiscriminately fires heterologous effectors able to exert lethal cellular harm, threatening the survival of the Serratia population. We also demonstrate that Serratia’s RcsB-dependent T6SS regulatory mechanism responds not to general stress signals but to the action of specific effectors from competitors, displaying an exquisite strategy to weigh risks and keep the balance between energy expenditure and fitness costs. PMID:28830939

  14. Atomic Structure of Type VI Contractile Sheath from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Salih, Osman; He, Shaoda; Planamente, Sara; Stach, Lasse; MacDonald, James T; Manoli, Eleni; Scheres, Sjors H W; Filloux, Alain; Freemont, Paul S

    2018-02-06

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS, each belonging to a distinct group. The two T6SS components, TssB/VipA and TssC/VipB, assemble to form tubules that conserve structural/functional homology with tail sheaths of contractile bacteriophages and pyocins. Here, we used cryoelectron microscopy to solve the structure of the H1-T6SS P. aeruginosa TssB1C1 sheath at 3.3 Å resolution. Our structure allowed us to resolve some features of the T6SS sheath that were not resolved in the Vibrio cholerae VipAB and Francisella tularensis IglAB structures. Comparison with sheath structures from other contractile machines, including T4 phage and R-type pyocins, provides a better understanding of how these systems have conserved similar functions/mechanisms despite evolution. We used the P. aeruginosa R2 pyocin as a structural template to build an atomic model of the TssB1C1 sheath in its extended conformation, allowing us to propose a coiled-spring-like mechanism for T6SS sheath contraction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Shifts in microbial community composition and function in the acidification of a lead/zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin-Xing; Li, Jin-Tian; Chen, Ya-Ting; Huang, Li-Nan; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to link the microbial community composition and function in mine tailings to the generation of acid mine drainage, we simultaneously explored the geochemistry and microbiology of six tailings collected from a lead/zinc mine, i.e. primary tailings (T1), slightly acidic tailings (T2), extremely acidic tailings (T3, T4 and T5) and orange-coloured oxidized tailings (T6). Geochemical results showed that the six tailings (from T1 to T6) likely represented sequential stages of the acidification process of the mine tailings. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed a contrasting microbial composition between the six tailings: Proteobacteria-related sequences dominated T1-T3 with relative abundance ranging from 56 to 93%, whereas Ferroplasma-related sequences dominated T4-T6 with relative abundance ranging from 28 to 58%. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities of T2 and T6 indicated that the genes encoding key enzymes for microbial carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation and sulfur oxidation in T2 were largely from Thiobacillus and Acidithiobacillus, Methylococcus capsulatus, and Thiobacillus denitrificans respectively; while those in T6 were mostly identified in Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum, and Acidithiobacillus respectively. The microbial communities in T2 and T6 harboured more genes suggesting diverse metabolic capacities for sulfur oxidation/heavy metal detoxification and tolerating low pH respectively. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Trehalose 6-phosphate: a signal of sucrose status.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J

    2008-05-15

    T6P (trehalose 6-phosphate), the precursor of trehalose, has come out of obscurity over 10 years to be appreciated as an important regulator of plant metabolism and development, quite possibly linking the two. This information has been gained from analysis of mutant and transgenic plants, which show strong, diverse and strategically important phenotypes. Plant genes that encode the trehalose pathway are numerous and highly regulated transcriptionally and post-translationally, responding sensitively to the environment in a developmentally programmed and tissue-specific manner further suggestive of a vital function. Yet the precise role of T6P has not been clear. In an article published in the Biochemical Journal in 2006, John Lunn and colleagues addressed a major obstacle to understanding the function of T6P through development of a method capable of resolving femtomolar quantities of T6P from very small amounts of tissue. Using this technology, the authors showed large changes in T6P content that reflect tissue sucrose status. Overall, this elegant work makes an important contribution towards our understanding of the function of T6P in plants.

  17. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  18. Satellite tobacco mosaic virus sequence variants with only five Nucleotide differences can interfere with each other in a cross protection-like phenomenon in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Dodds, J. Allan

    1994-01-01

    The type strain of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) contains two major variants, designated type 5 (T5) and type 6 (T6), which can be easily distinguished by RNase protection analyses. Clones containing cDNA of representative T5 and T6 STMV genomes have only five single-base differences in the entire 1059-nucleotide genome, and RNA transcribed from each clone is highly infectious when inoculated onto tobacco plants. The different RNase protection assay patterns can be used as genetic markers to identify individual STMV variants and to follow the interactions of variants and their progeny during coinfections in plants. The study described here investigated the effects of coinoculation and various delayed inoculations of T5 and T6 variants on the composition of the progeny STMV populations in systemically infected tobacco tissues. When T5 and T6 STMV RNAs were coinoculated or inoculated with 1-hr delays, the progeny from individual plants most often contained a mixture of T5 and T6 genomes. However, when there was a 24-hr delay between inoculations, the balance of T5 and T6 components in the progeny populations shifted toward predominance of the first variant inoculated. With delays of 3 or 7 days only the first variant was evident in the progeny populations, indicating that established replication of one STMV variant interferes with replication of another in a manner similar to the cross protection phenomenon.

  19. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice. PMID:26378528

  20. The type VI secretion system impacts bacterial invasion and population dynamics in a model intestinal microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Savannah L.; Shields, Drew S.; Hammer, Brian K.; Xavier, Joao B.; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    Animal gastrointestinal tracts are home to a diverse community of microbes. The mechanisms by which microbial species interact and compete in this dense, physically dynamic space are poorly understood, limiting our understanding of how natural communities are assembled and how different communities could be engineered. Here, we focus on a physical mechanism for competition: the type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS is a syringe-like organelle used by certain bacteria to translocate effector proteins across the cell membranes of target bacterial cells, killing them. Here, we use T6SS+ and T6SS- strains of V. cholerae, the pathogen that causes cholera in humans, and light sheet fluorescence microscopy for in vivo imaging to show that the T6SS provides an advantage to strains colonizing the larval zebrafish gut. Furthermore, we show that T6SS+ bacteria can invade and alter an existing population of a different species in the zebrafish gut, reducing its abundance and changing the form of its population dynamics. This work both demonstrates a mechanism for altering the gut microbiota with an invasive species and explores the processes controlling the stability and dynamics of the gut ecosystem. Research Corporation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

  1. Visualization of the Serratia Type VI Secretion System Reveals Unprovoked Attacks and Dynamic Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Gerc, Amy J.; Diepold, Andreas; Trunk, Katharina; Porter, Michael; Rickman, Colin; Armitage, Judith P.; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine that fires toxic proteins into target cells. Deployment of the T6SS represents an efficient and widespread means by which bacteria attack competitors or interact with host organisms and may be triggered by contact from an attacking neighbor cell as a defensive strategy. Here, we use the opportunist pathogen Serratia marcescens and functional fluorescent fusions of key components of the T6SS to observe different subassemblies of the machinery simultaneously and on multiple timescales in vivo. We report that the localization and dynamic behavior of each of the components examined is distinct, revealing a multi-stage and dynamic assembly process for the T6SS machinery. We also show that the T6SS can assemble and fire without needing a cell contact trigger, defining an aggressive strategy that broadens target range and suggesting that activation of the T6SS is tailored to survival in specific niches. PMID:26387948

  2. VasH Is a Transcriptional Regulator of the Type VI Secretion System Functional in Endemic and Pandemic Vibrio cholerae▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Maya; Miyata, Sarah T.; Brooks, Teresa M.; Unterweger, Daniel; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, a disease characterized by the release of high volumes of watery diarrhea. Many medically important proteobacteria, including V. cholerae, carry one or multiple copies of the gene cluster that encodes the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) to confer virulence or interspecies competitiveness. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the cell-puncturing device of T4 bacteriophage suggest that the T6SS functions as a molecular syringe to inject effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Although our understanding of how the structural T6SS apparatus assembles is developing, little is known about how this system is regulated. Here, we report on the contribution of the activator of the alternative sigma factor 54, VasH, as a global regulator of the V. cholerae T6SS. Using bioinformatics and mutational analyses, we identified domains of the VasH polypeptide that are essential for its ability to initiate transcription of T6SS genes and established a universal role for VasH in endemic and pandemic V. cholerae strains. PMID:21949076

  3. Pathoadaptive Conditional Regulation of the Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takahiko; Sabharwal, Dharmesh; Bröms, Jeanette; Milton, Debra L.; Sjöstedt, Anders; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2012-01-01

    The most recently discovered secretion pathway in Gram-negative bacteria, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), is present in many species and is considered important for the survival of non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments. Until now, it was not known whether there is a functionally active T6SS in wild-type V. cholerae O1 strains, the cause of cholera disease in humans. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a functionally active T6SS in wild-type V. cholerae O1 strains, as evidenced by the secretion of the T6SS substrate Hcp, which required several gene products encoded within the putative vas gene cluster. Our analyses showed that the T6SS of wild-type V. cholerae O1 strain A1552 was functionally activated when the bacteria were grown under high-osmolarity conditions. The T6SS was also active when the bacteria were grown under low temperature (23°C), suggesting that the system may be important for the survival of the bacterium in the environment. A test of the interbacterial virulence of V. cholerae strain A1552 against an Escherichia coli K-12 strain showed that it was strongly enhanced under high osmolarity and that it depended on the hcp genes. Interestingly, we found that the newly recognized osmoregulatory protein OscR plays a role in the regulation of T6SS gene expression and secretion of Hcp from V. cholerae O1 strains. PMID:22083711

  4. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Cluster 1 Type VI Secretion System Gene Expression Is Negatively Regulated by Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Burtnick, Mary N.; Brett, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM) were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G) or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG) facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG) did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc. PMID:24146925

  5. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei cluster 1 type VI secretion system gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

    PubMed

    Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes glanders in humans and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) expressed by this organism is essential for virulence in hamsters and is positively regulated by the VirAG two-component system. Recently, we have shown that T6SS-1 gene expression is up-regulated following internalization of this pathogen into phagocytic cells and that this system promotes multinucleated giant cell formation in infected tissue culture monolayers. In the present study, we further investigated the complex regulation of this important virulence factor. To assess T6SS-1 expression, B. mallei strains were cultured in various media conditions and Hcp1 production was analyzed by Western immunoblotting. Transcript levels of several VirAG-regulated genes (bimA, tssA, hcp1 and tssM) were also determined using quantitative real time PCR. Consistent with previous observations, T6SS-1 was not expressed during growth of B. mallei in rich media. Curiously, growth of the organism in minimal media (M9G) or minimal media plus casamino acids (M9CG) facilitated robust expression of T6SS-1 genes whereas growth in minimal media plus tryptone (M9TG) did not. Investigation of this phenomenon confirmed a regulatory role for VirAG in this process. Additionally, T6SS-1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated by the addition of iron and zinc to M9CG. Other genes under the control of VirAG did not appear to be as tightly regulated by these divalent metals. Similar results were observed for B. pseudomallei, but not for B. thailandensis. Collectively, our findings indicate that in addition to being positively regulated by VirAG, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei T6SS-1 gene expression is negatively regulated by iron and zinc.

  6. Analysis of low abundant trehalose-6-phosphate and related metabolites in Medicago truncatula by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mata, Ana Teresa; Jorge, Tiago Filipe; Ferreira, João; do Rosário Bronze, Maria; Branco, Diana; Fevereiro, Pedro; Araújo, Susana; António, Carla

    2016-12-16

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is an important signaling metabolite involved in plant growth control that inhibits the sucrose nonfermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1), a key regulator of energy and carbon metabolism in plants. The quantification of T6P in plant tissues is fundamental to improve our understanding of sugar signaling and the links between plant growth and development in response to stress conditions. However, the almost undetectable levels of T6P together with the complex plant matrix and the presence of T6P isomers such as sucrose-6-phosphate (S6P), makes the detection of this metabolite challenging. This work describes the development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) method for the on-line coupling with negative ion electrospray (ESI) triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the highly sensitive and selective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for the target analysis of metabolic intermediates of the biosynthesis of trehalose, including glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), uridine 5-diphospho-glucose (UDPG), T6P (and its isomer S6P). Enhanced signal in the MRM mode and improved chromatographic separation for each compound were obtained using piperidine and methylphosphonic acid as additives in the HILIC mobile phase. The optimized HILIC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS method increases the range of sensitive analytical methodologies for the quantification of key low-abundant metabolites, and was applied to quantify the fluctuations of S6P, T6P and G6P in Medicago truncatula plants in response to environmental stress. The levels of S6P, T6P, and G6P in M. truncatula plant tissues (roots and leaves) exposed to a water deficit and recovery treatment, ranged from 30 to 150pmolg -1 FW, 16-120pmolg -1 FW, and 330-1690pmolg -1 FW, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Trehalose-6-Phosphate-Mediated Toxicity Determines Essentiality of OtsB2 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vitro and in Mice.

    PubMed

    Korte, Jan; Alber, Marina; Trujillo, Carolina M; Syson, Karl; Koliwer-Brandl, Hendrik; Deenen, René; Köhrer, Karl; DeJesus, Michael A; Hartman, Travis; Jacobs, William R; Bornemann, Stephen; Ioerger, Thomas R; Ehrt, Sabine; Kalscheuer, Rainer

    2016-12-01

    Trehalose biosynthesis is considered an attractive target for the development of antimicrobials against fungal, helminthic and bacterial pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most common biosynthetic route involves trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) synthase OtsA and T6P phosphatase OtsB that generate trehalose from ADP/UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate. In order to assess the drug target potential of T6P phosphatase, we generated a conditional mutant of M. tuberculosis allowing the regulated gene silencing of the T6P phosphatase gene otsB2. We found that otsB2 is essential for growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro as well as for the acute infection phase in mice following aerosol infection. By contrast, otsB2 is not essential for the chronic infection phase in mice, highlighting the substantial remodelling of trehalose metabolism during infection by M. tuberculosis. Blocking OtsB2 resulted in the accumulation of its substrate T6P, which appears to be toxic, leading to the self-poisoning of cells. Accordingly, blocking T6P production in a ΔotsA mutant abrogated otsB2 essentiality. T6P accumulation elicited a global upregulation of more than 800 genes, which might result from an increase in RNA stability implied by the enhanced neutralization of toxins exhibiting ribonuclease activity. Surprisingly, overlap with the stress response caused by the accumulation of another toxic sugar phosphate molecule, maltose-1-phosphate, was minimal. A genome-wide screen for synthetic lethal interactions with otsA identified numerous genes, revealing additional potential drug targets synergistic with OtsB2 suitable for combination therapies that would minimize the emergence of resistance to OtsB2 inhibitors.

  8. Trehalose-6-Phosphate-Mediated Toxicity Determines Essentiality of OtsB2 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vitro and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koliwer-Brandl, Hendrik; Hartman, Travis; Jacobs, William R.; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Ehrt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose biosynthesis is considered an attractive target for the development of antimicrobials against fungal, helminthic and bacterial pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most common biosynthetic route involves trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) synthase OtsA and T6P phosphatase OtsB that generate trehalose from ADP/UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate. In order to assess the drug target potential of T6P phosphatase, we generated a conditional mutant of M. tuberculosis allowing the regulated gene silencing of the T6P phosphatase gene otsB2. We found that otsB2 is essential for growth of M. tuberculosis in vitro as well as for the acute infection phase in mice following aerosol infection. By contrast, otsB2 is not essential for the chronic infection phase in mice, highlighting the substantial remodelling of trehalose metabolism during infection by M. tuberculosis. Blocking OtsB2 resulted in the accumulation of its substrate T6P, which appears to be toxic, leading to the self-poisoning of cells. Accordingly, blocking T6P production in a ΔotsA mutant abrogated otsB2 essentiality. T6P accumulation elicited a global upregulation of more than 800 genes, which might result from an increase in RNA stability implied by the enhanced neutralization of toxins exhibiting ribonuclease activity. Surprisingly, overlap with the stress response caused by the accumulation of another toxic sugar phosphate molecule, maltose-1-phosphate, was minimal. A genome-wide screen for synthetic lethal interactions with otsA identified numerous genes, revealing additional potential drug targets synergistic with OtsB2 suitable for combination therapies that would minimize the emergence of resistance to OtsB2 inhibitors. PMID:27936238

  9. Diversification of Type VI Secretion System Toxins Reveals Ancient Antagonism among Bee Gut Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Marvin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins. Some toxins are shared with Gilliamella apicola, a coresident gut symbiont, implicating horizontal gene transfer as a source of toxin diversity in the bee gut. We use data from a transposon mutagenesis screen to identify toxins with antibacterial function in the bee gut and validate the function and specificity of a subset of these toxin and immunity genes in Escherichia coli. Using transcriptome sequencing, we demonstrate that S. alvi T6SSs and associated toxins are upregulated in the gut environment. We find that S. alvi Rhs loci have a conserved architecture, consistent with the C-terminal displacement model of toxin diversification, with Rhs toxins, toxin fragments, and cognate immunity genes that are expressed and confer strong fitness effects in vivo. Our findings of T6SS activity and Rhs toxin diversity suggest that T6SS-mediated competition may be an important driver of coevolution within the bee gut microbiota. PMID:29233893

  10. Role of the Genes of Type VI Secretion System in Virulence of Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Strain RS-2

    PubMed Central

    Masum, Md. Mahidul Islam; Yang, Yingzi; Li, Bin; Olaitan, Ogunyemi Solabomi; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Yushi; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2017-01-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis. Here we compared the virulence-related phenotypes between the wild-type (RS-2) and 25 T6SS mutants, which were constructed using homologous recombination methods. The mutation of 15 T6SS genes significantly reduced bacterial virulence and the secretion of Hcp protein. Additionally, the complemented 7 mutations ΔpppA, ΔclpB, Δhcp, ΔdotU, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ, and ΔimpM caused similar virulence characteristics as RS-2. Moreover, the mutant ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ and ΔimpM genes caused by a 38.3~56.4% reduction in biofilm formation while the mutants ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF and Δhcp resulted in a 37.5~44.6% reduction in motility. All together, these results demonstrate that T6SS play vital roles in the virulence of strain RS-2, which may be partially attributed to the reductions in Hcp secretion, biofilm formation and motility. However, differences in virulence between strain RS-1 and RS-2 suggest that other factors may also be involved in the virulence of Aaa. PMID:28934168

  11. Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hachani, Abderrahman; Lossi, Nadine S.; Hamilton, Alexander; Jones, Cerith; Bleves, Sophie; Albesa-Jové, David; Filloux, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Such infections are associated with an active type VI secretion system (T6SS), which consists of about 15 conserved components, including the AAA+ ATPase, ClpV. The T6SS secretes two categories of proteins, VgrG and Hcp. Hcp is structurally similar to a phage tail tube component, whereas VgrG proteins show similarity to the puncturing device at the tip of the phage tube. In P. aeruginosa, three T6SSs are known. The expression of H1-T6SS genes is controlled by the RetS sensor. Here, 10 vgrG genes were identified in the PAO1 genome, among which three are co-regulated with H1-T6SS, namely vgrG1a/b/c. Whereas VgrG1a and VgrG1c were secreted in a ClpV1-dependent manner, secretion of VgrG1b was ClpV1-independent. We show that VgrG1a and VgrG1c form multimers, which confirmed the VgrG model predicting trimers similar to the tail spike. We demonstrate that Hcp1 secretion requires either VgrG1a or VgrG1c, which may act independently to puncture the bacterial envelope and give Hcp1 access to the surface. VgrG1b is not required for Hcp1 secretion. Thus, VgrG1b does not require H1-T6SS for secretion nor does H1-T6SS require VgrG1b for its function. Finally, we show that VgrG proteins are required for secretion of a genuine H1-T6SS substrate, Tse3. Our results demonstrate that VgrG proteins are not only secreted components but are essential for secretion of other T6SS substrates. Overall, we emphasize variability in behavior of three P. aeruginosa VgrGs, suggesting that, although very similar, distinct VgrGs achieve specific functions. PMID:21325275

  12. VgrG and PAAR Proteins Define Distinct Versions of a Functional Type VI Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Cianfanelli, Francesca R.; Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Guo, Manman; De Cesare, Virginia; Trost, Matthias; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread among bacterial pathogens and acts as an effective weapon against competitor bacteria and eukaryotic hosts by delivering toxic effector proteins directly into target cells. The T6SS utilises a bacteriophage-like contractile machinery to expel a puncturing device based on a tube of Hcp topped with a VgrG spike, which can be extended by a final tip from a PAAR domain-containing protein. Effector proteins are believed to be delivered by specifically associating with particular Hcp, VgrG or PAAR proteins, either covalently (‘specialised’) or non-covalently (‘cargo’ effectors). Here we used the T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens, together with integratecd genetic, proteomic and biochemical approaches, to elucidate the role of specific VgrG and PAAR homologues in T6SS function and effector specificity, revealing new aspects and unexpected subtleties in effector delivery by the T6SS. We identified effectors, both cargo and specialised, absolutely dependent on a particular VgrG for delivery to target cells, and discovered that other cargo effectors can show a preference for a particular VgrG. The presence of at least one PAAR protein was found to be essential for T6SS function, consistent with designation as a ‘core’ T6SS component. We showed that specific VgrG-PAAR combinations are required to assemble a functional T6SS and that the three distinct VgrG-PAAR assemblies in S. marcescens exhibit distinct effector specificity and efficiency. Unexpectedly, we discovered that two different PAAR-containing Rhs proteins can functionally pair with the same VgrG protein. Showing that accessory EagR proteins are involved in these interactions, native VgrG-Rhs-EagR complexes were isolated and specific interactions between EagR and cognate Rhs proteins identified. This study defines an essential yet flexible role for PAAR proteins in the T6SS and highlights the existence of distinct versions of the

  13. TssA forms a gp6-like ring attached to the type VI secretion sheath.

    PubMed

    Planamente, Sara; Salih, Osman; Manoli, Eleni; Albesa-Jové, David; Freemont, Paul S; Filloux, Alain

    2016-08-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a supra-molecular bacterial complex that resembles phage tails. It is a killing machine which fires toxins into target cells upon contraction of its TssBC sheath. Here, we show that TssA1 is a T6SS component forming dodecameric ring structures whose dimensions match those of the TssBC sheath and which can accommodate the inner Hcp tube. The TssA1 ring complex binds the T6SS sheath and impacts its behaviour in vivo In the phage, the first disc of the gp18 sheath sits on a baseplate wherein gp6 is a dodecameric ring. We found remarkable sequence and structural similarities between TssA1 and gp6 C-termini, and propose that TssA1 could be a baseplate component of the T6SS Furthermore, we identified similarities between TssK1 and gp8, the former interacting with TssA1 while the latter is found in the outer radius of the gp6 ring. These observations, combined with similarities between TssF and gp6N-terminus or TssG and gp53, lead us to propose a comparative model between the phage baseplate and the T6SS. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  15. Trehalose-6-Phosphate as a Potential Lead Candidate for the Development of Tps1 Inhibitors: Insights from the Trehalose Biosynthesis Pathway in Diverse Yeast Species.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rayne S S; De Lima, Karina C; de Almeida, Diego S G; De Mesquita, Joelma F; Eleutherio, Elis C A

    2017-03-01

    In some pathogens, trehalose biosynthesis is induced in response to stress as a protection mechanism. This pathway is an attractive target for antimicrobials as neither the enzymes, Tps1, and Tps2, nor is trehalose present in humans. Accumulation of T6P in Candida albicans, achieved by deletion of TPS2, resulted in strong reduction of fungal virulence. In this work, the effect of T6P on Tps1 activity was evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C. albicans, and Candida tropicalis were used as experimental models. As expected, a heat stress induced both trehalose accumulation and increased Tps1 activity. However, the addition of 125 μM T6P to extracts obtained from stressed cells totally abolished or reduced in 50 and 60 % the induction of Tps1 activity in S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans, respectively. According to our results, T6P is an uncompetitive inhibitor of S. cerevisiae Tps1. This kind of inhibitor is able to decrease the rate of reaction to zero at increased concentrations. Based on the similarities found in sequence and function between Tps1 of S. cerevisiae and some pathogens and on the inhibitory effect of T6P on Tps1 activity observed in vitro, novel drugs can be developed for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by organisms whose infectivity and survival on the host depend on trehalose.

  16. Quorum sensing control of Type VI secretion factors restricts the proliferation of quorum-sensing mutants

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Schneider, Emily; Greenberg, E Peter

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis uses acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing systems to regulate hundreds of genes. Here we show that cell-cell contact-dependent type VI secretion (T6S) toxin-immunity systems are among those activated by quorum sensing in B. thailandensis. We also demonstrate that T6S is required to constrain proliferation of quorum sensing mutants in colony cocultures of a BtaR1 quorum-sensing signal receptor mutant and its parent. However, the BtaR1 mutant is not constrained by and outcompetes its parent in broth coculture, presumably because no cell contact occurs and there is a metabolic cost associated with quorum sensing gene activation. The increased fitness of the wild type over the BtaR1 mutant during agar surface growth is dependent on an intact T6SS-1 apparatus. Thus, quorum sensing activates B. thailandensis T6SS-1 growth inhibition and this control serves to police and constrain quorum-sensing mutants. This work defines a novel role for T6SSs in intraspecies mutant control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14712.001 PMID:27183270

  17. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion phospholipase D effector targets both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Waterfield, Nicholas R; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guowei; Jin, Qi

    2014-05-14

    Widely found in animal and plant-associated proteobacteria, type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are potentially capable of facilitating diverse interactions with eukaryotes and/or other bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes three distinct T6SS haemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) secretion islands (H1, H2, and H3-T6SS), each involved in different aspects of the bacterium's interaction with other organisms. Here we describe the characterization of a P. aeruginosa H3-T6SS-dependent phospholipase D effector, PldB, and its three tightly linked cognate immunity proteins. PldB targets the periplasm of prokaryotic cells and exerts an antibacterial activity. Surprisingly, PldB also facilitates intracellular invasion of host eukaryotic cells by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, revealing it to be a trans-kingdom effector. Our findings imply a potentially widespread T6SS-mediated mechanism, which deploys a single phospholipase effector to influence both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gigacycle fatigue behavior by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification.

    PubMed

    Ahn, D G; Amanov, A; Cho, I S; Shin, K S; Pyoun, Y S; Lee, C S; Park, I G

    2012-07-01

    Nanocrystalline surface layer up to 84 microm in thick is produced on a specimen made of Al6061-T6 alloy by means of surface treatment called ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique. The refined grain size is produced in the top-layer and it is increased with increasing depth from the top surface. Vickers microhardness measurement for each nanocrystalline surface layer is performed and measurement results showed that the microhardness is increased from 116 HV up to 150 HV, respectively. In this study, fatigue behavior of Al6061-T6 alloy was studied up to 10(7)-10(9) cycles by using a newly developed ultrasonic fatigue testing (UFT) rig. The fatigue results of the UNSM-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens were compared with those of the untreated specimens. The microstructure of the untreated and UNSM-treated specimens was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopey (SEM) and transmission electron microscopey (TEM).

  19. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behaviors of GTA-Additive Manufactured 2219-Al After an Especial Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. Y.; Fan, C. L.; Lin, S. B.; Yang, C. L.; Dong, B. L.

    2017-04-01

    2219-Al parts were produced by gas tungsten arc-additive manufacturing and sequentially processed by an especial heat treatment. In order to investigate the effects of heat treatment on its mechanical properties, multiple tests were conducted. Hardness tests were carried out on part scale and layer scale along with tensile tests which were performed on welding and building directions. Results show that compared to conventional casting + T6 2219-Al, the current deposit + T6 2219-Al exhibits satisfying properties with regard to strength but unsatisfying results in plasticity. Additionally, anisotropy is significant. Fractures were observed and the cracks' propagating paths in both directional specimens are described. The effects of heat treatment on the cracks' initiation and propagation were also investigated. Ultimately, a revised formula was developed to calculate the strength of the deposit + T6 2219-Al. The aforementioned formula, which takes into consideration the belt-like porosities-distributing feature, can scientifically describe the anisotropic properties in the material.

  20. The type VI secretion system of Vibrio cholerae fosters horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Borgeaud, Sandrine; Metzger, Lisa C; Scrignari, Tiziana; Blokesch, Melanie

    2015-01-02

    Natural competence for transformation is a common mode of horizontal gene transfer and contributes to bacterial evolution. Transformation occurs through the uptake of external DNA and its integration into the genome. Here we show that the type VI secretion system (T6SS), which serves as a predatory killing device, is part of the competence regulon in the naturally transformable pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The T6SS-encoding gene cluster is under the positive control of the competence regulators TfoX and QstR and is induced by growth on chitinous surfaces. Live-cell imaging revealed that deliberate killing of nonimmune cells via competence-mediated induction of T6SS releases DNA and makes it accessible for horizontal gene transfer in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Mechanical and tribological behaviour of molten salt processed self-lubricated aluminium composite under different treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, C.; Ramanujam, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical and tribological behaviour of Al 7075 based self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under different treated conditions viz. as-cast, T6 and deep cryo treated. In order to overcome the drawbacks associated with conventional stir casting, a combinational approach that consists of molten salt processing, ultrasonic assistance and optimized mechanical stirring is adopted in this study to fabricate the nanocomposite. The mechanical characterisation tests carried out on this nanocomposite reveals an improvement of about 39% in hardness and 22% in ultimate tensile strength possible under T6 condition. Under specific conditions, the wear rate can be reduced to the extent of about 63% through the usage of self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under T6 condition.

  2. Identification of an Inhibitory Alcohol Binding Site in GABAA ρ1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Cecilia M.; Ruiz, Carlos I.; Lee, Ui S.; Cullins, Madeline A.; Bertaccini, Edward J.; Trudell, James R.; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Alcohols inhibit γ-aminobutyric acid type A ρ1 receptor function. After introducing mutations in several positions of the second transmembrane helix in ρ1, we studied the effects of ethanol and hexanol on GABA responses using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The 6′ mutations produced the following effects on ethanol and hexanol responses: small increase or no change (T6′M), increased inhibition (T6′V) and small potentiation (T6′Y and T6′F). The 5′ mutations produced mainly increases in hexanol inhibition. Other mutations produced small (3′ and 9′) or no changes (2′ and L277 in the first transmembrane domain) in alcohol effects. These results suggest an inhibitory alcohol binding site near the 6′ position. Homology models of ρ1 receptors based on the X-ray structure of GluCl showed that the 2′, 5′, 6’ and 9′ residues were easily accessible from the ion pore, with 5′ and 6′ residues from neighboring subunits facing each other; L3′ and L277 also faced the neighboring subunit. We tested ethanol through octanol on single and double mutated ρ1 receptors [ρ1(I15′S), ρ1(T6′Y) and ρ1(T6′Y,I15′S)] to further characterize the inhibitory alcohol pocket in the wild-type ρ1 receptor. The pocket can only bind relatively short-chain alcohols and is eliminated by introducing Y in the 6’ position. Replacing the bulky 15′ residue with a smaller side chain introduced a potentiating binding site, more sensitive to long-chain than to short-chain alcohols. In conclusion, the net alcohol effect on the ρ1 receptor is determined by the sum of its actions on inhibitory and potentiating sites. PMID:26571107

  3. Structure of the Trehalose-6-phosphate Phosphatase from Brugia malayi Reveals Key Design Principles for Anthelmintic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Farelli, Jeremiah D.; Galvin, Brendan D.; Li, Zhiru; Liu, Chunliang; Aono, Miyuki; Garland, Megan; Hallett, Olivia E.; Causey, Thomas B.; Ali-Reynolds, Alana; Saltzberg, Daniel J.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP) from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s) of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible. PMID:24992307

  4. The Hcp proteins fused with diverse extended-toxin domains represent a novel pattern of antibacterial effectors in type VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jiale; Pan, Zihao; Huang, Jinhu; Sun, Min; Lu, Chengping; Yao, Huochun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target eukaryotic host cells or rival bacteria. Using a dynamic injection mechanism, diverse effectors can be delivered by T6SS directly into recipient cells. Here, we report a new family of T6SS effectors encoded by extended Hcps carrying diverse toxin domains. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these Hcps with C-terminal extension toxins, designated as Hcp-ET, exist widely in the Enterobacteriaceae. To verify our findings, Hcp-ET1 was tested for its antibacterial effect, and showed effective inhibition of target cell growth via the predicted HNH-DNase activity by T6SS-dependent delivery. Further studies showed that Hcp-ET2 mediated interbacterial antagonism via a Tle1 phospholipase (encoded by DUF2235 domain) activity. Notably, comprehensive analyses of protein homology and genomic neighborhoods revealed that Hcp-ET3–4 is fused with 2 toxin domains (Pyocin S3 and Colicin-DNase) C-terminally, and its encoding gene is followed 3 duplications of the cognate immunity genes. However, some bacteria encode a separated hcp-et3 and an orphan et4 (et4O1) genes caused by a termination-codon mutation in the fusion region between Pyocin S3 and Colicin-DNase encoding fragments. Our results demonstrated that both of these toxins had antibacterial effects. Further, all duplications of the cognate immunity protein contributed to neutralize the DNase toxicity of Pyocin S3 and Colicin, which has not been reported previously. In conclusion, we propose that Hcp-ET proteins are polymorphic T6SS effectors, and thus present a novel encoding pattern of T6SS effectors. PMID:28060574

  5. TRPM7 channel regulates PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via PI3K and ERK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling, E-mail: fangling_1984@126.com; Zhan, Shuxiang; Huang, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    TRPM7, a non-selective cation channel of the TRP channel superfamily, is implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cell proliferation. Recently, TRPM7 has been reported in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we investigated the contribution role of TRPM7 in activated HSC-T6 cell (a rat hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation. TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot in rat model of liver fibrosis in vivo and PDGF-BB-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Both mRNA and protein of TRPM7 were dramatically increased in CCl{sub 4}-treated rat livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with PDGF-BB resulted in a time-dependent increasemore » of TRPM7 mRNA and protein. However, PDGF-BB-induced HSC-T6 cell proliferation was inhibited by non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7, and this was accompanied by downregulation of cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1, PCNA and CDK4. Blockade of TRPM7 channels also attenuated PDGF-BB induced expression of myofibroblast markers as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, associated with cell proliferation, decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TRPM7 channels contribute to perpetuated fibroblast activation and proliferation of PDGF-BB induced HSC-T6 cells via the activation of ERK and PI3K pathways. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 mRNA and protein in the fibrotic livers from CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. • Increasing expression of TRPM7 mRNA and protein during HSC activation. • Blockade of TRPM7 inhibited the PDGF-BB induced proliferation of HSC-T6 cells. • Blockade of TRPM7 decreased α-SMA and Col1α1 expressions in activated HSC-T6 cells. • TRPM7 up-regulation contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.« less

  6. Rapidly solidified metal coatings by peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum powders, and the cross-sections of the coated specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy. The properties of the peen plated specimens were also compared with those of shot peened specimens without any coating. It is found that peen plating with rapidly solidified metals improves the fatigue properties of the coated samples to a greater extent than shot peening alone. Specimens of 7075-T6 alloy peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum exhibited better fatigue resistance than shot peened specimens in both air and salt water.

  7. Proceedings from the DRG Seminar on Robotics in the Battlefield (31st) Held in Paris, France on 6-8 March 1991 (Acetes du 31ieme Seminaire sur la Robotique du Champ de Bataile)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    8217Energie.4romnique) et GIAT-Industries (Groupern.ent Indusrriei dles Armements Terrestres ) ant 6t retenus ensemble par la DAT / SEFT (Direction des...Armements Terrestres , Sections d’Erudes et Fabrications des Tilicommunications ) pour une ’Etude de concepts de robots d-~ combat". Cette t6tude de dix...d’identification des amis utiusable par los ongins terrestres . *La t6l~opdration des armes utilisera des proc~dds sp~cifiques, no reprenant qu’en p

  8. Multi-Rate Digital Control Systems with Simulation Applications. Volume II. Computer Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    OREWORD The research described in this report was performed by Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, California, under Air Force Contract F33615-79-C-3601...zero to plus infinity . - K ST(t) = 6(t) + 5(t - T) + 6(t - 2T) + .... J 6(t - kT) (4) k=O The Laplace transform of 6 T(t) is given in closed form as...The definition of the z-transform stems from the infinite summation cT(t) = • c( kfc ) 6(t - kT) k = 0, 1, 2, ... (16) k=0 where cT(t), the sampled

  9. Effect of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of modified aluminum-magnesium alloys in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Aleem, A.

    1993-10-01

    Study of modified Al-2.5Mg alloys containing chromium, silica, iron, and manganese in various tempers (O, H-18, T-4, T-6, T-18, and H-34) has shown that their corrosion resistance is significantly altered by thermomechanical treatment and the beneficial effect of chromium on microstructural changes. Modified binary Al-2.5Mg alloys in the T-6 and T-4 tempers exhibit a higher resistance to corrosion in Arabian Gulf water than H-34 tempers due to the beneficial effect of chromium on microstructural changes.

  10. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling, E-mail: fangling_1984@126.com; Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032; Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7more » protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T

  11. Joining by plating: optimization of occluded angle

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Kan, Y.R.

    1978-11-01

    An empirical method has been developed for predicting the minimum angle required for maximum joint strength for materials joined by plating. This is done through a proposed power law failure function, whose coefficients are taken from ring shear and conical head tensile data for plating/substrate combinations and whose exponent is determined from one set of plated-joint data. Experimental results are presented for Al-Ni-Al (7075-T6) and AM363-Ni-AM363 joints, and the failure function is used to predict joint strengths for Al-Ni-Al (2024-T6), UTi-Ni-UTi, and Be-Ti-Be.

  12. An in-situ study in SEM of delamination in several graphite/epoxy composite material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    A three point bend fixture compatible with the current loading stage for the Scanning Electron Microscope was designed and fabricated. End-notched flexure tests were run on several materials. Work to date was on AS4/3502, T6T145/F155, and T6T145/F185. Fracture toughness was measured. Fracture of neat resin specimens was begun. The decrease in delaminatin fracture toughness, compared to neat resin toughness, due to rigid fiber filler and interlaminar failure is addressed. An experimental program was designed to try to determine the proper interpretatin for apparent microcracking in neat resin specimens.

  13. Round Robin Fatigue Crack Growth Testing Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    testing was accomplished, in accordance with ASTM E647, using two different capacity SATEC frames-a 20 kip test frame for the 7075-T6 panels and a 55 kip...Equipment and Setup a. SATEC b. 20 kip (7075-T6); 55 kip (2024-T351) c. Test control hardware/software i. Hardware: Teststar Ilm ii. Software: Station...5c. WROGRK M UN LEMBERTNME 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS( ES ) S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for A44rcraft

  14. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057–6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion

  15. Sleep loss does not aggravate the deteriorating effect of hypoglycemia on neurocognitive function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian M; Bandorf, Nadine; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs neurocognitive functions. Assuming that this effect is mediated by reduced cerebral glucose supply due to prolonged wakefulness inducing a progressive depletion of cerebral glycogen stores, we hypothesized that short-term sleep loss amplifies the deteriorating effects of acute hypoglycemia on neurocognitive functions. Seven healthy men were tested in a randomized and balanced order on 3 different conditions spaced 2 weeks apart. After a night of total SD (total SD), 4.5h of sleep (partial SD) and a night with 7h of regular sleep (regular sleep), subjects were exposed to a stepwise hypoglycemic clamp experiment. Reaction time (RT) and auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) were assessed during a euglycemic baseline period and at the end of the clamp (blood glucose at 2.5mmol/l). During the euglycemic baseline, amplitude of the P3 component of the AEP was lower after total SD than after partial SD (9.2+/-3.2microV vs. 16.6+/-2.9microV; t(6)=3.2, P=0.02) and regular sleep (20.2+/-2.1microV; t(6)=18.8, P<0.01). Reaction time was longer after total SD in comparison to partial SD (367+/-45ms vs. 304+/-36ms; t(6)=2.7, P=0.04) and to regular sleep (322+/-36ms; t(6)=2.41, P=0.06) while there was no difference between partial SD and regular sleep condition (t(6)=0.60, P=0.57). Hypoglycemia decreased P3 amplitude by 11.2+/-4.1microV in the partial SD condition (t(6)=2.72, P=0.04) and by 9.3+/-0.7microV in the regular sleep condition (t(6)=12.51, P<0.01), but did not further reduce P3 amplitude after total SD (1.8+/-3.9microV; t(6)=0.46, P=0.66). Thus, at the end of hypoglycemia P3 amplitudes were similar across the 3 conditions (F(2,10)=0.89, P=0.42). RT generally showed a similar pattern with a significant prolongation due to hypoglycemia after partial SD (+42+/-12ms; t(6)=3.39, P=0.02) and regular sleep (+37+/-10ms; t(6)=3.53, P=0.01), but not after total SD (+15+/-16; t(6)=0.97, P=0.37), resulting in similar values at the end of hypoglycemia

  16. A highly sensitive and selective immunoassay for the detection of tetrabromobisphenol A in soil and sediment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of TBBPA was developed. Six haptens (T1-T6) mimicking different structural elements of TBBPA were synthesized and coupled to keyhole...

  17. National Dam Inspection Program. Laurel Run Dam. NDI ID Number PA-00380. DER ID Number 35-6, Pennsylvania Gas and Water Company. Susquehanna River Basin, Laurel Run, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Supply. g. Design and Construction History. Laurel Run Dam was constructed in 1594 by Martin Cawley, a contractor from Archbald. The construction was...1T6Ace joly PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT -4 NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM Lime LAUREL RUN DAM PENNSYLVANIA GAS AND WATER COMPANY RESERVOIR AREA

  18. Dioxygenases Catalyze O-Demethylation and O,O-Demethylenation with Widespread Roles in Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Metabolism in Opium Poppy*

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy. PMID:23928311

  19. Application of Advanced Material for Turbomachinery and Rocket Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    de fatigue oligocyclique sous charges nominales a 6t6 r~alisi avec succ~s. L’instrumentation en jauges de contrainte a confirm6 lea niveaux de...thermocouples, peintures thermosensibles et jauges de contraintes de fagon A mieux 6valuer leur comportement dans l’environnement du moteur. Aucune anomalie n’s

  20. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of an innovative low-alloy high-strength aluminum cast alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is applied for treatment of castings of innovative low-ally high-strength aluminum alloy, nikalin ATs6N0.5Zh based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system. The influence of HIP on the structure and properties of castings is studied by means of three regimes of barometric treatment with different temperatures of isometric holding: t 1 = 505 ± 2°C, p 1 = 100 MPa, τ1 = 3 h (HIP1); t 2 = 525 ± 2°C, p 2 = 100 MPa, τ2 = 3 h (HIP2); and t 3 = 545 ± 2°C, p 3 = 100 MPa, τ3 = 3 h (HIP3). It is established that high-temperature HIP leads to actually complete elimination of porosity and additional improvement of the morphology of second phases. Improved structure after HIP provides improvement properties, especially of plasticity. In particular, after heat treatment according of regime HIP2 + T4 (T4 is natural aging), the alloy plasticity is improved by about two times in comparison with the initial state (from ~6 to 12%). While applying regime HIP3 + T6 (T6 is artificial aging for reaching the maximum strength), the plasticity has improved by more than three times in comparison with the initial state, as after treatment according to regimes HIP1 + T6 and HIP2 + T6 (from ~1.2 to ~5.0%), which are characterized by a lower HIP temperature.

  1. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TOUGH STAIN REMOVING INSTITUTIONAL COMET CLEANSER WITH CHLORINOL G, 02/10/1975

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... 1i~~~~~M~T"~C~H~~~~R~I~NO~L~~O~~~~~iil i _L~=_===7 USE COMET ~ ~ FOR THESE TOUGH ~ ... t\\t'6\\\\$ , USE COMET FOR THESE TOUGH ...

  2. Type VI secretion is a major virulence determinant in Burkholderia mallei.

    PubMed

    Schell, Mark A; Ulrich, Ricky L; Ribot, Wilson J; Brueggemann, Ernst E; Hines, Harry B; Chen, Dan; Lipscomb, Lyla; Kim, H Stanley; Mrázek, Jan; Nierman, William C; Deshazer, David

    2007-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted pathogen and a category B biothreat agent. Although the B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system is required for virulence in hamsters, the virulence genes it regulates are unknown. Here we show with expression profiling that overexpression of virAG resulted in transcriptional activation of approximately 60 genes, including some involved in capsule production, actin-based intracellular motility, and type VI secretion (T6S). The 15 genes encoding the major sugar component of the homopolymeric capsule were up-expressed > 2.5-fold, but capsule was still produced in the absence of virAG. Actin tail formation required virAG as well as bimB, bimC and bimE, three previously uncharacterized genes that were activated four- to 15-fold when VirAG was overproduced. Surprisingly, actin polymerization was found to be dispensable for virulence in hamsters. In contrast, genes encoding a T6S system were up-expressed as much as 30-fold and mutations in this T6S gene cluster resulted in strains that were avirulent in hamsters. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry demonstrated that BMAA0742 was secreted by the T6S system when virAG was overexpressed. Purified His-tagged BMAA0742 was recognized by glanders antiserum from a horse, a human and mice, indicating that this Hcp-family protein is produced in vivo during infection.

  3. pH Alkalinization by Chloroquine Suppresses Pathogenic Burkholderia Type 6 Secretion System 1 and Multinucleated Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Senft, Jeffrey L.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; DeShazer, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is the formation of granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on type 6 secretion system 1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine diphosphate (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape, and subsequent MNGC formation. This depends on CLQ's ability to neutralize the acid pH because other alkalinizing compounds similarly inhibit escape and MNGC formation. CLQ inhibits bacterial virulence protein expression because T6SS-1 and some effectors of type 3 secretion system 3 (T3SS-3), which is also required for virulence, are expressed at acid pH. We show that acid pH upregulates the expression of Hcp1 of T6SS-1 and TssM, a protein coregulated with T6SS-1. Finally, we demonstrate that CLQ treatment of Burkholderia-infected Madagascar hissing cockroaches (HCs) increases their survival. This study highlights the multiple mechanisms by which CLQ inhibits growth and virulence and suggests that CLQ be further tested and considered, in conjunction with antibiotic use, for the treatment of diseases caused by Burkholderia. PMID:27799332

  4. pH Alkalinization by Chloroquine Suppresses Pathogenic Burkholderia Type 6 Secretion System 1 and Multinucleated Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jennifer; Senft, Jeffrey L; Lockett, Stephen J; Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; DeShazer, David; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is the formation of granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on type 6 secretion system 1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine diphosphate (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape, and subsequent MNGC formation. This depends on CLQ's ability to neutralize the acid pH because other alkalinizing compounds similarly inhibit escape and MNGC formation. CLQ inhibits bacterial virulence protein expression because T6SS-1 and some effectors of type 3 secretion system 3 (T3SS-3), which is also required for virulence, are expressed at acid pH. We show that acid pH upregulates the expression of Hcp1 of T6SS-1 and TssM, a protein coregulated with T6SS-1. Finally, we demonstrate that CLQ treatment of Burkholderia-infected Madagascar hissing cockroaches (HCs) increases their survival. This study highlights the multiple mechanisms by which CLQ inhibits growth and virulence and suggests that CLQ be further tested and considered, in conjunction with antibiotic use, for the treatment of diseases caused by Burkholderia. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Partnership between the US and Iraqi Air Forces: One Airman’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Prime Minster Nouri al-Maliki in 2008, virtually all US military members should have left Iraqi soil, as the United States makes good on its pledge...received information on the health of the T-6 fleet but also had opportunities to share lessons learned and take part in some of the processes involving

  6. 75 FR 3917 - Notice of Partial Cancellation of Proposed Withdrawal; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    .... 16 E., Sec. 29, that portion lying westerly of the Old Woman Mountains Wilderness Area. Northern... southwesterly of the Old Woman Mountains Wilderness Area. Northern Expansion Area. T. 6 N., R. 7 E., Secs. 1 and... land laws generally, subject to valid existing rights, the provisions of existing withdrawals, other...

  7. Design Against Fatigue Failure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    at room temperature and 375 Hz . 7050-T73651 aluminum and D6ac steel *HRC 50) were tested in room air and dry and wet argon, whereas 2014-T6 aluminum and annealed D6ac steel were tested in room air only.

  8. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres; ...

    2017-03-06

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to themore » dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.« less

  9. Microstructure and Thermal Stability of A357 Alloy With and Without the Addition of Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih; Chengn, Vun-Shing; Nieh, Jo-Kuang; Bor, Hui-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Long

    2017-11-01

    The principal purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of Zr on the microstructure and thermal stability of an A357 alloy that has been subjected to an aging treatment (T6) and thermal exposure (250 °C). The results show that the addition of Zr had a significant influence on the refinement of the grain size, which enhanced the hardness and tensile strength of the A357 alloy under the T6 condition. During thermal exposure at 250 °C, the rodlike metastable β'-Mg2Si precipitates transformed into coarse equilibrium phase β-Mg2Si precipitates, resulting in a significant drop in the hardness and tensile strength of the T6 heat-treated A357 alloy. However, after thermal exposure, coherent, finely dispersed Al3Zr precipitates were found to be formed in the T6 heat-treated A357 alloy. The addition of 0.1% Zr played a critical role in improving the high-temperature strength. Consequently, the A357 alloy with the addition of Zr demonstrated better mechanical properties at room temperature and high temperature than the alloy without Zr, in terms of both microstructure and thermal stability.

  10. Comparative evaluation of cast aluminum alloys for automotive cylinder heads: Part I Microstructure evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Rodriguez, Andres

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to themore » dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ''θ'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ'θ' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β'β' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.« less

  11. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite surfaces. 3: Drag coefficients from spatial and energy distributions of reflected helium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Knuth, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Spatial and energy distributions of helium atoms scattered from an anodized 1235-0 aluminum surface as well as the tangential and normal momentum accommodation coefficients calculated from these distributions are reported. A procedure for calculating drag coefficients from measured values of spatial and energy distributions is given. The drag coefficient calculated for a 6061 T-6 aluminum sphere is included.

  12. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... straight line approximately one mile to an unnamed pass with an elevation of 1485 feet, located on Soda Canyon Road; (3) Then easterly in a straight line approximately 0.5 miles to an unnamed peak of 2135 feet... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on...

  13. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proceed north and slightly west 2.3 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1174 feet, Section 15, T.6N., R. 32W. (3) Proceed west and slightly north 1.85 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 899 feet within....G.S. map. (4) Proceed north approximately 2 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1063 feet within...

  14. 27 CFR 9.230 - Ballard Canyon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... straight line approximately 1.25 miles, crossing onto the Zaca Creek map, to the marked “Ball” 801-foot....45 miles, crossing onto the Solvang map, to a marked, unnamed 775-foot peak, T6N/R31W; then (6... the 400-foot contour line approximately 1.5 miles, to the contour line's first intersection with...

  15. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... straight line approximately one mile to an unnamed pass with an elevation of 1485 feet, located on Soda Canyon Road; (3) Then easterly in a straight line approximately 0.5 miles to an unnamed peak of 2135 feet... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on...

  16. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... straight line approximately one mile to an unnamed pass with an elevation of 1485 feet, located on Soda Canyon Road; (3) Then easterly in a straight line approximately 0.5 miles to an unnamed peak of 2135 feet... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on...

  17. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proceed north and slightly west 2.3 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1174 feet, Section 15, T.6N., R. 32W. (3) Proceed west and slightly north 1.85 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 899 feet within....G.S. map. (4) Proceed north approximately 2 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1063 feet within...

  18. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... proceed north and slightly west 2.3 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1174 feet, Section 15, T.6N., R. 32W. (3) Proceed west and slightly north 1.85 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 899 feet within....G.S. map. (4) Proceed north approximately 2 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1063 feet within...

  19. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proceed north and slightly west 2.3 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1174 feet, Section 15, T.6N., R. 32W. (3) Proceed west and slightly north 1.85 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 899 feet within....G.S. map. (4) Proceed north approximately 2 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1063 feet within...

  20. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... straight line approximately one mile to an unnamed pass with an elevation of 1485 feet, located on Soda Canyon Road; (3) Then easterly in a straight line approximately 0.5 miles to an unnamed peak of 2135 feet... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on...

  1. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proceed north and slightly west 2.3 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1174 feet, Section 15, T.6N., R. 32W. (3) Proceed west and slightly north 1.85 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 899 feet within....G.S. map. (4) Proceed north approximately 2 miles to an unnamed hilltop elevation 1063 feet within...

  2. Analytical and Experimental Studies of Beam Waveguide Absorbers for Structural Damping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    38 B. IMPEI)ANCES OF TlE WAVEUIDE ABSORBER ............... 45 - C. I)A IPING OF TIE PLATE .................................. 53 V. CO N C LU SIO N S...8217 viscoelastic beam waveguide absorber ip - dances at the center of the beam .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 92 Fizure -51. Thle driving...j.J~ ~~ ~ Voz ~ S S*** / -.r T- 6 .. ... . ... .. .. bib

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Cast Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Cylinder Heads: Part I—Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Shibayan; Allard, Lawrence F.; Rodriguez, Andres; Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit

    2017-05-01

    The present study stages a comparative evaluation of microstructure and associated mechanical and thermal response for common cast aluminum alloys that are used for manufacturing automotive cylinder heads. The systems considered are Al-Cu (206-T6), Al-Si-Cu (319-T7), and Al-Si (356-T6, A356-T6, and A356 + 0.5Cu-T6). The focus of the present manuscript is on the evaluation of microstructure at various length scales after aging, while the second manuscript will deal with the mechanical and thermal response of these alloys due to short-term (aging) and long-term (pre-conditioning) heat treatments. At the grain-scale, the Al-Cu alloy possessed an equiaxed microstructure as opposed to the dendritic structure for the Al-Si-Cu or Al-Si alloys which is related to the individual solidification conditions for these alloy systems. The composition and morphology of intermetallic precipitates within the grain and at the grain/dendritic boundary are dictated by the alloy chemistry, solidification, and heat treatment conditions. At the nanoscale, these alloys contain various metastable strengthening precipitates (GPI and θ^'' in Al-Cu alloy, θ^' in Al-Si-Cu alloy, and β^' in Al-Si alloys) with varying size, morphology, coherency, and thermal stability.

  4. 77 FR 12007 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-6-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 7, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional...) authority, on behalf of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, to manufacture pharmaceutical and nutritional...

  5. 77 FR 1947 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... publication. WILLAMETTE MERIDIAN Oregon T. 10 S., R. 1 East, accepted December 8, 2011 T. 14 S., R. 1 W., accepted December 27, 2011 T. 6 S., R. 7 W., accepted December 27, 2011 T. 37 S., R. 1 E., accepted..., 2011 T. 21 S., R. 4 W., accepted December 27, 2011 Washington T. 17 N., R. 10 E., accepted December 27...

  6. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  7. Completion Report on the Corps of Engineers Structural Engineering Conference Held in Portland, Oregon on 23-28 June 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    The domes are fabricated from extruded 6061-T6 aluminum, 6 in. deep, wide flange struts, approximately 8 ft long, forming triangular structural...Ice Breaker - snack lines laid out poorly and bar dismantled too quickly. Not a lot of nearby food choices on evening and weekends. 12. Wednesday

  8. Maintainability Improvement Through Corrosion Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Aluminum base alloys - Mechanical properties; Lithium- Alloying elements; Crack propagation- Corrosion effects ; Fatigue life - Corrosion... effects on the corrosion fatigue life of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy . Ma,L CORPORATE SOURCE: University of Utah JOURNAL: Dissertation Abstracts International...Diffusion effects ; Hydrogen- Diffusion SECTION HEADINGS: 64 (Corrosion) 52. 715866 87-640094 The Life Prediction for 2024

  9. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with §§ 144.7(b) and 146.4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers... 3,400-3,600 T6N, R3W—SE/4 Sec. 35, SW/4 Sec. 36.T5N, R3W—N/2 Sec. 1. Circle Ridge Field Tensleep 1...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2554 - Aquifer exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquifer exemptions. In accordance with §§ 144.7(b) and 146.4 of this chapter, those portions of aquifers... 3,400-3,600 T6N, R3W—SE/4 Sec. 35, SW/4 Sec. 36.T5N, R3W—N/2 Sec. 1. Circle Ridge Field Tensleep 1...

  11. Propellant Improvement Program. Volume 2. Iron Contamination Effect in HDA (High Density Acid)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Density Acid ( HDA ) and the effect of iron impurity level up to 100 parts per million as Fe2O3 on HDA heat transfer. Thirty tests were conducted using...resistance heated, circular, 6061T6 aluminum tubes. Results showed that normal nucleate boiling did not occur with either of the HDA compositions. The

  12. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Scott C; Facchini, Peter J

    2013-10-04

    In opium poppy, the antepenultimate and final steps in morphine biosynthesis are catalyzed by the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation. Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants. Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P450 in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Virus-induced gene silencing used to suppress the abundance of CODM and/or T6ODM transcripts indicated a direct physiological role for these enzymes in the metabolism of protopine alkaloids, and they revealed their indirect involvement in the formation of the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine sanguinarine and certain rhoeadine alkaloids in opium poppy.

  13. Development of the Brinell Sandwich Passive Soil Stress Gage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-31

    51+ Table 7.*+. 7075-T6 alloy - 113-gram bob. Load (N) Indentation Diameter (r 3238 18U2 2251 1721 1561 1397 lU55 1183 1241 1183 IO9I...34 Report No. ORNL -W68, September 1973; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 11. F. H. McRitchie; "Pressure Measuring Device;" U. S. Patent

  14. Selected Judgmental Methods in Defense Analyses. Volume 1. Main Text.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    contract No. MDA903-89-C-0003, Task T-6-593, Survey of Qualitative Methods in Military Operations Research . The objective of this analysis is to...Generalizability, and Reliability: Three Dimensions of Judgment Research ..................................................................... 1-1 a...V-3 3. Non -Gamble Methods ............................................................... V-4 B. Criticisms, Caveats, Replies

  15. Silencing trehalose-6-phosphate synthase incapacitates adult mosquitoes by interfering with the biosynthetic pathway for flight fuel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trehalose is a disaccharide comprised of two glucose molecules. It is the main blood sugar of insects and is essential for flight. Trehalose is synthesized by two enzymes: trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (T6PS) converts glucose-6-phosphate to trehalose-6-phosphate, and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphata...

  16. Mutation in the S-ribosylhomocysteinase (luxS) gene involved in quorum sensing affects biofilm formation and virulence in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    EPA Science Inventory

    A diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila produces a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) with cytotoxic, enterotoxic, and hemolytic activities. Our laboratory has characterized from the above Aeromonas strain, in addition to Act, the type 3- and T6-secretion systems and their effec...

  17. Low Temperature Quartz Crystal Oscillator Fast Warm-Up Saw Oscillator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    TASK_Q Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueARA&WKLI k Laboratoire de Physique et Metrologie des!2 Oscillateurs - 50 Bsnon-F 2 3 32 av. o l...propri6t6s non lin6aires des ondes Alastiques de sur- face : applications aux oscillateurs et aux capteurs A quartz", Thse Besanqon, 1979. (6) D. Hauden, G

  18. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... approximately 0.25 mile to its intersection with a trail and the 3,800-foot elevation line, T6N, R13W; then (9... (21) Proceed north and then generally southeast along the 3,600-foot elevation line that runs parallel... elevation line that runs north of the San Andreas Rift Zone to its intersection with the section 16 east...

  19. 27 CFR 9.212 - Leona Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approximately 0.25 mile to its intersection with a trail and the 3,800-foot elevation line, T6N, R13W; then (9... (21) Proceed north and then generally southeast along the 3,600-foot elevation line that runs parallel... elevation line that runs north of the San Andreas Rift Zone to its intersection with the section 16 east...

  20. Inspection Correlation Study of Ultrasonic-Based In Situ Structural Health Monitoring Monthly Report for December 2014-January 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    fatigue an induced ultrasonic elastic vibration (via piezoelectric transducers [ PZTs ]) propagates through the dogbone specimen. A receiver PZT picks up...inspection of fatigue crack growth in aluminum 7075-T6 dogbone specimens. Acellent Technologies, Inc., is supporting this project through providing...January 2015. 15. SUBJECT TERMS structural health monitoring, probabilistics, fatigue damage, guided waves, Lamb waves 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  1. A phospholipase A1 antibacterial Type VI secretion effector interacts directly with the C-terminal domain of the VgrG spike protein for delivery.

    PubMed

    Flaugnatti, Nicolas; Le, Thi Thu Hang; Canaan, Stéphane; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Nguyen, Van Son; Blangy, Stéphanie; Kellenberger, Christine; Roussel, Alain; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Journet, Laure

    2016-03-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein machine that delivers protein effectors in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, allowing interbacterial competition and virulence. The mechanism of action of the T6SS requires the contraction of a sheath-like structure that propels a needle towards target cells, allowing the delivery of protein effectors. Here, we provide evidence that the entero-aggregative Escherichia coli Sci-1 T6SS is required to eliminate competitor bacteria. We further identify Tle1, a toxin effector encoded by this cluster and showed that Tle1 possesses phospholipase A1 and A2 activities required for the interbacterial competition. Self-protection of the attacker cell is secured by an outer membrane lipoprotein, Tli1, which binds Tle1 in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with nanomolar affinity, and inhibits its phospholipase activity. Tle1 is delivered into the periplasm of the prey cells using the VgrG1 needle spike protein as carrier. Further analyses demonstrate that the C-terminal extension domain of VgrG1, including a transthyretin-like domain, is responsible for the interaction with Tle1 and its subsequent delivery into target cells. Based on these results, we propose an additional mechanism of transport of T6SS effectors in which cognate effectors are selected by specific motifs located at the C-terminus of VgrG proteins. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 76 FR 2084 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Amendment(T). 6. Aleutian Island (AI) Pacific Cod Issues: Discussion paper on BS&AI Pacific cod Split take action as necessary; Initial review AI Pacific cod processing Sideboards; (postponed). 7. BSAI Crab.... AI Pacific Cod. 4. BSAI Crab Management. 5. Miscellaneous Groundfish. 6. Economic SAFE review. 7...

  3. Multi-Metallic Galvanic Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Tate-Emery Company Calipers, Model #120, Starrett Company Extensometer, Model #P3M, Satec Incorporated Saw, Abrasimet Model, Buehler Limited PROCEDURE...few percent. Failure Analysis & Prevention, Metals Handbook Vol. 10, ASTM 1975, p. 182. 5 MPY 35-0 30-/ 25/ 20-0 15- 10- es -10Ŕ 6061-T6 COUPLED WITH

  4. Cold Spray Technology for DOD Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Ducts Bleed Valve Intermediate F-100 Engine F-15 Eagle Materials Ti6Al-4V Inconel Waspalloy Aluminum Problems Cavitation Wear Corrosion...T5 500 --- --- --- --- AZ92A T6 --- --- 765 425 5 ZE41A T5 625 2 --- --- --- M. M. Avedesian, Hugh Baker,"Magnesium and magnesium alloys", Edition

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Pt. 180, App. C Appendix C to Part 180—Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL... with CGA pamphlet C-6.1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). 3. Eddy Current Equipment. A reference...

  6. Galvanic Corrosion In (Graphite/Epoxy)/Alloy Couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.; Higgins, Ralph H.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of galvanic coupling between graphite/epoxy composite material, G/E, and D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Inconel(R) 718 nickel alloy in salt water described in report. Introductory section summarizes previous corrosion studies of G/E with other alloys. Details of sample preparation presented along with photographs of samples before and after immersion.

  7. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  8. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  9. Professional Role Orientation of Women Administrators and Women Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Mary; Gue, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The professional role orientation of women teachers and women administrators is compared with a limited number of variables. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G5; $4.00 annually.) (MLF)

  10. Administering the Open-Area Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the outcome of a study of the operation of open area schools in the Separate School System of Edmonton. (Available from C. A. Business Manager, Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  11. School Size, Cost and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratsoy, Eugene W.; Bumbarger, Chester S.

    1976-01-01

    Despite the trend toward consolidation of schools, many small schools continue to exist. The challenge is to identify and implement the changes that will improve these schools. (Available from Canadian Administrator Business Manager, Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50…

  12. Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Brent W.; Richards, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale for educational voucher systems, outlines model voucher systems, discusses implications of voucher systems, and suggests a generalized plan for applying voucher systems in continuing education. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5;…

  13. The Role of the Native Woman in a Native Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swampy, Grace Marie

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen Plains Cree-speaking women, aged 15-93, were interviewed to determine the persistence of traditional beliefs as they affect the role of women. "The major implication is that the culture is alive." Available: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5.…

  14. Militancy and Accommodativeness in Teachers' Negotiations: Two Ontario Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fris, J.

    1976-01-01

    Reports findings of two surveys of Ontario elementary and secondary teachers that measured teachers' attitudes regarding collective bargaining tactics and classified teachers' responses according to their militancy or accomodativeness. Available from Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G…

  15. NCHRP report 350 test 3-11 of the modified T8 bridge rail.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-01

    A new flexible bridge rail system, referred to as the T8 rail, was designed as a replacement for the T6 rail in high-speed applications on culverts and thin deck structures. The T8 rail failed a crash test when the breakaway posts failed the thin dec...

  16. Pirfenidone inhibits proliferation, arrests the cell cycle, and downregulates heat shock protein-47 and collagen type I in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xian-Hong; Jiang, Tian-Peng; Zhang, Shuai; Song, Jie; Li, Xing; Yang, Jian-Yong; Zhou, Shi

    2015-07-01

    Pirfenidone (esbiret) is an established anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory drug used to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, the dose-dependent effects of pirfenidone on the cell cycle, proliferation and expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-47 and collagen type I in a cultured rat hepatic stellate cell line (HSC-T6) were investigated. Following pirfenidone treatment, cell proliferation was determined using the cell counting kit-8 assay and the cell cycle was measured using flow cytometry. HSP-47 expression was estimated using western blot analysis and collagen type I mRNA was assessed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pirfenidone induced significant dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in HSC-T6 cells. Cell viability was unaffected by treatment with pirfenidone (0, 10 or 100 µM) for 24 and 72 h. However, after 24 h, HSC-T6 cells exhibited dose-dependent decreases in HSP-47 protein and collagen I mRNA levels. In conclusion, pirfenidone inhibited HSC-T6 cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle and reduced the expression of HSP-47 and collagen type I, indicating that pirfenidone may be a promising drug in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  17. Tests Of Polyurethane And Dichromate Coats On Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to determine relative effectiveness of new polyurethane and more-conventional dichromate coat in helping to retard corrosion of anodized 6061-T6 aluminum. Concludes by suggesting greater protection against corrosion achieved by combining polyurethane-sealing method with hard-anodizing method and by increasing thickness of coat.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of human tRNA Lys,3 UUU: the role of modified bases in mRNA recognition.

    PubMed

    McCrate, Nina E; Varner, Mychel E; Kim, Kenneth I; Nagan, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    Accuracy in translation of the genetic code into proteins depends upon correct tRNA-mRNA recognition in the context of the ribosome. In human tRNA(Lys,3)UUU three modified bases are present in the anticodon stem-loop--2-methylthio-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine at position 37 (ms2t6A37), 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine at position 34 (mcm5s2U34) and pseudouridine (psi) at position 39--two of which, ms2t6A37 and mcm5s2U34, are required to achieve wild-type binding activity of wild-type human tRNA(Lys,3)UUU [C. Yarian, M. Marszalek, E. Sochacka, A. Malkiewicz, R. Guenther, A. Miskiewicz and P. F. Agris (2000) Biochemistry, 39, 13390-13395]. Molecular dynamics simulations of nine tRNA anticodon stem-loops with different combinations of nonstandard bases were performed. The wild-type simulation exhibited a canonical anticodon stair-stepped conformation. The ms2t6 modification at position 37 is required for maintenance of this structure and reduces solvent accessibility of U36. Ms2t6A37 generally hydrogen bonds across the loop and may prevent U36 from rotating into solution. A water molecule does coordinate to psi39 most of the simulation time but weakly, as most of the residence lifetimes are <40 ps.

  19. Continuous internal channels formed in aluminum fusion welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, J.; Sabo, W.

    1967-01-01

    Process produces continuous internal channel systems on a repeatable basis in 2014-T6 aluminum. Standard machining forms the initial channel, which is filled with tungsten carbide powder. TIG machine fusion welding completes formation of the channel. Chem-mill techniques enlarge it to the desired size.

  20. Evaluating of NASA-Langley Research Center explosion seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, H. E.; Wittman, R.

    1977-01-01

    An explosion bonding technique to meet current fabrication requirements was demonstrated. A test program was conducted on explosion bonded joints, compared to fusion joints in 6061-T6 aluminum. The comparison was made in required fixtures, non-destructive testing, static strength and fatigue strength.

  1. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Deanna M; Barnes, Rebecca; Rogerson, Taylor; Haught, Ashley; Mazzella, Leanne K; Ford, Matthew; Gilson, Tricia; Birch, James W-M; Sjöstedt, Anders; Reed, Douglas S; Franks, Jonathan M; Stolz, Donna B; Denvir, James; Fan, Jun; Rekulapally, Swanthana; Primerano, Donald A; Horzempa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs) has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS) was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes), dotU , or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery) severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake ( Pseudechis guttatus ), which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks.

  2. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Deanna M.; Barnes, Rebecca; Rogerson, Taylor; Haught, Ashley; Mazzella, Leanne K.; Ford, Matthew; Gilson, Tricia; Birch, James W.-M.; Sjöstedt, Anders; Reed, Douglas S.; Franks, Jonathan M.; Stolz, Donna B.; Denvir, James; Fan, Jun; Rekulapally, Swanthana; Primerano, Donald A.; Horzempa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs) has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS) was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes), dotU, or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery) severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake (Pseudechis guttatus), which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks. PMID:28536678

  3. The feasibility of producing aluminum-lithium structures for cryogenic tankage applications by laser beam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martukanitz, R. P.; Lysher, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys exhibit high strength, high elastic modulus, and low density as well as excellent cryogenic mechanical properties making them ideal material candidates for cryogenic tanks. NASA has proposed the use of 'built-up' structure for panels fabricated into cryogenic tanks replacing current conventional machining. Superplastically formed stiffeners would be joined to sheet (tank skin) that had been roll formed to the radius of the tank in order to produce panels. Aluminum-lithium alloys of interest for producing the built-up structure include alloy 2095-T6 stiffeners to 2095-T8 sheet and alloy 8090-T6 stiffeners to 2090-T83 sheet. Laser welding, with comparable joint properties, offers the following advantages over conventional welding: higher production rates, minimal degradation within the heat affected zones, and full process automation. This study established process parameters for laser beam welding, mechanical property determinations, metallographic characterization, and fabrication of prototype panels. Tensile tests representing partial penetration of the skin alloys provided joint efficiencies between 65 and 77 percent, depending upon alloy and degree of penetration. Results of tension shear tests of lap welds indicated that the combination of 2095-T6 to 2090-T8 exhibited significantly higher weld shear strength at the interface in comparison to welds of 8090-T6 to 2090-T83. The increased shear strength associated with 2095 is believed to be due to the alloy's ability to precipitation strengthening (naturally age) after welding.

  4. 27 CFR 9.163 - Salado Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are two 1:24,000 Scale USGS topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Patterson, California Quadrangle... the town of Patterson. The Salado Creek viticultural area boundary is as follows: (1) Beginning on the Patterson Quadrangle map, section 19, T6S, R8E, at the intersection of Interstate Highway 5 and Fink Road...

  5. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization Task Order No. 1 (Block II). Database Documentation Book for OC-ALC MABPAB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-11

    1 -33 , 057T6-028 . SPACER. . . ............. ......... .. .. 2 -34 1= 063 . BEARING, Needle (60380) (BAC- BIOB -317) ... ..... . . 1 -35 60... BIOB -317).......... -35 69-10330-6 . STOP (Optional 69-10330-4).... ............ • • • (ATTACHING PARTS) -36 NAS679A3W . NUT

  6. Superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro development (IVD) protocols for inbred BALB/cJ mice in comparison with outbred NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Golkar-Narenji, Afsaneh; Gourabi, Hamid; Eimani, Hussein; Barekati, Zeinab; Akhlaghi, Aliasghar

    2012-10-01

    To study assisted reproductive technology (ART) protocols including superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro development (IVD) for BALB/cJ mice in comparison with a common ART protocol for NMRI mice. Adult NMRI and BALB/cJ mice were superovulated using a 48 h G-interval. In order to find a more suitable G-interval for the BALB/cJ strain, G-intervals including 44, 46 and 50 h were also examined. Superovulation rates were recorded in all groups. IVF rate of BALB/c oocytes in T6 and mHTF media were compared. IVD rates of BALB/cJ zygotes in mHTF, T6 and G1V 5 /G2V 5 media were compared. In addition, IVF and IVD rates of BALB/cJ and NMRI oocytes were compared in T6 medium during IVF-IVD procedures. In BALB/cJ mice the highest superovulation rates were observed with 44-46 h G-intervals. However, with a 48 h G-interval, superovulation rates were significantly lower in BALB/cJ compared to NMRI mice ( p < 0.05). mHTF medium significantly increased in vitro fertilization of BALB/cJ oocytes compared to T6 medium ( p < 0.05). Fertilization rate of NMRI oocytes was significantly higher than BALB/cJ oocytes in T6 medium ( p < 0.05). The BALB/cJ embryo IVD was significantly higher in G1/G2 medium compared to mHTF and T6 media ( p < 0.01). Superovulation with 48 h G-interval and using T6 during all in vitro procedures produces embryos more efficiently for NMRI mice than for BALB/cJ mice. For BALB/cJ mice, a protocol including superovulation with a 44-46 h G-interval, using mHTF during IVF and G1V 5 /G2V 5 medium during IVD, may improve in vitro embryo production.

  7. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (<1 ng/mL), testosterone remained unchanged in 66% of the chemically sterilized dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it remained low for 22% of dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it was unchanged at t+4m but low at t+6m in 9% of dogs; and, it was low at t+4m but reverted back to unchanged at t+6m in one dog (3%). Incidentally, testosterone in chemically sterilized dogs increased dramatically within 1 hour of treatment (t0), more than doubling (131%) the concentration of control dogs at the time of treatment (t0), likely because of severe necrosis of

  8. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  9. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  10. Functional recognition of the modified human tRNALys3(UUU) anticodon domain by HIV's nucleocapsid protein and a peptide mimic.

    PubMed

    Graham, William D; Barley-Maloney, Lise; Stark, Caren J; Kaur, Amarpreet; Stolarchuk, Christina; Stolyarchuk, Khrystyna; Sproat, Brian; Leszczynska, Grazyna; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Safwat, Nedal; Mucha, Piotr; Guenther, Richard; Agris, Paul F

    2011-07-22

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, facilitates the use of human tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) as the primer for reverse transcription. NCp7 also remodels the htRNA's amino acid accepting stem and anticodon domains in preparation for their being annealed to the viral genome. To understand the possible influence of the htRNA's unique composition of post-transcriptional modifications on NCp7 recognition of htRNA(Lys3)(UUU), the protein's binding and functional remodeling of the human anticodon stem and loop domain (hASL(Lys3)) were studied. NCp7 bound the hASL(Lys3)(UUU) modified with 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine at position-34 (mcm(5)s(2)U(34)) and 2-methylthio-N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine at position-37 (ms(2)t(6)A(37)) with a considerably higher affinity than the unmodified hASL(Lys3)(UUU) (K(d)=0.28±0.03 and 2.30±0.62 μM, respectively). NCp7 denatured the structure of the hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);Ψ(39) more effectively than that of the unmodified hASL(Lys3)(UUU). Two 15 amino acid peptides selected from phage display libraries demonstrated a high affinity (average K(d)=0.55±0.10 μM) and specificity for the ASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37) comparable to that of NCp7. The peptides recognized a t(6)A(37)-modified ASL with an affinity (K(d)=0.60±0.09 μM) comparable to that for hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37), indicating a preference for the t(6)A(37) modification. Significantly, one of the peptides was capable of relaxing the hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);Ψ(39) structure in a manner similar to that of NCp7, and therefore could be used to further study protein recognition of RNA modifications. The post-transcriptional modifications of htRNA(Lys3)(UUU) have been found to be important determinants of NCp7's recognition prior to the tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) being annealed to the viral genome as the primer of reverse transcription. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The trehalose pathway in maize: conservation and gene regulation in response to the diurnal cycle and extended darkness

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Clémence; Bledsoe, Samuel W.; Siekman, Allison; Kollman, Alec; Waters, Brian M.; Feil, Regina; Stitt, Mark; Lagrimini, L. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Energy resources in plants are managed in continuously changing environments, such as changes occurring during the day/night cycle. Shading is an environmental disruption that decreases photosynthesis, compromises energy status, and impacts on crop productivity. The trehalose pathway plays a central but not well-defined role in maintaining energy balance. Here, we characterized the maize trehalose pathway genes and deciphered the impacts of the diurnal cycle and disruption of the day/night cycle on trehalose pathway gene expression and sugar metabolism. The maize genome encodes 14 trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes, 11 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) genes, and one trehalase gene. Transcript abundance of most of these genes was impacted by the day/night cycle and extended dark stress, as were sucrose, hexose sugars, starch, and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) levels. After extended darkness, T6P levels inversely followed class II TPS and sucrose non-fermenting-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) target gene expression. Most significantly, T6P no longer tracked sucrose levels after extended darkness. These results showed: (i) conservation of the trehalose pathway in maize; (ii) that sucrose, hexose, starch, T6P, and TPS/TPP transcripts respond to the diurnal cycle; and(iii) that extended darkness disrupts the correlation between T6P and sucrose/hexose pools and affects SnRK1 target gene expression. A model for the role of the trehalose pathway in sensing of sucrose and energy status in maize seedlings is proposed. PMID:25271261

  12. Effect of repetitive feedback on residents' communication skills improvement.

    PubMed

    Labaf, Ali; Jamali, Kazem; Jalili, Mohammad; Baradaran, Hamid R; Eizadi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of frequent feedback on residents' communication skills as measured by a standardized checklist. Five medical students were recruited in order to assess twelve emergency medicine residents' communication skills during a one-year period. Students employed a modified checklist based on Calgary-Cambridge observation guide. The checklist was designed by faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Science, used for assessment of students' communication skills. 24 items from 71 items of observational guide were selected, considering study setting and objects. Every two months an expert faculty, based on descriptive results of observation, gave structured feedback to each resident during a 15-minute private session. Total mean score for baseline observation standing at 20.58 was increased significantly to 28.75 after feedbacks. Results markedly improved on "gathering information" (T1=5.5, T6=8.33, P=0.001), "building relationship" (T1=1.5, T6=4.25, P<0.001) and "closing the session" (T1=0.75, T6=2.5, P=0.001) and it mildly dropped on "understanding patients view" (T1=3, T6=2.33, P=0.007) and "providing structure" (T1=4.17, T6=4.00, P=0.034). Changes in result of "initiating the session" and "explanation and planning" dimensions are not statically significant (P=0.159, P=0.415 respectively). Frequent feedback provided by faculty member can improve residents' communication skills. Feedback can affect communication skills educational programs, and it can be more effective if it is combined with other educational methods.

  13. NMR-based Structural Analysis of Threonylcarbamoyl-AMP Synthase and Its Substrate Interactions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kimberly A; Bobay, Benjamin G; Sarachan, Kathryn L; Sims, Alexis F; Bilbille, Yann; Deutsch, Christopher; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Agris, Paul F

    2015-08-14

    The hypermodified nucleoside N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t(6)A37) is present in many distinct tRNA species and has been found in organisms in all domains of life. This post-transcriptional modification enhances translation fidelity by stabilizing the anticodon/codon interaction in the ribosomal decoding site. The biosynthetic pathway of t(6)A37 is complex and not well understood. In bacteria, the following four proteins have been discovered to be both required and sufficient for t(6)A37 modification: TsaC, TsaD, TsaB, and TsaE. Of these, TsaC and TsaD are members of universally conserved protein families. Although TsaC has been shown to catalyze the formation of L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of t(6)A37, the details of the enzymatic mechanism remain unsolved. Therefore, the solution structure of Escherichia coli TsaC was characterized by NMR to further study the interactions with ATP and L-threonine, both substrates of TsaC in the biosynthesis of L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP. Several conserved amino acids were identified that create a hydrophobic binding pocket for the adenine of ATP. Additionally, two residues were found to interact with L-threonine. Both binding sites are located in a deep cavity at the center of the protein. Models derived from the NMR data and molecular modeling reveal several sites with considerable conformational flexibility in TsaC that may be important for L-threonine recognition, ATP activation, and/or protein/protein interactions. These observations further the understanding of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by TsaC, a threonylcarbamoyl-AMP synthase, and provide structure-based insight into the mechanism of t(6)A37 biosynthesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Secretome Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Type VI Secretion System Reveals a New Effector-Immunity Pair

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Emrah; Dong, Tao; Catalano, Christy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a dynamic macromolecular organelle that many Gram-negative bacteria use to inhibit or kill other prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. The toxic effectors of T6SS are delivered to the prey cells in a contact-dependent manner. In Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, T6SS is active during intestinal infection. Here, we describe the use of comparative proteomics coupled with bioinformatics to identify a new T6SS effector-immunity pair. This analysis was able to identify all previously identified secreted substrates of T6SS except PAAR (proline, alanine, alanine, arginine) motif-containing proteins. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of a new secreted protein encoded by VCA0285 (TseH) that carries a predicted hydrolase domain. We confirmed that TseH is toxic when expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and V. cholerae cells. The toxicity observed in V. cholerae was suppressed by coexpression of the protein encoded by VCA0286 (TsiH), indicating that this protein is the cognate immunity protein of TseH. Furthermore, exogenous addition of purified recombinant TseH to permeabilized E. coli cells caused cell lysis. Bioinformatics analysis of the TseH protein sequence suggest that it is a member of a new family of cell wall-degrading enzymes that include proteins belonging to the YD repeat and Rhs superfamilies and that orthologs of TseH are likely expressed by species belonging to phyla as diverse as Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. PMID:25759499

  15. The trehalose pathway in maize: conservation and gene regulation in response to the diurnal cycle and extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Henry, Clémence; Bledsoe, Samuel W; Siekman, Allison; Kollman, Alec; Waters, Brian M; Feil, Regina; Stitt, Mark; Lagrimini, L Mark

    2014-11-01

    Energy resources in plants are managed in continuously changing environments, such as changes occurring during the day/night cycle. Shading is an environmental disruption that decreases photosynthesis, compromises energy status, and impacts on crop productivity. The trehalose pathway plays a central but not well-defined role in maintaining energy balance. Here, we characterized the maize trehalose pathway genes and deciphered the impacts of the diurnal cycle and disruption of the day/night cycle on trehalose pathway gene expression and sugar metabolism. The maize genome encodes 14 trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes, 11 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) genes, and one trehalase gene. Transcript abundance of most of these genes was impacted by the day/night cycle and extended dark stress, as were sucrose, hexose sugars, starch, and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) levels. After extended darkness, T6P levels inversely followed class II TPS and sucrose non-fermenting-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) target gene expression. Most significantly, T6P no longer tracked sucrose levels after extended darkness. These results showed: (i) conservation of the trehalose pathway in maize; (ii) that sucrose, hexose, starch, T6P, and TPS/TPP transcripts respond to the diurnal cycle; and(iii) that extended darkness disrupts the correlation between T6P and sucrose/hexose pools and affects SnRK1 target gene expression. A model for the role of the trehalose pathway in sensing of sucrose and energy status in maize seedlings is proposed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Masetti, Michela; Nannini, Pilar; Forlanini, Federica; Clerici, Mario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Daria

    2018-01-01

    HBV vaccine induces protective antibodies only in 23-56% of HIV-infected children. The aim of our study is to evaluate the immunologic effects of a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected youth. 53 young HIV-infected patients in whom HBV vaccination did not elicit protective Ab titers were enrolled. All patients were on ART with optimal immunological and viral response. All patients received a booster dose of HBV vaccine (HBVAXPRO 10 μg i.m.). HBV-specific Ab titer, viral load and CD4+ T cells were measured at baseline (T0), T1, T6 and T12 months. In a subgroup of 16 patients HBV-specific cell mediated immune responses were evaluated at baseline, at T1 and T6. The booster dose induced seroconversion in 51% of patients at T1, 57% at T6, and49% at T12; seroconversion rate was significantly correlated with CD4+T cells at T0 and to the CD4 nadir. The booster dose induced HBV-specific cell mediated immunity at T6 mainly in Responders (Rs): Effector Memory CD8+T cells, HBV-specific TNFα-, IFNγ-, granzyme secreting CD8+ T cells and IL2-secreting CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in Rs compared to T0. In Non Responders (NRs), HBV-specific IL2-secreting CD4+ T cells, Central and Effector Memory CD8+ T cells were the only parameters modified at T6. Seroconversion induced by a booster dose of vaccine correlates with the development of T cell immunological memory in HIV-infected patients who did not respond to the standard immunization. Alternate immunization schedules need to be considered in NRs.

  17. Comparison of a dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables with a low-fat approach: long-term effects on dietary intakes, eating behaviours and body weight in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Annie; Weisnagel, S John; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Dufour-Bouchard, Andrée-Ann; Trudeau, Caroline; Lemieux, Simone

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of two dietary approaches on changes in dietary intakes, eating behaviours and body weight: (1) approach using restrictive messages to limit high-fat foods (low-fat intake; LOFAT); (2) approach emphasising non-restrictive messages directed towards the inclusion of fruits and vegetables (high intake of fruits and vegetables; HIFV). A total of sixty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of the two dietary approaches. The 6-month dietary intervention included three group sessions and ten individual sessions with a dietitian. Dietary intakes, eating behaviours and anthropometrics were measured at baseline, at the end of the dietary intervention (T = 6) and 6 months and 12 months after the end of the intervention (T = 12 and T = 18). In the LOFAT group, energy and fat intakes were lower at T = 6 when compared with baseline and remained lower at T = 12 and T = 18. In the HIFV group, fruit and vegetable intakes increased significantly at T = 6 but were no longer significantly different from baseline at T = 12 and T = 18. Dietary restraint increased at T = 6 and remained higher than baseline at T = 18 in the LOFAT group while no significant change was observed in the HIFV group. At T = 6, body weight was significantly lower than baseline in both groups (LOFAT: - 3.7 (SD 2.8) kg; HIFV: - 1.8 (SD 3.0) kg) and no significant difference in body-weight change from baseline was found between groups at T = 18. We concluded that weight loss was similar at 1-year follow-up in both dietary approaches. Despite relatively good improvements in the short term, the adherence to a 6-month dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables was difficult to maintain.

  18. Gelatinized to non-gelatinized starch ratio in the diet of Labeo rohita: effect on digestive and metabolic response and on growth.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Kumar, S; Gupta, S K

    2008-08-01

    A 60-days experiment was conducted to study the optimum gelatinized (G) to non-gelatinized (NG) starch ratio in the diet of Labeo rohita juveniles with respect to digestive and metabolic response and on growth. Two-hundred and thirty-four juveniles (avg. wt 2.53 +/- 0.04 g) were randomly distributed in six treatment groups with each of three replicates. Six semipurified diets either containing NG and/or G corn starch viz., T(1) (100% NG, 0% G starch), T(2) (80% NG, 20% G starch), T(3) (60% NG, 40% G starch), T(4) (40% NG, 60% G starch), T(5) (20% NG, 80% G starch) and T(6) (0% NG, 100% G starch) were prepared. The dry matter digestibility and carbohydrate digestibility were highest (p < 0.05) in T(6) group and lowest in T(3) and T(4) groups. The amylase activity in intestine increased as G:NG level increased in the diet. Protease activity in intestine was highest in T(6) group and lowest in T(1) group. Similar trend was recorded for specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization. Liver glycogen, hepatosomatic index and blood glucose level increased linearly with the increasing level of G starch in the experimental diet. The results indicate that higher nutrient digestibility and growth was recorded either at low (20% G starch, T(2)) or high (100% G starch, T(6)) G starch fed group. But high G starch fed group (T(6)) exhibits higher liver glycogen and blood glucose level, which may lead to stress due to long-term feeding. Hence, it is suggested that 20% G and 80% NG starch is optimum for better nutrient digestibility and growth in L. rohita juveniles.

  19. The HsiB1C1 (TssB-TssC) Complex of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type VI Secretion System Forms a Bacteriophage Tail Sheathlike Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lossi, Nadine S.; Manoli, Eleni; Förster, Andreas; Dajani, Rana; Pape, Tillmann; Freemont, Paul; Filloux, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Protein secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria evolved into a variety of molecular nanomachines. They are related to cell envelope complexes, which are involved in assembly of surface appendages or transport of solutes. They are classified as types, the most recent addition being the type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS displays similarities to bacteriophage tail, which drives DNA injection into bacteria. The Hcp protein is related to the T4 bacteriophage tail tube protein gp19, whereas VgrG proteins structurally resemble the gp27/gp5 puncturing device of the phage. The tube and spike of the phage are pushed through the bacterial envelope upon contraction of a tail sheath composed of gp18. In Vibrio cholerae it was proposed that VipA and VipB assemble into a tail sheathlike structure. Here we confirm these previous data by showing that HsiB1 and HsiC1 of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa H1-T6SS assemble into tubules resulting from stacking of cogwheel-like structures showing predominantly 12-fold symmetry. The internal diameter of the cogwheels is ∼100 Å, which is large enough to accommodate an Hcp tube whose external diameter has been reported to be 85 Å. The N-terminal 212 residues of HsiC1 are sufficient to form a stable complex with HsiB1, but the C terminus of HsiC1 is essential for the formation of the tubelike structure. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that HsiC1 displays similarities to gp18-like proteins in its C-terminal region. In conclusion, we provide further structural and mechanistic insights into the T6SS and show that a phage sheathlike structure is likely to be a conserved element across all T6SSs. PMID:23341461

  20. Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S.; Freemont, Paul S.; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA+ ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

  1. YrdC exhibits properties expected of a subunit for a tRNA threonylcarbamoyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kimberly A; Jones, Victoria; Bilbille, Yann; Swairjo, Manal A; Agris, Paul F

    2011-09-01

    The post-transcriptional nucleoside modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain form the loop structure and dynamics required for effective and accurate recognition of synonymous codons. The N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine modification at position 37 (t(6)A(37)), 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, of many tRNA species in all organisms ensures the accurate recognition of ANN codons by increasing codon affinity, enhancing ribosome binding, and maintaining the reading frame. However, biosynthesis of this complex modification is only partially understood. The synthesis requires ATP, free threonine, a single carbon source for the carbamoyl, and an enzyme yet to be identified. Recently, the universal protein family Sua5/YciO/YrdC was associated with t(6)A(37) biosynthesis. To further investigate the role of YrdC in t(6)A(37) biosynthesis, the interaction of the Escherichia coli YrdC with a heptadecamer anticodon stem and loop of lysine tRNA (ASL(Lys)(UUU)) was examined. YrdC bound the unmodified ASL(Lys)(UUU) with high affinity compared with the t(6)A(37)-modified ASL(Lys)(UUU) (K(d) = 0.27 ± 0.20 μM and 1.36 ± 0.39 μM, respectively). YrdC also demonstrated specificity toward the unmodified versus modified anticodon pentamer UUUUA and toward threonine and ATP. The protein did not significantly alter the ASL architecture, nor was it able to base flip A(37), as determined by NMR, circular dichroism, and fluorescence of 2-aminopuine at position 37. Thus, current data support the hypothesis that YrdC, with many of the properties of a putative threonylcarbamoyl transferase, most likely functions as a component of a heteromultimeric protein complex for t(6)A(37) biosynthesis.

  2. Modified nucleoside dependent Watson-Crick and wobble codon binding by tRNALysUUU species.

    PubMed

    Yarian, C; Marszalek, M; Sochacka, E; Malkiewicz, A; Guenther, R; Miskiewicz, A; Agris, P F

    2000-11-07

    Nucleoside modifications are important to the structure of all tRNAs and are critical to the function of some tRNA species. The transcript of human tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) with a UUU anticodon, and the corresponding anticodon stem and loop domain (ASL(Lys3)(UUU)), are unable to bind to poly-A programmed ribosomes. To determine if specific anticodon domain modified nucleosides of tRNA(Lys) species would restore ribosomal binding and also affect thermal stability, we chemically synthesized ASL(Lys) heptadecamers and site-specifically incorporated the anticodon domain modified nucleosides pseudouridine (Psi(39)), 5-methylaminomethyluridine (mnm(5)U(34)) and N6-threonylcarbamoyl-adenosine (t(6)A(37)). Incorporation of t(6)A(37) and mnm(5)U(34) contributed structure to the anticodon loop, apparent by increases in DeltaS, and significantly enhanced the ability of ASL(Lys3)(UUU) to bind poly-A programmed ribosomes. Neither ASL(Lys3)(UUU)-t(6)A(37) nor ASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mnm(5)U(34) bound AAG programmed ribosomes. Only the presence of both t(6)A(37) and mnm(5)U(34) enabled ASL(Lys3)(UUU) to bind AAG programmed ribosomes, as well as increased its affinity for poly-A programmed ribosomes to the level of native Escherichia coli tRNA(Lys). The completely unmodified anticodon stem and loop of human tRNA(Lys1,2)(CUU) with a wobble position-34 C bound AAG, but did not wobble to AAA, even when the ASL was modified with t(6)A(37). The data suggest that tRNA(Lys)(UUU) species require anticodon domain modifications in the loop to impart an ordered structure to the anticodon for ribosomal binding to AAA and require a combination of modified nucleosides to bind AAG.

  3. Feeding value of different levels of malt sprout and katikala atella on nutrient utilization and growth performance of sheep fed basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Abdu, Yunus

    2014-03-01

    Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4 ± 0.74 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella + 25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella + 50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella + 75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P < 0.05), while sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P < 0.05) total crude protein (CP) intake was for sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P < 0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility as compared with those fed T1, T2, and T6 diets. Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P > 0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P < 0.05) average daily gain was for sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention, while those fed T6 diet had the lowest. The study has shown that a mixture diet consisting of equal parts of katikala atella and malt sprout (T3) are found to be superior in most of the required nutrient characteristics.

  4. TSA increases C/EBP‑α expression by increasing its lysine acetylation in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li-Li; Ding, Di; Yin, Wei-Hua; Peng, Ji-Ying; Hou, Chen-Jian; Liu, Xiu-Ping; Chen, Yao-Li

    2017-11-01

    CCAAT enhancer binding protein‑α (C/EBP‑α) is a transcription factor expressed only in certain tissues, including the liver. It has been previously demonstrated that C/EBP‑α may induce apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), raising the question of whether acetylation of C/EBP‑α is associated with HSCs, and the potential associated mechanism. A total of three histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), including trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and nicotinamide, were selected to determine whether acetylation affects C/EBP‑α expression. A Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay was used to determine the rate of proliferation inhibition following treatment with varying doses of the three HDACIs in HSC‑T6 and BRL‑3A cells. Western blot analysis was used to examine Caspase‑3, ‑8, ‑9, and ‑12 levels in HSC‑T6 cells treated with adenoviral‑C/EBP‑α and/or TSA. Following treatment with TSA, a combination of reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses was used to determine the inherent C/EBP‑α mRNA and protein levels in HSC‑T6 cells at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were extracted to examine C/EBP‑α distribution. Co‑immunoprecipitation analysis was used to examine the lysine acetylation of C/EBP‑α. It was observed that TSA inhibited the proliferation of HSC‑T6 cells to a greater extent compared with BRL‑3A cells, following treatment with the three HDACIs. TSA induced apoptosis in HSC‑T6 cells and enhanced the expression of C/EBP‑α. Following treatment of HSC‑T6 cells with TSA, inherent C/EBP‑α expression increased in a time‑dependent manner, and its lysine acetylation simultaneously increased. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that TSA may increase C/EBP‑α expression by increasing its lysine acetylation in HSCs.

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Functional Type VI Secretion System from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C.; Sha, Jian; Wang, Shaofei; Erova, Tatiana E.; Fadl, Amin A.; Foltz, Sheri M.; Horneman, Amy J.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2008-01-01

    Our laboratory recently molecularly characterized the type II secretion system (T2SS)- associated cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) and the T3SS-secreted AexU effector from a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila. The role of these toxin proteins in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infections was subsequently delineated in in vitro and in vivo models. In this study, we characterized the new type 6 secretion system (T6SS) from isolate SSU of A. hydrophila and demonstrated its role in bacterial virulence. Study of the role of T6SS in bacterial virulence is in its infancy, and there are, accordingly, only limited, recent reports directed toward a better understanding its role in bacterial pathogenesis. We have provided evidence that the virulence-associated secretion (vas) genes vasH (Sigma 54-dependent transcriptional regulator) and vasK (encoding protein of unknown function) are essential for expression of the genes encoding the T6SS and/or they constituted important components of the T6SS. Deletion of the vasH gene prevented expression of the potential translocon hemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp) encoding gene from bacteria, while the vasK gene deletion prevented secretion but not translocation of Hcp into host cells. The secretion of Hcp was independent of the T3SS and the flagellar system. We demonstrated that secreted Hcp could bind to the murine RAW 264.7 macrophages from outside, in addition to its ability to be translocated into host cells. Further, the vasH and vasK mutants were less toxic to murine macrophages and human epithelial HeLa cells, and these mutants were more efficiently phagocytosed by macrophages. We also provided evidence that the expression of the hcp gene in the HeLa cell resulted in apoptosis of the host cells. Finally, the vasH and vasK mutants of A. hydrophila were less virulent in a septicemic mouse model of infection, and animals immunized with recombinant Hcp were protected from subsequent challenge with the wild-type (WT

  6. [Effect of Echinococcus multilocularis Cyst Fluid on the Expression of Five MAPK-pathway Genes of Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells].

    PubMed

    Ren, Bin; Fan, Hai-ning; Deng, Yong; Wang, Hai-jiu; Ren, Li

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Echinococcus multilocularis cyst fluid on five MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-pathway genes of rat hepatic stellate cell. Rat hepatic stellate cell line, HSC-T6 cells were co-cultured with different protein concentrations of E. multilocularis cyst fluid (0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.9, 1.7, 3.4, 6.8, and 13.5 mg/ml) for 24 h. HSC-T6 cells cultured with complete medium served as control group. The morphological change of cells was observed under the microscope. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38) in HSC-T6 cells was detected by real time fluorescent quantitative PCR. After co-cultured for 24 h, most HSC-T6 cells in 13.5 mg/ml group shrank as a precursor to slough off; In 6.8 mg/ml group, some HSC-T6 cells shrank and changed to long fusiform shape with many slender pseudopodia; In 3.4 mg/ml group, most HSC-T6 cells showed as adherent cells with an irregular polygon shape, formed a sheet with short pseudopodia. There was no difference in cell morphology between < 1.7 mg/ml groups and control group. When the protein concentration was above 1.7 mg/ml, the mRNA level of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and P38 increased significantly increased. In 6.8 mg/ml cyst fluid group, the mRNA level of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and P38 was higher than that of the control (P < 0.05). 6.8 mg/ml Echinococcus multilocularis cyst fluid can have a significant impact on mRNA levels of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 in rat hepatic stellate cells.

  7. SciTech Connect

    Vendeix, Franck A.P.; Murphy, IV, Frank V.; Cantara, William A.

    Human tRNA Lys3 UUU (htRNA Lys3 UUU) decodes the lysine codons AAA and AAG during translation and also plays a crucial role as the primer for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) reverse transcription. The posttranscriptional modifications 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm 5s 2U 34), 2-methylthio-N 6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms 2t 6A 37), and pseudouridine (Ψ 39) in the tRNA's anticodon domain are critical for ribosomal binding and HIV-1 reverse transcription. To understand the importance of modified nucleoside contributions, we determined the structure and function of this tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain with these modifications at positions 34, 37, and 39, respectively (hASLmore » Lys3 UUU-mcm 5s 2U 34;ms 2t 6A 37;Ψ 39). Ribosome binding assays in vitro revealed that the hASL Lys3 UUU-mcm 5s 2U 34;ms 2t 6A 37;Ψ 39 bound AAA and AAG codons, whereas binding of the unmodified ASL Lys3 UUU was barely detectable. The UV hyperchromicity, the circular dichroism, and the structural analyses indicated that Ψ 39 enhanced the thermodynamic stability of the ASL through base stacking while ms 2t 6A 37 restrained the anticodon to adopt an open loop conformation that is required for ribosomal binding. The NMR-restrained molecular-dynamics-derived solution structure revealed that the modifications provided an open, ordered loop for codon binding. The crystal structures of the hASL Lys3 UUU-mcm 5s 2U 34;ms 2t 6A 37;Ψ 39 bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit with each codon in the A site showed that the modified nucleotides mcm 5s 2U 34 and ms 2t 6A 37 participate in the stability of the anticodon–codon interaction. Importantly, the mcm 5s 2U 34·G 3 wobble base pair is in the Watson–Crick geometry, requiring unusual hydrogen bonding to G in which mcm 5s 2U 34 must shift from the keto to the enol form. The results unambiguously demonstrate that modifications pre-structure the anticodon as a key prerequisite for efficient and accurate

  8. Human tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) is pre-structured by natural modifications for cognate and wobble codon binding through keto-enol tautomerism.

    PubMed

    Vendeix, Franck A P; Murphy, Frank V; Cantara, William A; Leszczyńska, Grażyna; Gustilo, Estella M; Sproat, Brian; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Agris, Paul F

    2012-03-02

    Human tRNA(Lys3)(UUU) (htRNA(Lys3)(UUU)) decodes the lysine codons AAA and AAG during translation and also plays a crucial role as the primer for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) reverse transcription. The posttranscriptional modifications 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U(34)), 2-methylthio-N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms(2)t(6)A(37)), and pseudouridine (Ψ(39)) in the tRNA's anticodon domain are critical for ribosomal binding and HIV-1 reverse transcription. To understand the importance of modified nucleoside contributions, we determined the structure and function of this tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain with these modifications at positions 34, 37, and 39, respectively (hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);Ψ(39)). Ribosome binding assays in vitro revealed that the hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);Ψ(39) bound AAA and AAG codons, whereas binding of the unmodified ASL(Lys3)(UUU) was barely detectable. The UV hyperchromicity, the circular dichroism, and the structural analyses indicated that Ψ(39) enhanced the thermodynamic stability of the ASL through base stacking while ms(2)t(6)A(37) restrained the anticodon to adopt an open loop conformation that is required for ribosomal binding. The NMR-restrained molecular-dynamics-derived solution structure revealed that the modifications provided an open, ordered loop for codon binding. The crystal structures of the hASL(Lys3)(UUU)-mcm(5)s(2)U(34);ms(2)t(6)A(37);Ψ(39) bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit with each codon in the A site showed that the modified nucleotides mcm(5)s(2)U(34) and ms(2)t(6)A(37) participate in the stability of the anticodon-codon interaction. Importantly, the mcm(5)s(2)U(34)·G(3) wobble base pair is in the Watson-Crick geometry, requiring unusual hydrogen bonding to G in which mcm(5)s(2)U(34) must shift from the keto to the enol form. The results unambiguously demonstrate that modifications pre-structure the anticodon as a key

  9. Structural Analysis of Kufasat Using Ansys Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Maliky, Firas T.; AlBermani, Mohamed J.

    2018-03-01

    The current work focuses on vibration and modal analysis of KufaSat structure using ANSYS 16 program. Three types of Aluminum alloys (5052-H32, 6061-T6 and 7075-T6) were selected for investigation of the structure under design loads. Finite element analysis (FEA) in design static load of 51 g was performed. The natural frequencies for five modes were estimated using modal analysis. In order to ensure that KufaSat could withstand with various conditions during launch, the Margin of safety was calculated. The results of deformation and Von Mises stress for linear buckling analysis were also performed. The comparison of data was done to select the optimum material for KufaSat structures.

  10. Enhanced stress corrosion cracking resistance and electrical conductivity of a T761 treated Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Zhai, Sudan; Gao, Di; Liu, Ye; Xu, Jing; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy pre-stretched thin plate for wing skin were researched in this paper. The microstructures and SCC fracture surfaces of the alloy treated at different conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that with the increasing of aging temperature, the electrical conductivity and the elongation increased greatly, while the strength decreased gradually which were closely associated with the type and morphology of the precipitates. Compared with the T6 treated alloy, the SCC resistance of the T761 treated Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was improved greatly. The SCC behavior of the T6 treated alloy was dominated by anodic dissolution theory, whereas the hydrogen induced cracking controlled the fracture behavior of the T761 treated alloy which was influenced by the morphology of grain boundary precipitates in this investigated alloy.

  11. Capillary Hemangioma of the Thoracic Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Kyun; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common soft tissue tumors on the skin or mucosa of the head and neck in the early childhood, but very rare in the neuraxis. A 47-year-old man presented with one month history of back pain on the lower thoracic area, radiating pain to both legs, and hypesthesia below T7 dermatome. Thoracic spine MRI showed 1×1.3×1.5 cm, well-defined intradural mass at T6-7 disc space level, which showed isointensity to spinal cord on T1, heterogeneous isointensity on T2-weighted images, and homogeneous strong enhancement. The patient underwent T6-7 total laminotomy, complete tumor removal and laminoplasty. Histologically, the mass showed a capsulated nodular lesion composed of capillary-sized vascular channels, which were tightly packed into nodules separated by fibrous septa. These features were consistent with capillary hemangioma. PMID:21082058

  12. Experimental analysis of volumetric wear behavioural and mechanical properties study of as cast and 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy at constant load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlapur, M. D.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, an experimental analysis of volumetric wear behaviour and mechanical properties of aluminium (Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni) alloy in as cast and 1Hr homogenized with T6 heat treatment is carried out at constant load. Pin-on-disc apparatus was used to carry out sliding wear test. Mechanical properties such as tensile, hardness and compression test on as-cast and 1 hr homogenized samples are measured. Universal testing machine was used to conduct the tensile and compressive test at room temperature. Brinell hardness tester was used to conduct the hardness test. The scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the worn-out wear surfaces. Wear results and mechanical properties shows that 1Hr homogenized Al-25Mg2Si2Cu4Ni alloy samples with T6 treated had better volumetric wear resistance, hardness, tensile and compressive strength as compared to as cast samples.

  13. Investigation on the modification behavior of A356.2 alloy with Yb-La composite modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaochen; Leng, Jinfeng; Wang, Zhibin; Wang, Qi; Shao, Yuewen; Teng, Xinying

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the influence of the Yb + La addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of A356.2 alloy. The results show that the the grain size was refined and morphological structure of Si changed from needle-like to fine spheroidal particle by adding Yb + La. The eutectic temperature decreased from 589 °C to 581 °C and the freezing range of primary α-Al become wider after adding Yb + La. The mechanical properties showed great improvement after T6 heat treatment. The ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of the composites were increased to 279.0 MPa and 99.2 HB after T6 heat treatment which increased by 28.2% and 47.3%, respectively. The fracture mechanism was analyzed using the scanning electron microscopy and proved to be a transgranular/intergranular fracture modes.

  14. Distribution and diversity of bacterial secretion systems across metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Barret, Matthieu; Egan, Frank; O'Gara, Fergal

    2013-02-01

    Bacteria can manipulate their surrounding environment through the secretion of proteins into other living organisms and into the extracellular milieu. In Gram stain negative bacteria this process is mediated by different types of secretion systems from type I through type VI secretion system (T1SS-T6SS). In this study the prevalence of these secretion systems in 312 publicly available microbiomes derived from a wide range of ecosystems was investigated by a gene-centric approach. Our analysis demonstrates that some secretion systems are over-represented in some specific samples. In addition, some T3SS and T6SS phylogenetic clusters were specifically enriched in particular ecological niches, which could indicate specific bacterial adaptation to these environments. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effects of Observer Dynamics on Motion Stability of Autonomous Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    It 4 - 8 30 02.3 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE out No. oo70VU ’A Oc 9" Ing bur"" for thn cahnctuf Of Inforit •mion Is ematea to ae r • ¢ plone . including...IVLUD(I).EQ.0) STOP 3003 4 CONTINUE CALL DILU (6,6, TLUD, IVLUD, SVLUD) DO 8 I=1,6 DO 9 J=1,6 TINV(I,J) =TLUD(I,J) 9 CONTINUE 8 CONTINUE C C CHECK Inv...M45=T( 4 , 5) M55=T(5, 5) M65=T(6, 5) M16=T (1, 6) t426=T(2, 6) M36=T(3,6) M46=T( 4 , 6) M56=Tk𔃿 6) M66=T t6, 6) C C K1=l./ 8 .*((ALPHA2**3)+ALPHAO

  16. 3D study of intermetallics and their effect on the corrosion morphology of rheocast aluminium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mingo, B.; Arrabal, R., E-mail: rarrabal@ucm.es; Pardo, A.

    In the present study, the effect of heat treatment T6.1 on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of rheocast aluminium alloy A356 is investigated on the basis of 2D/3D characterization techniques and electrochemical and SKPFM measurements. Heat treatment strengthens the α-Al matrix, modifies the intermetallic particles and spheroidizes eutectic Si. These changes do not modify significantly the corrosion behaviour of the alloy. 3D SEM-Tomography clearly shows that the corrosion advances in the shape of narrow paths between closely spaced intermetallics without a major influence of eutectic Si. - Highlights: • T6.1 spheroidizes Si, strengthens the matrix and modifies the intermetallics. •more » Electrochemical behaviour of untreated and heat-treated alloys is similar. • 3D SEM-Tomography provides additional information on the corrosion morphology. • Corrosion advances as paths between intermetallics with little influence of Si.« less

  17. Using polycrystalline diamond-veined drills on silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminium castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.

    1993-12-31

    Using several combinations of speeds and feeds, a series of 6.37-mm diameter holes were drilled through a 19-mm thick plate of DURALCAN F3S.20S-T6 (A359/SiC/20p-T6). Every 50th hole was drilled in a gage block to measure the following: torque, thrust, drill flank wear, hole diameter, hole roundness, and hole surface finish. Maximum tool life was attained using feed rates of 0.25 mm/revolution. Speed had little effect on tool forces or life. Under optimum conditions, PCD-veined drills can produce over 6000 diameters of through holes in this type of composite with tolerances of 0.01 mm and flank wear of only 0.1 mm.

  18. [Effect of fluoride on gut microflora of silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Xia, Xuejuan; Sendegeya, Parfait; Zhao, Huanhuan; Long, Yaohang; Zhu, Yong

    2015-07-04

    We examined the effect of fluoride on gut microflora of silkworm. After DNA extraction and PCR amplification, clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene fragment were constructed. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was performed by digestion of the 16S rRNA gene, and each unique restriction fragment polymorphism pattern was designated as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). A total of 14 OTUs were identified from intestinal samples of both T6 and 734. Phylogenetic trees of bacterial 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, the dominant bacteria were studied by the nested polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DDGE) technology. After fluorosis, the flora of Enterococcus and Bacillus reduced. However, the flora of Staphylococcus increased. Fluoride can destroy the balance of microflora in the gut of silkworm by changing the bacteria diversity and proportion, which has bigger effect to 734 than T6.

  19. The Evolution of Plate and Extruded Products with High Strength and Fracture Toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzer, D. K.; Rioja, R. J.; Bray, G. H.; Venema, G. B.; Colvin, E. L.

    From the first use of 2017-T74 on the Junkers F13, improvements have been made to plate and extruded products for applications requiring the highest attainable strength and adequate fracture toughness. One such application is the upper wing of large aircraft. The progression of these product improvements achieved through the development of alloys that include 7075-(T6 & T76), 7150-(T6 & T77) and 7055-(T77 & T79) and most recently 7255-(T77 & T79) is reviewed. The most current advancements include aluminum-copper-lithium, alloy 2055 plate and extruded products that can attain strength equivalent to that of 7055-T77 with higher modulus, similar fracture toughness and improved fatigue, fatigue crack growth and corrosion performance. The achievement of these properties is explained in terms of the several alloy design principles. The highly desired and balanced characteristics make these products ideal for upper wing applications.

  20. DFT studies on the multi-channel reaction of CH3S+NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi-Zhen; Sun, Hao; Pan, Ya-Ru; Pan, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Rong-Shun

    The mechanisms for the reaction of CH3S with NO2 are investigated at the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) on both single and triple potential energy surfaces (PESs). The geometries, vibrational frequencies, and zero-point energy (ZPE) correction of all stationary points involved in the title reaction are calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. More accurate energies are obtained at the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(d,p). The results show that 5 intermediates and 14 transition states are found. The reaction is more predominant on the single PES, while it is negligible on the triple PES. Without any barrier height for the whole process, the main channel of the reaction is to form CH3SONO and then dissociate to CH3SO+NO.

  1. Development of Al-Al3Ni Nanocomposite by Duplex Processing of Flame Spray and Friction Stir Processing, and Evaluation of Its Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel Mehraban, F.; Karimzadeh, F.; Abbasi, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Al-Al3Ni nanocomposite was fabricated by friction stir processing (FSP) of a nickel-deposited Al6061-T6 plate. X-ray diffraction results showed that Al3Ni phase was formed because of an in situ reaction between the preplaced nickel and aluminum substrate. To predict the first phase formed during FSP, effective heat of formation (EHF) thermodynamic model was applied, and the results were in agreement with experimental data. The presence of facet nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy micrographs of the stir zone (SZ) confirmed the formation of Al3Ni nano-reinforcements. Although microhardness and ultimate tensile strength in the SZ of nanocomposite degraded because of precipitates dissolution in Al6061-T6 during FSP, it showed improved tribological behavior at elevated temperatures.

  2. Residual stress analysis on AA6061+22% Al2O3p simple shape demonstrators of a wheel hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Alessandra; Albertini, Gianni; Fiori, Fabrizio; Girardin, Emmanuelle

    2004-07-01

    The effects of thermal treatments in a component for automotive industry are considered: the induced residual stresses in wheel hubs were investigated. Measurements have been carried out on two identical simple shape demonstrators made of AA6061+22% Al2O3p in order to evaluate the stress conditions after forging and T6 treatment and without taking into account the final design of the wheel hub. One sample was analysed in as-forged conditions while the second after forging and T6 treatment (560°C for 2h, 20°C water quenching, artificial aging at 177°C for 10h). Particular attention was given to the stresses in the radial and hoop directions, as the main consequences of the in-service fatigue are expected to be related to stresses along these two directions.

  3. Impact and residual fatigue behavior of ARALL and AS6/5245 composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The impact sensitivity of aramide fiber-reinforced aluminum laminates (ARALL) was investigated by testing two types of ARALL (7075 aluminum prestrained and 2024 aluminum not prestrained), via static indentation, and the results were compared to those of sheet aluminum alloys 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 and to a state of the art composite AS6/5245. It was found that the impact resistance of the two ARALL samples was inferior to that of monolithic sheet aluminum samples, although the ARALL material made with 2024-T3 aluminum was superior to that made with 7075-T6 aluminum. The impact damage resistance of ARALL materials was at least equal to that of AS6/5245, and the AS6/5245 had higher residual tension-tension fatigue strength after impact than the ARALL samples. It was also found that the prestraining of the ARALL reduced the fatigue growth of impact damage.

  4. The role of modifications in codon discrimination by tRNA(Lys)UUU.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Frank V; Ramakrishnan, Venki; Malkiewicz, Andrzej; Agris, Paul F

    2004-12-01

    The natural modification of specific nucleosides in many tRNAs is essential during decoding of mRNA by the ribosome. For example, tRNA(Lys)(UUU) requires the modification N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine at position 37 (t(6)A37), adjacent and 3' to the anticodon, to bind AAA in the A site of the ribosomal 30S subunit. Moreover, it can only bind both AAA and AAG lysine codons when doubly modified with t(6)A37 and either 5-methylaminomethyluridine or 2-thiouridine at the wobble position (mnm(5)U34 or s(2)U34). Here we report crystal structures of modified tRNA anticodon stem-loops bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit with lysine codons in the A site. These structures allow the rationalization of how modifications in the anticodon loop enable decoding of both lysine codons AAA and AAG.

  5. Clinical application of an active electrode using an operational amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, S; Tomita, Y; Horiuchi, T

    1992-10-01

    An active electrode (d10 mm, t6 mm) is presented, that functions as an impedance transformer (an input impedance > 10 G omega, an output impedance < 1 omega) by means of which we can derive surface EMG without any skin preparation and paste. This electrode was compared with a conventional one, and it was ascertained that the electrode could be replaced with the conventional one, and, moreover, it was preferable because it required less preparation time, and was less affected by environmental noise.

  6. BK Polyomavirus-Specific 9mer CD8 T Cell Responses Correlate With Clearance of BK Viremia in Kidney Transplant Recipients: First Report From the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Leboeuf, C; Wilk, S; Achermann, R; Binet, I; Golshayan, D; Hadaya, K; Hirzel, C; Hoffmann, M; Huynh-Do, U; Koller, M T; Manuel, O; Mueller, N J; Mueller, T F; Schaub, S; van Delden, C; Weissbach, F H; Hirsch, H H

    2017-10-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes premature kidney transplant (KT) failure in 1-15% of patients. Because antivirals are lacking, most programs screen for BKPyV-viremia and, if positive, reduce immunosuppression. To evaluate the relationship of viremia and BKPyV-specific immunity, we examined prospectively cryopreserved plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at the time of transplantation (T0) and at 6 mo (T6) and 12 mo (T12) after transplant from 28 viremic KT patients and 68 nonviremic controls matched for the transplantation period. BKPyV IgG seroprevalence was comparable between cases (89.3%) and controls (91.2%; p = 0.8635), but cases had lower antibody levels (p = 0.022) at T0. Antibody levels increased at T6 and T12 but were not correlated with viremia clearance. BKPyV-specific T cell responses to pools of overlapping 15mers (15mer peptide pool [15mP]) or immunodominant CD8 9mers (9mer peptide pool [9mP]) from the early viral gene region were not different between cases and controls at T0; however, clearance of viremia was associated with stronger 9mP responses at T6 (p = 0.042) and T12 (p = 0.048), whereas 15mP responses were not informative (T6 p = 0.359; T12 p = 0.856). BKPyV-specific T cells could be expanded in vitro from all patients after transplant, permitting identification of 78 immunodominant 9mer epitopes including 50 new ones across different HLA class I. Thus, 9mP-responses may be a novel marker of reconstituting CD8 T cell function that warrants further study as a complement of plasma BKPyV loads for guiding immunosuppression reduction. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. The Cytophaga hutchinsonii ChTPSP: First characterized bifunctional TPS-TPP protein as putative ancestor of all eukaryotic trehalose biosynthesis proteins.

    PubMed

    Avonce, Nelson; Wuyts, Jan; Verschooten, Katrien; Vandesteene, Lies; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    The most widely distributed pathway to synthesize trehalose in nature consists of two consecutive enzymatic reactions with a trehalose-6-P (T6P)-synthase (TPS) enzyme, producing the intermediate T6P, and a T6P-phosphatase (TPP) enzyme, which dephosphorylates T6P to produce trehalose and inorganic phosphate. In plants, these enzymes are called Class I and Class II proteins, respectively, with some Class I proteins being active enzymes. The Class II proteins possess both TPS and TPP consensus regions but appear to have lost enzymatic activity during evolution. Plants also contain an extra group of enzymes of small protein size, of which some members have been characterized as functional TPPs. These Class III proteins have less sequence similarity with the Class I and Class II proteins. Here, we characterize for the first time, by using biochemical analysis and yeast growth complementation assays, the existence of a natural TPS-TPP bifunctional enzyme found in the bacterial species Cytophaga hutchinsonii. Through phylogenetic analysis, we show that prokaryotic genes such as ChTPSP might be the ancestor of the eukaryotic trehalose biosynthesis genes. Second, we show that plants have recruited during evolution, possibly by horizontal transfer from bacteria such as Rhodoferax ferrireducens, a new type of small protein, encoding TPP activity, which have been named Class III proteins. RfTPP has very high TPP activity upon expression in yeast. Finally, we demonstrate that TPS gene duplication, the recruitment of the Class III enzymes, and recruitment of an N-terminal regulatory element, which regulates the Class I enzyme activity in higher plants, were initiated very early in eukaryan evolution as the three classes of trehalose biosynthesis genes are already present in the alga Ostreococcus tauri.

  8. SnRK1 is differentially regulated in the cotyledon and embryo axe of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds.

    PubMed

    Coello, Patricia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2014-07-01

    SnRK1 activity is developmentally regulated in bean seeds and exhibits a transient increase with the highest value at 20 days after anthesis (DAA), which coincides with the beginning of protein and starch accumulation. The catalytic subunit of SnRK1 shows a consistent decrease throughout the seed development period. However, by 15 DAA a significant proportion of the catalytic subunit appears phosphorylated. The increase in activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit coincides with a decrease in hexoses. However, SnRK1 activity is differentially regulated in the cotyledon and embryo axe, where a larger proportion of the catalytic subunit is phosphorylated. SnRK1 obtained from endosperm extract is inhibited by T6P and to a lesser extent by ADPG and UDPG, whereas the enzyme isolated from embryo is virtually insensitive to T6P but exhibits some inhibition by ADPG and UDPG. In cotyledon extracts, the effects of T6P and ADPG on SnRK1 activity are additive, whereas in embryo extract, T6P inhibits the enzyme only when ADPG is present. After fractionation on Sephacryl-S300, SnRK1 activity obtained from cotyledon extracts is detected as a single peak associated with a molecular weight of 250 kDa whereas that obtained form embryo axe extracts detected as 2 peaks associated with molecular weight of 250 and 180 kDa. In both cases, the catalytic subunit exhibits a wide distribution but is concentrated in the fractions with the highest activity. To analyse the composition of the complex, cotyledon and embryo extracts were treated with a reversible crosslinker (DSP). DSP induced the formation of complexes with molecular weights of 97 and 180 kDa in the cotyledon and embryo extracts, respectively. Since all the phosphorylated catalytic subunit is present in the complexes induced by DSP, it appears that the phosphorylation favors its interaction with other proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving the Accuracy of Structural Fatigue Life Tracking Through Dynamic Strain Sensor Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    strength corrosion resistant 7075 -T6 alloy, and included hinge lugs, a bulkhead, spars, and wing skins that were fastened together using welds, rivets...release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADA580921. International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring: From Condition -based...greater than 10% under the same loading conditions [1]. These differences must be accounted for to have acceptable accuracy levels in the ultimate

  10. Materials Evaluation. Part II. Development of Corrosion Inhibitors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    concentration upon the pitting behavior of Al 7075-T6 in an inhibited solution 46 24 Polarization behavior of 4340 steel 47 25 Polarization behavior of copper ...However, this combination itself was not effective in inhibiting the corrosion of high- strength aluminum alloys, copper , and other alloys used in...79 JUNE MONTHLY COMPOSITE COMPLETE ANALYSIS (Results expressed in milligrams per liter) Calcium Ca 61.60 Magnesium Mg 7.00 Sulfates S04 55.00 Chlorides

  11. Mud-bath therapy and oral glucosamine sulfate in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Rosario; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Sorbo, Dario; Carraturo, Nello; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Carraturo, Federica; Oriente, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Umberto; Minicucci, Annamaria; Del Puente, Antonio; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined treatment of mud-bath therapy and glucosamine crystalline sulfate (GlcN-S) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study was a randomised, controlled, crossover investigation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by the investigators to two groups, named group 1 and 2. Group 1 included twenty-three patients receiving oral GlcN-S treatment from the beginning of the study (T0) to the end of the 3rd month of treatment (T3) and a combined treatment of both mud-bath therapy and GlcN-S from T3 to the end of the study at six months (T6). Group 2 included twenty-two patients receiving a combined treatment of both mud-bath therapy and GlcN-S from T0 to T3 and that discontinued mud-bath therapy, receiving GlcN-S treatment alone, from T3 to T6. Primary endpoints of the study consisted of evaluating OA severity and activity at baseline and at follow-up visits. All 45 patients, eligible for the study, completed the period of the crossover. In group 1, no significant difference was shown in the comparison from T0 to T3, while from T3 to T6 most variables were significantly improved. In group 2, instead, the comparison between T0 and T3 showed a significant difference in different parameters. When comparing T3 and T6, despite an improvement of all the variables, no significant difference was shown. The association of GlcN-S and mud-bath therapy has a positive and safe role in improving pain, function and quality of life in knee OA patients.

  12. Limnological Investigations: Lake Koocanusa, Montana. Part 1. Pre-Impoundment Study, 1967-1972.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    iacuc ol In suspended sediment and turbidity which suppressed khe aquatic Insect popua tion in the river downstream. Abnormally high backgrbund...vwL#3’~F1 fII .b~ ’* CC’ro6* 1942 Il’ sporweaa 1*66 40C TL .441 JAitk ntscř’M’ 1041tT.6 LINh c I1r.W,- T? 41 1 LIAO n39Co蔒 1&ATION t.c 1 AAI

  13. Defects and Materials Characterization by Analysis of Ultrasonic Signals. Study of a Technique to Measure Ultrasonic Attenuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    los M todos de Ensayos No Destructivos de Control de la Calidad de los Materiales ". Editado por Instituto Nacional de T6cnica AeroespaciaL...STUDY OF A TECH!4IUE TO MEASURE ULTRASONIC ATTENUATION. Carlos Valdecantos; Jos6 Miguel instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) Torrej6n de ...FORCE OFFICE OF SCIETIFIC RESEARCH Bolling AFB, D.C. 20332 ,: and EUJROPEAN OFFICE OF AEROSPACE .RESEARCH AND ,EZr--’. EN , London, England. 2

  14. ICASE Semiannual Report. April 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    scientists from universities and industry who have resident appointments for limited periods of time as well as by visiting and resident consultants... time integration. One of these is the time advancement of systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations via high order Runge- Kutta algorithms...Typically if the R-K methods is of, say, fourth order accuracy then there will be four intermediate steps between time level t = n6 and t + 6 = (n + 1)b

  15. Effects of Local Delivery of d-amino Acids from Biofilm-dispersive Scaffolds on Infection in Contaminated Rat Segmental Defects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-05

    and L-isomers of amino acids (free base form), including alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine , proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, and...lactide (T6C3G1L900) were synthesized using published techniques [33,34]. Appropriate amounts of dried glycerol and ε-caprolactone, glycolide, DL ...Hubbell JA. Rapidly degraded terpolymers of dl -lactide, glyco- lide, and epsilon-caprolactone with increased hydrophilicity by copolymeri- zation with

  16. Rectus sheath catheters for continuous analgesia after upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Philip; Deacon, Alf

    2007-01-01

    The segmental nerves T6-T11 pass through and innervate the rectus abdominis muscle and overlying skin. The arcuate lines compartmentalize the rectus, but they are deficient posteriorly and hence a catheter tunnelled into the posterior sheath can be used to achieve an effective continuous analgesic block. Volume is important to fill the compartment. It is a simple surgical procedure that has several advantages and appears a viable alternative to epidural analgesia.

  17. Dye penetrant indications caused by superficial surface defects in 2014 aluminum alloy welds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocker, R. G.; Wilson, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that dye penetrant indications on the heat-affected zone of 2014-T6 aluminum GMA weldments are frequently caused by superficial surface conditions and are less than 0.007 in. deep. The following methods are suggested for minimization of these surface defects: stabilization of the arc, application of dc ?GTA' welding procedures, reduction of the caustic etch time, and use of fine grain materials.

  18. Multilingual Aeronautical Dictionary (Dictionnaire Aeronautique Multilingue)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    6t6 obtenue des dgifiisatiohs sbiv~nfis; et nodus lei en rerneicions-vivement: Amnerican Society of Metals , Metals Park, Ohio. USA (pour mati~re...Ephemeris (f) status minium or aluminium alloy on a metal by spraying, ES efemrides (, pl americanas DE 1. H6hentoferanz (MI hot dipping, diffusion...routine work, using voice DE telhsttitige Regelung f) does not entail the addition of another metal to DE 1 AGACS ES mando Wf automiltico the weld. 2

  19. Composite Ceramic Superconducting Wires for Electric Motor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-30

    current a-yi t6-ransition. - Emerson Motor Division has begun work on DC heteropolar and homopolar motor designs. The mechanical stresses on conventional...Emerson Motor Division has begun work on DC heteropolar motor designs and, through Professor Novotny at U. Wisconsin, DC homopolar machines. The...123 3.2 Literature Research .............................. .. 124 3 3.3 Application Study .............................. .. 124 3.3.1 Homopolar Motor

  20. Tailoring Multimedia Instruction to Soldier Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Pretest Score (Mean % Items Correct) 39% 34% 48% 51% 51% 45% Posttest (Mean % Items Correct) 47% 44% 66% 60% 63% 56...Stepwise regression was used to examine the relationship between Soldiers’ posttest scores (criterion) and their pretest scores, training time, type of...differences among IMI types had no effect.) Pretest scores predicted posttest scores for both Adjust Indirect Fire (βstandardized = .66, t = 6.36

  1. Dynamic Multivariate Accelerated Corrosion Test Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    atmospheric, accelerated, AA2024-T3, AA6061-T6, AA7075-T3, 1010 steel, AgCl, rare earth conversion coat, magnesium rich primer, polyurethane , Eyring, Monte...morphology and elemental analysis by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and electrochemical determinations of...in the FT-IR analysis; degradation of the components of the high performance polyurethane coatings exposed in the UV/ozone chamber were more

  2. Lesion detection performance: comparative analysis of low-dose CT data of the chest on two hybrid imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Jessop, Maryam; Thompson, John D; Coward, Joanne; Sanderud, Audun; Jorge, José; de Groot, Martijn; Lança, Luís; Hogg, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Incidental findings on low-dose CT images obtained during hybrid imaging are an increasing phenomenon as CT technology advances. Understanding the diagnostic value of incidental findings along with the technical limitations is important when reporting image results and recommending follow-up, which may result in an additional radiation dose from further diagnostic imaging and an increase in patient anxiety. This study assessed lesions incidentally detected on CT images acquired for attenuation correction on two SPECT/CT systems. An anthropomorphic chest phantom containing simulated lesions of varying size and density was imaged on an Infinia Hawkeye 4 and a Symbia T6 using the low-dose CT settings applied for attenuation correction acquisitions in myocardial perfusion imaging. Twenty-two interpreters assessed 46 images from each SPECT/CT system (15 normal images and 31 abnormal images; 41 lesions). Data were evaluated using a jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating-characteristic analysis (JAFROC). JAFROC analysis showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in lesion detection, with the figures of merit being 0.599 (95% confidence interval, 0.568, 0.631) and 0.810 (95% confidence interval, 0.781, 0.839) for the Infinia Hawkeye 4 and Symbia T6, respectively. Lesion detection on the Infinia Hawkeye 4 was generally limited to larger, higher-density lesions. The Symbia T6 allowed improved detection rates for midsized lesions and some lower-density lesions. However, interpreters struggled to detect small (5 mm) lesions on both image sets, irrespective of density. Lesion detection is more reliable on low-dose CT images from the Symbia T6 than from the Infinia Hawkeye 4. This phantom-based study gives an indication of potential lesion detection in the clinical context as shown by two commonly used SPECT/CT systems, which may assist the clinician in determining whether further diagnostic imaging is justified. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and

  3. Deployed Flight Test of the Iraqi Air Force Comp Air 7SLX (CA-7)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    making. 15. SUBJECT TERMS CA-7 aircraft; Comp Air 7SLX aircraft; Iraq; developmental test and evaluation; turboprop aircraft; composite aircraft...high-wing, six-seat composite aircraft was powered by a Walter M601 657 horsepower turboprop engine. The engine, manufactured in the Czech Republic...Major Charles Stuart Farmer of the AFFTC’s Safety Office, who had experience with the small, turboprop - powered Beechcraft T-6 Texan II, was the

  4. Hypothalamo-hypophysial dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents: a preliminary retrospective and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Einaudi, S; Matarazzo, P; Peretta, P; Grossetti, R; Giordano, F; Altare, F; Bondone, C; Andreo, M; Ivani, G; Genitori, L; de Sanctis, C

    2006-05-01

    With two study protocols, one retrospective and the other prospective, we evaluated hypothalamo-hypophysial dysfunction (HHD) in paediatric patients treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the neurosurgical or intensive care department at our hospital. The retrospective group comprised 22 patients who had experienced TBI 0.7-7.25 years before the study. The prospective group included 30 patients assessed at TBI (T0), 26 of 30 after 6 months (T6), and 20 of 26 after 12 months (T12). Auxological and hormonal basal parameters of hypothalamo-hypophysial function were evaluated at recall in the retrospective group, and at T0, T6 and T12 in the prospective group. Basal data and standard dynamic tests in selected patients revealed one with precocious puberty, one with total anterior hypopituitarism, one with central hypogonadism, and one with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in the retrospective group; three patients with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome, one with diabetes insipidus and seven with low T3 syndrome at T0 (all transient), one with hypocorticism at T6 confirmed at T12, and one with GH deficiency at T12 in the prospective group. The results of our study show that post-TBI HHD in our paediatric cohort is not uncommon. Of the 48 patients who underwent a complete evaluation (22 retrospective study patients and 26 prospective study patients evaluated at T6) five (10.4%) developed HHD 6 months or more after TBI. HHD was newly diagnosed in one previously normal patient from the prospective group at 12 months after TBI. GH deficiency was the most frequent disorder in our paediatric cohort.

  5. Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Structured Educational Program for Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Perl, Sabine; Niederl, Ella; Kos, Cornelia; Mrak, Peter; Ederer, Herbert; Rakovac, Ivo; Beck, Peter; Kraler, Elisabeth; Stoff, Ingrid; Klima, Gert; Pieske, Burkert M; Pieber, Thomas R; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions are essential keys for the management of hypertension. In this respect, a structured educational program for hypertensive patients has got remarkable merits (herz.leben). In order to determine the isolated effect of participation in the educational program, neglecting the possible impact of more intense care, this prospective multicenter randomized controlled study was designed (NCT00453037). A total of 256 patients in 13 centers were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups (G). G-I (n = 137) underwent the educational program immediately (T-0), G-II (n = 119) after 6 months (T-6). Follow-up visits were done after 6 (T-6) and 12 (T-12) months. Primary endpoint was a difference in office blood pressure (BP) at T-6, when only G-I had undergone the educational program. Patients' baseline characteristics were comparable. At T-6, systolic office and home BP were significantly lower in G-I compared to G-II: office BP systolic 139 (134-150) mm Hg vs. 150 (135-165) mm Hg (P < 0.01); diastolic 80 (76-85) mm Hg vs. 84 (75-90) mm Hg (ns); home BP systolic 133 (130-140) mm Hg vs. 142 (132-150) mm Hg (P < 0.01); diastolic 80 (75-85) mm Hg vs. 80 (76-89) mm Hg (ns)). At T-12, when all patients had undergone the educational program differences in BP disappeared. The results of this multicenter randomized controlled study provide significant evidence for benefit by participation in a structured educational program. Positive effects seem to be mediated by better adherence and life style changes due to higher levels of information and patient empowerment. Therefore, educational strategies should be considered as standard of care for hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 75 FR 78266 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... publication. Willamette Meridian Oregon T. 6 S., R. 10 E., accepted November 1, 2010 T. 41 S., R. 15 E., accepted November 1, 2010 T. 41 S., R. 14\\1/2\\ E., accepted November 1, 2010 T. 3 S., R. 44 E., accepted November 1, 2010 T. 26 S., R. 12 W., accepted November 5, 2010 ADDRESSES: A copy of the plats may be...

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Welds of Al - Mg - Si Alloys After Different Modes of Impulse Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat'ev, S. Yu.; Morozova, Yu. N.; Golubev, Yu. A.; Hantelmann, C.; Naumov, A. A.; Mikhailov, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    Welded joints of aluminum alloy 6082-T6 formed by the method of impulse friction stir welding are studied. The effect of the power and frequency of the pulses on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints is determined. Application of an additional pulse during the welding affects the surface quality and the shape of the weld, the distribution of the oxide layer and of particles of the hardening phase, and the grain size in the zone of dynamic recrystallization.

  8. Methodology for Evaluation of Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys under Spectrum Loading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    fatigue life , except for the 2024 - T351 alloy which had a significantly longer spectrum fatigue life than the other alloys and 2) for...OF FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS UNDER SPECTRUM LOADING MATERIALS PRESENT EFFORT FUTURE EFFORT 2024 - T351 2020-T651 2024 -T851 TMT2020-T6X51...the same spectrum fatigue life . The 2024 - T351 alloy had a significantly longer spectrum

  9. Corrosion Fatigue of Metals in Marine Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Fatigue of Alloys 2014-T6 and 2024 -T4 in Air and Artificial Seawater I62 Fatigue Life of 2024 -T4 Aluminum Alloy Specimens... life was still considerably reduced. The effect of prior corrosion pitting on the fatigue life of Alloy 2024 -T4 was investigated by Harmsworth.215...Harmsworth, C. L, " Effect of Corrosion on the Fatigue Behavior of 2024 -T4 Aluminum Alloy ",

  10. Project Work Assignment | Sustainable Stormwater Funding Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2010-11-30

    ... J'l.wroprl 8OOljJf!'l fOI 8..... n """ Nwo I.1n DCN N. e_ e_ prog~;"':x~~ment ObI~~Cl~·· unt I ICents) SI:~~~O:t COSI~~od. Max6 Mo•• Ma:t6 ,,",7 1 ...

  11. Effects of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Similar- and Dissimilar-Alloy Friction Stir Welded Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Sinke, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process with relatively low welding temperatures. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of friction stir welded blanks are degraded after welding. Indeed, both strength and ductility of the welds are decreased after welding. Often, the resulting friction stir welded blanks need to be formed to their final structural shape. Therefore, the formability of friction stir welded blanks is of primary importance in the manufacturing of structural parts. This paper studies how the mechanical properties and particularly formability of friction stir welded blanks can be improved by applying a post weld heat treatment. Two aluminum alloys from 2000 and 7000 series, namely 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, are selected for the study. The sheet thickness of both materials is 2,0 mm. The selected alloys are welded in three configurations: 2024-T3 and 2024-T3, 7075-T6 and 7075-T6, and 2024-T3 and 7075-T6. The resulting welds are naturally aged for a few months. Three sets of standard dog bone shape tensile test specimens are then machined from the welds. The first set of the specimens is tested without any heat treatment. The second set of the specimens is solution heat treated and quenched before testing. The third set of the specimens is solution heat treated, quenched, and naturally aged for a week before testing. The mechanical properties of the three different sets of specimens are compared with each other. It is shown that careful selection of post weld heat-treatment can greatly improve the formability of friction stir welded blanks.

  12. Conference on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory (2nd).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-30

    Illinois The Rockefeller University 603 E. Daniel 1230 York Ave. Champaign, IL 61820 New York, NY 10021 Mr. Steven M. Guich Dr. Franz Hock Social Sciences...Psychology Edmonton, Alberta T6H 2B9 John Hopkins University Canada Baltimore, MD 21218 Mr. Steven Hampson Ms. Carol A. Hunt Information and Computer...Irvine, CA 92717 University of California Irvine, CA 92717 Dr. David LaBerge Cognitive Sciences Mr. Richard S. Lewis University of California Department

  13. A Review of Australian and New Zealand Investigations on Aeronautical Fatigue During the Period April 2007 to March 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    stress ratios of the order of R=-2, 7075T6 aluminium alloys possessed better fatigue properties than the 2024T3 series alloys . It was also possible...flight-by-flight damage tracking algorithms (S J Houghton, S K Campbell [RNZAF])...........................................8-67 8.5.2 CT-4E Usage ...exponential crack growth behaviour of cracks in F/A-18 7050-T7451 aluminium alloy structure, the Safe Life limits of many discrete locations could be

  14. Initial Subdivision of Genesis Early Science Polished Aluminum Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.; Meshik, A.; See, T. H.; Bastien, R.

    2005-01-01

    A large surface, about 245 square centimeters, of highly polished aluminum 6061 T6 alloy was attached to the science canister thermal panel for the purpose of collecting solar wind noble gases. The analysis of this collector will be part of the Genesis Early Science results. The pre-launch configuration of the collector is shown. The collector sustained some damage during the recovery impact in Utah, September 8, 2004.

  15. Growth Arrest by Trehalose-6-Phosphate: An Astonishing Case of Primary Metabolite Control over Growth by Way of the SnRK1 Signaling Pathway1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Thierry L.; Sedijani, Prapti; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Paul, Matthew J.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    The strong regulation of plant carbon allocation and growth by trehalose metabolism is important for our understanding of the mechanisms that determine growth and yield, with obvious applications in crop improvement. To gain further insight on the growth arrest by trehalose feeding, we first established that starch-deficient seedlings of the plastidic phosphoglucomutase1 mutant were similarly affected as the wild type on trehalose. Starch accumulation in the source cotyledons, therefore, did not cause starvation and consequent growth arrest in the growing zones. We then screened the FOX collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing full-length cDNAs for seedling resistance to 100 mm trehalose. Three independent transgenic lines were identified with dominant segregation of the trehalose resistance trait that overexpress the bZIP11 (for basic region/leucine zipper motif) transcription factor. The resistance of these lines to trehalose could not be explained simply through enhanced trehalase activity or through inhibition of bZIP11 translation. Instead, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) accumulation was much increased in bZIP11-overexpressing lines, suggesting that these lines may be insensitive to the effects of T6P. T6P is known to inhibit the central stress-integrating kinase SnRK1 (KIN10) activity. We confirmed that this holds true in extracts from seedlings grown on trehalose, then showed that two independent transgenic lines overexpressing KIN10 were insensitive to trehalose. Moreover, the expression of marker genes known to be jointly controlled by SnRK1 activity and bZIP11 was consistent with low SnRK1 or bZIP11 activity in seedlings on trehalose. These results reveal an astonishing case of primary metabolite control over growth by way of the SnRK1 signaling pathway involving T6P, SnRK1, and bZIP11. PMID:21753116

  16. The Trehalose Synthesis Pathway Is an Integral Part of the Virulence Composite for Cryptococcus gattii▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Himmelreich, Uwe; Breger, Julia A.; Wilson, Christabel; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Krockenberger, Mark B.; Malik, Richard; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Toffaletti, Dena; Djordjevic, Julianne T.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Meyer, Wieland; Perfect, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The trehalose pathway is essential for stress tolerance and virulence in fungi. We investigated the importance of this pathway for virulence of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii using the highly virulent Vancouver Island, Canada, outbreak strain R265. Three genes putatively involved in trehalose biosynthesis, TPS1 (trehalose-6-phosphate [T6P] synthase) and TPS2 (T6P phosphatase), and degradation, NTH1 (neutral trehalose), were deleted in this strain, creating the R265tps1Δ, R265tps2Δ, and R265nth1Δ mutants. As in Cryptococcus neoformans, cellular trehalose was reduced in the R265tps1Δ and R265tps2Δ mutants, which could not grow and died, respectively, at 37°C on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose agar, suggesting that T6P accumulation in R265tps2Δ is directly toxic. Characterizations of the cryptococcal hexokinases and trehalose mutants support their linkage to the control of glycolysis in this species. However, unlike C. neoformans, the C. gattii R265tps1Δ mutant demonstrated, in addition, defects in melanin and capsule production, supporting an influence of T6P on these virulence pathways. Attenuated virulence of the R265tps1Δ mutant was not due solely to its 37°C growth defect, as shown in worm studies and confirmed by suppressor mutants. Furthermore, an intact trehalose pathway controls protein secretion, mating, and cell wall integrity in C. gattii. Thus, the trehalose synthesis pathway plays a central role in the virulence composites of C. gattii through multiple mechanisms. Deletion of NTH1 had no effect on virulence, but inactivation of the synthesis genes, TPS1 and TPS2, has profound effects on survival of C. gattii in the invertebrate and mammalian hosts. These results highlight the central importance of this pathway in the virulence composites of both pathogenic cryptococcal species. PMID:19651856

  17. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al alloys with different hardening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sunggon; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Chang-Gil; Kim, Sung Joon

    2005-04-01

    The mechanical properties of precipitation hardened Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6 and strain hardened Al 5083-H32, friction stir welded with various welding parameters, were examined in the present study. 4 mm thick Al 6061-T651, Al 7075-T6, and Al 5083-H32 alloy plates were used for friction stir welding (FSW) with rotating speed varied from 1000 to 2500 rpm (rotation per minute) and welding speed ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 mpm (m/min). Each alloy displayed slightly different trends with respect to the effect of different welding parameters on the tensile properties of the FSWed Al alloys. The tensile elongation of FSWed Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6 tended to increase greatly, while the tensile strength decreased marginally, with increasing welding speed and/or decreasing rotating speed. The tensile strength and the tensile elongation of Al 6061-T651 decreased from 135 to 154 MPa and 10.6 to 17.0%, respectively, with increasing welding speed from 0.1 to 0.4 mpm at a rotating speed of 1,600 rpm. Unlike the age-hardened Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6, the strain-hardened Al 5083-H32 showed no notable change in tensile property with varying welding parameters. The change in the strength level with different welding parameters for each alloy was not as significant as the variation in tensile elongation. It was believed that the tensile elongation of FSWed Al alloys with varying welding parameters was mainly determined by the coarse particle clustering. With respect to the change in tensile strength during friction stir welding, it is hypothesized that two competing mechanisms, recovery by friction and heat and strain hardening by plastic flow in the weld zone offset the effects of different welding parameters on the tensile strength level of FSWed Al alloys.

  18. Intestinal microecology associated with fluoride resistance capability of the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Nan; Xia, Xue-Juan; Tang, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is an ideal model of Lepidoptera. However, the diversity and function of the intestinal microbiota in the gut of silkworm remain largely unknown. Changes in the intestinal microecology in fluoride-resistant strain T6 and fluoride-susceptible strain 734 of the silkworm in response to fluoride exposure were investigated. T6 and 734 were treated with 200 mg/kg fluoride (designated as T6-T and 734-T groups) and deionized water (designated as T6-C and 734-C groups). Culture-dependent approach revealed that the numbers of intestinal bacteria in the 734-T group significantly decreased compared with that in the 734-C group (4.8 ± 0.6 × 10(7) CFU/mL vs. 7.5 ± 0.7 × 10(7) CFU/mL; P < 0.05). Analyses of the intestinal content pH showed that the pH decreased in the 734-T group only. Additionally, SCFA concentrations significantly decreased in both treatment groups compared with the control groups. High-throughput sequencing indicated that the intestinal microbiota in the 734-T group was significantly more diverse than those in the other groups. The bacterial community was composed of two dominant groups (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria). Principal component analyses revealed a significant difference in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in the 734-T group compared with those in the other groups. Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were more abundant in the 734-T group, but they were less abundant in the other groups. This study enhances our understanding about the diversity and function of silkworm intestinal microbiota in response to fluoride exposure among silkworm strains with diverse resistance.

  19. Three-Dimensional Structure of Thermohaline Staircases in the Tropical North Atlantic and Their Effect on Acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943–5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...experiment initially designed to test pressure at the base of an ocean, by inserting a narrow heat-conducting pipe vertically to draw water to the...tgα ≈ tgαT (6) Wall thus hypothesized that the interface should align with isotherms but not necessarily isohalines. An observational test was

  20. Preliminary application of high-definition computed tomographic Gemstone Spectral Imaging in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangli; Zhang, Chengqi; Li, Mingying; Deng, Kai; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of multiparameter quantitative measurement lung cancer by Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) high-definition computed tomography. Seventy-seven patients who were found to have a lung mass or a nodule by CT plain scan for the first time received chest contrast CT scan with GSI mode on high-definition computed tomography. The GSI viewer was used to display the spectral curve, iodine-based images, water-based images, and 101 sets of monochromatic images of a selected region of interest from the relative homogeneous area of the mass or nodule. Iodine concentration, water concentration, spectral curve slope, and CT values at 40 keV of the region of interest were measured. Finally, 68 eligible patients were divided into a pneumonia group (n = 24) and a malignant tumor group (n = 44, including squamous carcinoma, n = 29, and adenocarcinoma, n = 15). Significant differences existed in iodine concentration (t = 6.459), spectral curve slope (t = 6.276), and CT values at 40 keV (t = 6.698) between the pneumonia group and the malignant tumor group (P < 0.05), as well as between squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (t = 6.494, 5.634, 6.091, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas water concentrations were found to have no difference between the 2 groups (t = 0.082, P > 0.05) and between the 2 types of malignant tumors (t = 1.234, P > 0.05). High-definition computed tomographic GSI technique might be helpful to differentiate lung cancer from lung benign lesions by providing qualitative and quantitative information.

  1. Structural Characterization and Oligomerization of the TssL Protein, a Component Shared by Bacterial Type VI and Type IVb Secretion Systems*

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Eric; Zoued, Abdelrahim; Spinelli, Silvia; Watson, Paul J. H.; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Journet, Laure; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular system distributed in Gram-negative bacteria, responsible for the secretion of effector proteins into target cells. The T6SS has a broad versatility as it can target both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. It is therefore involved in host pathogenesis or killing neighboring bacterial cells to colonize a new niche. At the architecture level, the T6SS core apparatus is composed of 13 proteins, which assemble in two subcomplexes. One of these subcomplexes, composed of subunits that share structural similarities with bacteriophage tail and baseplate components, is anchored to the cell envelope by the membrane subcomplex. This latter is constituted of at least three proteins, TssL, TssM, and TssJ. The crystal structure of the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein and its interaction with the inner membrane TssM protein have been recently reported. TssL and TssM share sequence homology and characteristics with two components of the Type IVb secretion system (T4bSS), IcmH/DotU and IcmF, respectively. In this study, we report the crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of the TssL inner membrane protein from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Sci-1 T6SS. It folds as a hook-like structure composed of two three-helix bundles. Two TssL molecules associate to form a functional complex. Although the TssL trans-membrane segment is the main determinant of self-interaction, contacts between the cytoplasmic domains are required for TssL function. Based on sequence homology and secondary structure prediction, we propose that the TssL structure is the prototype for the members of the TssL and IcmH/DotU families. PMID:22371492

  2. Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0355 TITLE: Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBJECT TERMS Autism spectrum disorder, ASD; 47,XYY syndrome (XYY); neuroimaging; MRI; MEG; Comorbid behaviors 15T 6. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction

  3. Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0355 TITLE: Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 15T 15T Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model 5b...this award. 15T 5. SUBJECT TERMS Autism spectrum disorder, ASD; 47,XYY syndrome (XYY); neuroimaging; MRI; MEG; Comorbid behaviors 15T 6. SECURITY

  4. Neural Correlates of the Y Chromosome in Autism: XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0354 TITLE: Neural correlates of the Y chromosome in autism: XYY Syndrome as Genetic Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...0354 XYY Syndrome as a Genetic Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER 15T c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 15T6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy Roberts 15T d. PROJECT NUMBER Judith...remaining 12 months of this award. 15T 5. SUBJECT TERMS Autism spectrum disorder, ASD; 47,XYY syndrome (XYY); neuroimaging; MRI; MEG; Comorbid behaviors

  5. Recruiting and Selection in the French Army (Recrutement et Selection Dans L’Armee Francaise)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010377 TITLE: Recruiting and Selection in the French Army [Recrutement...ADP010347 thru ADP010377 UNCLASSIFIED 29-1 RECRUTEMENT ET SELECTION DANS L’ARMEE FRANCAISE RECRUITING AND SELECTION IN THE FRENCH ARMY Colonel Stiphane...LAGACHE DPMAT/Bureau Evaluation 93, boulevard du Montparnasse BP 328 - 75006 PARIS, France T6l6phone : +33 (0)1.53.71.03.10 - Fax +33 (0)1.53.71.03.12

  6. Ab initio study of nitrogen and position-specific oxygen kinetic isotope effects in the NO + O3 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Wendell W.; Michalski, Greg

    2016-12-01

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out to investigate nitrogen (k15/k14) and position-specific oxygen (k17/k16O & k18/k16) kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for the reaction between NO and O3 using CCSD(T)/6-31G(d) and CCSD(T)/6-311G(d) derived frequencies in the complete Bigeleisen equations. Isotopic enrichment factors are calculated to be -6.7‰, -1.3‰, -44.7‰, -14.1‰, and -0.3‰ at 298 K for the reactions involving the 15N16O, 14N18O, 18O16O16O, 16O18O16O, and 16O16O18O isotopologues relative to the 14N16O and 16O3 isotopologues, respectively (CCSD(T)/6-311G(d)). Using our oxygen position-specific KIEs, a kinetic model was constructed using Kintecus, which estimates the overall isotopic enrichment factors associated with unreacted O3 and the oxygen transferred to NO2 to be -19.6‰ and -22.8‰, respectively, (CCSD(T)/6-311G(d)) which tends to be in agreement with previously reported experimental data. While this result may be fortuitous, this agreement suggests that our model is capturing the most important features of the underlying physics of the KIE associated with this reaction (i.e., shifts in zero-point energies). The calculated KIEs will useful in future NOx isotopic modeling studies aimed at understanding the processes responsible for the observed tropospheric isotopic variations of NOx as well as for tropospheric nitrate.

  7. Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Delivery Order 0002: Condition-Based Maintenance Plus Structural Integrity (CBM+SI) Strategy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    material. The rubber is laser -etched with rows of tiny, interconnected channels or galleries, to which air pressure is applied. Any propagating crack... clad one side. The Upper Lobe has a radius of approximately 85” (compound curvature) in the region of interest. As stated previously, the skin is...7079-T6 sheet; clad one side with a varying thickness of 0.050” to 0.071” (varies according to stability requirements for compression combined with

  8. Characterization of Tensile Deformation in AZ91D Mg Alloy Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Űnal, Ogün; Tiryakioǧlu, Murat

    AZ91 cast Mg alloy specimens in T4 and T6 tempers have been tested in tension. True stress — true plastic strain relationship has been characterized by evaluating the fits to four constitutive equations. Moreover, work hardening behavior in both tempers has been investigated and how well the four constitutive equation can model this behavior has been tested. The effects of temper and structural quality on tensile properties and work hardening are discussed in the paper.

  9. Camouflage effects following resin infiltration of postorthodontic white-spot lesions in vivo: One-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Amely; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Knösel, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To assess camouflage effects by concealment of postorthodontic white-spot lesions (WSLs) to sound adjacent enamel (SAE) achieved over 12 months with resin infiltration (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany). Twenty subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 111) who had received resin infiltration treatment of noncavitated postorthodontic WSLs were contacted for a 1-year follow-up assessment of CIE-L*a*b* colors (T12). Color and lightness (CIE-L*a*b*) data for WSLs and SAE were compared to baseline data assessed before infiltration (T0) and those assessed after 6 months (T6), using a spectrophotometer. The target parameter was the difference between the summarized color and lightness values (ΔEWSL/SAE). Intergroup (WSL, SAE) and intertime comparisons (T0 vs T6, T12) were performed using paired t-tests at a significance level of α = 5%. Nine subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 49; male/female ratio 5/4; age range 13-19 years) were available at T12. After the highly significant reduction of ΔEWSL/SAE discrepancies between T0 and T6, analysis of 12-month records revealed color and lightness discrepancy of WSL vs SAE that was significantly decreased compared with baseline, indicating an assimilation of WSL color to SAE appearance after infiltration, while an additional reduction of discrepancies between T6 and T12 was not significant. As color and lightness characteristics of the Icon infiltrant as well as the esthetic camouflage effects achieved by WSL infiltration were not altered significantly or clinically relevant after 12 months, the method of resin infiltration can be recommended for an enduring esthetic improvement of postorthodontic WSL.

  10. Joint Service Solvent Substitution (JS3)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Process Evaluation Acceptance Criteria Market Research Demonstration Plan Demonstration Validate Implementation Approval Start Approval...PRF-63460D Mg (AZ 31B-H24) mg/cm^2 0.7 Mg (SAE AMS 4377) “ Al (AMS-QQ-A-250) “ Al (7075-T6) “ 0.49 Ti (AMS 4911, 6AL- 4V ...properties – Evaluation of vendor test results – Industry experience – DOD Aerospace & Shipbuilding NESHAP experience Market Research 21 Approved for

  11. A training course on food hygiene for butchers: measuring its effectiveness through microbiological analysis and the use of an inspection checklist.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Maria Luiza Santomauro; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Sigulem, Dirce Maria; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2005-11-01

    The effectiveness of food hygiene training for a group of retail butchers was evaluated with the aim of verifying whether the butchers modified their behavior in the light of knowledge gained and whether their acquired knowledge or behavior change was sustained over a period of time. Microbiological analysis (enumeration of mesophilic and coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli) of a raw semiprocessed product (stuffed rolled beef) was conducted, and an inspection checklist was issued before the training course (T0). Initial results were later compared with results obtained 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T6) after the training. The checklist comprised 89 items classified into five categories: A, approved suppliers and product reception; B, storage conditions and temperature control; C, flow process, food handling procedures, and conditions of the window display unit; D, facility design and proper cleaning and sanitizing of equipment, utensils, and work surfaces; and E, pest control system, water supply control, and garbage disposal. The inspection results were recorded as "yes" or "no" for each item. Compliance with food safety procedures was recorded as the percentage of "yes" answers. The bacterial counts were significantly higher at T0. At T6, there was no significant increase in bacterial counts. There was a significant improvement in food safety practices at T1 and T6 compared with T0 for all categories. When comparing T0 and T1, the largest increases in the compliance scores were seen within categories C and D. No significant decrease in scores for compliance with food safety practices was observed at T6. Supervision and refresher activities may be necessary to maintain behavioral changes for a longer period of time.

  12. Absorbent Analysis of Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Munition Demilitarization Building (MDB) Banks 1 and 2 Filter Samples Following Completion of The GB Agent and VX Rocket Campaigns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    adsorbed on wet carbon (13 wt% water ). Left to right: initial and t = 6, 13, and 16 days ..............................3 2. 31 P MAS NMR spectra...obtained for 10 wt% VX adsorbed on wet carbon (13 wt% water ) Left to right: initial and t = 24 days ...............................................4...of feed air. Each Class A Type II filter contained approximately 48.2 lb of granular, activated, coconut shell-based carbon. A given filter bank

  13. Adhesive Bonding for Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Durability Stress-Durability Metal Etching Eqvironmental Aging Failure Mode Shelter Panel Modified Epoxy Surface Preparation 20 UYSTRACT (Coriot,. on...and two adherend alloys (6061T6 and 50521!34) , ind tested at two tent conditions [720F (22C) and 200%F ()3’C) after hot- burri~l ag ing,. 7...assembly in an elevated temperature, high humidity aging environment until the specimen failed as the exposure period reached a preselected limit (1000 hours

  14. Histone H3 phosphorylation in GBM: a new rational to guide the use of kinase inhibitors in anti-GBM therapy.

    PubMed

    Pacaud, Romain; Cheray, Mathilde; Nadaradjane, Arulraj; Vallette, François M; Cartron, Pierre-François

    2015-01-01

    Histones post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial components of diverse processes that modulate chromatin. Among the histones PTMs, the histones phosphorylation appears such crucial since it plays a significant role into DNA repair structure, transcription and chromatin compaction during cell division and apoptosis. However, little is known about the prognostic value of the histone phosphorylation in human cancer. This point could be considerate such as an important gap in anti-cancer therapy since the use of adequate kinase inhibitors could remedy to the aberrant histone phosphorylation associated with a poor prognosis factor. To remedy at this situation, we analyzed the phosphorylation level of histone H3 at the residues T3, T6, S10, S28, Y41 and T45 in a collection of 42 glioblastoma multiformes (GBM). Our data indicated that the high level of pH3T6, pH3S10 and pH3Y41 are signatures associated with a poor prognosis of overall survival (OS) of GBM treated with the "temozolomide and irradiation standard" treatment of GBM (named TMZ+Irad treatment). Our data also showed that these signatures are correlated with the high activity of kinases already described as writers of the pH3T6, pH3S10 and pH3Y41 i.e. the PKC, Aurora-B and JAK2, respectively. Finally, our analysis revealed that the use of Enzastaurin, AZD1152, and AZD1480 abrogated the high level of pH3T6, pH3S10 and pH3Y41 while increasing the sensitivity to the "temozolomide and irradiation"-induced cell death. To conclude, it appears that this work provides biomarkers for patient stratification for a therapy including kinase inhibitors.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen management on yield, quality, nitrogen accumulation and its transportation of watermelon in gravel-mulched field].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhong-ming; Du, Shao-ping; Xue, Liang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen management on yield, quality, nitrogen and dry matter accumulation and transportation of watermelon in sand field were studied based on a field experiment. The results showed that too low or too high basal nitrogen fertilzation was unfavorable to seedling growth of watermelon in sand field, and no nitrogen application at vine extension or fruiting stages limited the formation of 'source' or 'sink'. At the same nitrogen rate, compared with the traditional T1 treatment (30% basal N fertilizer + 70% N fertilizer in vine extension), the nitrogen and dry matter accumulation of vegetative organs of T4 treatment (30% basal N fertilizer + 30% N fertilizer in vine extension + 40% N fertilizer in fruiting) and T6 treatment (100% basal N fertilizer + NAM) were reduced significantly, but the nitrogen and dry matter accumulation of fruit were increased significantly in the flushing period. The nitrogen transportation ratio and nitrogen contribution ratio of T4 were 33.6% and 12.0%, respectively. Compared to T1, the nitrogen harvest index, nitrogen fertilizer partial factor productivity and nitrogen fertilizer recovery efficiency of T4 and T6 treatments increased by 14.1% and 12.7%, 11.6% and 12.5%, 5.3% and 8.7%, respectively, and yield of watermelon increased by 11.6% and 12.5%, the soluble sugar, effective acid, the ratio of sugar and acid, Vc content increased by 16.5% and 11.7%, 4.5% and 2.8%, 19.4% and 13.4%, 35.6% and 19.0%, respectively. Therefore, T4 and T6 treatments were the optimal nitrogen fertilizer management mode which could not only achieve high yield and quality but also obtain high nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in sand field. T6 treatment was the best nitrogen fertilizer management mode considering reduction of fertilizing labor intensity and extending service time of gravel-mulched field.

  16. Establishing Competitive Production Sources. A Handbook for Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    purp’ ose of t6-is handbocok is to ’orovide :he ’ projram ma~iager and otner aca ’u1sitiofl cff’caS with a systenatic guide to the assessment ...manager must assess the feasibility and effectiveness of production competition in - a highly detailed, rigorous, and quantitative way. These...the program manager and other acquisition officials with a systematic guide to the assessment , implementation, and execution of production competition

  17. Friendly Fire: The Price of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-08

    USMC; Captain M. J. Perro , USA; Q V 4v Captain S. J. Wood, USMC 14 Command and Control Systems Course Communication Officer’s School 2085 Morrell Avenue...USMC Captain M. J. Perro , USA Captain S. J. Wood, USMC April 8, 1993 _ 4-1 • •• 93 11 1 t6• S... .. ..... . . . Il II0- . . . V, FRIENDLY FIRE: THE

  18. A Generic and Target Architecture For Command and Control Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    forces, logistics, and optimum routing of forces to destination; supports development of the force, material and personnel 9 lists, schedules , and...recommendations T.5, T.6, and T.73 for Telefax. Teletex, Textfax, and Telefax are not currently scheduled to become a part of GOSIP. In the 1995-1997 time...defining application interfaces to the func- tional areas that impact resource management, for example, priority scheduling , real-time files, and

  19. Cost Estimation of Naval Ship Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    one a 9-sub- system model , the other a single total cost model . The models were developed using the linear least squares regression tech- nique with...to Linear Statistical Models , McGraw-Hill, 1961. 11. Helmer, F. T., Bibliography on Pricing Methodology and Cost Estimating, Dept. of Economics and...SUPPI.EMSaTARY NOTES IS. KWRo" (Cowaft. en tever aide of ..aesep M’ Idab~t 6 Week ONNa.) Cost estimation; Acquisition; Parametric cost estimate; linear

  20. Signal Analysis of Visual Evoked Responses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    T-IE PRO3LEM The interest of the Air Force was in the study of: initially, animal VERs; and, later, human subject VERs. Fo,. obvious reasons, the...data re- oorded from human subjects were restricted to scalp electrode recordings. By ;ontrast, in the animal preparations, epitural bipolar electrode...left em sherechannel # 1 rigt hemisphere_______ _______ channel # 3 HP HPJ HP bT channel # 4 it 5 #t 6 Figure 6.4. Specification of channels. HP

  1. Effective Management of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) in DoD Organic and Inorganic Coatings Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-19

    stropki@battelle.org 614-424-5414 ASETSDefense 2014 November 19, 2014 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...Determine impacts of HCR on select aerospace substrates - ferrous (1020 CS and 4340 HSS ), non-ferrous (Al 2024-T3, Al7075-T6, and Mg AZ31B-H24

  2. Biomonitors: Practice and Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A.A. Benson. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Petroleum hydrocarbons : uptake and discharge by the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis. Science supported by the Office of...Simkiss, K., M. Taylor & A.Z. Mason. Metal 11. Spacie, A. & J.L. Hamelink. Alternative models detoxification and bioaccumulation in molluscs . % for... petroleum hydrocarbons : Accumulation and Marine Ecology Progress Series 1980 3, 257- biotransformation in marine organisms. In: T6= Effects of

  3. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    PubMed

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  4. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis controls yeast gluconeogenesis downstream and independent of SNF1.

    PubMed

    Deroover, Sofie; Ghillebert, Ruben; Broeckx, Tom; Winderickx, Joris; Rolland, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose-6-P (T6P), an intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, was identified as an important regulator of yeast sugar metabolism and signaling. tps1Δ mutants, deficient in T6P synthesis (TPS), are unable to grow on rapidly fermentable medium with uncontrolled influx in glycolysis, depletion of ATP and accumulation of sugar phosphates. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We show that SNF1 deletion restores the tps1Δ growth defect on glucose, suggesting that lack of TPS hampers inactivation of SNF1 or SNF1-regulated processes. In addition to alternative, non-fermentable carbon metabolism, SNF1 controls two major processes: respiration and gluconeogenesis. The tps1Δ defect appears to be specifically associated with deficient inhibition of gluconeogenesis, indicating more downstream effects. Consistently, Snf1 dephosphorylation and inactivation on glucose medium are not affected, as confirmed with an in vivo Snf1 activity reporter. Detailed analysis shows that gluconeogenic Pck1 and Fbp1 expression, protein levels and activity are not repressed upon glucose addition to tps1Δ cells, suggesting a link between the metabolic defect and persistent gluconeogenesis. While SNF1 is essential for induction of gluconeogenesis, T6P/TPS is required for inactivation of gluconeogenesis in the presence of glucose, downstream and independent of SNF1 activity and the Cat8 and Sip4 transcription factors. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  6. Burkholderia mallei tssM encodes a putative deubiquitinase that is secreted and expressed inside infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shanks, John; Burtnick, Mary N; Brett, Paul J; Waag, David M; Spurgers, Kevin B; Ribot, Wilson J; Schell, Mark A; Panchal, Rekha G; Gherardini, Frank C; Wilkinson, Keith D; Deshazer, David

    2009-04-01

    Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of approximately 60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a putative ubiquitin-specific protease that is physically linked to, and transcriptionally coregulated with, the T6SS gene cluster. Mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TssM was secreted in a virAG-dependent manner in vitro. Surprisingly, the T6SS was found to be dispensable for the secretion of TssM. The C-terminal half of TssM, which contains Cys and His box motifs conserved in eukaryotic deubiquitinases, was purified and biochemically characterized. Recombinant TssM hydrolyzed multiple ubiquitinated substrates and the cysteine at position 102 was critical for enzymatic activity. The tssM gene was expressed within 1 h after uptake of B. mallei into RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, suggesting that the TssM deubiquitinase is produced in this intracellular niche. Although the physiological substrate(s) is currently unknown, the TssM deubiquitinase may provide B. mallei a selective advantage in the intracellular environment during infection.

  7. An interbacterial NAD(P) + glycohydrolase toxin requires elongation factor Tu for delivery to target cells

    DOE PAGES

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin; ...

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD + and NADP +. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tumore » (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Lastly, visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.« less

  8. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas

    2018-04-24

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  9. Importance of the Electron Correlation and Dispersion Corrections in Calculations Involving Enamines, Hemiaminals, and Aminals. Comparison of B3LYP, M06-2X, MP2, and CCSD Results with Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alvarez, Alejandro; Carneros, Héctor; Sánchez, Dani; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2015-12-18

    While B3LYP, M06-2X, and MP2 calculations predict the ΔG° values for exchange equilibria between enamines and ketones with similar acceptable accuracy, the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) and MP2/6-311+G(d,p) methods are required for enamine formation reactions (for example, for enamine 5a, arising from 3-methylbutanal and pyrrolidine). Stronger disagreement was observed when calculated energies of hemiaminals (N,O-acetals) and aminals (N,N-acetals) were compared with experimental equilibrium constants, which are reported here for the first time. Although it is known that the B3LYP method does not provide a good description of the London dispersion forces, while M06-2X and MP2 may overestimate them, it is shown here how large the gaps are and that at least single-point calculations at the CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d) level should be used for these reaction intermediates; CCSD(T)/6-31+G(d) and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p) calculations afford ΔG° values in some cases quite close to MP2/6-311+G(d,p) while in others closer to M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p). The effect of solvents is similarly predicted by the SMD, CPCM, and IEFPCM approaches (with energy differences below 1 kcal/mol).

  10. A genomic island in Vibrio cholerae with VPI-1 site-specific recombination characteristics contains CRISPR-Cas and type VI secretion modules

    PubMed Central

    Labbate, Maurizio; Orata, Fabini D.; Petty, Nicola K.; Jayatilleke, Nathasha D.; King, William L.; Kirchberger, Paul C.; Allen, Chris; Mann, Gulay; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Boucher, Yan; Charles, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is a devastating diarrhoeal disease caused by certain strains of serogroup O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae. Mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands (GIs) have been pivotal in the evolution of O1/O139 V. cholerae. Perhaps the most important GI involved in cholera disease is the V. cholerae pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1). This GI contains the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) gene cluster that is necessary for colonization of the human intestine as well as being the receptor for infection by the cholera-toxin bearing CTX phage. In this study, we report a GI (designated GIVchS12) from a non-O1/O139 strain of V. cholerae that is present in the same chromosomal location as VPI-1, contains an integrase gene with 94% nucleotide and 100% protein identity to the VPI-1 integrase, and attachment (att) sites 100% identical to those found in VPI-1. However, instead of TCP and the other accessory genes present in VPI-1, GIVchS12 contains a CRISPR-Cas element and a type VI secretion system (T6SS). GIs similar to GIVchS12 were identified in other V. cholerae genomes, also containing CRISPR-Cas elements and/or T6SS’s. This study highlights the diversity of GIs circulating in natural V. cholerae populations and identifies GIs with VPI-1 recombination characteristics as a propagator of CRISPR-Cas and T6SS modules. PMID:27845364

  11. Disruption in Candida albicans of the TPS2 gene encoding trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase affects cell integrity and decreases infectivity.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Oscar; de Virgilio, Claudio; Pontón, José; Gancedo, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    The gene CaTPS2 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) phosphatase from Candida albicans has been cloned and disrupted in this organism. The Catps2/Catps2 mutant did not accumulate trehalose but accumulated high levels of T6P. Disruption of the two copies of the CaTPS2 gene did not abolish growth even at 42 degrees C, but decreased the growth rate. In the stationary phase, the Catps2/Catps2 mutant aggregated, more than 50% of its cells became permeable to propidium iodide and a large amount of protein was found in the culture medium. Aggregation occurred only at pH values higher than 7 and was avoided by osmoprotectants; it was never observed during the exponential phase of growth. The mutant formed colonies with a smooth border on Spider medium. Mice inoculated with 1.5 x 10(6) c.f.u. of wild-type cells died after 8 days, while 80% of those inoculated with the same number of c.f.u. of the Catps2/Catps2 mutant survived for at least 1 month. Reintroduction of the wild-type CaTPS2 gene in the Catps2/Catps2 mutant abolished the phenotypes described. It is hypothesized that the accumulation of T6P interferes with the assembly of a normal cell wall.

  12. Burkholderia mallei tssM Encodes a Putative Deubiquitinase That Is Secreted and Expressed inside Infected RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, John; Burtnick, Mary N.; Brett, Paul J.; Waag, David M.; Spurgers, Kevin B.; Ribot, Wilson J.; Schell, Mark A.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Gherardini, Frank C.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; DeShazer, David

    2009-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei, a category B biothreat agent, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease glanders. The B. mallei VirAG two-component regulatory system activates the transcription of ∼60 genes, including a large virulence gene cluster encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The B. mallei tssM gene encodes a putative ubiquitin-specific protease that is physically linked to, and transcriptionally coregulated with, the T6SS gene cluster. Mass spectrometry and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TssM was secreted in a virAG-dependent manner in vitro. Surprisingly, the T6SS was found to be dispensable for the secretion of TssM. The C-terminal half of TssM, which contains Cys and His box motifs conserved in eukaryotic deubiquitinases, was purified and biochemically characterized. Recombinant TssM hydrolyzed multiple ubiquitinated substrates and the cysteine at position 102 was critical for enzymatic activity. The tssM gene was expressed within 1 h after uptake of B. mallei into RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, suggesting that the TssM deubiquitinase is produced in this intracellular niche. Although the physiological substrate(s) is currently unknown, the TssM deubiquitinase may provide B. mallei a selective advantage in the intracellular environment during infection. PMID:19168747

  13. Killing mediated spatial structure in V. Cholerae biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanni, David

    Most bacteria live in biofilms, which are implicated in 60 - 80 % of microbial infections in the body. The spatial structure of a biofilm confers advantages to its member-cells, such as antibiotic resistance, and is strongly affected by competition between strains and taxa. However, A complete picture of how competition affects the self-organized structure of these complex, far-from-equilibrium systems, is yet to emerge. To that end, we investigate phase separation dynamics driven by T6SS-facilitated bacterial warfare in a system composed of two strains of mutually antagonistic V. cholerae. T6SS is a contact mediated killing mechanism present in 25 % of all gram negative bacteria, and has been shown by recent work to play a major role in the spatial assortment of biofilms. T6SS events induce lysis, causing variations in local mechanical pressure, and acting as thermalizing events. We study cells immobilized in biofilms at the air-solid interface, so our experimental system represents a different type active matter, wherein activity is due to cell death and reproduction, not mobility. Here, we show how that activity imposes a constraint of minimal curvature on strain-strain interfaces; an effective Laplace pressure is characterized which governs interfacial dynamics.

  14. Balkan brachicerous cattle - the first domesticated cattle in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Peter; Sirakova, Daniela; Mitkov, Ivan; Spassov, Nikolai; Radoslavov, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare mitochondrial diversity among Balkan Neolithic/Chalcolithic cattle and present day Shorthorn Rhodopean cattle (Busha) to throw a new insight into European cattle domestication. The results showed that both ancient- and present-day samples belonged to the macrohaplogroup T. From the 28 sequences (8 ancient and 20 modern), the T1 and T2 haplogroup represent about 3.6% (1/28; 1/28). The T3 haplogroup was with the highest frequency - 57% (16/28). Based on the SNPs on 16057A and 16133C, the new T6 haplogroup was proposed. This haplogroup represents 75% from the ancient and 20% from the present day Bulgarian brachicerous cattle population. The survey in GenBank data base did not find a similar motif, except for the recent Serbian Busha cattle. Overall, these results showed that: (i) The newly named T6 haplogroup is Balkan specific; (ii) The T6 haplogroup survives in present day Bulgarian rhodopean cattle; (iii) The Balkan brachicerous cattle is the oldest European cattle breed.

  15. The effect of scandium addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg alloy: A multi-refinement modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Cong, E-mail: xucong55555@gmail.com; Xiao, Wenlong, E-mail: wlxiao@buaa.edu.cn; Hanada, Shuji

    2015-12-15

    Effect of scandium (Sc) additions on the microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behavior of Al–Si–Mg casting alloy (F357) were systematically investigated. It was found that Sc addition caused a multi-refining efficiency on the microstructure of as-cast F357 alloy, including refinement of grains and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), modification of eutectic Si and harmless disposal of β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase. Subsequent T6 heat treatment had further induced the complete spheroidization of eutectic Si and precipitation of fine secondary Al{sub 3}Sc dispersoids in the Sc modified alloys. Thus the mechanical properties, especially the ductility, were significantly enhanced by the addition of Scmore » combined with the heat treatment. The highest ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation were achieved in 0.8 wt.% Sc modified F357 alloy combined with T6 heat treatment. Furthermore, fractographic examinations indicated that the ductile fracture mechanism served as a dominate role in the modified alloys due to the formation of fine, deep and uniformly distributed dimples. - Highlights: • Detailed characterization of the multi-refining microstructure of Sc modified F357 alloy was performed. • The multi-refinement was proposed to refine grain and SDAS, modify eutectic Si and β-phase. • Sc modifier combined with T6 treatment is effective in improving tensile properties. • Modification of eutectic Si in F357 alloy with Sc is consistent with the IIT mechanism.« less

  16. A Microsample Tensile Test Application: Local Strength of Impact Welds Between Sheet Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzing, J. T.; He, M.; Vivek, A.; Taber, G. A.; Mills, M. J.; Daehn, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    Microsample tensile testing was conducted to evaluate the quality of impact welds created by vaporizing foil actuator welding. Tensile test samples with a gauge length of 0.6 mm were electro-discharge machined out of welds created between 1-mm-thick aluminum alloy type 6061 (AA6061) sheets and 6-mm-thick copper (Cu110) plates. Aluminum sheets were used as flyers, while copper plates acted as targets. Flyer sheets in T6 as well as T4 temper conditions were utilized to create welds. Some of the welds made with T4 temper flyers were heat treated to a T6 temper. It was found that the welds made with T4 temper flyers were slightly stronger (max. of 270 MPa) than those produced with T6 temper flyers. Generally, failure propagated in a brittle manner across the weld interface; however, elemental mapping reveals material transfer on either member of the welded system. This work proves the feasibility to apply microsample tensile testing to assess impact welding, even when conducted with flyer sheets of 1 mm or less, and provides insight that is complementary to other test methods.

  17. Assessment of block height for satisfactory spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Ousley, R; Egan, C; Dowling, K; Cyna, A M

    2012-12-01

    We investigated block heights that anaesthetists considered adequate for caesarean section to proceed under spinal anaesthesia. During 3 months, 15 obstetric anaesthetists recorded block height to touch, pinprick or cold when spinal anaesthesia was considered satisfactory for caesarean section to proceed. Median (IQR [range]) block height for touch, pinprick, first cold and icy were: T10 (T7-T12 [T3-L1]); T5 (T4-T6 [C7-L1]); T5 (T4-T6 [C7-L1]); and T3 (T2-T4 [C7-L1]), respectively. Modalities were significantly correlated for: touch and cold, p = 0.0001; touch and icy, p = 0.0007; touch and pinprick, p = 0.0018; cold and icy, p < 0.0001; cold and pinprick, p = 0.0001; icy and pinprick, p < 0.0001. Pairwise comparisons showed differences between all modalities (p < 0.001) apart from pinprick and first cold (p = 0.94). All women had satisfactory anaesthesia despite 76 (81%) having a block to touch below T6. Single modality assessment of block height, particularly using touch, may erroneously indicate inadequate anaesthesia for caesarean section. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    PubMed

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    Ripening of cheddar cheese is a time taking process, duration of the ripening may be as long as one year. Long ripening time is a big hindrance in the popularity of cheese in developing countries. Further, energy resources in these countries are either insufficient or very expensive. Therefore, those methods of cheese ripening should be discovered which can significantly reduce the ripening time without compromising the quality characteristics of cheddar cheese. In accelerated ripening, cheese is usually ripened at higher temperature than traditional ripening temperatures. Ripening of cheddar cheese at high temperature with the addition of vitamin E and selenium is not previously studied. This investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity of selenium and vitamin E in accelerated ripening using cheddar cheese as an oxidation substrate. The ripening of cheddar cheese was performed at 18 °C and to prevent lipid oxidation, vitamin E and selenium were used alone and in combination. The treatments were as: cheddar cheese without any addition of vitamin E and selenium (T1), cheddar cheese added with 100 mg/kg vitamin E (T 2 ), 200 mg/kg vitamin E (T 3 ), 800 μg/kg selenium (T 4 ), 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 5 ), vitamin E 100 mg/kg + 800 μg/kg selenium (T 6 ) and vitamin E 200 mg/kg + 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 7 ). Traditional cheddar cheese ripne ripened at 4-6 °C for 9 months was used as positive control. Cheese samples were ripened at 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of storage. All these treatments were compared with a cheddar cheese without vitamin E, selenium and ripened at 4 °C or 12 weeks. Vacuum packaged cheddar cheese was ripened 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of storage period. Addition of Vitamin E and selenium did not have any effect on moisture, fat and

  19. An Interbacterial NAD(P)+ Glycohydrolase Toxin Requires Elongation Factor Tu for Delivery to Target Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, John C.; Quentin, Dennis; Sawai, Shin

    2015-10-08

    Type VI secretion (T6S) influences the composition of microbial communities by catalyzing the delivery of toxins between adjacent bacterial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a T6S integral membrane toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tse6, acts on target cells by degrading the universally essential dinucleotides NAD + and NADP +. Structural analyses of Tse6 show that it resembles mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as diphtheria toxin, with the exception of a unique loop that both excludes proteinaceous ADP-ribose acceptors and contributes to hydrolysis. We find that entry of Tse6 into target cells requires its binding to an essential housekeeping protein, translation elongation factor Tumore » (EF-Tu). These proteins participate in a larger assembly that additionally directs toxin export and provides chaperone activity. Visualization of this complex by electron microscopy defines the architecture of a toxin-loaded T6S apparatus and provides mechanistic insight into intercellular membrane protein delivery between bacteria.« less

  20. Increasing crop yield and resilience with trehalose 6-phosphate: targeting a feast-famine mechanism in cereals for better source-sink optimization.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Oszvald, Maria; Jesus, Claudia; Rajulu, Charukesi; Griffiths, Cara A

    2017-07-20

    Food security is a pressing global issue. New approaches are required to break through a yield ceiling that has developed in recent years for the major crops. As important as increasing yield potential is the protection of yield from abiotic stresses in an increasingly variable and unpredictable climate. Current strategies to improve yield include conventional breeding, marker-assisted breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), mutagenesis, creation of hybrids, genetic modification (GM), emerging genome-editing technologies, and chemical approaches. A regulatory mechanism amenable to three of these approaches has great promise for large yield improvements. Trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) synthesized in the low-flux trehalose biosynthetic pathway signals the availability of sucrose in plant cells as part of a whole-plant sucrose homeostatic mechanism. Modifying T6P content by GM, marker-assisted selection, and novel chemistry has improved yield in three major cereals under a range of water availabilities from severe drought through to flooding. Yield improvements have been achieved by altering carbon allocation and how carbon is used. Targeting T6P both temporally and spatially offers great promise for large yield improvements in productive (up to 20%) and marginal environments (up to 120%). This opinion paper highlights this important breakthrough in fundamental science for crop improvement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Weldability of extruded aluminum-alumina composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gedeon, S.A.; Lane, C.; Altshuller, B.

    1994-12-31

    Acceptable procedure were developed for welding the following types of aluminum particle-reinforced aluminum: 6061/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/10p-T6, 6061/Al{sub x}/O{sub 3}20p-T6, and 7005Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/10p-T6,. Automated and manual procedures were developed and using both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), with a cold wire feed, and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The effect of welding procedures on porosity, reinforcing particulate distribution, and mechanical properties was determined. Postweld heat treatment and microhardness testing were used to understand the effect of the welded microstructure on the strength and ductility of the joint. Fracture surfaces and transverse microsections of mechanical test specimens were examined to determinemore » the origins and mechanisms of failure. Cleanliness of the joint and weld wire were found to be essential to eliminate porosity. Based on these experimentally determined data, general guidelines for welding aluminum oxide particle-reinforced aluminum composites are proposed. Discussion includes proper selection of weld joint geometry, filler metals, travel speed, voltage, and current ranges. These parameters are compared to those used in an actual production environment for composite products. Distinctions between welding these composites and others produced via powder metallurgy or with silicon carbide reinforcements are also discussed.« less

  2. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg Alloy Manufactured by Liquid Phase Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Gwon, Jin-Han; Park, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is an aluminum alloy containing at least 12.6 wt.% Si. It is necessary to evenly control the primary Si particle size and distribution in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. In order to achieve this, there have been attempts to manufacture hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a liquid phase sintering. This study investigated the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg alloy manufactured by liquid phase sintering process and changes in them after T6 heat treatment. Microstructural observation identified large amounts of small primary Si particles evenly distributed in the matrix, and small amounts of various precipitation phases were found in grain interiors and grain boundaries. After T6 heat treatment, the primary Si particle size and shape did not change significantly, but the size and distribution of CuAl2 ( θ) and AlCuMgSi ( Q) changed. Hardness tests measured 97.36 HV after sintering and 142.5 HV after heat treatment. Compression tests were performed from room temperature to 300 °C. The results represented that yield strength was greater after heat treatment (RT 300 °C: 351 93 MPa) than after sintering (RT 300 °C: 210 89 MPa). Fracture surface analysis identified cracks developing mostly along the interface between the primary Si particles and the matrix with some differences among temperature conditions. In addition, brittle fracture mode was found after T6 heat treatment.

  3. Development of type 2 diabetes caused by a deficiency of a tRNA(lys) modification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fan-Yan; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variations in the cdk5 regulator associated protein 1-like 1 (cdkal1) gene have been identified in whole genome association studies as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A recent study showed that Cdkal1 was a mammalian methythiotransferase, which specifically synthesizes 2-methylthio-N (6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms (2)t (6)A) at position 37 of tRNA(lys)(UUU). The ms (2)t (6)A modification in tRNA(lys)(UUU) was important for the accurate decoding of its cognate codon. In pancreatic β-cell-specific Cdkal1 knockout (Cdkal1 KO) mice, a deficiency of ms (2)t (6)A caused the mistranslation of a Lys codon in proinsulin, resulting in improper processing. The mice showed a decrease in insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. In addition, the mistranslation contributed to the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in Cdkal1-deficient β-cells. Furthermore, Cdkal1 KO mice were hypersensitive to high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, as well as the ER stress response. These findings might potentially explain the molecular pathogenesis of T2D in patients carrying Cdkal1 variations.

  4. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ali Khan, Khalid; Javed Ansari, Mohammad; Almasaudi, Saad B; Al-Kahtani, Saad

    2018-02-01

    The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1), Proteus mirabilis (T2), Bacillus licheniformis (T3), Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4), Bacillus subtilis (T5), Enterobacter kobei (T6), and Morganella morganii (T7) on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet) and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores). Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%), whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%). Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%). Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  5. Comparative Genome Analyses of Serratia marcescens FS14 Reveals Its High Antagonistic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengpeng; Kwok, Amy H. Y.; Jiang, Jingwei; Ran, Tingting; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu; Leung, Frederick C.

    2015-01-01

    S. marcescens FS14 was isolated from an Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz plant that was infected by Fusarium oxysporum and showed symptoms of root rot. With the completion of the genome sequence of FS14, the first comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of the Serratia genus was performed. Pan-genome and COG analyses showed that the majority of the conserved core genes are involved in basic cellular functions, while genomic factors such as prophages contribute considerably to genome diversity. Additionally, a Type I restriction-modification system, a Type III secretion system and tellurium resistance genes are found in only some Serratia species. Comparative analysis further identified that S. marcescens FS14 possesses multiple mechanisms for antagonism against other microorganisms, including the production of prodigiosin, bacteriocins, and multi-antibiotic resistant determinants as well as chitinases. The presence of two evolutionarily distinct Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) in FS14 may provide further competitive advantages for FS14 against other microbes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of comparative analysis on T6SSs in the genus, which identifies four types of T6SSs in Serratia spp.. Competition bioassays of FS14 against the vital plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were performed to support our genomic analyses, in which FS14 demonstrated high antagonistic activities against both bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. PMID:25856195

  6. The Madagascar hissing cockroach as a novel surrogate host for Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Nathan A; Ribot, Wilson J; Applefeld, Willard; DeShazer, David

    2012-06-22

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are gram-negative pathogens responsible for the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Both species cause disease in humans and animals and have been designated as category B select agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related bacterium that is generally considered avirulent for humans. While it can cause disease in rodents, the B. thailandensis 50% lethal dose (LD50) is typically ≥ 104-fold higher than the B. pseudomallei and B. mallei LD50 in mammalian models of infection. Here we describe an alternative to mammalian hosts in the study of virulence and host-pathogen interactions of these Burkholderia species. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MH cockroaches) possess a number of qualities that make them desirable for use as a surrogate host, including ease of breeding, ease of handling, a competent innate immune system, and the ability to survive at 37°C. MH cockroaches were highly susceptible to infection with B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis and the LD50 was <10 colony-forming units (cfu) for all three species. In comparison, the LD50 for Escherichia coli in MH cockroaches was >105 cfu. B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis cluster 1 type VI secretion system (T6SS-1) mutants were all attenuated in MH cockroaches, which is consistent with previous virulence studies conducted in rodents. B. pseudomallei mutants deficient in the other five T6SS gene clusters, T6SS-2 through T6SS-6, were virulent in both MH cockroaches and hamsters. Hemocytes obtained from MH cockroaches infected with B. pseudomallei harbored numerous intracellular bacteria, suggesting that this facultative intracellular pathogen can survive and replicate inside of MH cockroach phagocytic cells. The hemolymph extracted from these MH cockroaches also contained multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) with intracellular B. pseudomallei, which indicates

  7. Light weight and high strength materials made of recycled steel and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nounezi, Thomas

    Recycling has proven not only to address today's economical, environmental and social issues, but also to be imperative for the sustainability of human technology. The current thesis has investigated the feasibility of a new philosophy for Recycling (Alloying-Recycling) using steel 1020 and aluminum 6061T6. The study was limited to the metallurgical aspects only and has highlighted the potential of recycled alloys made of recycled aluminum and steel to exhibit substantially increased wear resistance and strength-to-weight ratio as compared to initial primary materials. Three alloy-mixtures are considered: TN3 (5wt% 1020 +95wt% 6061T6); TN5 (0.7wt% 1020 + 99.3wt% 6061T6); and TN4 (10wt% 6061T6 + 90wt% 1020). A Tucker induction power supply system (3kW; 135-400 kHz) is used to melt the alloy mixtures for casting in graphite crucibles. Heat treatment of the cast samples is done using a radiation box furnace. Microscopy, Vickers hardness and pin-on-disc abrasive wear tests are performed. Casting destroyed the initial microstructures of the alloys leading to a hardness reduction in the as-cast and solution heat-treated aluminum rich samples to 60 Hv from 140 Hv. Ageing slightly increased the hardness of the cast samples and provided a wear resistance two times higher than that of the initial 6061T6 material. On the steel rich side, the hardness of the as-cast TN4 was 480 Hv, which is more than twice as high as the initial hardness of steel 1020 of 202 Hv; this hints to strong internal and residual stress, probably martensite formation during fast cooling following casting. Solution heat treatment lowered the hardness to the original value of steel 1020, but provided about ten (10) times higher wear resistance; this suggests higher ductility and toughness of normalised TN4 as compared to 1020. In addition, TN4 exhibits about 25% weight reduction as compared to 1020. The actual recycling process and the effect of non-metallic impurities shall be investigated in future

  8. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because ofmore » the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.« less

  9. Anti-dentine antibodies with root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Solange de Paula; Ortolan, Geórgia Oliveira; Dos Santos, Lívia Marques; Tobouti, Priscila Lie; Hidalgo, Miriam Marubayashi; Consolaro, Alberto; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse serum IgG levels and salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) levels in human dentine extract (HDE) before (T0) and 6 months after (T6) orthodontic treatment and to correlate anti-HDE autoantibodies to root resorption. Fifty orthodontic patients were selected, 19 males (15.6 ± 8.5 years) and 31 females (21.4 ± 11.2 years), 19 in the mixed dentition (10.3 ± 1.9 years) and 31 in the permanent dentition (24.6 ± 9.9 years). Fifty individuals not undergoing orthodontic treatment matched by gender and age were selected as the controls. Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors and saliva sampling were obtained of all patients at T0 and T6. Serum samples were collected from the permanent dentition patients (n = 31). Antibody levels were determined by means of immunoenzyme assay. At T6, root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption), grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Differences between antibody levels at T0 and T6 and among different grades of resorption were determined by paired t- and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to detect correlation between sIgA and IgG levels, and logistic regression to determine the association of root resorption grade and the studied variables. Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Serum anti-HDE IgG levels decreased (P < 0.01) in grade 2 root resorption patients during treatment and was not correlated to salivary sIgA levels or other variables. Patients who had grade 2 root resorption at T6 showed higher levels of anti-HDE sIgA (P < 0.001). Anti-HDE sIgA levels at T0 and root shape were the main factors associated with the degree of root resorption. The results suggest that variations to systemic and local humoural immune response to dentine antigens may occur during orthodontic treatment. High levels of salivary sIgA before treatment were associated with more advanced lesions after 6

  10. Effect of nutrient management on soil organic carbon sequestration, fertility, and productivity under rice-wheat cropping system in semi-reclaimed sodic soils of North India.

    PubMed

    Gupta Choudhury, Shreyasi; Yaduvanshi, N P S; Chaudhari, S K; Sharma, D R; Sharma, D K; Nayak, D C; Singh, S K

    2018-02-05

    The ever shrinking agricultural land availability and the swelling demand of food for the growing population fetch our attention towards utilizing partially reclaimed sodic soils for cultivation. In the present investigation, we compared six treatments, like control (T1), existing farmers' practice (T2), balanced inorganic fertilization (T3) and combined application of green gram (Vigna radiate) with inorganic NPK (T4), green manure (Sesbania aculeate) with inorganic NPK (T5), and farmyard manure with inorganic NPK (T6), to study the influence of nutrient management on soil organic carbon sequestration and soil fertility under long-term rice-wheat cropping system along with its productivity in gypsum-amended partially reclaimed sodic soils of semi-arid sub-tropical Indian climate. On an average, combined application of organics along with fertilizer NPK (T4, T5, and T6) decreased soil pH, ESP, and BD by 3.5, 13.0, and 6.7% than FP (T2) and 3.7, 12.5, and 6.7%, than balanced inorganic fertilizer application (T3), respectively, in surface (0-20 cm). These treatments (T4, T5, and T6) also increased 14.1% N and 19.5% P availability in soil over the usual farmers' practice (FP) with an additional saving of 44.4 and 27.3% fertilizer N and P, respectively. Long-term (6 years) incorporation of organics (T4, T5, and T6) sequestered 1.5 and 2.0 times higher soil organic carbon as compared to the balanced inorganic (T3) and FP (T2) treatments, respectively. The allocation of soil organic carbon into active and passive pools determines its relative susceptibility towards oxidation. The lower active to passive ratio (1.63) in FYM-treated plots along with its potentiality of higher soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration compared to the initial stock proved its acceptability for long-term sustenance under intensive cropping even in partially reclaimed sodic soils. Among all the treatments, T4 yielded the maximum from second year onwards. Moreover, after 6 years of continuous

  11. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa Coloma, P.; Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J. B.; Cano, F. J.; Lapeña, N.

    2015-08-01

    Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an oxidation process occurred in the vicinity of the alloy's intermetallic particles. The amount of the Zr deposits at these locations increased with coating's formulations without Ti, which provided the best corrosion resistance. The Cr-free conversion coatings developed in this study for the AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys do not meet yet the strict requirements of the aircraft industry. However, they significantly improved the corrosion

  12. [Effects of micro-sprinkling hose length and width on wheat field water condition and flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics in different sampling districts].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji Kun; Yu, Zhen Wen; Shi, Yu; Zhao, Jun Ye; Wang, Xi Zhi; Wang, Yu Qiu

    2017-11-01

    A two-year field experiment was conducted in 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 wheat growing seasons to study the effects of micro-sprinkling hose length and width on field water condition, and flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics in different sampling districts (D 1 to D 6 along with the hose laying direction). Six micro-sprinkling hose treatments were set: 60 m (T 1 ), 80 m (T 2 ) and 100 m (T 3 ) lengths under 65 mm width; 60 m (T 4 ), 80 m (T 5 ) and 100 m (T 6 ) lengths under 80 mm width. The results showed that after irrigation at jointing, the Christiansen uniformity coefficient (C u ) of T 1 was significantly higher than T 2 and T 3 under 65 mm hose width. Under 80 mm hose width, T 4 and T 5 had the highest C u compared to T 6 . After irrigation at anthesis, the C u showed T 1 >T 2 >T 3 under 65 mm hose width, and T 4 >T 5 >T 6 under 80 mm hose width. Under 65 mm hose width, the average relative soil water content of 0-40 cm soil layers after irrigation at anthesis, flag leaf Φ PSII , NPQ and ETR at 20 and 30 d after anthesis and the grain yield of different sampling district did not differ in T 1 ; T 2 showed the order of D 1 , D 2 >D 3 >D 4 >D 5 ; T 3 showed D 1 , D 2 >D 3 >D 4 >D 5 , D 6 . The average Φ PSII , NPQ and ETR at 20 and 30 d after anthesis, and the average dry matter at maturity of different sampling districts were presented as T 1 >T 2 , T 3 . Under 85 mm hose width, no significant differences were observed in the average relative soil water content of 0-40 cm soil layers after irrigation at ahthesis, flag leaf Φ PSII , NPQ and ETR at 20 and 30 d after anthesis and the grain yield of different sampling districts in T 4 ; in T 5 , the indexes mentioned above in D 1 , D 2 and D 3 sampling districts were significantly higher than those in D 4 and D 5 ; in T 6 , the decreasing order was D 1 , D 2 , D 3 >D 4 >D 5 >T 6 . The average Φ PSII , NPQ and ETR at 20 and 30 d after anthesis, and the average dry matter at maturity of different

  13. Can an electronic glycaemic notebook associated with an insulin calculator improve HbA1c in diabetic patients on a multiple insulin injections regimen? A 26-week observational real-life study.

    PubMed

    Oriot, Philippe; Ponchon, Michel; Hermans, Michel P

    2016-02-01

    Automated insulin calculators (AICs) with carbohydrate counting (CHC) have been shown to be effective in improving glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. By contrast, use of AICs without CHC, with predetermined prandial insulin doses modified according to a correction factor and modulated as a function of glycaemia, has not yet been investigated. This comparative, retrospective, observational and non-randomized study took place over a 6-month period of routine clinical practice. It evaluated the use of Free-style InsuLinx® and Free-style Neo® Abbott Diabetes Care (AIC) in easy mode (no CHC). All patients performed a basal-prandial insulin dosing schedule, and were not educated as to how to determine carbohydrate intake. Changes in HbA1c and capillary blood glucose levels, insulin therapy, frequency of blood glucose tests and body weight were analyzed 6 months prior to inclusion (T-6), at the time of inclusion (T0) and 6 months later (T+6). From T-6 to T0 (period A), patients used a standard blood glucose meter and adjusted their insulin doses themselves, and from T0 to T+6 (period B), each patient was provided with an AIC on easy mode function. Of the 230 patients, 221 were retained at the end of the study (126 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 95 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)). At T-6, average (±standard error of mean) HbA1c level was 8.3 ± 0.1%; T1DM: 8.5 ± 0.1% and T2DM: 8.0 ± 0.1%, respectively. At T0, the average HbA1c level was 8.4 ± 0.1% (p = 0.02); T1DM: 8.5 ± 0.1% (ns) and T2DM: 8.2 ± 0.1% (p = 0.004). At T+6, with AIC in easy mode, average HbA1c level decreased significantly to 7.7 ± 0.1% (p < 0.0001); T1DM: 8.0 ± 0.1% (p < 0.0001) and T2DM: 7.5 ± 0.1% (p < 0.0001). At T+6, in all diabetics, blood glucose monitoring frequency increased by 0.4/day (p < 0.0001). Insulin correction amounted to 14% of changes in predetermined prandial insulin doses. Routine clinical use of an AIC without CHC improved self

  14. Identification of New Virulence Factors and Vaccine Candidates for Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jourdan A.; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E.; Fitts, Eric C.; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Kozlova, Elena V.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2017-01-01

    Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA, which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK, an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized. In this study, in-frame deletion mutants of ypo0815, ypo2884, ypo3614-3168 (cyoABCDE), and ypo1119-1120, identified from the STM screen, were generated. While ypo0815 codes for a general secretion pathway protein E (GspE) of the T2SS, the ypo2884-encoded protein has homology to the βγ crystallin superfamily, cyoABCDE codes for the cytochrome o oxidase operon, and the ypo1119-1120 genes are within the Tol-Pal system which has multiple functions. Additionally, as our STM screen identified three T6SS-associated genes, and, based on in silico analysis, six T6SS clusters and multiple homologs of the T6SS effector hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) exist in Y. pestis CO92, we also targeted these T6SS clusters and effectors for generating deletion mutants. These deletion mutant strains exhibited varying levels of attenuation (up to 100%), in bubonic or pneumonic murine infection models. The attenuation could be further augmented by generation of combinatorial deletion mutants, namely ΔlppΔypo0815, ΔlppΔypo2884, ΔlppΔcyoABCDE, ΔvasKΔhcp6, and Δypo2720-2733Δhcp3. We earlier showed that deletion of the lpp gene, which encodes Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and activates Toll-like receptor-2, reduced virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in murine models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The surviving mice infected with ΔlppΔcyoABCDE, ΔvasKΔhcp6, and Δypo2720-2733Δhcp3 mutant strains were 55–100% protected upon subsequent re-challenge with wild-type CO92 in a

  15. Identification of New Virulence Factors and Vaccine Candidates for Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jourdan A; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Fitts, Eric C; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Kozlova, Elena V; Kirtley, Michelle L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA , which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK , an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized. In this study, in-frame deletion mutants of ypo0815, ypo2884, ypo3614-3168 (cyoABCDE) , and ypo1119-1120 , identified from the STM screen, were generated. While ypo0815 codes for a general secretion pathway protein E (GspE) of the T2SS, the ypo2884 -encoded protein has homology to the βγ crystallin superfamily, cyoABCDE codes for the cytochrome o oxidase operon, and the ypo1119-1120 genes are within the Tol-Pal system which has multiple functions. Additionally, as our STM screen identified three T6SS-associated genes, and, based on in silico analysis, six T6SS clusters and multiple homologs of the T6SS effector hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) exist in Y. pestis CO92, we also targeted these T6SS clusters and effectors for generating deletion mutants. These deletion mutant strains exhibited varying levels of attenuation (up to 100%), in bubonic or pneumonic murine infection models. The attenuation could be further augmented by generation of combinatorial deletion mutants, namely Δ lpp Δ ypo0815 , Δ lpp Δ ypo2884 , Δ lpp Δ cyoABCDE , Δ vasK Δ hcp6 , and Δ ypo2720-2733 Δ hcp3 . We earlier showed that deletion of the lpp gene, which encodes Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and activates Toll-like receptor-2, reduced virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in murine models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The surviving mice infected with Δ lpp Δ cyoABCDE , Δ vasK Δ hcp6 , and Δ ypo2720-2733 Δ hcp3 mutant strains were 55-100% protected upon subsequent re

  16. Analysis of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene family suggests the formation of TPS complexes in rice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Baisheng; Li, Haowen; Li, Wenjun; Deng, Xing Wang; Wang, Xiping

    2011-08-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), an intermediate in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway, is emerging as an important regulator of plant metabolism and development. T6P levels are potentially modulated by a group of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) homologues. In this study, we have isolated 11 TPS genes encoding proteins with both TPS and TPP domains, from rice. Functional complement assays performed in yeast tps1 and tps2 mutants, revealed that only OsTPS1 encodes an active TPS enzyme and no OsTPS protein possesses TPP activity. By using a yeast two-hybrid analysis, a complicated interaction network occurred among OsTPS proteins, and the TPS domain might be essential for this interaction to occur. The interaction between OsTPS1 and OsTPS8 in vivo was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, our gel filtration assay showed that there may exist two forms of OsTPS1 (OsTPS1a and OsTPS1b) with different elution profiles in rice. OsTPS1b was particularly cofractionated with OsTPS5 and OsTPS8 in the 360 kDa complex, while OsTPS1a was predominantly incorporated into the complexes larger than 360 kDa. Collectively, these results suggest that OsTPS family members may form trehalose-6-phosphate synthase complexes and therefore potentially modify T6P levels to regulate plant development.

  17. Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of Al-Li-Cu-In alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    The crack initiation and growth fracture resistance of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Cu-Li-In alloys were characterized and optimized for cryogenic tank applications. Presently, the effects of stress state and temperature is being determined on the fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms of commercially available Vintage 3 2090-T81 and experimental 2090+In-T6. Precracked J-integral specimens of both alloys were tested at ambient and cryogenic temperatures in the plane stress and plane strain conditions. Considering ambient temperature, results showed that 2090-T81 exhibited the highest toughness in both plane strain and plane stress conditions. For the plane strain condition, reasonable crack initiation and growth toughness of 1090-T81 are associated with a significant amount of delamination and transgranular fracture. Plane stress toughnesses were higher and fracture was characterized by shear cracking with minimal delaminations. In comparisons, the fracture behavior of 2090+In-T6 is significantly degraded by subgrain boundary precipitation. Toughness is low and characterized by intersubgranular fracture with no delamination in the plane stress or plane strain conditions. Intersubgranular cracking is a low energy event which presumably occurs prior to the onset of slip band cracking. Copious grain boundary precipitation is atypical of commercially available 2090. At cryogenic temperatures, both alloys exhibit increased yield strength, toughness, and amount of delamination and shear cracking. The change in fracture mode of 2090+In-T6 from intersubgranular cracking at ambient temperature to a combination of intersubgranular cracking, shear cracking, and delamination at cryogenic temperature is the subject of further investigation.

  18. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  19. Lactobacillus bulgaricus Proteinase Expressed in Lactococcus lactis Is a Powerful Carrier for Cell Wall-Associated and Secreted Bovine β-Lactoglobulin Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bernasconi, Eric; Germond, Jacques-Edouard; Delley, Michèle; Fritsché, Rodolphe; Corthésy, Blaise

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have a good potential as agents for the delivery of heterologous proteins to the gastrointestinal mucosa and thus for the reequilibration of inappropriate immune responses to food antigens. Bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is considered a major allergen in cow's milk allergy. We have designed recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing either full-length BLG or BLG-derived octapeptide T6 (IDALNENK) as fusions with Lactobacillus bulgaricus extracellular proteinase (PrtB). In addition to constructs encoding full-length PrtB for the targeting of heterologous proteins to the cell surface, we generated vectors aiming at the release into the medium of truncated PrtB derivatives lacking 100 (PrtB∂, PrtB∂-BLG, and PrtB∂-T6) or 807 (PrtBΔ) C-terminal amino acids. Expression of recombinant products was confirmed using either anti-PrtB, anti-BLG, or anti-peptide T6 antiserum. All forms of the full-length and truncated recombinant products were efficiently translocated, irrespective of the presence of eucaryotic BLG sequences in the fusion proteins. L. lactis expressing PrtB∂-BLG yielded up to 170 μg per 109 CFU in the culture supernatant and 9 μg per 109 CFU at the bacterial cell surface within 14 h. Therefore, protein fusions relying on the use of PrtB gene products are adequate for concomitant cell surface display and secretion by recombinant L. lactis and thus may ensure maximal bioavailability of the eucaryotic antigen in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. PMID:12039750

  20. Identification of TPS family members in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and the effect of sucrose sprays on TPS expression and floral induction.

    PubMed

    Du, Lisha; Qi, Siyan; Ma, Juanjuan; Xing, Libo; Fan, Sheng; Zhang, Songwen; Li, Youmei; Shen, Yawen; Zhang, Dong; Han, Mingyu

    2017-11-01

    Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing disaccharide that serves as a carbon source and stress protectant in apple trees. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is the biosynthetic precursor of trehalose. It functions as a crucial signaling molecule involved in the regulation of floral induction, and is closely related to sucrose. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) family members are pivotal components of the T6P biosynthetic pathway. The present study identified 13 apple TPS family members and characterized their expression patterns in different tissues and in response to exogenous application of sucrose during floral induction. 'Fuji' apple trees were sprayed with sucrose prior to the onset of floral induction. Bud growth, flowering rate, and endogenous sugar levels were then monitored. The expression of genes associated with sucrose metabolism and flowering were also characterized by RT-quantitative PCR. Results revealed that sucrose applications significantly improved flower production and increased bud size and fresh weight, as well as the sucrose content in buds and leaves. Furthermore, the expression of MdTPS1, 2, 4, 10, and 11 was rapidly and significantly up-regulated in response to the sucrose treatments. In addition, the expression levels of flowering-related genes (e.g., SPL genes, FT1, and AP1) also increased in response to the sucrose sprays. In summary, apple TPS family members were identified that may influence the regulation of floral induction and other responses to sucrose. The relationship between sucrose and T6P or TPS during the regulation of floral induction in apple trees is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutation of the inhibitory ethanol site in GABAA ρ1 receptors promotes tolerance to ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Yuri A; Borghese, Cecilia M; Ruiz, Carlos I; Cullins, Madeline A; Da Costa, Adriana; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A; Homanics, Gregg E; Harris, R Adron

    2017-09-01

    Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABA A receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine). We generated ρ1 (T6'Y) knockin (KI) mice using CRISPR/Cas9 to test the behavioral importance of the inhibitory actions of ethanol on this receptor. Both ρ1 KI and knockout (KO) mice showed faster recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination compared to WT mice. Both KI and KO mutant strains also showed increased tolerance to motor impairment produced by ethanol. The KI mice did not differ from WT mice in other behavioral actions, including ethanol intake and preference, conditioned taste aversion to ethanol, and duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex. WT and KI mice did not differ in levels of ρ1 or ρ2 mRNA in cerebellum or in ethanol clearance. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory site for ethanol in GABA A ρ1 receptors regulates acute functional tolerance to moderate ethanol intoxication. We note that low sensitivity to alcohol intoxication has been linked to risk for development of alcohol dependence in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. N1-acetyl substituted pyrrolidine derivative CIP-A5: a novel compound that could ameliorate liver cirrhosis through modulation of hepatic stellate cell activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Dan; Gao, Zu-Hua; Xue, Xia; Cheng, Yan-Na; Yue, Pan; Fang, Xu-Wen; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2011-06-01

    (2S,4R)-methyl 1-acetyl-4-(N-(4-bromophenyl)sulfamoyloxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (CIP-A5) is the N1-acetyl substituted pyrrolidine derivative which was designed against the structure of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9. CIP-A5 has been considered as a candidate compound for treatment of liver cirrhosis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of CIP-A5 on the activity of hepatic stellate cells. CIP-A5 prevented the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced proliferation of hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cells as estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. CIP-A5 stimulated MMPs activity as evidenced by an increase of degradation of succinylated gelatin. Gelatin zymography analysis showed that CIP-A5 stimulated the secretion and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HSC-T6 cells. This stimulatory effect on MMPs was verified by the observation of increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 as evaluated by Western blot assay. At the same time, a significant decrease of the expression of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) was observed, suggesting a modulation of the balance of MMPs/TIMPs in hepatic stellate cells. CIP-A5 treatment also resulted in suppression of the profibrogenic cytokines, such as TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in HSC-T6 cells. CIP-A5 did not have cytotoxicity to human normal hepatic cells. These results implied that CIP-A5 could selectively ameliorate the process of liver cirrhosis through modulation of activated hepatic stellate cell activity, which offers hope for prevention and treatment of this devastating end-stage liver disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of thyroxine supplementation on glomerular filtration rate in hypothyroid dogs.

    PubMed

    Gommeren, K; van Hoek, I; Lefebvre, H P; Benchekroun, G; Smets, P; Daminet, S

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased in humans with hypothyroidism, but information about kidney function in dogs with hypothyroidism is lacking. Hypothyroidism influences GFR in dogs. The objective of this study was to assess GFR in hypothyroid dogs before implementation of thyroxine supplementation and after re-establishing euthyroidism. Fourteen hypothyroid dogs without abnormalities on renal ultrasound examination or urinalysis. Blood pressure and GFR (measured by exogenous creatinine clearance) were measured before treatment (T0, n=14) and at 1 month (T1, n=14) and at 6 months (T6, n=11) after beginning levothyroxine supplementation therapy (20 microg/kg/d, PO). The response to therapy was monitored at T1 by measuring serum total thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. If needed, levothyroxine dosage was adjusted and reassessed after 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model. Results are expressed as mean+/-standard deviation. At T0, the average age of dogs in the study group was 6.3+/-1.4 years. Their average body weight decreased from 35+/-18 kg at T0 to 27+/-14 kg at T6 (P<.05). All dogs remained normotensive throughout the study. GFR increased significantly with levothyroxine supplementation; the corresponding results were 1.6+/-0.4 mL/min/kg at T0, 2.1+/-0.4 at T1, and 2.0+/-0.4 at T6 (P<.01). GFR was <2 mL/min/kg in untreated hypothyroid dogs. Re-establishment of a euthyroid state increased GFR significantly.

  4. Inhibition of cell growth by a hypothalamic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1982-01-01

    A fraction purified from acetic acid extracts of porcine hypothalami was found to contain significant antimitogenic activity when tested in normal and neoplastic cell lines. Addition of this hypothalamic material (1-100 micrograms/ml) to culture media significantly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA in several cell lines. Amino acid incorporation into pituitary proteins and uridine incorporation into RNA were also significantly reduced by this factor(s). Addition to the culture media of this hypothalamic material at 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml per day decreased by 17% and 36%, respectively, cell numbers of 3T6 fibroblast cell cultures. Time-response curves showed that the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in 3T6 fibroblast cells begins within 2 hr after adding this fraction to the culture medium. The inhibitory action cannot be explained by a direct cytotoxic effect since 3T6 cells labeled with 51Cr and incubated for 6 hr in the presence of this hypothalamic fraction fail to show an increase in the release of 51Cr into the medium as compared with controls. Incubation with trypsin and chymotrypsin completely abolished the antimitogenic activity of this material and pepsin decreased it. This strongly suggests that the antimitogenic activity exhibited by this fraction is due to a polypeptide(s). These observations provide evidence for the presence in the mammalian hypothalamus of an antimitogenic peptide(s) that may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:6757925

  5. Anxious or Depressed and Still Happy?

    PubMed Central

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Giltay, Erik; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine cross-sectionally to what extent persons with higher symptom levels or a current or past emotional disorder report to be less happy than controls and to assess prospectively whether time-lagged measurements of extraversion and neuroticism predict future happiness independent of time-lagged measurements of emotional disorders or symptom severity. A sample of 2142 adults aged 18–65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with current or past emotional disorder according to DSM-IV criteria completed self-ratings for happiness and emotional well-being and symptom severity. Lagged measurements of personality, symptom severity and presence of anxiety and depressive disorder at T0 (year 0), T2 (year 2) and T4 (year 4) were used to predict happiness and emotional well-being at T6 (year 6) controlling for demographics. In particular persons with more depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and comorbid emotional disorders reported lower levels of happiness and emotional well-being. Depression symptom severity and to a lesser extent depressive disorder predicted future happiness and emotional well-being at T6. Extraversion and to a lesser extent neuroticism also consistently forecasted future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrent lagged measurements of emotional disorders and symptoms. A study limitation is that we only measured happiness and emotional well-being at T6 and our measures were confined to hedonistic well-being and did not include psychological and social well-being. In sum, consistent with the two continua model of emotional well-being and mental illness, a ‘happy’ personality characterized by high extraversion and to a lesser extent low neuroticism forecasts future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrently measured emotional disorders or symptom severity levels. Boosting positive emotionality may be an important treatment goal for persons

  6. Hyperforin activates gene transcription involving transient receptor potential C6 channels.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Gerald; Rössler, Oliver G

    2017-04-01

    Hypericum perforatum is one of the most prominent medical plants. Hyperforin, a main ingredient of H. perforatum, has been shown to activate transient receptor potential canonical C6 (TRPC6) channels. Alternatively, it has been proposed that hyperforin functions as a protonophore in a TRPC6-independent manner. Here, we show that hyperforin stimulation activates the transcription factor AP-1 in HEK293 cells expressing TRPC6 (T6.11 cells), but did not substantially change the AP-1 activity in HEK293 cells lacking TRPC6. We identified the AP-1 binding site as a hyperforin-responsive element. AP-1 is composed of the transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos, or other members of the c-Jun and c-Fos families of proteins. Hyperforin stimulation increased c-Jun and c-Fos promoter activities in T6.11 cells and induced an upregulation of c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis. The analysis of the c-Fos promoter revealed that the cAMP-response element also functions as a hyperforin-responsive element. Hyperforin-induced upregulation of AP-1 in T6.11 cells was attenuated by preincubation of the cells with either pregnenolone or progesterone, indicating that gene regulation via TRPC6 is under control of hormones or hormonal precursors. The signal transduction of hyperforin-induced AP-1 gene transcription required an influx of Ca 2+ ions into the cells, the activation of MAP kinases, and the activation of the transcription factors c-Jun and ternary complex factor. We conclude that hyperforin regulates gene transcription via activation of TRPC6 channels, involving stimulus-regulated protein kinases and stimulus-responsive transcription factors. The fact that hyperforin regulates gene transcription may explain many of the intracellular alterations induced by this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pei-Jie; Cai, Shuang-Peng; Yang, Yang

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to chronic hepatic injuries. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatic fibrosis. The currently accepted mechanism for the resolution of liver fibrosis is the apoptosis and inactivation of activated HSCs. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a prototype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, is proved to be a vital modulator in cardiac fibrogenesis. However, the precise role of PTP1B on liver fibrosis and HSC activation is still unclear. Our study showed that the expression of PTP1B was elevated in fibrotic liver but reduced after spontaneous recovery.more » Moreover, stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) resulted in a dose/time-dependent increase of PTP1B mRNA and protein. Co-incubation of HSC-T6 cells with PTP1B-siRNA inhibited the cell proliferation and activation induced by TGF-β1. Additionally, both mRNA and protein of PTP1B were dramatically decreased in inactivated HSCs after treated with adipogenic differentiation mixture (MDI). Over-expression of PTP1B hindered the inactivation of HSC-T6 cells induced by MDI. These observations revealed a regulatory role of PTP1B in liver fibrosis and implied PTP1B as a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • The expression of PTP1B in the fibrotic livers and recovery livers • The expression of PTP1B in activated and inactivated HSCs • Blockade of PTP1B inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation and activation of HSCs. • Over-expression of PTP1B abolished the inactivation of HSCs induced by MDI.« less

  8. SciTech Connect

    Miyamae, Yusaku, E-mail: ymiyamae@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nishito, Yukina; Nakai, Naomi

    Macroautophagy, or autophagy, is a cellular response in which unnecessary cytoplasmic components, including lipids and organelles, are self-degraded. Recent studies closely related autophagy to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a process critical in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. During HSC activation, cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are degraded as autophagic cargo, and then cells express fibrogenic genes. Thus, inhibition of autophagy in HSCs is a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating liver fibrosis. We found that tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Stephania tetrandra, induced lipid accumulation, a phenotype associated with quiescent HSCs, through blockade of autophagy in the rat-derived HSCmore » line HSC-T6. Tetrandrine inhibited autophagic flux without affecting lysosomal function. A phenotypic comparison using siRNA knockdown suggested that tetrandrine may target regulators, involved in fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes (e.g., syntaxin 17). Moreover, perilipin 1, an LD-coated protein, co-localized specifically with LC3, a marker protein for autophagosomes, in tetrandrine-treated HSC-T6 cells. This suggests a potential role for perilipin 1 in autophagy-mediated LD degradation in HSCs. Our results identified tetrandrine as a potential tool for prevention and treatment of HSC activation. - Highlights: • Autophagy is closely related to lipid degradation in hepatic stellate cells. • Tetrandrine (Tet) causes lipid accumulation via blockade of autophagy in HSC-T6 cells. • Tet blocked autophagy without affecting lysosomal function unlike bafilomycin A{sub 1}. • Perilipin 1 was specifically co-localized with LC3 in Tet-treated cells. • Perilipin 1 may play potential roles in autophagy-mediated lipid degradation.« less

  9. Protocol for a prospective longitudinal study investigating the participation and educational trajectories of Australian students with autism

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jacqueline Margaret Anne; Adams, Dawn; Heussler, Helen; Keen, Deborah; Paynter, Jessica; Trembath, David; Westerveld, Marleen; Williams, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Autism is associated with high cost to individuals, families, communities and government. Understanding educational and participation trajectories during the school years, and factors influencing these, is fundamental to reducing financial and personal costs. The primary aim of this study is to document the trajectories of Australian students with autism during their education. The secondary aim is to examine personal (eg, student skills) and environmental (eg, school setting) factors associated with differing trajectories and outcomes. Methods and analysis The cross-sequential longitudinal study will recruit two cohorts of 120 parents/caregivers of children with autism. Cohort 1 aged between 4 and 5 years and cohort 2 between 9 and 10 years to start the study. Information will be gathered from parents, teachers and school principals at six annual time points (T1 to T6). Parents will be emailed a link to an online initial questionnaire (T1) and then contacted annually and asked to complete either an extended questionnaire (T3, T5 and T6) or an abbreviated questionnaire (T2, T4). Where consent is given, the child’s current school will be contacted annually (T1 to T6) and teacher and school principal asked to complete questionnaires about the child and school. Parent and school questionnaires are comprised of questions about demographic and school factors that could influence trajectories and a battery of developmental and behavioural assessment tools designed to assess educational and participation trajectories and outcomes. Surveys will provide longitudinal data on educational and participation trajectories for children and adolescents with autism. In addition cross-sectional comparisons (within or between age groups) at each time point and cohort effects will be explored. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for this study by all recruiting sites and universities in the project. Study findings will inform policy and practice

  10. Safety of thoracic pedicle screw application using the funnel technique in Asians: a cadaveric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong; Saw, Lim Beng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cadaveric study is to determine the safety and outcome of thoracic pedicle screw placement in Asians using the funnel technique. Pedicle screws have superior biomechanical as well as clinical data when compared to other methods of instrumentation. However, misplacement in the thoracic spine can result in major neurological implications. There is great variability of the thoracic pedicle morphometry between the Western and the Asian population. The feasibility of thoracic pedicle screw insertion in Asians has not been fully elucidated yet. A pre-insertion radiograph was performed and surgeons were blinded to the morphometry of the thoracic pedicles. 240 pedicle screws were inserted in ten Asian cadavers from T1 to T12 using the funnel technique. 5.0 mm screws were used from T1 to T6 while 6.0 mm screws were used from T7 to T12. Perforations were detected by direct visualization via a wide laminectomy. The narrowest pedicles are found between T3 and T6. T5 pedicle width is smallest measuring 4.1 +/- 1.3 mm. There were 24 (10.0%) Grade 1 perforations and only 1 (0.4%) Grade 2 perforation. Grade 2 or worse perforation is considered significant perforation which would threaten the neural structures. There were twice as many lateral and inferior perforations compared to medial perforations. 48.0% of the perforations occurred at T1, T2 and T3 pedicles. Pedicle fracture occurred in 10.4% of pedicles. Intra-operatively, the absence of funnel was found in 24.5% of pedicles. In conclusion, thoracic pedicle screws using 5.0 mm at T1-T6 and 6.0 mm at T7-T12 can be inserted safely in Asian cadavers using the funnel technique despite having smaller thoracic pedicle morphometry.

  11. Long-term clinical and prosthetic outcomes of soft liner and clip attachments for bar/implant overdentures: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    ELsyad, M A; Shaheen, N H; Ashmawy, T M

    2017-06-01

    Long-term clinical and prosthetic outcomes of soft liner attachments for bar/implant overdentures were not sufficiently investigated. The aim of this trial was to evaluate clinical and prosthetic outcomes of resilient liner and clip attachments for bar/implant-retained mandibular overdenture after 7 years. Thirty edentulous male participants received two implants in the canine areas of the mandible. Three months later, implants were splinted with a resilient bar. Mandibular overdentures were connected to the bars with either clip (CR group, n = 15) or resilient liner (RR group, n = 15) attachments. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), vertical bone loss (VBL), horizontal bone loss (HBLO) and prosthetic complications (PCs) were evaluated at denture delivery (T0), 6 (T 6m ), 12 (T1), 24 (T2), 36 (T3), 48 (T4), 60 (T5), 72 (T6) and 84 (T7) months after insertion. PI and GI increased significantly with time for CR and decreased significantly for RR (P < 0·001). PD increased at T1 (CR) and T6 m (RR) and then decreased thereafter (P < 0·05). VBL increased significantly with time in both groups (P < 0·005). HBLO increased at T2 (CR) and T1 (RR) and then decreased thereafter. CR recorded significant higher PI, GI, PD, VBLO and HBLO compared to RR at all observation times (P < 0·042). The survival rates were 96·6% and 100% for CR and RR after 7 years. The most common PCs for CR and RR were clip wears and separation of the resilient liner from the denture base, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, resilient liner attachments are recommended for bar/implant-retained mandibular overdentures than clip attachments in terms of peri-implant tissue health and prosthetic complications after 7 years. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A randomised controlled trial of the effect of a head-elevation pillow on intrathecal local anaesthetic spread in caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Elfil, H; Crowley, L; Segurado, R; Spring, A

    2015-11-01

    A head-elevation pillow places a patient in a ramped posture, which maximises the view of the larynx during laryngoscopy, particularly in obese parturients. In our institution an elevation pillow is used pre-emptively for neuraxial anaesthesia. We hypothesised that head-elevation may impair cephalad spread of local anaesthetic before caesarean section resulting in a lower block or longer time to achieve a T6 level. We aimed to investigate the effect of head-elevation on spread of intrathecal local anaesthetics during anaesthesia for caesarean section. One-hundred parturients presenting for caesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia were randomised to either the standard supine position with lateral displacement or in the supine position with lateral displacement on an head-elevation pillow. Each patient received intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 11 mg, morphine 100 μg and fentanyl 15 μg. Patients were assessed for adequacy of sensory block (T6 or higher) at 10 min. Sensory block to T6 was achieved within 10 min in 65.9% of parturients in the Elevation Pillow Group compared to 95.7% in the Control Group (P<0.05). Compared to the Control Group, patients in the Elevation Pillow Group had greater requirements for epidural supplementation (43.5% vs 2.1%, P<0.001) or conversion to general anaesthesia (9.3% vs 0%, P<0.04). Use of a ramped position with an head-elevation pillow following injection of the intrathecal component of a combined spinal-epidural anaesthetic for scheduled caesarean section was associated with a significantly lower block height at 10min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of tool offsetting on microstructure and mechanical properties dissimilar friction stir welded Mg-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, Amir Hossein; Fazilah Mohamad Selamat, Nor; Sajuri, Zainuddin

    2017-09-01

    Automotive and aerospace industries are attempting to produce lightweight structure by using materials with low density such as aluminum and magnesium alloys to increase the fuel efficiency and consequently reduce the environmental pollution. It can be beneficial to join Mg to Al to acquire ideal performance in special applications. Friction stir welding (FSW) is solid state welding processes and relatively lower temperature of the process compared to fusion welding processes. This makes FSW a potential joining technique for joining of the dissimilar materials. In this study, Mg-Al butt joints were performed by FSW under different tool offset conditions, rotation rates (500-600 rpm) and traverse speeds (20 mm/min) with tool axis offset 1 mm shifted into AZ31B or Al6061 (T6), and without offset. During the welding process AZ31B was positioned at the advancing side (AS) and Al6061 (T6) was located at the retreating side (RS). Defect free AZ31B-Al6061 (T6) dissimilar metal FSW joints with good mechanical properties were obtained with the combination of intermediate rotation rate and low traverse speed pin is in the middle. When tool positioned in -1 mm or +1 mm offsetting, some defects were found in SZ of dissimilar FSWed joints such as cavity, tunnel, and crack. Furthermore, a thin layer of intermetallic compounds was observed in the stir zone at the interface between Mg-Al plates. The strength of the joint was influenced by FSW parameters. Good mechanical properties obtained with the combination of intermediate rotational speed of 600 rpm and low travelling speed of 20 mm/min by locating Mg on advancing side when pin is in the middle. Also, Joint efficiency of the welds prepared in the present study was between 29% and 68% for the different welding parameters.

  14. The Crystal Structure and Small-Angle X-Ray Analysis of CsdL/TcdA Reveal a New tRNA Binding Motif in the MoeB/E1 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Ardá, Ana; Savko, Martin; Round, Adam; Shepard, William E.; Bruix, Marta; Coll, Miquel; Fernández, Francisco J.; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Vega, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic N 6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (‘cyclic t6A’, ct6A) is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA. PMID:25897750

  15. Effects of hot extrusion and heat treatment on microstructure and properties of industrial large-scale spray-deposited 7055 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yonggang; Zhao, Yutao; Kai, Xizhou; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hao; Tao, Ran; Chen, Gang; Yin, Houshang; Wang, Min

    2018-01-01

    The industrial large-scale 7055 aluminum alloy fabricated by spray forming technology was subjected to hot extrusion and heat treatment to achieve high strength and ductility. Microstructure of the as-deposited alloy indicates that higher density billets with equiaxed grains (20-40 μm) were fabricated rather than a typical dendritic microstructure of the as-cast alloy. The grains of the as-extruded alloy exhibit fibrous morphology, the original boundaries disappear and fined second phases with size about 0.5-5 μm distribute along with extrusion direction. Meanwhile, the defects could be eliminated by hot extrusion, which resulted in good strength as well as ductility. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the as-extruded alloy are 345 MPa, 236 MPa and 18.5%, respectively. After heat treatment, the partial recrystallization is observed around the un-recrystallized grains and sub-grains. And the platelet/rod-shaped precipitates (MgZn2) show a uniform distribution in the matrix alloy. The alloy reaches the maximum tensile strength of 730 MPa after T6 temper treatment, associated with a fine precipitation (MgZn2). However, with further deepen aging degree (from T6 to T73 temper), the size of dominant precipitated phases (MgZn2) grows obviously, the grain boundary precipitates transform from continuous to individual ones and the width of precipitate free zone increases. The result shows that the alloy after T7X temper treatment exhibits higher electrical conductivity (>35 %IACS) and facture toughness (>25.6 MPa m1/2) although a 8%-17% reduction in strength compared with that at T6 temper.

  16. C-reactive protein, glucose and iron concentrations are significantly altered in dogs undergoing open ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    Moldal, Elena Regine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Peeters, Marijke Elisabeth; Nødtvedt, Ane; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2018-05-30

    There are relatively few studies about the canine surgical stress response, a sequence of events orchestrated by the body in response to a surgical trauma which is sometimes, as shown in human surgery, deleterious to the patient. There is a need to identify objective markers to quantify this response in order to estimate tissue trauma and use the markers as potential early indicators of surgical complications. The study objective was to investigate the surgical stress response, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose and iron serum concentrations, to gonadectomy in female dogs, and to compare the response to ovariohysterectomy (OHE) with the response to ovariectomy (OVE). A randomized clinical trial was performed on a sample of 42 female dogs, which were divided into two groups: one group underwent OHE, the other OVE. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery (T0), and at 1 (T1), 6 (T6), and 24 (T24) h after surgery, and serum frozen and stored at - 80 °C for later analysis. Upon thawing, the serum samples were subjected to measurement of CRP, glucose and iron concentration. Seventeen dogs in the OHE group and 19 dogs in the OVE group were included in the statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in glucose concentration at all time points compared with T0, and an increase of CRP at T6 and T24. Iron concentration was significantly decreased at T6 and T24. Differences between the two groups could not be detected for any of the three variables. The study showed that both OHE and OVE induce a moderate surgical stress response in female dogs, measured by CRP, glucose and iron. A difference between the surgical techniques could not be detected for any of the variables, and hence; with regards to the parameters studied recommendations of one procedure over the other cannot be made and preferred technique remains the surgeon's choice.

  17. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  18. Biological Survey Along the St. Lawrence River for the St. Lawrence Seaway. Additional Locks and other Navigation Improvements Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    shiner K X K x No trps- FeathT6i des Emerald shiner K K K K K K NotroDP-s bifrenatus Bridle shiner K K K K K NiitoTi’ Tcornutus Commnon shiner K K K K K...Phleum pratense, Dactylis glomerata, Bromus inermis) (Geis, Hyduke, Gilman, Ruta , and Faust 1976) are dominant in the agricultural * llands and...P. Ruta and M.E. Faust. 1976. Plant communities along the St. Lawrence River Shoreline in New York State. SUNY College of Envir. Scl. and Forestry

  19. Line soliton interactions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation.

    PubMed

    Biondini, Gino

    2007-08-10

    We study soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili II equation (-4u(t)+6uu(x)+3u(xxx))(x)+u(yy)=0 in terms of the amplitudes and directions of the interacting solitons. In particular, we classify elastic N-soliton solutions, namely, solutions for which the number, directions, and amplitudes of the N asymptotic line solitons as y-->infinity coincide with those of the N asymptotic line solitons as y-->-infinity. We also show that the (2N-1)!! types of solutions are uniquely characterized in terms of the individual soliton parameters, and we calculate the soliton position shifts arising from the interactions.

  20. Atmospheric Fluctuations Which Lead to Trackable Radar Signals in the Marine Boundary Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Eq. (3.14) should be replaced by the Kadomtsev - Petviashvili equation , 36 (uT + 6 uux + UXXX) + Unn 0 , (3.15) where n is measured along the crest of...the wave (e.g., see Kadomtsev and Petviashvili , 1970; or Ablowitz and Segur, 1979). Other balances are possible as well. Equations (3.14) and (3.15) are...R., (197z); "Atmospheric Gravity Waves from Winds and Storms", J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 445-456. Kadomtsev , B. B., and Petviashvili , V. I., (1970); "On the